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Sample records for atherinella brasiliensis quoy

  1. Habitat use by Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 in intertidal zones of a subtropical estuary, Brazil

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    Barbara Maichak de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use is different along the ontogenetic development of some species and may be influenced by environmental parameters. This study described the interaction of Atherinella brasiliensis caught in intertidal areas of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex with environmental parameters. We caught 10024 individuals between August 2010 and July 2011, with total mean length of 44.32 mm (SD ± 25.37 mm, variation range between 12 and 142 mm, and weight between 0.01 and 73 g, averaging 1.35 g (SD ± 2.66 g and ages estimated between < 1 and 22 months. Significant differences were detected between sectors and periods for number of individuals and weight at capture, with higher mean values in the mean sector during the rainy period. The spatial and temporal distribution of ages was statistically different, individuals between < 1 and 3 months were more abundant in the sector 2 during the rainy period, and individuals older than 7 months were evenly distributed throughout the sampling area, and with higher mean abundance at the beginning and end of the dry period. Environmental variables that most influenced the distribution of age classes were temperature and salinity.

  2. Habitat use by Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 in intertidal zones of a subtropical estuary, Brazil

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    Barbara Maichak De Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use is different along the ontogenetic development of some species and may be influenced by environmental parameters. This study described the interaction of Atherinella brasiliensis caught in intertidal areas of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex with environmental parameters (salinity, chlorophyll, pH and water temperature. Collections were conducted between August 2010 and July 2011, at 17 sites in the north-south axis of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex, Brazil. CTD profiling was carried out every month to measure the environmental parameters. At each month and sampling site, a paralel trawling 30 m long was carried out using a beach seine net 5 m long, 2 m high and 2.5 mm between opposite knots. After collection, fish were identified, measured for total length, weighed and the ages were estimated according von Bertalanffy. We caught 10024 individuals with total mean length of 44.32 mm (SD ± 25.37 mm, variation range between 12 and 142 mm, and weight between 0.01 and 73 g, averaging 1.35 g (SD ± 2.66 g and ages estimated between < 1 and 22 months. Significant differences were detected between sectors and periods for number of individuals and weight at capture, with higher mean values in the mean sector during the rainy period. The spatial and temporal distribution of ages was statistically different, individuals between < 1 and 3 months were more abundant in the sector 2 during the rainy period, and individuals older than 7 months were evenly distributed throughout the sampling area, and with higher mean abundance at the beginning and end of the dry period. Our results evidenced that all age classes of A. brasiliensis are present in shallow areas. This species shows different habitat use between age classes, which is caused by changes in feeding habits and higher availability of favorable environments, besides specific characteristics.

  3. Estrutura da população e aspectos reprodutivos do peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard) (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae) em áreas rasas do complexo estuarino de Paranaguá, Paraná, Brasil Structure of the population and reproductive aspects of silverside Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard) (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae) in shallow areas of the estuarine complex Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil

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    Luís F. Fávaro; Elton C. de Oliveira; Nelsy F. Verani

    2007-01-01

    A estrutura populacional e aspectos reprodutivos de Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) foram analisados mensalmente de maio de 2000 a abril de 2001, em oito pontos de ambientes rasos do eixo norte-sul do complexo estuarino de Paranaguá. As análises ambientais das variáveis pH, oxigênio dissolvido, transparência e salinidade da água sugerem a existência de um gradiente ambiental crescente no sentido norte-sul do estuário. A temperatura da água evidenciou a variação temporal no sis...

  4. Estrutura da população e aspectos reprodutivos do peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae em áreas rasas do complexo estuarino de Paranaguá, Paraná, Brasil Structure of the population and reproductive aspects of silverside Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae in shallow areas of the estuarine complex Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil

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    Luís F. Fávaro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura populacional e aspectos reprodutivos de Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 foram analisados mensalmente de maio de 2000 a abril de 2001, em oito pontos de ambientes rasos do eixo norte-sul do complexo estuarino de Paranaguá. As análises ambientais das variáveis pH, oxigênio dissolvido, transparência e salinidade da água sugerem a existência de um gradiente ambiental crescente no sentido norte-sul do estuário. A temperatura da água evidenciou a variação temporal no sistema estudado, mostrando-se intimamente relacionado com o processo reprodutivo. O pico de atividade reprodutiva foi determinado para fêmeas e machos, respectivamente, nos meses de outubro e setembro, período em que se verificou a proporção de duas fêmeas para um macho. O predomínio de indivíduos jovens no estuário ocorreu no final da primavera e durante o verão, após o período reprodutivo. As análises sazonais de comprimento e de massa corporal sugerem a existência de um padrão cíclico de crescimento ao longo do ano, o qual reflete o período reprodutivo e o recrutamento. Assim, conclui-se que A. brasiliensis é uma espécie estuarina residente, mostrando-se amplamente distribuída nas áreas rasas estuarinas, podendo ser considerada chave em avaliações de impacto ambiental e/ou em ações de planos de manejo e conservação em ambientes estuarinos.The population structure and reproductive aspects of Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 had been analyzed monthly from May 2000 to April 2001 in eight points of shallow areas of the estuarine complex Paranaguá. The environment analyzes of the parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, transparency and salinity of the water suggest the existence of an increasing environment gradient in the direction North-South highway of the estuary. The temperature of the water evidenced the seasonal variation in the studied system, revealing related with the reproductive process. The peak of

  5. Genetic structuring among silverside fish (Atherinella brasiliensis) populations from different Brazilian regions

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    da Silva Cortinhas, Maria Cristina; Kersanach, Ralf; Proietti, Maíra; Dumont, Luiz Felipe Cestari; D'Incao, Fernando; Lacerda, Ana Luzia F.; Prata, Pedro Sanmartin; Matoso, Daniele Aparecida; Noleto, Rafael Bueno; Ramsdorf, Wanessa; Boni, Talge Aiex; Prioli, Alberto José; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2016-09-01

    Estuaries are dynamic environments, key for the survival of innumerous ecologically or economically important fish species. Among these species are Neotropical silversides (Atherinella brasiliensis), which are resident and abundant in Brazilian estuaries and used as a complementary source of income and food for local communities. To better understand silverside populations in Brazil, we evaluated the genetic diversity, structure and demography of fish sampled at six estuaries from the northeastern to the southern coast, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and mitochondrial DNA (D-loop) markers. High haplotype diversities (h ranging from 0.75 to 0.99) were found in all populations except Carapebus, located in Southeast Brazil (h = 0.54). A total of 69 mtDNA haplotypes were found, with Itaparica (Northeast Brazil) and Carapebus presenting only exclusive haplotypes, while some were shared among populations in the South. Strong regional structure was observed, with very high differentiation between Itaparica and Carapebus, as well as among these two populations and the ones from the Southern region (Paranaguá, Conceição, Camacho and Patos). Among southern areas, low/moderate structure was detected. Most populations showed unimodal mismatch distributions indicating recent demographic expansion, while Carapebus presented a multimodal distribution characteristic of a stable or bottlenecked population. Times since possible population expansion were highest in Itaparica (32,500 ya) and Carapebus (29,540 ya), while in the Southern region longest time was observed at Conceição (25,540 ya) and shortest at Patos (9720 ya). In a general manner, haplotype diversities were directly related to times since population expansions; again, Carapebus was the exception, displaying long time since expansion but low diversity, possibly due to a recent bottleneck caused by the isolation and human impacts this lagoon is subject to. Isolation by Distance was significant for Itaparica

  6. Liver damages and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of Atherinella brasiliensis (Actynopterigii, Atherinopsidade from two beaches in Southeast of Brazil

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    Welingtom S. Fernandez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few environmental studies using biomarkers for the species Atherinella brasiliensis in Brazil. In the present work, the presence of hepatic histopathological lesions and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes were investigated in A. brasiliensis from Lamberto, a beach under influence of domestic wastes and marine activities. For comparison, fish were also sampled in Puruba, a non-polluted beach, located in the northeastern of São Paulo State. The frequency of lesions found in liver was in higher numbers in individuals from Lamberto than Puruba beach. The most critical injuries observed in A. brasiliensis were the presence of necrotic areas, leucocytes infiltration and piknotic nucleus. A high occurrence of cells with vacuolization was also observed. The hepatic lesion index of the fish from Lamberto beach showed significant high values (Iorg=13 when compared with fish from Puruba beach (Iorg=7 suggesting the influence of the several human activities in the studied site. Notched and blebed nucleous were observed in this study, and significant differences were found between the studied sites. However, these differences did not reflect the total nuclear alterations.Existem poucos estudos no Brasil usando biomarcadores em Atherinella brasiliensis. No presente trabalho foram investigadas a presença de lesões histopatológicas hepáticas e as alterações nucleares em eritrócitos de A. brasiliensis amostrados na praia do Lamberto, local submetido à influência de resíduos domésticos e atividades humanas. Para comparação, indivíduos da espécie foram também amostrados na praia de Puruba, local não impactado, localizado no noroeste do estado de São Paulo. Peixes provenientes da praia do Lamberto apresentaram lesões hepáticas em número maior do que aqueles da praia de Puruba. Áreas necróticas, infiltração de leucócitos e núcleos picnóticos foram os danos de maior importância observados em A. brasiliensis, apesar de uma

  7. Biomarkers responses in fish (Atherinella brasiliensis of paranaguá bay, southern Brazil, for assessment of pollutant effects

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    Ciro Alberto de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paranaguá bay is a complex estuary located in southern Brazil containing three protected areas listed by UNESCO. Historically, the estuary has been affected by urban, industrial, agricultural and harbor activities, and occasional accidents. Specifically, the explosion of the Chilean ship Vicuña in December 2004 spilled methanol and crude and fuel oils which affected both protected and non-protected areas. The present study sought to investigate the pollution threat to aquatic organisms in order to evaluate the potential effects of pollutants. One hundred and twenty adult fish Atherinella brasiliensis were collected from different sites within Paranaguá estuary, including the harbor and open ocean, during summer, autumn and winter of 2005. Among the biomarkers, the somatic index, chemical analysis of bile, biochemical, genetic and morphological parameters were considered. Chemical analysis of bile showed a continuous bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs according to proximity to the harbor site. The histopathological findings have demonstrated aconsiderable incidence of severe pathologies in the liver and gills, corroborated by biochemical disturbances and genetic damage. These findings indicate that more studies are necessary to evaluate both water quality and fish health so as to permit a better analysis of the impact of pollution in Paranaguá estuary.A Baia de Paranaguá é um complexo estuarino localizado no sul do Brasil constituído de três áreas de proteção ambiental listadas pela UNESCO. Historicamente, o estuário tem sido afetado por atividade urbana, industrial, agricultura e portuária, e eventualmente por acidentes. Particularmente a explosão do navio Chileno Vicuña em dezembro de 2004 derramou metanol, óleo cru e combustível atingindo áreas protegidas e não protegidas. O presente estudo tem por objetivo investigar a poluição em organismos aquáticos. Cento e vinte indivíduos adultos do peixe

  8. Use of otolith strontium:calcium and zinc:calcium ratios as an indicator of the habitat of Percophis brasiliensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean

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    Esteban Avigliano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the simultaneous use of Sr: Ca and Zn: Ca ratios of the sagitta otolith as a potential indicator of the habitat of Percophis brasiliensis along a latitudinal gradient in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (34-42ºS and 51-67ºW, in order to reliably identify fish stocks. Fish were collected in three sampling sites: Argentine-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone (AUCFZ, El Rincón (ER and San Matías Gulf (SMG. The otolith Sr:Ca and Zn:Ca ratios were determined by ICP-OES and EDTA volumetric method. The otolith Sr:Ca ratio was similar in the three sampling sites, while the Zn:Ca ratio was significantly higher in AUCFZ than in ER and SMG for all age groups. The discriminant analysis showed an association between the otolith Sr:Ca and Zn:Ca ratios from ER and SMG. Present results suggest the potential occurrence of two fish stocks of P. brasiliensis in the study area.

  9. Região de heterocromatina constitutiva em Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy e Gaimard,1824(Perciformes: Cichlidae do sistema lacustre do médio rio Doce (MG. DOI: 10.7902/ecb.v2i1.20 Constitutive heterochromatin region in Geophagus brasiliensis (QUOY E GAIMARD,1824(PERDIFORMES: CICHLIDAE from lake system of the medium Doce river (MG

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    Ana Paula A. Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A família Cichlidae pertence à ordem Perciformes, uma das famílias com maior riqueza de espécies entre os vertebrados. Geophagus brasiliensis é o ciclídeo com maior distribuição nas lagoas do médio rio Doce. Estudos citogenéticos sugerem que esse sistema de lagoas favoreceu a diferenciação citogenética de varias espécies de peixes, num intervalo de tempo relativamente curto. O cariótipo dessa espécie é caracterizado por 2n=48 com blocos de heterocromatinas nas regiões centroméricas em quase todos os cromossomos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar a população do médio rio Doce a partir do bandeamento de heterocromatinas. Foram coletados 18 espécimes de G. brasiliensis em três lagoas. O resultado da Banda C apresentou marcações nas regiões centroméricas de quase todos os cromossomos. No braço menor de um cromossomo submetacêntrico observou-se uma marcação apenas nos indivíduos do sexo masculino. Marcações na região intersticial foram encontradas nessa população, sendo essa uma característica exclusiva desse sistema lacustre.The family Cichlidae belongs to the order Perciformes, and is one of the families with the highest species richness among vertebrates. Geophagus brasiliensis is the cichlid with the widest distribution in the lakes of the middle Rio Doce. Cytogenetic studies suggest that this system of lakes favors the cytogenetic differentiation of various fish species over a relatively short time. The karyotype of this species is characterized by a diploid number of 2n=48, with blocks of heterocrhomatin in the centromeric regions and almost all of the chromosomes. The objective of this work was to characterize the population of the Rio Doce through the use of heterochromatin bandings. 18 specimens of G. brasiliensis were collected in three lakes. The results of C-Banding present markings in the centromeric regions of almost all of the chromosomes. One

  10. Biological control of Biomphalaria tenagophila (Mollusca, Planorbidae), a schistosomiasis vector, using the fish Geophagus brasiliensis (Pisces, Cichlidae) in the laboratory or in a seminatural environment

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    Marcia Weinzettl; Pedro Jurberg

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate a possible method of biological control of schistosomiasis, we used the fish Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) which is widely distributed throughout Brazil, to interrupt the life cycle of the snail Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835), an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. In the laboratory, predation eliminated 97.6% of the smaller snails (3-8 mm shell diameter) and 9.2% of the larger ones (12-14 mm shell diameter). Very promising results were ...

  11. Spinitectus osorioi (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) in the Mexican endemic fish Atherinella alvarezi (Atherinopsidae) from the Atlantic river drainage system in Chiapas, southern Mexico

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Salgado-Maldonado, G.; Caspeta-Mandujano, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 1 (2010), s. 52-56. ISSN 0074-0276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Spinitectus * Atherinella * Mexico Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.058, year: 2010

  12. Spinitectus osorioi (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) in the Mexican endemic fish Atherinella alvarezi (Atherinopsidae) from the Atlantic River drainage system in Chiapas, Southern Mexico

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    František Moravec; Guillermo Salgado-Maldonado; Juan M Caspeta-Mandujano

    2010-01-01

    Specimens of Spinitectus osorioi Choudhury and Pérez-Ponce de León, an intestinal nematode species previously considered to be specific to Chirostoma spp and endemic to some lakes in the Pacific drainage in Michoacán, were collected from the freshwater fish Atherinella alvarezi (Díaz-Pardo) (Atherinopsidae) of the Michol River near Palenque, Chiapas, Southern Mexico, which belongs to the Atlantic drainage system. Studies using light and scanning electron microscopy revealed some taxonomically...

  13. Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil

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    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.

  14. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF RUBBER SEED (Hevea brasiliensis

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    Md. Emran HOSSAIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of rubber seeds (Hevea brasiliensis available in Bangladesh. Hevea brasiliensis seeds were collected directly from 200 rubber trees of the rubber garden in the Bandarban area under standard random sampling technique. Seeds were decorticated, ground and dried in hot air oven. Chemical analyses of the samples were carried out in triplicate for moisture, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, nitrogen free extract (NFE, ether extract (EE and ash in the animal nutrition laboratory, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Metabolizable energy (ME was calculated mathematically by using standard mathematical formula. Results indicated that, decorticated Hevea brasiliensis seeds contained 85.7% DM, 26.1% CP, 43.0% CF, 13.8% NFE, 11.0% EE and 1.8% ash. ME contents in in the seeds was 2101.1 kcal/kg DM. Since, decorticated rubber seeds contained substantial amount of metabolizable energy and proximate components, therefore it could be assumed that, like other unconventional feeds, it might be a promising feed resource for livestock.

  15. Morphological variation and geographical distribution of Luetkenotyphlus brasiliensis (Gymnophiona: Siphonopidae)

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    Renato Neves Feio; Adriano Oliveira Maciel; Mário Ribeiro de Moura; Tamí Mott

    2011-01-01

    The geographical distribution of Luetkenotyphlus brasiliensis is reviewed based on data from the literature and examination of specimens recently collected in Brazil. We also provide new information on variation of the vomerine diastema, and meristic and morphometric data for L. brasiliensis based on Brazilian specimens.

  16. Morphological variation and geographical distribution of Luetkenotyphlus brasiliensis (Gymnophiona: Siphonopidae

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    Renato Neves Feio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of Luetkenotyphlus brasiliensis is reviewed based on data from the literature and examination of specimens recently collected in Brazil. We also provide new information on variation of the vomerine diastema, and meristic and morphometric data for L. brasiliensis based on Brazilian specimens.

  17. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea

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    Dong Hwan Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed.

  18. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

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    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-β-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-β-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  19. Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae) Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

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    Lidilhone Hamerski; Carlos Alberto Carbonezi; Alberto José Cavalheiro; Vanderlan da Silva Bolzani; Maria Cláudia Marx Young

    2005-01-01

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structure...

  20. Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases

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    Mourão, Francielly; Linde, Giani Andrea; Messa, Valdeci; da Cunha Júnior, Paulo Luiz; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; da Eira, Augusto Ferreira; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2009-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated with closed basidiocar...

  1. [Community ecology of metazoan parasites of Cyphocharax gilbert (Quoy e Gaimard, 1824) (Characiformes: Curimatidae) from Guandu river, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

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    Abdallah, Vanessa D; de Azevedo, Rodney K; Luque, José L

    2005-01-01

    Sixty specimens of Sairú Cyphocharax gilbert (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) from River Guandu, (22 degrees 48'32'S, 43 degrees 37'35''"W), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied for their metazoan parasites during May 2004 and February 2005. A total of seven species of metazoan parasites were collected and identified: Sphinctero- diplostomum musculosum (metacercariae), Diplostomum (A.) compactum (metacercariae), Zonocotyloides haroltravassosi, Cosmoxynemoides aguirrei, Travnema araujoi, Raphidascaris sp. (larval) and Placobdella sp. Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum (Diplostomidae) founded in the eyes, was the more prevalent (40%) with highest mean intensity value (11.2). The nematodes C. aguirrei and T. araujoi (Pharyngodonidae) showed prevalence higher than 10%. Only S. musculosum showed significant correlation between the host total length and the parasite abundance. The parasite species richness showed a mean value of 0.9 + 0.88 (0-3). The evaluation of the effect of host sex on parasite prevalence and abundance not showed significant results. The metazoan parasite community of C. gilbert is characterized by the low species diversity and for dominance of species with low values of prevalence. PMID:16445872

  2. Isolation of a novel polyomavirus, related to Japanese eel endothelial cell-infecting virus, from marbled eels, Anguilla marmorata (Quoy & Gaimard).

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    Wen, C M; Chen, M M; Wang, C S; Liu, P C; Nan, F H

    2016-07-01

    Marbled eels, Anguilla marmorata (Quoy & Gaimard), cultured in Taiwan exhibited haemorrhage and mortality in January 2012. The severely diseased eels bled from the gills and showed congestion of the central venous sinus of the gill filaments and haemorrhage throughout the body similar to viral endothelial cell necrosis of eel. In this study, a novel polyomavirus (AmPyV) was isolated from the diseased eels using the AMPF cell line established from the pectoral fin of healthy marbled eels. AmPyV was found to encode a long T-antigen orthologous gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AmPyV was closely related to Japanese eel endothelial cell-infecting virus. PCR assays revealed AmPyV infection throughout the systemic organs. AmPyV proliferated in the AMPF, EK-1 and EO-2 cells at temperatures 25-30 °C, and the progeny virus yields were 10(7.0) , 10(7.4) and 10(7.7) TCID50  mL(-1) , respectively. The purified virions were icosahedral particles, 70-80 nm in diameter. No clinical signs or mortality was observed among the eels injected with the virus; however, the virus was reisolated from the brain, eyes, kidneys, fins and gills of infected eels 2 month after injection. Our results suggest that AmPyV exhibits a latent infection. Pathogen of the disease needs to study further. PMID:26566584

  3. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, H.K.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The...

  4. Identification of thermostable β-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The...

  5. Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidilhone Hamerski

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

  6. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae); Saponinas triterpenicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2005-07-15

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-{beta}-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  7. Lysine and arginine requirements of Salminus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Koji Dairiki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the dietary lysine (DL and dietary arginine (DA requirements of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis, through dose-response trials using the amino acid profiles of whole carcasses as a reference. Two experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design (n=4. In the first experiment, groups of 12 feed-conditioned dourado juveniles (11.4±0.2 g were stocked in 60 L cages placed in 300 L plastic indoor tanks in a closed circulation system. Fish were fed for 60 days on diets containing 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, or 3.5 % dietary lysine. In the second experiment, dourado juveniles (27.0±0.8 g were fed for 60 days on semipurified diets containing arginine at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0%, in similar conditions to those of the first experiment. Optimal DL requirements, as determined by broken-line analysis method for final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate, were 2.15% DL or 5% lysine in dietary protein, and 1.48% DA or 3.43% arginine in dietary protein. The best feed conversion ratio is attained with 2.5% DL or 5.8% lysine in dietary protein and 1.4% DA or 3.25% arginine in dietary protein.

  8. Alternative oxidase mediates pathogen resistance in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection.

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    Orville Hernández Ruiz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a human thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungus. Survival of P. brasiliensis inside the host depends on the adaptation of this fungal pathogen to different conditions, namely oxidative stress imposed by immune cells. AIMS AND METHODOLOGY: In this study, we evaluated the role of alternative oxidase (AOX, an enzyme involved in the intracellular redox balancing, during host-P. brasiliensis interaction. We generated a mitotically stable P. brasiliensis AOX (PbAOX antisense RNA (aRNA strain with a 70% reduction in gene expression. We evaluated the relevance of PbAOX during interaction of conidia and yeast cells with IFN-γ activated alveolar macrophages and in a mouse model of infection. Additionally, we determined the fungal cell's viability and PbAOX in the presence of H₂O₂. RESULTS: Interaction with IFN-γ activated alveolar macrophages induced higher levels of PbAOX gene expression in PbWt conidia than PbWt yeast cells. PbAOX-aRNA conidia and yeast cells had decreased viability after interaction with macrophages. Moreover, in a mouse model of infection, we showed that absence of wild-type levels of PbAOX in P. brasiliensis results in a reduced fungal burden in lungs at weeks 8 and 24 post-challenge and an increased survival rate. In the presence of H₂O₂, we observed that PbWt yeast cells increased PbAOX expression and presented a higher viability in comparison with PbAOX-aRNA yeast cells. CONCLUSIONS: These data further support the hypothesis that PbAOX is important in the fungal defense against oxidative stress imposed by immune cells and is relevant in the virulence of P. brasiliensis.

  9. Kalanchosine dimalate, an anti-inflammatory salt from Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sônia Soares; de Souza, Maria de Lourdes Mendes; Ibrahim, Tereza; de Melo, Giany Oliveira; de Almeida, Ana Paula; Guette, Catherine; Férézou, Jean-Pierre; Koatz, Vera Lucia G

    2006-05-01

    This report describes the isolation and characterization of kalanchosine dimalate (KMC), an anti-inflammatory salt from the fresh juice of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis. KMC comprises the new metabolite kalanchosine (1) and malic acid (2) in a 1:2 stoichiometric ratio. Kalanchosine (1), 3,6-diamino-4,5-dihydroxyoctanedioic acid, is the first naturally occurring dimeric bis(gamma-hydroxy-beta-amino acid) and is at least partially responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of K. brasiliensis. PMID:16724848

  10. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman Ahmad Yamin Abdul; Usharraj Abhilash O; Misra Biswapriya B; Thottathil Gincy P; Jayasekaran Kandakumar; Feng Yun; Hou Shaobin; Ong Su Yean; Ng Fui Ling; Lee Ling Sze; Tan Hock Siew; Sakaff Muhd Khairul Luqman Muhd; Teh Beng Soon; Khoo Bee; Badai Siti Suriawati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,95...

  11. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-01-01

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas. PMID:27395963

  12. Pesquisa de comparação entre a taxa de crescimento do Acará Geophagus brasiliensis e a Tilápia Oreochromis niloticus em condições de monocultivo intensivo utilizando ração e alimento vivo - Research to compare the growth rate between the Acara Geophagus brasiliensis and Tilapia Oreochromis nioticus in conditions of intensive monoculture utilizing ration and live food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Amaral Junior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available SummaryThe state of Santa Catarina, because of its climate conditions and lack of alternative native species with commercial interest, does its pisciculture mainly of exotics species. It is one of the main localities for the culture of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758 and also where it will find many regions with favorable conditions for its growth. To those conditions, we have to add an excellent acceptance of this species by the market ofcompanies that process fish, and also by the consumer in general. Acara or Cara is the generic name assigned to various fishes of the family of Ciclideos, same family that the Tilapia belongs. The most common species of fresh water fish in Brazil is Geophagus brasiliensis (QUOY & GAIMARD, 1824, which can grow up to 25cm long and adapts very well to hot and cold regions. The objective of this research is to evaluate the reproductive potential, growth rate and adaptability of the Geophagus brasiliensis to offer the isciculturist an alternative of native species of commercial cultivation.ResumoO Estado de Santa Catarina, em função das condições climáticas e da falta de alternativas de espécies nativas de interesse comercial, faz sua piscicultura com a maioria de espécies exóticas. É um dos locais onde mais se cultiva a Tilápia Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758 e também onde ela encontra muitas regiões em condições favoráveis para o seu crescimento. A estas condições, deveremos incorporar a excelente aceitação desta espécie, pelo mercado das empresas de manipulação e beneficiamento do pescado, bem pelo consumidor em geral. O Acará ou cará é o nome genérico atribuído a diversos peixes da família dos Ciclídeos, mesma família a que pertence a Tilápia.

  13. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Uieda

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  14. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uieda Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  15. Two clerodane diterpenes and flavonoids from Croton brasiliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmeira Junior, Sebastiao F.; Conserva, Lucia M. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: lmc@qui.ufal.br; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica

    2005-11-15

    Two new clerodane diterpenes, crotobrasilin A and crotobrasilin B, were isolated in addition to four known 3-methoxyflavones: casticin, penduletin, chrysosplenol-D and artemetin from leaves and stems of Croton brasiliensis. The structural elucidation of these compounds was made on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses, especially NMR, including 2D techniques (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). (author)

  16. Records of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, from Guyana

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    Barnett A.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews and surveys of status of the giant otter are presented. These include information on Pteronura brasiliensis on the upper Potaro River and other rivers in Guyana. Suggestions are made for future work on giant otters on the Potaro Plateau. These include monitoring the effects of mining, studies of mercury poisoning, ecotourism feasibility studies and autecological studies.

  17. Genetic recombination in Actinoplanes brasiliensis by protoplast fusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Palleroni, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    Protoplast formation, fusion, and cell regeneration have been achieved with mutant strains of Actinoplanes brasiliensis. Three-, four-, and five-factor crosses have shown genetic recombination among the markers, and a five-factor cross is analyzed and discussed. Possibilities of using protoplast fusion for gene mapping and strain improvement are suggested.

  18. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Genes in Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Hong Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is an important factor that stimulates Hevea brasiliensis to produce natural rubber. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS is a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. However, knowledge of the ACS gene family of H. brasiliensis is limited. In this study, nine ACS-like genes were identified in H. brasiliensis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis results confirmed that seven isozymes (HbACS1–7 of these nine ACS-like genes were similar to ACS isozymes with ACS activity in other plants. Expression analysis results showed that seven ACS genes were differentially expressed in roots, barks, flowers, and leaves of H. brasiliensis. However, no or low ACS gene expression was detected in the latex of H. brasiliensis. Moreover, seven genes were differentially up-regulated by ethylene treatment. These results provided relevant information to help determine the functions of the ACS gene in H. brasiliensis, particularly the functions in regulating ethylene stimulation of latex production.

  19. Seroepidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in horses from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Neuschrank Albano; Gabriel Baracy Klafke; Tchana Martinez Brandolt; Vanusa Pousada Da Hora; Carlos Eduardo Wayne Nogueira; Melissa Orzechowski Xavier; Mário Carlos Araújo Meireles

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of the major systemic mycosis in Brazil, called paracoccidioidomycosis. Although the Rio Grande do Sul is considered an endemic area of the disease, there are few studies on the ecology of P. brasiliensis in the state. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the infection of P. brasiliensis in horses from the mesoregion of Southwest Riograndense, using these animals as sentinels. Serological techniques, such as double immunodiffusion in a...

  20. Phospholipase gene expression during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis morphological transition and infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyze Alencar Soares

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi. In this study, we demonstrate the following: (i the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pld gene is preferentially expressed in mycelium cells, (ii the plb1 gene is mostly up-regulated by infection after 6 h of co-infection of MH-S cells or during BALB/c mice lung infection, (iii during lung infection, plb1, plc and pld gene expression are significantly increased 6-48 h post-infection compared to 56 days after infection, strongly suggesting that phospholipases play a role in the early events of infection, but not during the chronic stages of pulmonary infection by P. brasiliensis.

  1. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ahmad Yamin Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR. NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. Conclusions The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

  2. Drimys brasiliensis essential oil as a source of drimenol

    OpenAIRE

    Luciele Milani Zem; Katia Christina Zuffellato-Ribas; Henrique Soares Koehler; Maria Izabel Radomski; Cicero Deschamps

    2016-01-01

    Drimys brasiliensis Miers is a native plant species to the Atlantic Forest, commonly known as cataia, and used as a stimulant, anti-diahrreal, antipyretic, among other properties. Dried and fresh leaves of cataia were collected in autumn/2012, submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger graduated apparatus over a period of 4 hours after reaching the boiling point, then essential oil was collected. In oil from green leaves, 49 compounds were identified, being 65.0% sesquiterpenes, 12.0% mono...

  3. Isolation and purification of two immunodominant antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Cabrera, L; Salinas-Carmona, M C; Welsh, O; Rodriguez, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    Two immunogenic proteins from a crude extract of Nocardia brasiliensis were purified to homogeneity. A 61-kDa protein (P61) was isolated from a 50% ammonium sulfate precipitate in two steps. Initially, P61 was obtained by electroelution in a 10% nondenatured preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In a second step, the eluate from the nondenatured gel was run in a 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) preparative polyacrylamide gel. After elution, a single band was demonstrated by S...

  4. Clonal stability of tree dryness in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    OpenAIRE

    K.O. Omokhafe

    2004-01-01

    Clonal stability of tree dryness was evaluated in eleven clones of Hevea brasiliensis at the Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria. The experimental design was the randomized complete block with three replicates and ten trees per replicate. The clones were evaluated in three locations. Four stability parameters were applied. The stability parameters were: environmental variance, regression index, variance due to regression, and Shukla's stability variance. Clone C 202 was outstanding for clona...

  5. COMPORTAMENTO REPRODUTIVO DE Dendrocephalus brasiliensis, Pesta 1921 (CRUSTACEA: ANOSTRACA)

    OpenAIRE

    José Patrocínio Lopes; Hélio de Castro Bezerra Gurgel; Cibele Soares Pontes

    2011-01-01

    The reproductive behavior of fresh water Anostracan has not been massively studied by the carcinology specialized literature, regarding especially the Dendrocephalus brasiliensis Pesta, 1921, about which there are abundant studies only on the geographical distribution of that Anostracan. The objective of this research was to investigate the reproductive behavior of this Anostracan in different periods (dry and rainy). For this, mature individuals of both sexes were used. They were collected i...

  6. Polar constituents of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of 3β-O-β-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3β-O-β-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-β-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the isolation of secologanoside is discussed. (author)

  7. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR DE LA FITOHEMOAGLUTININA DE LA CANAVALIA BRASILIENSIS

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    Gerardo Perez Gómez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se establecio la presencia de una lectina en semillas de Canavalia brasiliensis. Esta proteina que es una globulina, presenta una alta actividad aglutinante respecto a eritrocitos equinos y caninos; esta aglutinacion es inhibida considerable mente por melezitosa (7mg/ml y en menor grado por sacarosa, fructosa y glucosa. Los ensayos realizados con eritrocitos humanos, bovinos o de carnero, demuestra que la lectina es capaz de aglutinarlos solo despues de una tripsinizacion.

  8. Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases

    OpenAIRE

    Francielly Mourão; Suzana Harue Umeo; Orlando Seiko Takemura; Giani Andrea Linde; Nelson Barros Colauto

    2011-01-01

    Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity ...

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis Basidiocarps on Different Maturation Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão, Francielly; Harue Umeo, Suzana; Seiko Takemura, Orlando; Andrea Linde, Giani; Barros Colauto, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity...

  10. In vitro susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to sulfonamides.

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo, A; Arango, M D

    1980-01-01

    A total of 60 clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were tested for susceptibility to sulfadiazine and sulfadimethoxyne by the agar dilution technique. A modification of the Mueller-Hinton medium was devised which gave good growth of the yeast form. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for only 51.6% of the isolates were in the range of the recommended blood serum concentration (50 micrograms/ml). For 6 to 8% of the isolates, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were above 200 ...

  11. Mercury bioaccumulation and elimination by Xenomelanires brasiliensis - radioactive tracers technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has as main objective to emphasized the importance of using radioactive tracers as well as to establish a methodology for the utilization of 203 Hg in the bioaccumulation study of mercury by X enomelanires brasiliensis. The exposure time was 168 hours. The bioaccumulation of mercury from the water as well as the elimination of the metal previously absorbed were determined by measuring the activity of 203 Hg, which was added to the water in the beginning of the experiments. The technique chosen is suitable to study the behavior of the stable mercury since the radioisotope used is an isotope of the same element and therefore presents the same chemical properties. The results obtained show that the absorption and elimination of mercury by Xenomelanires brasiliensis is slow, 168 hours being necessary for the elimination of 38 % of the previously absorbed mercury. The results are of main concern if it is considered that the literature about bioaccumulation of mercury by the Brazilian ichthyofauna is scarce. Furthermore the species Xenomelanires brasiliensis is part of the food chain and the results can be used in the evaluation of the potential risk of the mercury bioaccumulation by fishes of higher trophic levels and by men who are the final link of the food chain. (author)

  12. Polar constituents of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae); Constituintes polares das folhas de Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Anderson Rogerio dos; Barros, Michely Pereira de; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mhsarragiotto@uem.br; Souza, Maria Conceicao de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Meurer, Eduardo Cesar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2004-08-01

    Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of 3{beta}-O-{beta}-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3{beta}-O-{beta}-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-{beta}-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the isolation of secologanoside is discussed. (author)

  13. Constituintes polares das folhas de Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) Polar constituents of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Rogério dos Santos; Michely Pereira de Barros; Silvana Maria de Oliveira Santin; Maria Helena Sarragiotto; Maria Conceição de Souza; Marcos Nogueira Eberlin; Eduardo Cesar Meurer

    2004-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-beta-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the isolation of sec...

  14. Plasticidade anatômica das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae Leaf anatomical plasticity of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Filomena Justo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia foliar do gênero Xylopia ainda é pouco explorada. A espécie Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, vulgarmente conhecida como pindaíba, ocorre tanto em mata primária como em vegetação modificada num amplo espectro de condições ambientais. O presente estudo descreve algumas características anatômicas da folha de X. brasiliensis e avalia quantitativamente o limbo foliar em função das diferenças ambientais, sazonais e de estatura das plantas. Verificou-se que a espécie apresenta plasticidade anatômica.Leaf anatomy of Xylopia is still poorly explored. The species Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, commonly known as pindaíba occurs in primary forest and in modified vegetation in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study describes some leaf anatomical characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in function of environmental, seasonal and plant height differences. This species has anatomical plasticity.

  15. Nutritional Requirements for Growth of Agaricus brasiliensis = Requerimentos nutricionais para o crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoal José Gaspar Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional requirements of A. brasiliensis in culture media were assessed by supplementing a basal medium (g L-1: (glucose, 10, KH2PO4, 1, MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5, [NH4]2SO4, 1, pH 5.5 with CaCl2, trace elements (FeSO4.7H2O; MnCl2.4H2O; ZnSO4.7H2O; CuSO4.5H2O, casein, yeast extract, peptone, B-vitamins or amino acids. Evaluations were based on the mycelial growth in solid or liquid culture (mm day-1 or mg day-1 and visual analysis of the colony. The addition of CaCl2 and trace elements was very important for the major mycelial growth of the fungi. The addition of casein and inositol to the medium did not have a significant effect on growth. The best growth result in solid medium was obtained with the basal medium plus the addition of yeast extract and peptone. In relation to the other nutrient sources, the mycelial growth in the presence of amino acids darkened the medium after two weeks. The addition of B-vitamins to the basal medium lead to slower mycelial growth; however, growth was more visually dense when compared to other nutritional sources. B-vitamins added separately did not have the same result, suggesting that the fungus requires two or more vitamins at the same time for better mycelial growth.Os requerimentos nutricionais de A. brasiliensis foram avaliados, com a suplementação de um meio basal (g L-1: (glicose, 10, KH2PO4, 1, MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5, [NH4]2SO4, 1, pH 5.5 com CaCl2, micronutrientes (FeSO4.7H2O; MnCl2.4H2O; ZnSO4.7H2O; CuSO4.5H2O, caseína, extrato de levedura, peptona, vitaminas do complexo B ou aminoácidos. O crescimento micelial foi avaliado em meio sólido e líquido, considerando velocidade de crescimento e produção de massa micelial (mm dia-1 ou mg dia-1 e análise visual da colônia. A adição de CaCl2 e micronutrientes foi muito importante para o melhor crescimentomicelial do fungo, enquanto que a adição de caseina e inositol não apresentou efeito significativo sobre o crescimento. O melhor crescimento em meio s

  16. Babesia ernestoi, sinonímia de Babesia brasiliensis hemoparásito de marsupiales Didelphidae Babesia ernestoi, SYNONYM OF Babesia brasiliensis DIDELPHIDAE MARSUPIALS HEMOPARASITE

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    MARCELLO XAVIER SAMPAIO

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Babesia ernestoi, la segunda espécie de este género descrita en marsupiales Sur Americanos, su caracterización estuvo basada en 2 aspectos morfológicos (dimensión y morfología y 2 aspectos biológicos (nivel de parasitemia y especificidad por el hospedador. Estos aspectos son discutidos y comparados con los de la Babesia brasiliensis, otro parasito babesídeo de estos hospedadores, proponiendose que la B. ernestoi seja considerada sinonímia júnior de B. brasiliensis.Babesia ernestoi, the second specie of this genus described in South American opossums, have your characterization based on 2 morphological (dimension and stage morphology and 2 biological aspects (parasitemy level and host specificity. These aspects are discussed and compared with those of Babesia brasiliensis, the other Babesiidae parasite of these hosts, being proposed that B. ernestoi be considered junior synonym of Babesia brasiliensis.

  17. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jane; Correia, Nathália Cordeiro; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Felix, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission. PMID:24037202

  18. Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves led to the isolation of β-amyrin and b-amyrin (in a mixture), betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The crude ethanol extract of the leaves and fractions were found be active on A. salina toxicity bioassay (author)

  19. Purificacion de antigenos somaticos del Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Estudio preliminar

    OpenAIRE

    Luis C. Burgos; Cano, Luz E.; Angela Restrepo

    1985-01-01

    Se describen los procedimientos de purificación empleados para la separación de las fracciones antigénicas a partir de un material somático obtenido por rotura de células levaduras completas de P. brasiliensis. Dichas fracciones mostraron ser proteínas con pesos moleculares de 66 y 85 Kd; la primera de ellas reaccionó con sueros específicos produciendo una banda de precipitado idéntica a una de las 3 desarrolladas por el antígeno total. Los resultados señalan la posibilidad de obtener antígen...

  20. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: radioresistant IgE antibody-forming cells in infected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats, anti-N. brasiliensis IgE antibody production was observed at 20 weeks postinfection, long after the worms, as a source of antigen, had been expelled. The persistent IgE production was not abrogated after whole body irradiation (800 R) administered at 12 or 20 weeks, suggesting the participation of radioresistant IgE-forming cells. Help of T cells and recruitment of B memory cells in the irradiated rats seems to be ruled out by the findings that the irradiation completely inhibited the initiation of anti-N. brasiliensis IgE production in rats shortly after the infection with N. brasiliensis or after primary and secondary immunization with N. brasiliensis-antigen. Moreover, clearance of anti-N. brasiliensis IgE antibody from circulation did not seem to be crucially affected by the irradiation. The radioresistant cells forming anti-N. brasiliensis IgE were most productive in mesenteric lymph nodes as compared to other lymph nodes. The recognition of antigens fractionated by chromatography on Sephadex G-200 was the same for IgE-forming cells from rats 12 weeks after infection as for those from 3 weeks after infection. Based on these results, one of the mechanisms of persistent elevation of IgE antibody in the host infected with helminth parasites might be explained by the participation of radioresistant IgE-forming cells

  1. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: radioresistant IgE antibody-forming cells in infected rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, N.; Kobayashi, A.

    1989-02-01

    In Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats, anti-N. brasiliensis IgE antibody production was observed at 20 weeks postinfection, long after the worms, as a source of antigen, had been expelled. The persistent IgE production was not abrogated after whole body irradiation (800 R) administered at 12 or 20 weeks, suggesting the participation of radioresistant IgE-forming cells. Help of T cells and recruitment of B memory cells in the irradiated rats seems to be ruled out by the findings that the irradiation completely inhibited the initiation of anti-N. brasiliensis IgE production in rats shortly after the infection with N. brasiliensis or after primary and secondary immunization with N. brasiliensis-antigen. Moreover, clearance of anti-N. brasiliensis IgE antibody from circulation did not seem to be crucially affected by the irradiation. The radioresistant cells forming anti-N. brasiliensis IgE were most productive in mesenteric lymph nodes as compared to other lymph nodes. The recognition of antigens fractionated by chromatography on Sephadex G-200 was the same for IgE-forming cells from rats 12 weeks after infection as for those from 3 weeks after infection. Based on these results, one of the mechanisms of persistent elevation of IgE antibody in the host infected with helminth parasites might be explained by the participation of radioresistant IgE-forming cells.

  2. Taxonomic and functional microbial signatures of the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis.

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    Amaro E Trindade-Silva

    Full Text Available The endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida is a known source of secondary metabolites such as arenosclerins A-C. In the present study, we established the composition of the A. brasiliensis microbiome and the metabolic pathways associated with this community. We used 454 shotgun pyrosequencing to generate approximately 640,000 high-quality sponge-derived sequences (∼150 Mb. Clustering analysis including sponge, seawater and twenty-three other metagenomes derived from marine animal microbiomes shows that A. brasiliensis contains a specific microbiome. Fourteen bacterial phyla (including Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi were consistently found in the A. brasiliensis metagenomes. The A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia and Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas and Alteromonas compared with the surrounding planktonic microbial communities. Functional analysis based on Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST indicated that the A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for sequences associated with membrane transport and one-carbon metabolism. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of sequences associated with aerobic and anaerobic metabolism as well as the synthesis and degradation of secondary metabolites. This study represents the first analysis of sponge-associated microbial communities via shotgun pyrosequencing, a strategy commonly applied in similar analyses in other marine invertebrate hosts, such as corals and algae. We demonstrate that A. brasiliensis has a unique microbiome that is distinct from that of the surrounding planktonic microbes and from other marine organisms, indicating a species-specific microbiome.

  3. Attenuation of yeast form of Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis by gamma irradiation; Atenuacao da forma leveduriforme do Paraccocidioides Brasiliensis por irradicao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demicheli, Marina Cortez

    2006-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The aim of this work was to attenuate the yeast form of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation for further studies on vaccine research. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated at doses between 0.5 and 8.0 kGy. After each dose the fungal cells were plated and after 10 days the colony forming units (CFU) counted. The viability of the irradiated cells was measured using the dyes Janus green and methylene blue, and protein synthesis by incorporation of L {sup 35}S methionine. The comparison between the antigenic profile of irradiated and control yeast was made by Western blot and the virulence evaluated by the inoculation in C{sub 57}Bl/J6 and Balb/c mice. Morphological changes in irradiated yeast were evaluated by electronic microscopy and DNA integrity by electrophoresis in agarose gel. At 6.5 kGy the yeast lost the reproductive capacity. The viability and the incorporation of L- {sup 35}S methionine were the same in control and up to 6.5 kGy irradiated cells, but 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast secreted 40% less proteins. The Western blot profile was clearly similar in control and 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast. No CFU could be recovered from the tissues of the mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast. At the dose of 6.5 kGy the DNA was degraded and this damage was not repaired. The transmission electronic microscopy showed significant alterations in the nucleus of the irradiated cells. The scanning electronic microscopy showed that two hours after the irradiation the cells were collapsed or presented deep folds in the surface, however these injury were reversible. We concluded that for P. brasiliensis yeast cells it was possible to find a dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability and virulence, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and the antigenic profile. (author)

  4. Apparent digestibility of ingredients in diets for Salminus brasiliensis Digestibilidade aparente de ingredientes em dietas para Salminus brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Gustavo Tavares Braga; Ricardo Borghesi; José Eurico Possebon Cyrino

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the nutritional value of different protein sources for "dourado" (Salminus brasiliensis). Thirty juveniles per group (33.51±1.4 g) were hand fed on a reference diet (70%) added of tested ingredients (30%) and chromium oxide III (0.1%). Apparent digestibility coefficients of the gross energy (ADC GE), crude protein (ADC CP) and amino acids of the tested ingredients were evaluated. Corn gluten meal yielded the best results for ADC GE and ADC CP...

  5. Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral and Bacigalupo (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Wagner Marques de; Santos, Daniela Pereira dos; Santini, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: smoliveira@uem.br; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de; Foglio, Mary Ann [Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2006-05-15

    The paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, b-sitosterol and 3-O-b-glucopyranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines. (author)

  6. Characterization of efferent T suppressor cells induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-specific afferent T suppressor cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-Finkel, B E; Murphy, J W

    1988-01-01

    Previously, we reported that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis culture filtrate antigen (Pb.Ag) when injected i.v. into mice induces antigen-specific suppressor cells which down-regulate the anti-P. brasiliensis delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. The suppressor cells are present in both spleens and lymph nodes of Pb.Ag-treated animals and suppress the afferent limb but not the efferent limb of the DTH response to P. brasiliensis. The suppressor cells induced by Pb.Ag are L3T4+ Lyt-1+2-...

  7. Immunoglobulins and C3 in the P. brasiliensis granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. V. Biagioni

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental model of paracoccidioidomycosis induced in mice by the intravenous injection of yeast-forms of P. brasiliensis (Bt2 strain; 1 x 10(6 viable fungi/animal was used to evaluate sequentially 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 weeks after inoculation: 1. The presence of immunoglobulins and C3 in the pulmonary granuloma-ta, by direct immunofluorescence; 2. The humoral (immunodiffusion test and the cellular (footpad sweeling test immune response; 3. The histopathology of lesions. The cell-immune response was positive since week 2, showing a transitory depression at week 16. Specific antibodies were first detected at week 4 and peaked at week 16. At histology, epithelioid granulomas with numerous fungi and polymorphonuclear agreggates were seen. The lungs showed progressive involvement up to week 16, with little decrease at week 20. From week 2 on, there were deposits of IgG and C3 around fungal walls within the granulomas and IgG stained cells among the mononuclear cell peripheral halo. Interstitital immunoglobulins and C3 deposits in the granulomas were not letected. IgG and C3 seen to play an early an important role in. the host defenses against P. brasiliensis by possibly cooperating in the killing of parasites and blocking the antigenic diffusion.

  8. CDNA library from the Latex of Hevea brasiliensis

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    Wilaiwan Chotigeat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains 30-50% (w/w of natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene, the important rawmaterial for many rubber industries. We have constructed a cDNA library from the latex of H. brasiliensis to investigate theexpressed genes and molecular events in the latex. We analyzed 412 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. More than 90% of theEST clones showed homology to previously described sequences in public databases. Functional classification of the ESTsshowed that the largest category were proteins of unknown function (30.1%, 11.4% of ESTs encoded for rubber synthesisrelatedproteins (RS and 8.5% for defense or stress related proteins (DS. Those with no significant homology to knownsequences (NSH accounted for 8.7%, primary metabolism (PM and gene expression and RNA metabolism were 7.8% and6.6%, respectively. Other categories included, protein synthesis-related proteins (6.6%, chromatin and DNA metabolism(CDM 3.9%, energy metabolism (EM 3.4%, cellular transport (CT 3.2%, cell structure (CS 3.2%, signal transduction (ST2.2%, secondary metabolism (SM 1.7%, protein fate (PF 2.2%, and reproductive proteins (RP 0.7%.

  9. Species of Neohaliotrema Yamaguti, 1965 (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from the pomacentrid Abudefduf vaigensis (Quoy & Gaimard) off Pulau Langkawi, Malaysia, with a revised diagnosis of the genus and a key to its species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L H S; Gibson, David I

    2010-10-01

    Four new and one unidentified species of Neohaliotrema Yamaguti, 1965 were obtained from the gills of the Indo-Pacific sergeant Abudefduf vaigensis (Quoy & Gaimard) off Pulau Langkawi, Malaysia. The five species, N. malayense n. sp., N. bombini n. sp., N. andamanense n. sp., N. parvum n. sp. and an unidentified Neohaliotrema sp. (similar to N. macracanthum Zhukov, 1976), are described and distinguished based mainly on features of the haptor. Species of this genus are divisible into two groups, the 'maomao group', with two pairs of morphometrically modified 'marginal' hooks and a fenestrated haptor, and the 'gracile group', with morphologically similar marginal hooks and an entire haptor. With the exception of N. bombini n. sp., the species described fit within the 'maomao group'. It is suggested that the more complex Neohaliotrema species of the 'maomao group' have modified hooks 1 and 2 on a haptoral 'isthmus' between two large apertures, i.e. 'windows', whereas the less complex species lacking these features are those of the 'gracile group'. Neohaliotrema spp. have only a single pair of pigmented eye-spots. A fenestrated haptor is unique to the Neohaliotrema spp. of the 'maomao group'. The generic diagnosis of Neohaliotrema is amended to include new data and a key to its known species is presented. PMID:20852983

  10. An optimized one-tube, semi-nested PCR assay for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis detection

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    Amanda de Faveri Pitz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Herein, we report a one-tube, semi-nested-polymerase chain reaction (OTsn-PCR assay for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Methods We developed the OTsn-PCR assay for the detection of P. brasiliensis in clinical specimens and compared it with other PCR methods. Results The OTsn-PCR assay was positive for all clinical samples, and the detection limit was better or equivalent to the other nested or semi-nested PCR methods for P. brasiliensis detection. Conclusions The OTsn-PCR assay described in this paper has a detection limit similar to other reactions for the molecular detection of P. brasiliensis, but this approach is faster and less prone to contamination than other conventional nested or semi-nested PCR assays.

  11. New records of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-feeding insects. Hemiptera and Coleoptera on Senecio brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzke; Trigo

    2000-04-01

    New records are reported for a Hemipteran (Largus rufipennis) and a Coleopteran (Chauliognathus fallax) feeding on Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) and sequestering pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Both insects are warningly colored and rejected by predators. PMID:10725590

  12. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks.

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    Anderson Messias Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10, Paraná (PR, n = 4, São Paulo (SP, n =3 and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1. Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9% with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil.

  13. Effect of detergents on membrane-associated glucan synthetase from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    OpenAIRE

    San-Blas, G; San-Blas, F

    1982-01-01

    Yeast and mycelial particulate preparations of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were subjected to the action of several detergents in an attempt to solubilize the glucan synthetase present in these preparations. This was achieved more successfully in the yeast membranes than in the mycelial ones. The enzymatic activity was greatly stimulated in the insoluble fractions upon treatment with some of the detergents used. The results suggest that the yeast and mycelial phases of P. brasiliensis may di...

  14. The influence of carbohydrates in the interaction of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis with CCL-6 cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Laurindo da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the early events in the interaction between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and its host. To understand the effect of carbohydrates in the interaction between the fungus and epithelial cell in culture, we analyzed the influence of different carbohydrate solutions on the adhesion of P. brasiliensis yeast cells to CCL-6 cells in culture. METHODS: Fungal cells were cultivated with the epithelial cell line, and different concentrations of D-fucose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, D-mannose, D-glucosamine, D-galactosamine, sorbitol and fructose were added at the beginning of the experiment. Six hours after the treatment, the cells were fixed and observed by light microscopy. The number of P. brasiliensis cells that were adhered to the CCL-6 monolayer was estimated. RESULTS: The number of adhesion events was diminished following treatments with D-fucose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, D-mannose, D-glucosamine and D-galactosamine as compared to the untreated controls. Sorbitol and fructose-treated cells had the same adhesion behavior as the observed in the control. P. brasiliensis propagules were treated with fluorescent lectins. The FITC-labeled lectins WGA and Con-A bound to P. brasiliensis yeast cells, while SBA and PNA did not. CONCLUSIONS: The perceptual of adhesion between P. brasiliensis and CCL-6 cells decreased with the use of D-mannose, N-acetyl-glucosamine and D-glucosamine. The assay using FITC-labeled lectins suggests the presence of N-acetyl-glucosamine, α-mannose and α-glucose on the P. brasiliensis cell surface. An enhanced knowledge of the mediators of adhesion on P. brasiliensis could be useful in the future for the development of more efficient and less harmful methods for disease treatment and control.

  15. Nocardia brasiliensis Induces an Immunosuppressive Microenvironment That Favors Chronic Infection in BALB/c Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G.; Perez-Liñan, Amira R.; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Perez-Rivera, Luz I.; Mario C Salinas-Carmona

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an intracellular microorganism and the most common etiologic agent of actinomycetoma in the Americas. Several intracellular pathogens induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment through increases in CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), thus downregulating other T-cell subpopulations and assuring survival in the host. In this study, we determined whether N. brasiliensis modulates T-lymphocyte responses and their related cytokine profiles in a murine experimental mod...

  16. Genetic variability in four fish species (Pimelodus maculatus, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis and Steindachneridion scripta) from Uruguay River basin

    OpenAIRE

    Micheline Sandra Ramella; Mariela Aparecida Kroth; Samira Meurer; Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuñer; Evoy Zaniboni Filho; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi

    2006-01-01

    The genetic variability of four fish species (Pimelodus maculatus, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis and Steindachneridion scripta) collected in the upper Uruguay River basin was analyzed using the RAPD technique. A total of 118 amplified fragments was obtained, 11 for P. maculatus, 29 for P. lineatus, 45 for S. brasiliensis and 33 for S. scripta. Amplified fragments with monomorphic profile were not found in the studied species, except for S. brasiliensis, which presented seven mon...

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão-Dias, Pedro Ferreira Pinto; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira do; Martins, Ana Paula Vimieiro; Pimenta, Ricardo José Gonzaga; Alves, Carlos Bernardo Mascarenhas; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-05-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome of the fish Salminus brasiliensis, popularly known as dourado. It is a circular, 17,721 bp long DNA molecule, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding Control Region of 2128 bp, a relatively large molecule when compared to other closely related fishes. All protein-coding genes are on the heavy strand, except for Nd6, and all have ATG as the start codon, except for Cox1 gene which has a GTG start codon. Seven protein-coding genes have incomplete stop codons (Nd2, Cox2, Atp6, Nd4, and Cytb have T- -, and Cox3 and Nd3 have TA-). TAG is the stop codon for Nd6 and AGG is the stop codon for Cox1. PMID:25208163

  18. Purificacion de antigenos somaticos del Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Estudio preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. Burgos

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los procedimientos de purificación empleados para la separación de las fracciones antigénicas a partir de un material somático obtenido por rotura de células levaduras completas de P. brasiliensis. Dichas fracciones mostraron ser proteínas con pesos moleculares de 66 y 85 Kd; la primera de ellas reaccionó con sueros específicos produciendo una banda de precipitado idéntica a una de las 3 desarrolladas por el antígeno total. Los resultados señalan la posibilidad de obtener antígenos purificados, químicamente identificados y cuyo uso pudiera, en el futuro, representar ventajas para el diagnóstico serológico de la paracoccidioidomicosis, permitiendo separar, repetidamente, solo aquel componente reconocidamente activo.

  19. An Analysis of the Patents concerning Hevea brasiliensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijuan; LI; Qing; CHEN; Bingjiang; XU; Xinxin; REN; Huasun; HUANG; Qiong; LI

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly analyzes the application data of patents concerning Hevea brasiliensis in the world and China from the perspectives of time,research field,and the geographical distribution of applicants. It also interprets the patents for invention in China from time,research field,and types of applicants. Based on the study,it shows that although the patent applications fluctuate,the general trend is rising. And the patents are mostly concentrated in plant protection,and agricultural biotechnology. The Chinese applicants of patents for invention largely work in the research institutes,and most of these patents focus on the field of plant protection,agricultural biotechnology,and agro-processing.However,the foreign applicants mainly work in companies,and most of these patents only focus on plant protection. These findings will provide a reference for formulating development policies about natural rubber industry in China.

  20. Babesia ernestoi, sinonímia de Babesia brasiliensis hemoparásito de marsupiales Didelphidae Babesia ernestoi, SYNONYM OF Babesia brasiliensis DIDELPHIDAE MARSUPIALS HEMOPARASITE

    OpenAIRE

    MARCELLO XAVIER SAMPAIO; CARLOS LUIZ MASSARD; FRANKLIN F. MUJICA

    2001-01-01

    Babesia ernestoi, la segunda espécie de este género descrita en marsupiales Sur Americanos, su caracterización estuvo basada en 2 aspectos morfológicos (dimensión y morfología) y 2 aspectos biológicos (nivel de parasitemia y especificidad por el hospedador). Estos aspectos son discutidos y comparados con los de la Babesia brasiliensis, otro parasito babesídeo de estos hospedadores, proponiendose que la B. ernestoi seja considerada sinonímia júnior de B. brasiliensis.Babesia ernestoi, the seco...

  1. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5 %). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Borges, Thuanny A; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential. PMID:24356824

  3. Evidence for positive selection in putative virulence factors within the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis species complex.

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    Daniel R Matute

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Recently, the existence of three genetically isolated groups in P. brasiliensis was demonstrated, enabling comparative studies of molecular evolution among P. brasiliensis lineages. Thirty-two gene sequences coding for putative virulence factors were analyzed to determine whether they were under positive selection. Our maximum likelihood-based approach yielded evidence for selection in 12 genes that are involved in different cellular processes. An in-depth analysis of four of these genes showed them to be either antigenic or involved in pathogenesis. Here, we present evidence indicating that several replacement mutations in gp43 are under positive balancing selection. The other three genes (fks, cdc42 and p27 show very little variation among the P. brasiliensis lineages and appear to be under positive directional selection. Our results are consistent with the more general observations that selective constraints are variable across the genome, and that even in the genes under positive selection, only a few sites are altered. We present our results within an evolutionary framework that may be applicable for studying adaptation and pathogenesis in P. brasiliensis and other pathogenic fungi.

  4. Microdilution procedure for antifungal susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to amphotericin b and itraconazole

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    E Takahagi-Nakaira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro tests employing microdilution to evaluate fungal susceptibility to antifungal drugs are already standardized for fermentative yeasts. However, studies on the susceptibility of dimorphic fungi such as Paracoccidioides brasiliensis employing this method are scarce. The present work introduced some modifications into antifungal susceptibility testing from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST, concerning broth medium and reading time, to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Yeast-like cells of P. brasiliensis (Pb18 strain were tested for susceptibility to amphotericin B and itraconazole in RPMI 1640 medium, supplemented with 2% glucose and nitrogen source and incubated at 35°C. The MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Pb18 were respectively 0.25 µg/mL and 0.002 µg/mL. The results of minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC showed that amphotericin B at 0.25 µg/mL or higher concentrations displayed fungicidal activity against Pb18 while itraconazole at least 0.002 µg/mL has a fungistatic effect on P. brasiliensis. In conclusion, our results showed that the method employed in the present study is reproducible and reliable for testing the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis to antifungal drugs.

  5. Geographic variation in ectoparasitic mites diversity in Tadarida Brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae

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    Tatiana C. Pesenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an insectivorous bat that occurs from southern United States of America to southern South America. In this study we present the first data on diversity of ectoparasitic mites of T. brasiliensis in Brazil. A compilation and analysis of the studies of mite diversity conducted in different points the geographic distribution this bat species are provided. The mites were collected from March 2010 to November 2011 on 160 T. brasiliensis adult bats captured in southern Brazil. Four species of mites have been found: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925, Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938, Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948, and specimens of Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes was the most prevalent species (100%, followed by E. longa (20%, E. inaequalis (10%, and specimens of Cheyletidae (1.25%. The data currently available show that C. robustipes parasitizes T. brasiliensis throughout its region of occurrence, and this mite is highly prevalent and abundant. The two species of Ewingana accompany the geographical distribution of T. brasiliensis, but with much lower prevalence and abundance.

  6. In vitro susceptibility of antifungal drugs against Sporothrix brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gremião, Isabella Dib Ferreira; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-03-01

    Sporotrichosis is an important subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals. Classically, the disease is acquired upon traumatic inoculation of Sporothrix propagules from contaminated soil and plant debris. In addition, the direct horizontal transmission of Sporothrix among animals and the resulting zoonotic infection in humans highlight an alternative and efficient rout of transmission through biting and scratching. Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex and is responsible for the long-lasting outbreak of feline sporotrichosis in Brazil. However, antifungal susceptibility data of animal-borne isolates is scarce. Therefore, this study evaluated the in vitro activity of amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole against animal-borne isolates of S. brasiliensis. The susceptibility tests were performed through broth microdilution (M38-A2). The results show the relevant activity of itraconazole, amphotericin B, and ketoconazole against S. brasiliensis, with the following MIC ranges: 0.125-2, 0.125-4 and 0.0312-2 μg/ml, respectively. Caspofungin was moderately effective, displaying higher variation in MIC values (0.25-64 μg/ml). Voriconazole (2-64 μg/ml) and fluconazole (62.5-500 μg/ml) showed low activity against S. brasiliensis strains. This study contributed to the characterization of the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of strains of S. brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis, which have recently been considered the main source of human infections. PMID:26591009

  7. Seroepidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in horses from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Ana Paula Neuschrank; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Brandolt, Tchana Martinez; Da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Wayne; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of the major systemic mycosis in Brazil, called paracoccidioidomycosis. Although the Rio Grande do Sul is considered an endemic area of the disease, there are few studies on the ecology of P. brasiliensis in the state. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the infection of P. brasiliensis in horses from the mesoregion of Southwest Riograndense, using these animals as sentinels. Serological techniques, such as double immunodiffusion in agar gel (AGID) and indirect ELISA, were performed to detect the anti-gp43 P. brasiliensis antibody in horses from five different farms in the region of Bagé, RS, Brazil. Serology was performed in 200 Pure Blood English horses up to two years of age that were born and raised exclusively at the farms. Of these horses, 12% had anti-gp43 antibodies according to the ELISA results, with rates ranging from 0 to 30% according to the farm of origin (p < 0.001). Based on the immunodiffusion results, all equine serum samples were negative. These results indicate the presence of the fungus P. brasiliensis in the middle region of the southwestern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:26273267

  8. Seroepidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in horses from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Ana Paula Neuschrank Albano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of the major systemic mycosis in Brazil, called paracoccidioidomycosis. Although the Rio Grande do Sul is considered an endemic area of the disease, there are few studies on the ecology of P. brasiliensis in the state. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the infection of P. brasiliensis in horses from the mesoregion of Southwest Riograndense, using these animals as sentinels. Serological techniques, such as double immunodiffusion in agar gel (AGID and indirect ELISA, were performed to detect the anti-gp43 P. brasiliensis antibody in horses from five different farms in the region of Bagé, RS, Brazil. Serology was performed in 200 Pure Blood English horses up to two years of age that were born and raised exclusively at the farms. Of these horses, 12% had anti-gp43 antibodies according to the ELISA results, with rates ranging from 0 to 30% according to the farm of origin (p < 0.001. Based on the immunodiffusion results, all equine serum samples were negative. These results indicate the presence of the fungus P. brasiliensis in the middle region of the southwestern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  9. Aspectos microclimáticos del hábitat de Triatoma brasiliensis Microclimatic properties of the Triatoma brasiliensis habitat

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    Marcelo G. Lorenzo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis es el principal vector de la enfermedad de Chagas en la región nordeste de Brasil. En este sentido, resulta fundamental conocer las preferencias microclimáticas de esta especie como condicionantes de su distribución y capacidad de infestación de domicilios. En el presente trabajo se analisan las características microclimáticas de los refugios en que este insecto es hallado, tanto en sitios silvestres como domiciliarios y peridomiciliarios del Estado de Ceará, Brasil. Se realizaron medidas de temperatura y humedad relativa (HR cada 15 minutos, durante un periodo de 3 días. La variación de temperatura se halla fuertemente amortiguada en el interior de los refugios domiciliarios, así como en los sitios más protegidos dentro de los pedregales silvestres. En relación con la HR, se pudo observar un patrón de amortiguación semejante, sin embargo, la HR media fue inferior tanto en el interior de refugios intradomiciliarios como en aquellos silvestres entre montículos de piedras, en comparación con los valores registrados como referencia en el ambiente. Los resultados son discutidos en relación con las preferencias microclimáticas de esta especie observadas en el laboratorio y con la posible importancia de éstas como determinantes de su distribución geográfica.Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease in Northeast Brazil is basically by Triatoma brasiliensis. It is thus crucial to determine this species' microclimatic preferences as limiting factors for its distribution and ability to infest domestic environments. We analyze the microclimatic properties of the shelters in which these insects are found in wild, domestic, and peridomiciliary environments in the State of Ceará, at Brazil. We measure temperature and relative humidity (RH every 15 minutes for 3 days. Thermal variation was greatly dampened inside both domiciliary refuges and the more protected internal places in wild stony sites. For RH, we

  10. Sporothrix brasiliensis outbreaks and the rapid emergence of feline sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchotene, Karine Ortiz; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Bergamashi, Mariana; Della Terra, Paula Portella; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski

    2015-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is the main subcutaneous mycosis in Brazil, and is caused by Sporothrix schenckii and allied species. Sporothrix propagules present on soil and plant debris may be traumatically inoculated into the cutaneous/ subcutaneous tissues of the warm-blooded host. An alternative route involves direct animal-animal and animal-human transmissions through deep scratches and bites of diseased cats. Sporotrichosis is much more common than previously appreciated with several cases emerging over the years especially in South and Southeast Brazil. We conducted an epidemiological surveillance in endemic areas of feline sporotrichosis in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Over the last 5-year period the number of feline sporotrichosis in Rio Grande increased from 0.75 new cases per month in 2010 to 3.33 cases per month in 2014. The wide geographic distribution of diagnosed cases highlights the dynamics of Sporothrix transmission across urban areas with high population density. Molecular identification down to species level by PCR-RFLP of cat-transmitted Sporothrix revealed the emergence of the clonal offshoot S. brasiliensis during feline outbreaks; this scenario is similar to the epidemics taking place in the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Controlling and preventing sporotrichosis outbreaks are essential steps to managing the disease among humans and animals. PMID:26404561

  11. Drimys brasiliensis essential oil as a source of drimenol

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    Luciele Milani Zem

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers is a native plant species to the Atlantic Forest, commonly known as cataia, and used as a stimulant, anti-diahrreal, antipyretic, among other properties. Dried and fresh leaves of cataia were collected in autumn/2012, submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger graduated apparatus over a period of 4 hours after reaching the boiling point, then essential oil was collected. In oil from green leaves, 49 compounds were identified, being 65.0% sesquiterpenes, 12.0% monoterpenes and 23.0% other substances. In oil from dry leaves, 40 compounds were identified, being 76.1% sesquiterpenes, 2.0% monoterpenes and 21.9% other compounds. The main constituents in green leaves were germacrene D (8.9%, bicyclegermacrene (5.3%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.1%, alpha-cadinol (6.0%, and drimenol (9.3%. In dry leaves the main constituents were germacrene D (6.3%, (E-nerodidol (5.4%, spathulenol (9.5%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.5%, alpha-cadinol (6.7%, and drimenol (11.6% Due to its composition, antibacterial, antimycotic, insectifuge and molluscicide activities are proven, together with the pharmacological properties that this species may present.

  12. COMPORTAMENTO REPRODUTIVO DE Dendrocephalus brasiliensis, Pesta 1921 (CRUSTACEA: ANOSTRACA

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    José Patrocínio Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive behavior of fresh water Anostracan has not been massively studied by the carcinology specialized literature, regarding especially the Dendrocephalus brasiliensis Pesta, 1921, about which there are abundant studies only on the geographical distribution of that Anostracan. The objective of this research was to investigate the reproductive behavior of this Anostracan in different periods (dry and rainy. For this, mature individuals of both sexes were used. They were collected in four ponds of the Fish Farming Station of Paulo Afonso (FFSPA, by monthly capture in each pond, within the period from December 2004 to November 2005. The reproduction type was observed by placing some females in aquariums with males and placing the other ones individually, starting from the nauplii phase, where they stayed for 15 days (reproductive age. The individuals' sexual proportion was calculated by the relative frequencies of males and of females, every month, for the whole collection period. At 10 days cysts production is possible and the number of produced cysts is related to the size of the female. The ratio male:female in the studied period was of 1 male to 1.07 female. The proportion male:female was 51.75% female to 48.25% male along the year. The observation of the reproductive behavior showed the reproduction is sexed.

  13. Highlights on Hevea brasiliensis (pro)hevein proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Karine; Peruch, Frédéric; Lecomte, Sophie

    2016-08-01

    Hevein, from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree), was identified in 1960. It is the most abundant soluble protein (22%) found in latex. Hevein is formed from a larger protein called prohevein. The 187 amino-acid prohevein is cleaved into two fragments: the N-terminal 43 amino-acid hevein, a lectin bearing a chitin-binding motif with antifungal properties, and a C-terminal domain (C-ter), which possesses amyloid properties. Hevein-like proteins are also widely represented in the plant kingdom and belong to a larger family related to stress and pathogenic responses. During the last 55 years, these proteins have attracted the interest of numerous specialists from the fields of plant physiology, genetics, molecular and structural biology, and physico-chemistry to allergology. This review highlights various aspects of hevein, prohevein, and C-ter from the point of view of these various fields, and examines their potential roles in latex as well as their beneficial and negative biological effects (e.g. wound sealing and resistance to pathogens which is mediated by agglutination, antimicrobial activity, and/or allergenicity). It covers results and observations from 1960 up to the most recent research. PMID:27317253

  14. Immunologically mediated intestinal mastocytosis in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis - infected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate mechanisms of mast-cell proliferation, infection of Lewis rats with the intestinal nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis was utilized to induce a pronounced intestinal mast-cell hyperplasia. Adoptive transfer of 2 x 108 immune mesenteric lymph node cells (IMLN), collected 14 days post infection with 3000 third stage larvae (L3), into rats concurrently given 3000 L3 hastened the expected intestinal mastocytosis by up to 4-5 days. IMLN exhibited this mastopoietic activity only in the presence of concurrent infection. Normal mesenteric lymph node cells did not show similar mastopoietic activity. Intestinal mastocytosis was delayed by sub-lethal irradiation (400 rad) but IMLN reconstituted the mast-cell response of such animals. The mastopoietic activity could not be attributed to worm antigen as antigen administered intraveneously had no significant effect on mastocytosis and antigen could not be detected in mastopoietically active IMLN suspensions used as a possible antigen source in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis tests. Immune serum (14 days post primary infection with 3000 L3) also hastened mastocytosis in infected rats, whereas normal serum did not. The IMLN may be an enriched source of intestinal mast cell precursors and may contain a cell type(s) which regulates the differentiation and proliferation of such precursors. (author)

  15. Reproductive Biology of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae) During the Imaginal Molt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Guerra, Ana Letícia; Imperador, Carlos Henrique Lima; da Rosa, João Aristeu; de Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela

    2016-03-01

    The triatomines are vectors of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease. These insects are sexually active after the imaginal molt. Some aspects have been studied in Triatoma brasiliensis during the imaginal molt, such as autogeny in virgin females and the relationship between blood ingestion by fifth instar nymph and the realization of the imaginal molt. Thus, to aid in the understanding of reproductive biology and developmental physiology of these vectors, this article analyzes the spermatogenesis of T. brasiliensis during the imaginal molt. The analysis of the seminiferous tubules from males in the fifth instar during imaginal molt has demonstrated that T. brasiliensis has only a few spermatids and a plentiful quantity of sperm. Thus, we suggest that during imaginal molt the cell division is disrupted aiming to reduce energy costs and the differentiation into sperm is stimulated to ensure the paternity of the adult male. PMID:26787143

  16. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

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    Cintia P.J. Rua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32, Bacillus (N = 26, Shewanella (N = 17, Pseudovibrio (N = 12, and Ruegeria (N = 8 were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health.

  17. Proteomic analysis reveals that iron availability alters the metabolic status of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

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    Ana F A Parente

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus and the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. The ability of P. brasiliensis to uptake nutrients is fundamental for growth, but a reduction in the availability of iron and other nutrients is a host defense mechanism many pathogenic fungi must overcome. Thus, fungal mechanisms that scavenge iron from host may contribute to P. brasiliensis virulence. In order to better understand how P. brasiliensis adapts to iron starvation in the host we compared the two-dimensional (2D gel protein profile of yeast cells during iron starvation to that of iron rich condition. Protein spots were selected for comparative analysis based on the protein staining intensity as determined by image analysis. A total of 1752 protein spots were selected for comparison, and a total of 274 out of the 1752 protein spots were determined to have changed significantly in abundance due to iron depletion. Ninety six of the 274 proteins were grouped into the following functional categories; energy, metabolism, cell rescue, virulence, cell cycle, protein synthesis, protein fate, transcription, cellular communication, and cell fate. A correlation between protein and transcript levels was also discovered using quantitative RT-PCR analysis from RNA obtained from P. brasiliensis under iron restricting conditions and from yeast cells isolated from infected mouse spleens. In addition, western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays validated the differential regulation of proteins identified by 2-D gel analysis. We observed an increase in glycolytic pathway protein regulation while tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycles, and electron transport chain proteins decreased in abundance under iron limiting conditions. These data suggest a remodeling of P. brasiliensis metabolism by prioritizing iron independent pathways.

  18. Fatty acid composition and biological activities of seed oil from rubber (Hevea brasiliensis cultivar RRIM 600

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    K Kittigowittana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The oils from seeds of Hevea brasiliensis (Muëll. Arg. cultivar RRIM 600 cultivated in Thailand (from two different sources, Chiang Rai and Surin provinces, were subjected to the evaluation of fatty acid composition, antioxidant activities, antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicity. The seed oils were extracted using n-hexane as a solvent and the major fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids. The seed oils from two different sources similarly exhibited high capability in inhibiting scavenging DPPH radicals (95%, 87% inhibition, from Chiang Rai and Surin provinces respectively, reducing power (1.588±0.016, 1.832±0.009 mg of AAE/mL. However, moderate lipid peroxidation inhibition activity of these two seed oils were observed (24%, 28% inhibition. The cytotoxicity effect of oil was determined on human dermal fibroblast. It showed that the H. brasiliensis seed oil was not cytotoxic to human skin at >1000 μg/mL. Based on these results, it was suggested that the H. brasiliensis seed oil may be considered as a potential antioxidant candidate for topical cosmetic applications. Industrial relevance. Natural origin raw materials have gained increasing attention for cosmetics because of their effectiveness and safety as compared to the synthetics. H. brasiliensis seed oil from this research has shown itself as a highly promising natural raw material source for cosmetic industry. It composed of skin health benefit fatty acids and has been found to exhibit high capability in inhibiting scavenging DPPH radicals. Moreover, from the cytotoxicity result, it indicated that the H. brasiliensis seed oil can safely be applied to human skin.   Keywords. Hevea brasiliensis; seed oil; fatty acids; biological activities

  19. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

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    Ying Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei. Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the A. brasiliensis fruit body is useful as a health-promoting food.

  20. Fungal Colitis by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a case report

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    Carlos José Galeazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PBM is an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus called Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It occurs in Latin America, with incidence of 1 to 3 per 100,000 inhabitants in endemic areas. The digestive tract is usually not affected, but when it occurs, it may lead to events similar to colorectal neoplasm and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is a case report of a 68-year-old female patient, with diarrhea without blood or mucus for 6 months, weight loss of 8 kg over the period. Abdominal ultrasonography showed some mass in the right colon, suggestive of cancer and liver perihilar lymph node. Colonoscopy showed lesions suggestive of Crohn's disease. Biopsy showed chronic granulomatous colitis of fungal etiology: Paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient did not tolerate oral treatment with itraconazole and subsequently sulfadiazine, requiring hospital admission for the treatment with amphotericin B. The presence of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the digestive tract may be associated with bloody diarrhea, mucus, rectal hemorrhage, abdominal pain, malabsorption syndrome. Histopathological studies show the fungus and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate and granulation tissue. The differential diagnoses are tuberculosis, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. The treatment is oral antifungal (itraconazole, sulfadiazine or intravenous (amphotericin B based. The case has caused diagnostic confusion between colon cancer (clinical and US and Crohn's disease (colonoscopy.Paracoccidioidomicose (PBM é uma infecção causada por um fungo dimórfico: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Ocorre na América Latina, com incidência de 1 a 3 por 100.000 habitantes em áreas endêmicas. O acometimento do trato digestivo é infrequente, sendo que pode levar a manifestações semelhantes à neoplasia colorretal e doença inflamatória intestinal (DII. Relatamos o caso da paciente feminina, 68 anos, com diarreia sem sangue ou muco há seis meses, com

  1. Immunological characterization of a recombinant 27-kilodalton antigenic protein from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, B L; Garcia, A. M.; A. Restrepo; McEwen, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    We report the expression in Escherichia coli of a 27-kDa antigenic protein from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. When analyzed by immunoblotting, this recombinant antigenic protein was recognized by antibodies present in the sera of 40 of the 44 paracoccidioidomycosis patients studied. No cross-reactions were observed with sera from patients with other mycoses (histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, sporotrichosis, and chromoblastomycosis) or with tuberculosis.

  2. Pulmonary cavitation and skin lesions mimicking tuberculosis in a HIV negative patient caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Orofino-Costa, Rosane; Unterstell, Natasha; Carlos Gripp, Alexandre; de Macedo, Priscila Marques; Brota, Arles; Dias, Emylli; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; Felipe, Maria Sueli; Bernardes-Engemann, Andréa R; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria

    2013-01-01

    A 32-year-old HIV negative male presented with multiple pulmonary cavitation and skin abscesses up to 15 cm in diameter mimicking tuberculosis. Sporothrix brasiliensis was isolated and patient responded well to amphotericin B followed by itraconazole, except the skin lesions that had to be surgical drained to obtain cure.

  3. Decreased expression of 14-3-3 in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis confirms its involvement in fungal pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Caroline Maria; Silva, Julhiany de Fátima ds; Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar de; Assato, Patrícia Akemi; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Lopez, Angela Maria; Tamayo, Diana Patricia; Hernandez-Ruiz, Orville; McEwen, Juan G; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between the fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and host cells is usually mediated by specific binding events between adhesins on the fungal surface and receptors on the host extracellular matrix or cell surface. One molecule implicated in the P. brasiliensis-host interaction is the 14-3-3 protein. The 14-3-3 protein belongs to a family of conserved regulatory molecules that are expressed in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in diverse cellular functions. Here, we investigated the relevance of the 14-3-3 protein to the virulence of P. brasiliensis. Using antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, we generated a 14-3-3-silenced strain (expression reduced by ˜55%). This strain allowed us to investigate the interaction between 14-3-3 and the host and to correlate the functions of P. brasiliensis 14-3-3 with cellular features, such as morphological characteristics and virulence, that are important for pathogenesis. PMID:26646480

  4. Development of CD4 T cell dependent immunity against N. brasiliensis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eHarvie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Of all the microbial infections relevant to mammals the relationship between parasitic worms and what constitutes and regulates a host protective immune response is perhaps the most complex and evolved. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis is a tissue migrating parasitic roundworm of rodents that exemplifies many of the salient features of parasitic worm infection, including parasite development through sequential larval stages as it migrates through specific tissue sites. Immune competent hosts respond to infection by N. brasiliensis with a rapid and selective development of a profound Th2 immune response that appears able to confer life long protective immunity against reinfection. This review details how the lung can be the site of migrating nematode immune killing and the gut a site of rapid immune mediated clearance of worms. Furthermore it appears that N. brasiliensis induced responses in the lung are sufficient for conferring immunity in lung and gut while infection of the gut only confers immunity in the gut. This review also covers the role of IL-4, STAT6 and the innate cytokines IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP in the generation of CD4-mediated immunity against N. brasiliensis reinfection and discusses what cytokines might be involved in mediated killing or expulsion of helminth parasites.

  5. Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis in Peninsular Malaysia

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    A. I. C. Nyaka Ngobisa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations – Selangor, Perak, and Johor states – in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15 containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis.

  6. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta;

    2007-01-01

    to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740...

  7. Activation of the alternative complement pathway in canine normal serum by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, A A C; Petroni, T F; Fedatto, P F; Bianchini, R R; Venancio, E J; Itano, E N; Ono, M A

    2009-04-01

    The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human granulomatous disease. Recently the first case of natural disease in dogs was reported. The complement system is an important effector component of humoral immunity against infectious agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the dog alternative complement pathway by P. brasiliensis. Initially, the ability of erythrocytes of guinea pig, rabbit, sheep, chicken and swine to activate the dog alternative pathway was evaluated. The guinea pig erythrocytes showed the greatest capacity to activate dog alternative pathway. The alternative (AH50) hemolytic activity was evaluated in 27 serum samples from healthy dogs and the mean values were 87.2 AH50/ml. No significant differences were observed in relation to sex and age. The alternative pathway activation by P. brasiliensis was higher in serum samples from adult dogs when compared to puppies and aged dogs (p ≤ 0.05). This is the first report of dog alternative complement pathway activation by P. brasiliensis and suggests that it may play a protective role in canine paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:24031350

  8. Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. C. Nyaka Ngobisa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations - Selangor, Perak, and Johor states - in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15 containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis.

  9. A life-threatening case of disseminated nocardiosis due to Nocardia brasiliensis

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    Elisabeth Paramythiotou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocardiosis is a rare disease caused by infection with Nocardia species, aerobic actinomycetes with a worldwide distribution. A rare life-threatening disseminated Nocardia brasiliensis infection is described in an elderly, immunocompromised patient. Microorganism was recovered from bronchial secretions and dermal lesions, and was identified using molecular assays. Prompt, timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment ensured a favorable outcome.

  10. Black thread disease, control measures and yield stimulation in Hevea brasiliensis in Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, J.

    1972-01-01

    Described are investigations, carried out in 1963 to 1971 in Hevea brasiliensis at the Firestone Plantation at Harbel in Liberia. Studied was the tapping panel disease, black thread, caused by the fungus Phytophthora palmivora. The emphasis of the investigations was on control of the disease with th

  11. A secreted serine protease of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and its interactions with fungal proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Célia MA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus, the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. Serine proteases are widely distributed and this class of peptidase has been related to pathogenesis and nitrogen starvation in pathogenic fungi. Results A cDNA (Pbsp encoding a secreted serine protease (PbSP, was isolated from a cDNA library constructed with RNAs of fungal yeast cells recovered from liver of infected mice. Recombinant PbSP was produced in Escherichia coli, and used to develop polyclonal antibodies that were able to detect a 66 kDa protein in the P. brasiliensis proteome. In vitro deglycosylation assays with endoglycosidase H demonstrated that PbSP is a N-glycosylated molecule. The Pbsp transcript and the protein were induced during nitrogen starvation. The Pbsp transcript was also induced in yeast cells infecting murine macrophages. Interactions of PbSP with P. brasiliensis proteins were evaluated by two-hybrid assay in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PbSP interacts with a peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, calnexin, HSP70 and a cell wall protein PWP2. Conclusions A secreted subtilisin induced during nitrogen starvation was characterized indicating the possible role of this protein in the nitrogen acquisition. PbSP interactions with other P. brasiliensis proteins were reported. Proteins interacting with PbSP are related to folding process, protein trafficking and cytoskeleton reorganization.

  12. Initial development of the endocarp in Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand (Anacardiaceae): with taxonomic notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, João M S; Mariath, Jorge E A

    2015-09-01

    Investigation into the initial developmental stages of a given structure is fundamental for precise characterization as well as for comparative analysis in relation to other taxa when homologies are established. For the Anacardiaceae family, investigations of the initial development of the pericarp or its basic histological sites, the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp, are relevant since these regions are of taxonomic and phylogenetic importance. The initial stages of endocarp development in Lithraea brasiliensis were studied using light microscopy. In L. brasiliensis, the fruits are of the drupe type. The endocarp originates exclusively in the epidermis of the locular cavity and is composed of only three strata. The crystalliferous layer, typical in fruits of the Anacardiaceae family, originates in the carpelar mesophyll and runs adjacent to the outermost layer of the endocarp. The endocarp in Lithraea brasiliensis is of the Anacardium type. The results of the present study are important for the identification of the Lithraea species that occur in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In L. molleoides, the crystalliferous layer was shown to originate from the locular epidermis and this developmental aspect enables it to be differentiated from L. brasiliensis and demonstrates that there is variability of endocarp development in Lithraea. PMID:26221992

  13. Epidemiology of Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick) in the southern Brazilian highlands and the description of human and animal retrospective cases of tick parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, José; Marks, Fernanda S; Guimarães, Jorge A; Termignoni, Carlos; Martins, João Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    Ornithodoros brasiliensis, also known as the "mouro" tick, is an argasid tick found exclusively in the southern Brazilian highlands. O. brasiliensis parasitism is frequently associated with severe symptoms directly induced by the tick bite, a condition compatible with the definition of tick toxicosis. The objectives of this work include (i) the determination of the distribution of O. brasiliensis in farms located in the tick-endemic region, (ii) the description of the characteristics of O. brasiliensis habitats, (iii) the analysis of risk factors associated with O. brasiliensis, and (iv) the retrospective description of cases of human and animal parasitism by O. brasiliensis. Of the 30 farms included in this study, O. brasiliensis was identified on 5 farms (frequency 16.7%), in which several ticks found in high density buried in soil were collected. Information regarding the tick habitats and the local population was recorded. The data indicated that O. brasiliensis feeds on humans, dogs, armadillos (Dasypus hybridus), and possibly skunks (Conepatus chinga). The analysis of risk factors indicated that the presence of house basements with an unpaved (natural soil) floor on farms and insufficient sanitary conditions significantly enhanced the probability of identifying O. brasiliensis. Additionally, we describe retrospectively cases of tick parasitism in 28 humans and 11 dogs including the most common symptoms associated with tick toxicosis. This is the first study concerning O. brasiliensis epidemiology, distribution, and habitat, and the report represents the most comprehensive characterization of Ornithodoros bite-associated toxicosis syndrome. PMID:23238249

  14. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by FT-IR spectroscopy and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Castilho, Maiara L.; Campos, Claudia B. L.; Tellez, Claudio; Raniero, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25 °C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37 °C in vitro). Because mycological examination of lesions in patients frequently is unable to show the presence of the fungus and serological tests can misdiagnose the disease with other mycosis, the development of new approach's for molecular identification of P. brasiliensis spurges is needed. This study describes the use of a gold nanoprobe of a known gene sequence of P. brasiliensis as a molecular tool to identify P. brasiliensis by regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated with a colorimetric methods. This approach is suitable for testing in remote areas because it does not require any further step than gene amplification, being safer and cheaper than electrophoresis methods. The proposed test showed a color change of the PCR reaction mixture from red to blue in negative samples, whereas the solution remains red in positive samples. We also performed a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis to characterize and compare the chemical composition between yeast and mycelia forms, which revealed biochemical differences between these two forms. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The most prominent difference between both forms was vibration modes related to 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts and also chitin forms. In this work, we introduce FT-IR as a new method suitable to reveal overall differences that biochemically distinguish each form of P. brasiliensis that could be additionally used to discriminate biochemical differences among a single form under distinct environmental conditions.

  15. Costimulator B7-DC Attenuates Strong Th2 Responses Induced by Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Kenji; Watanabe, Naohiro; Guo, Miao; Tomihara, Kei; Brumlik, Michael J.; Yagita, Hideo; Pardoll, Drew; Chen, Lieping; Shin, Tahiro

    2016-01-01

    The caliber and magnitude of T cell responses are regulated by costimulatory molecules following the engagement of TCRs and MHC molecules. B7-DC has the highest homology with B7-H1 in the B7 family, and both of them bind an immunoregulatory molecule, programmed death 1. Previous studies have demonstrated that B7-DC stimulates T cell proliferation and CTL generation, which sharply contrasts the inhibitory role of B7-H1. Th2 cytokines prompt B7-DC expression, which in turn enhances Th1 responses. In this study, we used an intestinal nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, to induce strong Th2 responses and to evaluate B7-DC function under Th2-polarizing conditions in vivo. By either blocking B7-DC expression during N. brasiliensis infection or by examining N. brasiliensis-infected B7-DC knockout mice, we observed enhanced eosinophilia, the overproduction of serum IgE, and increased Th2 cytokine production along with decreased Th1 cytokine production (particularly IFN-γ production), indicating that B7-DC inhibits Th2 responses. Our results further demonstrate that the inhibition of Th2 responses by B7-DC occurs independently of programmed death 1 but conceivably acts through an as yet unknown alternative receptor that enhances Th1 responses. Although the deficiency of B7-DC expression that enhanced the production of IL-13 paradoxically resulted in better protection against N. brasiliensis infection, our results show that B7-DC plays an important role in bolstering a robust Th1 response that is required for effective antiviral and anticancer immunity, even under a strong Th2-polarizing environment induced by N. brasiliensis infection. PMID:20065112

  16. Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Urán, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

    2011-01-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal anti...

  17. Detection of Melanin-Like Pigments in the Dimorphic Fungal Pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis In Vitro and during Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Beatriz L.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Díez, Soraya; Youngchim, Sirida; Aisen, Philip; Cano, Luz E.; Restrepo, Angela; Casadevall, Arturo; Hamilton, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    Melanins are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including some microbial infections. In this study, we analyzed whether the conidia and the yeasts of the thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and during infection. Growth of P. brasiliensis mycelia on water agar alone produced pigmented conidia, and growth of yeasts in minimal medium with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) produced pigmente...

  18. Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879) (Teleostei: Clupeidae), nome válido aplicado à sardinha-verdadeira no sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    José Lima de Figueiredo; Ana Carolina Ribeiro Salles; Leandro Bonesi Rabelo

    2010-01-01

    A história nomenclatural de Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879) e de seu nome de substituição, Sardinella janeiro (Eigenmann, 1894) é apresentada, sendo confirmada a validade do primeiro por meio da aplicação dos dispositivos do Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica.The nomenclatural history of Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879) and its replacement name Sardinella janeiro (Eigenmann, 1894) is presented, and the validity of the first confirmed through the applicatio...

  19. Macrophage Interaction with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells Modulates Fungal Metabolism and Generates a Response to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alves Parente-Rocha

    Full Text Available Macrophages are key players during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. However, the relative contribution of the fungal response to counteracting macrophage activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the P. brasiliensis proteomic response to macrophage internalization. A total of 308 differentially expressed proteins were detected in P. brasiliensis during infection. The positively regulated proteins included those involved in alternative carbon metabolism, such as enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids catabolism. The down-regulated proteins during P. brasiliensis internalization in macrophages included those related to glycolysis and protein synthesis. Proteins involved in the oxidative stress response in P. brasiliensis yeast cells were also up-regulated during macrophage infection, including superoxide dismutases (SOD, thioredoxins (THX and cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP. Antisense knockdown mutants evaluated the importance of CCP during macrophage infection. The results suggested that CCP is involved in a complex system of protection against oxidative stress and that gene silencing of this component of the antioxidant system diminished the survival of P. brasiliensis in macrophages and in a murine model of infection.

  20. Teste de especificidade hospedeira de Phaedon confinis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, um potencial agente de biocontrole de Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Milléo

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. Less when ingested by cattle and horses, the plant causes seneciosis, a serious poisoning. Due to the great financial losses to cattle ranchers, controlling the plant using insects has become attractive. Systematic survey efforts have revealed that Phaedon confinis Klug causes serious damage to the plant, and may be a great biocontrol agent. The object was to extend the tests of host specificity to 52 plants using 1st larval instar and adult chrysomelid bettles. The insects were submitted to “no-choice” and “multiple-choice” tests. The following results were obtained: “NO-CHOICE” L1 – 52 plants tested: null 90.39%; negligible damage 5.77%; light 1.92%; and normal in only S. brasiliensis 1.92%, where 31.67% of larvae obtained an adult phase. “NO-CHOICE” ADULTS – 46 plants. Null damage was recorded in 82.60%; 13.04% showed negligible damage; 2.17% light; 2.17% normal in S. brasiliensis. The chysomelids oviposited during observation days only on S. brasiliensis leaves. 615 eggs were oviposited with 73.01% viability. “MULTIPLE CHOICE” LARVAE – nine plants tested. 66.67% null; 11.11% weak; 11.11% negligible damage; and 11.11% normal in S. brasiliensis. The results indicate that the normal diet, oviposition, survival and development of P. confinis is restricted to S. brasiliensis and corroborates its potential as a biocontrol agent.

  1. Interação de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis com células endoteliais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J.S. Mendes-Giannini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A paracoccidioidomicose apresenta um amplo espectro de manifestações clínicas e Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, seu agente etiológico, pode atingir vários tecidos com ênfase ao pulmão. A migração de fungos patogênicos através da camada de células endoteliais é considerada pré-requisito para a invasão de múltiplos órgãos e sua disseminação. No presente estudo verificou-se a adesão de P. brasiliensis às células endoteliais in vitro e se esta adesão poderia representar um mecanismo para a disseminação do fungo. Para tanto, além da técnica convencional de microscopia ótica, uma outra metodologia foi desenvolvida, emblocando os cordões umbilicais em parafina, no intuito de detectar o fungo presente no material (in vivo. Experimento de migração de P. brasiliensis através da monocamada de células endoteliais também foi realizado, e nos poços sem células, a migração de células leveduriformes foi maior em menor período de tempo. Os fungos conseguiram passar através da monocamada, quando comparados com o controle sem as células, mas com redução em torno de 30%. Isso mostra que a monocamada foi parcialmente impediente para o fungo, mas que este foi capaz de migrar através dessas células. Em nossos experimentos com estas células, houve grande dificuldade de se encontrar P. brasiliensis aderido ao tapete celular nos períodos de tempo padronizados. Sugere-se com esses resultados que o fungo atravessa as células endoteliais de uma maneira muito rápida, que não pode ser detectada através do cultivo in vitro. Portanto, P. brasiliensis teria capacidade de atravessar rapidamente as células endoteliais e provavelmente alcançar tecidos mais profundos. Palavras-chave: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, células endoteliais, migração.

  2. A common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, is an important ecotope of wild Triatoma brasiliensis populations in the Jaguaribe valley of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Lima, Marli M; Sarquis, Otília; Bezerra, Claudia M; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2014-06-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the Caatinga eco-region of northeastern Brazil. Wild T. brasiliensis populations have been reported only from rocky outcrops. However, this species frequently infests/re-infests houses in rock-free sedimentary lowlands. We therefore hypothesized that it should also occupy other natural ecotopes. We show that a common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, locally known as xiquexique, often harbors T. brasiliensis breeding colonies apparently associated with rodents (n = 44 cacti, infestation rate = 47.7%, 157 bugs captured). Our findings suggest that infested cacti might be involved in house re-infestation by T. brasiliensis in the Caatinga region. PMID:24710611

  3. Infección diseminada crónica con abscesos cerebralesmúltiples por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Chronic disseminated infection with multiple cerebralabscesses caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis es una micosis sistémica, endémica de áreas tropicales y subtropicales de América Central y del Sur, causada por un hongo dimorfo denominado Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. El compromiso del sistema nervioso central es una rara complicación de la forma diseminada crónica de la enfermedad y puede comprometer el cerebro, el cerebelo, el tronco cerebral y la médula espinal. La forma clínica más común de la neuroparacoccidioidomicosis es el granuloma o absceso cerebral y, con menos frecuencia, la meningoencefalitis crónica. Se presenta un paciente con diagnóstico de paracoccidioidomicosis diseminada crónica con múltiples lesiones cerebrales compatibles con abscesos. La biopsia estereotáxica seguida del estudio histopatológico y microbiológico del material obtenido de las lesiones permitió observar las levaduras redondeadas con los brotes característicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic systemic disease in subtropical areas of Central and South America caused by a dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Central nervous system involvement is a rare complication of the chronic disseminated disease that can affect the brain, cerebellum, brainstem and the spinal cord. The most frequent clinical form of neuroparacoccidiodomycosis is the cerebral abscess; with less frequency, the disease presents as a diffuse chronic meningoencephalitis. Here we present a patient with diagnosis of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis and multiple cerebral lesions compatible with abscesses. Stereotactic biopsy followed by the microbiological and histopathological examination of the smears showed the characteristic yeast cells that confirmed the diagnosis of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis.

  4. PCR with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis specific primers: potential use in ecological studies PCR com «primers» específicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: uso potencial em estudos ecológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DÍEZ

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The precise microenvironment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has not yet been discovered perhaps because the methods used are not sensitive enough. We applied to this purpose the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using three sets of specific primers corresponding to two P. brasiliensis genes. This fungus as well as several other fungi, were grown and their DNA obtained by mechanical disruption and a phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol-based purification method. The DNA served for a PCR reaction that employed specific primers from two P. brasiliensis genes that codify for antigenic proteins, namely, the 27 kDa and the 43 kDa. The lowest detection range for the 27 kDa gene was 3 pg. The amplification for both genes was positive only with DNA from P. brasiliensis; additionally, the mRNA for the 27 kDa gene was present only in P. brasiliensis, as indicated by the Northern analysis. The standardization of PCR technology permitted the amplification of P. brasiliensis DNA in artificially contaminated soils and in tissues of armadillos naturally infected with the fungus. These results indicate that PCR technology could play an important role in the search for P. brasiliensis’ habitat and could also be used in other ecological studies.O microambiente adequado do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis não foi ainda bem esclarecido, talvez porque os métodos utilizados não sejam suficientemente sensíveis. Aplicamos com este propósito, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR usando três jogos de primers específicos do P. brasiliensis, correspondendo a dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis. Este fungo, assim como outros fungos, foram cultivados e seus DNAs obtidos por ruptura mecânica e purificados com mistura de fenol-clorofórmio com álcool isoamílico. Os DNAs serviram para a reação de PCR utilizando-se primers específicos para dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis que codificam para as proteínas antigênicas, denominadas, 27 kDa e 43 kDa. O limite mínimo de

  5. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, nova amostra isolada de fezes de um pinguim (Pygoscelis adeliae) Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a new strain isolated from a fecal matter of a penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nilma Maciel Garcia; Gilda Maria Barbaro Del Negro; Elisabeth Maria Heins-Vaccari; Natalina Takahashi de Melo; Cezar Mendes de Assis; Carlos da Silva Lacaz

    1993-01-01

    Os Autores apresentam os resultados obtidos com a amostra "pinguim" de Paracoccidioides, isolada por GEZUELE et al. (1989) na Antártica uruguaia. Das fezes de um desses animais, foi isolado um fungo considerado, recentemente, como nova espécie de Paracoccididoides - P. antarclicus. Os exames micológico e imunoquímico demonstraram tratar-se de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, inclusive com a verificação da presença da glicoproteína 43 kDa pelos métodos de imunodifusão dupla, SDS-PAGE e imunoelet...

  6. Performance and meat quality of broiler chickens that are fed diets supplemented with Agaricus brasiliensis mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2014-12-01

    This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality. PMID:25169695

  7. Phytotoxic potential of Drimys brasiliensis Miers for use in weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoni Anese

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the phytotoxicity potential of leaf and root extracts of Drimys brasiliensis on the germination and seedling growth of Panicum maximum and Euphorbia heterophylla and its influence on metaxylem cell size in the seedling roots of the latter specie. The leaf and root extracts were fractionated by partition chromatography, and the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions obtained from each organ were evaluated at different concentrations for phytotoxic activity in several bioassays. In seedling growth tests, we compared the effects of these fractions with the herbicide oxyfluorfen. The hexane fraction of the root extracts showed a higher inhibitory potential on the germination and growth of weeds and reduced the average size of the metaxylem cells of E. heterophylla roots by more than 50%.The inhibitory effects of the root hexane fraction on seedling growth was similar to the herbicide, indicating that D. brasiliensis is a possible alternative form of control for the weed species examined.

  8. Senecio brasiliensis and pyrrolizidine alkaloids: toxicity to animals and human health

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    Helenice de Souza Spinosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most economic losses in Brazilian livestock production, especially in horses and cattle, are due to poison plants, such as those of the genus Senecio. Senecio brasiliensis Lessing is the main cause of death in cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The toxicity of this genus is attributed to their content of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which undergo liver biotransformation creating toxic metabolites, namely pyrroles. These compounds can be transferred to humans through contaminated animal products or by the use of this plant in folk medicine. Thus, the present article is a review of the species S. brasiliensis, its toxic active principles and the mechanism by which pathogenesis occurs. Other plants with the same toxic principles that are harmful to human health are covered as well.

  9. Omega-3 emulsion of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Hamidah Mohd-Setapar; Lee Nian-Yian; Wan Nuraisha Wan Kamarudin; Zuhaili Idham; Abd-Talib Norfahana

    2013-01-01

    The formulation of omega-3 emulsion using rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) seed oil based on the best performance of the emulsion in terms of higher viscosity, smaller droplet size, lower moisture content and slightly acidic pH value supported by degree of creaming in varying the type and composition of emulsifier used. Rubber seed oil contains significant value of alpha-linolenic acid which plays an important role in maintaining human health. Therefore, formulation of rubber seed oil emulsion is...

  10. Importance of xenarthrans in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Pedrini Silvia CB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several pathogens that cause important zoonotic diseases have been frequently associated with armadillos and other xenarthrans. This mammal group typically has evolved on the South American continent and many of its extant species are seriously threatened with extinction. Natural infection of armadillos with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in hyperendemic areas has provided a valuable opportunity for understanding the role of this mammal in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Findings This study aimed to detect P. brasiliensis in different xenarthran species (Dasypus novemcinctus, Cabassous spp., Euphractus sexcinctus, Tamandua tetradactyla and Myrmecophaga tridactyla, by molecular and mycological approaches, in samples obtained by one of the following strategies: i from road-killed animals (n = 6; ii from naturally dead animals (n = 8; iii from animals that died in captivity (n = 9; and iv from living animals captured from the wild (n = 2. Specific P. brasiliensis DNA was detected in several organs among 7/20 nine-banded armadillos (D. novemcinctus and in 2/2 anteaters (M. tridactyla. The fungus was also cultured in tissue samples from one of two armadillos captured from the wild. Conclusion Members of the Xenarthra Order, especially armadillos, have some characteristics, including a weak cellular immune response and low body temperature, which make them suitable models for studying host-pathogen interaction. P. brasiliensis infection in wild animals, from PCM endemic areas, may be more common than initially postulated and reinforces the use of these animals as sentinels for the pathogen in the environment.

  11. Selection of parent trees for Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) breeding based on RAPD analysis

    OpenAIRE

    KUSWANHADI; MUDJI LASMININGSIH; FETRINA OKTAVIA

    2011-01-01

    Oktavia F, Lasminingsih M, Kuswanhadi. 2011. Selection of parent trees for Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) breeding based on RAPD analysis. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 124-129. The parent trees’ clones usually originate from the previous generation having the potential of high production with better agronomical characters. Although, phenotype characters can determine the genetic variability among accessions, they are highly sensitive to environmental factors, so it is often difficult to identify the ...

  12. Therapeutic Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis on Phenylhydrazine-Induced Neonatal Jaundice in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Zhang; Bo Yuan; HuiPing Wang; Ya Gao

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract (ABE) on phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in rats. Administration of ABE dose-dependently reduced the elevated bilirubin level induced by phenylhydrazine. It can be somewhat supported from the results of in vitro bilirubin degradation experiment. ABE treatment also reduced the total antioxidant status (TAOS), cascade O2 −/SOD, level of NF-κB protein, and adrenomedullin (AM). Overall, the results...

  13. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Liu; Yasushi Fukuwatari; Ko Okumura; Kazuyoshi Takeda; Ken-ichi Ishibashi; Mai Furukawa; Naohito Ohno; Kazu Mori; Ming Gao; Masuro Motoi

    2008-01-01

    We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei). Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Take...

  14. Spawning cycles and habitats for ballyhoo (Hemiramphus brasiliensis) and balao (H. balao) in south Florida

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Richard S.; Styer, Justin R.; Hudson, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Two halfbeak species, ballyhoo (Hemiramphus brasiliensis) and balao (H. balao), are harvested as bait in south Florida waters, and recent changes in fishing effort and regulations prompted this investigation of the overlap of halfbeak fishing grounds and spawning grounds. Halfbeaks were sampled aboard commercial fishing vessels, and during fishery-independent trips, to determine spatial and temporal spawning patterns of both species. Cyclic patterns of gonadosomatic indices (GSIs) indicate...

  15. Phytotoxic potential of Drimys brasiliensis Miers for use in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Simoni Anese; Sonia Cristina Juliano Gualtieri; Patrícia Umeda Grisi; Luciana de Jesus Jatobá; Marcos Arduin

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the phytotoxicity potential of leaf and root extracts of Drimys brasiliensis on the germination and seedling growth of Panicum maximum and Euphorbia heterophylla and its influence on metaxylem cell size in the seedling roots of the latter specie. The leaf and root extracts were fractionated by partition chromatography, and the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions obtained from each organ were evaluated at different concentrations for phytotoxic activity in several bi...

  16. Aid to a Declining Matriarch in the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa C Davenport

    2010-01-01

    Scientists are increasingly revealing the commonalities between the intellectual, emotional and moral capacities of animals and humans. Providing assistance to elderly and ailing family members is a human trait rarely documented for wild animals, other than anecdotal accounts. Here I report observations of multiple forms of assistance to the declining matriarch of a habituated group of giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Manu National Park, Peru. The otter group had been observed annuall...

  17. Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension peroxidase: purification, characterization and application for dye decolorization

    OpenAIRE

    Chanwun, Thitikorn; Muhamad, Nisaporn; Chirapongsatonkul, Nion; Churngchow, Nunta

    2013-01-01

    Peroxidases are oxidoreductase enzymes produced by most organisms. In this study, a peroxidase was purified from Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension by using anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose), affinity chromatography (Con A-agarose) and preparative SDS-PAGE. The obtained enzyme appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass of 70 kDa. Surprisingly, this purified peroxidase also had polyphenol oxidase activity. However, the biochemical characteristics were only studied i...

  18. Presence of Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) in the Río Torno in Northern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ilka Tramm

    2014-01-01

    Listed as endangered by the IUCN Red List the importance of monitoring and assessing viable populations of Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) is at its top. A small area near the river Tapiche in the northeast of Peru was investigated for the occurrence of Giant Otters. Local people supported the project as field assistants. Otters were seen on 13 occasions and 8 individuals could be identified by their individual throat pattern and the locations of dens were marked in a map. This study co...

  19. Radiometric detection of metabolic activity of Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis and its susceptibility to amphotericin B and Diethylstilbestrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiometric assay system has been applied to study the metabolic activity and the effect of drugs (amphotericin B and diethylstilbestrol) on the fungus Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis ''in vitro''. The Y form of the yeast, grown in liquid Sabouraud medium was inoculated into sterile reaction vials containing the 6B aerobic medium along with 2.0μCi of 14C-substrates. (M.A.C.)

  20. Anatomy of the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1817 (Pisces, Characidae, Salmininae

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    Eliane Menin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis, an ichthyophagous species of fresh water, is anatomically adapted to predation. The wide buccal rift, the oral-aboral enlargement of the buccal cavity and the reduced thickness of the pharyngeal mastigatory apparatus favor the capture and deglutition of larger prey. In function of the oral and pharyngeal dentition type, pre-digestive food preparation does not occur. The pointed and curved teeth, together with the tongue which is relatively mobile, prevent the prey’s escape from the buccopharyngeal cavity. The passage of the food is facilitated by the absence of pronounced folds in the mucous membrane of this cavity and by the disposition of the oral and pharyngeal teeth. The characteristics of flat and thin lips, developed oral dentition, relatively mobile tongue, mucous membrane without folds, pharynx with denticules disposed in dentigerous areas and plates, and short and sharp gill-rackers are anatomical adaptations which are shared by S. brasiliensis and other ichthyophagous Characiformes species such as Salminus maxillosus, Salminus hilarii, Hoplias malabaricus, Hoplias lacerdae, Acestrorhynchus lacustris and Acestrorhynchus britskii. However, different to the mentioned species, except other Salmininae, S. brasiliensis possesses oral teeth of an unique type, present only in the jawbones and distributed in two series.

  1. Antioxidant Effects of Medicinal Mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes): Evidence from Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkiv, Borys; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Nataliya O

    2015-01-01

    With diabetes mellitus and increased glucose concentrations, the mitochondria electron transport chain is disrupted, superoxide anions are overproduced, and oxidative stress develops in cells. Thus, preventing oxidative stress can produce a decrease in the antioxidant system activity and an increase in apoptosis in immune cells. The application of medicinal mushrooms is a new possible approach to diabetes mellitus treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the influence of administration of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat leukocytes. Wistar outbred white rats were used in the study. Streptozotocin was intraperitoneally injected once at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Mushroom preparations were orally administered at a dose of 1 g/kg/day for 2 weeks. This revealed that in diabetes mellitus, the level of antioxidant enzyme activity is significantly decreased compared with control values, whereas the levels of lipid peroxidation is increased; this manifested in an increase in the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The medicinal mushrooms' administration is accompanied by an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity to control values and is even higher in the case of A. brasiliensis administration when compared with the diabetic group. As for the indicators of lipid peroxidation under mushroom administration of A. brasiliensis and G. lucidum, we observed a significant decrease of TBARS levels compared with the diabetic group. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduction of TBARS level indicate pronounced antioxidant properties of studied mushrooms. PMID:26756186

  2. Mice immunization with radioattenuated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells: protective immunity induction evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN-MG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br; antero@cdtn.br; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia]. E-mail: brsgarbi@mono.icb.ufmg.br; goes@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2007-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a chronic systemic disease prevalent in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. The potential of gamma radiation for pathogens attenuation and vaccine development was explored in this work. In our laboratory was developed radioattenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis and the aim of this work was to evaluate the protection elicited by the immunization with this cells. To check the protector effect BALB/c mice were divided in two groups. The mice of group 1 were immunized once and those of group 2 twice, at two weeks intervals, using 10{sup 5} radioattenuated yeast cells. The mice were sacrificed 30 and 90 days after challenge. The removed organs were used for colony-forming units (CFUs) recover and histopathologic analysis. The gamma irradiated yeast loses its virulence since fails in producing infection in BALB/c mice. An efficient protection against highly infective forms of P. brasiliensis was developed in the group of mice immunized two times. The immunization was able to reduce the initial infection and elicited a long lasted protection. We concluded that the radioattenuated yeast cells are a valuable tool for the protective immunity study in the PCM and for vaccine research. (author)

  3. ¿Es Paracoccidioides brasiliensis un grupo monofilético?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mcewen

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis es un hongo dimórfico térmico
    causante de la paracoccidioidomicosis, micosis de alta prevalencia en América Latina. Colombia ocupa el segundo lugar en endemicidad, después de Brasil. Su presentación clínica es, usualmente, de carácter crónico y en ausencia de una terapia efectiva la paracoccidioidomicosis progresa y puede ser letal en muchos casos (1. Actualmente el Paracoccidioides se ha considerado un grupo homogéneo y se le ha identificado la especie brasiliensis como única. Sin embargo, varios estudios
    han demostrado variaciones genéticas que han permitido agrupar las cepas de acuerdo con su origen geográfico, pero no se conoce si estas variaciones puedan generar o ser el producto de especies aisladas geográficamente (2. Adicionalmente, se ha mostrado una correlación entre patrones de RAPD de los aislamientos clínicos del hongo y su habilidad para causar enfermedad experimental de diferente severidad (3. Estos hallazgos sugieren que P. brasiliensis podría estar distribuido en diferentes grupos monofiléticos.

     

     

  4. Insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of the xylanolytic yeast Pseudozyma brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupert Neto, Antonio Adalberto; Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Damásio, André Ricardo de Lima; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2016-03-01

    In second-generation (2G) bioethanol production, plant cell-wall polysaccharides are broken down to release fermentable sugars. The enzymes of this process are classified as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and contribute substantially to the cost of biofuel production. A novel basidiomycete yeast species, Pseudozyma brasiliensis, was recently discovered. It produces an endo-β-1,4-xylanase with a higher specific activity than other xylanases. This enzyme is essential for the hydrolysis of biomass-derived xylan and has an important role in 2G bioethanol production. In spite of the P. brasiliensis biotechnological potential, there is no information about how it breaks down polysaccharides. For the first time, we characterized the secretome of P. brasiliensis grown on different carbon sources (xylose, xylan, cellobiose and glucose) and also under starvation conditions. The growth and consumption of each carbohydrate and the activity of the CAZymes of culture supernatants were analyzed. The CAZymes found in its secretomes, validated by enzymatic assays, have the potential to hydrolyze xylan, mannan, cellobiose and other polysaccharides. The data show that this yeast is a potential source of hydrolases, which can be used for biomass saccharification. PMID:26712719

  5. Bark harvesting systems of Drimys brasiliensis Miers in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariot, Alexandre; Mantovani, Adelar; Reis, Maurício S dos

    2014-09-01

    Drimys brasiliensis Miers, locally known as cataia or casca-de-anta, is a native tree species of the Atlantic Rainforest. Its bark is harvested from natural populations. This study examined the recovery capacity of the bark of D. brasiliensis under different bark harvesting methods, as well as the influence of these approaches on its population dynamics and reproductive biology. While none of these treatments resulted in changes in phenological behavior or the rate of increase of diameter at breast height and tree height, the removal of wider bark strips resulted in lower rates of bark recovery and higher rates of insect attack and diseases. Accordingly, the results recommend using strips of bark 2 cm wide and 2 m long, with 4 cm between strips, for effective rates of bark regrowth and for lower susceptibility to insect attack and diseases. From these studies, we concluded that D. brasiliensis has a high potential for sustainable management of its natural populations, demonstrating the possibility of generating an important supplementary income for farmers and contributing to the use and conservation of the Atlantic Rainforest. PMID:25119732

  6. Effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability of FAMEs obtained from hevea brasiliensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Nivetha; D.Vetha; Roy

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel(fatty acid alkyl esters),an alternate to fossil fuel,has the tendency of autoxidation and hence requires antioxidants for long term storage.The influence of synthetic and natural antioxidants on the oxidative stability was analysed for fresh FAMEs(fatty acid methyl esters)obtained from hevea brasiliensis at 140 C.Higher activity was observed for synthetic antioxidants following the order of GA>BHT>DTBP>Q>GT-M>PH-M>GT-C,whereas the oxidative stability of stored FAMEs samples measured at 110 C reveals a nearly inverse trend.Storage stability was tested for the FAMEs obtained from hevea brasiliensis stored at 30 C,after addition of synthetic and natural antioxidants—butylated hydroxytoluene(BHT),2,6-di-tert-butylphenol(DTBP),quercetin(Q),gallic acid(GA),methanol extracts from green tea(GTM),pomegranate hull(PH-M),and chloroform extract of green tea(GT-C).Antioxidant activities above 1500 ppm was in the order of DTBP>BHT>GA>GT-C>GT-M>Q>PH-M.Synthetic antioxidants have been found more efficient to improve the storage stability of FAMEs obtained from hevea brasiliensis.DTBP in particular has the highest protection factor.

  7. Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140

  8. Morphometry, bite-force, and paleobiology of the late miocene caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Aureliano

    Full Text Available Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force. The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts.

  9. Environmental controls in the water use patterns of a tropical cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Cleiton B; Burgess, Stephen S O; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2015-04-01

    Trees from tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) display very dynamic patterns of water use. They are capable of downwards water transport towards the soil during leaf-wetting events, likely a consequence of foliar water uptake (FWU), as well as high rates of night-time transpiration (Enight) during drier nights. These two processes might represent important sources of water losses and gains to the plant, but little is known about the environmental factors controlling these water fluxes. We evaluated how contrasting atmospheric and soil water conditions control diurnal, nocturnal and seasonal dynamics of sap flow in Drimys brasiliensis (Miers), a common Neotropical cloud forest species. We monitored the seasonal variation of soil water content, micrometeorological conditions and sap flow of D. brasiliensis trees in the field during wet and dry seasons. We also conducted a greenhouse experiment exposing D. brasiliensis saplings under contrasting soil water conditions to deuterium-labelled fog water. We found that during the night D. brasiliensis possesses heightened stomatal sensitivity to soil drought and vapour pressure deficit, which reduces night-time water loss. Leaf-wetting events had a strong suppressive effect on tree transpiration (E). Foliar water uptake increased in magnitude with drier soil and during longer leaf-wetting events. The difference between diurnal and nocturnal stomatal behaviour in D. brasiliensis could be attributed to an optimization of carbon gain when leaves are dry, as well as minimization of nocturnal water loss. The leaf-wetting events on the other hand seem important to D. brasiliensis water balance, especially during soil droughts, both by suppressing tree transpiration (E) and as a small additional water supply through FWU. Our results suggest that decreases in leaf-wetting events in TMCF might increase D. brasiliensis water loss and decrease its water gains, which could compromise its ecophysiological performance and survival

  10. Nocardia brasiliensis cell wall lipids modulate macrophage and dendritic responses that favor development of experimental actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Villarreal, J Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C

    2012-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis. PMID:22851755

  11. Lysozyme plays a dual role against the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis A lisozima desempenha um papel duplo contra o fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Lopera

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the role of lysozyme, an antimicrobial peptide belonging to the innate immune system, against the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, co-cultures of the MH-S murine alveolar macrophages cell line with P. brasiliensis conidia were done; assays to evaluate the effect of physiological and inflammatory concentrations of lysozyme directly on the fungus life cycle were also undertaken. We observed that TNF-α-activated macrophages significantly inhibited the conidia to yeast transition (p = 0.0043 and exerted an important fungicidal effect (p = 0.0044, killing 27% more fungal propagules in comparison with controls. Nonetheless, after adding a selective inhibitor of lysozyme, the fungicidal effect was reverted. When P. brasiliensis propagules were exposed directly to different concentrations of lysozyme, a dual effect was observed. Physiologic concentrations of the enzyme facilitated the conidia-to-yeast transition process (p Com a finalidade de determinar o papel da lisozima, um peptídeo antimicrobiano que pertence ao sistema imune inato, contra o fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, foram feitas co-culturas de uma linha de macrófagos alveolares murinos (MH-S com as conídias do fungo na presença ou não do TNF-α e/ou um inibidor da lisozima; também foram feitos ensaios que avaliaram o efeito das concentrações fisiológicas e inflamatórias de lisozima diretamente sobre o ciclo de vida do fungo. Observamos que os macrófagos ativados com a citoquina tiveram um efeito significativo na inibição da transição conídia/levedura (p = 0,0043 e exerceram um efeito fungicida importante (p = 0,0044, matando mais de 27% das propágulas do fungo em comparação com os macrófagos não ativados. No entanto, após ser o inibidor seletivo da lisozima adicionado, o efeito fungicida foi revertido. Quando os propágulos do fungo foram expostos diretamente a diferentes concentrações da lisozima, um duplo efeito

  12. Efficacy of Ciprofloxacin and Moxifloxacin against Nocardia brasiliensis In Vitro and in an Experimental Model of Actinomycetoma in BALB/c Mice▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chacon-Moreno, Brenda Edith; Welsh, Oliverio; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; de la Luz Salazar-Cavazos, Maria; Garza-Lozano, Hector Gerardo; Said-Fernandez, Salvador; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin against Nocardia brasiliensis was evaluated by applying 25 mg of each drug/kg subcutaneously every 8 h in BALB/c mice infected with N. brasiliensis. A statistically significant difference was observed only with moxifloxacin. A moxifloxacin-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination was as active as when each compound was used alone.

  13. Oenothein B inhibits the expression of PbFKS1 transcript and induces morphological changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Glaciane D; Ferri, Pedro H; Santos, Suzana C; Bao, Sônia N; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Maristela

    2007-11-01

    The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America. Drug toxicity and the appearance of resistant strains have created the need to search for new therapeutic approaches. Plants with reputed antimicrobial properties represent a rich screening source of potential antifungal compounds. In this work, the growth of P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated in the presence of oenothein B extracted from Eugenia uniflora. The oenothein B dosage that most effectively inhibited the development (74%) of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in vitro was 500 microg/ml. To verify if oenothein B interferes with cell morphology, we observed oenothein B-treated yeast cells by electron microscopy. The micrographs showed characteristic cell changes noted with glucan synthesis inhibition, including squashing, rough surface, cell wall rupture and cell membrane recess. The expression of P. brasiliensis genes was evaluated in order to investigate the action of oenothein B. Here we report that oenothein B inhibits 1,3-beta-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation. The results indicate that oenothein B interferes with the cell morphology of P. brasiliensis, probably by inhibiting the transcription of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase gene, which is involved in the cell wall synthesis. PMID:18033615

  14. Estudio comparativo de la patogenicidad y la antigenicidad de 6 cepas de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Comparative study of pathogenicity and antigenicity of six Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Finquelievich

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Fueron estudiadas en forma comparativa 6 cepas de P. brasiliensis con el propósito de determinar su patogenicidad para la rata y su antigenicidad. Las mismas fueron aisladas de : 1 biopsia de cuello uterino en 1989 (U, 2 biopsia de mucosa bucal en 1988 (V, 3 aspiración ósea en 1991 (63265, 4 testículo de cobayo 1984(C24, 5 punción-aspiración ganglionaren 1986 (G y 6 cepa proveniente de la Escola Paulista de Medicina (339. Se prepararon antigenos citoplasmáticos liofilizados de cada una de ellas, en la concentración final de 100 mg/ml y se realizaron pruebas de inmunodifusión frente a 6 sueros patrones positivos de ratas. En este ensayo todos los antígenos presentaron dos ó tres bandas de precipitación. Para estudiar el poder patógeno se inocularon, en total, 120 ratas Wistar, de ambos sexos de 200 g de peso, por via intracardíaca con suspensiones de la fase levaduriforme del P. brasiliensis, en concentraciones de 3x10(7 y 5x10(7 células/ml de cada cepa. Los animales que no murieron espontáneamente fueron sacrificados a los 14,28,42, 56 y 70 dias post-infección y se evaluaron los siguientes parámetros: A exámenes macro y microscópicos de pulmones, hígado, bazo y riñones; B cultivos de un pulmón y C prueba de inmunodifusión con antígeno homólogo. Se consideró además, el porcentaje de muertes espontáneas por cada cepa. Los resultados de estos estudios fueron los siguientes:No se observó relación entre la patogenicidad y la antigenicidad. La cepa más virulenta correspondió a un aislamiento reciente a partir de una forma juvenil grave y la más antigénica fue una cepa, morfológicamente atípica, que no provocó lesiones macroscópicas ni microscópicas en los órganos de las ratas.A comparative study of antigenicity and patho-genicity for rats of six Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains was carried out. The antigenic capacity "in vitro" of cytoplasmic extract from each strain was determined by immuno-diffusion test

  15. Acúmulo de massa seca e macronutrientes por plantas de Glycine max e Richardia brasiliensis Accumulation of biomass and macronutrients by Glycine max and Richardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F.F. Pedrinho Júnior

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos, em condições de casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Biologia Aplicada à Agropecuária da FCAV-UNESP de Jaboticabal, objetivando-se determinar o acúmulo de massa seca, assim como a distribuição e o acúmulo de macronutrientes durante os ciclos de vida de plantas de soja cultivar BR16, no período de outubro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, e de Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca, uma planta daninha de elevada importância para esta cultura no Brasil, especialmente em áreas de plantio direto, no período de outubro de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Os estudos foram realizados em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Quatro plantas cresceram em vasos com capacidade de sete litros, preenchidos com areia de rio lavada, peneirada e irrigada diariamente com solução nutritiva. Os tratamentos foram representados pelas épocas de amostragem, realizadas a intervalos de 14 dias, a saber: 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, 134, 148, 162 e 176 dias após a emergência (DAE das plantas de R. brasiliensis; e 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105 e 119 DAE das plantas de soja cv. BR-16 (precoce. Em ambas as plantas, as folhas tiveram a maior partição de biomassa durante sete semanas. Para este dado, a partição foi maior para as estruturas reprodutivas em soja e nos caules para a poaia-branca. O ponto de máximo acúmulo teórico de massa seca deu-se aos 104 DAE para a soja (36,6 g por planta e aos 146 DAE para a poaia-branca (16,4 g por planta. Da emergência até aos 50 DAE as folhas apresentaram maior participação no acúmulo de massa seca, nas duas espécies. Após 50 DAE notou-se, em ambas as espécies, uma inversão na representatividade das folhas por caules, para a espécie daninha, e por caules e posteriormente por estruturas reprodutivas, para a cultura. A taxa de absorção diária dos macronutrientes atingiu maiores valores entre 69 e 87 DAE para a soja e entre 106 a 111 DAE

  16. Feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity of Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Anura: Cycloramphidae from the Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Maia-Carneiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity period of the anuran species Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1864, endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome. The only previous studies on this species focused on the systematics and new altitudinal records. This study was conducted in a large forest remnant located in the municipalities of Guapimirim and Cachoeiras de Macacu. We captured frogs through visual encounter surveys and recorded the frequency of microhabitat types used by them, and the time of capture. Diet was analyzed in terms of number, volume and frequency of occurrence of items. Individuals of C. brasiliensis occurred in association with fast-moving rocky portions of clear freshwater rivers, indicating a rheophilic habit, and were active mainly at night. Such as most anuran species, the diet of Cycloramphus brasiliensis was mainly based on arthropods, and included Blattodea, Formicidae, and Coleoptera as most important prey items.

  17. Antibodies against glycolipids enhance antifungal activity of macrophages and reduce fungal burden after infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Amelia eBueno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic in Latin America. Polyclonal antibodies to acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis opsonized yeast forms in vitro increasing phagocytosis and reduced the fungal burden of infected animals. Antibodies to GSL were active in both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols using a murine intratracheal infection model. Pathological examination of the lungs of animals treated with antibodies to GSL showed well-organized granulomas and minimally damaged parenchyma compared to the untreated control. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by IFN-γ and incubated with antibodies against acidic GSLs more effectively phagocytosed and killed P. brasiliensis yeast cells as well as produced more nitric oxide compared to controls. The present work discloses a novel target of protective antibodies against P. brasiliensis adding to other well-studied mediators of the immune response to this fungus.

  18. Intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) em ovinos no Rio Grande do Sul Spontaneous poisoning in sheep by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia R. S. Ilha; Alexandre P. Loretti; Severo S. Barros; Barros, Claudio S. L.

    2001-01-01

    Descreve-se a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis em ovinos em um estabelecimento do município de Mata, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em meados de janeiro de 1997. De um total de 94 ovinos, 51 (54,25%) animais adoeceram e 50 (53,2%) morreram. Esse rebanho permaneceu durante aproximadamente 7 meses (de junho de 1996 a janeiro de 1997) em piquetes de pastagem nativa onde havia grande quantidade de S. brasiliensis. O quadro clínico manifestado pelos animais a...

  19. Temperature and pH conditions for mycelial growth of Agaricus brasiliensis on axenic cultivation/
    Condições de temperatura e pH para o crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis em cultivo axênico

    OpenAIRE

    Luzia Doretto Paccola-Meirelles; Lis Ribeiro Magalhães de Carvalho; Patrícia Midori Aizono; Nelson Barros Colauto; Giani Andrea Linde

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have been done to determine Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei; A. subrufescens) basic mycelial growth characteristics on axenic cultivation. This study aimed to determine the optimal temperature and initial pH for mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on malt extract agar medium to develop axenic cultivation techniques. Studied initial pH values for mycelial growth were adjusted to 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 5.5, with HCl, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, with NaOH, and again 7.0 and 8.0, with CaCO3....

  20. Genetic variability in four fish species (Pimelodus maculatus, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis and Steindachneridion scripta from Uruguay River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline Sandra Ramella

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of four fish species (Pimelodus maculatus, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis and Steindachneridion scripta collected in the upper Uruguay River basin was analyzed using the RAPD technique. A total of 118 amplified fragments was obtained, 11 for P. maculatus, 29 for P. lineatus, 45 for S. brasiliensis and 33 for S. scripta. Amplified fragments with monomorphic profile were not found in the studied species, except for S. brasiliensis, which presented seven monomorphic bands for Saltinho population. All species showed high levels of genetic variability among individuals.A diversidade da vida se expressa de modo extraordinário nos ecossistemas aquáticos. A bacia do alto rio Uruguai é um exemplo desta condição, onde há registro de mais de 100 espécies de peixes. A compreensão das diferenças genéticas entre as diversas populações nativas é fundamental para a manutenção de seus estoques. A variabilidade genética de quatro espécies de peixes (Pimelodus maculatus, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis e Steindachneridion scripta coletadas na bacia do alto rio Uruguai foi analisada utilizando-se a técnica de RAPD. Obteve-se um total de 118 fragmentos amplificados, sendo 11 para P. maculatus, 29 para P. lineatus, 45 para S. brasiliensis e 33 para S. scripta. Fragmentos de caráter monomórfico não foram encontrados para as espécies estudadas, com exceção de S. brasiliensis de Saltinho que apresentou sete bandas monomórficas para estes indivíduos. As análises estatísticas mostraram altos níveis de variabilidade genética entre os indivíduos das espécies estudadas.

  1. Decomposition of the Rubber Tree Hevea brasiliensis Litter at Two Depths Descomposición del Mantillo del Árbol del Caucho Hevea brasiliensis en Dos Profundidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Claudino Gréggio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of soil litter contributes to maintaining agricultural sustainability, since the nutrients released by microbial activity are determinants of the net productivity of the agroecosystem. The decomposition of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis [Willd. ex A. Juss.] Müll. Arg. leaves located on the surface and buried in at 10 cm depth in Forest and Savannah (Cerradão soils (Oxisols was studied, with emphasis on the production of CO2 and the monthly variation of the remaining amounts of litter mass, soluble substances, cellulose and lignin. To evaluate CO2 production, H. brasiliensis leaves were incubated for 30 days in soils from the 0-2 cm and 10-12 cm layers. CO2 production increased in the 0-2 cm layer in comparison to the 10-12 cm layer. Litter mass and soluble substance loss was of 62 and 72% at the end of nine months of incubation, and of 38 and 65%, respectively, in the first three months, being greater in the deeper (71-74% than in surface layer (48-55%. Forest soil stimulated more litter mass loss and cellulose decomposition (only in the surface layer than Savannah soil. The cellulose (25% content decreased and lignin (30% increased in the initial months of incubation, however, at the end of the period of this study the same content (29% was found.La descomposición del mantillo del suelo contribuye a mantener la sostenibilidad agrícola, puesto que los nutrientes liberados por la actividad microbiana son determinantes para la productividad del ecosistema. La descomposición de hojas del árbol del caucho (Hevea brasiliensis [Willd. ex A. Juss.] Müll. Arg. colocadas en la superficie y enterradas en la profundidad de 10 cm en los suelos de Bosque y Cerradão (Oxisols se estudió con énfasis en la producción de CO2 y la variación mensual de las cantidades remanentes de masa foliar (MF, substancias solubles (SS, celulosa y lignina. Para evaluar la producción de CO2, se incubaron hojas del H. brasiliensis por 30 días en

  2. Chapa aglomerada de cimento-madeira de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. Cement-bonded particleboard of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.

    OpenAIRE

    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino; Mário Rabelo de Souza; Marcos Antonio Eduardo Santana; Maria Eliete de Sousa; Divino Eterno Teixeira

    2004-01-01

    Chapas de partículas de cimento-madeira foram confeccionadas com a madeira de quatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (seringueira): IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 e AVROS 1301. Confeccionaram-se as chapas na proporção de 1:4:1 (madeira:cimento:água) por peso e nas dimensões de 450 x 450 x 13 mm e densidade nominal de 1,4 g/cm³, com a adição de 4% de cloreto de cálcio di-hidratado (CaCl2.2H2O) como acelerador. Foram testadas partículas fervidas e não-fervidas dos quatro clones, totaliza...

  3. No significant transfer of N and P from Pueraria Phaseoloides to Hevea Brasiliensis via Hyphal links of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikram, A.; Jensen, E.S.; Jakobsen, I.

    1994-01-01

    The possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the transfer of nitrogen and phosphorus from Pueraria phaseoloides (donor) to Hevea brasiliensis (receiver) was examined. P. phaseoloides is used as a cover crop in rubber tree (H. brasiliensis) plantations. Roots of donor and receiver plants...... four split applications of N-15 and P-32 from 12 to 15 weeks after planting. After 16 weeks donor shoots were then left intact, shaded or removed and the isotope content of donor and receiver plants measured after a further 4 weeks growth. The recovery of labelled N in receiver plants was small and...

  4. First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan and synanthropic scuttle fly, eclectic in its feeding habits and acts as detritivore, parasite, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. Here we report for the first time M. scalaris infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, the most important Chagas disease vector in semiarid areas of Brazil. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside bugs; pupae were found in the esophagus and intestinal regions of T. brasiliensis through dissection. Other relevant information about this finding is also described in this note, including some preventive measures to avoid laboratory colonies infestations. (author)

  5. First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos E.; Esperanca, Gleidson M.; Morales, Ninive [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept.de Entomologia. Lab. da Colecao Entomologica; Mallet, Jacenir R. dos S.; Goncalves, Teresa C.M. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Transmissores de Leishmanioses. Nucleo de Ultraestrutura; Prado, Angelo P. do [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia

    2007-11-15

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan and synanthropic scuttle fly, eclectic in its feeding habits and acts as detritivore, parasite, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. Here we report for the first time M. scalaris infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, the most important Chagas disease vector in semiarid areas of Brazil. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside bugs; pupae were found in the esophagus and intestinal regions of T. brasiliensis through dissection. Other relevant information about this finding is also described in this note, including some preventive measures to avoid laboratory colonies infestations. (author)

  6. Determinação de parâmetros para controle de qualidade da Richardia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Adda. D.L.; Bustamante, Keila G. L.; Soares, Marília L.; Bara, María Teresa. F.; Maria H. Rezende

    2010-01-01

    Richardia brasiliensis é uma planta utilizada na medicina popular como expectorante, emética, diaforética, vermífuga e no tratamento de hemorróidas. O objetivo desse trabalho foi obter parâmetros de controle de qualidade para a identificação da droga vegetal constituída pelas partes aéreas e pela raiz da R. brasiliensis, dados ainda não descritos na literatura. Os resultados indicaram que a folha é anfiestomática, apresentando estômatos paracíticos e tricomas tectores unicelulares. A nervura ...

  7. ADUBAÇÃO NPK E PRODUÇÃO DE BORRACHA SECA PELA SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis NPK FERTILIZATION AND DRY RUBBER PRODUCTION BY Hevea brasiliensis TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Murbach

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento, na região de Garça, SP, em um solo Latossolo Vermelho escuro, A moderado, textura arenosa, com o objetivo de se avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a produtividade de borracha seca da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis clone "PB 235", com 13 anos de idade. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial fracionário (1/443, totalizando 16 tratamentos e 4 repetições, onde se utilizaram 4 níveis de N (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1, 4 de K2O (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1 e 4 de P2O5 (0, 40, 80, 160 kg ha-1. A produção foi avaliada entre os mêses de outubro de 1995 a junho de 1996. Conclui-se que a adubação potássica aumentou a produtividade de borracha seca, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada.An experiment was carried out to study the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizations on dry rubber yield of Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg., clone PB 235 growing on a Dark Red-Yellow Latosol, in Garça-SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of a (1/443 fractional factorial of randomized block design, with 16 treatments and 4 replicates, utilizing 4 levels of N (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1, 4 of P2O5 (0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 and 4 of K (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1. The rubber yield was evaluated monthly from October 1995 to June 1996. Results showed that potassium fertilization increased dry rubber yield, which was not affected by nitrogen and phosphate fertilizations.

  8. Sinopse das espécies neotropicais do grupo brasiliensis do gênero Apenesia (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae Synopsis of neotropical species of brasiliensis group genus Apenesia (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno S Ramos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritas e ilustradas Apenesia longa sp. nov., A. peccata sp. nov., A. magna sp. nov., A. permaxima sp. nov., A. perconcava sp. nov. e A. recta sp. nov. da região Neotropical. São adicionados dados novos de variações estruturais e distribuição geográfica de A. transversa Evans, 1963, A. spinipes Evans, 1969, A. tlahuicana Evans, 1963, A. triangula Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. megaventris Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. venezuelana Evans, 1963, A. acia Lanes & Azevedo, 2004 e A. ventosa Azevedo & Batista, 2002. Duas sinonímias novas são propostas: A. peruana Evans, 1963 como sinônimo junior de A. brasiliensis (Kieffer, 1910; A. subangulata Azevedo & Batista, 2002 como sinônimo junior de A. fulvicollis (Westwood, 1874, esta ultima considerada dentro ao grupo nitida. É fornecida uma chave de identificação para as espécies do grupo, baseada em machos.Apenesia longa sp. nov., A. peccata sp. nov., A. magna sp. nov., A. permaxima sp. nov., A. perconcava sp. nov., and A. recta sp. nov., from Neotropical region are described and illustrated. Additional material of A. transversa Evans, 1963, A. spinipes Evans, 1969, A. tlahuicana Evans, 1963, A. triangula Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. megaventris Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. venezuelana Evans, 1963, A. acia Lanes & Azevedo, 2004 and A. ventosa Azevedo & Batista, 2002 had their structural variations and known distribution broadened. Two new synonyms are proposed: A. peruana Evans, 1963 as junior synonym of A. brasiliensis (Kieffer, 1910; A. subangulata Azevedo & Batista, 2002 as junior synonym of A. fulvicollis (Westwood, 1874, and the latter considered in the nitida group. An identification key to species of the group based on males is provided.

  9. Assembly and Analysis of Differential Transcriptome Responses of Hevea brasiliensis on Interaction with Microcyclus ulei.

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    Uriel Alonso Hurtado Páez

    Full Text Available Natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis is a tropical tree used commercially for the production of latex, from which 40,000 products are generated. The fungus Microcyclus ulei infects this tree, causing South American leaf blight (SALB disease. This disease causes developmental delays and significant crop losses, thereby decreasing the production of latex. Currently several groups are working on obtaining clones of rubber tree with durable resistance to SALB through the use of extensive molecular biology techniques. In this study, we used a secondary clone that was resistant to M. ulei isolate GCL012. This clone, FX 3864 was obtained by crossing between clones PB 86 and B 38 (H. brasiliensis x H. brasiliensis. RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differential expression of the FX 3864 clone transcriptome at 0 and 48 h post infection (hpi with the M. ulei isolate GCL012. A total of 158,134,220 reads were assembled using the de novo assembly strategy to generate 90,775 contigs with an N50 of 1672. Using a reference-based assembly, 76,278 contigs were generated with an N50 of 1324. We identified 86 differentially expressed genes associated with the defense response of FX 3864 to GCL012. Seven putative genes members of the AP2/ERF ethylene (ET-dependent superfamily were found to be down-regulated. An increase in salicylic acid (SA was associated with the up-regulation of three genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as in the down-regulation of the putative gene CPR5. The defense response of FX 3864 against the GCL012 isolate was associated with the antagonistic SA, ET and jasmonic acid (JA pathways. These responses are characteristic of plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens.

  10. Immunogenic evaluation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells in murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a chronic systemic disease prevalent in Latin American, which is characterized by the formation of granulomatous lesions. To date, there is no effective vaccine to PCM or to any systemic mycosis. In an attempt to induce an efficient response to such agent in an animal model, gamma radiation attenuated P. brasiliensis yeast cells (LevRad) were developed at the Radiobiology Laboratory from CDTN/CNEN. A gamma radiation dose was defined in which the pathogen loses its ability to multiply, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and antigenic profile. The prophylactic potential of LevRad was assessed after its intravenous administration in male Balb/C mice, challenged 45 days after immunization with intratracheal administration of 3x105 cells of a highly virulent non-radiated P.brasiliensis isolate. At 30 and 90 days post challenge (dpc), lungs, spleen and liver were collected to analyse CFU (colony forming units) recovery, histology, cell proliferation, cytokine (IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta) and iNOS production. The sera were used to evaluate the immunization efficacy, and to assess IgG isotypes (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3) and total IgG levels. The present data show that there was no significant decrease in the CFU counts of the lungs of immunized animals 30 dpc. Nevertheless, no CFU or histopathological alterations were visualized at the organs of immunized animals at 90 dpc. During the same period, IgG2a, IgG2b, IFN-alpha and iNOS levels raised while IL-10, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta and IL-4 maintained low levels, suggesting the prevalence of Th1 response profile. Our results confirmed the protective (author)

  11. Simulating population genetics of pathogen vectors in changing landscapes: guidelines and application with Triatoma brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Rebaudo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that influence the population dynamics and spatial genetic structure of the vectors of pathogens infecting humans is a central issue in tropical epidemiology. In view of the rapid changes in the features of landscape pathogen vectors live in, this issue requires new methods that consider both natural and human systems and their interactions. In this context, individual-based model (IBM simulations represent powerful yet poorly developed approaches to explore the response of pathogen vectors in heterogeneous social-ecological systems, especially when field experiments cannot be performed.We first present guidelines for the use of a spatially explicit IBM, to simulate population genetics of pathogen vectors in changing landscapes. We then applied our model with Triatoma brasiliensis, originally restricted to sylvatic habitats and now found in peridomestic and domestic habitats, posing as the most important Trypanosoma cruzi vector in Northeastern Brazil. We focused on the effects of vector migration rate, maximum dispersal distance and attraction by domestic habitat on T. brasiliensis population dynamics and spatial genetic structure. Optimized for T. brasiliensis using field data pairwise fixation index (FST from microsatellite loci, our simulations confirmed the importance of these three variables to understand vector genetic structure at the landscape level. We then ran prospective scenarios accounting for land-use change (deforestation and urbanization, which revealed that human-induced land-use change favored higher genetic diversity among sampling points.Our work shows that mechanistic models may be useful tools to link observed patterns with processes involved in the population genetics of tropical pathogen vectors in heterogeneous social-ecological landscapes. Our hope is that our study may provide a testable and applicable modeling framework to a broad community of epidemiologists for formulating scenarios of

  12. A conserved dimorphism-regulating histidine kinase controls the dimorphic switching in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Alison F A; Navarro, Marina V; Castilho, Daniele G; Calado, Juliana C P; Conceição, Palloma M; Batista, Wagner L

    2016-08-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii, thermally dimorphic fungi, are the causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Paracoccidioides infection occurs when conidia or mycelium fragments are inhaled by the host, which causes the Paracoccidioides cells to transition to the yeast form. The development of disease requires conidia inside the host alveoli to differentiate into yeast cells in a temperature-dependent manner. We describe the presence of a two-component signal transduction system in P. brasiliensis, which we investigated by expression analysis of a hypothetical protein gene (PADG_07579) that showed high similarity with the dimorphism-regulating histidine kinase (DRK1) gene of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum This gene was sensitive to environmental redox changes, which was demonstrated by a dose-dependent decrease in transcript levels after peroxide stimulation and a subtler decrease in transcript levels after NO stimulation. Furthermore, the higher PbDRK1 levels after treatment with increasing NaCl concentrations suggest that this histidine kinase can play a role as osmosensing. In the mycelium-yeast (M→Y) transition, PbDRK1 mRNA expression increased 14-fold after 24 h incubation at 37°C, consistent with similar observations in other virulent fungi. These results demonstrate that the PbDRK1 gene is differentially expressed during the dimorphic M→Y transition. Finally, when P. brasiliensis mycelium cells were exposed to a histidine kinase inhibitor and incubated at 37°C, there was a delay in the dimorphic M→Y transition, suggesting that histidine kinases could be targets of interest for PCM therapy. PMID:27268997

  13. Anotaciones sobre Neonatología de nutrias neotropicales (Pteronura brasiliensis y Lontra longicaudis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Poches-Franco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La información aquí suministrada está basada en la experiencia y comunicaciones personales (Armando Rubio, México, la Fundación Zoológica Colombiana y Fundación Omacha en Colombia en la cría y levante artificial de 3 casos de nutria gigante (Pteronura brasiliensis y 2 casos de nutria común (Lontra longicaudis, así como documentación disponible en zoológicos y centros de reproducción de mustélidos a nivel mundial...

  14. Production and characterization of exopolysaccharide from submerged fermentation by Agaricus Brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Gern, Juliana Carine

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: Agaricus brasilienses (=Agaricus blazei Murril) é um basidiomiceto comestível conhecido mundialmente por suas propriedades medicinais. Estudos mostram que a principal atividade atribuída a este cogumelo, a atividade antitumoral, está relacionada a seus polissacarídeos estruturais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo aumentar o conhecimento sobre a produção e a estrutura do exopolissacarídeo (EPS) de Agaricus brasiliensis LPB 03 por fermentação submersa. Primeiramente, estudou-se o efeito...

  15. Degradation of Acid Cyanide Poison in Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis) after Treatment with Rice Husk Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Fortuna; Abdul Rahimsyah; Yuniwati Puspitasri

    2015-01-01

    Rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis) contains protein (17.41 %) and non-essential amino acid cysteine (0.78 %) and acid cyanide poison (186.00 mg/kg). The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of rice husk ash on degradation of acid cyanide in rubber seed. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) using treatment of rice husk ash concentration with 5 levels of treatments (45; 60; 75; 90; 105 %) and 4 replications. The result showed nonsignificant differences (p>0.05)...

  16. Propagation and molecular characterisation of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was aimed at the propagation and molecular characterisation of some introduced clones of Hevea brasiliensis in Ghana. Propagation of H. brasiliensis by stem cuttings and in vitro techniques was used to study alternative procedures for mass production of rubber planting materials. Brown and green stem cuttings of Clone I and Clone II were soaked for 6 hours in 0.0-22.5g/L NAA followed by propagation in a nursery bag filled with nutrient-rich soil. Only the brown stem cuttings of H. brasiliensis survived. The % survival, length of shoots, number of roots as well as length of roots of Clone II was significantly (P<0.05) higher than Clone I. Stem cuttings treated with 15.0g/L NAA significantly (P<0.05) developed higher shoots (83.33%), number of roots (6.167), length of shoots (15.38cm) and length of roots (6.00cm) than the remaining treatments. There was significant (P<0.05) effects of NAA and Clone II in sprouting and rooting growth of the brown stem cuttings. The addition of 5.0mg/L kinetin in the MS culture medium significantly (P<0.05) enhanced higher shoot development (84.00%), number of shoots (3.60) and leaves (23.40) of the shoot-tip explants compared to other treatments. In nodal explants cultured on a medium without kinetin developed higher shoots (94.00%), height of shoot (4.80cm), number of leaves (19.20), number of shoots (6.00) and number of roots (7.00) than those with kinetin treatments. However, 7.5mg/L kinetin of the nodal culture also performed significantly after the controls. A dendrogram derived from the UPGMA distinguished the rubber clones from four areas of Ghana into two clusters. The five SSR markers showed high degree of relatedness among the rubber clones which suggested high genetic similarity (IRCA317-5, IRCA41-2, IRCA331-6, IRCA230-4, IRCA109-3, B8-23) and some degree of diversity/variation (K2-18,IRCA840-7, PB217-8, PB217-10, IRCA317-16) among the clones. Thus, clones of interest could be selected for future breeding and

  17. O papagaio-de-cara-roxa (Amazona brasiliensis) na Ilha Rasa, PR

    OpenAIRE

    Sipinski, Elenise Angelotti Bastos

    2013-01-01

    Visando conhecer as relações entre o ambiente da ·ilha Rasa e a população de papagaio-de-cara-roxa (Amazona brasiliensis) foram estudados alguns aspectos reprodutivos, a qualidade ambiental, a disponibilidade alimentar e o tamanho da população. Para tanto, monitorou-se a atividade reprodutiva dos ninhos localizados na ilha Rasa; verificou-se o grau de alteração da estrutura florestal mais utilizada na nidificação; verificou-se a sazonalidade das espécies vegetais utilizadas na dieta alimentar...

  18. Bacteriocinogenic effect of Lactobacillus sakei 2a on microbiological quality of fermented Sardinella brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain and, in this work, it's effects as a starter culture in the fermentation process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) fillets were observed at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4 and 6%) and glucose (2 and 4%), to determine it's ability to produce organic acids and consequent pH reduction. Experiments were carried out independently, with only one parameter (NaCl or glucose) varying at a time. After 21 days of fermentation the deterior...

  19. Effect of medroxyprogesteroneacetate (Depoprovera) on immune elimination of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis from the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medroxyprogesteroneacetate (Depoprovera), when administered to male rats infected with N. brasiliensis, interferes with the normal immunological expulsion of the parasite. Unlike cortisone and prolactin, however, it appears to act specifically on the expulsion of the worms and does not suppress the immunological damage to the worms which precedes expulsion. It seems possible that this action of Depoprovera is due to its properties as a smooth muscle relaxant. Recent studies have shown that infection with Nippostrongylus is associated with a dramatic increase in the maximum contractile responses of intestinal smooth muscle to both electrical stimulation and drugs, which reaches a peak around day 14 of the infection. (author)

  20. Anotaciones sobre Neonatología de nutrias neotropicales (Pteronura brasiliensis y Lontra longicaudis)

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Poches-Franco

    2009-01-01

    La información aquí suministrada está basada en la experiencia y comunicaciones personales (Armando Rubio, México, la Fundación Zoológica Colombiana y Fundación Omacha en Colombia) en la cría y levante artificial de 3 casos de nutria gigante (Pteronura brasiliensis) y 2 casos de nutria común (Lontra longicaudis), así como documentación disponible en zoológicos y centros de reproducción de mustélidos a nivel mundial...

  1. Presence of Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis in the Río Torno in Northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Tramm

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Listed as endangered by the IUCN Red List the importance of monitoring and assessing viable populations of Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis is at its top. A small area near the river Tapiche in the northeast of Peru was investigated for the occurrence of Giant Otters. Local people supported the project as field assistants. Otters were seen on 13 occasions and 8 individuals could be identified by their individual throat pattern and the locations of dens were marked in a map. This study confirms the occurrence of giant otters in the Torno area and highlights the importance of conservation efforts in this area.

  2. Natural Deaths Of Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis In Balbina Hydroelectric Lake, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Rosas F.C.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1987 the Brazilian Northern Electric Company (ELETRONORTE finished damming the Uatumã River that formed the 3,246 km2 lake (containing 3,299 islands of the Balbina hydroelectric power station. In 2001, through a project entitled "Social organization, behavior and diet of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis in the influenced area of Balbina hydroelectric power station, Amazonas, Brazil", the authors started to study giant otters in the reservoir (de MATTOS et al., 2002; ZUANON et al., 2002. Despite being an enormous area, we managed to record two dead otters in the lake.

  3. Notes on the reproductive biology of the Brazilian electric ray Narcine brasiliensis (Elasmobranchii: Narcinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, F A; Rotundo, M M; Vaske-Júnior, T

    2016-07-01

    This study provides information on the reproductive biology of Narcine brasiliensis based on 105 individuals (72 females and 33 males) sampled in São Paulo State, Brazil. The total length at maturity for females was 318·9 mm and for males was 279·8 mm; pregnant females were observed only during summer and autumn. The peak of the gonado-somatic index for females and condition factor for males in the spring suggest a preparation for pregnancy and a mating period during this season. The capture of immature individuals indicates a need for management of the species in this region. PMID:26377171

  4. Activation of the alternative complement pathway in canine normal serum by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Ativação da via alternativa do complemento em soro de cão normal por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.C. Bianchini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human granulomatous disease. Recently the first case of natural disease in dogs was reported. The complement system is an important effector component of humoral immunity against infectious agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the dog alternative complement pathway by P. brasiliensis. Initially, the ability of erythrocytes of guinea pig, rabbit, sheep, chicken and swine to activate the dog alternative pathway was evaluated. The guinea pig erythrocytes showed the greatest capacity to activate dog alternative pathway. The alternative (AH50 hemolytic activity was evaluated in 27 serum samples from healthy dogs and the mean values were 87.2 AH50/ml. No significant differences were observed in relation to sex and age. The alternative pathway activation by P. brasiliensis was higher in serum samples from adult dogs when compared to puppies and aged dogs (p O fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis é o agente etiológico da paracoccidioidomicose, uma doença granulomatosa humana. Recentemente, foi relatado o primeiro caso da doença natural em cães. O sistema complemento é um importante componente efetor da imunidade humoral contra agentes infecciosos. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ativação da via alternativa do complemento canina pelo P. brasiliensis. Inicialmente, foi avaliada a capacidade de eritrócitos de cobaia, coelho, carneiro, galinha e suíno ativarem a via alternativa do complemento canino. Os eritrócitos de cobaia apresentaram maior capacidade de ativar a via alternative do complemento canino. A atividade hemolítica da via alternativa (AH50 foi avaliada em 27 amostras de soro de cães saldáveis e os valores médios observados foram de 87,2 AH50/ml. Não foi observada diferença significativa ao sexo e idade. A ativação da via alternativa pelo P. brasiliensis foi

  5. [Coupling effects of water and chemical fertilizers on Hevea brasiliensis latex yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yuan-Gang; Chen, Qiu-Bo; Lin, Zhao-Mu; Luo, Wei

    2008-06-01

    Water and nutrient are the two main factors limiting Hevea brasiliensis growth and its latex yield. With 17 year-old Clone SCATC 7-33-97 H. brasiliensis as test material, the coupling effects of water and chemical N, P and K fertilizers on latex yield were studied by general orthogonal rotation design of quadratic regression with four factors and five levels under field condition, and a regressive mathematical model was set up based on the latex yield by quadratic regression analysis. The results showed that all test coupling levels of water and chemical fertilizers had significant effects on the latex yield. The yield-increasing effect of test factors was in the order of N application rate > irrigation amount > P application rate > K application rate, while the coupling effect of water and chemical fertilizers was in the sequence of water and N > N and P > water and P > water and K. There was a negative coupling effect of K application rate and soil moisture content. For latex yield, the optimum application rates of chemical fertilizers were 476.39 kg x hm(-2) of urea, 187.70 kg x hm(-2) of superphosphate and 225.77 kg x hm(-2) of potassium chloride, and the optimum irrigation amount was to have 82.78% soil relative water content. PMID:18808010

  6. Desarrollo de un sistema de transformación genética en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Corredor

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La transformación genética es una alternativa para el conocimiento de genes involucrados en la patogenicidad de los hongos. A la fecha se han transformado algunos hongos utilizando técnicas como luz ultravioleta para obtener mutantes auxotróficas. Así mismo, se ha empleado la transformación basada en la introducción de plásmidos que confieren resistencia a antibióticos bien sea por medio de electroporación o imitando un evento que se presenta naturalmente entre plantas y el bacilo gram negativo Agrobacterium tumefaciens y que consiste en la transferencia del T-DNA del plásmido Ti bacteriano a la célula vegetal, con la consecuente aparición de un tumor en el tallo de
    la planta. Este mecanismo se ha reproducido con éxito en hongos
    filamentosos y en levaduras. En el caso de Paraco ccidioides brasiliensis aún no se dispone de un modelo de transformación. Considerando esta carencia y la necesidad de conocer los genes involucrados en la patogenicidad de este microorganismo, pretendemos desarrollar un sistema de transformación genética para P. brasiliensis utilizando A. tumefaciens.

     

     

  7. Estudio sobre las relaciones filogenéticas entre diversos aislamientos del hongo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan McEwen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque es poco lo que se conoce acerca de la biología evolutiva
    del hongo P. brasiliensis, varios estudios moleculares han demostrado que existen variaciones en secuencias de ADN entre sus aislamientos, las que se correlacionan con el origen geográfico de las mismas y con diferencias en su virulencia para modelos murinos (1,2. Se desconoce si estas variaciones son el resultado final de un proceso de especiación alopátrica que daría origen a especies aisladas genéticamente provistas de características fenotípicas (patogenicidad, inmunogenicidad y genotípicas diferentes, las que podrían ser usadas como una alternativa para mejorar e innovar los métodos actuales de diagnóstico. Por lo tanto, proponemos como objetivo general estudiar un aspecto fundamental de la biología evolutiva del hongo patógeno humano P. brasiliensis como es la especiación.

  8. Reproductive phenology and pollination biology of Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the phenology and biology of the pollination of C. brasiliensis in an area of its natural occurrence (Pocinhos – PB. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit appeared. Visitors to flowers were observed throughout the experiment, and the frequency, time and behavior of their visits was registered. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrated a pattern of annual flowering which was continuous, of long duration, with periods of greater flowering activity in the dry season. The inflorescence is of the paniculatum type, with flowers whose attributes are related to the syndrome of melittophily. Anthesis occurs during the day, beginning at 05h00. Nectar is produced from the phase of pre-anthesis, with a concentration of sugars around 44-60%. Visits by bees (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta and X. sp., Apis mellifera and Centris similis and birds (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura and Coereba flaveola were observed. Xylocopa frontalis acted as an effective pollinator.

  9. Utilização do picro-sirius para corar o Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito de Oliveira Almeida

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A solução do picro-sirius foi usada para corar o Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em tecidos humanos fixados em formol. À luz comum, o fungo mostra uma faixa periférica avermelhada e, à luz polarizada, apresenta um ou mais anéis birrefringentes esverdeados. A imersão prévia em solução de hidróxido de sódio a 1%, por alguns minutos, melhora a coloração, sendo o fungo visualizado com mais nitidez à luz polarizada. Por outro lado, a diferenciação dos cortes corados, com picro-sirius em hidróxido de sódio a 0,5%, elimina a birrefringência do colágeno mais rapidamente que a do Paracoccidioides.Picrosirius stain was used for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in formalin-fixed human tissue. By common light microscopy the fungus shows a red peripheral band and on polarization microscopy, one or more birefringent green rings. Previous immersion in 1% sodium hidroxide solution enhances the staining and the birefringency of parasitic cells. The differentiation of the stained sections with 0,5% sodium hydroxide eliminates the birefringency of the collagen more rapidly than that of the paraeoccidioides.

  10. Efeitos de subdoses de glyphosate em plantas jovens de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Aubl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Caroline Magalhães Farias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos fitotóxicos de subdoses de glyphosate em plantas jovens de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Aubl.. Um ano após o plantio das mudas, foram testadas três subdosagens de glyphosate, sendo: T1 86,4; T2 172,8 e T3 345,6 g e.a ha-1, e T4 testemunha sem aplicação. Aos 7, 14, 21, 28 e 180 dias após a aplicação (DAA do herbicida foram atribuídas notas para fitotoxicidade visual, sendo que na última avaliação foram feitas as medições do incremento em altura e diâmetro do tronco das plantas. A subdosagem de glyphosate em H. brasiliensis causou danos na dosagem de 345,6 g i.a ha-1, reduzindo o desenvolvimento das plantas em altura e diâmetro, no entanto, houve recuperação no crescimento dessas plantas, observado aos 180 dias após a aplicação do herbicida.

  11. Antioxidative and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Jakovljevic, D.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Partially purified polysaccharides were obtained from four medicinal mushroom species, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Phellinus linteus and Ganoderma lucidum by hot water extraction, followed by ethanol precipitation. The four samples contained varying amounts of both a- and ß-glucans as

  12. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata Pers under light and temperature levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

    2011-12-01

    This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species. PMID:22146966

  13. Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) ( = CBS 13268(T) = UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24682702

  14. Report on the Rehabilitation and Release of Two Giant River Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis Pups in the Bita River (Vichada, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbuena R.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Two Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis cubs were rehabilitated and released successfully and adopted into wild otter groups. The protocol used is presented. For a successful rehabilitation and release program, it is necessary to understand the basic ecology and behaviour of the species, as well as to have the appropriate facilities, feeding protocols, and adequate veterinary services available.

  15. Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae poisoning in Murrah buffaloes in Rio Grande do Sul Intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em bubalinos no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André M.R. Corrêa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen (14.4% out of 90 Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis became ill after con-sumption of Senecio brasiliensis, and 11 (12.2% of them died. The buffaloes were kept in a highly Senecio brasiliensis infested area. The poisoning occurred in June-August 2006 on a farm in the county of Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Clinical signs included weakness, apathy, progressive weight loss, permanent decubitus, and diarrhea. Necropsy was performed in 2 of the 11 buffaloes that died. The pathological findings were typical of poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids. High infestation of pastures with S. brasiliensis, severe drought, and consequent starvation were the main epidemiological factors associated with the poisoning here described.Descreve-se a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis em búfalos Murrah (Bubalus bubalis em uma propriedade localizada no município de Nova Prata, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no período de junho a agosto de 2006. De um total de 90 búfalos, 13 adoeceram e 11 morreram. Os animais eram mantidos em áreas de pastoreio altamente infestadas por S. brasiliensis. Os principais sinais clínicos relatados foram letargia, apatia, emagrecimento progressivo, diarréia e decúbito permanente. Necropsia foi feita em dois dos 11 animais mortos. As lesões foram características de intoxicações por alcalóides pirrolizidínicos. A grande quantidade da planta, forte estiagem e desnutrição conseqüente foram os principais achados epidemiológicos associados com a mortalidade.

  16. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira de; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-11-01

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous. PMID:25410992

  17. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mendonça Bezerra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53, while in pigs it was 6% (2/34. The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112 and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112. Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749 were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369. In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.

  18. Low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide or nitrite induced of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cell proliferation in a Ras-dependent manner.

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    Ana Eliza Coronel Janu Haniu

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, should be able to adapt to dramatic environmental changes inside the infected host after inhalation of air-borne conidia and transition to pathogenic yeasts. Proteins with antioxidant functions may protect fungal cells against reactive oxygen (ROS and nitrogen (RNS species generated by phagocytic cells, thus acting as potential virulence factors. Ras GTPases are involved in stress responses, cell morphology, and differentiation in a range of organisms. Ras, in its activated form, interacts with effector proteins and can initiate a kinase cascade. In lower eukaryotes, Byr2 kinase represents a Ras target. The present study investigated the role of Ras in P. brasiliensis after in vitro stimulus with ROS or RNS. We have demonstrated that low concentrations of H2O2 (0.1 mM or NO2 (0.1-0.25 µM stimulated P. brasiliensis yeast cell proliferation and that was not observed when yeast cells were pre-incubated with farnesyltransferase inhibitor. We constructed an expression plasmid containing the Byr2 Ras-binding domain (RBD fused with GST (RBD-Byr2-GST to detect the Ras active form. After stimulation with low concentrations of H2O2 or NO2, the Ras active form was observed in fungal extracts. Besides, NO2 induced a rapid increase in S-nitrosylated Ras levels. This alternative posttranslational modification of Ras, probably in residue Cys123, would lead to an exchange of GDP for GTP and consequent GTPase activation in P. brasiliensis. In conclusion, low concentrations of H2O2 or NO2 stimulated P. brasiliensis proliferation through Ras activation.

  19. Toxicological profile of deltamethrin in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil

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    Grasielle Caldas D'Ávila Pessoa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triatoma brasiliensis is the species of greatest epidemiological relevance in the semi-arid region of Brazil. This species is predominantly found in domestic environments, and it has the ability to build large colonies with high levels of natural infection via Trypanosoma cruzi. Thus, T. brasiliensis is one of the most efficient transmitters of Chagas disease (CD to humans. Despite household spraying with residual insecticides, many areas report persistent reinfestations for reasons that remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the toxicological profile of deltamethrin in T. brasiliensis from areas with persistent reinfestation in State of Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage (SRL was derived from Umari. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (0.851 nanograms of active ingredient per treated nymph of the SRL. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. brasiliensis populations revealed 50% resistance ratios (RR50 that ranged from 0.32 to 1.21. The percentage of mortality in response to the diagnostic dose was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that T. brasiliensis was highly susceptible to deltamethrin. The control difficulties found might be related to the recolonization of the triatomines originating from neighboring environments and the possible operational failures related to the process of spraying that enabled specimens less susceptible to deltamethrin to survive.

  20. Morphological Studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Genital Structures and Eggs of Different Chromatic Forms

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    Jane Costa

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is considered one of the most important Chagas disease vectors being a widespread species in semiarid areas of northeastern Brazil. The species displays distinct chromatic patterns of the cuticle in different localities. Four populations were analyzed in this study: 1-Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte, it will be called the brasiliensis population; 2-Espinosa, Minas Gerais, the melanica population; 3-Petrolina, Pernambuco, the macromelasoma population, and 4-Juazeiro, Bahia, the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the Juazeiro population. In order to differentiate the four populations of T. brasiliensis, a comparative morphological analysis of external genital structures and of eggs were carried out. The analysis of the male genital structures evidenced minor individual structural variations that did not correlate with chromatic differences or the geographical origins, emphasizing the importance of examining sufficiently large and representative samples before using minor genital variations for taxonomic diagnosis. By scanning electron microscopy of the egg exochorion, each chromatic population presented a distinct ornamentation pattern. The melanica population differed mainly from the other populations studied since it had about 40.6%, 69.6% and 76.6% more perforations, on each cell exochorion, than the brasiliensis, the Juazeiro and the macromelasoma populations respectively. In the melanica population the perforation layout is also peculiar, with densely distributed perforations over all the egg surface. Morphometric measures of the eggs showed statistically significant differences: the macromelasoma population presented the longest length (2.43 mm while the shortest was recorded in the brasiliensis population (2.29 mm.

  1. Chapa aglomerada de cimento-madeira de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. Cement-bonded particleboard of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.

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    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chapas de partículas de cimento-madeira foram confeccionadas com a madeira de quatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (seringueira: IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 e AVROS 1301. Confeccionaram-se as chapas na proporção de 1:4:1 (madeira:cimento:água por peso e nas dimensões de 450 x 450 x 13 mm e densidade nominal de 1,4 g/cm³, com a adição de 4% de cloreto de cálcio di-hidratado (CaCl2.2H2O como acelerador. Foram testadas partículas fervidas e não-fervidas dos quatro clones, totalizando oito tratamentos, sendo em cada um destes, com quatro repetições, avaliadas as propriedades mecânicas e físicas das chapas, segundo a norma ASTM D 1037 - 96a. De forma geral, os melhores resultados de propriedades físicas e mecânicas foram obtidos nas chapas com partículas do clone AVROS 1301. No teste de hidratação do cimento, a madeira de seringueira in natura foi classificada como de "inibição extrema", porém com a adição de CaCl2 o foi como de "baixa inibição". Essa madeira se mostrou tecnicamente viável à produção de chapas de cimento-madeira, independentemente do clone.Cement-bonded particleboards of rubberwood were manufactured with four clones of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (rubberwood: IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 and AVROS 1301. Boards of 450 x 450 x 13 mm were manufactured in a ratio of 1:4:1 (wood/cement/water, weight basis, with 1.4 g/cm³ density and 4% calcium chloride dihydrated - CaCl2.2H2O as accelerator. The particles of four clones were tested in treated and untreated conditions, totaling eight treatments. In each treatment with four replicates, the physical and mechanical properties were evaluated according to ASTM D 1037 - 96a standard. Overall, the best mechanical and physical results were obtained with the cement-bonded particleboard made with particles from clone AVROS 1301. Rubberwood has shown to be "highly inhibitory" in the hydration test, however when CaCl2 was added the inhibition index decreased and

  2. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt. PMID:24881564

  3. Detection of the basement membrane-degrading proteolytic activity of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis after SDS-PAGE using agarose overlays containing Abz-MKALTLQ-EDDnp

    OpenAIRE

    Puccia, R; M. A. Juliano; L. Juliano; Travassos, L R; Carmona, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    We have characterized, in the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast phase, an exocellular SH-dependent serine proteinase activity against Abz-MKRLTL-EDDnp and analogous fluorescent-quenched peptides, and showed that it is also active against constituents of the basement membrane in vitro. In the present study, we separated the components of P. brasiliensis culture filtrates by electrophoresis and demonstrated that the serine-thiol exocellular proteinase has a diffuse and heterogeneous migration...

  4. Genome-wide identification of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) aquaporin genes and their response to ethephon stimulation in the laticifer, a rubber-producing tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Zhi; Gong, Jun; An, Feng; Xie, Guishui; Wang, Jikun; Mo, Yeyong; Yang, Lifu

    2015-01-01

    Background Natural rubber, an important industrial raw material, is specifically synthesized in laticifers located inside the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) trunk. Due to the absence of plasmodesmata, the laticifer water balance is mediated by aquaporins (AQPs). However, to date, the characterization of H. brasiliensis AQPs (HbAQPs) is still in its infancy. Results In this study, 51 full-length AQP genes were identified from the rubber tree genome. The phylogenetic analysis assi...

  5. Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation

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    Nelson Barros Colauto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis.Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However

  6. Distribution and Population Status of the Giant Otter Pteronura brasiliensis in Bolivia

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    Damme P. van

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis is one of the most endangered mammal species in the Neotropical region. In Bolivia, it has been reduced to very low population numbers as a result of poaching in the 40s and 70s. Recently, 14 researchers on the giant otter, who together estimated that around 350 individuals exist in Bolivia, published a preliminary distribution map. In this report, we briefly present the most recent information on the distribution and population status of this species in the Bolivian Del Plata and Amazon river basins. Moreover, we comment on the superposition of giant otter family groups, hydro-ecoregions, and National Parks. Finally, we present a short discussion on the possibilities of interchange between Bolivian giant otter subpopulations.

  7. Report of an Adaptive Reintroduction of a Juvenile Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis

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    Diana Morales-Betancourt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive programs based on soft release and individual behavior changes may increase the survival rate of reintroduced giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis. Key components of the program include the development of temporary enclosures and refuges, implementation of a responsive feeding program, an environmental adaptation program, as well as the use of a registered vocal repertoire and behavior information. This study was conducted by the Omacha Foundation, from March to June in 2008 in the Colombian Orinoco Ecorregion. The entire process occurred over 74 days, with 54 spent evaluating the animal, and the following 20 days spent implementing an intensive adaptive reintroduction program. The juvenile otter was successfully reintroduced, as evidenced by its repeated sighting after 17 months.

  8. Tourism values for Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Widerholdt, Ruscena

    2013-01-01

    Migratory species provide diverse ecosystem services to people, but these values have seldom been estimated rangewide for a single species. In this article, we summarize visitation and consumer surplus for recreational visitors to viewing sites for the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) throughout the Southwestern United States. Public bat viewing opportunities are available at 17 of 25 major roosts across six states; on an annual basis, we estimate that over 242,000 visitors view bats, gaining over $6.5 million in consumer surplus. A better understanding of spatial mismatches between the areas where bats provide value to people and areas most critical for maintaining migratory populations can better inform conservation planning, including economic incentive systems for conservation.

  9. Degradation of Acid Cyanide Poison in Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis after Treatment with Rice Husk Ash

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    Dewi Fortuna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis contains protein (17.41 % and non-essential amino acid cysteine (0.78 % and acid cyanide poison (186.00 mg/kg. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of rice husk ash on degradation of acid cyanide in rubber seed. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD using treatment of rice husk ash concentration with 5 levels of treatments (45; 60; 75; 90; 105 % and 4 replications. The result showed nonsignificant differences (p>0.05 in degradation of acid cyanide level during aging and significant differences (p<0.05 during soaking. Rubber seed treated with 90% of rice husk ash during aging period contained cyanide 47.25 ppm and rubber seed treated with 60% of rice husk ash during soaking period contained cyanide 40.37 ppm.

  10. Polysaccharide-rich fraction of Agaricus brasiliensis enhances the candidacidal activity of murine macrophages

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    Priscila Raquel Martins

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A polysaccharide-rich fraction (ATF of medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis was evaluated on the candidacidal activity, H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO production, and expression of mannose receptors by murine peritoneal macrophages. Mice received three intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of ATF and after 48 h their peritoneal resident macrophages were assayed against Candida albicans yeast forms. The treatment increased fungicidal activity and it was associated with higher levels of H2O2, whereas NO production was not affected. We also found that the treatment enhances mannose receptor expression by peritoneal macrophages, which are involved in the attachment and phagocytosis of non-opsonized microorganisms. Treatment of animals with ATF was able to enhance the clearance of C. albicans during the first 6 h after the experimental i.p. infection. Our results suggest that this extract can increase host resistance against some infectious agents through the stimulation of microbicidal activity of macrophages.

  11. Estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    F.V. Santa-Cecília; F.A. Abreu; da Silva, M. A.; E.M. Castro; M.H. dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    A espécie Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae), nativa da região Amazônica e cultivada em todo o território brasileiro, vem sendo bastante estudada devido seu potencial farmacológico, porém são escassos estudos que tratam da caracterização farmacobotânica desta espécie. Considerando as propriedades terapêuticas para tornar-se um medicamento fitoterápico, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos estudar a anatomia e histoquímica da folha e do pecíolo e elaborar dados macroscópicos e microsc...

  12. Utilização do picro-sirius para corar o Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Hipólito de Oliveira Almeida; Marilda da Costa Brandão; Maria das Graças Reis de Morais; Marlene Antonia dos Reis; Suzana Aperecida Silveira

    1988-01-01

    A solução do picro-sirius foi usada para corar o Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em tecidos humanos fixados em formol. À luz comum, o fungo mostra uma faixa periférica avermelhada e, à luz polarizada, apresenta um ou mais anéis birrefringentes esverdeados. A imersão prévia em solução de hidróxido de sódio a 1%, por alguns minutos, melhora a coloração, sendo o fungo visualizado com mais nitidez à luz polarizada. Por outro lado, a diferenciação dos cortes corados, com picro-sirius em hidróxido de...

  13. Induction of micronuclei by alkaloids extracted from Senecio brasiliensis and stored for 23 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Mello, R; Deimlimg, L I; Lauer Júnior, C M; Almeida, A

    2002-04-26

    In the present study, we report the results of an investigation on pyrrolizidine alkaloids extracted from Senecio brasiliensis (Sprengel) Less., which were stored for more than 23 years under variable conditions of temperature and humidity and exposed to light. Both the crude alkaloid (integerrimine+retrorsine+impurities) and pure integerrimine conserved the ability to induce acute toxicity in mice, leading to the death of the animals in less than 24h. The alkaloids also conserved the potential to induce significant increases in micronucleus frequencies in polychromatic erythrocytes of mouse bone marrow compared to the negative control. The administration of alkaloids to lymphocyte cultures blocked with cytochalasin-B showed no significant increase in micronucleus frequency in binucleated cells, probably due to the lack of a metabolic activation mechanism. However, an antimitotic effect was observed. PMID:11943607

  14. Estresse crônico prejudica aprendizado em peixes (Geophagus brasiliensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi testar o efeito da interação agonística na memória espacial da espécie de peixe cará (Geophagus brasiliensis), bem como se este efeito se relaciona à concentração de cortisol e/ou à atividade dos sistemas de neurotransmissão noradrenérgico, dopaminérgico e serotoninérgico. Animais adultos foram mantidos em interação agonística (através da presença de um espelho dentro do aquário) por três dias, sendo que no segundo e no terceiro dias foram submetidos...

  15. Hermaphroditism in the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg. - II

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    Silvia Marina Cuco

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowers of three Hevea brasiliensis clones, RRIM 527, RRIM 600 and GT 1, were analyzed under stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope, aiming to observe hermaphroditism rates. Results showed 71.49% hermaphrodite flowers, 29.83% of which exhibited incompletely developed, residual anthers. The scanning electron microscope analysis did not detect differences in anther epidermis of male and bisexual flowers of RRIM 600 and RRIM 527. In GT 1 clone (sterile male, the anther epidermis was already weak at the beginning of floral development and completely wrinkled at the end of maturation. Consequently, the anthers were empty by this stage.Flores de três clones de Hevea brasiliensis, RRIM 527, RRIM 600 e GT 1, foram analisadas, sob lupa e microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a fim de se observar as taxas de ocorrência de hermafroditismo. Os resultados mostraram um total de 71,49% de flores hermafroditas, sendo que destas 29,83% apresentaram anteras residuais, não completamente desenvolvidas. As análises ao microscópio de varredura não mostraram diferença ao nível de epiderme de anteras em flores masculinas e hermafroditas de RRIM 527 e RRIM 600. No clone GT 1 (macho estéril a epiderme das anteras mostrou-se frouxa já no início do desenvolvimento floral e completamente enrugada ao final da maturação, demonstrando que as anteras estão vazias neste estádio.

  16. Evapotranspiration of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Cultivated at Two Plantation Sites in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giambelluca, Thomas; Mudd, Ryan; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo' omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea V.; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2016-02-04

    The expansion of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation to higher latitudes and higher elevations in southeast Asia is part of a dramatic shift in the direction of rural land cover change in the region toward more tree covered landscapes. To investigate the possible effects of increasing rubber cultivation in the region on ecosystem services including water cycling, eddy covariance towers were established to measure ecosystem fluxes within two rubber plantations, one each in Bueng Kan, northeastern Thailand, and Kampong Cham, central Cambodia. The results show that evapotranspiration (ET) at both sites is strongly related to variations in available energy and leaf area, and moderately controlled by soil moisture. Measured mean annual ET was 1128 and 1272 mm for the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. After adjustment for energy closure, mean annual was estimated to be 1211 and 1459 mm yr at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. Based on these estimates and that of another site in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China, it appears that of rubber is higher than that of other tree dominated land covers in the region, including forest. While measurements by others in non rubber tropical ecosystems indicate that at high net radiation sites is at most only slightly higher than for sites with lower net radiation, mean annual rubber increases strongl with increasing net radiation across the three available rubber plantation observation sites. With the continued expansion of tree dominated land covers, including rubber cultivation, in southeast Asia, the possible association between commercially viable, fast growing tree crop species Giambelluca et al. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Havea brasiliensis) cultivated at two sites in southeast Asia and their relatively high water use raises concerns about potential effects on water and food security.

  17. Anatomy of the alimentary tract of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1817 (Pisces, Characidae, Salmininae

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    Eliane Menin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The alimentary tract of Salminus brasiliensis shows anatomic adaptations to its carnivorous, ichthyophagous feeding habit, particularly regarding the distensible esophagus and stomach, especially the caecal region, and the relatively short intestine. The great distensibility of the wall of the anterior intestine is due mainly to the pattern of the mucous membrane, which exhibits thick longitudinal folds. In the anterior intestine the transport of the food is facilitated by the longitudinal pattern of the mucous folds. In the esophagus and pyloric region, related to the propulsion of food to the net organ, the muscular tunica is more developed than in the rest of the alimentary tract. The pyloric constriction regulates the food flux to the middle intestine. Due to the pattern of mucous membrane of the middle and posterior intestines, in net form, the material being processed can be retained for a greater length of time. The intestinal effective absorption area is amplified due to the tubular structure of the middle intestine, of the mucous intestinal folds, and the pyloric caeca. The alimentary tract of S. brasiliensis is similar in structure to that of other Salmininae and to the majority of the piscivorous Characiformes such as Acestrorhynchus britskii and A. lacustris, although in these two the ileum-rectal valve is found. It also differs from the alimentary tracts of Hoplias malabarius and H. lacerdae, in that the esophagus has variable caliber, the stomach possesses a wider cardia, and the intestinal arrangement is different from “N”, besides the presence of the ileum-rectal valve.

  18. Population growth of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana predates human agricultural activity

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    Cox Murray P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human activities, such as agriculture, hunting, and habitat modification, exert a significant effect on native species. Although many species have suffered population declines, increased population fragmentation, or even extinction in connection with these human impacts, others seem to have benefitted from human modification of their habitat. Here we examine whether population growth in an insectivorous bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana can be attributed to the widespread expansion of agriculture in North America following European settlement. Colonies of T. b. mexicana are extremely large (~106 individuals and, in the modern era, major agricultural insect pests form an important component of their food resource. It is thus hypothesized that the growth of these insectivorous bat populations was coupled to the expansion of agricultural land use in North America over the last few centuries. Results We sequenced one haploid and one autosomal locus to determine the rate and time of onset of population growth in T. b. mexicana. Using an approximate Maximum Likelihood method, we have determined that T. b. mexicana populations began to grow ~220 kya from a relatively small ancestral effective population size before reaching the large effective population size observed today. Conclusions Our analyses reject the hypothesis that T. b. mexicana populations grew in connection with the expansion of human agriculture in North America, and instead suggest that this growth commenced long before the arrival of humans. As T. brasiliensis is a subtropical species, we hypothesize that the observed signals of population growth may instead reflect range expansions of ancestral bat populations from southern glacial refugia during the tail end of the Pleistocene.

  19. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

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    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.Efeitos do nível da água na condição de Geophagus brasiliensis foram analisados em um reservatório oligotrófico. A condição fisiológica (K e o índice gonadossomático (IGS foram comparados entre os níveis da água (baixo e alto. Melhores condições de fêmeas foram associadas a maiores disponibilidades de recursos no nível alto, já que o desenvolvimento gonadal não variou. Não foram registradas diferenças na condição de machos, contudo maiores valores de IGS ocorreram no nível baixo. Fêmeas apresentaram elevado investimento reprodutivo, enquanto machos investiram mais no desenvolvimento somático. Tal estratégia pode ser um mecanismo para suportar o estresse causado pelas características oligotróficas do reservatório, intensificadas durante o período de níveis baixos da água.

  20. Uso do Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD no estudo populacional do Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD in the populational study of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika C. Borges

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Para o estudo de variabilidade genética em Triatoma brasiliensis, o principal vetor da doença de Chagas no Nordeste brasileiro, espécimes de três diferentes populações intradomiciliares foram analisados. Regiões do DNA genômico foram amplificadas utilizando dois iniciadores randômicos através da técnica de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA, visualizados em géis de poliacrilamida corados pela prata. Os perfis originados se mostraram bastante homogêneos quando comparados intrapopulacionalmente. Populações capturadas em duas regiões diferentes do Estado do Ceará também apresentaram homogeneidade entre si, mas, quando comparadas com a população proveniente do Piauí, foi possível diferenciá-las. Esses resultados, preliminares, indicam que o RAPD pode ser usado com sucesso nos estudos de variabilidade em triatomíneos, bem como sugerem a existência de variabilidade entre diferentes populações de T. brasiliensis pertencentes a uma mesma subespécie.We evaluated the genetic variability of Triatoma brasiliensis, the main vector of Chagas disease in Northeast Brazil, using specimens from three populations. Regions of genomic DNA were amplified by RAPD (Random Amplified Polimorphic DNA, using two primers. The products were visualized after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining. A dendrogram constructed through the Dice similarity coefficient allowed for separation of the tested specimens into three distinct groups. The populations captured in areas from Ceará State showed similar profiles, but different from that captured in Piauí State. Our results indicate that RAPD can be used successfully in triatomine studies and suggest the presence of genetic variability between different populations of T. brasiliensis.

  1. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers under light and temperature levels

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    Bruna P. Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plásticos com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos

  2. Similaridade genética entre clones de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, por meio de marcadores RAPD Genetic similarity among rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clones using RAPD markers

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    Karine Cristina Bicalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] é uma espécie nativa da região amazônica e compreende a maior fonte produtora de borracha natural do mundo. Na busca de condições mais favoráveis ao cultivo, além da busca pela auto-suficiência na produção de borracha natural, o cultivo da seringueira migrou para outras regiões do país. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, estimar a similaridade genética de genótipos de seringueira, provenientes de regiões distintas do país, Lavras-MG (UFLA e Campinas-SP (IAC, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD. A análise foi efetuada em 41 indivíduos, representados por 17 genótipos diferentes, com base em 19 primers, que geraram 121 fragmentos polimórficos. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o software NTSYS-pc - 2.1, por meio do coeficiente de Dice e pelo método das médias (UPGMA. A similaridade genética entre o material analisado variou de 0,56 a 1,00. Na análise do dendrograma, foram observados 18 grupos. Os clones (RRIM600, GT1, PB235, PL PIM e FX2261, utilizados em diferentes repetições, foram idênticos, quando comparados entre si, entretanto o mesmo não foi observado para os clones identificados como RRIM 701. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o material avaliado na UFLA é o mesmo implantado no IAC, exceto o RRIM 701, mostrando uma ampla variabilidade genética, disponível para estudos e propagação da cultura.The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] is a native species from Amazon region, and represents the biggest source of natural rubber in the world.. However, the rubber tree culture has had an expansion to other brazilian regions, in search of more favorable conditions for its cultivation and self-sufficiency in natural rubber. The aim of this work was to estimate genetic similarity among rubber tree clones, from different Brazilian regions, Lavras (UFLA and Campinas (IAC, by using RAPD molecular markers

  3. Microsporogênese em clones normais e tetraplóides de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg Microsporo genesis in normal and tetraploid Hevea brasiliensis (Muell.-Arg.

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    Cândida H. T. M. Conagin

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sôbre o efeito da colquicina em Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. realizadas anteriormente levaram à obtenção de clones com número duplicado de cromossomos; tais clones, atualmente em fase de amplas e detalhadas observações (6, floresceram em 1969, pela primeira vez. Foi então realizado um estudo citológico comparativo da microsporo-gènese de duas plantas, uma pertencente ao clone normal n.° 3064, com 2n = 36 cromossomos, e outra pertencente ao clone duplicado n.° 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos. Ambos são considerados clones gêmeos, porque foram obtidos de uma mesma semente, por técnica especial (7. Na planta com 2n = 36 cromossomos, o processo meiótico é normal, dando tétrades perfeitas e grãos de pólen aparentemente funcionais. A planta 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos, apresenta, além de células-mães de pólen que se dividem normalmente, outras que no final da meiose produzem tétrades anormais, com micrócitos excedentes e grãos de pólen vazios. Caracteriza-se também por grãos de pólen que não passam pelas divisões mitóticas, isto é, apresentam sempre um núcleo só, que não se divide. Em virtude destas primeiras observações pode-se formular uma hipótese de esterilidade masculina para o clone em estudo.Previous works on Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. produced several pairs of twin clones, one member having the normal chromosome number and the other the duplicated set after colchicine treatment. Plants of normal clone 3064 are fertile and have 32 chromosomes. Microsporogenesis is normal, producing only normal tetrads of four microsporocytes. The resulting pollen grains have three germinal pores. Grains in different stages of development could be noticed, from one-nucleated cytoplasm to the two-nucleated reproductive cell, which undoubtedly means normal game to genesis. On the other hand plants of the duplicated twin clone 3065, blossomed during the year of 1969 for the first time. Microsporogenesis studied

  4. Evaluation of the toxicity and molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Schinopsis brasiliensis stem bark extract and its fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Clisiane C.S. Santos; Silvan S. Araújo; André L. L. M. Santos; Elis C.V. Almeida; Antônio S. Dias; Nicole P. Damascena; Deisylaine M. Santos; Matheus I.S. Santos; Karlos A.L.R. Júnior; Carla K. B. Pereira; Amanda C.B. Lima; Andrea Y.K.V. Shan; Antônio E. G. Sant'Ana; Charles S. Estevam; Brancilene S. de Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever and schistosomiasis are major public health issues for which vector control using larvicide and molluscicide substances present in plants provides a promising strategy. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of the extract of hydroethanol Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl., Anacardiaceae, stem bark and its chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanol fractions against Artemia salina and Aedes Aegypti larvae and snails Biomphalaria glabrata. All of the assays were performe...

  5. Taxonomia e distribuição de Actinocythereis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Podocopida, Trachyleberididae na plataforma continental brasileira

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    Machado Cláudia P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species is described, Actinocythereis brasiliensis, from the southern Brazilian continental shelf. It is based on the analysis of 766 samples collected by oceanographical projects. The geographical distribution of this species has revealed its preference by the cold waters and terrigenous sediments and, has a bathymetric distribution between 22 and 164 m but, being concentrated in the shallower waters (< 60 m.

  6. Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Betania B; Cisalpino Patricia S; Lima Luciana ARS; Sá Nívea P; Johann Susana; Alves Tânia MA; Siqueira Ezequias P; Zani Carlos L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the antifungal compounds from the extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) against clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Methods The hexane and dichlomethane fractions from leaves and stems of S. terebinthifolius were fractionated using several chromatography techniques to afford four compounds. Results The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were identified as schinol...

  7. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers under light and temperature levels

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna P. Cruz; Luciana M. Chedier; Rodrigo L. Fabri; Daniel S. Pimenta

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range...

  8. Historical and Actual Presence of the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) on the Lower Meta River, Department of Casanare - Colombia Orinoquia

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz H.J.; Sánchez I.M.

    2002-01-01

    There has been little information published about the distribution of giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Colombia, and recent distribution maps have failed to include the Department of Casanare as having giant otters present. Some ancient chronicles, however, record giant otter occurrence in the Colombian Orinoquia, as well as the value of its skin. It is believed that since 1974, when the commerce of skins ceased in Colombia, populations of this species have recuperated in this area. I...

  9. Local Perceptions and Implications for Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) Conservation around Protected Areas in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Michalski; Paula C. Conceição; oyce A. Amador; Juliana Laufer; Darren Norris

    2012-01-01

    The local success of protected areas for effective biodiversity conservation depends largely on ensuring the integration of local communities and the persistence of wildlife species and ecological processes. We investigated the perceptions of riverine residents living around a sustainable-use protected area towards giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis). Between March and December 2011, we conducted 41 interviews with riverine residents in the region of the National Forest of Amapá (AP, Brazil...

  10. Biological assessment (antiviral and antioxidant and acute toxicity of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis

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    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Drimys presents the widest geographical distribution of the Winteraceae family, which comprises seven genera and about 120 species. In Brazil, the genus is found from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul and occur in two species, Drimys angustifolia Miers, and D. brasiliensis Miers, Winteraceae, popularly known as "casca-de-anta", characterized by the presence of flavonoids and essential oils. It is used in folk medicine as an antiscorbutic, stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal, antipyretic, antibacterial, and against asthma and bronchitis, besides having insecticidal properties. In addition to the known biological activities, it is very important to explore new applications in the treatment of physiological disorders or diseases caused by parasites. Based on this information, in this study we propose to evaluate volatile oils of the species D. brasiliensis and D. angustifolia, as an antioxidant, using the model of the DPPH radical as an antiviral against human herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1 and acute toxicity in vivo. The two species were not able to reduce the DPPH radical and showed interesting antiviral activity, significantly reducing the virus titers in vitro assays. Regarding the in vivo toxicity in female Wistar rats, treatment with the two species showed interesting signs in animals such as salivation, ptosis, tremor, decreased motor activity. In addition the oils of D. brasiliensis to other signs, some animals showed increased urination and diarrhea.

  11. Biological assessment (antiviral and antioxidant and acute toxicity of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis

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    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Drimys presents the widest geographical distribution of the Winteraceae family, which comprises seven genera and about 120 species. In Brazil, the genus is found from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul and occur in two species, Drimys angustifolia Miers, and D. brasiliensis Miers, Winteraceae, popularly known as "casca-de-anta", characterized by the presence of flavonoids and essential oils. It is used in folk medicine as an antiscorbutic, stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal, antipyretic, antibacterial, and against asthma and bronchitis, besides having insecticidal properties. In addition to the known biological activities, it is very important to explore new applications in the treatment of physiological disorders or diseases caused by parasites. Based on this information, in this study we propose to evaluate volatile oils of the species D. brasiliensis and D. angustifolia, as an antioxidant, using the model of the DPPH radical as an antiviral against human herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1 and acute toxicity in vivo. The two species were not able to reduce the DPPH radical and showed interesting antiviral activity, significantly reducing the virus titers in vitro assays. Regarding the in vivo toxicity in female Wistar rats, treatment with the two species showed interesting signs in animals such as salivation, ptosis, tremor, decreased motor activity. In addition the oils of D. brasiliensis to other signs, some animals showed increased urination and diarrhea.

  12. Cell-free antigens from precocious Paracoccidioides brasiliensis culture induce a typical delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction

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    Fecchio CJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell-free antigens (CFAg derived from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis have typically been used in immunodiffusion reactions for serodiagnosis or therapeutic follow-up of paracoccidioidomycosis patients. Thus, we investigated the usefulness of CFAg obtained from cultures at different ages, to evaluate cellular immunity by the footpad test, in experimental murine paracoccidioidomycosis. Male mice infected with P. brasiliensis 265 strain were challenged in the footpad with CFAg obtained from four- (4d CFAg or 11-day-old cultures (11d CFAg. The increase in footpad swelling provoked by 4d CFAg and 11d CFAg was similar and showed significant difference in relation to control groups. However, the infiltrate pattern was strikingly different: 4d CFAg induced a predominant mononuclear infiltrate whereas 11d CFAg provoked a predominant polymophonuclear infiltrate. These different inflammatory patterns were associated with distinct electrophoretic characteristics. By comparison with 11d CFAg, 4d CFAg showed more numerous and intense bands, including a strong one of 43 kDa (gp43. These results suggest that CFAg derived from Pb 265 isolate can be used as a reagent to evaluate cellular immunity; however, the culture's age is critical because only young cultures are able to induce a typical mononuclear infiltrate. The efficacy of this new paracoccidioidin to assay the cellular immunity in infections caused by other P. brasiliensis isolates is under investigation.

  13. POPULATION PARAMETERS STUDY ON Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel POPULATION DYNAMIC IN A GALLERY FOREST AT ITUTINGA – MG –BRAZIL

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    Bruno Senna Corrêa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It was studied the population dynamics of Xylopia brasiliensis between 1997 and 1999 in a gallery forest (Mata de Camargos with an area of 7,5 ha in Itutinga, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The population rates were related to the density and basal area of the species and the tree community.It was found significant differences between Blocks and Sectors envolving recruitment, change in basal area, increase and decrease. It was also studied the influence of density and basal area of Xylopia brasiliensis on its own dynamics through regressing population rates on the density and basal area of individuals. It was found negative correlations in change in basal area, in increase in basal area and in recruitment and positive correlations in recruitment and in mortality. The localized effects of the observed correlations suggested existence of assymetric and intraspecific competition governed by the Xylopia brasiliensis adults and sub-adults, and with community adults individuals, both reducing the individual growth, recruitment and survival of the studied forest fragment.

  14. Population genetic structure of Brazilian shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus sp., F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis and Litopenaeus schmitti: Decapoda: Penaeidae

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    Jaqueline Gusmão

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimps are important resources for worldwide fisheries and aquaculture. In the Southwest Atlantic, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, F. paulensis, F. subtilis, Farfantepenaeus sp. and Litopenaeus schmitti are among the most important commercially exploited species. Despite their high commercial value, there is little information available on the different aspects of their biology or genetics and almost no data on their stock structure. We used allozymes to estimate variability levels and population genetic structure of F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis, L. schmitti and the recently detected species Farfantepenaeus sp. along as much as 4,000 km of Brazilian coastline. No population heterogeneity was detected in F. brasiliensis or L. schmitti along the studied area. In contrast, F ST values found for Farfantepenaeus sp. and F. paulensis indicate that the populations of those two species are genetically structured, comprising different fishery stocks. The largest genetic differences in F. paulensis were found between Lagoa dos Patos (South and the two populations from Southeast Brazil. In Farfantepenaeus sp., significant differences were detected between the population from Recife and those from Fortaleza and Ilhéus.

  15. Lesions associated with Halocercus brasiliensis Lins de Almeida, 1933 in the lungs of dolphins stranded in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, J P; Febronio, A M B; Vergara-Parente, J E; Werneck, M R

    2015-04-01

    The parasitic fauna of cetaceans is an important tool for ecological studies, including analyses on the causes of death. Halocercus brasiliensis is a nematode frequently found in the bronchi and bronchioles of some cetaceans, and it is commonly associated with focal inflammation of the respiratory tract leading to bacterial pneumonia and septicemia and, sometimes, to death. The objective of this study was to report infections by H. brasiliensis in the respiratory tract of Delphinidae stranded on the northern seaside of Bahia, Sergipe, and south of Alagoas, all states in the northeast region of Brazil. A total of 30 individuals, 1 Feresa attenuate (pygmy killer whale), 9 Stenella clymene (Clymene dolphin), and 20 Sotalia guianensis (Guiana dolphin) were studied. In 16 of them, the presence of H. brasiliensis was observed with a mean intensity of 3.5 ± 0.6 (range 1-9) in the hosts. Macroscopically, parasitic calcified nodules, lung congestion, edema, and emphysema were observed. Histopathological examination showed interstitial and granulomatous pneumonia with multifocal infiltrates, discrete to moderate edema, congestion, diffuse hemorrhage, and foci of calcification. We conclude that parasitic pneumonia in the sampled individuals may have directly contributed to stranding and death of the animals. PMID:25171594

  16. Estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae

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    F.V. Santa-Cecília

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae, nativa da região Amazônica e cultivada em todo o território brasileiro, vem sendo bastante estudada devido seu potencial farmacológico, porém são escassos estudos que tratam da caracterização farmacobotânica desta espécie. Considerando as propriedades terapêuticas para tornar-se um medicamento fitoterápico, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos estudar a anatomia e histoquímica da folha e do pecíolo e elaborar dados macroscópicos e microscópicos que forneçam características marcantes para sua identificação além de dar subsídios para a análise farmacognóstica no controle de qualidade da droga vegetal. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às técnicas usuais de microscopia de luz e a testes histoquímicos. As folhas de G. brasiliensis são opostas, simples, descolores, forma elíptica com nervação peninérvia. As células epidérmicas, em vista frontal, apresentam contorno sinuoso e estômatos paracíticos somente na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral, a nervura central apresenta contorno biconvexo e feixe vascular em forma de semi-arco fechado envolto por bainha esclerenquimática. Inclusões inorgânicas de cristais na forma de drusas e orgânicas representadas por compostos fenólicos e grãos de amidos estão dispersos ao longo de toda lâmina foliar e pecíolo. Observa-se com frequência a presença de canais secretores preenchidos por um conteúdo lipídico dispersos pelo parênquima fundamental e próximos aos feixes vasculares. Estes dados fornecem subsídios para o controle de qualidade da matéria-prima utilizada para a produção de fitoterápicos.

  17. CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.

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    Hamid Reza Naji,

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and planting densities. Wood density demonstrated an increasing trend in the radial direction. However, at the lower planting density wood density near the bark decreased slightly. Fiber diameter, lumen diameter, and cell wall thickness showed an increasing trend from pith to bark. Best average fiber characteristics were observed at the lower planting density in clone RRIM 2025. Vessel frequency had a direct relationship with planting density in that it was higher in the higher planting density of 2000 trees per hectare. Overall, planting density had a significant effect on wood quality. The properties of clone RRIM 2025 were found to be comparatively better with longer fiber length and higher wood density than those of RRIM 2020.

  18. Aid to a Declining Matriarch in the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lisa C.

    2010-01-01

    Scientists are increasingly revealing the commonalities between the intellectual, emotional and moral capacities of animals and humans. Providing assistance to elderly and ailing family members is a human trait rarely documented for wild animals, other than anecdotal accounts. Here I report observations of multiple forms of assistance to the declining matriarch of a habituated group of giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Manu National Park, Peru. The otter group had been observed annually for several years and all members were known individually. In 2007, the breeding female of the group failed to reproduce and appeared to be in physical decline. She begged from other family members 43 times over 41 contact hours and received food 11 times. Comparisons with 2004–2006 demonstrate that the family's behavior in 2007 constitutes a role-reversal, in which the majority of assistance and prey transfers accrued from young-to-old rather than from old-to-young. As in human societies, both non-adaptive and adaptive hypotheses could explain the family members' aid to their declining matriarch. I suggest that giant otter families may benefit from the knowledge and experience of an elderly matriarch and “grandparent helper,” consistent with the “Grandmother Hypothesis” of adaptive menopause in women. PMID:20613978

  19. Estudo comparativo da imuno-antigenicidade de 8 amostras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    L. M. V. Biagioni

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available Para se detectar diferenças imuno-antigênicas entre 8 amostras de P. brasiliensis isoladas de diferentes áreas endêmicas (Botucatu: Pb 1, 2 e 3; São Paulo: Pb: 18, 192 e 265; Venezuela: Pb 9 e 73, esutdaram-se: 1. A reatividade antigênica de cada amostra nas reações de imunofluorescência indireta (II e de imunodifusão dupla em gel de agar (ID contra painel de 20 soros controles positivos para paracoccidioidomicose; 2. A capacidade de induzir resposta imune humoral (medida por imunodifusão e celular (medida pelo teste de coxim plantar em camundongos imunizados com an-tígenos de cada amostra. Observamos: 1. As amostras Pb 265 e Pb 9 mostraram-se mais reativas na II; 2. Os antígenos das amostras Pb 192 e Pb 73 foram significativamente mais reativas na ID; 3. Estes dados demonstram diferenças de antigenicidade entre estas amostras; 4. A amostra Pb 18 mostrou baixo poder indutor de resposta imune celular e alta capacidade de indução de resposta imune humoral em camundongos imunizados, revelando dissociação de sua imunogenicidade. Estas diferenças podem indicar a existência de cepas distintas do fungo ou refletir modificações do parasita no hospedeiro ou du rante seu cultivo.

  20. Divergent DNA Methylation Patterns Associated with Abiotic Stress in Hevea brasiliensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas K. Uthup; Mlnlmol Ravindran; K. Bini; Saha Thakurdas

    2011-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is a fundamental epigenetic mechanism for gene-expression regulation and development in plants.Here,we report for the first time the identification of DNA methylation patterns and their putative relationship with abiotic stress in the tree crop Hevea brasiliensis (source of 99% of natural rubber in the world).Regulatory sequences of four major genes involved in the mevalonate pathway (rubber biosynthesis pathway) and one general defense-related gene of three high-yielding popular rubber clones grown at two different agroclimatic conditions were analyzed for the presence of methylation.We found several significant variations in the methylation pattern at core DNA binding motifs within all the five genes.Several consistent clone-specific and location-specific methylation patterns were identified.The differences in methylation pattern observed at certain pivotal cis-regulatory sites indicate the direct impact of stress on the genome and support the hypothesis of site-specific stress-induced DNA methylation.It is assumed that some of the methylation patterns observed may be involved in the stress-responsive mechanism in plants by which they adapt to extreme conditions.The study also provide clues towards the existence of highly divergent phenotypic characters among Hevea clones despite their very similar genetic make-up.Altogether,the observations from this study prove beyond doubt that there exist epigenetic variations in Hevea and environmental factors play a significant role in the induction of site-specific epigenetic mutations in its genome.

  1. Detection of genetic variation in Hevea brasiliensis using the DNA amplification fingerprinting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies on genetic variation and genome analysis of Hevea brasiliensis were based primarily on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Notwithstanding that the RFLP technique is a powerful tool, the technique is slow, laborious and requires highly polymorphic hybridization probes. The multiplex DAF technique was adopted. Pairs of random 10-mer oligonucleotide primers were tested for their ability to elicit DNA polymorphisms. Preliminary results indicated that the number of amplified products varied with the annealing temperature and the primer pairs. Although it was found that the annealing temperatures had to be varied for different primer pairs in order to achieve satisfactory amplification, all DNA amplification was carried out at a fixed annealing temperature in order to increase the efficiency of screening primer pairs for their ability to reveal comprehensive DNA fingerprints. DNA samples loaded in denaturing buffer and separated through denaturing polyacrylamide gels were found to be more informative than samples loaded in non-denaturing buffer. Staining with silver nitrate was much more sensitive than with ethidium bromide. The DAF marker technique has been developed successfully for Hevea studies. Premilinary investigations with the technique demonstrated that DAF can generate very complex and informative DNA fingerprints and promises to be useful for genetic variability, family relationship and population studies. The technique does not require sophisticated equipment, and is also more robust and reproducible than RAPD. 6 refs

  2. Involvement of Ethylene in the Latex Metabolism and Tapping Panel Dryness of Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza-Arief Putranto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethephon, an ethylene releaser, is used to stimulate latex production in Hevea brasiliensis. Ethylene induces many functions in latex cells including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The accumulation of ROS is responsible for the coagulation of rubber particles in latex cells, resulting in the partial or complete stoppage of latex flow. This study set out to assess biochemical and histological changes as well as changes in gene expression in latex and phloem tissues from trees grown under various harvesting systems. The Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD susceptibility of Hevea clones was found to be related to some biochemical parameters, such as low sucrose and high inorganic phosphorus contents. A high tapping frequency and ethephon stimulation induced early TPD occurrence in a high latex metabolism clone and late occurrence in a low latex metabolism clone. TPD-affected trees had smaller number of laticifer vessels compared to healthy trees, suggesting a modification of cambial activity. The differential transcript abundance was observed for twenty-seven candidate genes related to TPD occurrence in latex and phloem tissues for ROS-scavenging, ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes. The predicted function for some Ethylene Response Factor genes suggested that these candidate genes should play an important role in regulating susceptibility to TPD.

  3. Thermal preferences and limits of Triatoma brasiliensis in its natural environment - Field observations while host searching

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    Silvia Catalá

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to explore the thermal relationship between foraging Triatoma brasiliensis and its natural habitat during the hottest season in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The thermal profiles were determined using infrared analysis. Although the daily temperature of rock surfaces varied in a wide range, T. brasiliensisselected to walk through areas with temperatures between 31.7-40.5ºC. The temperature of T. brasiliensisbody surface ranged from 32.8-34.4ºC, being higher in legs than the abdomen. A strong relationship was found between the temperature of the insect and the temperature of rock crevices where they were hidden (r: 0.96, p < 0.05. The species was active at full sunlight being a clear example of how the light-dark rhythm may be altered, even under predation risk. Our results strongly suggest a thermal borderline for T. brasiliensisforaging activity near 40ºC. The simultaneous determination of insect body and rock temperatures here presented are the only obtained in natural habitats for this or other triatomines.

  4. Cloning and characterization of a novel cysteine protease gene (HbCP1) from Hevea brasiliensis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shi-Qing Peng; Jia-Hong Zhu; Hui-Liang Li; Wei-Min Tian

    2008-12-01

    The full-length cDNA encoding a cysteine protease, designated HbCP1, was isolated for the first time from Hevea brasiliensis by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. HbCP1 contained a 1371 bp open reading frame encoding 457 amino acids. The deduced HbCP1 protein, which showed high identity to cysteine proteases of other plant species, was predicted to possess a putative repeat in toxin (RTX) domain at the N-terminal and a granulin (GRAN) domain at the C-terminal. Southern blot analysis indicated that the HbCP1 gene is present as a single copy in the rubber tree. Transcription pattern analysis revealed that HbCP1 had high transcription in laticifer, and low transcription in bark and leaf. The transcription of HbCP1 in latex was induced by ethylene and tapping. Cloning of the HbCP1 gene will enable us to further understand the molecular characterization of cysteine protease and its possible function in the rubber tree.

  5. Synchronous flowering of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) induced by high solar radiation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeang, Hoong-Yeet

    2007-01-01

    How tropical trees flower synchronously near the equator in the absence of significant day length variation or other meteorological cues has long been a puzzle. The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is used as a model to investigate this phenomenon. The annual cycle of solar radiation intensity is shown to correspond closely with the flowering of the rubber tree planted near the equator and in the subtropics. Unlike in temperate regions, where incoming solar radiation (insolation) is dependent on both day length and radiation intensity, insolation at the equator is due entirely to the latter. Insolation at the upper atmosphere peaks twice a year during the spring and autumn equinoxes, but the actual solar radiation that reaches the ground is attenuated to varying extents in different localities. The rubber tree shows one or two flowering seasons a year (with major and minor seasons in the latter) in accordance with the solar radiation intensity received. High solar radiation intensity, and in particular bright sunshine (as distinct from prolonged diffuse radiation), induces synchronous anthesis and blooming in Hevea around the time of the equinoxes. The same mechanism may be operational in other tropical tree species. PMID:17587376

  6. Biochemical characterization of three phase partitioned naringinase from Aspergillus brasiliensis MTCC 1344.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugaprakash, M; Vinothkumar, V; Ragupathy, J; Reddy, D Amala

    2015-09-01

    Naringinase is a complex enzyme composed of α-L-rhamnosidase and β-D-glucosidase, which has a vast potential application in the field of industrial biotechnology. The novel aspect in the present study is employing a three-phase partitioning (TPP) technique for the purification of naringinase by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus brasiliensis MTCC 1344. At optimum conditions of 28±2 °C and 30% (w/v) ammonium sulfate along with a 1:1 ratio of t-butanol to crude extract, the purification is enhanced by 4.2-fold .Temperature and pH profile of TPP purified naringinase was found to be active with an optimal activity of 719.6 units at an elevated temperature of 60 °C. The kinetic constants K(m) and V(max) using naringin as substrate were 3.21 mM and 321 U/ml. The purified enzyme was not inhibited by any metal ions except Hg(2+) but completely inhibited by adding chelating agents such as EDTA and SDS at a concentration of 10 mM. These results can be inevitable to establish the TPP method to be an inexpensive, economical and attractive technology for better recovery and to find its application in the industrial sector. PMID:26143121

  7. Ontogenetic variations in flush development are indicative of low temperature tolerance in Hevea brasiliensis clones

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    K.K. Vinod

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis trees are naturally adapted to the Amazonian tropical climate. In India rubber trees are traditionally cultivated in the warm humid tropics of the south. Northeast India is a non-traditional area for rubber cultivation. A major limiting factor on tree growth in the northeast region is stress due to low temperature. Being a deciduous tree, rubber trees exhibit annual natural defoliation prior to the winter season, and ensuing new leaf growth usually coincides with the low temperature period. Flushing behaviour of trees during this period provides an opportunity to assess their winter hardiness. A study was carried out on five clones, RRIM 600, SCATC 93/114, GT 1, PB 5/51 and Haiken 1, to evaluate phenological behaviour of leaf growth during the period of low temperature stress. Trees were monitored for expansion of leaf area, internode length, petiole length and development of chlorophyll. Wide variation was observed among these clones for all the traits. SCATC 93/114 was better adapted for low temperaturestress as this clone was found to have faster expansion of leaf area and better chlorophyll development, followed by Haiken 1. PB 5/51 was found to show poor performance during low temperature. Haiken 1 and PB 5/51 also exhibited better relative growth rate during winter months confirming their low temperature tolerance. Ontogenetic variations in leaf development are good indicators of assessing inherent cold tolerance in Hevea clones.

  8. Ontogenetic variations in flush development are indicative of low temperature tolerance in Hevea brasiliensis clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Vinod

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis trees are naturally adapted to the Amazonian tropical climate. In India rubber trees are traditionally cultivated in the warm humid tropics of the south. Northeast India is a non-traditional area for rubber cultivation. A major limiting factor on tree growth in the northeast region is stress due to low temperature. Being a deciduous tree, rubber trees exhibit annual natural defoliation prior to the winter season, and ensuing new leaf growth usually coincides with the low temperature period. Flushing behaviour of trees during this period provides an opportunity to assess their winter hardiness. A study was carried out on five clones, RRIM 600, SCATC 93/114, GT 1, PB 5/51 and Haiken 1, to evaluate phenological behaviour of leaf growth during the period of low temperature stress. Trees were monitored for expansion of leaf area, internode length, petiole length and development of chlorophyll. Wide variation was observed among these clones for all the traits. SCATC 93/114 was better adapted for low temperature stress as this clone was found to have faster expansion of leaf area and better chlorophyll development, followed by Haiken 1. PB 5/51 was found to show poor performance during low temperature. Haiken 1 and PB 5/51 also exhibited better relative growth rate during winter months confirming their low temperature tolerance. Ontogenetic variations in leaf development are good indicators of assessing inherent cold tolerance in Hevea clones.

  9. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

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    Rodrigo Almeida-Paes

    Full Text Available Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  10. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies. PMID:27031728

  11. Recombinagenic activity of integerrimine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Senecio brasiliensis, in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campesato, V R; Graf, U; Reguly, M L; de Andrade, H H

    1997-01-01

    Integerrimine (ITR), a pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Senecio brasiliensis, was tested for genotoxicity using the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. The compound was administered by chronic feeding (48 hours) of 3-day-old larvae. Two different crosses involving the markers flare (flr) and multiple wing hairs (mwh) were used, that is, the standard (ST) cross and the high bioactivation (HB) cross, which has a high cytochrome P450-dependent bioactivation capacity. In both crosses, the wings of two types of progeny were analyzed, that is, inversion-free marker heterozygotes and balancer heterozygotes carrying multiple inversions. ITR was found to be equally potent in inducing spots in a dose-related manner in the marker heterozygotes of both crosses. This indicates that the bioactivation capacity present in larvae of the ST cross is sufficient to reveal the genotoxic activity of ITR. In the balancer heterozygotes of both crosses, where all recombinational events are eliminated due to the inversions, the frequencies of induced spots were considerably reduced which documents the recombinagenic activity of ITR. Linear regression analysis of the dose response relationships for both genotypes shows that 85% to 90% of the wing spots are due to mitotic recombination. PMID:9020312

  12. Aid to a declining matriarch in the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C Davenport

    Full Text Available Scientists are increasingly revealing the commonalities between the intellectual, emotional and moral capacities of animals and humans. Providing assistance to elderly and ailing family members is a human trait rarely documented for wild animals, other than anecdotal accounts. Here I report observations of multiple forms of assistance to the declining matriarch of a habituated group of giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis in Manu National Park, Peru. The otter group had been observed annually for several years and all members were known individually. In 2007, the breeding female of the group failed to reproduce and appeared to be in physical decline. She begged from other family members 43 times over 41 contact hours and received food 11 times. Comparisons with 2004-2006 demonstrate that the family's behavior in 2007 constitutes a role-reversal, in which the majority of assistance and prey transfers accrued from young-to-old rather than from old-to-young. As in human societies, both non-adaptive and adaptive hypotheses could explain the family members' aid to their declining matriarch. I suggest that giant otter families may benefit from the knowledge and experience of an elderly matriarch and "grandparent helper," consistent with the "Grandmother Hypothesis" of adaptive menopause in women.

  13. Aid to a declining matriarch in the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lisa C

    2010-01-01

    Scientists are increasingly revealing the commonalities between the intellectual, emotional and moral capacities of animals and humans. Providing assistance to elderly and ailing family members is a human trait rarely documented for wild animals, other than anecdotal accounts. Here I report observations of multiple forms of assistance to the declining matriarch of a habituated group of giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Manu National Park, Peru. The otter group had been observed annually for several years and all members were known individually. In 2007, the breeding female of the group failed to reproduce and appeared to be in physical decline. She begged from other family members 43 times over 41 contact hours and received food 11 times. Comparisons with 2004-2006 demonstrate that the family's behavior in 2007 constitutes a role-reversal, in which the majority of assistance and prey transfers accrued from young-to-old rather than from old-to-young. As in human societies, both non-adaptive and adaptive hypotheses could explain the family members' aid to their declining matriarch. I suggest that giant otter families may benefit from the knowledge and experience of an elderly matriarch and "grandparent helper," consistent with the "Grandmother Hypothesis" of adaptive menopause in women. PMID:20613978

  14. Variation in GUS activity in vegetatively propagated Hevea brasiliensis transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardet, Ludovic; Leclercq, Julie; Bénistan, Elise; Dessailly, Florence; Oliver, Gérald; Martin, Florence; Montoro, Pascal

    2011-10-01

    Hevea brasiliensis transgenic plants are regenerated from transgenic callus lines by somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis is not yet available for commercial propagation of Hevea clones, which requires conventional grafting of buds on rootstock seedlings (budding). The stability of transgene expression in budded plants is therefore necessary for further development of genetic engineering in rubber trees. Transgene expression was assessed by fluorimetric beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in fully developed leaves of in vitro plants from transgenic lines and their sub-lines obtained by budding. A large variation in GUS activity was found in self-rooted in vitro plants of five transgenic lines, and the absence of activity in one line suggested transgene silencing. Beyond confirming transmissibility of the reporter gene by budding and long-term expression, a quantification of GUS activity revealed that greater variability existed in budded plants compared to self-rooted mother in vitro plants for three transgenic lines. Although somatic embryogenesis provided more stable GUS activity, budding remained an efficient way of propagating transgenic plants but transgene expression in budded plants should be verified for functional analysis and further development. PMID:21643815

  15. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratios for Agaricus brasiliensis on the axenic method = Relação carbono/nitrogênio do substrato pelo método de cultivo axênico para Agaricus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienine Luiz Zaghi Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation techniques for Agaricus brasiliensis (composting method and substratum formulations are the same ones used for Agaricus bisporus. Most of the carbon-tonitrogen (C:N ratios reported for A. brasiliensis are similar to those used for A. bisporus on the composting method and there are few studies about the variation of C:N ratios for A. brasilienses on the axenic method. The objective of this study was to verify the mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on different C:N ratios using regional by-products as substrate formulation on the axenic method. Studied C:N ratios of substrate (mixture of soybean and cassava fibers ranged from 11:1 to 248:1, with nitrogen content ranging from 4.25 to 0.20%, respectively. It was concluded that substrate with only soybean fiber generates higher mycelial growth than any formulation with cassava fiber; the highest mycelial growth on substrate is with C:N ratio of 11:1 (N = 4.25%; the intermediate growth is with C:N ratio range from 15:1 to 50:1 (N from 3.31 to 0.98%; and the lowest growth is with C:N ratio of 100:1 or higher (N ≤ 0.50%. As técnicas de cultivo do Agaricus brasiliensis (método de compostagem e formulação de substrato são as mesmas utilizadas para o Agaricus bisporus. A maioria das relações carbono/nitrogênio (C/N relatadas para A. brasiliensis são similares às usadas para A. bisporus no método de compostagem. Há poucos estudos sobre a variação da relação C/N para A. brasilienses para o método axênico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes relações C/N no crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis utilizando subprodutos regionais como substrato pelo método axênico. As relações C/N no substrato (misturas de fibra de soja e de mandioca estudadas variaram de 11 a 248 com consequentes concentrações de nitrogênio de 4,25 a 0,20%, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que os substratos somente com fibra de soja propiciam maior crescimento micelial que

  16. Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens Produced by Solid State Cultivation

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    Dalla S. O. Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this study had as objective to verify the effects on kidney function indices after long intake of A. brasiliensis mycelium. Approach: Wheat grains was cultured during 18 days with Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium by solid state culture and used for chown formulation. Groups of female Swiss mice (20 per group were fed during 14 weeks with 100 and 50% of the formulated feed denominated A100 and A50, respectively. Control group received formulated chown with wheat grains without mycelium. The water intake and excreted urine volume; the physic chemistry analysis of the urine and the serum levels of glucose, proteins, urea, creatinin and uric acid was determined (Meditron Junior-Boehringer, reagent strips Combur 10; microscopy and ADVIA 1650 Bayer. Results: A100 and A50 groups ingested 19.1 and 15.8% more water compared to C group, respectively. The urine and serum analysis showed that the verified parameters remained invariables for all groups, including glucose levels, which resulted in a 10% reduction of A100 group, without statistical difference (p>0.05 Vs C. Conclusion/Recommendations: The prolonged intake of supplemented feed with A. brasiliensis mycelium didn’t result in indicative alterations in the kidney function indices. The preventive use of the mushroom did not show any deleterious effects on kidney; however complementary studies are necessary to guarantee complete safety; possible correlation between increase of urinary excretion and hypotensive effect

  17. Analysis of fish assemblages in sectors along a salinity gradient based on species, families and functional groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina dos Passos; Riguel Feltrin Contente; Felippe Veneziani Abbatepaulo; Henry Louis Spach; Ciro Colodetti Vilar; Jean Christophe Joyeux; Beatriz Fernanda Chinhilla Cartagena; Luis Fernando Fávaro

    2013-01-01

    Here we test the effects of the east-west salinity gradient in the subtropical Paranaguá Bay Estuarine Complex (PEC) on the structure of shallow water fish fauna, determined according to taxonomic (families and species) and functional composition metrics. A total of 152 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were the Sciaenidae, Carangidae, Haemulidae and Gobiidae. The most abundant species were Atherinella brasiliensis, Harengula clupeola, Anchoa januaria and ...

  18. Chemical constituents and evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of roots of Sabicea brasiliensis Wernh (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos e avaliavao das atividades antioxidante e anti-inflamatoria das raizes de Sabicea brasiliensis Wernh (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Jucilene Cavalini; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Schuquel, Ivania T. Albrecht; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da, E-mail: ccsilva@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacologia e Terapeutica; Oliveira, Cecilia Maria Alves de; Kato, Lucilia; Ferreira, Heleno Dias [Universidade Federal de Goais (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Sabicea brasiliensis roots led to the isolation of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5- and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinics acids, scopoletin, ursolic acid, a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, daucosterol and saccharose. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic methods and by comparison with literature data. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions were analyzed. (author)

  19. Production of mRNA cytokines in BALB/c mice infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and analyses of the results by image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of mRNA cytokines in BALB/c mice infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is studied. It is reported that in the beginning of the disease with P. brasiliensis stimulated mice showed an analogous production between IL-2 and IL-10 mRNA, however, there is a predominance of IL-2 mRNA in the lung and of IL-10 mRNA in the liver cells. In this model, there is a dynamic change in the levels of IL-2 and IL-10 mRNA, suggesting the presence of both CD4+ T helper cells

  20. First documented record of Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819 and Calomys laucha (G. Fischer, 1814 in the state of Santa Catarina, south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the richness of small mammals in the Brazilian South Region are recent and point out the need for using varied methods. This way, this paper contributes to knowledge on the fauna of small sigmodontinae rodents in Santa Catarina, including Holochilus brasiliensis and Calomys laucha in the list of species with confirmed occurrence in this state. The records of H. brasiliensis refer to Laguna (n = 2 and Timbe do Sul (n = 1. In turn, C. laucha presents 23 records from Capinzal. The entire material is represented by skull fragments from owl pellets samples collected from nests and feeding perches of the Tyto alba.

  1. Inhibitory effect of deferoxamine on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis survival in human monocytes: reversal by holotransferrin not by apotransferrin Efeito inibidor da deferoxamina sobre a sobrevivência do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em monócitos humanos: reversão por holotransferrina e não por apotransferrina

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    Luciane Alarcão Dias-Melicio

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms used by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to survive into phagocytic cells are not clear. Cellular iron metabolism is of critical importance to the growth of several intracellular pathogens whose capacity to multiply in mononuclear phagocytes is dependent on the availability of intracellular iron. Thus, the objective of this paper was to investigate the role of intracellular iron in regulating the capacity of P. brasiliensis yeast cells to survive within human monocytes. Treatment of monocytes with deferoxamine, an iron chelator, suppressed the survival of yeasts in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of deferoxamine was reversed by iron-saturated transferrin (holotransferrin but not by nonsaturated transferrin (apotransferrin. These results strongly suggest that P. brasiliensis survival in human monocytes is iron dependent.Os mecanismos utilizados pelo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis para sobreviver em células fagocitárias ainda não estão elucidados. O metabolismo celular férrico é muito importante para o crescimento de inúmeros patógenos intracelulares cuja capacidade de se multiplicarem em fagócitos mononucleares é dependente da disponibilidade intracelular do íon ferro. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o papel do ferro intracelular sobre a capacidade do P. brasiliensis sobreviver em monócitos humanos. O tratamento de monócitos com deferoxamina, uma droga quelante, diminuiu a sobrevivência de leveduras do fungo de forma dose-dependente. O efeito inibidor da deferoxamina sobre a sobrevivência do P. brasiliensis foi revertido por transferrina saturada com ferro (holotransferrina mas não por transferrina insaturada (apotransferrina. Estes resultados sugerem que a sobrevivência do P. brasiliensis em monócitos humanos é dependente do íon ferro.

  2. Inhibition of PbGP43 expression may suggest that gp43 is a virulence factor in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaura Torres

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein gp43 is an immunodominant diagnostic antigen for paracoccidioidomycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is abundantly secreted in isolates such as Pb339. It is structurally related to beta-1,3-exoglucanases, however inactive. Its function in fungal biology is unknown, but it elicits humoral, innate and protective cellular immune responses; it binds to extracellular matrix-associated proteins. In this study we applied an antisense RNA (aRNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to generate mitotically stable PbGP43 mutants (PbGP43 aRNA derived from wild type Pb339 to study its role in P. brasiliensis biology and during infection. Control PbEV was transformed with empty vector. Growth curve, cell vitality and morphology of PbGP43 aRNA mutants were indistinguishable from those of controls. PbGP43 expression was reduced 80-85% in mutants 1 and 2, as determined by real time PCR, correlating with a massive decrease in gp43 expression. This was shown by immunoblotting of culture supernatants revealed with anti-gp43 mouse monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies, and also by affinity-ligand assays of extracellular molecules with laminin and fibronectin. In vitro, there was significantly increased TNF-α production and reduced yeast recovery when PbGP43 aRNA1 was exposed to IFN-γ-stimulated macrophages, suggesting reduced binding/uptake and/or increased killing. In vivo, fungal burden in lungs of BALB/c mice infected with silenced mutant was negligible and associated with decreased lung ΙΛ-10 and IL-6. Therefore, our results correlated low gp43 expression with lower pathogenicity in mice, but that will be definitely proven when PbGP43 knockouts become available. This is the first study of gp43 using genetically modified P. brasiliensis.

  3. Paracoccidioides lutzii Plp43 is an active glucanase with partial antigenic identity with P. brasiliensis gp43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael P Leitão

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. P. brasiliensis main diagnostic antigen is glycoprotein gp43, and its peptide sequence is 81% identical with a P. lutzii ortholog here called Plp43. P. lutzii ("Pb01-like" apparently predominates in Midwestern/Northern Brazil, where high percentages of false-negative reactions using P. brasiliensis antigens have recently been reported. The aim of this work was to produce recombinant Plp43 to study its antigenic identity with gp43.We expressed rPlp43 as a secreted major component in Pichia pastoris and studied its reactivity in immunoblot with PCM patients' sera from Southwestern and Midwestern Brazil.We showed that rPlp43 is not glycosylated and bears glucanase activity. The protein did not react with anti-gp43 monoclonal antibodies in immunoblot, suggesting absence of the corresponding gp43 epitopes. Nevertheless, common epitope(s might exist, considering that gp43-positive PCM sera recognized rPlp43 in immunoblot, while gp43-negative sera (33 out of 51 from patients resident in Midwestern Brazil were also rPlp43-negative. Two genotyped P. lutzii were from patients with gp43-negative sera, suggesting that non-reactive sera are from patients infected with this species.Our data suggest that gp43 and Plp43 bear one or only a few common epitopes and that gp43 cannot be used in diagnosis of PCM patients infected with P. lutzii probably because Plp43 is poorly expressed during infection.

  4. Royal Sun Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricomycetidae), Derived Polysaccharides Exert Immunomodulatory Activities In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Leilei; Zhang, Yanqing; Xie, Junbo; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Huan; Wei, Weilu; Li, Yingrui

    2016-01-01

    The royal sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis is a widely consumed mushroom around the world. In this study, the immunoregulatory potential of A. brasiliensis polysaccharides was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, the polysaccharides remarkably increased the spleen and thymus indexes in mice, and this effect was influenced significantly by age (the adult and the juvenile). The spleen index increased by 27.28% in adult mice treated with the polysaccharides, whereas the increase in juvenile mice was just 12.59% at the dose of 150 mg·kg-1·d-1. Moreover, the effect of the polysaccharides on the thymus and spleen indexes in adult mice was obvious both in males and females. The carbon clearance ability (phagocytic index) was improved with increasing doses, (32.81% at 120 mg·kg-1·d-1, and 38.34% at 150 mg·kg-1·d-1) in mice treated with the polysaccharides. In vitro, the polysaccharides increased the RAW264.7 cell proliferation with 34.78% at 25 µg/mL and 26.78% at 50 µg/mL. Furthermore, the polysaccharides also promoted mRNA expressions of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation 88 (MYD88), and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) in the cells, indicating that the polysaccharides induce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by stimulating TLR4/MyD88 and TLR4/TRIF pathways. In conclusion, these results suggest that A. brasiliensis polysaccharides induce a very promising immunostimulation effect in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, it should be explored as a novel natural functional food additive. PMID:27279534

  5. Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patricia Silva; Watanabe, Gisele Almeida; Cota, Betania Barros; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM. PMID:20645716

  6. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis and SNP markers development for rubber biosynthesis pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Campos Mantello

    Full Text Available Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Ex Adr. Juss. Muell.-Arg. is the primary source of natural rubber that is native to the Amazon rainforest. The singular properties of natural rubber make it superior to and competitive with synthetic rubber for use in several applications. Here, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq of H. brasiliensis bark on the Illumina GAIIx platform, which generated 179,326,804 raw reads on the Illumina GAIIx platform. A total of 50,384 contigs that were over 400 bp in size were obtained and subjected to further analyses. A similarity search against the non-redundant (nr protein database returned 32,018 (63% positive BLASTx hits. The transcriptome analysis was annotated using the clusters of orthologous groups (COG, gene ontology (GO, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, and Pfam databases. A search for putative molecular marker was performed to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. In total, 17,927 SSRs and 404,114 SNPs were detected. Finally, we selected sequences that were identified as belonging to the mevalonate (MVA and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathways, which are involved in rubber biosynthesis, to validate the SNP markers. A total of 78 SNPs were validated in 36 genotypes of H. brasiliensis. This new dataset represents a powerful information source for rubber tree bark genes and will be an important tool for the development of microsatellites and SNP markers for use in future genetic analyses such as genetic linkage mapping, quantitative trait loci identification, investigations of linkage disequilibrium and marker-assisted selection.

  7. Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis DNA on serum samples from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis

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    Cecília Eugenia Charbel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the DNA of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in human serum samples of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM was defined by microscopic observation of the fungus on direct exam or histopathology, culture, and serological positivity. DNA from serum of 33 patients with PCM was extracted and submitted to nested-PCR using primers from the gp 43 gene. Only one sample was positive on nested-PCR. We conclude that the prevalence of fungemia in patients with different clinical forms of PCM is low, limiting the use of serum DNA detection as an alternative diagnostic tool.

  8. Chemical constituents and evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of roots of Sabicea brasiliensis Wernh (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytochemical investigation of Sabicea brasiliensis roots led to the isolation of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5- and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinics acids, scopoletin, ursolic acid, a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, daucosterol and saccharose. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic methods and by comparison with literature data. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions were analyzed. (author)

  9. Effect of different levels of sodium chloride and glucose on fermentation of sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis) by Lactobacillus sakei 2a

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Luiz Pinho Espirito Santo; Cristiane Lisboa; Fernanda Gonçalves Alves; Daniela Martins; Luiz Henrique Beirão; Ernani Sebastião Sant'Anna; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo Franco

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain. In this study, it's effects as a starter culture in the curing process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) fillets were studied at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4, 6%) and glucose (2, 4%). After 21 days of fermentation, the spoilage microorganisms population reached 9.7 Log10 CFU g-1 corresponding to 6% NaCl and 4% glucose. With no addition of glucose and starter culture, sardine fillets began spoilage 72 hours after fermentatio...

  10. Historical and Actual Presence of the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis on the Lower Meta River, Department of Casanare - Colombia Orinoquia

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    Díaz H.J.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been little information published about the distribution of giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis in Colombia, and recent distribution maps have failed to include the Department of Casanare as having giant otters present. Some ancient chronicles, however, record giant otter occurrence in the Colombian Orinoquia, as well as the value of its skin. It is believed that since 1974, when the commerce of skins ceased in Colombia, populations of this species have recuperated in this area. In this paper we confirm the presence of giant otters in this part of the country, and provide identification of individuals sighted through neck patterns.

  11. Approches biologique et ultrastructurale des modalités du parasitisme de Rigidoporus lignosus et Phellinus noxius sur Hevea brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole, Michel

    1988-01-01

    Les Basidiomycètes Polyporacées, #Rigidoporus lignosus$ et #Phellinus noxius$, respectivement agent du pourridé blanc et agent du pourridé brun, provoquent des pourritures graves du système racinaire de l'arbre à caoutchouc, #Hevea brasiliensis$. Une étude fine des interactions hôte-parasite nécessite, avant tout, un strict contrôle de l'infection. Le chapitre premier décrit la réalisation, en conditions contrôlées, d'infections artificielles de jeunes Hévéa (clone GT1) par ces champignons (r...

  12. Demography of the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Manu National Park, South-Eastern Peru: Implications for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Groenendijk, Jessica; Hajek, Frank; Johnson, Paul J.; Macdonald, David W.; Calvimontes, Jorge; Staib, Elke; Schenck, Christof

    2014-01-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an endangered semi-aquatic carnivore of South America. We present findings on the demography of a population inhabiting the floodplain of Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru, arising from 14 annual dry season censuses over a 16 year period. The breeding system of territorial groups, including only a single breeding female with non-reproductive adult ‘helpers’, resulted in a low intrinsic rate of increase (0.03) and a slow recovery from decades of...

  13. Feeding habits of giant otters Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora: Mustelidae) in the Balbina hydroelectric reservoir, Central Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia M. M. Cabral; Jansen Zuanon; Gália E. de Mattos; Fernando C. W. Rosas

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the diet of giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmermann, 1780) in the Balbina reservoir (01º55'S, 59º29'W), to compare it with literature data on the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas, and to verify the effects of the seasonal changes in water levels on the feeding habits of Balbina otters. A total of 254 feces samples were collected and identified according to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Teleostei fish were present in 100% of the samples; t...

  14. Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em eqüinos Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae in horses

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    Célso Pilati

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As partes aéreas dessecadas de Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. colhidas em estágio de brotação foram administradas a 14 eqüinos de raça mista, com idades de 4-22 anos e pesos de 230-475 kg. Um eqüino de 15 anos, que não recebeu a planta, serviu de controle. Pequenas quantidades da planta eram misturadas à ração oferecida aos eqüinos; quantidades maiores eram moídas, misturadas em água e administradas por sonda nasogástrica. Biópsias hepáticas foram periodicamente realizadas em 11 eqüinos. Nove eqüinos morreram com sinais ou lesões da intoxicação após receberem quantidades da planta correspondente a 0,87%, 1,5% (administrações únicas, 1,74% (duas administrações semanais, 3.0% (três administrações diárias, 7.42% (17 administrações semanais, 8.9% (284 administrações diárias, 9.66% (82 administrações diárias e 9,30% (43 administrações semanais de seus pesos corporais. Dois eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 15,0% (30 e 60 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais morreram durante o experimento por causas não relacionadas à intoxicação. Três eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 0,5% e 1.0% (administrações únicas, 15.0% (240 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais e o eqüino controle sobreviveram sem apresentar sinais clínicos. A doença clínica induzida pela planta teve uma evolução de 1-30 dias e foi caracterizada por anorexia, icterícia, e sinais neurológicos de encefalopatia hepática. Perda de peso foi observada nos casos de evolução clínica mais longa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular na superfície natural e de corte dos fígados ou eram firmes e vermelho-escuros. Hemorragias disseminadas eram freqüentes, mas mais conspícuas no tecido subcutâneo, superfícies serosa e mucosa do trato gastrintestinal. Edema era observado na submucosa do trato gastrintestinal e nas cavidades org

  15. Bacteriocinogenic effect of Lactobacillus sakei 2a on microbiological quality of fermented Sardinella brasiliensis

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    Milton L. P. Espírito Santo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain and, in this work, it's effects as a starter culture in the fermentation process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fillets were observed at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4 and 6% and glucose (2 and 4%, to determine it's ability to produce organic acids and consequent pH reduction. Experiments were carried out independently, with only one parameter (NaCl or glucose varying at a time. After 21 days of fermentation the deteriorative bacteria concentration reached 9.7 Log10 CFU. g-1 corresponding to 6% NaCl and 4% glucose. Little differences were observed in lactic acid production when 2 and 4% glucose were added, since total acidity was 1.32 and 1.34% respectively, the experiments with 6% NaCl presented the best results. Initial pH of sardine fillets was 6 and after 21 days pH values were 3.8, 3.9 and 4 for the experiments with 2, 4 and 6% NaCl. This may have been due to the inhibitory properties of NaCl over the deteriorative bacteria. After 21 days of the fermentation process lactic acid bacteria concentrations were 14.5 Log10 CFU.g-1. The ratio protein nitrogen and total soluble nitrogen was typical of a cured fish.Lactobacillus sakei é comprovadamente uma cepa produtora de bacteriocinas e, neste trabalho procurou-se observar seus efeitos como cultivo iniciador, na fermentação de filés de sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis em diferentes concentrações de NaCl (2, 4 e 6% e glicose (2 e 4%, observando-se sua capacidade para produzir ácidos orgânicos e conseqüente redução do pH e microrganismos deterioradores. Os tratamentos foram desenvolvidos de forma independente, variando apenas um dos parâmetros operacionais (NaCl ou glicose. Ao término de 21 dias de fermentação, a concentração de microrganismos deterioradores atingiu 9,7 Log10 UFC.g-1, correspondente a 6% de NaCl e 4% de glicose. Poucas diferenças foram observadas na produção de ácido lático quando

  16. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the metacaspase gene family in Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Deng, Zhi; Chen, Jiangshu; Wang, Sen; Hao, Lili; Li, Dejun

    2016-08-01

    Metacaspases, a family of cysteine proteases, have been suggested to play important roles in programmed cell death (PCD) during plant development and stress responses. To date, no systematic characterization of this gene family has been reported in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In the present study, nine metacaspase genes, designated as HbMC1 to HbMC9, were identified from whole-genome sequence of rubber tree. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses suggested that these genes were divided into two types: type I (HbMC1-HBMC7) and type II (HbMC8 and HbMC9). Gene structure analysis demonstrated that type I and type II HbMCs separately contained four and two introns, indicating the conserved exon-intron organization of HbMCs. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that HbMCs showed distinct expression patterns in different tissues, suggesting the functional diversity of HbMCs in various tissues during development. Most of the HbMCs were regulated by drought, cold, and salt stress, implying their possible functions in regulating abiotic stress-induced cell death. Of the nine HbMCs, HbMC1, HbMC2, HbMC5, and HbMC8 displayed a significantly higher relative transcript accumulation in barks of tapping panel dryness (TPD) trees compared with healthy trees. In addition, the four genes were up-regulated by ethephon (ET) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), indicating their potential involvement in TPD resulting from ET- or JA-induced PCD. In summary, this work provides valuable information for further functional characterization of HbMC genes in rubber tree. PMID:27085600

  17. Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis spawning in the southeast Brazilian Bight over the period 1976-1993

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    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on sampling over the period 1976-1993 in the southeast Brazilian Bight, the distribution of spawning of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasi/iensis is described in relation to environmental conditions. The area of intense spawning occurs in the southern part of the bight where coastal upwelling was less /Tequent. Spawning intensity showed high interannllal variation and the egg abundance in the survey area ranged /Tom 99 billion eggs in the January 1988 cruise to 4669 billion eggs in the January 1981 cruise. Peak spawning takes place one hour after midnight and eggs hatch . out within 19 hours with a water temperature of 24 °e.Baseado nos dados coletados durante nove cruzeiros oceanográficos realizados na região sudeste, as áreas de desova da sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis foram apresentadas c discutidas em relação às condições oceanográficas. As áreas de desova intensiva foram localizadas na parte sul da área de investigação, onde a ressurgência costeira foi menos freqüente. A intensidade de desova demonstrou uma variação anual relativamente grande. A produção total de ovos da sardinha- ­verdadeira variou de 99 bilhões de ovos durante o cruzeiro de janeiro de 1988 para 4669 bilhões de ovos em janeiro de 1981. O pico de desova ocorre na camada de mistura de superfície uma hora após a meia noite e os ovos eclodem em 19 horas com a temperatura de água 24 °e.

  18. Variation of soil fertility and carbon sequestration by planting Hevea brasiliensis in Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Chun-man; WANG Ru-song; JIANG Ju-sheng

    2007-01-01

    The development of rubber industry depends on the sustainable management of rubber plantation.To evaluate the environmental effects of planting Hevea brasiliensis on a subsystem of tropical forest ecosystem,the variation of soil fertility and carbon sequestration under rubber plantation within 30-year life period were investigated in Hainan Island.Results showed that(1)with the increase of stand age of rubber plantation.soil fertility decreased all along.From 1954 to 1995,soil organic matter,total N,available K and available P decreased by 48.2%.54.1%.56.7%and 64.1%,respectively.(2)If the complete return of litters was considered without additional fertilizer application to the soil of the rubber plantations,the consumption periods for P,N,K,Mg were only 825 years,329 years,94 years and 65 years.respectively.To improve soil fertility iS essential for rubber plantation development.(3)The C sequestration of rubber trees per hectare accounts for 272.08 t wimin 30-year life period and 57.91%of them was fixed in 1itters.In comparison with C sequestration by rain forest(234-305 t/hm2)and by secondary rain forest(150.203 t/hm2),rubber forest has more potentials for C fixation.On the base of above results.the following measures would benefit the maintenance of soil fertility and the development of rubber industry,including applying fertilizer to maintain the balance of soil nutrients,intercropping leguminous plant to improve soil fertility,reducing the collection of litters,optimizing soil properties to improve element P availability such as applying CaCO3.The information gathered from the study can be used as baseline data for the sustainable management of rubber plantation elsewhere.

  19. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan D.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of expanding rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation on water cycling in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), evapotranspiration (ET) was measured within rubber plantations at Bueng Kan, Thailand, and Kampong Cham, Cambodia. After energy closure adjustment, mean annual rubber ET was 1211 and 1459 mm yr-1 at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively, higher than that of other tree-dominated land covers in the region, including tropical seasonal forest (812-1140 mm yr-1), and savanna (538-1060 mm yr-1). The mean proportion of net radiation used for ET by rubber (0.725) is similar to that of tropical rainforest (0.729) and much higher than that of tropical seasonal forest (0.595) and savanna (0.548). Plant area index (varies with leaf area changes), explains 88.2% and 73.1% of the variance in the ratio of latent energy flux (energy equivalent of ET) to potential latent energy flux (LE/LEpot) for midday rain-free periods at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. High annual rubber ET results from high late dry season water use, associated with rapid refoliation by this brevideciduous species, facilitated by tapping of deep soil water, and by very high wet season ET, a characteristic of deciduous trees. Spatially, mean annual rubber ET increases strongly with increasing net radiation (Rn) across the three available rubber plantation observation sites, unlike nonrubber tropical ecosystems, which reduce canopy conductance at high Rn sites. High water use by rubber raises concerns about potential effects of continued expansion of tree plantations on water and food security in MSEA.

  20. Effect of opening girth and some latex physiological parameters on yield of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. L. K. Gunasekera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to investigate the possibility of exploiting rubber (Hevea brasiliensis for latex at a lower stem girth (40 and 45 cm and physiological yield parameters were monitored to establish factors responsible for differences in yield due to opening girths or tapping systems tested. Three different Hevea genotypes, i.e. RRISL 211, RRIC 121 and RRIC 102 were exploited at different growth stages, i.e. girth of 40 cm (G40, girth of 45 cm (G45 and girth of 50 cm (G50, using different tapping systems. Significant clonal differences were observed for the initial rate of latex flow (IFR, plugging index (PI, total volume of latex (vol, dry rubber content (DRC and dry rubber yield when tapping commenced at different opening girths. The overall results of the present study clearly showed that the plugging index was relatively high in trees opened at lower girths, i.e. 40 cm (G40 than in trees opened at higher girths, i.e. G45 and G50. Yield differences between trees of the same clone were mainly caused by differences in IFR, while differences between clones were mainly associated with differences in flow time. There is a highly significant positive correlation between PI and DRC irrespective of the tapping systems and opening girths. This study clearly showed that the DRC, PI and IFR vary according to year of tapping, tapping system and opening girth. At the immature phase (especially G40 trees during the first year were probably not mature enough to show normal latex flow relationships. Furthermore, variations in yield determining parameters have to be taken in to account in devising strategies for yield improvement in different clones.

  1. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil to Liquid Fuels

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    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reaction kinetics of catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil to liquid fuels has been investigated. The reac-tion was performed with sulfuric acid as catalyst at temperatures of 350-450 oC and the ratio of oil-catalyst of 0-2 wt.% for 30-90 minutes. Kinetics was studied using the model of 6-lump parameters. The parameters were rubber seed oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, gas, and coke. Analysis of experimen-tal data using regression models to obtain reaction rate constants. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors were then calculated based on the Arrhenius equation. The simulation result illus-trated that the six-lump kinetic model can well predict the product yields of rubber seed oil catalytic cracking. The product has high selectivity for gasoline fraction as liquid fuel and the smallest amount of coke. The constant indicates that secondary reactions occurred in diesel products compared to gaso-line and kerosene. The predicted results indicate that catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil had better be conducted at 450 oC for 90 minutes using 0.5 wt.% catalyst. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 3rd December 2013; Revised: 5th December 2014; Accepted: 7th December 2014How to Cite: Rengga, W.D.P., Handayani, P.A., Kadarwati, S., Feinnudin, A.(2015. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil  to Liquid Fuels. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 50-60. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60

  2. Selection of parent trees for Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis breeding based on RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSWANHADI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oktavia F, Lasminingsih M, Kuswanhadi. 2011. Selection of parent trees for Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis breeding based on RAPD analysis. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 124-129. The parent trees’ clones usually originate from the previous generation having the potential of high production with better agronomical characters. Although, phenotype characters can determine the genetic variability among accessions, they are highly sensitive to environmental factors, so it is often difficult to identify the difference between closely related clones. The genetic variability or phylogenetic relationships among rubber clones can be analysis using RAPD method, and based on the result, the parent trees can be selected. This research was aimed to analyze the genetic distance among rubber clones using RAPD method. Analysis was conducted on 45 rubber clones with 12 random primers. Pair-wise comparisons of unique and shared polymorphic amplification products were used to generate similarity coefficients. These coefficients were employed to construct a dendogram by using an Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetical Averages (UPGMA. The amplification of genomic DNA from 45 clones yielded 2408 DNA fragments, ranging in size from 250 bp to 3000 bp. The range of genetic similarity matrix was very wide (59.18%-94.23%. It indicated that most of the clones have a low level of polymorphism. The lowest genetic similarity (59,18% was found between RRIC 110 and AVROS 352 clones, while the highest (94.23% was between IRR 41 and IRR 42 clones. Cluster analysis showed that 45 clones of rubber were divided into two groups, the biggest group consisted of 30 clones, while the other one consisted of 15 clones with a genetic similarity value of 0,73.

  3. Organochlorine insecticide residues in the free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) at Bracken Cave, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Martin, C.O.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Fifty-nine free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana ) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and analyzed for organochlorine insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Residues of DDE in the brain were greater in 12 young collected from the floor than in 15 young taken from the ceiling, but food deprivation, not higher residues in the brain, apparently caused young to fall....Among 18 pregnant females, residues of DDE and DDT were highest in yearlings. The first lactation by yearlings caused their residue loads to drop sharply. Thereafter, increasing age was accompanied by increasing residues but amounts generally did not exceed those in yearlings.....Residue levels in embryos were a function both of levels in the female parent and degree of embryonic development. Residues accumulated rapidly in nursing young, and lactating females may excrete from 1.3 to 16.2 (mean = 4.3) micrograms of DDE in milk per day. Maximum individual residue loads may be attained toward the end of nursing, and mobilization of these residues during southward migration may subject Bracken Cave free-tails to maximum lifetime residues in the brain....Comparison of our data with residue data for the free-tail population at Eagle Creek Cave (Arizona) in 1970 produced the following conclusions: ( 1) residues of DDE appeared similar in pregnant females, embryos, lactating females, and fallen young for the two populations; (2) residues of DDT and dieldrin appeared greater in pregnant females at Bracken Cave; (3) DDE and DDT occurred at greater levels in guano samples from Bracken Cave. On this basis, the population decline observed at Eagle Creek Cave between 1963 and 1969 does not appear to be related to the residues observed in the 1970 samples taken from that cave.

  4. Aspectos anatômicos e funcionais do aparelho reprodutor de Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae Anatomical and functional aspects of the reproductive system of Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oliveira de Almeida

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of morphological external characteristics that allow the recognition of the sex as well as the presence of both male and female gonopores in the same animal [except in some sexual forms of Parastacus nicoleti (Philippi, 1882] gives rise to the hypothetical existence of some form of hermaphroditism in crayfishes belonging to the genus Parastacus Huxley, 1879. Specimens of Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869 were collected in a rivulet at Mariana Pimentel municipality, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In the laboratory they were reared and dissected. The results suggest that P. brasiliensis may be a sequential hermaphroditic species, but male and female gonadal tissues were not simultaneously present in the analized samples. In testes and ovaries two pairs of genital ducts are present; that connect, respectively, to the gonopores on the coxae of the fifth and the third pairs of pereiopods. In the females only the apertures and anterior ducts seem to be functional, while in the males only the apertures and posterior ducts may be functional. The existence of different degrees of obstruction in the female genital apertures and different degrees of projection in the male genital apertures was observed. The aspect of the gonopores were used to recognize, externally, the sex of animais.

  5. Aspectos da anatomia e do óleo essencial em folhas de Pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng. Aspects of the anatomy and essential oil in leaves of pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng.

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    Breno Régis Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, estudaram-se aspectos de anatomia foliar, extraiu-se e caracterizou-se o óleo essencial presente nos tecidos foliares de pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis. Os cortes transversais foram realizados à mão livre com o auxílio de uma lâmina de barbear e submetidos ao processo de coloração com safranina e azul de astra. A extração e a caracterização do óleo essencial foram realizadas pela técnica de arraste de vapor de água. Na seção transversal da folha da pindaíba foi observada a presença de cavidade oleífera, sendo o óleo constituído principalmente de óxido de cariofileno.Aspects of leaf anatomy, extraction and characterization of essential oils present in leaf tissues of Pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis, were studied. The anatomical cuts were manually performed and their visualization were made through a coloration process using safranine and astra blue. The extraction and characterization of the essential oil used the steam drag’s method. With these studies it was observed the presence of oily idioblasts filled mainly with cariophylene oxide.

  6. Observações sobre stomatopoda Squilla brasiliensis calman, 1917 na plataforma continental do Rio Grande do Sul Observation on the Stamatopoda Squilla brasiliensis Calman, 1917 on the continental shelf of the Rio Grande do Sul State

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    Luiz Roberto Tommasi

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available O Stomatopoda Squilla brasiliensis ocorreu em 60 estações na plataforma continental do Rio Grande do Sul. É aparentemente, bastante freqüente entre 19 e 285 m de profundidade, mas especialmente entre 100 e 150 m, temperatura da água de fundo de 12,22 a 24,45ºC, salinidade de 30,20 a 36,16º/.., fundo de areia fina e lodo com baixo teor de calcario (0-20% na fração menor do que 44µ. Ocorreu especialmente em fundos sob influencia da massa de água Subtropical. As maiores abundancias ocorreram entre 30º e 31ºS e entre 49º e 50ºW. Vários exemplares, tanto machos como fêmeas, apresentaram telso com bordos entumescidos, o que sugere não ser essa uma característica ligada ao sexo nesta espécie .The distribution of Squilla brasiliensis Caiman, 1917 (Crustacea Stomatopoda is by the first time discussed in the continental plataform in the region of Rio Grande do Sul State, in relationship with depth, temperature and salinity. Apparently the distribution of that species is more related to salinity than to depth and temperature, and specially to the water mass of Subtropical origin. The largest densities were found between 84 and 128 m depth.

  7. Thioridazine inhibits gene expression control of the cell wall signaling pathway (CWI) in the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabes, Daniela Leite; de Freitas Oliveira, Ana Claudia; Alencar, Valquíria Campos; Menegidio, Fabiano Bezerra; Reno, Débora Liliane Souza; Santos, Daiene Souza; Barbosa, David Aciole; Vilas Boas, Renata Ozelami; de Oliveira Rodrigues Cunha, Rodrigo Luiz; Rodrigues, Tiago; Costa de Oliveira, Regina; Nunes, Luiz R

    2016-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus associated with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most common systemic mycosis in Latin America. PCM treatment involves a long-term chemotherapeutic approach and relapses occur at an alarming frequency. Moreover, the emergence of strains with increased drug-resistance phenotypes puts constant pressure on the necessity to develop new alternatives to treat systemic mycoses. In this work, we show that the phenothiazine (PTZ) derivative thioridazine (TR) inhibits in vitro growth of P. brasiliensis yeasts at micromolar concentrations. We employed microarray hybridization to examine how TR affects gene expression in this fungus, identifying ~1800 genes that were modulated in response to this drug. Dataset evaluation showed that TR inhibits the expression of genes that control the onset of the cell wall integrity (CWI) response, hampering production of all major structural polysaccharides of the fungal cell wall (chitin, α-glucan and β-glucan). Although TR and other PTZs have been shown to display antimicrobial activity by various mechanisms, inhibition of CWI signaling has not yet been reported for these drugs. Thus, TR may provide a novel approach to treat fungal infections by targeting cell wall biogenesis. PMID:26956010

  8. Communication during copulation in the sex-role reversed wolf spider Allocosa brasiliensis: Female shakes for soliciting new ejaculations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Diaz, Virginia; Aisenberg, Anita; Peretti, Alfredo V

    2015-07-01

    Traditional studies on sexual communication have focused on the exchange of signals during courtship. However, communication between the sexes can also occur during or after copulation. Allocosa brasiliensis is a wolf spider that shows a reversal in typical sex roles and of the usual sexual size dimorphism expected for spiders. Females are smaller than males and they are the roving sex that initiates courtship. Occasional previous observations suggested that females performed body shaking behaviors during copulation. Our objective was to analyze if female body shaking is associated with male copulatory behavior in A. brasiliensis, and determine if this female behavior has a communicatory function in this species. For that purpose, we performed fine-scaled analysis of fifteen copulations under laboratory conditions. We video-recorded all the trials and looked for associations between female and male copulatory behaviors. The significant difference between the time before and after female shaking, in favor of the subsequent ejaculation is analyzed. We discuss if shaking could be acting as a signal to accelerate and motivate palpal insertion and ejaculation, and/or inhibiting male cannibalistic tendencies in this species. PMID:25963301

  9. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  10. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory evaluation of essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) were individually obtained by hydrodistillation and their compounds characterized by use of GC/FID and GC/MS. The main identified derivatives were monoterpenes (leaves 4.31% and stem barks 90.02%) and sesquiterpenes (leaves 52.31% and stem barks 6.35%). Additionally, the sesquiterpene polygodial was isolated from hexane extract from stem barks of D. brasiliensis after chromatographic steps and characterized by spectroscopic means, mainly NMR. Aiming the evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential, the crude essential oils and the sesquiterpene polygodial were subjected to bioassays to evaluate the acute toxicity of these compounds as well as the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities induced by carrageenan and formalin in mice. Ours results showed that essential oil obtained from the stem barks significantly reduced the oedema induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect induced by stem barks oil (at 200 mg kg-1) was similar to observed for indomethacin (at 10 mg kg-1) and superior for polygodial (at 200 mg kg-1) in 30 and 60 min after the administration of essential oils. The inflammatory response induced by formalin was effective to the stem barks oil (62.5%) in comparison to polygodial (50.0%). (author)

  11. Haematological and immunological effects of repeated dose exposure of rats to integerrimine N-oxide from Senecio brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Fabiana; Latorre, Andreia O; Pípole, Fernando; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Górniak, Silvana L; Hueza, Isis M

    2011-09-01

    This study is the first in the literature to focus attention on the possible immunotoxic effect of integerrimine N-oxide content in the butanolic residue (BR) of Senecio brasiliensis, a poisonous hepatotoxic plant that contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). PAs have been reported as a pasture and food contaminant and as herbal medicine used worldwide and are responsible for poisoning events in livestock and human beings. After the plant extraction, BR extracted from Senecio brasiliensis was found to contain approximately 70% integerrimine N-oxide by elemental and spectral analyses ((1)H and (13)C NMR), which was administered to adult male Wistar Hannover rats at doses of 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg for 28 days. Body weight gain, food consumption, lymphoid organs, neutrophil analysis, humoural immune response, cellular immune response and lymphocyte analysis were evaluated. Our study showed that integerrimine N-oxide could promote an impairment in the body weight gain, interference with blood cell counts and a reducing T cell proliferative activity in rats; however, no differences in the neutrophil activities, lymphocytes phenotyping and humoural and cellular immune responses were observed. It is concluded that doses of integerrimine N-oxide here employed did not produce marked immunotoxic effects. PMID:21722699

  12. The effect of royal sun agaricus, agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., Extract on methyl Methanesulfonate caused genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savic, T.; Patenkovic, A.; Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Andjelkovic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus (Agaricus brasiliensis) hot water extract on methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced mutagenicity/genotoxity in Drosophila melanogaster was studied using a quick and broadly applicable in vivo assay, i.e., the wing somatic mutation and recombination

  13. Blood parameter analysis and morphological alterations as biomarkers on the health of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis

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    Silvia Romão

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the influence of the environment on fish health. Samples of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis, were collected from three different environments: area I was urban and areas II and III were rural. Analyses of red blood cell count, microhematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count and differential white cell count in blood smear were carried out. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated. To analyze morphological alterations, gills, liver, kidney and gonads were submitted to routine histological processing. Individuals collected from area III had slightly lower blood indices than collected from area I . Severe kidney changes, degeneration of and crystallization within kidney tubules were observed. In area I, crystallization was observed in 92% of the specimens of G. brasiliensis. These results suggested that such alterations were related with poor water circulation in the place.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do ambiente sobre a higidez dos peixes. Animais, das espécies Hoplias malabaricus e Geophagus brasiliensis foram coletados em três ambientes distintos, sendo ambiente I região urbana e ambientes II e III em região rural. Foram realizadas análises do número total de eritrócitos por microlitro de sangue, microhematócrito, taxa de hemoglobina, porcentagem de leucócito e contagem diferencial de leucócitos em extensão sanguínea. Calcularam-se os índices hematimétricos absolutos: volume corpuscular médio e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média. Para análises das alterações morfológicas, brânquias, fígado, gônadas e rim seguiram processamento histológico de rotina. Foram observados índices hematológicos ligeiramente menores em indivíduos coletados no ambiente III em relação aos animais coletados no ambiente I. As análises histológicas de brânquias, fígado e gônadas das espécies G

  14. Polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis show similarities in their structures and their immunomodulatory effects on human monocytic THP-1 cells

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    Wichers Harry J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. Crude mushroom extracts have been tested without detailed chemical analyses of its polysaccharide content. For the present study we decided to chemically determine the carbohydrate composition of semi-purified extracts from 2 closely related and well known basidiomycete species, i.e. Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis and to study their effects on the innate immune system, in particular on the in vitro induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, using THP-1 cells. Methods Mushroom polysaccharide extracts were prepared by hot water extraction and precipitation with ethanol. Their composition was analyzed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. PMA activated THP-1 cells were treated with the extracts under different conditions and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was evaluated by qPCR. Results Semi-purified polysaccharide extracts of A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis (= blazei were found to contain (1→6,(1→4-linked α-glucan, (1→6-linked β-glucan, and mannogalactan. Their proportions were determined by integration of 1H-NMR signs, and were considerably different for the two species. A. brasiliensis showed a higher content of β-glucan, while A. bisporus presented mannogalactan as its main polysaccharide. The extracts induced a comparable increase of transcription of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL-1β and TNF-α as well as of COX-2 in PMA differentiated THP-1 cells. Pro-inflammatory effects of bacterial LPS in this assay could be reduced significantly by the simultaneous addition of A. brasiliensis extract. Conclusions The polysaccharide preparations from the closely related species A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis show major differences in composition: A. bisporus shows high mannogalactan content whereas A. brasiliensis has mostly

  15. A rabies vaccine adjuvanted with saponins from leaves of the soap tree (Quillaja brasiliensis) induces specific immune responses and protects against lethal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendo, Anna Carolina A; de Costa, Fernanda; Cibulski, Samuel P; Teixeira, Thais F; Colling, Luana C; Mastrogiovanni, Mauricio; Soulé, Silvia; Roehe, Paulo M; Gosmann, Grace; Ferreira, Fernando A; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-04-29

    Quillaja brasiliensis (Quillajaceae) is a saponin producing species native from southern Brazil and Uruguay. Its saponins are remarkably similar to those of Q. saponaria, which provides most of the saponins used as immunoadjuvants in vaccines. The immunostimulating capacities of aqueous extract (AE) and purified saponin fraction (QB-90) obtained from leaves of Q. brasiliensis were favorably comparable to those of a commercial saponin-based adjuvant preparation (Quil-A(®)) in experimental vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 and 5, poliovirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice model. Herein, the immunogenicity and protection efficacy of rabies vaccines adjuvanted with Q. brasiliensis AE and its saponin fractions were compared with vaccines adjuvanted with either commercial Quil-A or Alum. Mice were vaccinated with one or two doses (on days 0 and 14) of one of the different vaccines and serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were quantified over time. A challenge experiment with a lethal dose of rabies virus was carried out with the formulations. Viral RNA detection in the brain of mice was performed by qPCR, and RNA copy-numbers were quantified using a standard curve of in vitro transcribed RNA. All Q. brasiliensis saponin-adjuvanted vaccines significantly enhanced levels of specific IgG isotypes when compared with the no adjuvant group (P≤0.05). Overall, one or two doses of saponin-based vaccine were efficient to protect against the lethal rabies exposure. Both AE and saponin fractions from Q. brasiliensis leaves proved potent immunological adjuvants in vaccines against a lethal challenge with a major livestock pathogen, hence confirming their value as competitive or complementary sustainable alternatives to saponins of Q. saponaria. PMID:27032516

  16. Δ24-Sterol Methyltransferase Plays an Important Role in the Growth and Development of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba-Santos, Luana P.; Visbal, Gonzalo; Gagini, Thalita; Rodrigues, Anderson M.; de Camargo, Zoilo P.; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M.; Ishida, Kelly; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of Δ24-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMT) in Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis was investigated in vitro. The effects on fungal growth and sterol composition of the 24-SMT inhibitor 22-hydrazone-imidazolin-2-yl-chol-5-ene-3β-ol (H3) were compared to those of itraconazole. MIC and MFC analysis showed that H3 was more effective than itraconazole against both species in both their filamentous and yeast forms. H3 showed fungistatic activity in a time-kill assay, with inhibitory activity stronger than that of itraconazole. GC analysis of cell sterol composition showed that sterols present in control cells (ergosterol and precursors) were completely replaced by 14α-methylated sterols after H3 exposure. Itraconazole only partially inhibited ergosterol synthesis but completely arrested synthesis of other sterols found in control cells, promoting accumulation of nine 14α-methyl sterols. Based on these results, we propose a schematic model of sterol biosynthesis pathways in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Effects on cell morphology due to 24-SMT inhibition by H3 as analyzed by SEM and TEM included irregular cell shape, reduced cytoplasmic electron-density, and reduced thickness of the microfibrillar cell wall layer. Moreover, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 promoted mitochondrial disturbance, as demonstrated by alterations in MitoTracker® Red CMXRos fluorescence intensity evaluated by flow cytometry. When used in conjunction with itraconazole, H3 enhanced the effectiveness of itraconazole against all tested strains, reducing at least half (or more) the MIC values of itraconazole. In addition, cytotoxicity assays revealed that H3 was more selective toward these fungi than was itraconazole. Thus, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 was an effective antifungal strategy against S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Inhibition of the methylation reaction catalyzed by 24-SMT has a strong antiproliferative effect via disruption of ergosterol homeostasis

  17. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae Selectivity ofthe pesticides tothe predaceous mite Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli,, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os ácaros predadores das famílias Phytoseiidae e Stigmaeidae constituem-se nos principais inimigos naturais de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes em citros. Este ácaro-praga causa sérios prejuízos na produção, devido à transmissão do vírus da leprose dos citros (CiLV. Apesar do grande volume de informações sobre a sensibilidade de ácaros Phytoseiidae a agrotóxicos, praticamente não existem informações sobre o efeito desses compostos em ácaros Stigmaeidae no Brasil. Sendo assim, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae, em condições de laboratório. Arenas de folhas de citros da variedade Pera, contendo 25 fêmeas adultas de A. brasiliensis, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se as mortalidades dos ácaros 72 horas após a aplicação. O efeito dos produtos na reprodução do acarino e a viabilidade dos ovos também foram avaliados. Quanto à seletividade, conforme proposta da "Organização Internacional para o Controle Biológico" (IOBC, os produtos foram classificados como: classe 1 - inócuo (E99%, calda sulfocálcica, cyhexatin, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, óxido de fenbutatin, propargite, pyridaben e spirodiclofen. Estudos conduzidos em condições de campo ainda são necessários para se compreender melhor o efeito desses agrotóxicos sobre o ácaro predador.The predaceous mites of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae are the most important natural enemies of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes on citrus. This mite causes serious damages to the yield due to the transmission of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV. Despite the considerable amount of information on susceptibility of phytoseiids to pesticides, the effect of these compounds is not very known for stigmaeid mites in Brazil. This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of the main pesticides used in

  18. Holochilus brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897: sugestão de modelo experimental para filariose, leishmaniose e esquistossomose Holochilus brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897: as an experimental model for filariasis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis

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    Othon de Carvalho Bastos

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Roedores silvestres, classificados como Holochilus brasiliensis nanus Thomas,1897, foram capturados na cidade de São Bento, pertencente à Região da Baixada, do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil, naturalmente infectados com formas adultas de filaria, na cavidade peritoneal, e microfilárias sangüíneas, assim como, com esquistossoma mansoni (vermes adultos e granulomas peri-ovulares hepáticos; intestinais; pulmonares; esplênicos e pancreáticos. Animais nascidos em Biotério, descendentes de Holochilus da Região da Baixada, foram infectados experimentalmente com Leishmania m. amazonensis e Schistosoma mansoni. Em observações semanais, foram encontradas lesões teciduais, semelhantes às que se desenvolvem em hamsters infectados com Leishmania, e hipergamaglobulinemia. Nos esquistossomóticos, foram constatadas hipergamaglobulinemia e reações granulomatosas similares às encontradas nos animais infectados naturalmente. Foram observadas, também, lesões hepática graves, semelhantes às encontradas na esquistossomose humana. Estes achados sugerem a utilização do Holochilus b. nanus como modelo experimental destas três doenças tropicais.Wild rodents classified as Holochilus brasiliensis nanus THOMAS, 1897, were captured in Lowland Region of State of Maranhão-Brazil. Natural infection by schistosome and filaria was detected in the most of these animals. Rodents born in the Animal House of the University of Maranhão were experimentally infected with Leishmania mexicana amazonensis or Schistosoma mansoni. Pathological aspects of leishmaniasis in these animals were found similar to that found in hamsters infected with Leishmania. Severe hepatic lesions were found in the animals infected with schistosome similar to that seen in human infection. These findings suggest the utilization of this animal as an experimental model of filariasis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis.

  19. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of Hevea brasiliensis clones Propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural de clones de Hevea brasiliensis

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    Rogério Manoel Biagi Moreno

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Rubber industry has increased the requirements for quality and uniformity of natural rubber produced in Brazil. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 and RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Former Adr. de Juss. Muell.- Arg] were evaluated by standard methods of the dry rubber content (DRC%, percentage of nitrogen (N% and percentage of ashes (ASH% in two consecutive years; data were correlated with temperature and precipitation. Properties of latex and natural rubber varied (P A indústria da borracha está cada vez mais exigente em relação à qualidade e a uniformidade da borracha natural produzida no Brasil. Neste trabalho as propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural dos clones de seringueira GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 e RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell.-.Arg] foram avaliadas pelos ensaios padrões do conteúdo de borracha seca (DRC%, porcentagem de nitrogênio (N% e porcentagem de cinzas (CNZ% por dois anos consecutivos; os dados obtidos foram correlacionados com dados de temperatura e precipitação. As propriedades do látex e da borracha natural variaram (P < 0.01 em função do tipo de clone e entre coletas. O DRC% diminuiu no início da estação seca (maio a junho, enquanto N% e CNZ% aumentaram. O período de abril a junho revelou ser crítico, pois os valores da N% oscilaram acima 0,60%, fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela norma técnica brasileira ABNT/NBR. O clone RRIM 600 foi menos suscetível às variações climáticas.

  20. A semi-nested PCR assay for molecular detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in tissue samples Semi-nested PCR para a detecção molecular de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em amostras de tecido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristine Koishi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. METHODS: In this study, a semi-nested PCR for paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis was developed. The primers ITS1 and ITS4 were used in the first reaction, while the primers MJ03 and ITS1 primer were used in the second reaction. The semi-nested PCR was used to investigate biopsies of five patients with oral lesions that resembled paracoccidioidomycosis. RESULTS: The semi-nested PCR was positive for four samples and negative for a sample from a patient later diagnosed with leishmaniasis. CONCLUSIONS: The new semi-nested PCR describe is useful for paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis.INTRODUÇÃO: A paracoccidioidomicose é uma infecção sistêmica causada pelo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo, uma semi-nested PCR foi desenvolvida para o diagnóstico da paracoccidioidomicose. Os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores ITS1 e ITS4 foram usados na primeira reação, enquanto os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores MJ03 e ITS1 foram usados na segunda reação. A semi-nested PCR foi usada para investigar biopsias de cinco pacientes com lesões orais que se assemelhavam a paracoccidioidomicose. RESULTADOS: A semi-nested PCR foi positiva para quatro amostras e negativa para a amostra de um paciente, posteriormente diagnosticado com leishmaniose. CONCLUSÕES: A semi-nested PCR descrita aqui é útil para o diagnóstico da paracoccidioidomicose.

  1. Effect of rootstock on the scion of Hevea brasiliensis through metabolic analysis of latex samples by 1H NMR

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    Eduardo Sanches Pereira do Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of rootstock on grafting through metabolomic analysis of latex (Hevea brasiliensis samples was verified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and multivariate data analysis. Sixteen metabolites present in the latex cytosol were characterized by NMR. PCA analysis showed that the latex samples of the RR and GR groups can be differentiated. The GR group samples present a metabolic profile similar to the RR group samples, while the RG group is in an intermediate position between RR and GG groups. Sucrose and formate contributed greatly to the separation obtained by PCA, presenting a good correlation between the results. 1H NMR was an efficient technique to differentiate latex samples from different types of rootstocks and grafting and in the future could be used to predict rubber production by latex analysis.

  2. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - γ, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-γ production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was dominant. For

  3. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Resende, Maria Aparecida de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: maresend@mono.icb.ufmg.br; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia], e-mail: goes@mono.icb.ufmg.br, e-mail: brsgarbi@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - {gamma}, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-{gamma} production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was

  4. Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers

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    Bruna P. Cruz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.Este trabalho compara duas espécies medicinais de Kalanchoe utilizadas muitas vezes de forma indiferenciada pela população, quanto à distribuição de antocianinas sob influência de quatro níveis de luminosidade por 6 meses. Para a análise morfoanatômica foi seccionado o 6 º nó do caule de cada planta. Testes histoquímicos clássicos evidenciaram a presença de antocianinas em cortes transversais dos caules, pecíolos e lâminas foliares. Os pecíolos e lâminas foliares foram submetidos à extração com metanol

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones. PMID:27555864

  6. LESÕES FOLIARES EM MUDAS DE PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliensis Cambess LEAF LESIONS OF YOUNG PLANTS OF PEQUIZEIRO

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    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram descritas as características de lesões e morfologia de colônias de Pestalotia sp., Phomopsis sp., Stigmella sp., Chaetophoma sp., Helminthosporium sp. e Epicoccum sp. obtidas de folhas de mudas de pequizeiro em viveiros nos municípios de Goiânia e Hidrolândia (GO. Respostas positivas para patogenicidade foram obtidas de todos os isolados, exceto para Chaetophoma sp. que foram consideradas inconclusivas. Observou-se que lesões foliares foram importante fator de retardamento no crescimento das mudas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Caryocar brasiliensis; pequizeiro; doenças foliares de pequizeiro; pequizeiro.

    Leaf lesions and morphological description of Pestalotia sp., Phomopsis sp., Stigmella sp., Chaetophoma sp., Helminthosporium sp. and Epicoccum sp. cultures obtained from young plants of pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliensis Camb. in nurseries in Goiânia and Hidrolândia counties. All the isolates except Chaetophoma sp., showed pathogenicity. Leaf spots greatly reduced plant growth.

    KEY-WORDS: Leaf diseases of pequizeiro.

  7. Feeding habits of giant otters Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora: Mustelidae in the Balbina hydroelectric reservoir, Central Brazilian Amazon

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    Márcia M. M. Cabral

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the diet of giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmermann, 1780 in the Balbina reservoir (01º55'S, 59º29'W, to compare it with literature data on the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas, and to verify the effects of the seasonal changes in water levels on the feeding habits of Balbina otters. A total of 254 feces samples were collected and identified according to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Teleostei fish were present in 100% of the samples; two samples also presented monkey fur (n = 1 and sloth fur (n = 1, suggesting that the diet of P. brasiliensis, in the reservoir, is almost exclusively based on fish. Ten fish families were identified in our samples, six of which were exclusive to the Balbina Lake (not present in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas. These six fish families, however, were present in less than 3% of the samples. The fish families with highest representation in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas also appeared with higher frequencies in the Balbina Lake, suggesting that the otters have not changed their diet substantially after the implementation of the reservoir. During the high-water period, when the fish are dispersed into the flooded forest and are not very easy to catch, the otters seem to have an opportunistic feeding habit. By contrast, during the low-water period, when prey items are widely available and easier to catch in the reservoir, their feeding habits are more selective.

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones. PMID:27555864

  9. PERFIL SOROLÓGICO EM EQUINOS INTOXICADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE POR SENECIO BRASILIENSIS COMPOSITAE: PARTE II BILIRRUBINAS, ALBUMINAS E PROTEÍNAS

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    Sonia Terezinha dos Anjos Lopes

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO As parte aéreas dessecadas de senecio brasiliensis, colhidas no período de brotação, foram administradas a 14 equinos de raça mista, com idade de 4 a 22 anos e pesos de 230 a 475kg. A planta era misturada à ração dada aos animais ou moída, misturada em água e administrada por sonda nasoesofágica. Foram realizadas colheitas de sangue periodicamente nos 14 equinos para avaliação dos níveis séricos de bilirrubina, albumina e proteína. Oito cavalos desenvolveram a intoxicação, três morreram por causas outras e três sobreviveram sem apresentar quaisquer sinais clínicos durante o período em que foram observados. Nos animais que desenvolveram a doença os sinais clínicos tiveram evolução de um a seis dias e caracterizaram-se por anorexia, icterícia e distúrbios neurológicos. A bilirrubina total e indireta apresentam-se elevadas na fase terminal da intoxicação e a albumina e proteína mostram níveis abaixo dos valores de referência num equino que desenvolveu a forma crônica da enfermidade. Conclui-se que dentre as provas laboratoriais usadas, a bilirrubina indireta apresenta melhor indicação da alteração hepática causada por intoxicação pelo senecio brasiliensis.

  10. Segundo registro de Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa (Demospongiae, Potamolepidae com descrição do habitat e de assembléia, Bacia do Rio Paraná, Brasil Second register of Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa (Demospongiae, Potamolepidae with description of the habitat and of assembly, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Volkmer-Ribeiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta recente, no fundo rochoso do Rio Piquiri, Bacia do Paraná, Brasil, de Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa, 1978, uma espécie de esponja continental ameaçada, possibilitou o registro fotográfico de espécimes vivos, o aperfeiçoamento das ilustrações ao MEV e da descrição de algumas características, a descrição do habitat e o registro de uma assembléia de esponjas composta por S. brasiliensis, Oncosclera navicella (Carter, 1881 e Oncosclera tonolli (Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago, 1968. Oncosclera tonolli tem seu primeiro registro para águas brasileiras e para a Bacia do Paraná. Gêmulas de O. navicella são tambem ilustradas ao MEV.The recent discovery of Sterrastrolepis brasiliensis Volkmer-Ribeiro & De Rosa-Barbosa, 1978, a brazilian endangered freshwater sponge, at the rocky bottom of River Piquiri, Paraná Basin, Brazil, enhanced the photographing of living specimens, the improving of SEM illustration and description for some characteristics, the description of the habitat and the register of an sponge assembly composed by S. brasiliensis, Oncosclera navicella (Carter, l881 and Oncosclera tonolli (Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago, 1968. Oncosclera tonolli has its first register for Brazilian waters and for the Parana Basin. Gemmules of O. navicella are also SEM illustrated.

  11. Estudo do escápulo-coracóide e da cartilagem sinarcual cérvico-torácica de Rhinoptera brasiliensis Müller & Henle e Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill Elasmobranchii, Rhinopteridae Study of the scapulocoracoid and cervico-thoracic synarcual cartilage of Rhinoptera brasiliensis Müller & Henle and Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill (Elasmobranchii, Rhinopteridae

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    Andreia Francisco Afonso

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the scapulocoracoid and cervico-thoracic synarcual cartilage of juvenile specimens of Rhinoptera brasiliensis Müller & Henle, 1841 and R. bonasus (Mitchill, 1815 was accomplished, in order to identify specific, individual and ontogenetic differences. In the scapulocoracoid, the scapular foramen and the posterodorsal fenestra is larger in R. brasiliensis. The anterior fenestra bridge is thicker and the metacondyle is thinner and longer in R. bonasus. This species also possesses a larger re-entrance between the mesocondyle and the metacondyle, as well as in the fitting region of'the synarcual cartilage, placed close to the scapular process. The individual differences are: posteroventral fenestra with variable diameter independent of the size of the specimens; scapulocoracoids, in some specimens, are more fragile even if they have been kept in the same conservation conditions. In the cervico-thoracic synarcual cartilage, the lateral stay in R. brasiliensis encloses completely the superior portion of the anteroscapular bridge. There are three more prominent condyles beside the suprascapula in R. brasiliensis, R. bonasus, however, shows a protuberance close to the suprascapula, inconspicuous and more distant from the scapular lamina. Several specimens of different size of R. bonasus show a synarcual cartilage wider in ventral view and higher in lateral view. In the majority of specimens, the number of ventral spinal foramina is higher than the dorsal ones in both species. R. bonasus has only one pair of asymmetric basal foramina, whereas R. brasiliensis possesses three or four foramina. Regarding individual differences, at least one specimen of R. bonasus exhibits a single basal foramen.

  12. Metacercárias de Neascus sp. em Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae do rio do Peixe, Juiz de Fora, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.493 Neascus-type metacercariae in Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae of Peixe river, Juiz de Fora, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.493

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    José Luis Luque

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A metacercária de Neascus sp., causadora da doença dos pontos pretos, é descrita em espécimes de Geophagus brasiliensis coletados no Brasil. Entre março e maio de 2006, foram capturados 33 espécimes de G. brasiliensis, coletados com o auxílio de vara e anzol no Rio do Peixe, Monte Verde, município de Juiz de Fora, Estado de Minas Gerias. Dos 33 espécimes examinados, 30 (90,9% apresentaram-se parasitados por metacercárias causadoras dos pontos pretos, com intensidade média de infecção de 15,6 ± 16,1 (1 – 75. Foi observada correlação significativa entre o comprimento total de G. brasiliensis e a abundância parasitária (r = 0,459; P Neascus-type metacercariae, which cause the black spot disease, are described in specimens collected from 33 samples of Geophagus brasiliensis from the Peixe river, in Monte Verde, Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during March and May 2006. The main morphological features of these metacercariae are: genital primordia composed of three cell masses located in the hind body, and a median dorsal vessel of the reserve bladder around the acetabulum. Thirty fish specimens (90.9% were parasitized by metacercariae, with mean infection intensity of 15.6 ± 16.1 (1-75. Also, a positive correlation was detected between G. brasiliensis total length and the parasite abundance (r = 0.459; p < 0.01.

  13. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for final healthy product - natural preservatives in yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S.; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Soković, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both s...

  14. Comportamento da Lectina de sementes de Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. durante a germinação em presença de luz

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    Benildo Sousa Cavada

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparação da metabolização da lectina de Canavalia brasiliensis com as demais proteínas de reservas durante a germinação das sementes na presença de luz foi acompanhada através da combinação de dosagem de proteínas solúveis, determinação da atividade hemaglutinante, cromatografia de afinidade em coluna de Sephadex G-50 e eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida em presença de dodecilsulfato de sódio (SDS e 2-mercaptoetanol. Os resultados foram comparados com resultados anteriormente obtidos com sementes germinadas na ausência da luz e ficou evidenciado que, mesmo com as plântuias fotossintetizando, a lectina de Canavalia brasiliensis é preservada, sendo metabolizada após as>demais proteínas de reserva. Estes dados sugerem também que estas proteínas devam ter funções específicas durante o ciclo vital da planta e não se constituem apenas em proteínas de reserva.Canavalia brasiliensis seed lectin during germination in the presence of light. The mobilization of the lectin of Canavalia brasiliensis during seed germination, in the presence of light, was studied in comparison with the reserve proteins. Methods employed were determination of soluble protein content, hemagglutinating activity, affinity chromatography on Sephadex G-50 column, and PAGE-SDS. The results showed that the lectin was metabolized later than the reserve proteins suggesting that it may have a special function other than a simple reserve protein.

  15. Uncovering divergent evolution of α/β-hydrolases: a surprising residue substitution needed to convert Hevea brasiliensis hydroxynitrile lyase into an esterase

    OpenAIRE

    Nedrud, David M.; Lin, Hui; Lopez, Gilsinia; Padhi, Santosh K.; Legatt, Graig A.; Kaz-lauskas, Romas J.

    2014-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis hydroxynitrile lyase (HbHNL) and salicylic acid binding protein 2 (SABP2, an esterase) share 45% amino acid sequence identity, the same protein fold, and even the same catalytic triad of Ser-His-Asp. However, they catalyze different reactions: cleavage of hydroxynitriles and hydrolysis of esters, respectively. To understand how other active site differences in the two enzymes enable the same catalytic triad to catalyze different reactions, we substituted amino acid residues...

  16. Antifungal activity of extracts from Atacama Desert fungi againstParacoccidioides brasiliensis and identification ofAspergillus felis as a promising source of natural bioactive compounds

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    Graziele Mendes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides are responsible for paracoccidioidomycosis. The occurrence of drug toxicity and relapse in this disease justify the development of new antifungal agents. Compounds extracted from fungal extract have showing antifungal activity. Extracts of 78 fungi isolated from rocks of the Atacama Desert were tested in a microdilution assay against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18. Approximately 18% (5 of the extracts showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values≤ 125.0 µg/mL. Among these, extract from the fungus UFMGCB 8030 demonstrated the best results, with an MIC of 15.6 µg/mL. This isolate was identified as Aspergillus felis (by macro and micromorphologies, and internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and ribosomal polymerase II gene analyses and was grown in five different culture media and extracted with various solvents to optimise its antifungal activity. Potato dextrose agar culture and dichloromethane extraction resulted in an MIC of 1.9 µg/mL against P. brasiliensis and did not show cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested in normal mammalian cell (Vero. This extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using analytical C18RP-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and an antifungal assay using P. brasiliensis. Analysis of the active fractions by HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to identify the antifungal agents present in the A. felis extracts cytochalasins. These results reveal the potential of A. felis as a producer of bioactive compounds with antifungal activity.

  17. Antifungal activity of extracts from Atacama Desert fungi against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and identification of Aspergillus felis as a promising source of natural bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Graziele; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Kohlhoff, Markus; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania B; Rosa, Luiz H; Johann, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides are responsible for paracoccidioidomycosis. The occurrence of drug toxicity and relapse in this disease justify the development of new antifungal agents. Compounds extracted from fungal extract have showing antifungal activity. Extracts of 78 fungi isolated from rocks of the Atacama Desert were tested in a microdilution assay against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18. Approximately 18% (5) of the extracts showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ≤ 125.0 µg/mL. Among these, extract from the fungus UFMGCB 8030 demonstrated the best results, with an MIC of 15.6 µg/mL. This isolate was identified as Aspergillus felis (by macro and micromorphologies, and internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and ribosomal polymerase II gene analyses) and was grown in five different culture media and extracted with various solvents to optimise its antifungal activity. Potato dextrose agar culture and dichloromethane extraction resulted in an MIC of 1.9 µg/mL against P. brasiliensis and did not show cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested in normal mammalian cell (Vero). This extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using analytical C18RP-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an antifungal assay using P. brasiliensis. Analysis of the active fractions by HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to identify the antifungal agents present in the A. felis extracts cytochalasins. These results reveal the potential of A. felis as a producer of bioactive compounds with antifungal activity. PMID:27008375

  18. Perfil de proteases de lesões cutâneas experimentais em camundongos tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes de Canavalia brasiliensis Proteases profile of skin wounds treated with lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds

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    Flávio de Oliveira Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de proteases em lesões cutâneas experimentais tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr livre e conjugada com o seu açúcar específico. Lesões cirúrgicas foram produzidas assepticamente na região dorsal de camundongos (n=120, divididos de acordo com o tratamento empregado: Grupo NaCl (NaCl 150mM, Grupo manose (manose 100mM, Grupo ConBr (ConBr 100µg mL-1 e Grupo ConBr/manose (solução contendo ConBr 100µg mL-1 preparada em manose 100mM. Amostras da área lesada foram coletadas para determinação do perfil de proteases e atividade colagenolítica no 2°, no 7° e no 12° dia de pós-operatório. O perfil das proteínas realizado através de eletroforese SDS-PAGE demonstrou a presença de proteínas com massa molecular de 67kDa em todos os grupos. O Grupo ConBr/manose apresentou a maior atividade colagenolítica no 12° dia de pós-operatório. A lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis influenciou a expressão de proteases com atividade colagenolítica podendo assim interferir no processo cicatricial das lesões cutâneas em camundongos.The objective of the present study was determining the proteases profile of cutaneous healings treated with free and conjugated lectin of Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr and their specific sugar. An aseptic wound was produced in the thoracic area of the mice (n=120, divided according to the employed treatment: NaCl Group (150mM NaCl, manose Group (100mM manose, ConBr Group (100µg mL-1 ConBr and ConBr/manose Group (solution containing 100µg mL-1 ConBr prepared in 100mM manose. Samples of the injured area were collected for determination of proteases profile and collagenolytic activity on 2nd, 7th e 12th days after the surgery. Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE demonstrated proteins with molecular mass of 67kDa in all groups. Group IV presented the highest collagenolytic activity on the 12th day post surgery. Con

  19. Larval development of Notolopas brasiliensis Miers, 1886 (Brachyura: Majoidea: Pisidae described from laboratory reared material and a reappraisal of the characters of Pisidae

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    William Santana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete larval stages of Notolopas brasiliensis are described from laboratory reared material, with emphasis on the external morphological features of Majoidea, and compare the morphology of N. brasiliensis with other genera of Pisidae. Larval development of N. brasiliensis consists of two zoeal stages and one megalopa. The duration mean of each zoeal stage was 4.2 ± 1.0 days for Zoea I and 3.8 ± 0.7 days for Zoea II, the megalopa instar appearing 8.1 ± 0.4 days after hatching. The characters previously used to define larval forms of Pisidae are either symplesiomorphic or potentially highly homoplastic. As well, was observed that there are no common sets of larval characters that would define Pisidae nowadays. However, was showed that only a combination of characters could differentiate Notolopas from other pisid genera.O completo desenvolvimento larval de Notolopas brasiliensis é descrito, a partir de material criado em laboratório, com ênfase na morfologia externa de Majoidea e comparado aos demais gêneros de Pisidae. O desenvolvimento larval de N. brasiliensis consiste em dois estágios de zoea e um de megalopa. A duração media de cada estágio foi de 4.2 ± 1.0 dias para a Zoea I e 3.8 ± 0.7 dias para a Zoea II, a megalopa aparece entre 8.1 ± 0.4 dias após a eclosão. Os caracteres previamente utilizados para definir as formas larvais de Pisidae ou são simplesiomórficos ou altamente homoplásticos. Foi observado que não existe um conjunto de caracteres capazes de definir Pisidae até o presente.Contudo foi mostrado que uma combinação de caracteres pode ser utilizada para diferenciar Notolopas dos demais gêneros da família.

  20. Ciclo Vital de Schistosoma mansoni através do Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1818 em ambiente semi-natural (Trematoda, Shistosomatidae; Rodentia, Cricetidae

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    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available Junto ao Lago da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, foram capturados (julho/72-novembro/73 28 exemplares de Holochilus brasiliensis, dos quais 11 (39,3% eliminavam nas fezes ovos viáveis de S. mansoni. Miracídios da cepa mencionada ("H" infectaram Biomphalaria glabrata e as cercárias obtidas também infectaram camundongos albinos, recuperando-se, ao final do experimento, 35,3% de vermes adultos. Por outro lado, cercárias de cepa humana ("LE" de S. mansoni infectaram sete exemplares de H. brasiliensis, nascidos em laboratório, recuperando-se no fim de 60 dias, 30,5% de vermes adultos. Estudos anatomapatológicos de H. brasiliensis demonstraram infecção generalizada, encontrando-se granuloma no esôfago, estômago, intestino (delgado e grosso, fígado, baço, pâncreas e linfonodos abdominais. Espessamentos fibrosos da íntima da veia porta, granulomas em espaços porta e fibrose incipiente dos espaços porta e interlobular foram lesões decorrentes da presença de ovos de S. mansoni encontrados no fígado. Em ambiente semi-natural, foi possível fechar o ciclo do S. mansoni sem direta participação humana, utilizando-se B. glabrata experimentalmente infectadas com trematódeos da cepa "LE", H. brasiliensis nascidos em laboratório e B. glabrata nascida no ambiente semi-natural estabelecido. Verificou-se que ambas as cepas ("H" e "LE" comportaram-se de maneira análoga, não sendo verificadas, também, diferenças morfológicas entre os ovos e vermes adultos de ambas. As observações, realizadas no campo e no laboratório demonstraram que o Holochilus brasiliensis é bom hospedeiro de Schistosoma mansoni. Assim, em determinadas áreas e sob certas condições ecológicas, o cricetídeo em questão poderá, efetivamente, integrar-se ao ciclo do trematódeo na natureza, independente ou paralelamente à presença do homem. Assinala-se, finalmente, que o presente trabalho relata o segundo fechamento do ciclo biológico de S. mansoni em condi

  1. Distribution and abundance of the Lesser electric ray Narcine brasiliensis (Olfers, 1831 (Elasmobranchii: Narcinidae in southern Brazil in relation to environmental factors

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    Gabriel Maciel de Souza Vianna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of the lesser electric ray, Narcine brasiliensis, was assessed based on bottom-trawl survey data collected off the coast of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Between 1980 and 1984 and in 2005, 416 bottom trawl hauls were carried out at depths of 10-100 m. Narcine brasiliensis occurred mainly in waters with bottom temperature between 20 and 25ºC. Density of the species was higher between the depths of 10 and 20 m, during the summer and autumn. The seasonal pattern of N. brasiliensis in the shallow coastal water of Rio Grande do Sul reflects a southward migration in summer. This is conditioned by the southward advance of warmer and high-salinity Tropical Water of the Brazil Current In winter, the return or northward migration is a response to seasonal cooling of the coastal waters and to the northward advance of cold Coastal Water of lower salinity. The latitudinal gradient in density of N. brasiliensis was related to the latitudinal gradient in salinity of the bottom waters. This was caused by the freshwater runoff from the Patos Lagoon establishing a physical barrier to the occurrence of the species farther south than the city of Rio Grande.A distribuição e abundância da raia elétrica Narcine brasiliensis foi analisada com base em 416 lances de arrasto de fundo realizados entre as profundidades de 10- 100 m ao longo da costa do Rio Grande do Sul, em 1980-1984 e 2005. A espécie ocorreu prioritariamente em águas com temperatura de fundo entre 20 e 25ºC. A densidade de N. brasiliensis foi maior durante o verão e outono e entre as profundidades de 10 e 20 m. O padrão sazonal de densidade da espécie nas águas costeiras rasas do Rio Grande do Sul reflete uma migração no sentido norte-sul condicionada pelo avanço das águas quentes e de alta salinidade da Água Tropical da Corrente do Brasil em direção ao sul durante o verão. A redução sazonal da temperatura da água e o avanço da Água Costeira, de

  2. CARACTERIZAÇÃO QUÍMICA E ACEITABILIDADE DA SARDINHA (SARDINELLA BRASILIENSIS EM CONSERVA ADICIONADA DE MOLHO COM TOMATE

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    Janise Pedroso COLEMBERGUE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O pescado é um alimento rico em proteínas, minerais, vitaminas e possui fácil digestão. A procura por alimentos prontos para o consumo, como pescado em conserva, ainda é uma opção interessante para o consumidor, devido ao tempo reduzido de preparação. As características sensoriais estão entre os principais determinantes na aquisição, consumo, aceitação e preferência dos produtos alimentícios por diferentes faixas etárias. A aceitabilidade da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis em conserva de molho de tomate foi avaliada por 50 provadores não treinados em ambiente laboratorial através de uma fi cha com escala hedônica de nove pontos. Além disso, a determinação da composição química foi realizada e comparada com os valores declarados no rótulo do produto. A aceitação obtida para este tipo de conserva foi de 84% e a média de pontuação de 7.56, sendo esta caracterizada entre “gostei” e “gostei muito”, observou-se ainda que 54% dos julgadores possuíam hábitos de consumir pescado em conserva. A composição química da sardinha em conserva obtida foi de 62,44±0,33% de umidade, 2,7±0,22% de resíduo mineral fi xo, 19,35±1,05% de proteínas e 15,11±0,6% de lipídios totais, apresentando-se de acordo com a rotulagem, exceto para o teor de lipídio. Este estudo permitiu observar a grande aceitabilidade da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis em conserva de molho com tomate, mesmo entre os julgadores que não possuíam o hábito de consumi-lo.

  3. Effects of stocking density on dispersal behavior of Brazilian freshwater dourado (Salminus brasiliensis in a subtropical river headwater

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    Uwe Horst Schulz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile freshwater dourados (Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier were stocked in two batches of different size (61 and 133 individuals with a time lag of 41 days in the headwaters of the Sinos River. A subsample of 25 fish was radio-tagged. Released juveniles displayed a density dependent dispersal pattern. During the first ten days mean covered distance of tagged batch 1 individuals (low density was approximately 24 m d-1, while batch 2 individuals (high density moved 296 m d-1. Activity of batch 1 fish increased after the release of batch 2 and remained high (459 m d-1 until 90 days. Activity of batch 2 fish during this period was in same range. After this period, activity levels of both batches decreased to about 60 m d-1. Increased movements in higher density condition are seen as a result of interspecific competition. The mean covered distances per day remained high until stocked individuals become established in their new habitat.Dois lotes de 61 e 133 dourados (Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier juvenis foram introduzidos nas cabeceiras do rio dos Sinos. O intervalo entre as solturas foi de 41 dias. Uma subamostra de 25 peixes foi marcada com radiotransmissores. A dispersão dos indivíduos após soltura mostrou um padrão dependente da densidade. Durante os primeiros dez dias a distância média dos indivíduos do lote 1 (densidade baixa foi de 24 m d-1, enquanto os indivíduos do lote 2 (densidade alta percorreram em média 296 m d-1. A atividade dos peixes do lote 1 aumentou depois da soltura do lote 2 e permaneceu alta (459 m d-1 durante 90 dias. A atividade dos indivíduos do lote 2 ficou no mesmo nível durante este período. Depois os movimentos de ambos os lotes diminuíram até uma média de 60 m d-1. O nível alto de movimentos na situação de maior densidade é visto como resultado da competição intraespecífica. As médias das distâncias percorridas por dia permanecem altas até os indivíduos introduzidos estabelecerem-se nos seus

  4. Aspectos biológicos e pesqueiros de Paralonchurus brasiliensis Steindachner, (Pisces, Sciaenidae, na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brasil Biological and fishing aspects of Paralonchurus brasiliensis Steindachner, (Pisces, Sciaenidae, in the Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da abundância de Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875 na ictiofauna acompanhante do camarão sete-barbas, apresenta baixo valor comercial sendo freqüentemente descartada. Esse trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar informações básicas sobre a biologia e pesca de P. brasiliensis na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente durante o período de agosto 1996 a julho 2003, em três áreas tradicionais de atuação da pesca artesanal. A espécie apresentou crescimento alométrico positivo, com uma razão sexual de 1:2,1 entre machos e fêmeas, e tamanho de primeira maturação em 14,8 cm e 15,0 cm. P. brasiliensis apresentou amplo espectro trófico composto por 27 itens, sendo que, a partir da primavera ocorreu um incremento gradual na ingestão de alimento até o verão, seguido de queda abrupta no outono e de pequena recuperação no inverno. Apesar das flutuações sazonais ao longo dos sete anos, essa espécie ocupou a segunda posição em número e biomassa entre as integrantes da ictiofauna acompanhante.Due to abundance of P. brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875 in ictiofauna of the sea-bob-shrimp's bycatch, it presents low commercial value and frequently being discarded. This work aims to present basic information on biology and fisheries of P. brasiliensis in the Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina. The collections were carried out monthly during the period of August 1996 to July 2003, in three traditional areas of performance of artisan fisheries. The species presented positive alometric growth, with a sexual ratio of 1:2,1 between males and females, and the size of first maturation in 14,8 cm and 15,0 cm. P. brasiliensis presented a great trophy specter composed by 27 items, being that, from the spring a gradual increment in the food ingestion occurred until the summer, followed of abrupt fall in the autumn and small recovery in the winter. Despite of the seasonal

  5. Biologia populacional de Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Hippidae na Praia Vermelha do Norte, Ubatuba (São Paulo, Brasil Population biology of Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Hippidae in Vermelha do Norte beach, Ubatuba (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Jelly Makoto Nakagaki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt, 1935 is a common mole crab called "tatuíra" in Brazil, with distribution from Espírito-Santo State (Brazil to Buenos Aires Province (Argentina. Specimens were collected bimonthly from May/1992 through March/1993 with 4mm siffers mesh, in the intertidal region at Vermelha do Norte Beach, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The animals were sexed and measured with a precision caliper of 0.1 mm (Cl = carapace length. Males presented cl amplitude from 3.4-17.3mm (13.2±2.1mm, and females from 13.8-26.3mm (20.5±1.8mm, showing a well-defined sexual dimorfism for this variable. The population presented a smaller incidence of males in relation to females (0.54:1.00, however in May/1992 an inverse pattern occurred (1.84:1.00. Ovigerous females were present in all samples with exception of May and September/1992 with greater frequencies in July/1992 and January/1993. It is probable that female maturity occurs is reached with 17mm CL, the smallest size in wich ovigerous females were found.

  6. Evaluation of the toxicity and molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Schinopsis brasiliensis stem bark extract and its fractions

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    Clisiane C.S. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever and schistosomiasis are major public health issues for which vector control using larvicide and molluscicide substances present in plants provides a promising strategy. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of the extract of hydroethanol Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl., Anacardiaceae, stem bark and its chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanol fractions against Artemia salina and Aedes Aegypti larvae and snails Biomphalaria glabrata. All of the assays were performed in triplicate and the mean mortality rates were used to determine the LC50and LC90 values using the probit method. The hydroethanol hydromethanol extract and fraction were free of toxicity towards A. salina(LC50 > 1000 µg/ml, while chloroform fraction was moderately toxic (LC50313 µg/ml; ethyl acetate and hexane fractions displayed low toxicity, with LC50 557 and 582 µg/ml, respectively. Chloroform, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions showed larvicidal potential towards A. aegypti (LC50 values of 345, 527 and 583 µg/ml, respectively, while chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were highly toxic to B. glabrata (LC90values of 68 and 73 µg/ml, respectively. Based on these findings, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane fractions should be further investigated for their potential use against the vectors of dengue and schistosomiasis.

  7. Local Perceptions and Implications for Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis Conservation around Protected Areas in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon

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    Fernanda Michalski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The local success of protected areas for effective biodiversity conservation depends largely on ensuring the integration of local communities and the persistence of wildlife species and ecological processes. We investigated the perceptions of riverine residents living around a sustainable-use protected area towards giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis. Between March and December 2011, we conducted 41 interviews with riverine residents in the region of the National Forest of Amapá (AP, Brazil. These interviews revealed a strong negative attitude towards giant otters, highlighted by recent reports of otters being killed in 12.2% of the interviews. Generalized linear models showed that years of education and age weakly predicted attitudes towards otters in the study area (i.e., respondents with the longest time in education and older were less likely to dislike otters and to consider giant otters as damaging income or fishing activities, respectively. These results suggested that to conserve giant otters in this region efforts should focus on environmental education and long-term research projects.

  8. Quillaja brasiliensis saponins induce robust humoral and cellular responses in a bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Silveira, Fernando; Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Yendo, Anna Carolina; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2016-04-01

    A saponin fraction extracted from Quillaja brasiliensis leaves (QB-90) and a semi-purified aqueous extract (AE) were evaluated as adjuvants in a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine in mice. Animals were immunized on days 0 and 14 with antigen plus either QB-90 or AE or an oil-adjuvanted vaccine. Two-weeks after boosting, antibodies were measured by ELISA; cellular immunity was evaluated by DTH, lymphoproliferation, cytokine release and single cell IFN-γ production. Serum anti-BVDV IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b were significantly increased in QB-90- and AE-adjuvanted vaccines. A robust DTH response, increased splenocyte proliferation, Th1-type cytokines and enhanced production of IFN-γ by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes were detected in mice that received QB-90-adjuvanted vaccine. The AE-adjuvanted preparation stimulated humoral responses but not cellular immune responses. These findings reveal that QB-90 is capable of stimulating both cellular and humoral immune responses when used as adjuvant. PMID:27012913

  9. Screening of bacterial biocontrols against sapstain fungus (Lasiodiplodia theobromae Pat.) of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajitha, K L; Maria Florence, E J; Dev, Suma Arun

    2014-09-01

    Diverse bacterial biocontrol agents from various sources of aerobic composts against the sapstain fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae in rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were isolated, screened and identified by various morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques. The inhibitory effect of seventeen bacterial isolates was examined and seven exhibited inhibition towards the sapstain fungus. Among the seven antagonists, six were conclusively identified as Bacillus subtilis and one as Paenibacillus polymyxa using 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequencing. This is the first report on the occurrence of P. polymyxa, a potent biofertilizer and antagonist in vermicompost. HiCrome Bacillus agar was identified as an effective medium for differentiation of B. subtilis from other Bacillus species. The present work demonstrates the efficacy of the antagonistic property of B. subtilis strains against rubberwood sapstain fungus. Culture-based antagonistic inhibition displayed by B. subtilis can be extended to cater to the biocontrol requirements of wood-based industries against the stain fungus. The study showed the utility of an integrated approach, employing morphological, biochemical and molecular tools for conclusive identification of several bacterial isolates present in aerobic composts from diverse sources. PMID:25049165

  10. Intestinal mucosal mast cells from rats infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis contain protease-resistant chondroitin sulfate di-B proteoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats infected with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were injected i.p. with 2 mCi of [35S] sulfate on days 13, 15, 17, and 19 after infection. The intestines were removed from animals on day 20 or 21 after infection, the intestinal cells were obtained by collagenase treatment and mechanical dispersion of the tissue, and the 35S-labeled mucosal mast cells (MMC) were enriched to 60 to 65% purity by Percoll centrifugation. The isolated proteoglycans were of approx. 150,000 m.w., were resistant to pronase degradation, and contained highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate side chains. The presence in normal mammalian cells of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that contain a high percentage of the unusual disulfated di-B disaccharide has not been previously reported. The rat intestinal MMC proteoglycans are the first chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that have been isolated from an enriched populations of normal mast cells. They are homologous to the chondroitin sulfate-rich proteoglycans of the transformed rat basophilic leumekia-1 cell and the cultured interleukin 3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell, in that these chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are all highly sulfated, protease-resistant proteoglycans

  11. Intestinal mucosal mast cells from rats infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis contain protease-resistant chondroitin sulfate di-B proteoglycans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R.L.; Lee, T.D.G.; Seldin, D.C.; Austen, K.F.; Befus, A.D.; Bienenstock, J.

    1986-07-01

    Rats infected with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were injected i.p. with 2 mCi of (/sup 35/S) sulfate on days 13, 15, 17, and 19 after infection. The intestines were removed from animals on day 20 or 21 after infection, the intestinal cells were obtained by collagenase treatment and mechanical dispersion of the tissue, and the /sup 35/S-labeled mucosal mast cells (MMC) were enriched to 60 to 65% purity by Percoll centrifugation. The isolated proteoglycans were of approx. 150,000 m.w., were resistant to pronase degradation, and contained highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate side chains. The presence in normal mammalian cells of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that contain a high percentage of the unusual disulfated di-B disaccharide has not been previously reported. The rat intestinal MMC proteoglycans are the first chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that have been isolated from an enriched populations of normal mast cells. They are homologous to the chondroitin sulfate-rich proteoglycans of the transformed rat basophilic leumekia-1 cell and the cultured interleukin 3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell, in that these chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are all highly sulfated, protease-resistant proteoglycans.

  12. The low efficiency of dendritic cells and macrophages from mice susceptible to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in inducing a Th1 response

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    S.R. Almeida

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we evaluated T cell proliferation and Th lymphokine patterns in response to gp43 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis presented by isolated dendritic cells from susceptible and resistant mice. T cell proliferation assays showed that dendritic cells from susceptible mice were less efficient than those from resistant mice. The pattern of T cell lymphokines stimulated by dendritic cells was always Th1, although the levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma were lower in T cell cultures from susceptible mice. To determie whether different antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells stimulated different concentrations of Th1 lymphokines, the production of IFN-gamma and IL-2 was measured. It was observed that dendritic cells were more efficient than macrophages in stimulating lymphoproliferation in resistant mice. However, no significant difference was observed for IFN-gamma or IL-2 production. When cells from susceptible mice were used, macrophages were more efficient in stimulating lymphoproliferation than dendritic cells, but no difference was observed in the production of Th1 cytokine. Taken together, these results suggest the lower efficiency of dendritic cells and macrophages from B10.A mice in stimulating T cells that secrete Th1 lymphokines in vitro, an effect that may be involved in the progression of the disease in vivo.

  13. Evaluation of seasonal chemical composition, antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Tenfen, Adrielli; Yamanaka, Celina Noriko; de Cordova, Caio Maurício Mendes; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Alberton, Michele Debiasi

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the seasonal composition and the antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis leaves. Analysis by using GC allowed the identification of 40 compounds. It was observed that the monoterpenes varied more (42%) than the sesquiterpenes (14%), and that the monoterpene hydrocarbons suffered the greatest variation throughout the year (64%). Major compounds were spathulenol in the spring (16.02 ± 0.44%) and summer (18.17 ± 0.41%), τ-cadinol in the autumn (12.83 ± 0.03%) and α-pinene (15.94 ± 0.58%) in the winter. Essential oils were tested for their antibacterial activity, and the best result was obtained from the autumn oil, with MIC = 500 μg mL(- 1) against Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, lipid peroxidation and iron-reducing power assays, as well as the anticholinesterase activity. Both tests showed a weak performance of the essential oils. PMID:25219800

  14. Novel ISCOMs from Quillaja brasiliensis saponins induce mucosal and systemic antibody production, T-cell responses and improved antigen uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; Quirici, Lenora; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Ferreira, Fernando; Silveira, Fernando

    2016-02-24

    In the last decades, significant efforts have been dedicated to the search for novel vaccine adjuvants. In this regard, saponins and its formulations as "immunostimulating complexes" (ISCOMs) have shown to be capable of stimulating potent humoral and cellular immune responses, enhanced cytokine production and activation of cytotoxic T cells. The immunological activity of ISCOMs formulated with a saponin fraction extracted from Quillaja brasiliensis (QB-90 fraction) as an alternative to classical ISCOMs based on Quil A(®) (IQA) is presented here. The ISCOMs prepared with QB-90, named IQB-90, typically consist of 40-50nm, spherical, cage-like particles, built up by QB-90, cholesterol, phospholipids and antigen (ovalbumin, OVA). These nanoparticles were efficiently uptaken in vitro by murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Subcutaneously inoculated IQB-90 induced strong serum antibody responses encompassing specific IgG1 and IgG2a, robust DTH reactions, significant T cell proliferation and increases in Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2) cytokine responses. Intranasally delivered IQB-90 elicited serum IgG and IgG1, and mucosal IgA responses at distal systemic sites (nasal passages, large intestine and vaginal lumen). These results indicate that IQB-90 is a promising alternative to classic ISCOMs as vaccine adjuvants, capable of enhancing humoral and cellular immunity to levels comparable to those induced by ISCOMs manufactured with Quillaja saponaria saponins. PMID:26826546

  15. Adsorption of Bismark Brown dye on activated carbons prepared from rubberwood sawdust (Hevea brasiliensis) using different activation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevea brasiliensis or rubberwood tree, as it is commonly known finds limited use once the latex has been tapped. The sawdust of this tree is chosen to ascertain it viability as a precursor for activation. The carbons thus obtained were characterized in terms of iodine, methylene blue number and surface area. The best carbon in each method was utilized to study the adsorption of Bismark Brown, a dye used in the leather industry. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out with the synthetic solutions of the dye, at room temperature (298 K). Equilibrium data are fitted with the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms models for the system. The effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentrations on sorption capacity were carried out. Excellent adsorption capacities of 2000 and 1111 mg g-1 were obtained for steam and chemical followed by steam-activated carbons, respectively. Pilot-plant experimental studies have been performed using packed-bed column with different feed concentrations, flow rates and bed heights, to evaluate sorption of Bismark Brown on steam-activated carbon. Bed depth service time (BDST) design model have been used to analyze the data

  16. Ciclo Vital de Schistosoma mansoni através do Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1818 em ambiente semi-natural (Trematoda, Shistosomatidae; Rodentia, Cricetidae

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    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available Junto ao Lago da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, foram capturados (julho/72-novembro/73 28 exemplares de Holochilus brasiliensis, dos quais 11 (39,3% eliminavam nas fezes ovos viáveis de S. mansoni. Miracídios da cepa mencionada ("H" infectaram Biomphalaria glabrata e as cercárias obtidas também infectaram camundongos albinos, recuperando-se, ao final do experimento, 35,3% de vermes adultos. Por outro lado, cercárias de cepa humana ("LE" de S. mansoni infectaram sete exemplares de H. brasiliensis, nascidos em laboratório, recuperando-se no fim de 60 dias, 30,5% de vermes adultos. Estudos anatomapatológicos de H. brasiliensis demonstraram infecção generalizada, encontrando-se granuloma no esôfago, estômago, intestino (delgado e grosso, fígado, baço, pâncreas e linfonodos abdominais. Espessamentos fibrosos da íntima da veia porta, granulomas em espaços porta e fibrose incipiente dos espaços porta e interlobular foram lesões decorrentes da presença de ovos de S. mansoni encontrados no fígado. Em ambiente semi-natural, foi possível fechar o ciclo do S. mansoni sem direta participação humana, utilizando-se B. glabrata experimentalmente infectadas com trematódeos da cepa "LE", H. brasiliensis nascidos em laboratório e B. glabrata nascida no ambiente semi-natural estabelecido. Verificou-se que ambas as cepas ("H" e "LE" comportaram-se de maneira análoga, não sendo verificadas, também, diferenças morfológicas entre os ovos e vermes adultos de ambas. As observações, realizadas no campo e no laboratório demonstraram que o Holochilus brasiliensis é bom hospedeiro de Schistosoma mansoni. Assim, em determinadas áreas e sob certas condições ecológicas, o cricetídeo em questão poderá, efetivamente, integrar-se ao ciclo do trematódeo na natureza, independente ou paralelamente à presença do homem. Assinala-se, finalmente, que o presente trabalho relata o segundo fechamento do ciclo biológico de S. mansoni em condi

  17. Open-Label Study of the Influence of Food Containing the Royal Sun Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (Higher Basidiomycetes), on the Quality of Life of Healthy Human Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoi, Masuro; Motoi, Akitomo; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Ohno, Naohito

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an open-label study in which food containing Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 was consumed continuously for 12 weeks. A questionnaire for subjective evaluation of the efficacy of this food (hereafter, subjective evaluation questionnaire) revealed significant improvements compared with before its intake; there were improvements in the scores of the amounts of hair loss and gray hair, fatigue and general malaise, eye strain, shoulder stiffness, coldness of extremities, difficulty staying awake during the day, and ease of getting out of bed. These findings suggest that intake of food containing A. brasiliensis KA21 results in the above-mentioned subjectively evaluated improvements, and the possibility that A. brasiliensis KA21 improves the body's immunity. Moreover, no issues regarding the safety of the test food were found. PMID:26756293

  18. Comparación de la morfología alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae y Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae, representantes de dos diferentes patrones de vuelo Comparison of the wing morphology of Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae and Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae as representatives of two flight patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO CANALS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available La morfología alar de los quirópteros se encuentra relacionada por una parte con la biomecánica y energética del vuelo y por otra parte con aspectos ecológicos y conductuales (i.e., patrón de vuelo, conducta de forrajeo y selección de hábitat y de presas. En este trabajo se compara la morfometría alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae y Myotis chiloensis (Vespertilionidae, representantes de diferentes patrones de vuelo, buscando compromisos entre la morfometría alar y aspectos ecológicos y conductuales. Nuestros resultados muestran que T. brasiliensis es un murciélago más robusto, de mayor envergadura, pero con un área alar similar a la de M. chiloensis. Esta última especie tiene una menor variabilidad en su masa y área cortical del húmero, que probablemente se encuentre relacionada con restricciones mecánicas y energéticas impuestas por su diseño. Descontando el efecto de la masa se detectaron diferencias en el diámetro externo y diámetro medular del húmero con una similar área cortical. El húmero de T. brasiliensis es un hueso de similar longitud, más ancho y con un menor grosor cortical que el de M. chiloensis, lo que está relacionado con una mayor resistencia a las fuerzas de flexión y torsión. Las características alares son consistentes con los modos de vida de cada murciélago: vuelos lentos, cortos y maniobrables en zonas arbustivas de M. chiloensis y vuelo veloz y de grandes distancias en espacios abiertos de T. brasiliensisWing morphology is related by one hand to biomechanical properties and energetics of flying, and on the other hand to ecological and behavioral aspects of flying, such as flight pattern, foraging behavior, habitat selection and size of prey. In this work we compare the wing morphology of Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae and Myotis chiloensis (Vespertilionidae, as representatives of two flight patterns, and looking for trade-offs between wing morphology, ecology and behavior. Our

  19. Intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em ovinos no Rio Grande do Sul Spontaneous poisoning in sheep by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae in southern Brazil

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    Marcia R. S. Ilha

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis em ovinos em um estabelecimento do município de Mata, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em meados de janeiro de 1997. De um total de 94 ovinos, 51 (54,25% animais adoeceram e 50 (53,2% morreram. Esse rebanho permaneceu durante aproximadamente 7 meses (de junho de 1996 a janeiro de 1997 em piquetes de pastagem nativa onde havia grande quantidade de S. brasiliensis. O quadro clínico manifestado pelos animais afetados consistia em fotossensibilização, emagrecimento progressivo, apatia, fraqueza, perturbações neurológicas como depressão, andar a esmo e desequilibrado, icterícia e hemoglobinúria. Houve melhora das lesões de pele naqueles ovinos que desenvolveram fotossensibilização hepatógena depois que foram retirados do sol. As principais lesões macroscópicas observadas em 9 dos 10 ovinos necropsiados incluíam fígado diminuído de tamanho, firme, difusamente marrom amarelado ou esverdeado, com quantidades variáveis de nódulos de 1-3 mm de diâmetro, bem circunscritos, salientes na cápsula, amarelados, distribuídos aleatoriamente por todo o parênquima. A vesícula biliar estava repleta e preenchida por bile verde escura e espessa. Havia também derrames cavitários (hidropericárdio e ascite. Crise hemolítica aguda fatal associada à intoxicação crônica hepatógena por cobre foi observada em cinco ovinos. Além das lesões hepáticas macroscópicas já mencionadas, foi observada icterícia generalizada da carcaça, rins tumefeitos, friáveis, difusamente escurecidos ou com fino pontilhado enegrecido; a urina era marrom escura (hemoglobinúria. As principais lesões microscópicas foram observadas no fígado e consistiam em hepatomegalocitose, proliferação de ductos biliares (hiperplasia ductal e fibrose periportal moderada acompanhada de infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear. Macrófagos carregados de pigmento acastanhado formavam

  20. Ocorrência de Diglotta brasiliensis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae em duas praias estuarinas da Baía de Paranaguá, sul do Brasil Occurrence of Diglotta brasiliensis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae in two estuarine beaches of Paranaguá Bay, southern Brazil

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    Leonardo C. da Rosa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nesta nota são apresentadas as principais características do hábictat de Diglotta brasiliensis Caron & Ribeiro-Costa, 2008, uma espécie recentemente descrita para a região Neotropical. Os indivíduos foram encontrados habitando uma faixa de aproximadamente 4 m de largura da zona intermareal superior de duas praias estuarinas (ambas localizadas no setor euhalino da baía, com as suas densidades variando de 13 a 80 indivíduos/m². Nesta faixa da praia os sedimentos estiveram compostos de areia média moderadamente a muito bem selecionada e com teor de umidade em torno de 6,5%. O teor de matéria orgânica e de carbonato de cálcio do sedimento variou entre 0,08 a 0,13% e 3,4 a 5,4%, respectivamente. Nesses locais, D. brasiliensis foi encontrada coexistindo com isópodes cirolanídeos do gênero Excirolana Richardson, 1912 (Isopoda: Cirolanidae.The main habitat characteristics of Diglotta brasiliensis Caron & Ribeiro-Costa, 2008, a recently described species from the Neotropical region, are provided. The specimens were found inhabiting a 4 m wide-strip at the upper intertidal zone of two estuarine sand beaches (both located in the euhaline sector of the bay, with densities ranging from 13 to 80 individuals/m². In this zone, sediment is composed by moderate to very well sorted median sand with moisture content around 6.5%. The sediment organic matter and calcium carbonate contents varied from 0.08 to 0.13% and from 3.4 to 5.4%, respectively. At these places, D. brasiliensis was found coexisting with cirolanid isopods of the genus Excirolana Richardson, 1912 (Isopoda: Cirolanidae.

  1. On the unknown ecological niche of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: our hypothesis of 1989: present status and perspectives Sobre un desconocido nicho ecológico de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Nuestra hipótesis de 1989: situación actual y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael A. Conti Días

    2007-01-01

    In 1989, CONTI DÍAZ & RILLA published a hypothesis concerning the as yet unknown ecological niche of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The hypothesis proposed a highly efficient paracoccidioidal ecological strategy based on an important natural reservoir of the parasite, probably in heterothermic animals from fresh water environments. Further, the hypothesis proposed, a transient and variable residence in the soil with a wide aleuriospore dispersion throughout the environment together with an el...

  2. Monitoring the sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fermentation process to obtain anchovies Monitoramento do processo de fermentação da sardinha, Sardinella brasiliensis, para obtenção de anchovas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Oetterer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchovies are traditional fish preserves, prepared from fermented fish of the engraulidae family, mainly in European countries. In Brazil, sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis are an alternative fish for preparing these types of preserves, provided that the preservation process results in a high quality product. In this research, sardines were prepared for preservation and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out during the preservation process. Whole or eviscerated sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives and with 20% of salt (w/w were used. Sardines were analyzed fresh, and at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days along the preservation process. The use of whole sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives, presented best results, with increased non-proteic nitrogen in the dry matter, higher levels of total volatile bases and higher contents of lactic acid and sodium chloride. The higher acidity observed in the whole sardine treatments resulted in better control of halophylic mesophilic microorganisms, which were kept under 1.4 x 10³ CFU g-1 in both treatments. Total coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus reached 21 and 3.0 x 10² CFU g-1, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp were not present in the fresh sardines or in any of the four treatments, indicating that the concentration of salt used was appropriate to maintain the product under adequate microbiological control. Both whole or eviscerated sardines under the conditions of this experiment were appropriate in terms of the microbiological safety of the preserves. Treatments using whole fish, either with or without condiments/preservatives, also presented better sensorial properties such as color, flavor, taste and texture, as compared to the eviscerated fish treatments. Whole sardines produced good quality, anchovy-type preserves, which can be used for consumption and marketing purposes.As sardinhas brasileiras podem ser utilizadas para o preparo

  3. Avaliação da utilização de embalagem em atmosfera modificada sobre a conservação de sardinhas (Sardinella brasiliensis Evaluation of the use of modied atmosphere packaging in sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Junger Teodoro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A vida útil dos alimentos perecíveis conservados em atmosfera normal é limitada principalmente pelo efeito do oxigênio atmosférico e o crescimento de microorganismos aeróbios produtores de alterações, que promovem mudanças de odor, sabor, cor e textura, conduzindo à perda da qualidade. A modificação da atmosfera prolonga significativamente a vida útil dos alimentos, quando comparados à refrigeração, podendo chegar a um aumento de três a quatro vezes. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da embalagem de sardinhas (Sardinella brasiliensis em atmosfera modificada. As amostras foram divididas em 8 lotes, embaladas com aproximadamente 1,5 L de ar (100%, CO2 (100%, 50/50 CO2/O2 e vácuo e termo-seladas, sendo armazenadas por um período de 22 dias. A cada 2 dias as amostras foram avaliadas quanto ao pH, bases voláteis totais (BVT e contagens totais de microrganismos heterotróficos aeróbios mesófilos. Os valores de pH aumentaram durante o tempo de estocagem, com exceção das amostras armazenadas em 100 e 50% CO2. A evolução de BVT foi compatível com outros parâmetros, como pH e contagem de bactérias totais, sendo sua evolução mais lenta nas amostras em que ocorreu o uso de atmosfera modificada. Os microrganismos mesófilos, nas atmosferas enriquecidas com CO2, apresentaram fases de latência e tempos de duplicação maiores, quando comparados com os das amostras em que não foi aplicado o método. Sob o ponto de vista microbiológico, as embalagens enriquecidas com CO2 demonstraram ser o melhor método de conservação, como também os resultados de BVT se encontraram dentro dos limites de 30 mg.100 g -1 de acordo com o estabelecido pela RIISPOA8. Recomenda-se o uso da atmosfera de 100% de CO2 como forma de conservação da sardinha por apresentar melhores parâmetros de vida útil.The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis packaged in a modified atmosphere. The

  4. Hitting an Unintended Target: Phylogeography of Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier, 1836 and the First New Brazilian Bumblebee Species in a Century (Hymenoptera: Apidae.

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    José Eustáquio Santos Júnior

    Full Text Available This work tested whether or not populations of Bombus brasiliensis isolated on mountain tops of southeastern Brazil belonged to the same species as populations widespread in lowland areas in the Atlantic coast and westward along the Paraná-river valley. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses showed that those populations were all conspecific. However, they revealed a previously unrecognized, apparently rare, and potentially endangered species in one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots of the World, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This species is described here as Bombus bahiensis sp. n., and included in a revised key for the identification of the bumblebee species known to occur in Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses based on two mtDNA markers suggest this new species to be sister to B. brasiliensis, from which its workers and queens can be easily distinguished by the lack of a yellow hair-band on the first metasomal tergum. The results presented here are consistent with the hypothesis that B. bahiensis sp. n. may have originated from an ancestral population isolated in an evergreen-forest refuge (the so-called Bahia refuge during cold, dry periods of the Pleistocene. This refuge is also known as an important area of endemism for several animal taxa, including other bees. Secondary contact between B. bahiensis and B. brasiliensis may be presently prevented by a strip of semi-deciduous forest in a climate zone characterized by relatively long dry seasons. Considering the relatively limited range of this new species and the current anthropic pressure on its environment, attention should be given to its conservation status.

  5. Modeling disease vector occurrence when detection is imperfect II: Drivers of site-occupancy by synanthropic Triatoma brasiliensis in the Brazilian northeast.

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    Carolina Valença-Barbosa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the drivers of habitat selection by insect disease vectors is instrumental to the design and operation of rational control-surveillance systems. One pervasive yet often overlooked drawback of vector studies is that detection failures result in some sites being misclassified as uninfested; naïve infestation indices are therefore biased, and this can confound our view of vector habitat preferences. Here, we present an initial attempt at applying methods that explicitly account for imperfect detection to investigate the ecology of Chagas disease vectors in man-made environments. METHODOLOGY: We combined triplicate-sampling of individual ecotopes (n = 203 and site-occupancy models (SOMs to test a suite of pre-specified hypotheses about habitat selection by Triatoma brasiliensis. SOM results were compared with those of standard generalized linear models (GLMs that assume perfect detection even with single bug-searches. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Triatoma brasiliensis was strongly associated with key hosts (native rodents, goats/sheep and, to a lesser extent, fowl in peridomestic environments; ecotope structure had, in comparison, small to negligible effects, although wooden ecotopes were slightly preferred. We found evidence of dwelling-level aggregation of infestation foci; when there was one such focus, same-dwelling ecotopes, whether houses or peridomestic structures, were more likely to become infested too. GLMs yielded negatively-biased covariate effect estimates and standard errors; both were, on average, about four times smaller than those derived from SOMs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results confirm substantial population-level ecological heterogeneity in T. brasiliensis. They also suggest that, at least in some sites, control of this species may benefit from peridomestic rodent control and changes in goat/sheep husbandry practices. Finally, our comparative analyses highlight the importance of accounting for the

  6. Genetics of anthracnose panel canker disease resistance and its relationship with yield and growth characters in half-sib progenies of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves; Edson Luiz Furtado; Ondino Cleante Bataglia; Altino Aldo Ortolani; André May; Giselle Olmos Belletti

    1999-01-01

    Rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell-Arg] anthracnose panel canker disease resistance, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., and growth and yield characters were assessed at three years old in the nursery, in 18 half-sib progenies. There were highly significant (P < 0.01) genetic differences among progenies for most characters. The genetic component of variance accounted for 3.37, 6.07, 12.74, 12.13, 19.82 and 3.58% of the phenotypic variance for a...

  7. Hot Water Extracts of the Royal Sun Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes), Inhibit Platelet Activation via the P2Y1 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Katsuyuki; Satoh, Kaneo; Ohta, Masato; Ozaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Hot water extracts of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis were investigated for their inhibition of platelet aggregation. The extracts significantly inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), but not by collagen or thrombin receptor-activating peptide. The extracts also had a significant inhibitory effect on shape change and intracellular calcium mobilization induced by ADP via inhibition of ADP binding to the P2Y1 receptor. In addition, oral administration of the extracts resulted in prolonged tail bleeding time in mice. The marked antiplatelet activity of the mushroom extracts involving the P2Y1 receptor suggests their potential therapeutic use against vascular disorders. PMID:26559862

  8. Riqueza e composição de vertebrados em latrinas ativas e inativas de Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora, Mustelidae) na Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia M. Togura; Darren Norris; Fernanda Michalski

    2014-01-01

    O estudo objetivou avaliar a riqueza e composição de vertebrados de médio e grande porte em latrinas ativas e inativas de ariranhas [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788)], em uma Unidade de Conservação de Uso Sustentável na Amazônia Oriental Brasileira. O estudo foi realizado em 45 latrinas ao longo de 230 km nos rios Falsino e Araguari (0°55'N, 51°35'W), sendo que desse total, 24 apresentaram fezes frescas e 21 fezes velhas de ariranhas. De julho a novembro de 2012, cada latrina foi monitor...

  9. Atividade inibitória das folhas e caule de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess frente a microrganismos com diferentes perfis de resistência a antibióticos Inhibitory activity of aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess against microorganisms with variation profile antibiotic-resistant

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    Jackeline G. da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação antimicrobiana das partes aéreas de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, a qual é comumente utilizada para o tratamento de inflamações da mucosa oral, bronquites e congestão nasal, é relatada. Esta atividade foi avaliada em discos de Petri usando o método de difusão para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (MIC e cinética bactericida. Foram usadas amostras bacterianas gram-positivas, gram-negativas e cepas de fungos leveduriformes do gênero Cândida. Apenas o óleo essencial demonstrou ser efetivo, apresentando atividade frente amostras gram-positivas de Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA meticilina resistente. A ação observada foi considerada bacteriostática por reduzir um log10 UFC/mL a partir da sexta hora de exposição da amostra ao óleo essencial nas concentrações de 4% e 8%. Compostos fenólicos estão presentes em óleo essencial, sugerindo que o efeito foi devido à presença dos mesmos. Por este motivo à planta Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess pode representar uma alternativa terapêutica para infecções provocadas por Staphylococcus aureus.This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, commonly used for the treatment of the oral mucosa inflammation, bronchitis and nasal congestion. The antimicrobial activity was assayed in petri dishes using the diffusion method for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the kill curve kinetic methods. It were used gram-positive and gram-negative strain, leveduriforms fungi strain classified in genus Cândida. Only the essential oil showed activity against methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. This action was considered bacteriostatic with the reduction to one log10 CFU/ml after six hour of exhibition at the concentration of 4% and 8%. There are studies accounts that polyphenols are present in the essential oil and are active against bacteria. K

  10. Effect of different levels of sodium chloride and glucose on fermentation of sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis by Lactobacillus sakei 2a

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    Milton Luiz Pinho Espirito Santo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain. In this study, it's effects as a starter culture in the curing process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fillets were studied at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4, 6% and glucose (2, 4%. After 21 days of fermentation, the spoilage microorganisms population reached 9.7 Log10 CFU g-1 corresponding to 6% NaCl and 4% glucose. With no addition of glucose and starter culture, sardine fillets began spoilage 72 hours after fermentation, even when 6% NaCl was used. Little differences were observed in lactic acid production when 2 and 4% glucose were added, since total acidity was 1.32 and 1.34% respectively, the experiments with 6% NaCl presented the best results. Initial pH of sardine fillets was 6.0 and after 21 days pH values were 3.8, 3.9 and 4.0 for the experiments with 2, 4 and 6% NaCl respectively. This could have been due to the inhibitory properties of NaCl over the spoilage microorganisms. After 21 days of the fermentation, the levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB were 14.5 Log10 CFU.g-1.Lactobacillus sakei 2a é uma cepa produtora de bacteriocinas e, neste estudo, procurou-se observar seus efeitos como cultivo iniciador na fermentação de filés de sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis em diferentes concentrações de NaCl (2, 4, 6% e glicose (2, 4%. Com 21 dias (fermentação, os microrganismos deterioradores atingiram 9,7 Log10 UFC.g-1, correspondente a 6% NaCl e 4% de glicose. Sem a adição do starter e da glicose, a deterioração (filés iniciou a partir de 72 horas, mesmo quando foi utilizado 6% NaCl. Pouca diferença foi observada na produção de ácido lático quando se adicionou 2 e 4% de glicose, já que a acidez atingiu 1,32 e 1,34%, respectivamente (6% NaCl, os quais apresentaram os melhores resultados. O pH inicial dos filés foi 6 e, ao término de 21 dias, atingiu 3,8, 3,9 e 4, equivalente aos experimentos com 2, 4 e 6% NaCl. Este comportamento pode ser atribuído ao

  11. Juveniles of the piscivorous dourado Salminus brasiliensis mimic the piraputanga Brycon hilarii as an alternative predation tactic

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    Eduardo Bessa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the district of Bom Jardim, in Nobres, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, there are clear water streams originating on karstic terrain. The dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, is an apex stalking predator in these streams. In clear waters, where visually oriented prey may perceive predator in advance, surprise is needed for successful attacks. These streams are cohabited by other Characiformes, like the frugivorous piraputanga Brycon hilarii, which lives in schools and exhibits body colour and shape similar to the dourados. Here we describe an alternative predatory tactic for juvenile dourado occurring in headwater streams of the Paraguay River basin, in which they act as an aggressive mimic of the piraputanga. Based on 43 h of observations in Bom Jardim, and on additional 11 h in the Bodoquena Plateau Rivers of Mato Grosso do Sul State, we quantified the number of rushes by dourados when they were among piraputangas or foraging alone, and observed the proportion of piraputangas per dourado in multispecific schools. Dourados of up to 30 cm total length (TL stayed among the piraputangas of similar size hiding within the school and going to the periphery of the school before rushing against prey. The dourados exhibited colours similar to the piraputangas. They not only stayed longer among piraputangas (78% of the observation time, but also rushed against prey more often than when foraging alone (53 rushes/h against 14 rushes/h, respectively.No distrito de Bom Jardim, Nobres, Mato Grosso, Brasil, existem rios de águas claras que se originam sobre terreno cárstico. O dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, é um predador perseguidor de topo de cadeia nestes rios. Em águas, onde presas visualmente orientadas são capazes de perceber antecipadamente o predador, o fator surpresa é necessário para ataques bem sucedidos. Estes córregos são coabitados por outros Characiformes, como a frugívora piraputanga, Brycon hilarii, a qual vive em cardumes e exibe colora

  12. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

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    Robson Marcelo Di Piero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas

  13. Low-level laser therapy to the mouse femur enhances the fungicidal response of neutrophils against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

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    Eva Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils (PMN play a central role in host defense against the neglected fungal infection paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, which is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb. PCM is of major importance, especially in Latin America, and its treatment relies on the use of antifungal drugs. However, the course of treatment is lengthy, leading to side effects and even development of fungal resistance. The goal of the study was to use low-level laser therapy (LLLT to stimulate PMN to fight Pb in vivo. Swiss mice with subcutaneous air pouches were inoculated with a virulent strain of Pb or fungal cell wall components (Zymosan, and then received LLLT (780 nm; 50 mW; 12.5 J/cm2; 30 seconds per point, giving a total energy of 0.5 J per point on alternate days at two points on each hind leg. The aim was to reach the bone marrow in the femur with light. Non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The number and viability of the PMN that migrated to the inoculation site was assessed, as well as their ability to synthesize proteins, produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and their fungicidal activity. The highly pure PMN populations obtained after 10 days of infection were also subsequently cultured in the presence of Pb for trials of protein production, evaluation of mitochondrial activity, ROS production and quantification of viable fungi growth. PMN from mice that received LLLT were more active metabolically, had higher fungicidal activity against Pb in vivo and also in vitro. The kinetics of neutrophil protein production also correlated with a more activated state. LLLT may be a safe and non-invasive approach to deal with PCM infection.

  14. Some ethylene biosynthesis and AP2/ERF genes reveal a specific pattern of expression during somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis

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    Piyatrakul Piyanuch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethylene production and signalling play an important role in somatic embryogenesis, especially for species that are recalcitrant in in vitro culture. The AP2/ERF superfamily has been identified and classified in Hevea brasiliensis. This superfamily includes the ERFs involved in response to ethylene. The relative transcript abundance of ethylene biosynthesis genes and of AP2/ERF genes was analysed during somatic embryogenesis for callus lines with different regeneration potential, in order to identify genes regulated during that process. Results The analysis of relative transcript abundance was carried out by real-time RT-PCR for 142 genes. The transcripts of ERFs from group I, VII and VIII were abundant at all stages of the somatic embryogenesis process. Forty genetic expression markers for callus regeneration capacity were identified. Fourteen markers were found for proliferating calli and 35 markers for calli at the end of the embryogenesis induction phase. Sixteen markers discriminated between normal and abnormal embryos and, lastly, there were 36 markers of conversion into plantlets. A phylogenetic analysis comparing the sequences of the AP2 domains of Hevea and Arabidopsis genes enabled us to predict the function of 13 expression marker genes. Conclusions This first characterization of the AP2/ERF superfamily in Hevea revealed dramatic regulation of the expression of AP2/ERF genes during the somatic embryogenesis process. The gene expression markers of proliferating callus capacity to regenerate plants by somatic embryogenesis should make it possible to predict callus lines suitable to be used for multiplication. Further functional characterization of these markers opens up prospects for discovering specific AP2/ERF functions in the Hevea species for which somatic embryogenesis is difficult.

  15. Carbon isotope composition of latex does not reflect temporal variations of photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination in rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanpanon, Nicha; Kasemsap, Poonpipope; Thaler, Philippe; Kositsup, Boonthida; Gay, Frédéric; Lacote, Régis; Epron, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Latex, the cytoplasm of laticiferous cells localized in the inner bark of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.), is collected by tapping the bark. Following tapping, latex flows out of the trunk and is regenerated, whereas in untapped trees, there is no natural exudation. It is still unknown whether the carbohydrates used for latex regeneration in tapped trees is coming from recent photosynthates or from stored carbohydrates, and in the former case, it is expected that latex carbon isotope composition of tapped trees will vary seasonally, whereas latex isotope composition of untapped trees will be more stable. Temporal variations of carbon isotope composition of trunk latex (δ(13)C-L), leaf soluble compounds (δ(13)C-S) and bulk leaf material (δ(13)C-B) collected from tapped and untapped 20-year-old trees were compared. A marked difference in δ(13)C-L was observed between tapped and untapped trees whatever the season. Trunk latex from tapped trees was more depleted (1.6‰ on average) with more variable δ(13)C values than those of untapped trees. δ(13)C-L was higher and more stable across seasons than δ(13)C-S and δ(13)C-B, with a maximum seasonal difference of 0.7‰ for tapped trees and 0.3‰ for untapped trees. δ(13)C-B was lower in tapped than in untapped trees, increasing from August (middle of the rainy season) to April (end of the dry season). Differences in δ(13)C-L and δ(13)C-B between tapped and untapped trees indicated that tapping affects the metabolism of both laticiferous cells and leaves. The lack of correlation between δ(13)C-L and δ(13)C-S suggests that recent photosynthates are mixed in the large pool of stored carbohydrates that are involved in latex regeneration after tapping. PMID:26358051

  16. Identification, Functional Study, and Promoter Analysis of HbMFT1, a Homolog of MFT from Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhenghong; Li, Xiang; Huang, Huasun; Hua, Yuwei

    2016-01-01

    A homolog of MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT) was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis and its biological function was investigated. Protein multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbMFT1 conserved critical amino acid residues to distinguish MFT, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1)-like proteins and showed a closer genetic relationship to the MFT-like group. The accumulation of HbMFT1 was generally detected in various tissues except pericarps, with the highest expression in embryos and relatively higher expression in roots and stems of seedlings, flowering inflorescences, and male and female flowers. HbMFT1 putative promoter analysis showed that tissue-specific, environmental change responsive and hormone-signaling responsive elements were generally present. HbMFT1 was strongly induced under a short-day condition at 28 °C, with the highest expression after the onset of a day. Overexpression of HbMFT1 inhibited seed germination, seedling growth, and flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis. The qRT-PCR further confirmed that APETALA1 (AP1) and FRUITFULL (FUL) were drastically down-regulated in 35S::HbMFT1 plants. A histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay showed that HbMFT1::GUS activity was mainly detected in stamens and mature seeds coinciding with its original expression and notably induced in rosette leaves and seedlings of transgenic Arabidopsis by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) due to the presence of ABA cis-elements in HbMFT1 promoter. These results suggested that HbMFT1 was mainly involved in maintenance of seed maturation and stamen development, but negatively controlled germination, growth and development of seedlings and flowering. In addition, the HbMFT1 promoter can be utilized in controlling transgene expression in stamens and seeds of rubber tree or other plant species. PMID:26950112

  17. Oxidative Status Profile in Different Tissues of Parastacus brasiliensis promatensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae) over a Seasonal Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ludimila Carneiro; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess annual redox balance by quantifying activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), as well as measuring lipid peroxidation levels by determination of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, in different tissues of male and female crayfish collected from an area little affected by anthropogenic impacts. A total of 37 male and 32 female of Parastacus brasiliensis promatensis were collected over an annual cycle, and gill, muscle, hepatopancreas, and gonad samples were harvested and subjected to the aforementioned analyses via spectrophotometry. Comparison of the annual oxidative status response profile in gill and in hepatopancreas between males and females revealed differences only in SOD activity. In abdominal muscle, this comparison revealed a distinct profile of SOD and GST activity, as well as of lipid peroxidation. SOD activity in gonads of females increased in the summer when compared to autumn; conversely, CAT and GST levels did not differ over the year. During reproduction, a possible increase of the energy requirements led to an increase in lipid peroxidation in all tested tissues, in males and females alike. It was least evident in female gonad tissue, which suggests this tissue type is relatively protected; within this context, one may establish a tissue-specific grading of Lipid Peroxidation intensity in females of the species during the spring: gonads < muscle < gills < hepatopancreas. Our results show that the responses of the defenses analyzed antioxidants, as well as lipid peroxidation levels, were sex and tissue dependent and a clear pattern of seasonal variation. PMID:27256498

  18. Identification, Functional Study, and Promoter Analysis of HbMFT1, a Homolog of MFT from Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis

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    Zhenghong Bi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A homolog of MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis and its biological function was investigated. Protein multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbMFT1 conserved critical amino acid residues to distinguish MFT, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1-like proteins and showed a closer genetic relationship to the MFT-like group. The accumulation of HbMFT1 was generally detected in various tissues except pericarps, with the highest expression in embryos and relatively higher expression in roots and stems of seedlings, flowering inflorescences, and male and female flowers. HbMFT1 putative promoter analysis showed that tissue-specific, environmental change responsive and hormone-signaling responsive elements were generally present. HbMFT1 was strongly induced under a short-day condition at 28 °C, with the highest expression after the onset of a day. Overexpression of HbMFT1 inhibited seed germination, seedling growth, and flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis. The qRT-PCR further confirmed that APETALA1 (AP1 and FRUITFULL (FUL were drastically down-regulated in 35S::HbMFT1 plants. A histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS assay showed that HbMFT1::GUS activity was mainly detected in stamens and mature seeds coinciding with its original expression and notably induced in rosette leaves and seedlings of transgenic Arabidopsis by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA due to the presence of ABA cis-elements in HbMFT1 promoter. These results suggested that HbMFT1 was mainly involved in maintenance of seed maturation and stamen development, but negatively controlled germination, growth and development of seedlings and flowering. In addition, the HbMFT1 promoter can be utilized in controlling transgene expression in stamens and seeds of rubber tree or other plant species.

  19. Identification and Characterization of the Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Family in the Para Rubber Tree, Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiangyu; He, Bin; Fang, Yongjun; Tang, Chaorong

    2016-01-01

    As a key enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) provides nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and intermediary metabolites for rubber biosynthesis, and plays an important role in plant development and stress responses. In this study, four Hevea brasiliensis (Para rubber tree) G6PDH genes (HbG6PDH1 to 4) were identified and cloned using a genome-wide scanning approach. All four HbG6PDH genes encode functional G6PDH enzymes as shown by heterologous expression in E. coli. Phylogeny analysis and subcellular localization prediction show that HbG6PDH3 is a cytosolic isoform, while the other three genes (HbG6PDH1, 2 and 4) are plastidic isoforms. The subcellular locations of HbG6PDH3 and 4, two latex-abundant isoforms were further verified by transient expression in rice protoplasts. Enzyme activity assay and expression analysis showed HbG6PDH3 and 4 were implicated in PPP during latex regeneration, and to influence rubber production positively in rubber tree. The cytosolic HbG6PDH3 is a predominant isoform in latex, implying a principal role for this isoform in controlling carbon flow and NADPH production in the PPP during latex regeneration. The expression pattern of plastidic HbG6PDH4 correlates well with the degree of tapping panel dryness, a physiological disorder that stops the flow of latex from affected rubber trees. In addition, the four HbG6PDHs responded to temperature and drought stresses in root, bark, and leaves, implicating their roles in maintaining redox balance and defending against oxidative stress. PMID:26941770

  20. Alterations in the pathogenicity of one Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolate do not correlative with its in vitro growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashino, S S; Singer-Vermes, L M; Calich, V L; Burger, E

    1990-09-01

    The in vitro subcultivation of some microorganisms for long periods causes measurable loss of their pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from infected hosts. We compared the pathogenicity and the in vitro growth pattern of one P. brasiliensis isolate (Pb 18) in its yeast phase, using the following samples: 1) The original pathogenic Pb 18 (OP). 2) Pb 18 attenuated by continuous in vitro subcultivation (AT). 3) Pb 18 (AT) reisolated from susceptible B10.A mice (RS). 4) Pb 18 (AT) reisolated from resistant A/SN mice (RR). Pathogenicity was evaluated by anatomopathology and mortality of mice infected i.p. with 5 x 10(6) fungi. Median survival times of mice infected with OP ranged from 74 to 117 days during the first 51 months of subculturing; with more cycles of subculturing the median survival time increased, reaching 250 days at the 64th month. This indicated decreasing virulence of OP during this period of subculturing. Survival of mice infected with RS and RR was respectively 112 and 123 days, which is similar to the behavior of the OP variant. The in vitro growth curve profile of RR showed significantly higher numbers of total and viable yeasts than the other studied variant. These results show that: 1) Pb 18 isolate loses its pathogenicity by continuous subcultivation. This phenomenon is reverted by reisolation from mice, independently from their susceptibility to the fungus; 2) the in vitro growth patterns of Pb 18 do not correlate with alterations in pathogenicity but are influenced by the host's environment. PMID:2233986

  1. Demography of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, Jessica; Hajek, Frank; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W; Calvimontes, Jorge; Staib, Elke; Schenck, Christof

    2014-01-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an endangered semi-aquatic carnivore of South America. We present findings on the demography of a population inhabiting the floodplain of Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru, arising from 14 annual dry season censuses over a 16 year period. The breeding system of territorial groups, including only a single breeding female with non-reproductive adult 'helpers', resulted in a low intrinsic rate of increase (0.03) and a slow recovery from decades of hunting for the pelt trade. This is explained by a combination of factors: (1) physiological traits such as late age at first reproduction and long generation time, (2) a high degree of reproductive skew, (3) small litters produced only once a year, and (4) a 50% mortality between den emergence and age of dispersal, as well as high mortality amongst dispersers (especially males). Female and male giant otters show similar traits with respect to average reproductive life-spans (female 5.4 yrs., male 5.2 yrs.) and average cub productivity (female 6.9, male 6.7 cubs per lifetime); the longest reproductive life spans were 11 and 13 years respectively. Individual reproductive success varied substantially and depended mainly on the duration of dominance tenure in the territory. When breeding females died, the reproductive position in the group was usually occupied by sisters or daughters (n = 11), with immigrant male partners. Male philopatry was not observed. The vulnerability of the Manu giant otter population to anthropogenic disturbance emphasises the importance of effective protection of core lake habitats in particular. Riverine forests are the most endangered ecosystem in the Department of Madre de Dios due to the concentration of gold mining, logging and agricultural activities in floodplains, highlighting the need for a giant otter habitat conservation corridor along the Madre de Dios River. PMID:25162684

  2. Demography of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis in Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru: implications for conservation.

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    Jessica Groenendijk

    Full Text Available The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis is an endangered semi-aquatic carnivore of South America. We present findings on the demography of a population inhabiting the floodplain of Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru, arising from 14 annual dry season censuses over a 16 year period. The breeding system of territorial groups, including only a single breeding female with non-reproductive adult 'helpers', resulted in a low intrinsic rate of increase (0.03 and a slow recovery from decades of hunting for the pelt trade. This is explained by a combination of factors: (1 physiological traits such as late age at first reproduction and long generation time, (2 a high degree of reproductive skew, (3 small litters produced only once a year, and (4 a 50% mortality between den emergence and age of dispersal, as well as high mortality amongst dispersers (especially males. Female and male giant otters show similar traits with respect to average reproductive life-spans (female 5.4 yrs., male 5.2 yrs. and average cub productivity (female 6.9, male 6.7 cubs per lifetime; the longest reproductive life spans were 11 and 13 years respectively. Individual reproductive success varied substantially and depended mainly on the duration of dominance tenure in the territory. When breeding females died, the reproductive position in the group was usually occupied by sisters or daughters (n = 11, with immigrant male partners. Male philopatry was not observed. The vulnerability of the Manu giant otter population to anthropogenic disturbance emphasises the importance of effective protection of core lake habitats in particular. Riverine forests are the most endangered ecosystem in the Department of Madre de Dios due to the concentration of gold mining, logging and agricultural activities in floodplains, highlighting the need for a giant otter habitat conservation corridor along the Madre de Dios River.

  3. Fenologia de Psychotria nuda e P. Brasiliensis (Rubiaceae em uma área de Floresta Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil Phenology of Psychotria nuda and P. brasiliensis (Rubiaceae in an area of the Atlantic Forest, Southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Medeiros de Almeida

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve os padrões fenológicos de duas espécies simpátricas, Psychotria nuda e P. brasiliensis, comparando-as quanto à fenologia e à distribuição espacial e relacionando os eventos fenológicos a fatores abióticos (pluviosidade, temperatura e fotoperíodo e bióticos (freqüência de polinizadores e de frugívoros. O estudo foi realizado entre agosto/1998 e julho/1999 em uma área de Floresta Atlântica pouco perturbada antropicamente, na Ilha Grande, RJ. Foram feitas observações mensais das fenofases, dos visitantes florais e dos consumidores de frutos de ambas as espécies estudadas. A emissão foliar de P. nuda e de P. brasiliensis ocorreu de novembro/1998 a maio/1999, havendo correlação positiva significativa desta fenofase com o fotoperíodo, com a pluviosidade média (normais climatológicas e com a temperatura média (normais climatológicas para ambas as espécies. O período de floração ocorreu entre março e junho/1999 para P. nuda e entre abril e julho/1999 para P. brasiliensis. As flores das duas espécies de Psychotria foram visitadas principalmente por uma espécie de beija-flor, Thalurania glaucopis, cujos machos foram os visitantes florais mais comuns em P. nuda com 47,2% (n=682 das visitas, e as fêmeas em P. brasiliensis com 85,1% (n=1869 das visitas. As duas espécies vegetais floresceram no mesmo período, compartilharam as mesmas espécies de polinizadores, mas não necessariamente devem competir por este recurso, rejeitando-se, portanto, a hipótese do compartilhamento do polinizador. O período de frutificação ocorreu ao longo de todo o ano para as duas espécies. A espécie de ave Lipaugus lanioides (Cotingidae foi o consumidor de frutos mais freqüente em P. brasiliensis. Ambas as espécies de plantas estudadas tiveram padrão de distribuição espacial do tipo agregado e foi evidenciada reprodução vegetativa para um indivíduo de P. nuda. Este estudo sugere que ambas as espécies de

  4. Biochemical changes in Salminus brasiliensis due to successive captures and stocking densities - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.13055

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    Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuñer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the biochemical changes associated to successive captures of Salminus brasiliensis reared at different stocking densities. The experiment was conducted in tanks with a capacity of 1,000 L, connected to a recirculating system with temperature control and continuous aeration. Fish were stocked at densities of 30, 150 and 300 fish m-3 and the successive catches were applied at the end of the experimental period of 80 days. The biochemical changes were evaluated at the end of the trial through the parameters: hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose and lactate in plasma and Na+, K+ and Cl- and Ca2+ in the gills. The concentration of glucose increased with the increase of stocking density as also registered for lactate concentration, except for fish captured twice. Hemoglobin concentration increased with the increase of stocking density only in fish captured three times. The hematocrit and the ions in the gills had no variation under any condition and therefore, the ionic alterations characteristic of a stress response, were not found in this species. The successive captures associated to stocking density were related to biochemical changes in S. brasiliensis, but ion concentrations in gills were not indicators of this condition.  

  5. Predation of the free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis (I. Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1824) by the American kestrel Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, in an urban sector of Santiago city, Metropolitan region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Annia Rodríguez-San Pedro; Juan Luis Allendes

    2015-01-01

    The American kestrel (Falco sparverius) is a raptor widely distributed in America. Throughout its geographic distribution, the American kestrel feeds on a variety of animal taxa, including bats. In Chile, however, there are no reports of American kestrel feeding on bats. This note reports the first known record of predation by the American kestrel on the free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis.

  6. Influence of season and pollution on the antioxidant defenses of the cichlid fish acará (Geophagus brasiliensis

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    D. Wilhelm Filho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The livers of Geophagus brasiliensis collected from both a non-polluted site and a polluted site were analyzed for different antioxidant defenses, O2 consumption, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS levels, and histological damage. Compared to controls (116.6 ± 26.1 nmol g-1, TBARS levels were enhanced at the polluted site (284.2 ± 25.6 nmol g-1, as also was oxygen consumption (86.6 ± 11.3 and 128.5 ± 9.8 µmol O2 min-1 g-1, respectively. With respect to enzymatic antioxidants, increased catalase activities (8.7 ± 1.3 and 29.2 ± 2.4 mmol min-1 g-1, respectively, unchanged superoxide dismutase activities (767.2 ± 113.3 and 563.3 ± 70.2 U g-1, respectively, and diminished glutathione S-transferase activities (29.0 ± 3.2 and 14.9 ± 3.2 µmol min-1 g-1, respectively were detected. Reduced glutathione (1.91 ± 0.17 and 1.37 ± 0.25 mM, respectively, oxidized glutathione (1.50 ± 0.20 and 0.73 ± 0.17 mM, respectively, and total glutathione (3.40 ± 0.26 and 2.07 ± 0.27 mM, respectively concentrations were also below control values at the polluted site. Nevertheless, the observed ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities (1.34 ± 0.11 and 16.7 ± 0.21 pmol min-1 mg-1, respectively showed enhanced values at the polluted site. The main histological damage observed in the hepatocytes from fish collected at the polluted site was characterized by heavy lipid infiltration. Fish collected at the end of spring showed higher O2 consumption, higher superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase activities, and higher total and oxidized glutathione concentrations compared to the beginning of autumn. No seasonal changes were observed in catalase activities, glutathione or TBARS levels. Fish chronically exposed to relatively high pollution levels seem to be unable to set up adequate antioxidant defenses, probably due to severe injury to their hepatocytes. The higher antioxidant defenses found at the end of spring are probably related to the

  7. The examination of Hevea brasiliensis plants produced by in vitro culture and mutagenesis by DNA fingerprinting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plants derived from anther and ovule culture as well as gamma-irradiated plants were examined by several DNA marker techniques. These include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMS), DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Compared to control plants produced by vegetative propagation (cutting and budding), plants produced by in vitro culture appeared to have a reduction in the number of rDNA loci. Two RAPD protocols were compared and found to be similar in amplification of the major DNA bands. After confirmation that the RAPD method adopted was reproducible, the technique was applied to the present studies. Eight out of the 60 primers screened were able to elicit polymorphisms between pooled DNA from in vitro culture plants. Variations in DNA patterns were observed between pooled DNA samples of anther-derived plants as well as between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants. Comparisons of RAPD patterns obtained between anther-derived plants exposed to increasing dosages of gamma-irradiation with non irradiated anther-derived plants revealed distinct DNA polymorphisms. The changes in DNA profiles did not appear to be correlated to the dosage of irradiation. Since somaclonal variation was detected, it was difficult to identify changes which were specifically caused by irradiation. Application of the STMS technique to tag micro satellite sequences (GA)n, (TA)n and (TTA)n in the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-1 (hmgr-1) gene failed to detect differences between plants derived from anther and ovule culture. Although restriction endonuclease digestions with methylation sensitive enzymes suggested that four in vitro culture plants examined exhibited similar digestion patterns as the controls, a change in cytosine methylation in one anther-derived plant was detected. Examination of

  8. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) under the highly seasonal rainfall regime of the Asian monsoon in mainland Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambelluca, T. W.; Mudd, R. G.; Liu, W.; Kobayashi, N.; Ziegler, A. D.; Miyazawa, Y.; Kumagai, T.; Huang, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Asian Monsoon dominates the climate of the mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) region, characterized by a highly seasonal rainfall regime in which 80-90% of annual rainfall occurs during the 6-month (May-October) wet season. The accompanying extremes in soil moisture, solar radiation, and vapor pressure deficit exert strong controls on ecosystem fluxes, including evapotranspiration (ET). Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), the major commercial crop currently replacing traditional agriculture and secondary forests in MSEA is a native of the equatorial Amazon rainforest, and differs physiologically from the dominant native SE Asian forest tree species. It sheds its leaves in the middle of the dry season and flushes new leaves before the onset of the wet season. In some areas, rubber cultivation is suspected of having caused changes in local climate and watershed processes, including a dramatic downward trend in fog frequency and large increases in surface runoff and soil erosion (Wu et al., 2001, Int. J. Sust. Dev. World Ecol. 8:337-345). Guardiola-Claramonte et al. (2008, Ecohydrology 1:13-22; 2010, Ecohydrology 3:306-314) noted striking differences in the timing and rate of dry season root-water extraction under rubber as compared with other vegetation types. To investigate the environmental impacts of rubber, eddy covariance flux towers were installed to monitor energy, water, and carbon exchange at rubber plantation sites in northeastern Thailand and Cambodia. Results of the first two years of observations at the sites indicate that controls on ET differ between wet and dry seasons, with varying responses to energy, soil moisture, canopy wetness, and leaf area. Despite the long dry season and loss of leaves for several weeks, rubber accumulates exceptionally high annual ET totals, exceeding those of natural forest and other plant functional types in the region. The phenology of rubber represents a disruption of the land-atmosphere interactions of native and other non

  9. Biópsia hepática no diagnóstico da intoxicação por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em bovinos Liver biopsy for the diagnosis of Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae poisoning in cattle

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    Claudio S.L. Barros

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesões hepáticas causadas pela intoxicação por Senecio spp em bovinos são progressivas e mortes podem ocorrer vários meses após a ingestão da planta. Testes laboratoriais da função hepática nem sempre são indicadores confiáveis de animais subclinicamente afetados. A biópsia hepática pode ser indicada para identificar bovinos com lesões hepáticas, mas sem sinais clínicos, e pode ter também valor prognóstico, uma vez que se acredita que as lesões hepáticas evoluam para causar insuficiência hepática e morte. Tais bovinos poderiam ser identificados pela biópsia hepática e enviados para o abate antes de desenvolverem os sinais clínicos, minimizando assim os prejuízos. Este estudo visou avaliar a biópsia hepática como um método de diagnóstico e prognóstico em casos de intoxi-cação por Senecio spp. em bovinos. Um surto de intoxicação por Senecio brasiliensis foi diagnosticado em bezerros de leite que haviam ingerido feno contaminado por 5-10% dessa planta tóxica. Biópsia hepática com agulha de Menghini por abordagem transtorácica foi realizada em 135 bezerros que ingeriram feno contaminado. Os bezerros biopsiados foram acompanhados por um período de 26 meses após a biópsia. Dezessete bezerros biopsiados tinham lesões típicas da intoxicação por Senecio spp (bezerros positivos e 118 tinham fígados histologicamente normais (bezerros negativos. As lesões hepáticas dos bovinos positivos incluíam fibrose, hepatomegalocitose e hiperplasia de ductos biliares. Quinze dos 17 bezerros positivos morreram com sinais clínicos típicos de intoxicação por Senecio spp. 17-149 dias após a biópsia; 13 desses foram necropsiados e apresentavam lesões macro e microscópicas típicas de intoxicação por Senecio spp. Dois bovinos positivos mantinham-se clinicamente normais ao final do período de observação pós-biópsia. O valor prognóstico (sensibilidae do teste foi considerado alto, uma vez que 88,23% dos

  10. Breeding sites of Neotropical Drosophilidae (Diptera: IV. living and fallen flowers of Sessea brasiliensis and Cestrum spp. (Solanaceae Sítios de desenvolvimento larval de Drosofilídeos (Diptera neotropicais: IV. flores de Sessea brasiliensis e Cestrum spp. (Solanaceae coletadas nas plantas e no solo

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    Rita de Cassia Oliveira dos Santos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The flowering phenologies of Sessea brasiliensis and three species of Cestrum (C. amictum, C. schlechtendalii and C. sendtnerianum, all belonging to the Solanaceae, were monitored in a fragment of the montane Atlantic rain forest within São Paulo city from July 1993 through June 1995. A total of 11,021 flies belonging to five species of the flavopilosa group of Drosophila (D. cestri, D. cordeiroi, D. hollisae, D. incompta and D. mariaehelenae, plus 1,244 flies belonging to four species of Zygothrica (Z. dispar, Z. vittimaculosa, Z. vittinubila and Z. aff. vittipunctata emerged from 33,955 sampled flowers. Cestrum amictum, C. sendtnerianum and Sessea brasiliensis are recorded for the first time as host plants for the species of the Neotropical flavopilosa group ofDrosophila. Additionally, at least ten less abundant taxa belonging also to the Drosophilidae, plus 1,073 microhymenopteran parasitoids (Braconidae, Eucoilidae, and Pteromalidae, emerged from the sampled flowers of S. brasiliensis e Cestrum spp. The present study raised from nine to eleven the number of species of Cestrum previously recorded as breeding sites for these flies. A comprehensive list of species of Solanaceae known to host six species of Drosophila and four species of Zygothrica in southeastern and southern Brazil is included.As fenologias de floração de quatro espécies de Solanaceae (Sessea brasiliensis, Cestrum amictum, C. schlechtendalii e C. sendtnerianum presentes em um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica de planalto, encravado na cidade de São Paulo, foram determinadas por observações realizadas entre julho de 1993 e junho de 1995. Durante esses dois anos foram coletadas 33.955 flores das quais emergiram 11.021 moscas pertencentes a cinco espécies de Drosophila do grupo flavopilosa (D. cestri, D. cordeiroi, D. hollisae, D. incompta e D. mariaehelenae e 1.244 moscas pertencentes a quatro espécies Zygothrica (Z. dispar, Z. vittimaculosa, Z. vittinubila e Z. aff

  11. Atividade inibitória das folhas e caule de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess frente a microrganismos com diferentes perfis de resistência a antibióticos Inhibitory activity of aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess against microorganisms with variation profile antibiotic-resistant

    OpenAIRE

    Jackeline G. da Silva; Maria do Socorro V. Pereira; Ana Pavla Diniz Gurgel; José Pinto Siqueira-Júnior; de Souza, Ivone A.

    2009-01-01

    A avaliação antimicrobiana das partes aéreas de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, a qual é comumente utilizada para o tratamento de inflamações da mucosa oral, bronquites e congestão nasal, é relatada. Esta atividade foi avaliada em discos de Petri usando o método de difusão para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (MIC) e cinética bactericida. Foram usadas amostras bacterianas gram-positivas, gram-negativas e cepas de fungos leveduriformes do gênero Cândida. Apenas o...

  12. Variação dos níveis do componente C3 do complemento em Holochilus brasiliensis nanus experimentalmente infectados com Schistosoma mansoni Variation in the levels of the C3 component of the complement in Holochilus brasiliensis nanus infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Othon de Carvalho Bastos; Maria Helena Seabra Soares de Brito; Maria Salete Sipauba Schiavotelo; Eliane Pires de Souza

    1984-01-01

    As variações dos níveis do componente C3 do complemento foram verificadas em soros de exemplares do roedor silvestre Holochilus brasiliensis nanus infectados experimentalmente com Schistosoma mansoni, aplicando-se a técnica de imunoeletroforese bidimensional quantitativa. Foram utilizados soros de animais normais, da mesma espécie e idade, como controle da experiência. A quantificação foi feita durante oito semanas, contadas a partir da data da infecção. C perfil sérico mostrou que o nível in...

  13. Avaliação do efeito antiparasitário do omeprazol na prevenção do desenvolvimento de lesões cutâneas em hamsters infectados por Leishmania brasiliensis Evaluation of omeprazole's antiparasitary effect preventing the development of cutaneous lesions due to Leishmania brasiliensis in hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Hélio Amante Miot; Luciane Donida Bartoli Miot; Ana Laura Bastos da Costa; Cristiane Yuri Matsuo; Lúcia Helena O’Dwyer

    2005-01-01

    FUNDAMENTOS: A leishmaniose tegumentar americana permanece doença endêmica em diversas regiões brasileiras. A sobrevivência do parasita no interior dos macrófagos se deve, em parte, pela atividade de uma K+/H+-ATPase de membrana que pode ser inibida pelo omeprazol. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a eficácia do omeprazol na prevenção do desenvolvimento de lesões de leishmaniose em hamsters. MÉTODOS: Empregaram-se 18 hamsters, divididos em três grupos: o grupo L recebeu apenas a inoculação de L. brasiliensi...

  14. Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em quatro espécies de palmáceas na Amazônia: ocorrência e considerações taxonômicas Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in four Amazonian palm species: occurrence and taxonomic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Mehl Lunz; Sonia Maria Noemberg Lazzari; Regina Célia Zonta-de-Carvalho; Maria do Socorro Padilha de Oliveira; Lindáurea Alves de Souza

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi designar o nome correto do afídeo que ataca palmáceas nativas amazônicas e descrever sua infestação. O monitoramento de insetos-praga em mudas e em plantas adultas permitiu a identificação de Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901) (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini). Relatos anteriores identificaram erroneamente a espécie como Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867). Recomenda-se o monitoramento dessa espécie em palmáceas.The purpose of this study ...

  15. Comparación de la morfología alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae) y Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), representantes de dos diferentes patrones de vuelo Comparison of the wing morphology of Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae) and Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) as representatives of two flight patterns

    OpenAIRE

    MAURICIO CANALS; JOSÉ IRIARTE-DÍAZ; RICARDO OLIVARES; F. Fernando Novoa

    2001-01-01

    La morfología alar de los quirópteros se encuentra relacionada por una parte con la biomecánica y energética del vuelo y por otra parte con aspectos ecológicos y conductuales (i.e., patrón de vuelo, conducta de forrajeo y selección de hábitat y de presas). En este trabajo se compara la morfometría alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae) y Myotis chiloensis (Vespertilionidae), representantes de diferentes patrones de vuelo, buscando compromisos entre la morfometría alar y aspectos ecológico...

  16. Subclonación de los principales epítopes antigénicos de la proteína recombinante P27 de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Juan Mcewen

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidiodomicosis (PCM es una micosis sistémica frecuente en Latino América, su diagnóstico se realiza mediante la visualización microscópica del hongo, su aislamiento en cultivos y pruebas serológicas que detectan la presencia de anticuerpos, utilizando extractos crudos del hongo (1. La P27 es una de las principales proteínas antigénicas del P. Brasiliensis; por lo tanto,
    la subclonación del gen en fragmentos permitiría determinar cuáles son los epítopes más antigénicos, que podrían ser usados en una prueba diagnóstica específica y sensible.

  17. The life cycle of Neocladocystis intestinalis (Vaz, 1932) (Digenea: Cryptogonimidae), in Aylacostoma chloroticum (Prosobranchia: Thiaridae), and Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes: Characidae), in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Manuel G; Ostrowski de Núñez, Margarita

    2016-07-01

    The life cycle of Neocladocystis intestinalis (Vaz, 1932) was resolved experimentally. The prosobranchiate snail Aylacostoma chloroticum Hylton Scott (Thiaridae) collected in the Yacyretá Dam, Province of Misiones, Argentina, was found naturally infected with cercariae that possessed pigmented eye spots, 7 pairs of penetration glands, 12 pairs of flame cells, and a V-shaped, or Y-shaped excretory vesicle with very short stem. The cercariae developed in oval cysts, which were found on fin rays, and under scales of naturally and experimentally exposed tetragonopterid fish species and of experimentally exposed poecilid and prochilodont fish species. Adults were obtained experimentally from juvenile Salminus brasiliensis (Characidae), bred in captivity, and infected with metacercariae from albino Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Tetragonopteridae), which had been exposed to emerging cercariae. PMID:26984207

  18. Patterns of gall-forming in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae by Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil

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    VRCIBRADIC D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of galling by the gall midge Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were studied in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae in an Atlantic forest site at Ilha Grande, RJ. Out of the 81 plants surveyed, 55 (67.9% bore galls. The number of galls per galled individual ranged from 1 to 261 and 94.4% of the galls were in leaves. The number of galls per galled leaf varied from 1 to 25. Total gall number was positively correlated with plant height. Larger and more ramified plants tended to have a smaller percentage of their leaves with galls and a lower density of galls per leaf than smaller plants. Plants that were close to other individuals of the same species tended to have more galls per leaf than relatively isolated plants. The observed patterns may be linked to strategies of optimization in the use of resources (i.e. oviposition sites and predation avoidance by the gall midges.

  19. Modulation of gastrin and epidermal growth factor by pyrrolizidine alkaloids obtained from Senecio brasiliensis in acute and chronic induced gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Walber; Trigo, José Roberto; Bensuaski de Paula, Ana Cláudia; Monteiro Souza Brito, Alba Regina

    2004-05-01

    We investigated the antiulcerogenic activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) integerrimine, retrorsine, senecionine, usaramine and seneciplhylline, an alkaloidal extract obtained from Senecio brasiliensis. The PA extract demonstrated significantly activity in both, acute and chronic gastric ulcers on rats. The effects of PA extract were dose dependent. The mechanisms implicated on this activity were evaluated by determination of gastrin plasma levels in rats subjected to the acute treatment with PA extract and by expression of mRNA of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) after chronic treatment with this extract. The results showed that the PA extract increased both the levels of gastrin and the expression of EGF on these animals. Moreover, the histological examinations showed a reduction of exfoliation of superficial cells, hemorrhages and blood cell infiltration. We concluded that the PAs showed an important and qualitative antiulcerogenic activity mediated by increase in gastrin secretion and mRNA expression of EGF. PMID:15213731

  20. Optimization of Preparation Condition for Meso pores Activated Carbon based on Hevea Brasiliensis Seed Coat for the Removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue R Dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions for the preparation of rubber (hevea brasiliensis) seed coat based activated carbon (RSCAC) treated with NaOH were optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three preparation variables: the activation temperature, activation time and NaOH impregnation ratio (IR) on Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) removal from aqueous solutions and RSCAC yield were investigated. Based on the RSM, two quadratic models were respectively developed to correlate the preparation variables to the RBBR percentage removal and carbon yield. The significant factors on each experimental design response were identified from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum conditions for RSCAC preparation were obtained by using activation temperature of 700 degree Celsius, activation time of 1.0 h and IR of 1.0, which resulted in 70.82 % of RBBR removal and 24.93 % of RSCAC yield. (author)

  1. Identification of a differentially expressed thymidine kinase gene related to tapping panel dryness syndrome in the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. by random amplified polymorphic DNA screening

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    Arjunan Thulaseedharan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tapping panel dryness (TPD syndrome is one of the latex yield affecting factors in the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg.. Therefore, identification of a DNA marker will be highly useful for screening progenies in breeding programs. The major goal of this study was to detect genetic variations and/or identification of gene fragments among 37 Hevea clones by the random amplified polymorphic DNA “fingerprinting” technique. Different levels of DNA polymorphism were detected with various primers and a distinct polymorphic band (2.0 kb was obtained with OPA-17 primer. It was cloned into a plasmid vector for further sequence characterization and the nucleotide sequence shows homology with a novel putative plant thymidine kinase (TK gene, designated as HbTK (Hevea brasiliensis thymidine kinase; GenBank accession number AY130829. The protein HbTK has 67%, 65%, 64%, and 63% similarity to TK genes of Medicago, Oryza, Arabidopsis, and Lyco- persicon, respectively, and it was highly conserved in all species analyzed. The predicted amino acid sequence contained conserved domains of TK proteins in the C-terminal half. Southern blot analysis indicated that HbTK is one of the members of a small gene family. Northern blot results revealed that the expression of the HbTK gene was up-regulated in mature bark tissues of the healthy tree while it was down-regulated in the TPD-affected one. These results suggest that this gene may play important roles in maintaining active nucleotide metabolism during cell division at the tapped site of bark tissues in the healthy tree under stress (tapping conditions for normal latex biosynthesis.

  2. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana das partes aéreas (folhas e caules e raízes de Richardia brasiliensis Gomez (Rubiaceae

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    Adda Daniela Lima Figueiredo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Richardia brasiliensis é uma planta utilizada popularmente como expectorante, emética, diaforética, vermífuga e para o tratamento de hemorróidas. O presente estudo objetivou realizar a prospecção fitoquímica e avaliar a ação antimicrobiana do extrato bruto das partes aéreas e raízes de R. brasiliensis. O extrato etanólico bruto foi obtido a partir do material botânico dessecado e pulverizado. O pó das partes aéreas e raízes foram submetidos à triagem fitoquímica. A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada contra bactérias Gram-positivas esporuladas e não esporuladas, Gramnegativas e a levedura Candida albicans através da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima por diluição em ágar empregando-se o inoculador de Steers. A triagem fitoquímica evidenciou a presença de esteróides, triterpenóides, cumarinas, resinas, alcalóides e flavonóides. A CIM do extrato das partes aéreas variou de 0,37 a 0,74 mg/mL e das raízes de 0,74 a 11,9 mg/ mL. Concluiu-se que tanto o extrato etanólico bruto das partes aéreas quanto das raízes apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana. Palavras-chave: Atividade antimicrobiana. CIM. Plantas medicinais.

  3. Characterization of cell wall lipids from the pathogenic phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cultivated in the presence or absence of human plasma.

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    Larissa V G Longo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fungal cell wall is a complex and dynamic outer structure. In pathogenic fungi its components interact with the host, determining the infection fate. The present work aimed to characterize cell wall lipids from P. brasiliensis grown in the presence and absence of human plasma. We compared the results from isolates Pb3 and Pb18, which represent different phylogenetic species that evoke distinct patterns of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We comparatively characterized cell wall phospholipids, fatty acids, sterols, and neutral glycolipids by using both electrospray ionization- and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of lipids extracted with organic solvents followed by fractionation in silica-gel-60. We detected 49 phospholipid species in Pb3 and 38 in Pb18, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidic acid. In both Pb3 and Pb18, PC and PE had the most numerous species. Among the fatty acids, C18:1 and C18:2 were the most abundant species in both isolates, although C18:2 was more abundant in Pb18. There was a different effect of plasma supplementation on fatty acids depending on the fungal isolate. The prevalent glycolipid species was Hex-C18:0-OH/d19:2-Cer, although other four minor species were also detected. The most abundant sterol in all samples was brassicasterol. Distinct profiles of cell wall and total yeast sterols suggested that the preparations were enriched for cell wall components. The presence of plasma in the culture medium specially increased cell wall brassicasterol abundance and also other lipids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We here report an original comparative lipidomic analysis of P. brasiliensis cell wall. Our results open doors to understanding the role of cell wall lipids in fungal biology, and interaction with anti-fungal drugs and the host.

  4. Alternative inactivated poliovirus vaccines adjuvanted with Quillaja brasiliensis or Quil-a saponins are equally effective in inducing specific immune responses.

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    Fernanda de Costa

    Full Text Available Inactivated polio vaccines (IPV have an important role at the final stages of poliomyelitis eradication programs, reducing the risks associated with the use of attenuated polio vaccine (OPV. An affordable option to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and reduce costs of IPV may be the use of an effective and renewable adjuvant. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of aqueous extract (AE and saponin fraction QB-90 from Quillaja brasiliensis using poliovirus antigen as model were analyzed and compared to a preparation adjuvanted with Quil-A, a well-known saponin-based commercial adjuvant. Experimental vaccines were prepared with viral antigen plus saline (control, Quil-A (50 µg, AE (400 µg or QB-90 (50 µg. Sera from inoculated mice were collected at days 0, 28, 42 and 56 post-inoculation of the first dose of vaccine. Serum levels of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were significantly enhanced by AE, QB-90 and Quil-A compared to control group on day 56. The magnitude of enhancement was statistically equivalent for QB-90 and Quil-A. The cellular response was evaluated through DTH and analysis of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA levels using in vitro reestimulated splenocytes. Results indicated that AE and QB-90 were capable of stimulating the generation of Th1 cells against the administered antigen to the same extent as Quil-A. Mucosal immune response was enhanced by the vaccine adjuvanted with QB-90 as demonstrated by increases of specific IgA titers in bile, feces and vaginal washings, yielding comparable or higher titers than Quil-A. The results obtained indicate that saponins from Q. brasiliensis are potent adjuvants of specific cellular and humoral immune responses and represent a viable option to Quil-A.

  5. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances the modulatory effect of cytokines on monocyte-derived multinucleated giant cell formation and fungicidal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Magda Paula Pereira do Nascimento

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Multinucleated giant cells (MGC are cells present in characteristic granulomatous inflammation induced by intracellular infectious agents or foreign materials. The present study evaluated the modulatory effect of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF in association with other cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL-10 or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1 on the formation of MGC from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen (PbAg. The generation of MGC was determined by fusion index (FI and the fungicidal activity of these cells was evaluated after 4 h of MGC co-cultured with viable yeast cells of P. brasiliensis strain 18 (Pb18. The results showed that monocytes incubated with PbAg and GM-CSF plus IFN-γ had a significantly higher FI than in all the other cultures, while the addition of IL-10 or TGF-β1 had a suppressive effect on MGC generation. Monocytes incubated with both pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines had a higher induction of foreign body-type MGC rather than Langhans-type MGC. MGC stimulated with PbAg and GM-CSF in association with the other cytokines had increased fungicidal activity and the presence of GM-CSF also partially inhibited the suppressive effects of IL-10 and TGF-β1. Together, these results suggest that GM-CSF is a positive modulator of PbAg-stimulated MGC generation and on the fungicidal activity against Pb18.

  6. Premilinary studies for optimiziing a protocol for obtaining embryogenic calluses in two rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg clones from different geographical origins

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    Santiago Cadavid Ruiz

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of growth regulators on obtaining friable rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. calluses with no plant regeneration as investigated. Two clones having different geographical origin were used in all trails carried out in this study: FX 3864 (South-American and PB 254 (Asian. Young leaves and eight- to ten-week-old seed integument from both clones were used as explants in several experiments; they were initially cultured in MH medium (Carron, et ál., 1989, modified MH medium (Montoro, et ál., 1993, 2000 and modified MS medium (Carron, et at,. 1992, no positive response being obtained by days 25 or 50. However, other trials were carried out with the integument in modified MS medium (1962, 0.67 mg/L BAP and 0.66 mg/L 2-4 D being added as medium for initiating embryogenesis, the formation of white, friable calluses being observed by day 25 in the two selected clones. These calluses were sub-cultured in MS supplemented with 0.35 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L 2-4 D as callogenesis expression medium, embryogenic expression being observed in both clones by day 50. Equally friable white calluses were obtained from young leaves in the two clones in MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP, 1.0 mg/L ANA but without IBA and kinetin by day 25. Calluses sub-cultured in the same medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L ANA began to show increased friability after 50 days. culture. This work is a partial report of a macro-project for optimising a protocol for rubber (Hevea brasiliensis  multiplication by somatic embryogenesis.

  7. Utilização de náuplios de “branchoneta” Dendrocephalus brasiliensis (Pesta, 1921 na alimentação de larvas do "camarão cinza" Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2013 The use of “branchoneta” Dendrocephalus brasiliensis (Pesta 1921 nauplii in Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931 larval feeding - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2013

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    Alfredo Oliveira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse estudo avaliar o desempenho do náuplio do D. brasiliensis como alimento para as larvas e pós-larvas de L. vannamei. As larvas do estágio de PZ3 foram estocadas em 15 baldes (com 10 litros de água cada, numa densidade de 100 larvas/L e criadas durante 18 dias até PL10. A pesquisa constituiu-se em 5 tratamentos alimentares e 3 repetições: 1 (T1 náuplios de Artemia vivos; 2 (T2 náuplios de D. brasiliensis vivos; 3 (T3 náuplios de D. brasiliensis congelados; 4 (T4 uma combinação de náuplios de Artêmia sp. vivos (50% e náuplios de D. brasiliensis vivos (50%; 5 (T5 uma combinação de náuplios de Artemia sp. vivos (50% e náuplios de D. brasiliensis congelados (50%, para todos foram colocadas microalgas. A alimentação foi de 8 vezes ao dia, durante os primeiros 2 dias fornecidos 800 náuplios de D. brasiliensis/L/dia; do 3o ao 6o dia, 2000 náuplios de D. brasiliensis/L/dia e do 7o dia ao final, 4000 náuplios de D. brasiliensis/L/dia. As larvas completaram a metamorfose para PL1 em 169, 168, 170, 171 e 169 horas, para T1, T2, T3, T4 e T5, respectivamente. O peso e comprimento médios no estágio de PL1 foram 444,444µg e 6mm; 592,29µg e 5,866mm; 222,082µg e 5,733mm; 448,838µg e 5,6mm e 290,474µg e 5,866mm para T1, T2, T3, T4 e T5 respectivamente. Finalizou-se o experimento no estágio de PL10 quando foi feita uma contagem para determinar a taxa média de sobrevivência. As médias do peso, comprimento e sobrevivência no estágio de PL10 ficaram em 1552,538µg, 8,833mm e 58,8%; 1253,617µg, 9,2mm e 35,5%; 690,413µg, 8,433mm e 36,6%; 1522,717µg, 9,3mm e 76,3%; 1391,33µg, 9,466mm e 79,3%, para T1, T2, T3, T4 e T5, respectivamente. Mediante métodos estatísticos ANOVA e teste de Tukey, constataram-se diferenças significativas nos resultados de taxa de sobrevivência, peso e comprimento médio final entre os cinco tratamentos. De acordo com esses resultados, pode-se concluir que os náuplios de D

  8. Applicability of Landsat TM data for inventorying and monitoring of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in Selangor, Malaysia: Linkages to policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratman, Mohd Nazip

    2003-06-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis (Wild ex Adr. De Juss) Muell Arg.) plantations in Malaysia are important sources of natural rubber and wood products. Effective management and appropriate policy for these resources require reliable information on resource dynamics and forecasts of resource availability. The need for inventories and monitoring systems prompted this research into utilising ground information and satellite imagery for developing methods for forest plantation inventory. Monitoring procedures were developed using three dates of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. The specific objectives of the research were: (1) to develop an effective method for inventorying rubber tree plantations using an appropriate combination of satellite imagery and ground sampling in the State of Selangor, Malaysia; (2) to demonstrate the application of a Landsat TM-based rubber volume model in an extended area of rubber plantations south of Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia; (3) to develop an operational methodology for monitoring land use/cover change, with a primary focus on rubber plantations; and (4) to identify relationships between the primary drivers of resource change and policies, and examine the evidence of policies---rubber area change linkages in the study area. Reasonably accurate predictions of the volume, age, and area of rubber plantations were obtained from Landsat TM data. The use of supervised image classification and an image segmentation approach for rubber volume model application showed better performance for volume prediction than a combined land use/cover and rubber volume classification technique, thus providing a useful tool for displaying rubber stand volume within segments or spatial units across the landscape. The combined use of a time series of Landsat TM imagery, modified postclassification change detection, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques made it possible to produce land use/cover change matrices and rubber area change information

  9. Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quatro espécies de palmáceas na Amazônia: ocorrência e considerações taxonômicas Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel (Hemiptera: Aphididae in four Amazonian palm species: occurrence and taxonomic considerations

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    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi designar o nome correto do afídeo que ataca palmáceas nativas amazônicas e descrever sua infestação. O monitoramento de insetos-praga em mudas e em plantas adultas permitiu a identificação de Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini. Relatos anteriores identificaram erroneamente a espécie como Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867. Recomenda-se o monitoramento dessa espécie em palmáceas.The purpose of this study was to denominate correctly the aphid that attack native Amazonian palms in the Eastern Amazon and describe its infestation. The monitoring of insect-pests on seedlings and mature plants allowed the identification of Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini. Earlier reports erroneously identified the species as Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867. It is recommended the application of monitoring of this species on palm trees.

  10. Predation of the free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis (I. Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1824 by the American kestrel Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, in an urban sector of Santiago city, Metropolitan region, Chile

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    Annia Rodríguez-San Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The American kestrel (Falco sparverius is a raptor widely distributed in America. Throughout its geographic distribution, the American kestrel feeds on a variety of animal taxa, including bats. In Chile, however, there are no reports of American kestrel feeding on bats. This note reports the first known record of predation by the American kestrel on the free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis.

  11. Crescimento e fator de condição na fase juvenil de Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille) e F. paulensis (Pérez-Farfante) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae) em uma lagoa costeira tropical do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Albertoni Edélti Faria; Palma-Silva Cleber; Esteves Francisco de Assis

    2003-01-01

    The growth relations of the shrimps Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817) and F. paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967) were evaluated at Imboassica lagoon, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, between June 1995 and September 1997, in four periods after events of sandbar opening. This sandbar separated the lagoon from the Atlantic Ocean. Through the evaluation of the weight/length relationships for the two species, significant differences in each interval after the sandbar openings were observed, ...

  12. Ecologia da comunidade de metazoários parasitos da Maria-Luiza, Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae do litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2009 Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of Banded Croaker, Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae, from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2009

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    Renata da Silva Ribeiro

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 93 espécimes de Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875, provenientes da Pedra de Guaratiba (23º01’S, 43º38’W litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. No período de setembro de 2001 até março de 2002, sendo necropsiados para estudo da sua comunidade de metazoários parasitos. Quinze espécies de parasitos foram coletadas. Paralonchurus brasiliensis é um novo registro de hospedeiro para 13 espécies de parasitos. Contracaecum sp. foi a espécie dominante, com os maiores índices de prevalência e abundância parasitária. Os componentes da comunidade parasitária de P. brasiliensis apresentaram o típico padrão de distribuição superdispersa. A abundância e a prevalência de Procamallanus (Spirocamallus pereirai apresentaram correlação positiva com o comprimento total do hospedeiro. A abundância de Contracaecum sp. apresentou correlação positiva com o comprimento total do hospedeiro. Um par de endoparasitos adultos (Aponurus laguncula - Procamallanus (S. pereirai apresentou covariação negativa e um par de estágios larvais de endoparasitos apresentou covariação positiva entres as abundâncias. Paralonchurus brasiliensis apresentou uma comunidade de metazoários parasitos composta de espécies generalistas, pouco ordenadas e com poucas evidências de associações interespecíficas. Este padrão está em concordância com os estudos realizados com comunidades parasitárias de siaenídeos da região neotropicalNinety-three specimens of banded croaker, Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875, collected from Pedra de Guaratiba (23º01’S, 43º38’W, coastal zone, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between September 2001 and March 2002, were necropsied to study their infracommunities of metazoan parasites. Fifteen species of metazoan parasites were collected. Paralonchurus brasiliensis is a new host record for 13 parasite species. The majority of fishes were parasitized by one or more metazoan

  13. Crescimento e fator de condição na fase juvenil de Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille) e F. paulensis (Pérez-Farfante) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae) em uma lagoa costeira tropical do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Growth and condition factor in the juvenile phase of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille) and F. paulensis (Pérez-Farfante) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae) in a tropical coastal lagoon of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Edélti Faria Albertoni; Cleber Palma-Silva; Francisco de Assis Esteves

    2003-01-01

    The growth relations of the shrimps Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817) and F. paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967) were evaluated at Imboassica lagoon, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, between June 1995 and September 1997, in four periods after events of sandbar opening. This sandbar separated the lagoon from the Atlantic Ocean. Through the evaluation of the weight/length relationships for the two species, significant differences in each interval after the sandbar openings were observed, ...

  14. Análise morfométrica das células de cloro de Poecilia vivípara expostas a frações da folha e da casca do caule de Caryocar brasiliensis - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2107 Morphometric analysis of Poecilia vivipara chloride cells exposed to fractions of Caryocar brasiliensis leaf and bark - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2107

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Maria Teixeira de Saboia Morais; José Oscar Rodrigues Morais; Suzana Costa Santos; Valdirene do Nascimento; Luciana Damacena Silva

    2003-01-01

    Frações da folha e casca de pequi (Caryocar brasiliensis), testadas como moluscicidas, combateram o hospedeiro intermedário da esquistossomose. O nicho ecológico desse molusco está associado a mananciais de água. Além disso foi verificada a ação fungiotóxica da fração acetato de etila (folha), que apresentou elevada atividade frente ao fungo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Utilizou-se o epitélio branquial de Poecilia vivípara (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae), para testar a toxicidade dessas f...

  15. Riqueza e composição de vertebrados em latrinas ativas e inativas de Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora, Mustelidae na Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

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    Cintia M. Togura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a riqueza e composição de vertebrados de médio e grande porte em latrinas ativas e inativas de ariranhas [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788], em uma Unidade de Conservação de Uso Sustentável na Amazônia Oriental Brasileira. O estudo foi realizado em 45 latrinas ao longo de 230 km nos rios Falsino e Araguari (0°55'N, 51°35'W, sendo que desse total, 24 apresentaram fezes frescas e 21 fezes velhas de ariranhas. De julho a novembro de 2012, cada latrina foi monitorada com uma armadilha fotográfica programada para operar por 24 horas. O esforço de campo resultou em 458,8 armadilhas/dia, sendo 247,5 armadilhas/dia em latrinas com fezes frescas e 211,3 armadilhas/dia com fezes velhas. Foram obtidos registros de 22 espécies de vertebrados. A maior parte das espécies registradas foram mamíferos (n = 13, seguida por aves (n = 6, e répteis (n = 3. As espécies mais frequentemente fotografadas foram paca [Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766; n = 21], jaguatirica [Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758; n =11], juriti-pupu (Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855; n = 8, ariranha [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788; n = 7], e anta [Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758; n = 6], que foram responsáveis por 55,8% de todos os registros. A maior parte dos registros (69,5% foram obtidos em latrinas com fezes frescas e o número de espécies foi maior (n = 19 do que os registrados em latrinas com fezes velhas (n = 15. No entanto, a dissimilaridade entre a comunidade de vertebrados entre latrinas com fezes frescas e velhas não diferiu. A média de visitação em latrinas com fezes frescas foi ligeiramente superior do que em latrinas com fezes velhas, embora essa diferença tenha sido apenas marginalmente significativa. Entretanto, houve uma diminuição no número de registros de felinos [Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821 e Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758], marginalmente significativo em latrinas com fezes frescas

  16. TLR-4 Cooperates with Dectin-1 and Mannose Receptor to Expand Th17 and Tc17 Cells Induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Stimulated Dendritic Cells

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    Vera Lucia Garcia Calich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concomitant use of diverse Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs by innate immune cells can result in synergistic or inhibitory activities that profoundly influence anti-microbial immunity. Dectin-1 and the Mannose Receptor (MR are C-type Lectin Receptors (CLRs previously reported to cooperate with Toll Like Receptors (TLRs signaling in the initial inflammatory response and in the induction of adaptive Th17 and Tc17 immunity mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, respectively. The protective immunity against paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent fungal infection of Latin America, was previously shown to be influenced by these T cell subsets motivating us to study the contribution of TLRs, Dectin-1 and MR to the development of Th17/Tc17 immunity. First, curdlan a specific Dectin-1 agonist was used to characterize the influence of this receptor in the proliferative response and Th17/Tc17 differentiation of naïve lymphocytes induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis activated dendritic cells (DCs from C57BL/6 mice. Then, WT, Dectin-1-/-, TLR-2-/- and TLR-4-/- DCs treated or untreated with anti-Dectin-1 and anti-MR antibodies were used to investigate the contribution of these receptors in lymphocyte activation and differentiation. We verified that curdlan induces an enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and development of IL-17 producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In addition, treatment of WT, TLR-2-/- and TLR-4-/- DCs by anti-Dectin-1 antibodies or antigen presentation by Dectin-1-/- DCs led to decreased lymphoproliferation and impaired Th17 and Tc17 expansion. These responses were also inhibited by anti-MR treatment of DCs, but a synergistic action on Th17/Tc17 differentiation was mediated by TLR-4 and MR. Taken together, our results indicate that diverse TLRs and CLRs are involved in the induction of lymphocyte proliferation and Th17/Tc17 differentiation mediated by P. brasiliensis activated DCs, but a synergist action was restricted to Dectin-1, TLR

  17. TLR-4 cooperates with Dectin-1 and mannose receptor to expand Th17 and Tc17 cells induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis stimulated dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loures, Flávio V; Araújo, Eliseu F; Feriotti, Claudia; Bazan, Silvia B; Calich, Vera L G

    2015-01-01

    The concomitant use of diverse pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by innate immune cells can result in synergistic or inhibitory activities that profoundly influence anti-microbial immunity. Dectin-1 and the mannose receptor (MR) are C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) previously reported to cooperate with toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling in the initial inflammatory response and in the induction of adaptive Th17 and Tc17 immunity mediated by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, respectively. The protective immunity against paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent fungal infection of Latin America, was previously shown to be influenced by these T cell subsets motivating us to study the contribution of TLRs, Dectin-1, and MR to the development of Th17/Tc17 immunity. First, curdlan a specific Dectin-1 agonist was used to characterize the influence of this receptor in the proliferative response and Th17/Tc17 differentiation of naïve lymphocytes induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis activated dendritic cells (DCs) from C57BL/6 mice. Then, wild type (WT), Dectin-1(-/-), TLR-2(-/-), and TLR-4(-/-) DCs treated or untreated with anti-Dectin-1 and anti-MR antibodies were used to investigate the contribution of these receptors in lymphocyte activation and differentiation. We verified that curdlan induces an enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and development of IL-17 producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. In addition, treatment of WT, TLR-2(-/-), and TLR-4(-/-) DCs by anti-Dectin-1 antibodies or antigen presentation by Dectin-1(-/-) DCs led to decreased lymphoproliferation and impaired Th17 and Tc17 expansion. These responses were also inhibited by anti-MR treatment of DCs, but a synergistic action on Th17/Tc17 differentiation was mediated by TLR-4 and MR. Taken together, our results indicate that diverse TLRs and CLRs are involved in the induction of lymphocyte proliferation and Th17/Tc17 differentiation mediated by P. brasiliensis activated DCs, but a synergist action was

  18. Atividade antimicrobiana e sinérgica das frações das folhas de Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. frente a clones multirresistentes de Staphylococcus aureus Antimicrobial and synergic activity of fractions from the leaves of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. against Staphylococcus aureus multiresistant clones

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    A.M. Saraiva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e sinérgica de 4 frações das folhas de Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl (F1', F2', F1" e F2" frente às cepas Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multirresistentes. Os métodos utilizados foram poços de difusão em ágar, concentração mínima inibitória (CMI - diluição em ágar, e bioautografia. Nos resultados bioautográficos observou-se três halos de inibição relacionados, no mínimo, à quatro constituintes ativos; sendo dois deles isolados das folhas (galato de metila e ácido gálico. A F2" (200∝g/mL apresentou halos de inibição de 16 e 19mm frente as cepas de S. aureus multirresistente e Klebsiella pneumoniae, e CMI 100∝g/mL, respectivamente. Quanto as análises das associações das frações F1" ou F2" (25 e 50∝g/mL com a tetraciclina e oxacilina, mostraram ações aditiva e sinérgica para a F2" (50∝g/mL, embora não suficiente para que a CMI atingisse valores inferiores a 2 e 4∝g/mL, necessário para serem classificadas como cepas sensíveis a oxacilina e tetraciclina, respectivamente. "Assim, conclui-se que a F2" das folhas de S. brasiliensis apresentou potencial antimicrobiano frente às cepas de S. aureus MRSA multirresistentes e que as associações das frações com os antibióticos testados não apresentaram benefícios não justificando o uso concomitante.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and synergic activity of 4 leaf fractions of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl (F1', F2', F1" and F2" against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. The used methods were agar well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC - agar dilution, and bioautography. The bioautographic results showed three inhibition zones that corresponded to at least four active compounds, two of which (methyl gallate and gallic acid have already been isolated from leaves. The F2" (200∝g/mL fraction showed inhibition zones of 16 mm and 19 mm against S

  19. Variação dos níveis do componente C3 do complemento em Holochilus brasiliensis nanus experimentalmente infectados com Schistosoma mansoni Variation in the levels of the C3 component of the complement in Holochilus brasiliensis nanus infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Othon de Carvalho Bastos

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available As variações dos níveis do componente C3 do complemento foram verificadas em soros de exemplares do roedor silvestre Holochilus brasiliensis nanus infectados experimentalmente com Schistosoma mansoni, aplicando-se a técnica de imunoeletroforese bidimensional quantitativa. Foram utilizados soros de animais normais, da mesma espécie e idade, como controle da experiência. A quantificação foi feita durante oito semanas, contadas a partir da data da infecção. C perfil sérico mostrou que o nível inicial do C3 foi duas vezes menor que o observado no grupo controle. Este nível permaneceu até a 6ª semana de observação. A partir desta semana até a oitava foram registrados níveis aproximadamente 3 a 4 vezes menores que os observados no grupo controle.The quantitative immunoelectrophoretic method was used to determine the consumption of the C3 component of the complement system in the sera of rodents (Holochilus brasiliensis nanus infected with Schistosoma mansoni, during about eight weeks of observation. Normal animals were used as experimental controls. The results indicated that initial consumption of the C3 component in the infected animals was twice that of the controls. This level was maintained until the 6th week of observation. After the 6th week, the consumption of C3 was³ to 4 times greater than that of the controls.

  20. Role of iron in the nitric oxide-mediated fungicidal mechanism of IFN-gamma-activated murine macrophages against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia Papel do ferro no mecanismo fungicida mediado pelo óxido n��trico de macrófagos murinos ativados com IFN-gama contra conídias do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Angel Gonzalez

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential growth element of virtually all microorganisms and its restriction is one of the mechanisms used by macrophages to control microbial multiplication. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, an important systemic mycosis in Latin America, is inhibited in its conidia-to-yeast conversion in the absence of iron. We studied the participation of iron in the nitric oxide (NO-mediated fungicidal mechanism against conidia. Peritoneal murine macrophages activated with 50U/mL of IFN-gamma or treated with 35 µM Deferoxamine (DEX and infected with P. brasiliensis conidia, were co-cultured and incubated for 96 h in the presence of different concentrations of holotransferrin (HOLO and FeS0(4. The supernatants were withdrawn in order to assess NO2 production by the Griess method. The monolayers were fixed, stained and observed microscopically. The percentage of the conidia-to-yeast transition was estimated by counting 200 intracellular propagules. IFN-gamma-activated or DEX-treated Mthetas presented marked inhibition of the conidia-to-yeast conversion (19 and 56%, respectively in comparison with non-activated or untreated Mthetas (80%. IFN-gamma-activated macrophages produced high NO levels in comparison with the controls. Additionally, when the activated or treated-macrophages were supplemented with iron donors (HOLO or FeSO4, the inhibitory action was reversed, although NO production remained intact. These results suggest that the NO-mediated fungicidal mechanism exerted by IFN-gamma-activated macrophages against P. brasiliensis conidia, is dependent of an iron interaction.O ferro é elemento essencial para o crescimento de microrganismos e sua limitação é um dos mecanismos usados por macrófagos para controlar a multiplicação microbiana. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, o agente da paracoccidioidomicose, uma das micoses sistêmicas mais importantes na América Latina, é inibido em sua conversão de con

  1. 7-Epiclusianone, a Benzophenone Extracted from Garcinia brasiliensis (Clusiaceae, Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in G1/S Transition in A549 Cells

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    Marisa Ionta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. Disease stage is the most relevant factor influencing mortality. Unfortunately, most patients are still diagnosed at an advanced stage and their five-year survival rate is only 4%. Thus, it is relevant to identify novel drugs that can improve the treatment options for lung cancer. Natural products have been an important source for the discovery of new compounds with pharmacological potential including antineoplastic agents. We have previously isolated a prenylated benzophenone (7-epiclusianone from Garcinia brasiliensis (Clusiaceae that has several biological properties including antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines. In continuation with our studies, the present work aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved with antiproliferative activity of 7-epiclusianone in A549 cells. Our data showed that 7-epiclusianone reduced the viability of A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 of 16.13 ± 1.12 μM. Cells were arrested in G1/S transition and apoptosis was induced. In addition, we observed morphological changes with cytoskeleton disorganization in consequence of the treatment. Taken together, the results showed that cell cycle arrest in G1/S transition is the main mechanism involved with antiproliferative activity of 7-epiclusianone. Our results are promising and open up the prospect of using this compound in further anticancer in vivo studies.

  2. Chemical composition of essential oils of Drimys angustifolia Miers and Drimys brasiliensis Miers and their repellency to drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae

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    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils extracted from leaves of the Southern Brazilian native species Drimys angustifolia Miers (DA and Drimys brasiliensis Miers (DB by Clevenger distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The oils of DA and DB consisted predominantly of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids. The largest components of DA oil were bicyclogermacrene (19.6%, sabinene (9.7% and myrcene (5.2%, while DB oil was characterized by cyclocolorenone (18.2%, followed by terpinen-4- ol (8.7% and alpha-gurjunene (6.9%. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the repellency of the essential oils to the drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae. It was observed that the oil showed repellency at the concentrations 25, 12.5, and 6.25 μg/mL. The oils of both species exhibited a negative repellency index, which represents repellent activity, except for DA oil at the highest concentration, which was attractive. Five deaths (11% of the termite sample were observed at 25 μg/mL DA, in the fourhour repellency test, while four deaths occurred at 12.5 μg/mL (approximately 9%. The essential oil of DB did not cause any termite deaths.

  3. Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of the Endangered South American Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) from the Orinoco Basin in Colombia: Management Implications and Application to Current Conservation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Susana; Correa-Cárdenas, Camilo A; Trujillo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Endangered giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis, are found along the Amazon and Orinoco rivers and most of their tributaries. Hunting in the mid-1970s pushed giant otter populations to the brink of extinction. We studied population structure and genetic diversity of giant otters from Colombia's Orinoco basin using analyses of partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences obtained from scat material. We collected and analyzed 54 scat samples from 22 latrines, 2 tissue samples primarily from captive giant otters and 2 from hunted animals near Puerto Carreño and Puerto Inírida (Colombian Orinoco), as well as one tissue sample from Puerto Leguizamo (Colombian Amazon). Thirty-nine partial control region sequences were obtained (258bp), corresponding to 15 unique haplotypes. Most of these haplotypes, found in samples collected around Puerto Carreño, defined one phylogeographic group (phylogroup) not previously described. Higher genetic diversity in the Colombian Orinoco populations than in other South American populations suggests that this newly described phylogroup, as well as a second phylogroup defined from a few Colombian Orinoco and Amazon samples, should be considered distinct genetic management units. National conservation programs, particularly those aiming to establish protected areas, should manage these independently. Current Colombian confiscated animal reintroduction and captive reproduction programs should also consider such differentiation when determining reintroduction locations or improving husbandry practices. PMID:26245782

  4. Potential Conflict between Fishermen and Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis Populations by Fishermen in Response to Declining Stocks of Arowana Fish (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum in Northeastern Peru

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    Maribel Recharte

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis populations are increasing in many parts of the Peruvian Amazon, and are coming into contact with people more regularly. Giant otters are piscivores and fishermen often see them as potential competitors for fish stocks. We report on giant otter - fisherman conflict on the River Yanayacu. During informal discussions, we found that fishermen considered the giant otter a competitor for fish, and one of their main concerns was for the fisheries of arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum. This fishery, for young arowanas for sale to the ornamental fish trade, is very important for the communities in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, and fishermen believe that stocks of this species are declining. Although arowana can be preyed upon by giant otter, smaller fish are preferred and there is no evidence for giant otters impacting on populations of this species. We identify a need for more research into giant otter populations, arowana populations, the exploitation of arowana, and the diet of giant otters in northeastern Peru, to support conservation initiatives aimed at changing the perception of giant otters as competitors for fish.

  5. The effect of stocking density on the transport of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Crustacea: Decapoda, as live bait for sport fishing in Brazil

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    Luciano Jensen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The capture of juvenile shrimp as live bait for sport fishing has intensified, as has the trade of shrimp in different locations. The transport of shrimp to regions, other than those in which they are captured, is often poorly performed due to the lack of information regarding effective transport, resulting in high mortality of the transported animals. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum stocking density for the transport of juvenile Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (weight: 5.53 ± 1.20 g and to evaluate the effect of the addition of hydrated lime in the transport water. Four stocking densities were tested for transport (1, 2, 3 and 4 ind L-1. Following the analysis of the results obtained in the density experiment, the addition of hydrated lime (0.15 g L-1 in the transport water was also tested. Water quality and the final survival were negatively correlated with increasing stocking density. The results of this study demonstrated that the highest density that can be used to avoid mortality is 3 ind L-1 for a maximum period of 10 h. The use of hydrated lime in the transport water attenuated the observed effects on water quality parameters.

  6. Análisis Financiero del Estudio de Factibilidad para la Siembra de 1990 Hectáreas de Caucho (Hevea brasiliensis

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    González González Humberto

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available El análisis financiero del estudio de factibilidad para la siembra de 1990 hectáreas de caucho (Hevea Brasiliensis, presenta en los costos del cultivo claras complementariedades en las distintas actividades agronómicas, análogas al concepto de valor añadido. La construcción de los precios del látex no centrifugado se hizo mediante un método indirecto; los de la lámina y del látex centrifugado a partir de datos del mercado y del INCORA. La TIR y el VPN se calcularon para cuatro escenarios de ingresos y para dos modalidades: proyecto puro y proyecto financiado. También se determinó el precio del producto que hace el VPN igual a cero. Finalmente, el proyecto presenta claros beneficios así: 1 en la producción nacional; 2 para la reducción de importaciones; 3 en la generación de empleo en la zona; 4 en la conservación de los recursos agua y suelo y ; 5 para el adelanto de investigaciones sobre este cultivo.

  7. Genetics of anthracnose panel canker disease resistance and its relationship with yield and growth characters in half-sib progenies of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis

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    Gonçalves Paulo de Souza

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell-Arg] anthracnose panel canker disease resistance, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., and growth and yield characters were assessed at three years old in the nursery, in 18 half-sib progenies. There were highly significant (P < 0.01 genetic differences among progenies for most characters. The genetic component of variance accounted for 3.37, 6.07, 12.74, 12.13, 19.82 and 3.58% of the phenotypic variance for anthracnose-infected area, anthracnose lesion stripe length, yield, girth, virgin bark thickness and total number of latex vessel rings, respectively. Narrow-sense heritability estimates for the above characters were 13.45, 24.30, 50.97, 48.52, 79.30 and 14.30%, respectively. No significant genetic correlations were found among anthracnose panel canker resistance, yield and growth characters. The frequency distribution of anthracnose-infected area and anthracnose lesion stripe length suggests polygenic control. Selecting the best three progenies out of 18 progenies would result in a genetic gain of 12.87 and 24.24% for infected area and lesion stripe length, respectively. The best five selected individuals out of 50 individuals within each progeny would result in a genetic gain of 9.47 and 24.62%, with a total gain of 22.34 and 48.87% for these two characters, respectively.

  8. A method for protein extraction from different subcellular fractions of laticifer latex in Hevea brasiliensis compatible with 2-DE and MS

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    Guo Anping

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomic analysis of laticifer latex in Hevea brasiliensis has been received more significant attentions. However, the sticky and viscous characteristic of rubber latex as cytoplasm of laticifer cells and the complication of laticifer latex membrane systems has made it challenge to isolate high-quality proteins for 2-DE and MS. Results Based on the reported Borax/PVPP/Phenol (BPP protocol, we developed an efficient method for protein preparation from different latex subcellular fractions and constructed high-resolution reference 2-DE maps. The obtained proteins from both total latex and C-serum fraction with this protocol generate more than one thousand protein spots and several hundreds of protein spots from rubber particles as well as lutoid fraction and its membranes on the CBB stained 2-DE gels. The identification of 13 representative proteins on 2-DE gels by MALDI TOF/TOF MS/MS suggested that this method is compatible with MS. Conclusion The proteins extracted by this method are compatible with 2-DE and MS. This protein preparation protocol is expected to be used in future comparative proteomic analysis for natural rubber latex.

  9. PERFIL SOROLÓGICO EM EQUINOS INTOXICADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE POR SENECIO BRASILIENSIS (COMPOSITAE. PARTE 1. DHL, AST, FAS e γGT

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    Sônia Terezinha dos Anjos Lopes

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO As partes aéreas dessecadas de Senecio brasiliensis, colhidas no período de brotação, foram administradas a 14 equinos de raça mista, com idade de 4 a 22 anos e pesando de 230 a 475kg. A planta era misturada à ração dada aos animais ou moída, misturada em água e administrada por sonda nasogástrica. Colheitas de sangue foram realizadas periodicamente em 14 equinos para avaliação da atividade enzimâtica sérica. Oito cavalos morreram em consequência da intoxicação. Três cavalos morreram por outras causas. Três cavalos sobreviveram sem apresentar quaisquer sinais clínicos durante o período em que foram observados. Nos oito equinos intoxicados, os sinais clínicos tiveram evolução de um a seis dias e caracterizaram-se por anorexia, icterícia e distúrbios neurológicos. Conclui-se que entre as provas laboratoriais usadas a gama-glutamiltransferase e aspartato-aminotransferase apresentaram significado prático melhor na avaliação da função hepática, pois a atividade sérica dessas enzimas estiveram elevadas em todos os equinos que desenvolveram a intoxicação por Senecio brasilieneis.

  10. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Tomo' omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  11. Habitat Use and Food Niche Overlap by Neotropical Otter, Lontra longicaudis, and Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, in the Pantanal Wetland, Brazil

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    Manoel C. Muanis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental variables that can influence the presence of giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis and Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis otters were studied in Correntoso River, Pantanal, Brazil. In this study site both species are diurnal and primarily piscivorous. Descriptive variables of habitats were selected based on literature related to other otter species around the world, and based on the judgment of the authors, using the concept of niche gestalt and the field experience with the species. Statistical analyses included Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS using the Euclidean Distances matrix and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. NMS was used to graphically summarize and analyse the multidimensional space components of the niche of both species. The results showed that giant otter has a smaller ecological space, enclosed by the Neotropical otter space. The ecological interpretation is that the Neotropical otter tends to be more generalist regarding the structure of habitat used. PCA was used to analyse differences between the species in subsets of variables. The variables were grouped in two subsets: one with variables about the structure of banks and the other about characteristics of water bodies. The main differences between the two species of otters are expressed through the axes related to water body’s features; the condition of banks appears to have less relevance.

  12. Contracaecumovale (Nematoda: Anisakidae from Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Aves, Podicipedidae in Argentina Contracaecumovale (Nematoda: Anisakidae de Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Aves, Podicipedidae na Argentina

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    Noelia Adelina Galeano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Necropsy on 15 specimens of white-tufted grebe, Rollandiarolland, caught in the Mar Chiquita and Chascomús lagoons (Buenos Aires province, revealed the presence of Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907. This nematode shows a marked specificity for podicipediform birds. The specimens were identified from morphological study on features such as cephalic and esophageal structures and caudal papillae, using both optical and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first record of C. ovale parasitizing R. rolland in Argentina.Necropsia de 15 espécimes de mergulhão-de-orelha-branca, Rollandiarolland, coletados nas lagoas Mar Chiquita e Chascomús (Província de Buenos Aires, revelou a presença de Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907. Esse nematóide tem uma marcada especificidade pelas aves podicipediformes. Os espécimes foram identificados a partir de características, tais como estruturas morfológicas cefálicas e esofágicas e papilas caudais, utilizando-se microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Esse é o primeiro registro de C. ovale parasito de R. rolland na Argentina.

  13. Anthelmintička učinkovitost nepročišćenog metanolskog iscrpka biljke Xylopia aethiopica protiv oblića Nippostrongylus brasiliensis u štakora

    OpenAIRE

    Suleiman, Mohammed Musa; Mamman, Mohammed; Aliu, Yusuf Otaru; Ajanusi, Joseph Ologunja

    2005-01-01

    Travari i stočari u Nigeriji tradicionalno koriste biljku Xylopia aethiopica protiv želučano crijevnih helminata. Anthelmintički učinak nepročišćenog metanolskog iscrpka istražen je na pokusno invadiranim štakorima oblićem Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Ukupno 35 štakora podijeljeno je u sedam skupina. Svi štakori supkutano su invadirani s 200 invazijskih ličinki trećeg stupnja. Pet dana nakon invazije, štakorima iz svih šest skupina apliciran je iscrpak u različitim dozama. Štakorima sedme sk...

  14. Uso de hábitat de nutria gigante Pteronura brasiliensis, a través de rastros indirectos, en la zona de influencia de Puerto Carreño (Vichada-Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Pedro; Díaz Gómez Diana Lucía

    2007-01-01

    La nutria gigante Pteronura brasiliensis es uno de los mayores depredadores de los sistemas acuáticos de la Orinoquia colombiana. En Colombia mantiene la categoría “En peligro” de la IUCN y actualmente la principal amenaza que enfrenta es la degradación de su hábitat. Se realizaron recorridos a pie por orillas de lagunas y caños y recorridos en bote en el cauce principal de segmentos de los ríos Bita y Orinoco. En puntos de muestreo de orilla sistemáticamente elegidos, que corresponden a punt...

  15. Quelques aspects cellulaires et moléculaires de la biodégradation du liège de l'hévéa (Hevea brasiliensis) par deux agents de pourritures racinaires, Rigidoporus lignosus et Phellinus noxius

    OpenAIRE

    Sanogo, Soumaïla

    1987-01-01

    #Rigidoporus lignosus$ et #Phellinus noxius$ sont deux champignons basidiomycètes responsables de maladies racinaires de nombreuses essences ligneuses forestières et cultivées en zones tropicales humides. Ils se signalent, en Côte d'Ivoire, principalement par les dommages qu'ils infligent aux plantations d'hévéa (#Hevea brasiliensis$). Une approche de leurs relations avec l'hévéa montre, in vivo, que ces parasites provoquent, lors de la pénétration dans la racine, de profondes perturbations c...

  16. Valoración económica de los servicios ecológicos que prestan los murciélagos "Tadarida brasiliensis" como controladores de plagas en el norte de México

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Gándara; Adriana Nelly Correa Sandoval; Carlos A. Hernández Cienfuegos

    2006-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como objetivo realizar una primera aproximación al valor económico del servicio ambiental que la subespecie de murciélagos "Tadarida brasiliensis" mexicana ofrece como controlador natural de plagas en el estado de Nuevo León. Se parte de un estudio de los hábitos alimentarios de la población que habita la Cueva de la Boca ubicada en Santiago, Nuevo León. Se identifican los insectos de la dieta que representan potenciales plagas agrícolas en la región. De acuerdo con i...

  17. A seringueira (Hevea brasiliensisMuell.-Arg. no Vale do Rio Paraíba The rubber plant in the Valley of the Paraiba river

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    João Ferreira da Cunha

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo sôbre o cultivo de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensisMuell. - Arg. no vale do rio Paraíba, no Estado de São Paulo, onde se fêz pela primeira vez o plantio com a finalidade de pesquisar a adaptação dessa espécie vegetal ao ambiente e as possibilidades da exploração comercial na região. O seringal foi plantado em terreno terciário, da série Guatemala, próximo de baixada, na Estação Experimental de Pindamonhangaba, localizada mais ou menos no centro do referido vale, a 22°55' de latitude sul, 45°25' de longitude e à altitude de 570 metros. O desenvolvimento das plantas foi normal. Ao completar sete anos de idade, havia 70% das plantas com as dimensões convencionais para início de exploração do seringal. A produção obtida de borracha foi de cêrca de 460 quilogramas por hectare no primeiro ano de colheita, 620 no segundo e 835 no terceiro. O aparecimento da moléstia das fôlhas, causada por Dothidella ulei,nos dois últimos anos de colheita, parece não ter tido influência apreciável na produção, que continuou aumentando. Os exames tecnológicos efetuados na borracha obtida revelaram características de fina qualidade.A study was made about the culture of the rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensisMuell.-Arg. in the Paraíba Valley of the State of São Paulo, in a region where this planting was done for the first time, with a view to investigate about the adaptability of its culture to this habitat and the possibility of its exploitation on this land. The rubber culure was established in the lowlands of the valley on tertiary soil that belongs to the Guatemala series, at the Pindamonhangaba Experiment station, located practically in the center of the valley, at 22°55' S. and 45°22' W., 570 m above sea level. The development of the plants was normal. After 7 years, when these plants had been settled, 70% were found to have the conventional dimensions for starting their exploitation. Rubber production was

  18. Análise morfométrica das células de cloro de Poecilia vivípara expostas a frações da folha e da casca do caule de Caryocar brasiliensis - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2107 Morphometric analysis of Poecilia vivipara chloride cells exposed to fractions of Caryocar brasiliensis leaf and bark - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2107

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    Simone Maria Teixeira de Saboia Morais

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Frações da folha e casca de pequi (Caryocar brasiliensis, testadas como moluscicidas, combateram o hospedeiro intermedário da esquistossomose. O nicho ecológico desse molusco está associado a mananciais de água. Além disso foi verificada a ação fungiotóxica da fração acetato de etila (folha, que apresentou elevada atividade frente ao fungo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Utilizou-se o epitélio branquial de Poecilia vivípara (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae, para testar a toxicidade dessas frações para células animais. Análises quantitativas demonstraram redução da densidade numérica das células de cloro expostas às frações da folha e aumento das expostas à casca. A folha e a casca causaram a redução da área das células de cloro (CC no filamento branquial. O perímetro das CC não sofreu alteração significativa perante tais frações. A fração aquosa da folha foi mais tóxica ao guaru. Frações da casca são menos prejudiciais, podendo ser empregadas no controle de populações celulares, pois se mostraram muito eficazesFractions of Caryocar brasiliensis leaf and bark, tested as molluscicidal, fought the intermediary host of schistosomiasis. The ecological niche of this mollusk is related to water sources. Besides this, a fungitoxic action of the ethyl-acetate fraction (leaf was verified, exhibiting high activity towards Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The gill epithelium of Poecilia vivipara (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae was used to test the toxicity of these fractions to animal cells. Quantitative analyses demonstrated a decrease in the density of chloride cells exposed to the leaf fractions and an increase in those exposed to bark fractions. The leaf and bark fractions induced a decrease in the area of the chloride cells (CC in the gill filament. The perimeter of the CC did not suffer significant changes in face of these fractions. The aqueous fraction of the leaf is more toxic to the guaru. Bark fractions

  19. A conservação do papagaio-da-cara-roxa (Amazona brasiliensis no estado do Paraná: uma experiência de Educação Ambiental no ensino formal Conservation of the red-tailed-parrot (Amazona brasiliensis in the northern coast of Paraná State: an Environmental Education experience for formal school

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    Andrea Caro Carrillo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a experiência de Educação Ambiental do "Projeto de Conservação do Papagaio-da-Cara-Roxa (Amazona brasiliensis", no ensinoformal, realizado pela Sociedade de Pesquisa em Vida Selvagem e Educação Ambiental (SPVS, no litoral norte do Estado do Paraná. A experiência teve o intuito de fomentar, tanto no corpo docente quando no corpo discente, a discussão sobre valores e princípios que norteiam as relações homem/natureza, desenvolvendo-se, assim, uma interação mais responsável com o meio ambiente. Foram desenvolvidos módulos-educativos sobre o papagaio-da-cara-roxa e seu ambiente, direcionados a 795 estudantes do ensino fundamental, nos Municípios de Paranaguá e Guaraqueçaba. Para analisar a eficácia das atividades, os estudantes responderam a testes antes e depois do processo educativo que mediram mudanças obtidas com relação ao incremento de conhecimento, postura e valorização do papagaio-da-cara-roxa e de seu ambiente. Os resultados indicaram que a utilização do exemplo de uma espécie, ameaçada de extinção e que ocorre próximo às comunidades envolvidas no processo de conservação, serviu de base para a associação do tema específico para com uma realidade ambiental mais ampla e contextualizada localmente.The utilization of a flag-species in environmental education can be an important strategy to discuss the interrelations between the species, their habitats, and man. The red-tailed-parrot (Amazona brasiliensis, is endemic in the Atlantic Rainforest and is threatened with extinction. This work aims to analyze the environmental education experience of the project "Conservation of the red-tailed-parrot (Amazona brasiliensis", together with formal teaching, held by the Society for Wildlife Research and Environmental Education (SPVS, in the northern coast of Paraná State. The objective of this work was to promote a teaching method among students and teachers that contextualizes the

  20. Biosorption of copper ions from dilute aqueous solutions on base treated rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves powder: kinetics, isotherm, and biosorption mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. S. Wan Ngah; M. A. K. M. Hanafiah

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of sodium hydroxide treated rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves powder (NHBL) for removing copper ions fromaqueous solutions has been investigated. The effects of physicochemical parameters on biosorption capacities such as stirring speed,pH, biosorbent dose, initial concentrations of copper, and ionic strength were studied. The biosorption capacities of NHBL increasedwith increase in pH, stirring speed and copper concentration hut decreased with increase in biosorbent dose and ionic strength. Theisotherm study indicated that NHBL fitted well with Langmuir model compared to Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. Themaximum biosorption capacity determined from Langmuir isotherm was 14.97 mg/g at 27~C. The kinetic study revealed that pseudo-second order model fitted well the kinetic data, while Boyd kinetic model indicated that film diffusion was the main rate determiningstep in biosorption process. Based on surface area analysis, NHBL has low surface area and categorized as macroporous. Fouriertransform infrared (FT-IR) analyses revealed that hydroxyl, carboxyl, and amino are the main functional groups involved in the bindingof copper ions. Complexation was one of the main mechanisms for the removal of copper ions as indicated by FT-IR spectra. Ionexchange was another possible mechanism since the ratio of adsorbed cations (Cu2+ and H+) to the released cations (Na, Ca, andMg) from NHBL was almost unity. Copper ions bound on NHBL were able to be desorbed at>99% using 0.05 mol/L HCI, 0.01mol/L HNO, and 0.01 mol/L EDTA solutions.

  1. De novo transcriptome assembly for a non-model species, the blood-sucking bug Triatoma brasiliensis, a vector of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, A; Mougel, F; Almeida, C; Jacquin-Joly, E; Costa, J; Harry, M

    2015-04-01

    High throughput sequencing (HTS) provides new research opportunities for work on non-model organisms, such as differential expression studies between populations exposed to different environmental conditions. However, such transcriptomic studies first require the production of a reference assembly. The choice of sampling procedure, sequencing strategy and assembly workflow is crucial. To develop a reliable reference transcriptome for Triatoma brasiliensis, the major Chagas disease vector in Northeastern Brazil, different de novo assembly protocols were generated using various datasets and software. Both 454 and Illumina sequencing technologies were applied on RNA extracted from antennae and mouthparts from single or pooled individuals. The 454 library yielded 278 Mb. Fifteen Illumina libraries were constructed and yielded nearly 360 million RNA-seq single reads and 46 million RNA-seq paired-end reads for nearly 45 Gb. For the 454 reads, we used three assemblers, Newbler, CAP3 and/or MIRA and for the Illumina reads, the Trinity assembler. Ten assembly workflows were compared using these programs separately or in combination. To compare the assemblies obtained, quantitative and qualitative criteria were used, including contig length, N50, contig number and the percentage of chimeric contigs. Completeness of the assemblies was estimated using the CEGMA pipeline. The best assembly (57,657 contigs, completeness of 80 %, assembly leading to recommend the use of (1) a single individual with large representation of biological tissues, (2) merging both long reads and short paired-end Illumina reads, (3) several assemblers in order to combine the specific advantages of each. PMID:25233990

  2. Cloning and characterization of HbMT2a, a metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg differently responds to abiotic stress and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Chen, Yue Yi; Yang, Shu Guang; Tian, Wei Min, E-mail: wmtian9110@126.com

    2015-05-22

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are of low molecular mass, cysteine-rich proteins. They play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals and homeostasis of intracellular metal ions, and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a full-length cDNA of type 2 plant metallothioneins, HbMT2a, was isolated from 25 mM Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) stressed leaves of Hevea brasiliensis by RACE. The HbMT2a was 372 bp in length and had a 237 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for a protein of 78 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 7.772 kDa. The expression of HbMT2a in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone RY7-33-97 was up-regulated by Me-JA, ABA, PEG, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}, but down-regulated by water. The role of HbMT2a protein in protecting against metal toxicity was demonstrated in vitro. PET-28a-HbMT2-beared Escherichia coli. Differential expression of HbMT2a upon treatment with 10 °C was observed in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone 93-114 which is cold-resistant and Reken501 which is cold-sensitive. The expression patterns of HbMT2a in the two rubber tree clones may be ascribed to a change in the level of endogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Cloning an HbMT2a gene from rubber tree. • Analyzing expression patterns of HbMT2a upon abiotic stress and heavy metal stress. • Finding different expression patterns of HbMT2a among two Hevea germplasm. • The expressed protein of HbMT2a enhances copper and zinc tolerance in Escherichia coli.

  3. Central composite design approach towards optimization of flamboyant pods derived steam activated carbon for its use as heterogeneous catalyst in transesterification of Hevea brasiliensis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Activated carbon was prepared from novel precursor flamboyant pods (Delonix regia). • Activation process was optimized using central composite design approach. • Prepared activated carbon at optimized condition was used as support for KOH. • Carbon based heterogeneous catalyst was used in transesterification of HBO. • Effect of catalyst loading and alcohol ratio on biodiesel yield was studied. - Abstract: The present investigation emphasises the preparation of carbon based KOH impregnated heterogeneous catalyst from flamboyant pods (Delonix regia) for the production of biodiesel from novel feedstock Hevea brasiliensis oil (HBO). Initially, carbonized char was physically activated by superheated steam and the process was optimized to study the effects of activation time and temperature by central composite design approach (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM). Activated carbon was impregnated with KOH at four different ratios. Biodiesel production process was carried out at constant temperature 60 °C, reaction time 1 h, and 5 g of carbon based catalyst at varying quantities of catalyst loading (0.5, 2, 3.5, 5 wt%) and methanol to oil ratio (5:1–20:1). The influence of parameters on the biodiesel yield at varied condition was studied. Maximum yield of 89.3% was obtained at methanol to oil ratio 15:1 and catalyst loading 3.5 wt% and corresponding yield at same process parameters was observed to be 88.7% implying the significant activity of catalyst in reutilization. Produced biodiesel was characterized following ASTM standards. The experimental analysis confirmed that the carbonaceous catalyst developed from flamboyant pods under optimized condition is capable of transesterifying HBO into biodiesel

  4. Construction of a high-density integrated genetic linkage map of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirulda ePootakham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Construction of linkage maps is crucial for genetic studies and marker-assisted breeding programs. Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies allow for the generation of high-density linkage maps, especially in non-model species lacking extensive genomic resources. Here, we constructed a high-density integrated genetic linkage map of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis, the sole commercial producer of high-quality natural rubber. We applied a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS technique to simultaneously discover and genotype single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers in two rubber tree populations. A total of 21,353 single nucleotide substitutions were identified, 55% of which represented transition events. GBS-based genetic maps of populations P and C comprised 1,704 and 1,719 markers and encompassed 2,041 cM and 1,874 cM, respectively. The average marker densities of these two maps were one SNP in 1.23 - 1.25 cM. A total of 1,114 shared SNP markers were used to merge the two component maps. An integrated linkage map consisted of 2,321 markers and spanned the cumulative length of 2,052 cM. The composite map showed a substantial improvement in marker density, with one SNP marker in every 0.89 cM. To our knowledge, this is the most saturated genetic map in rubber tree to date. This integrated map allowed us to anchor 28,965 contigs, covering 135 Mb or 12% of the published rubber tree genome. We demonstrated that GBS is a robust and cost-effective approach for generating a common set of genome-wide SNP data suitable for constructing integrated linkage maps from multiple populations in a highly heterozygous agricultural species.

  5. Prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide enriched butanolic residue from Senecio brasiliensis affects behavior and striatal neurotransmitter levels of rats in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandini, Thaísa M; Udo, Mariana S B; Reis-Silva, Thiago M; Sanches, Daniel; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Flório, Jorge Camilo; Spinosa, Helenice de S

    2015-12-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxins that are exclusively biosynthesized by plants and are commonly present in foods and herbs. PAs are usually associated with poisoning events in livestock and human beings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical effects of prenatal exposure to PA integerrimine N-oxide of rats in adulthood. Pregnant Wistar rats received integerrimine N-oxide from the butanolic residue of Senecio brasiliensis by gavage on gestational days 6-20 at doses of 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg. During adulthood of the offspring, the following behavioral tests were performed: open-field, plus-maze, forced swimming, catalepsy and stereotypy. Histological analyses and monoamine levels were measured. Male offspring from dams that were exposed to 9 mg/kg showed an increase in locomotion in the open-field test, an increased frequency of entries and time spent in open arms in elevated plus-maze test, as well as decreased swimming time. In the female offspring from dams that were exposed to 9 mg/kg, there was an increased time of climbing in forced swimming and intensity of stereotyped behavior. The histological study indicates an increase in the number of multinucleated cells in the liver (6 and 9 mg/kg). In neurotransmitter analysis, specifically in the striatum, we observed change in dopamine and serotonin levels in the middle dose. Thus, our results indicate that prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide changed behavior in adulthood and neurotransmitter levels in the striatum. Our results agree with previous studies, which showed that integerrimine N-oxide impaired physical and neurobehavioral development in childhood that can persist until adulthood. PMID:26416213

  6. Genome-Wide Identification of Jatropha curcas Aquaporin Genes and the Comparative Analysis Provides Insights into the Gene Family Expansion and Evolution in Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Gong, Jun; Mo, Yeyong; Wang, Jikun; Cao, Jianhua; An, Feng; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are channel-forming integral membrane proteins that transport water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Despite the vital role of AQPs, to date, little is known in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), an important non-edible oilseed crop with great potential for the production of biodiesel. In this study, 32 AQP genes were identified from the physic nut genome and the family number is relatively small in comparison to 51 in another Euphorbiaceae plant, rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the JcAQPs were assigned to five subfamilies, i.e., nine plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), nine tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), eight NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), two X intrinsic proteins (XIPs), and four small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs). Like rubber tree and other plant species, functional prediction based on the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter, Froger's positions, and specificity-determining positions showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies of JcAQPs. Genome-wide comparative analysis revealed the specific expansion of PIP and TIP subfamilies in rubber tree and the specific gene loss of the XIP subfamily in physic nut. Furthermore, by analyzing deep transcriptome sequencing data, the expression evolution especially the expression divergence of duplicated HbAQP genes was also investigated and discussed. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of Jc/HbAQP genes, but also provide a useful reference to survey the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceae plants and other plant species. PMID:27066041

  7. Genome-wide identification of Jatropha curcas aquaporin genes and the comparative analysis provides insights into the gene family expansion and evolution in Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi eZou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are channel-forming integral membrane proteins that transport water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Despite the vital role of AQPs, to date, little is known in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, an important non-edible oilseed crop with great potential for the production of biodiesel. In this study, 32 AQP genes were identified from the physic nut genome and the family number is relatively small in comparison to 51 in another Euphorbiaceae plant, rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the JcAQPs were assigned to five subfamilies, i.e., 9 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs, 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs, 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs, 2 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs. Like rubber tree and other plant species, functional prediction based on the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter, Froger’s positions and specificity-determining positions showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies of JcAQPs. Genome-wide comparative analysis revealed the specific expansion of PIP and TIP subfamilies in rubber tree and the specific gene loss of the XIP subfamily in physic nut. Furthermore, by analyzing deep transcriptome sequencing data, the expression evolution especially the expression divergence of duplicated HbAQP genes was also investigated and discussed. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of Jc/HbAQP genes, but also provide a useful reference to survey the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceae plants and other plant species.

  8. Microbiological, physico-chemical, and sensorial modifications during the useful life of the shrimps (Penaeus brasiliensis e Penaeus Paulensis) submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years, there has been an increase in the consumption of seafood and freshwater fish as a healthier diet option. Shrimps are the most important product in the international trade market. This kind of food easily deteriorates due to autolysis, oxidation and microbial action. This research was carried out in order to study the effectiveness of radiation in preserving shrimps. Samples of shrimps (Penaeus brasiliensis and P. paulensi) were submitted to gamma radiation doses of O kGy, 1 kGy, 2 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 3 kGy and 3.5 kGy and stored under refrigeration. The microbiological analysis was performed on days O, 2, 4, 7 10 and 14 post processing. Simultaneously, the pH and total, volatile bases (TVBN) were determined. The psychotropic population varied from <2.0 log to 8.08 log CFU/g while the mesophilic ranged from <1.0 109 to 6.03 log CFU/g; pH varied from 7.52 to 8.33 and TVBN from 28.47 to 56.00 mg N/100g, according to the radiation dose and the day of analysis. Black spots, changes in the characteristic odour and TVBN levels showed the beginning of a chemical deterioration as of the 4 th day of analysis. Doses of 3 kGy and 3.5 kGy presented the best results. Pseudomonas spp. showed the highest sensitivity to radiation. Due to the lapse of time between capturing shrimps and returning to land together with inadequate manipulation and storage in the boat, the quality of raw material is prejudiced which makes the radiation process unfeasible. (author)

  9. Cloning and characterization of HbMT2a, a metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg differently responds to abiotic stress and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are of low molecular mass, cysteine-rich proteins. They play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals and homeostasis of intracellular metal ions, and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a full-length cDNA of type 2 plant metallothioneins, HbMT2a, was isolated from 25 mM Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) stressed leaves of Hevea brasiliensis by RACE. The HbMT2a was 372 bp in length and had a 237 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for a protein of 78 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 7.772 kDa. The expression of HbMT2a in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone RY7-33-97 was up-regulated by Me-JA, ABA, PEG, H2O2, Cu2+ and Zn2+, but down-regulated by water. The role of HbMT2a protein in protecting against metal toxicity was demonstrated in vitro. PET-28a-HbMT2-beared Escherichia coli. Differential expression of HbMT2a upon treatment with 10 °C was observed in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone 93-114 which is cold-resistant and Reken501 which is cold-sensitive. The expression patterns of HbMT2a in the two rubber tree clones may be ascribed to a change in the level of endogenous H2O2. - Highlights: • Cloning an HbMT2a gene from rubber tree. • Analyzing expression patterns of HbMT2a upon abiotic stress and heavy metal stress. • Finding different expression patterns of HbMT2a among two Hevea germplasm. • The expressed protein of HbMT2a enhances copper and zinc tolerance in Escherichia coli

  10. Structural analysis of the endogenous glycoallergen Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase) from Hevea brasiliensis and its recognition by human basophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Romero, Adela, E-mail: adela@unam.mx; Hernández-Santoyo, Alejandra; Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, CU, 04310 Coyoacán, DF (Mexico); Palomares, Laura A. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 510-3, 62250 Cuernavaca, MOR (Mexico); Muñoz-Cruz, Samira; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian [Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, Colonia Doctores, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Orozco-Martínez, Socorro [Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Insurgentes Sur 3700C, 04530 Cuicuilco, DF (Mexico); Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, CU, 04310 Coyoacán, DF (Mexico)

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the three-dimensional structure of the endogenous glycosylated allergen Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase), which exhibits three post-translational modifications that form a patch on the surface of the molecule that is proposed to be an allergenic IgE epitope. Endogenous glycosylated Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase) from Hevea brasiliensis is an important latex allergen that is recognized by IgE antibodies from patients who suffer from latex allergy. The carbohydrate moieties of Hev b 2 constitute a potentially important IgE-binding epitope that could be responsible for its cross-reactivity. Here, the structure of the endogenous isoform II of Hev b 2 that exhibits three post-translational modifications, including an N-terminal pyroglutamate and two glycosylation sites at Asn27 and at Asn314, is reported from two crystal polymorphs. These modifications form a patch on the surface of the molecule that is proposed to be one of the binding sites for IgE. A structure is also proposed for the most important N-glycan present in this protein as determined by digestion with specific enzymes. To analyze the role of the carbohydrate moieties in IgE antibody binding and in human basophil activation, the glycoallergen was enzymatically deglycosylated and evaluated. Time-lapse automated video microscopy of basophils stimulated with glycosylated Hev b 2 revealed basophil activation and degranulation. Immunological studies suggested that carbohydrates on Hev b 2 represent an allergenic IgE epitope. In addition, a dimer was found in each asymmetric unit that may reflect a regulatory mechanism of this plant defence protein.

  11. Uncovering divergent evolution of α/β-hydrolases: a surprising residue substitution needed to convert Hevea brasiliensis hydroxynitrile lyase into an esterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedrud, David M; Lin, Hui; Lopez, Gilsinia; Padhi, Santosh K; Legatt, Graig A; Kaz-Lauskas, Romas J

    2014-11-01

    Hevea brasiliensis hydroxynitrile lyase (HbHNL) and salicylic acid binding protein 2 (SABP2, an esterase) share 45% amino acid sequence identity, the same protein fold, and even the same catalytic triad of Ser-His-Asp. However, they catalyze different reactions: cleavage of hydroxynitriles and hydrolysis of esters, respectively. To understand how other active site differences in the two enzymes enable the same catalytic triad to catalyze different reactions, we substituted amino acid residues in HbHNL with the corresponding residues from SABP2, expecting hydroxynitrile lyase activity to decrease and esterase activity to increase. Previous mechanistic studies and x-ray crystallography suggested that esterase activity requires removal of an active site lysine and threonine from the hydroxynitrile lyase. The Thr11Gly Lys236Gly substitutions in HbHNL reduced hydroxynitrile lyase activity for cleavage of mandelonitrile 100-fold, but increased esterase activity only threefold to kcat ~ 0.1 min(-1) for hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate. Adding a third substitution - Glu79His - increased esterase activity more than tenfold to kcat ~ 1.6 min(-1). The specificity constant (kcat/KM) for this triple substitution variant versus wild type HbHNL shifted more than one million-fold from hydroxynitrile lyase activity (acetone cyanohydrin substrate) to esterase activity (p-nitrophenyl acetate substrate). The contribution of Glu79His to esterase activity was surprising since esterases and lipases contain many different amino acids at this position, including glutamate. Saturation mutagenesis at position 79 showed that 13 of 19 possible amino acid substitutions increased esterase activity, suggesting that removal of glutamate, not addition of histidine, increased esterase activity. Molecular modeling indicates that Glu79 disrupts esterase activity in HbHNL when its negatively charged side chain distorts the orientation of the catalytic histidine. Naturally occurring glutamate at the

  12. Comparison of immunomodulatory properties of mannose-binding lectins from Canavalia brasiliensis and Cratylia argentea in a mice model of Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ayrles F B; Matos, Mayara P V; Ralph, Maria T; Silva, Daiane L; de Alencar, Nylane M; Ramos, Márcio V; Lima-Filho, José V

    2016-02-01

    The immunomodulatory properties of mannose-binding lectins ConBr (Canavalia brasiliensis) and CFL (Cratylia argentea) were investigated comparatively in a model of Salmonella infection. The lectins were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered to mice daily for three days before the bacterial challenge with Salmonella enterica Ser. Typhimurium (0.2 mL i.p.; 10(7) CFU/mL). In vivo assays have shown that both lectins induced a significant leukocyte infiltration into the peritoneal cavity of uninfected mice, which was higher in the CFL group 3 days post-infection. Total and differential cell counts in the bloodstreams have shown uninfected animals pretreated with ConBr and CFL exhibited accentuated lymphopenia. Conversely, there was an increasing population of lymphocytes following 3 days post-infection in mice pretreated with both lectins. In addition, the bacterial burden was significantly reduced into the peritoneal cavity, bloodstreams, spleen and the liver in these mice. The lectins did not induce the release of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines into the peritoneal fluid of uninfected animals. However, following infection, the release of TNF-α and IL-10 in the peritoneal fluid were down-regulated in mice pretreated with both lectins whereas IL-1 was only reduced in mice pretreated with ConBr. Uninfected animals pretreated with CFL exhibited high nitric oxide (NO) content in the peritoneal fluid, which was decreased after infection in comparison to ConBr group. The lectins did not alter the serum levels of NO in uninfected mice but treatments with ConBr significantly reduced the NO content in infected animals in comparison to CFL group 24h after the bacterial challenge. Survival experiments have shown survival rates ranging from 70% to 100% in mice that received CFL or ConBr. On the other hand, untreated mice (PBS group) died 1-6 days after infection. We conclude that ConBr and CFL are prospective phytotherapeutics capable of modulate the cascade of pro

  13. Identification of differentially expressed genes and signalling pathways in bark of Hevea brasiliensis seedlings associated with secondary laticifer differentiation using gene expression microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Swee Cheng; Thottathil, Gincy P; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman

    2016-10-01

    The natural rubber of Para rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is the main crop involved in industrial rubber production due to its superior quality. The Hevea bark is commercially exploited to obtain latex, which is produced from the articulated secondary laticifer. The laticifer is well defined in the aspect of morphology; however, only some genes associated with its development have been reported. We successfully induced secondary laticifer in the jasmonic acid (JA)-treated and linolenic acid (LA)-treated Hevea bark but secondary laticifer is not observed in the ethephon (ET)-treated and untreated Hevea bark. In this study, we analysed 27,195 gene models using NimbleGen microarrays based on the Hevea draft genome. 491 filtered differentially expressed (FDE) transcripts that are common to both JA- and LA-treated bark samples but not ET-treated bark samples were identified. In the Eukaryotic Orthologous Group (KOG) analysis, 491 FDE transcripts belong to different functional categories that reflect the diverse processes and pathways involved in laticifer differentiation. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and KOG analysis, the profile of the FDE transcripts suggest that JA- and LA-treated bark samples have a sufficient molecular basis for secondary laticifer differentiation, especially regarding secondary metabolites metabolism. FDE genes in this category are from the cytochrome (CYP) P450 family, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, or cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) family. The data includes many genes involved in cell division, cell wall synthesis, and cell differentiation. The most abundant transcript in FDE list was SDR65C, reflecting its importance in laticifer differentiation. Using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) as part of annotation and functional prediction, several characterised as well as uncharacterized transcription factors and genes were found in the

  14. Intoxicação experimental aguda por Senecio brasiliensis em ovinos e indução de resistência à intoxicação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane B. Grecco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovinos são mais resistentes à intoxicação por Senecio spp. que bovinos e equinos. Para determinar se essa resistência é induzida pela ingestão de pequenas e repetidas doses da planta e se essa resistência é duradoura, foram realizados três experimentos com folhas e talos verdes de Senecio brasilienses. Para determinar a dose mínima que causa intoxicação aguda (experimento 1, foram administradas doses únicas de 60, 80, 90, 100 e 100g/kg de peso corporal (pc a cinco ovinos, respectivamente. Os animais que receberam 60 e 80 g/kg de pc de S. brasiliensis não adoeceram, porém o ovino que recebeu 80g/kg de pc apresentava fibrose e megalocitose discretas nas biópsias realizadas aos 90, 120 e 150 dias do término da administração da planta. Os ovinos que receberam 90 e 100g/kg de pc apresentaram anorexia, prostração, movimentos de pedalagem, dor abdominal e morte 12-48 horas após o aparecimento dos sinais clínicos. Na necropsia havia ascite, petéquias disseminadas e acentuação do padrão lobular hepático. Histologicamente havia necrose hemorrágica centro-lobular. No Experimento 2 a dose capaz de causar a intoxicação aguda foi fracionada e administrada em duas, cinco e 10 doses diárias para 3 ovinos, respectivamente. A dose tóxica fracionada não provocou sinais clínicos de intoxicação em nenhum dos ovinos, porém havia fibrose periportal e megalocitose moderadas nas biopsias realizadas aos 60 dias do término da administração da planta, as quais não evoluíram. O ovino que recebeu a dose fracionada em 10 administrações não apresentou lesões histológicas nas biópsias. Para determinar se os ovinos tornam-se resistentes à forma aguda da intoxicação (experimento 3, foram administradas doses diárias de 15g/kg de pc por 30 dias e 30g/kg de pc por 10 dias a quatro ovinos. No dia seguinte à última administração dois ovinos receberam a dose única de 100g/kg de pc de S. brasiliensis, mas não adoeceram nem

  15. Echinoside-B from the Lakshadweep sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana (Quoy and Gaimard)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Brine-shrimp assay guided purification of the methanolic extract of the sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana yields echinoside-B as a major toxic constituent. The compound has been characterized based on its spectral data....

  16. Uji Aktivitas Ekstrak Teripang Bilalo {Actinopyga mauritiana (Quoy) Gaimard) Terhadap Jamur Candida Albiccm

    OpenAIRE

    Hanjaya, Dinda Ayyu

    2013-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are known to contain various types of active ingredients which are very useful for humans. Research on sea cucumbers as bioactive in Indonesia still needs to be developed, because it needs to be more research done on the efficacy of sea cucumber, such as a antifungal. Antifungal compounds from cucumbers and other marine animals become a source of new antifungal drugs can be developed because the potential is huge. A high level of diversity and uniqueness of the new compounds wer...

  17. Avaliação do efeito antiparasitário do omeprazol na prevenção do desenvolvimento de lesões cutâneas em hamsters infectados por Leishmania brasiliensis Evaluation of omeprazole's antiparasitary effect preventing the development of cutaneous lesions due to Leishmania brasiliensis in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Amante Miot

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A leishmaniose tegumentar americana permanece doença endêmica em diversas regiões brasileiras. A sobrevivência do parasita no interior dos macrófagos se deve, em parte, pela atividade de uma K+/H+-ATPase de membrana que pode ser inibida pelo omeprazol. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a eficácia do omeprazol na prevenção do desenvolvimento de lesões de leishmaniose em hamsters. MÉTODOS: Empregaram-se 18 hamsters, divididos em três grupos: o grupo L recebeu apenas a inoculação de L. brasiliensis na pata anterior direita, o grupo O recebeu apenas doses diárias de 0,4mg de omeprazol subcutâneo, e o grupo L+O recebeu o inóculo de leishmanias e o tratamento com omeprazol desde o dia da inoculação. O estudo foi conduzido por 42 dias, realizaram-se medidas dos diâmetros das patas semanalmente, e, ao final do estudo, foram realizados esfregaços das lesões para verificação dos parasitas. RESULTADOS: Os hamsters dos grupos L e L+O desenvolveram lesões de leishmaniose tegumentar havendo ulceração em duas patas do grupo L e uma do grupo L+O. Ao final do estudo, a mobilidade e vitalidade no grupo L foram menores que em L+O, e estas menores que no grupo O. Os diâmetros das patas inoculadas nos grupos L e L+O foram significativamente maiores que no início do estudo (pBACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis remains an endemic disease in several brazilian regions. The parasite’ survival in macrophages is due to a membrane K+/H+-ATPase that can be inhibited by omeprazole. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate omeprazole’s efficacy preventing the development of cutaneous leishmaniasis in hamsters. METHODS: Eighteen hamsters were divided in 3 groups: the L group received an inoculation of L. brasiliensis on right paw, the O group received daily 0,4mg omeprazole subcutaneously, and L+O group received both omeprazole and the inocule. The study was performed in 42 days, and the measurements of the diameter of paws were done weekly. At the end of the study

  18. Microbiological, physico-chemical, and sensorial modifications during the useful life of the shrimps (Penaeus brasiliensis e Penaeus Paulensis) submitted to gamma radiation.; Alteracoes microbiologicas, fisico-quimicas e sensoriais durante a vida util do camarao-rosa (Penaeus brasiliensis e Penaeus Paulensis) submetido a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Mariana Del Ben

    2000-07-01

    During the last years, there has been an increase in the consumption of seafood and freshwater fish as a healthier diet option. Shrimps are the most important product in the international trade market. This kind of food easily deteriorates due to autolysis, oxidation and microbial action. This research was carried out in order to study the effectiveness of radiation in preserving shrimps. Samples of shrimps (Penaeus brasiliensis and P. paulensi) were submitted to gamma radiation doses of O kGy, 1 kGy, 2 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 3 kGy and 3.5 kGy and stored under refrigeration. The microbiological analysis was performed on days O, 2, 4, 7 10 and 14 post processing. Simultaneously, the pH and total, volatile bases (TVBN) were determined. The psychotropic population varied from <2.0 log to 8.08 log CFU/g while the mesophilic ranged from <1.0 109 to 6.03 log CFU/g; pH varied from 7.52 to 8.33 and TVBN from 28.47 to 56.00 mg N/100g, according to the radiation dose and the day of analysis. Black spots, changes in the characteristic odour and TVBN levels showed the beginning of a chemical deterioration as of the 4 th day of analysis. Doses of 3 kGy and 3.5 kGy presented the best results. Pseudomonas spp. showed the highest sensitivity to radiation. Due to the lapse of time between capturing shrimps and returning to land together with inadequate manipulation and storage in the boat, the quality of raw material is prejudiced which makes the radiation process unfeasible. (author)

  19. Otimização da determinação de colesterol por clae e teores de colesterol, lipídios totais e ácidos graxos em camarão rosa (Penaeus brasiliensis Optimization of cholesterol determination by HPLC and levels of cholesterol, total lipids and fatty acids of the pink shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neura BRAGAGNOLO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A produção de camarões no Brasil é expressiva com condições propícias para expansão. Apesar de ser bem apreciado em termos culinários e ser uma fonte rica de proteínas, o camarão é apontado como um alimento de alto conteúdo de colesterol. Considerando que o nível de colesterol sangüíneo humano é dependente não só do teor de colesterol, mas também da quantidade de gordura e do tipo de ácidos graxos na dieta, um estudo integrado destes três constituintes foi realizado em camarão rosa (Penaeus brasiliensis, tamanho médio proveniente de São Paulo. A extração e a determinação do teor de lipídios totais foram realizadas de acordo com método de Folch, Less & Stanley. O método para determinação de colesterol por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, com coluna C18 e detector por conjunto de diodos, foi estabelecido no nosso laboratório. Este método mostrou-se eficiente, rápido e simples. A composição de ácidos graxos foi obtida por cromatografia gasosa com coluna capilar de sílica fundida com DB-WAX. Os teores de colesterol e lipídios totais para camarão rosa médio foram 127 ± 9mg/100 g e 1,0 ± 0,1 g/100 g, respectivamente. Foram detectados oitenta e sete ácidos graxos, sendo 20:5w3 (EPA, 16:0, 22:6w3 (DHA, 18:0, 18:1w9, 16:1w7, 20:4w6 e 18:1w7 os principais. O teor de colesterol encontrado no camarão analisado é alto. Por outro lado, o teor de gordura é baixo e os níveis de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, especialmente EPA e DHA, são altos.Shrimp production in Brazil is substantial, with good potential for expansion. Although well appreciated in culinary terms and as a rich source of protein, shrimp is classified as a high cholesterol food. Considering that the human cholesterol blood level depends not only on dietary cholesterol, but also on the amount of fat and the type of fatty acids in the diet, an integrated study of these three constituents was carried out in the Brazilian shrimp Penaeus

  20. Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in calves: quantitative and semi-quantitative study on changes in the hepatic extracellular matrix and sinusoidal cells Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis em bovinos: estudo quantitativo e semi-quantitativo da matrix extracelular e de células sinusoidais do fígado

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    Márcia Bersane A.M. Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix plays an important role in chronic hepatic lesions and has been studied in experimental intoxication models. However in cattle, studies on chronic disease have focused on the hepatocellular damage and extracellular matrix (ECM changes are usually overlooked. There are no specific studies on the hepatic ECM in either normal or chronically damaged bovine liver. Thus an experimental model of hepatic toxicity model using Senecio brasiliensis poisoned calves was designed. Senecio brasiliensis contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids which cause either acute or chronic progressive dose dependent liver damage. Five calves were orally fed with 0.38g of dry leaves of S. brasiliensis/kg/day for 24 days. Liver needle biopsy specimens were obtained every 15 days for 60 days. Clinical signs of digestive complications appeared at 3rd week. One calf died on 45th day and four were evaluated up to 60th day. Biopsy samples were processed for routine light microscopy, immuno-histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. From 30th day on progressive liver damage characterized by hepatocellular ballooning, necrosis, apoptosis and megalocytosis, centrilobular, pericellular and portal fibrosis were seen by light microscopy. Quantitative and semi-quantitative measurements of hepatic ECM components were performed before and after the onset of lesions. Morphometric analysis of total collagen and elastic fiber system was conducted. Total collagen and I and III collagen types progressively increased in throughout the liver of affected calves. Changes in location, amount and disposition of the elastic fiber system were also observed. Then numbers of Kupffer cells were significantly increased at 30th day and total numbers of sinusoidal cells were significantly increased at 45th and 60th days. Liver damage was progressive and irreversible even after the exposure to the plant was discontinued. Severe fibrotic lesions occurred mainly in portal tracts

  1. Livoneca redmanni Leach (Isopoda, Cymothoidae e Rocinela signata Schioedte & Meinert (Isopoda, Aegidae, ectoparasitos de Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin (Ostheichthyes, Scombridae no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Livoneca redmanni Leach (Isopoda, Cymothoidae and Rocinelasignata Schioedte & Meinert (Isopoda, Aegidae, ectoparasites of Scomberomorusbrasiliensis Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin (Ostheichthyes, Scombridae in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    José T. A. X. de Lima

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre Isopodas Crustaceas existem ectoparasitos que são de fácil observação devido ao seu tamanho. Eles causam lesões mecânicas no hospedeiro que podem resultar em morte. Este trabalho verificou a existência de parasitismo por isópodos no peixe serra, Scomberomorus brasiliensis (Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin, 1978 das águas costeiras do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Os índices de infestação parasitária dos isópodos foram calculados e relacionados com o tamanho, peso e o estado gonadal do hospedeiro. Livoneca redmanni (Leach, 1818 (Cymothoidae e Rocinela signata (Schioedte & Meinert, 1879 (Aegidae foram registradas pela primeira vez nas águas costeiras do Rio Grande do Norte. Os locais de fixação de L. redmanni no hospedeiro foram a cavidade bucal e a câmara branquial, enquanto R. signata sempre foi encontrada na câmara branquial. Dos exemplares de S. brasiliensis capturados 31 % estavam parasitados, onde 86 % eram de L. redmanni e 14 % de R. signata. Foi registrado uma intensidade mínima de um e máxima de quatro isópodos por hospedeiro. Os isópodos apresentaram uma preferência pelos hospedeiros imaturos e em maturação de S. brasiliensis.Among the crustacean isopoda there exists ectoparasites which are easy to observe due to their size. They cause lesions on the host that could lead to death. The present study verified the occurrence of parasitic isopods on the fish Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis (Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin, 1978 from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Indices of parasitic infection by isopods were calculated and correlated to the body size, weight and the stage of gonadal maturity of the host. Livoneca redmanni (Leach, 1818 (Cymothoidae and Rocinela signata (Schioedte & Meinert, 1879 (Aegidae were registered for the first time in the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte. L. redmanni was encountered both in the oral cavity and in the gill chambers of the host

  2. Análisis de la variación genética en clones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis de Asia, Suramérica y Centroamérica usando marcadores RAPD

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    Hernández R César Augusto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El caucho natural (Hevea brasiliensis representa a especies potenciales para reforestación y programas de explo­tación comercial en ciudades tropicales como Colombia. La variabilidad genética de una colección de caucho que se encuentra en la Estación experimental de Paraguaycito en Buenavista, departamento del Quindio en Colom­bia fue estudiada para aumentar el conocimiento en cuanto a las especies y realizar un mejor uso de los árboles disponibles. Un total de 25 clones, seis de Sur América, 17 de Asia y 2 de América Central fueron seleccionados y analizados usando RAPDs. Las muestras aisladas de ADN de los árboles fueron con 102 primers, 23 de los cuales mostraron polimorfismos. Aunque se encontró un alto grado de similaridad, los análisis grupales de datos llevaron a diferenciar los árboles de de caucho en términos de su origen geográfico. Por lo tanto, las relaciones genéticas que se encontraron entre los clones podrían ayudar a seleccionar parentales para uso en programas de reproducción y diseño de estrategias para la conservación de los clones que tengan características agronómicas deseables. Palabras clave: identificación de cultivos, distancia genética, diversidad genética, Hevea brasiliensis, marcadores RAPD.

  3. How do rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations behave under seasonal water stress in northeastern Thailand and central Cambodia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Tomo' omi [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Mudd, Ryan G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Giambelluca, Thomas W. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kobayashi, Nakako [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki [Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Lim, Tiva Khan [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Liu, Wen [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Huang, Maoyi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Jefferson M. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ziegler, Alan D. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Yin, Song [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Mak, Sophea Veasna [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Kasemsap, Poonpipope [Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    Plantation rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) is a viable economic resource for Southeast Asian countries. Consequently, rubber plantations are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially changing the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with the traditional land covers they are replacing. Delineating the characteristics of biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations is therefore important to understanding the impacts of such land use change on environmental processes. We have conducted eddy flux measurements in two rubber plantation sites: (1) Som Sanuk (SS), located northern Thailand; and (2) Cambodian Rubber Research Institute (CRRI), central Cambodia. Both sites have a distinct dry season. Measurements were made over a 3-year period. We used combination of actual evapotranspiration (ET) flux measurements and an inversed version of a simple 2-layer ET model for estimating the mean canopy stomatal conductances (gs), which is among the most effective measures for describing water and energy exchanges and tree water use characteristics. A main novelty in this analysis is that the rubber canopy conductance can be extracted from total surface conductance (including the canopy and the vegetation floor effects) and hence environmental and biological controls on rubber tree gs are explicitly compared at each site in different seasons and years. It is demonstrated how each studied rubber plantation copes with each strong seasonal drought via tree water use strategies. Potential tree water use deficit (precipitation (P) – potential evaporation (ET_POT)) for each season (i.e., December-February: DJF, March-May: MAM, June-August: JJA, and September-November: SON) revealed in which season and how the water use should be controlled. We found that in seasons when actual tree water use deficit (P

  4. 橡胶树砧木和接穗之间的相互影响%Interaction between Scion and Rootstock in Rubber Tree(Hevea Brasiliensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立军; 林位夫

    2012-01-01

    以GT1和RRIM600两种实生苗为巴西橡胶树砧木材料和GT1、RRIM600和PR107无性系及其砧木自身芽4种接穗材料进行成对芽接,研究了橡胶树砧木品种、砧木大小和接穗组合对芽接成活率、砧木和接穗直径生长的影响.结果表明:(1)砧木品种对接穗的直径生长量的影响因接穗品系和砧木大小而异;(2)砧木大小极显著影响接穗直径生长量,而对芽接成活率的影响较小;(3)接穗组合对芽接成活率、砧木和接穗直径生长量均有显著影响,且与砧木品种有关.在同等大小的GT1砧木上,3种接穗组合的砧木直径无显著差异;砧木自身芽(RB)与RRIM600组合时的芽接成活率极显著地低于其他两种组合,RB的直径生长量明显强于GT1,但弱于PR107和RRIM600.在RRIM600砧木上,砧木自身芽的芽接成活率极显著低于RRIM 600、显著低于PR107;砧木自身芽组合的砧木直径显著或明显大于GT1+PR107和GT1+RRIM600组合;砧木自身芽的直径生长量极显著或显著大于GT1和PR107的接穗.%In this study, four scions(GTl, RRIM600, PR107 clones and rootstock bud, RB for short)were pairwise grafted on the two rootstocks (seedling of GT1 and RRIM600 cultivars)in rubber tree (hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg.), and the effect of rootstock cultivar, rootstock size and scion combination on the graft survival rate of scions and diameter of rootstocks and scions were investigated. Results showed: (l)The effect of rootstock cultivars on scion diameter was related to scion clones and rootstock size. (2)Rootstock size had a significant influence on scion diameter, but a little influence on graft survival rate. (3)Scion combination had a notable influence on graft survival rate and diameter of rootstock and scion, and its effect was correlated to rootstock cultivars. On same size GT1 rootstock, there was no significant difference among rootstock diameter of three scion combinations; the graft survival rate of RB

  5. Avaliação in vivo da qualidade protéica do champignon do Brasil (Agaricusbrasiliensis Wasser et al. In vivo protein quality evaluation of champignon do Brasil (Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al.

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    Gilberto Simeone Henriques

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O trabalho aqui descrito trata da avaliação de uma dieta experimental contendo Champingnon do Brasil (Agaricus brasiliensis como fonte de proteína em um modelo experimental de ratos. MÉTODOS: Para este propósito, foram selecionados 24 ratos Wistar machos, recém desmamados (21 dias divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais cada, que foram alimentados com uma dieta padrão de caseína, ou com uma dieta experimental de proteína de Agaricus brasiliensis ambas contendo 10% de proteína e isoenergéticas ou ainda, com uma dieta com muito baixo teor de proteína. O ensaio biológico foi realizado em 28 dias, ao longo dos quais se determinou a concentração de nitrogênio na urina e nas fezes, além dos cálculos do Quociente de Eficiência Alimentar (ganho de peso dividido pelo consumo de dieta, do Quociente de Eficiência Protéica (ganho de peso dividido pelo consumo de proteína, da Razão Protéica Líquida (ganho de peso corrigido dividido pelo consumo de proteína e da Digestibilidade Verdadeira. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram que quando o Champignon do Brasil foi utilizado como fonte exclusiva de proteína na dieta, os índices de qualidade protéica apresentaram-se baixos (Quociente de Eficiência Alimentar=0,08, Quociente de Eficiência Protéica=0,92 e Razão Protéica Líquida=3,00, quando comparados com a dieta padrão caseína (Quociente de Eficiência Alimentar=0,30, Quociente de Eficiência Protéica=3,05 e Razão Protéica Líquida=4,21. Os índices obtidos para o grupo Agaricus mostraram-se comparáveis àqueles apresentados por alguns tipos de proteína vegetal e podem ser explicados por sua limitação em aminoácidos essenciais, notadamente a lisina e a leucina, respectivamente primeiro e segundo aminoácido limitante. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados apontam para a utilização da proteína do Agaricus brasiliensis como uma boa fonte para complementação protéica, quando combinada com outras culturas vegetais comuns na

  6. Effect of brickyard exhaust gas pollution on photosynthetic characteristics of Hevea brasiliensis%砖厂废气污染对橡胶树光合生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周会平; 原慧芳; 龙云锋; 刘世红; 魏丽萍

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effects of the brickyard emission pollution on photosynthetic parameters of Hevea brasiliensis, the rubber trees of "Yunyan 77-2" varieties at different distances (200, 400 and 600 m respectively) from the exhaust gas pollution source were selected as the test material. The results showed that brickyard exhaust emissions have significant impacts on the leaf photosynthetic parameters of rubber trees at three different distances (P < 0.05). With the decrease of distance from pollution source, namely, with pollution aggravating, the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmax), light saturation point (LSP), dark respiration rate (Rd) and chlorophyll content (Chi) decreased; the maximum fluorescence (Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv) and maximum fluorescence ratio (Fv/Fm) also decreased; and the initial fluorescence (Fo) increased. Those results demonstrated that brickyard exhaust emission had obvious influences on the photosynthetic physiological characteristics of Hevea brasiliensis: within 600 m range, the closer the rubber trees to pollution source was, the lower of the leaf photosynthetic performance was.%选取砖厂废气排放方向种植的橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)品系“云研77-2”为研究对象,在距离砖厂200、400、600 m处设置3个研究点,研究分析砖厂排放废气污染对橡胶树光合参数的影响.结果表明:砖厂废气排放对3个不同距离处橡胶树叶片光合参数有显著影响(P< 0.05).随着橡胶树与砖厂距离的缩近,即污染加剧,橡胶树叶片净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、胞间CO2(Ci)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、最大光合速率(Pmax)、光饱和点(LSP)、暗呼吸速率(Rd)和叶绿素含量(Chl)均呈下降趋势;最大荧光(Fm)、可变荧光(Fv)和最大荧光比(Fv/Fm)也下降,初始荧光(Fo)升高.该研究结果证明,砖厂废气污染对橡胶树光合生理

  7. Estrutura populacional e indicadores reprodutivos de Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette, Russo e Zavala-Camin, 1978 (Perciformes: Scombridae no litoral ocidental maranhense - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i4.1272 Population structure and reproductive index of Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin, 1978 (Perciformes: Scombridae in western coast of Maranhão - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i4.1272

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    Éder André Gubiani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência das condições gonadal e nutricional no comportamento reprodutivo de Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette, Russo e Zavala-Camin, 1978 (Perciformes, Scombridae do litoral ocidental do Maranhão, entre junho de 2001 e julho de 2002. Houve predomínio significativo de fêmeas, considerando-se o período total de amostragem. A relação peso-comprimento não diferiu significativamente entre os sexos quanto ao coeficiente de alometria. Os resultados encontrados por meio da análise da curva de maturação, baseada na variação mensal dos valores médios das relações gonadossomática e hepatossomática e do fator de condição, sugerem que o período reprodutivo da espécie ocorre entre março e junho. Observou-se que a maturação gonadal e a reprodução levaram a depleções no peso total e do fígado dos espécimes estudados. A análise da variação dos valores médios do índice de repleção revelou que os peixes exibem melhor condição alimentar antes e após o período reprodutivoThe aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gonadal and nutritional index on the reproductive behavior of Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette, Russo and Zavala-Camin, 1978 (Perciformes, Scombridae of the western coast of Maranhão, from June 2001 to July 2002. There was a significant dominance of females when considering the total experimental period. The length/weight relationship did not show a significant difference between the sexes in reference to the alometry coefficient. Analyses of the maturation curve, based on the monthly mean values variation of the gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic relation, and the condition factor, suggest that the reproductive period occurs from March to June. It was observed that the losses of body and liver weight occurred during the gonodal maturation and reproductive processes. The variation analysis of the repletion index mean values showed that the fishes

  8. CARACTERIZAÇÃO COLORIMÉTRICA DAS MADEIRAS DE MUIRAPIRANGA (Brosimum rubescensTaub. E DE SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis, clone Tjir 16 Müll Arg. VISANDO À UTILIZAÇÃO EM INTERIORES

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    Cristine da Silva Autran

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Ainda que recente, a técnica para a determinação da cor da madeira por meio da colorimetria quantitativa mostra-se precisa e eficaz. O sistema CIELAB 1976, que determina os parâmetros colorimétricos L*, a*, b*, C e h*, mostrou-se eficiente para a determinação da cor das madeiras de muirapiranga (Brosimum rubescens e de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, clone Tjir 16. A madeira de muirapiranga é de cor vermelha-amarronzada (L* de 42,39, tendo o pigmento vermelho (a* de 22,02 como determinante, apesar de o pigmento amarelo (b* ter influência significativa na definição de sua cor. A madeira de seringueira apresenta cor amarela (L* de 77,55, fortemente influenciada pelo pigmento amarelo (b* de 19,61. Considerando o parâmetro cor, ambas as madeiras apresentam potenciais para serem utilizadas em interiores.

  9. Characterization of a SAM-dependent fluorinase from a latent biosynthetic pathway for fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine formation in Nocardia brasiliensis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2tz

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    Yaya Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorination has been widely used in chemical synthesis, but is rare in nature. The only known biological fluorination scope is represented by the fl pathway from Streptomyces cattleya that produces fluoroacetate (FAc and 4-fluorothreonine (4-FT. Here we report the identification of a novel pathway for FAc and 4-FT biosynthesis from the actinomycetoma-causing pathogen Nocardia brasiliensis ATCC 700358. The new pathway shares overall conservation with the fl pathway in S. cattleya. Biochemical characterization of the conserved domains revealed a novel fluorinase NobA that can biosynthesize 5’-fluoro-5’-deoxyadenosine (5’-FDA from inorganic fluoride and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM. The NobA shows similar halide specificity and characteristics to the fluorination enzyme FlA of the fl pathway. Kinetic parameters for fluoride (Km 4153 μM, kcat 0.073 min-1 and SAM (Km 416 μM, kcat 0.139 min-1 have been determined, revealing that NobA is slightly (2.3 fold slower than FlA. Upon sequence comparison, we finally identified a distinct loop region in the fluorinases that probably accounts for the disparity of fluorination activity.

  10. Detection of Multiple Budding Yeast Cells and a Partial Sequence of 43-kDa Glycoprotein Coding Gene of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a Case of Lacaziosis in a Female Pacific White-Sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakawa, Tomoko; Ueda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Miyuu; Tanaka, Natsuki; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Izawa, Takeshi; Konno, Toshihiro; Yamate, Jyoji; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa; Sano, Ayako; Wada, Shinpei

    2016-08-01

    Lacaziosis, formerly called as lobomycosis, is a zoonotic mycosis, caused by Lacazia loboi, found in humans and dolphins, and is endemic in the countries on the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean of Japanese coast. Susceptible Cetacean species include the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus), and the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis); however, no cases have been recorded in other Cetacean species. We diagnosed a case of Lacaziosis in a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) nursing in an aquarium in Japan. The dolphin was a female estimated to be more than 14 years old at the end of June 2015 and was captured in a coast of Japan Sea in 2001. Multiple, lobose, and solid granulomatous lesions with or without ulcers appeared on her jaw, back, flipper and fluke skin, in July 2014. The granulomatous skin lesions from the present case were similar to those of our previous cases. Multiple budding and chains of round yeast cells were detected in the biopsied samples. The partial sequence of 43-kDa glycoprotein coding gene confirmed by a nested PCR and sequencing, which revealed a different genotype from both Amazonian and Japanese lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins, and was 99 % identical to those derived from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; a sister fungal species to L. loboi. This is the first case of lacaziosis in Pacific white-sided dolphin. PMID:26883513

  11. Estudo da diversidade de Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, na área entre Macaé (22º23'S e Ilha de Santa Catarina (27º35'S: 1. Crescimento de dimensões corporais

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    Francisco Manoel de Souza Braga

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of body proportions of Sardinella brasiliensis was not homogeneous in the study area, between Macaé (RJ and Santa Catarina Island (SC; the growth rates (K of the von Bertalanffy growth curve were greater than growth rates for another áreas. In this area the biomass estimates for pelagic fish is poor, and near Cabo Frio occurs an upwelling zone. These facts permit the sardines to attain large lengths in this area. Between Rio de Janeiro and Florianópolis the growth rates were lower than in the northern part and Paranaguá Bay. On the other hand the biomass estimates for pelagic fish in Rio de Janeiro-Florianópolis region was very high, and in this zone the population density is high and the growth rates are small. Paranaguá Bay is a particular region because of its geographical and oceanographic conditons; this is a shelter region with different features and the sardines living there attain small length. In this area the growth rates are intermediary among growth rates for fishes from Macaé-Cabo Frio and Rio de Janeiro-Florianópolis regions. Therefore, the growth rates for sardines in southeast Brazilian proves to be dependent of the population density, food and oceanographic conditions.

  12. Crescimento e fator de condição na fase juvenil de Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille e F. paulensis (Pérez-Farfante (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae em uma lagoa costeira tropical do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Albertoni Edélti Faria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth relations of the shrimps Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817 and F. paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 were evaluated at Imboassica lagoon, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, between June 1995 and September 1997, in four periods after events of sandbar opening. This sandbar separated the lagoon from the Atlantic Ocean. Through the evaluation of the weight/length relationships for the two species, significant differences in each interval after the sandbar openings were observed, as much among males and females as among all individuals of the same species. The results indicated that both species presented negative allometric growth in most of the studied occasions. The frequency and abundance of the two species in the lagoon is linked to many factors, among them the season of the sandbar opening, the span of time in which the sandbar remains opened, and the presence of a reproductive stock of adults close to the area when the sandbar is open. Through the analysis of the relative condition factor (Kr, it was verified that usually the conditions inside the lagoon are favorable to the development of both species, with the exception of the occasions when the sandbar opening events happen quickly and close to each other, allowing to conclude that the sandbar openings have an influence on the growth rates and in the general status of the organisms.

  13. Lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis Seeds (ConBr Is a Valuable Biotechnological Tool to Stimulate the Growth of Rhizobium tropici in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pires dos Santos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the interactions between a Rhizobium tropici strain and lectins isolated from the seeds of Canavalia ensiformis (ConA and Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr, a lectin fluorescence assay was performed. In addition, an experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of the two lectins on bacterial growth. Both lectins were found to bind to R. tropici cells, but the interactions were inhibited by D-mannose. Interestingly, only ConBr stimulated bacterial growth in proportion to the concentrations used (15.6–500 µg/mL, and the bacterial growth stimulation was inhibited by D-mannose as well. Structure/Function analyses by bioinformatics were carried out to evaluate the volume and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD configuration of ConA and ConBr. The difference of spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may indicate the variation between biological activities of both lectins. The results suggest that ConBr could be a promising tool for studies focusing on the interactions between rhizobia and host plants.

  14. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., tratadas com benlate durante o armazenamento Physiological quality of rubber tree seed treated with benomyl during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Vieira

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de um período relativamente frio e seco, imediatamente após o período de coleta de sementes de seringueira - Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (março-abril, levou à realização do presente trabalho com o objetivo de encontrar condições adequadas de preservação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes. Assim, estudou-se a qualidade fisiológica de sementes, tratadas com Benlate (0,1%, e armazenadas em sacos de polietileno transparente, por períodos de 0 a 5 meses, sob condições ambientais de laboratório. Para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes, determinou-se a germinação e o vigor através do índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE e do comprimento da parte aérea das plântulas (CPA, em 1987 e 1988. A germinação e o IVE foram obtidos sob duas condições ambientais diferentes, ambiente do laboratório e em germinador a 30°C. O tratamento fungicida utilizado não exerceu efeito significativo na preservação das sementes. A germinação, o IVE e o CPA reduziram-se com o prolongamento do armazenamento. Os valores da germinação foram baixo desde o início dos trabalhos, o que pode ser atribuído ao teor de água inicial, que estava abaixo de 30%. O teste de germinação de sementes dessa espécie pode ser feito utilizando-se areia como substrato, a 30°C e com a contagem final aos 20 dias após a instalação do teste.After rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. seeds reach the physiological maturity, there is a relatively dry and cold period in the State of São Paulo, which led to the present work, in order to evaluate environmental conditions that maintain physiological seed quality. The physiological quality of rubber tree seeds, treated with benomyl (0,1% and stored in plastic bags, was studied up to 5 months, during 87/88. The seed bags were kept under laboratory conditions during the whole storage period. To evaluate physiological seed quality, germination and vigor (germination speed

  15. El Condicionamiento Operante en el Manejo ex situ de Insuficiencia Renal Crónica en nutria gigante (Pteronura brasiliensis en la Fundación Zoológica -resumen-

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    Y M Nuñez-Moreyra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El manejo en cautiverio de enfermedades como la insuficiencia renal crónica representa un reto para las instituciones encargadas de la conservación ex situ de fauna silvestre. La insuficiencia renal es una condición que se desarrolla de manera espontánea y progresiva en carnívoros de edad media a avanzada durante periodos de tiempo prolongado‚ dificultando en muchas ocasiones la identificación de la causa subyacente. El daño renal es irreversible‚ por tanto‚ el tratamiento está orientado a reducir la sobrecarga renal y los signos clínicos asociados‚ así como prevenir la progresión de la enfermedad. La nutria gigante (Pteronura brasiliensis es una especie clasificada como en peligro crítico por la IUCN y ubicada en el apéndice I de la CITES; siendo amenazada por la caza ilegal‚ la degradación de hábitat‚ sobrepesca‚ minería y la contaminación de bosques y ríos. Son individuos de gran tamaño (1,5-2m largo y de 25-32kg de peso cuya dieta se basa exclusivamente en pescado‚ llegando a consumir el 10% de su peso al día. En cautiverio la base de la dieta es pescado de agua dulce con bajas concentraciones de tiaminasas y bajo contenido graso‚ suplementando con vitamina B1 y E para prevenir la deficiencia de estos nutrientes. En octubre de 2013 un individuo de Pteronura brasiliensis “Lluvia” macho de 16 años de edad ingresa a procedimientos bajo protocolo anestésico (Ketamina 5mg/kg‚ Dexmedetomidina 0,02mg/kg‚ Isoflurano 1% y Atipamizole 0,15mg/kg como reversor por un cuadro de anorexia y vómitos por periodo prolongado. El examen físico evidenció pérdida ponderal‚ estomatitis ulcerativa y salivación abundante. Se colectaron muestras sanguíneas para hemograma y química; una muestra fecal para coproparasitología y se realizó el descarte de distemper canino (SNAP Test. Los resultados de las pruebas paraclínicas arrojaron lo siguiente: eritrocitosis secundaria por deshidratación como consecuencia

  16. 巴西橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)HbMlo7基因克隆与表达分析%Molecular cloning and characterization ofHbMlo7 gene in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海霞; 张宇; 王萌; 杨叶; 郑服丛

    2016-01-01

    Mlo基因是一种植物防卫相关基因,负调控植物白粉病抗性。为解析巴西橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)中Mlo基因的结构与功能,从橡胶树品种‘热研7-33-97’胶乳中扩增了一个Mlo cDNA序列,将其命名为HbMlo7。该基因编码499个氨基酸,分子量为56.85 kDa。蛋白结构分析发现,该蛋白含有Mlo保守结构域,有一个核定位信号和7个跨膜结构区域,无信号肽。通过qRT-PCR发现HbMlo7基因主要在橡胶树树皮中表达,其表达量在干旱、机械伤害和白粉菌侵染处理下显著上调。脱落酸(ABA)、乙烯利(ETH)、茉莉酸(JA)和过氧化氢(H2O2)均能诱导橡胶树叶片中HbMlo7基因显著上调表达。研究认为HbMlo7是植物Mlo家族成员,参与橡胶树的抗逆反应机制和植物激素信号传导途径。%Mildew resistance locus o(Mlo) is a defence-related gene in plant, which negatively regulates plant resistance to powdery mildew. To analyze the structure and function ofMlo gene inHevea brasiliensis, we cloned a cDNA sequence of Mlo from latex of the rubber tree clone ‘Reyan 7-33-97’. We deifned it asHbMlo7. HbMlo7 gene encoded 499 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 56.85 kDa. The protein structure analysis revealed that HbMLO7 has one conserved domain of Mlo, one nuclear localization signal (NLS), seven transmembrane domains, and no signal peptide. Gene expression analysis by quantitative and reverse transcrip-tion PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated thatHbMlo7expressed mainly in the bark of the rubber tree. The expression level ofHbMlo7 was induced by drought, wounding and powdery mildew infection. Abscisic acid (ABA), ethe-phon (ETH), jasmonic acid (JA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) signiifcantly upregulatedHbMlo7 geneexpres-sion in rubber tree leaves. The results suggest thatHbMlo7 is one of the members ofMlo family, and involved in response mechanisms of stress and signal transduction pathway of plant hormones in rubber tree.

  17. Atividade clastogênica e genotóxica de altas concentrações do extrato aquoso de Agaricus brasiliensis e diferentes respostas quando associado aos inibidores de reparo de DNA, ARA-C e 3DEOT, in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sergio Mantovani

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser & Didukh – Ab (=Agaricus blazei Murrill ss. Heinemann é um basidiomiceto que vem sendo consumido em diversas partes do mundo no combate e tratamento de muitas doenças. Neste estudo, foram testados, em células de ovário de hamster chinês (CHO-k1, os efeitos clastogênicos e genotóxicos de altas concentrações de Ab e seu potencial protetor, por meio dos ensaios de aberração cromossômica (AC e cometa (SCGE, associados a dois bloqueadores de reparo do DNA (citosina arabinoside trifosfato - Ara-C - inibidor de DNA polimerase a e 3’deoxitimidina 5’trifosfato - 3DeoT - inibidor de DNA polimerase b, na presença ou não de um agente alquilante (metilmetanosulfonato. No teste de clastogenicidade, verificou-se que as concentrações 0,2 e 0,4% não se mostraram indutoras de dano, ao contrário da maior concentração (0,6%. Nos tratamentos de genotoxicidade no SCGE, a concentração de 0,2% do extrato não mostrou atividade genotóxica, ao contrário das concentrações de 0,4 e 0,6%, as quais foram efetivas indutoras de danos no DNA. Os resultados de anticlastogenicidade indicaram que, na maioria dos tratamentos realizados, o extrato aquoso de Ab não apresentou atividade protetora contra danos no DNA, induzidos pela Ara-C e Ara-C + MMS. Pelo SCGE, Ab, nas três concentrações testadas, não mostrou atividade antigenotóxica. Os dados sugerem cuidado no consumo e ingestão de Ab por seres humanos, principalmente em altas concentrações.

  18. Seasonal variation of the effect of high-carbohydrate and high-protein diets on the intermediate metabolism of Parastacus brasiliensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae maintained in the laboratory Variações sazonais do efeito de uma dieta rica em carboidrato e rica em proteínas no metabolismo intermediário de Parastacus brasiliensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae mantidos em laboratório

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    Bibiana K. Dutra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of a high-carbohydrate diet (HC and a high-protein diet (HP on the metabolism of the crayfish Parastacus brasiliensis (Von Martens, 1869, collected in different seasons and maintained in the laboratory for 15 days. Crayfish were collected monthly from January 2002 to January 2004 at São Francisco de Paula, Southern Brazil, in Guarapirá stream. In the laboratory, the animals were kept submerged in aquariums under controlled conditions. They were fed ad libitum, for 15 days with either a HC or HP diet. At the end of this period, haemolymph samples were collected, as were hepatopancreas, gills, and abdominal muscle that were removed for determination of glycogen, free glucose, lipids, and triglycerides. The haemolymph samples were used for determination of glucose, proteins, lipids, and triglycerides. Statistical analysis (ANOVA revealed significant seasonal differences in biochemical composition in crayfish maintained on HC or HP diets. Independent of the diets offered to the animals and the controlled conditions for 15 days, the indications of seasonality were unchanged. The observed changes seemed to be related to the reproductive period. Moreover, the HC diet increased all energy reserves in adult parastacids, which may aid in reproduction.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da dieta rica em carboidratos (HC e da dieta rica em proteínas (HP sobre o metabolismo do Parastacus brasiliensis (Von Martens, 1869 coletados em diferentes estações e mantidos durante 15 dias em laboratório. Os lagostins foram coletados mensalmente de Janeiro de 2002 a Janeiro de 2004 em São Francisco de Paula, Sul do Brasil, no riacho Guarapirá. No laboratório, os animais foram mantidos submersos em aquários sob condições controladas. Eles foram alimentados ad libitum por 15 dias com a dieta HC ou HP. Após o final do período, as amostras de hemolinfa foram coletadas, assim como o hepatopâncreas, as

  19. 钾水平对巴西橡胶树幼苗磷组分和酸性磷酸酶活性的影响%Effects of Different Potassium Levels on Components of Phosphorus and Activities of the Acid Phosphatase in H.brasiliensis Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏; 何鹏; 韦家少; 吴炳孙

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the effects of different potassium levels on components of phosphorus and activities of acid phosphatase in different organs of H. Brasiliensis seedling. [ Method] Seedlings derived from seeds of rubber trees of Clone RRIM600 ( H. Brasiliensis ) were grown under hydroponic culture at different levels of potassium (K2O concentration was 0, 1, 10, 50, 250 mg/L) to determine their components of phosphorus and the activities of the acid phosphatase. [ Result] The results indicated that the contents of the soluble phosphoruses and the ratios were decreased under the deficiency of the potassium nutrients, but increased the contents and the ratios of the insoluble phosphorus. The results of significance test of difference indicated that the contents of the soluble phosphorus which were the highest in roots, secondly in skins of the stem, thirdly in leaves were significantly different in different organs, but the contents of the insoluble phosphorus in the roots were significantly greater than the contents in the leaves and the skins of the stem, moreover the contents of the insoluble phosphorus were not significant different between the roots and the skins of the stem. The activities of the acid phosphatase were highly significantly different among the different organs, but oppositely in same organs under the different levels of potassium. [ Conclusion] The study reveals the components characters of phosphorus and activities change law of the acid phosphatase in different organs of H. Brasiliensis seedling under different potassium levels, can lay theoretic basis for reasonable application of potassium and phosphorus during the growth periods of H. Brasiliensis.%[目的]研究不同钾水平对巴西橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)幼苗各器官磷组分和酸性磷酸酶活性的影响.[方法]采用水培试验.试验材料为巴西橡胶树RRIM600种子实生幼苗,K2O浓度分别为0、1、10、50、250 mg/L.[结果]缺钾降低了橡

  20. Characterization of the ovary fatty acids composition of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard (Teleostei: Siluriformes, throughout their reproductive cycle

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    Rodrigo Vargas Anido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about gonad fatty acid composition is important for broodstock diet formulation. This study characterized ovary fatty acid composition of wild female jundiá catfish (Rhamdia quelen in their different gonadal maturation stages. Female jundiá (n = 36, average weight= 383.8 + 208.8 g were captured in the rio Uruguay, comprising all seasons. Ovaries were extracted and classified according to their gonadal maturation stage. Gonad-somatic ratio varied significantly among seasons, being higher in spring (3.7, followed by summer (2.2, winter (0.9 and autumn (0.6. Main fatty acids groups detected were: saturated (SFA= 35.5%, monounsaturated (MUFA= 28.1% and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA= 33.5%. Over the four seasons, palmitic acid was recorded in large quantities, followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA. ARA was present in higher concentrations in immature or maturing ovaries, and its content decreased along the maturation process. Conversely, DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA contents increased during maturation. Such variation resulted in an increase in EPA/ARA and DHA/ARA ratios in mature gonads, which can be important for successful breeding. Such findings suggest that jundiá broodstock diets should contain lipids that provide long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from both the n-3 and n-6 series to ensure gonadal maturation completion.

  1. Nutritional evaluation of phosphorylated pumpkin seed (Cucurbita moschata) protein concentrate in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatto, Naglezi de Menezes; Goulart, Fernanda Rodrigues; de Freitas, Silvandro Tonetto; Mombach, Patricia Inês; Loureiro, Bruno Bianch; Bender, Ana Betine Beutinger; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Radünz Neto, João; da Silva, Leila Picolli

    2015-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with pumpkin seed meal (PSM) or phosphorylated protein concentrate of pumpkin seed meal (PPCPS) on growth and metabolic responses of silver catfish. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated. Control diet contained fish meal as the main protein source. The treatment groups contained 25 and 50% of either PSM or PPCPS protein replaced the fishmeal protein. A total of 400 silver catfish, with initial mean weight of 24 ± 0.46 g, were distributed into 20 tanks. For data four orthogonal contrasts were applied: control diet versus PSM diets; control diets versus PPCPS diets; control versus other diets; PSM diets versus PPCPS diets. The results indicated that the fish fed PSM diets had lower weight gain when compared to either control diet or PPCPS. The PPCPS do not affect growth and protein efficiency ratio. Lower albumin contents were found for the control diet fish for the contrasts control diet versus PPCPS diet and control diet versus other diets. The hepatic ALAT enzyme activity was higher in the fish fed the control diet (P < 0.05). The hepatic ALP was most active in fish that received the PPCPS diets, when comparing control diet versus PPCPS diets and control diet versus other diets. The hepatosomatic index was higher for fish fed the PPCPS. Our results indicated that PPCPS presents relevant nutritional quality for fish and can replace the fish meal protein up to 50% without affecting growth, PER and intermediate metabolites in silver catfish. PMID:26377938

  2. Glyphosate-based herbicide affects biochemical parameters in Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 and Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes, 1837

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    Vania Lucia Loro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhamdia quelen (silver catfish and Leporinus obtusidens (piava were exposed to a commercial formulation Roundup(r, a glyphosate-based herbicide at concentrations of 0.2 or 0.4 mg/L for 96 h. The effects of the herbicide were analyzed on the alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities and glucose in plasma, glucose and protein in the mucus layer, nucleotide hydrolysis in the brain, and protein carbonyl in the liver. The parameters were chosen, owing to a lack of information concerning integrated analysis, considering oxidative damage parameters, liver damage, and effects on the mucus layer composition and triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase activities. Plasmatic glucose levels were reduced in both species, whereas the transaminase activities (ALT and AST increased after exposure to the herbicide. Herbicide exposure increased protein and glucose levels in the mucus layer in both species. There was a reduction in both NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity in the brain of piava, and increased enzyme activity in silver catfish at both concentrations tested. The species showed an increase in protein carbonyl in the liver after exposure to both concentrations of the glyphosate. Our results demonstrated that exposure to Roundup(r caused liver damage, as evidenced by increased plasma transaminases and liver protein carbonyl in both of the fish species studied. The mucus composition changed and hypoglycemia was detected after Roundup(r exposure in both species. Brain nucleotide hydrolysis showed a different response for each fish species studied. These parameters indicated some important and potential indicators of glyphosate contamination in aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Chromodoris magnifica (Quoy & Gaimard, 1832), a new nudibranch host for the shrimp Periclimenes imperator Bruce, 1967 (Pontoniinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, C.H.J.M.; Goud, J.

    1999-01-01

    During the NNM/Maluku Expedition 1996, in the framework of the NNM Fauna Malesiana Marine Program, a shrimp belonging to the species Periclimenes imperator Bruce, 1967, was found on a nudibranch while diving at 20 m depth in Seri Bay, on the south coast of Ambon. Periclimens imperator has been recor

  4. Uso de hábitat de nutria gigante Pteronura brasiliensis, a través de rastros indirectos, en la zona de influencia de Puerto Carreño (Vichada-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Pedro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La nutria gigante Pteronura brasiliensis es uno de los mayores depredadores de los sistemas acuáticos de la Orinoquia colombiana. En Colombia mantiene la categoría “En peligro” de la IUCN y actualmente la principal amenaza que enfrenta es la degradación de su hábitat. Se realizaron recorridos a pie por orillas de lagunas y caños y recorridos en bote en el cauce principal de segmentos de los ríos Bita y Orinoco. En puntos de muestreo de orilla sistemáticamente elegidos, que corresponden a puntos con ausencia de rastro; y en cada punto donde se encontraron campamentos o madrigueras, se midieron variables del microhábitat que caracterizan la estructura física y la vegetación de la orilla. A partir de índices de abundancia de madrigueras y campamentos y mediante análisis de contingencia para tablas R X C se determinaron uso y preferencias de hábitat y microhábitat de la nutria gigante. Se encontró una preferencia por caños y lagunas
    para la construcción de madrigueras y campamentos. Se observó que la zona de ventanas caracterizada por afloramientos rocosos dentro del río Orinoco es hábitat para nutrias gigantes aunque es atípico según lo registrado en su área de distribución. Madrigueras y campamentos están asociados a orillas con grandes árboles caídos, suelos orgánicos y en menor proporción con sustratos rocosos. En particular las madrigueras están asociadas con sistemas de raíces y barrancos medianos. Es importante la protección de los sistemas acuáticos de esta zona en especial de lagunas, caños y de la zona de ventanas dentro del río Orinoco. El cuidado de las orillas es fundamental para asegurar la permanencia de poblaciones locales de la especie. El estudio reitera la importancia de realizar programas de investigación a largo plazo para profundizar en el conocimiento ecológico de la especie y generar estrategias de manejo y de conservación de los ecosistemas acuáticos en la región.

  5. Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. - Arg. plantadas de sementes Observations ox the latex production of seedlings of rubber trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz O. T. Mendes

    1959-01-01

    Full Text Available Para fins de seleção de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. de elevado rendimento, foi feito um estudo da produtividade individual, durante um ano, de 31 plantas com idade aproximada de 33 anos. As sangrias foram feitas a meia espiral, em dias alternados, de março de 1943 a março de 1944, com interrupção de junho a setembro. Foi de pronto constatada grande variabilidade na capacidade de produção das plantas em aprêço. Os resultados mostram que, para a população estudada, uma quinzena de sangria foi suficiente para revelar qual a planta de maior produtividade. Após um ano de sangria essa mesma planta se mantinha em primeiro lugar, pouco se alterando a ordem das primeiras colocadas, pela sua capacidade de produção, quer quando classificadas após umas pomas sangrias, quer quando após um ano de trabalhos. Devido a êrro na abertura dos painéis de sangria, na quase totalidade dos casos fazendo com que as plantas estivessem sendo deficientemente sangradas, o autor faz uma correção nos resultados, tendo por base a circunferência do tronco das plantas a lm do solo e sua respectiva capacidade de produção, dada em cc de látex por cm linear de incisão da casca. Os resultados mostram a possibilidade de se selecionar excelente material, quanto à produção, a partir de estudos semelhantes. Conclui-se, também, da possibilidade da formação de seringais de elevada produção, a partir de sementes não selecionadas, desde que as seringueiras sejam inicialmente plantadas a densidade bastante elevada, que permita posteriores desbastes das plantas de baixa produção, identificadas após testes de produtividade feitos nas plantas ainda jovens.The results of a one year tapping of 31 seedlftigs of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. approximately 33 years old are discussed. The tapping system adopted was a half-spiral cut, tapped every other day in the morning. The initial height of oppening the tap was one meter above

  6. 巴西橡胶树胶乳化学成分的GC-MS分析%Analysis of Chemical Components of the Latex from Hevea brasiliensis by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅志刚; 刘实忠; 校现周; 罗世巧; 杨文凤; 牛静明; 黄荣辉

    2011-01-01

    采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术,对巴西橡胶树胶乳氯仿、乙酸乙酯萃取物中的化学成分进行分析测定,结合计算机检索技术对其成分进行结构鉴定,应用色谱峰面积归一化法计算各成分的相对百分含量.结果表明,氯仿萃取物中共鉴定出33个化学成分,占总量的78.90%.乙酸乙酯萃取物中共鉴定出46个化学成分,占总量的90.15%.其中,τ-杜松醇、(Z)-金合欢醇、角鲨烯、环阿屯醇、24-亚甲基环木菠萝醇等萜类化合物及γ-谷甾醇、β-豆甾醇、菜油甾醇、异岩藻甾醇等植物甾醇在橡胶生物合成途径甲羟戊酸途径中作为中间体或终产物.除24-亚甲基环木菠萝醇以外,几种萜类和甾醇都具有一定药用作用,尤其是角鲨烯,具有抗癌、抗氧化、预防心血管疾病等生理活性,目前已成为天然药物研究的热点.%Chemical constituents of chloroform and ethyl acetate extract of the latex from Hevea brasiliensis were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MC), and identified by their mass spectra, their relative percentage was calculated from the GC peak areas. Thirty-three compounds were identified from chloroform extract, accounting for 78.90%of the total detected constituents. Forty-six compounds were identified from ethyl aectate extract, accounting for 90.15%of the total detected constituents. Five terpenes τ-cadinol, (Z) -farnesol,squalene, cycloartenol, and 24-methylenecycloartanol and four sterols γ-sitosterol, β-stigmasterol, campesterol,isofucosterol play a role as the intermediate or the end product in mevalonate pathway which is the pathway of rubber biosynthesis. Those terpenes and sterols have certain medicinal function except 24-methylenecycloartanol.Especially squalene, has become the research focus in natural medicine because of its anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and anti-infection activities.

  7. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of an Lhcb2 Gene from Hevea brasiliensis%橡胶树 Lhcb2基因的克隆与表达特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹智; 王丹华; 戴雪梅; 朱家立; 谢贵水

    2015-01-01

    基于从基因组中获得的基因序列,应用 RT -PCR 技术从橡胶树叶片中分离得到1条849 bp 的 cDNA;该 cDNA 包含1个798 bp 的 ORF,编码265个氨基酸,理论分子量为28.66 kD,等电点为5.42,属于叶绿体定位的类囊体膜蛋白;蛋白含有3个跨膜螺旋,2个 C 端螺旋,1个保守的捕光叶绿素 a /b 结合蛋白结构域,1个三聚化基序,以及多个类胡萝卜素和叶绿素结合位点,根据进化关系可归为 LHCB2亚家族;蛋白与蓖麻、野草莓、可可、葡萄和棉花中同源蛋白的一致性均接近95%,在进化上显示出高度的保守性,将基因命名为 HbLhcb2.1。表达分析显示,HbLh-cb2.1倾向于在叶片中表达,且其转录水平随着叶片的成熟而逐渐增加,但随着叶片的衰老而明显下调。%Based on the gene sequence identified from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)genome,an 849 bp cDNA containing an ORF of 798 bp was isolated from the leaf tissue by using the RT-PCR technique. The gene denoted HbLhcb2.1 was predicted to encode 265 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 28.66 kD and isolectric point of 5.42;the protein was promised to be a thylakoid protein of chloroplast;the protein contains one conserved light-harvesting chlorophyll a /b binding protein domain,three transmembrane helices and two C-terminal helices,a trimerization motif,several chlorophyll and carotenoid binding sites, which could be grouped into the LHCB2 subfamily based on the evolutionary relationship.Homologous analysis showed that HbLhcb2.1 shared an identity of about 95 % with the homologs in Ricinus communis,Gossypium hirsutum,Vitis vinifera,Fragaria vesca or Theobroma cacao,suggesting a highly conserved evolution.Expres-sion analysis indicated that HbLhcb2.1 was mainly expressed in the leaves,with a gradual increase as along with the leaf maturity,but a sharp decrease in senescing leaves.

  8. Different Methods of Extracting Invertase from the Leaves of Hevea brasiliensis(Para Rubber Tree)%橡胶树叶片转化酶提取方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝基贤; 何慧; 戚继艳; 唐朝荣

    2012-01-01

    比较液氮研磨样品与蛋白抽提液研磨样品对6种提取橡胶树叶片转化酶方法的效果.结果表明:液氮研磨法对转化酶活性影响很大,特别是中性/碱性转化酶和细胞壁结合的酸性转化酶已基本失活,而可溶性酸性转化酶活性丧失也比较严重.利用蛋白抽提液研磨样品,用Hepes-NaOH法提取的可溶性转化酶的酶活性最高,达472.44 μmol (glucose)/[g (FW)·h];虽然磷酸-柠檬酸法获得的粗酶液的蛋白含量较低,但其酶活性高达441.61 μmol( glucose)/[g( FW)·h];Tris-HCl法提取的细胞壁结合酸性转化酶的酶活性最高,达35.83 μmol( glucose)/[g(FW)·h].从转化酶的比活力看,磷酸-柠檬酸法最佳,所提取的叮溶性转化酶比活力约为Hepes-NaOH法的4倍.本研究结果为进一步完善橡胶树叶片转化酶的提取方法提供重要的指导意义.%Six methods were investigated in extracting invertase from the leaves of rubber tree(Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg)by two ways of grinding leaves: liquid nitrogen and extraction buffer. Grinding leaves in liquid nitrogen seriously destroyed the activities of invertases, especially those of neutral/alkaline invertase and cell wall-bound invertase which were totally inactivated. In comparison, the way of grinding leaves in extraction buffers was suitable for extracting various types of invertase. After the leaves were ground in extraction buffers, the activity of crude soluble invertase extracted by Hepes -NaOH method revealed to be the highest, being 472.44 u.mol (glucose )/[g (FW) o h]. Despite low protein yields obtained by phosphate -citrate method, the resulting invertase activity was as high as 441.61 μmol (glucose)/[g(FW) ·h]. Regarding the cell wall-bound invertase, Tris-HCl method was the most suitable, resulting in invertase activity of 35.83 μmol (glucose )/[g (FW)·h]. With regard to specific enzymatic activity, the phosphate-citrate method was the most appropriate, with specific

  9. Caracterização da piscicultura na região do Vale do Ribeira - SP Characterization of fish farming in the Ribeira Valley region - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Castellani

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho buscou caracterizar a piscicultura na Região do Vale do Ribeira quanto aos sistemas de manejo. Estudaram-se quarenta e duas pisciculturas sendo que, destas, 36 praticam o sistema semi-intensivo e seis o sistema intensivo, com os seguintes objetivos: engorda de peixes, produção de alevinos e pesque-pagues. Foram listadas 41 espécies de peixes cultivadas. Apenas 6 espécies são nativas da Bacia do Rio Ribeira de Iguape: lambari (Astyanax sp Linneaus, 1758, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus Bloch, 1794, robalo (Centropomus ssp Cuvier e Valenciennes, 1928, jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Quoy e Gaimard, 1824, cascudo (Hypostomus sp Marschall, 1873 e cará (Geophagus brasiliensis Quoy e Gaimard, 1824. Em 95% das pisciculturas foram verificadas fugas de peixes exóticos e alóctones dos cultivos. A tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758 foi a espécie mais freqüente em escapes, e também é a segunda mais cultivada pelos piscicultores, perdendo somente para o pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Halmberg, 1887. Foi possível verificar mediante o cálculo da conversão alimentar, que há um desperdício anual de cerca de 32% da ração utilizada nos cultivos pesquisados. A piscicultura encontra-se em plena expansão nesta região, e já representa a atividade agropecuária mais importante após a bananicultura.The aim of this work was to characterize the fish farming in the Ribeira de Iguape Basin, southern São Paulo State (Brazil, in relation to the management systems. Forty two farms were studied. A semi-intensive system is used by 36 farmers, while an intensive system is used only by 6 studied farmers. Their objectives were raising fish, juvenile fish production and sportive fishery. Forty one fish species were found to be cultivated, but only six were native species from Ribeira Valley: lambari (Astyanax sp Linneaus, 1758, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus Bloch, 1794, robalo (Centropomus ssp Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1928, jundi

  10. Analysis of fish assemblages in sectors along a salinity gradient based on species, families and functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina dos Passos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we test the effects of the east-west salinity gradient in the subtropical Paranaguá Bay Estuarine Complex (PEC on the structure of shallow water fish fauna, determined according to taxonomic (families and species and functional composition metrics. A total of 152 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were the Sciaenidae, Carangidae, Haemulidae and Gobiidae. The most abundant species were Atherinella brasiliensis, Harengula clupeola, Anchoa januaria and Anchoa tricolor. Marine stragglers dominated in number of species, followed by marine migrants and estuarine species. Most species were zoobenthivores, followed by piscivores and zooplanktivores. Families and species more frequently associated with estuarine conditions dominated in the mesohaline sector, and those more frequently associated with marine conditions dominated in the euhaline sector. The fish assemblages along the estuarine salinity gradient were found to be better characterized by taxonomic metrics than by functional ones. This is most likely because individuals of all functional groups inhabit all salinity sectors, and thus these metrics are not useful for differentiating assemblages along salinity gradients. Our results differ from those of other studies in tropical and subtropical estuaries, which have emphasized the importance of functional groups in determining fish assemblages along salinity gradients.

  11. 橡胶死皮相关水通道蛋白编码基因的克隆与序列分析%Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of an Aquaporin Gene Related to Tapping Panel Dryness in Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹智; 莫业勇; 王丹华; 安锋; 杨礼富

    2013-01-01

    死皮是指橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)产排胶过程中出现的一种割线症状,它是影响橡胶产量的关键因素.研究基于一条在死皮植株中下调表达的EST,采用电子克隆和RT-PCR相结合的方法从橡胶树的树皮中扩增出HbPIP2;2 903 bp的cDNA,该序列包含867 bp的ORF,13 bp的5'UTR和23 bp的3'UTR;基因预测编码288个氨基酸,理论分子量为30.71 kD,等电点为8.20.生物信息学分析显示,HbPIP2;2含有1个保守的MIP结构域,6个跨膜螺旋,细胞膜定位,可归为水通道蛋白(Aquaporin,AQP)家族PIP亚族.同源分析显示,HbHP2;2与蓖麻(Ricinus communis)、杨树(Populus trichocarpa)、核桃(Juglans regia)和可可(Theobroma cacao)中同源蛋白的相似性都在90%以上,显示出进化的高度保守性.该研究为下一步揭示AQP调控死皮发生的机制创造了条件.

  12. Larvae occurrences of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae in an area under dam influence in the upper Paraná River region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn B. da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhamdia quelen (Jundiá is a catfish species of great interest to fish producers and researchers due to several favorable characteristics for inclusion in the Brazilian list of commercially raised fish. It has a wide geographical distribution, with occurrences reported from Central Argentina to South Mexico. Studies on the biological aspects of this species have been limited to captive adult fishes that were researched for farming purposes. Research related to ichthyoplankton has provided valuable information on spawning periods and sites and other aspects of breeding for numerous species of fish. This information is crucial for implementing management and protection strategies for these species. The studied floodplain is located in a lotic remnant between the Reservoirs of Itaipu and Engenheiro Sérgio Motta. This area is located inside a protected area (Ilha Grande National Park in the last portion of dam-free land along the Paraná River in the Brazilian territory; however, it is still threatened by the negative effects of the dams. We conducted monthly nocturnal collections during four periods from October to March, 2003 to 2007, in 22 locations along the main channel, secondary lakes and main tributaries of the Paraná River. After collection, the individuals were classified according to the degree of development and the notochord flexion and caudal fin support elements. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA, ANOVA and Pearson correlation to relate abiotic and larval density data. The increase of capture abundances in the four studied stages suggests that R. quelen is finding conditions that are favorable to its reproduction. The increase in captures can generate questions regarding R. quelen reproductive activity, for instance, whether the species is adapting or is influenced by environmental changes created by the Paraná River dams.Rhamdia quelen (jundiá é uma espécie de bagre que tem despertado grande interesse dos piscicultores e pesquisadores devido a várias características favoráveis a sua inclusão na lista de peixes criados comercialmente no país. Apresenta ampla distribuição geográfica, tendo sua ocorrência registrada desde a região central da Argentina até o sul do México, entretanto, os aspectos de sua biologia que foram estudados são em sua a maioria direcionada aos adultos e em cativeiro, com fins aquícolas. Pesquisas relacionadas ao ictioplâncton têm-se mostrado de grande importância por fornecer informações valiosas sobre a época, locais de desova e de criadouros naturais de várias espécies de peixes. Essas informações são fundamentais para a implementação de medidas de ordenamento e proteção dessas áreas. A planície de inundação estudada está localizada em um remanescente lótico, entre os reservatórios de Itaipu e Engenheiro Sérgio Motta. Apesar da unidade de conservação existente nesse trecho (Parque Nacional de Ilha Grande e de estar localizada no último trecho livre de barramentos do rio Paraná em território brasileiro, a área é especialmente impactada pelos efeitos negativos dos barramentos. Foram realizadas coletas mensais noturnas durante quatro etapas entre os meses de outubro a março dos anos de 2003 a 2007 em 22 estações no leito principal do rio Paraná, lagoas marginais e principais afluentes. Após as triagens, as larvas foram classificadas de acordo com o grau de flexão da notocorda e desenvolvimento dos elementos de suporte da nadadeira caudal. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP, Análise de Variância e correlação de Pearson para sumarizar os dados abióticos e as densidades de larvas. O aumento da abundância de captura, nas quatro fases estudadas sugere que R. quelen tem encontrado condições favoráveis à sua reprodução. O aumento na captura pode gerar dúvidas sobre a atividade reprodutiva de R. quelen, por exemplo, se a espécie se adapta ou é influenciada por alterações no ambiente criado pelas barragens do rio Paraná.

  13. Feeding activity and influence of intraspecific competition on zooplankton communities by jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) in laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão-Gonçalves, L; Sebastien, N Y

    2013-11-01

    Experiments were designed to determine if the juvenile forms of jundia (Rhamdia quelen) exhibit selectivity feeding on zooplanktonic organisms and the influence of intraspecific competition on the diet. The fish were maintained in 5000-L containers, and after seven days from birth, they were acclimated in experimental units with different densities and supplied with water containing plankton (natural), where they remained for 24 h in the environment with food. In the first seven days at densities of 5 and 10 fish.L-1, the fish selected the Rotifera more intensely, and at densities of 20 and 40 fish.L-1, the Cladocera were more selected. At 14 days of age, the Cladocera were the most selected for all densities of fish. At 21 days of age, the juvenile forms of jundia maintained a preference for Cladocera, and there was an increase in the capture of Copepoda at a density of 40 fish.L-1. At 28 days of age, the Cladocera were the most captured at densities of 5 to 20 fish.L-1, and the consumption of copepods increased at a density of 40 fish.L-1. The juvenile forms of Rhamdia quelen showed a high feeding preference for Cladocera at all the ages tested (7, 14, 21 and 28 days), but the density of fish per litre influenced the capture of the preferential food. This study showed that the juvenile forms of jundia had a more rapid response to the presence of food at densities of more than 10 fish.L-1, and that at higher densities the fish decreased interactions of territorial defense and formed schools, which allowed the foraging of zooplanktonic organisms, larger in size, more agile and of greater energy gain, such as the Cladocera and copepods. PMID:24789392

  14. 橡胶死皮相关液泡型水通道蛋白基因TIP1的克隆与序列分析%Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a Tonoplast Aquaporin Gene TIP1 Associated with Tapping Panel Dryness in Hevea brasiliensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹智; 王丹华; 莫业勇; 安峰; 杨礼富

    2013-01-01

    [目的]死皮是指橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)产排胶过程中出现的一种割线症状,它会造成橡胶减产甚至完全绝收.研究对一死皮相关的水通道蛋白(Aquaporin,AQP)基因进行克隆和序列分析,以探讨AQP在死皮发生过程中的作用.[方法]基于一条在死皮植株中下调表达的EST,研究采用电子克隆和RT-PCR相结合的方法从橡胶树的树皮中扩增出HbTIP1 774 bp的cDNA,在此基础上采用生物信息学对基因的序列特征、编码蛋白的理化特性及进化关系进行了分析.[结果]该cDNA包含759 bp的ORF、8 bp的5'UTR和7bp的3' UTR;基因预测编码252个氨基酸,理论分子量为25.88 kD,等电点为4.96.生物信息学分析显示,HbTIP1含有1个保守的MIP结构域,6个跨膜螺旋,液泡膜定位,可归为水通道蛋白(Aquaporin,AQP)家族TIP亚族.同源分析显示,Hb TIP1与可可(Theobroma cacao)、人参(Prunus persica)、橙子(Citrus sinensis)和蓖麻(Ricinus communis)中同源蛋白的相似性都在90%以上,显示出高度的保守性.[结论]该研究为下一步揭示AQP调控死皮发生机制创造了条件.

  15. Sazonalidade da produção e características do látex de clones de seringueira em Lavras, MG Sazonal production and latex characteristics in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. clones in Lavras, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Carlos Mesquita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A despeito de ser o berço das espécies do gênero Hevea, o Brasil contribuiu, em 2001, com apenas 1,5% da produção mundial de 7,132 milhões de toneladas e consumiu em torno de 3,5% de um total de 7,03 milhões de toneladas da demanda mundial de borracha. Os clones mais produtivos são os orientais RRIM 600, PB 235 e PR 255, com produção em torno de 1.500 kg de borracha seca/ha/ano, o que evidencia sua adaptação a vários padrões climáticos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento produtivo de clones de seringueira [(Hevea brasiliensis (Willd.ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.], associado a fatores climáticos sazonais e fisiológicos sobre a produção de látex em Lavras (MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na área experimental do Departamento de Biologia, Setor de Fisiologia Vegetal, da Universidade Federal de Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil, durante o período de junho de 2001 a julho de 2003. Os fatores hídricos e nutricionais das plantas foram adequados ao desempenho produtivo, sendo o clone RRIM 600 amplamente superior aos demais, além de apresentar correlação com os fatores ambientais durante o período avaliado. Os fatores nutricionais do látex e o índice de obstrução indicaram correlação significativa com a produção.In spite of being the cradle of the species of the genus Hevea, Brazil contributed, in 2001, with only 1.5% of the world production of 7.132 million tons and it consumed around 3.5% of a total of 7.03 million tons of the world demand. The most productive clones are the orientals RRIM 600, PB 235 and PR 255, with production around 1,500 kg of dry rubber/ha/year. The cultivation of those clones in different regions in Brazil shows adaptation to several climatic patterns. The aim of this work was to evaluate the productive behavior of clones of rubber tree, associated to seasonal climatic and physiologic factors in relation to the latex production in Lavras, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The

  16. Characterization of Cellulose Microfibers Isolated from Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Junidah Lamaming; Nurul Hasin Sharudin; Rokiah Hashim; Othman Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose microfibers were isolated by chemical treatment followed by acid hydrolysis using sulphuric acid. The chemical compositions for extractive, holocellulose, cellulose and lignin were determined. The functional group of raw particles and cellulose microfibers of rubberwood were determined using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Morphological studies were viewed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to investigate physical changes of the fibers after acid hydrolysis. T...

  17. Cloning of Sterol 14α-demethylase Gene (HbCYP51) and Effects of Mechanical Damage and Exogenous Phytohormones on Its mRNA Expression in Hevea brasiliensis%橡胶树甾醇14α-去甲基化酶基因(HbCYP51)的克隆及机械损伤和外源激素对其表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春太; 黎瑜; 代龙军; 聂智毅; 康桂娟; 曾日中

    2014-01-01

    Sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51), an important member of the cytochrome P450 family, is the key enzyme in sterol biosynthesis pathway. The objective of the study was to clone CYP51 gene and illustrate its function in latex production and drainage, and in defense of rubber tree against both tapping and ethephon stimulation. The target gene, encoding sterol 14α- demethylase, was separated from the rubber latex transcriptome library of elite Hevea brasiliensis material CATAS 7-33-97 and the mRNA expression difference, which stimulated by tapping and ethephon or jasmonic acid, was identified by Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT- PCR). BLAST analysis indicated that the cloned gene from Hevea brasiliensis was related to cytochrome P450 and named as HbCYP51 (GenBank No. KM203677), which had high homologies with the sterol 14α-demethylase reported in Populus trichocarpa (90%) and Malus domestica (88%). DNA sequence analysis showed that the size of the HbCYP51 cDNA was 2 305 bp, which included an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 461 bp, and encoded a polypeptide of 486 amino acids residues. The genome sequence length of HbCYP51 gene was 5 271 bp, consisting of 3 exons and 2 introns, and the first intron presented in 5'-UTR of the gene. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that HbCYP51 and CYP51 of Solanaceae (Nicotiana tabacum, Solanum chacoense, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia × hybrida) were in the same branch group, indicating that the HbCYP51 had closer genetic relationship with other CYP51 of Solanaceae than that of Geum rivale, Fragaria vesca and Arabidopsis thaliana. qRT-PCR analysis showed that HbCYP51 was induced in the latex. HbCYP51 was regulated by tapping, ethephon and jasmonic acid, and significantly up- regulated by mechanical damage at the 7th tapping and ethephon at 48 h, and extremely significantly up-regulated by jasmonic acid at 24 h. The result confirmed that tapping, ethephon and jasmonic acid activated the expression of HbCYP51. Correlation analysis

  18. Avaliação da qualidade da água do Rio Tubarão através de Biomarcadores em Geophagus Brasilienses (Quoy e Gaimard, 1824)

    OpenAIRE

    Osório, Flávio Henrique Tincani

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: O rio Tubarão nasce na encosta da Serra Geral Catarinense pela confluência dos rios Rocinha e Bonito no município de Lauro Muller. Sua bacia hidrográfica é a maior do estado de Santa Catarina e apresenta uma área de drenagem de 5.923 km2. Apesar de sua grande extensão e importância, a qualidade de suas águas superficiais apresentase afetada principalmente pela mineração do carvão mineral, pela atividade agropecuária e pela falta de coleta e tratamento de efluentes urbanos e industriai...

  19. Changes in assimilation of C3 marsh plants by resident fishes in estuarine systems with distinct hydrogeomorphology features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Ferreira Garcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although saltmarshes are widely recognized as important habitats providing shelter for estuarine organisms and protection against predators, there is still no consensus on the trophic value of marsh plants for estuarine food webs. We employed stable isotopes to evaluate differences in assimilation of nutrients derived from marsh plants with C3 (Juncus acutus, Scirpus maritimus, Scirpus olneyi and C4 (Spartina densiflora photosynthetic pathways by resident fishes in three estuaries with contrasting hydrogeomorphology characteristics. Carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N stable isotope ratios of basal food sources (C3 and C4 marsh plants, macroalgae, seagrass and seston and estuarine resident fishes (Achirus garmani, Atherinella brasiliensis, Genidens genidens, Ctenogobius shufeldti, Jenynsia multidentata, Odonthestes argentinensis were analyzed in two choked lagoons (Tramandai-29°S, Patos-30°S and a coastal river (Chui-33°S. Average δ13C values of consumers were statistically significant higher in the two choked-type estuaries (Tramandaí: -16.11; Patos: -15.82 than in the coastal river (Chui: -24.32 (p0.292. SIAR mixing models revealed that the most assimilated basal food sources by consumers in the choked-type lagoon estuaries were a pool of 13C enriched food sources (macroalgae, C4 marsh and seagrass and seston (95% credibility interval: 0.38 to 0.80 and 0.00 to 0.54, respectively. In contrast, nutrients derived from C3-marsh plants were the main basal food source assimilated by estuarine resident fishes at the coastal river (0.33 to 0.87. These findings could be explained by the absence of extensive shallow embayments and a steeper slope at the coastal river that could promote higher transport of C3-marsh detritus and, consequently, higher assimilation by estuarine fishes. In contrast, detritus derived from C3 marsh plants could be trapped in the upper intertidal zone of choked-typed estuaries and, consequently, be less available for aquatic

  20. Effect of Combined Cinnamon and Clove Oil Against Major Moulds Identified from Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Narumol MATAN; Nirundorn MATAN

    2007-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of pure and combined cinnamon and clove oils in a ratio of 1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 3:1, 5:1 and 7:1 against major mould found on rubberwood (Aspergillus niger WU001, Penicillium chrysogenum WU002, Penicillium sp. WU003) were investigated using a broth dilution method at a concentration of 10 - 100 μL/mL. The higher ratios of cinnamon and clove oils (3:1, 5:1 and 7:1) were stronger inhibitors than the lower ratios of cinnamon and clove oils (1:1, 1:3, 1:5 and 1:7) and the ...

  1. Cyclopentenyl acids from sapucainha (Carpotroche brasiliensis Endl, Flacourtiaceae): the first antileprotic used in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chaoolmugra oil is one of the oldest medicines used for leprosy until the development of sulfas. In Brazil, it is known as sapucainha oil that is obtained from Carpotroche brasilienesis seeds (Flacourtiaceae). Chemical and medicinal studies of sapucainha oil were introduced in Brazil by Peckolt, Cole and Cardoso which showed that major ciclopentenyl fatty acids as chaulmoogric, hydnocarpic and gorlic were responsible for its bactericidal activity. In this work, a method for quantification of sapucainha oil acidic fraction by HRGC was established using methyl n-heptadecanoate as internal standard. The oil chemical stability was investigated by the use of GC-MS, IR, 1H and 13C NMR and showed that the main degradation products belong to the cyclopentenyl moiety oxidation. (author)

  2. Effect of Combined Cinnamon and Clove Oil Against Major Moulds Identified from Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumol MATAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activities of pure and combined cinnamon and clove oils in a ratio of 1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 3:1, 5:1 and 7:1 against major mould found on rubberwood (Aspergillus niger WU001, Penicillium chrysogenum WU002, Penicillium sp. WU003 were investigated using a broth dilution method at a concentration of 10 - 100 μL/mL. The higher ratios of cinnamon and clove oils (3:1, 5:1 and 7:1 were stronger inhibitors than the lower ratios of cinnamon and clove oils (1:1, 1:3, 1:5 and 1:7 and the pure cinnamon or clove oil. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the combined cinnamon and clove oils at the ratio 5:1 was determined to be 50 μL/mL for all moulds. Antifungal activity of the combined cinnamon and clove oils (5:1 at a concentration of   50 μL/mL was further examined on rubberwood specimens under storage conditions of 30 °C and 100 %RH. It was found that all moulds on rubberwood specimens were completely inhibited for at least 12 weeks under the storage conditions examined.

  3. Microbial diversity in a bagasse-based compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Azevedo, Raquel Santos; Braga, Claudia; da Silva, Romildo; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Edible mushrooms are renowned for their nutritional and medicinal properties and are thus of considerable commercial importance. Mushroom production depends on the chemical composition of the basic substrates and additional supplements employed in the compost as well as on the method of composting. In order to minimise the cost of mushroom production, considerable interest has been shown in the use of agro-industrial residues in the preparation of alternative compost mixtures. However, the interaction of the natural microbiota present in agricultural residues during the composting process greatly influences the subsequent colonisation by the mushroom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify the microbiota present in a sugar cane bagasse and coast-cross straw compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasilienses. Composting lasted for 14 days, during which time the substrates and additives were mixed every 2 days, and this was followed by a two-step steam pasteurisation (55 - 65°C; 15 h each step). Bacteria, (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae) were the predominant micro-organisms present throughout the composting process with an average population density of 3 x 108 CFU/g. Actinomycetes, and especially members of the genus Streptomyces, were well represented with a population density of 2 - 3 x 108 CFU/g. The filamentous fungi, however, exhibited much lower population densities and were less diverse than the other micro-organisms, although Aspergillus fumigatus was present during the whole composting process and after pasteurisation. PMID:24031404

  4. The vocal repertoire of adult and neonate giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A S Mumm

    Full Text Available Animals use vocalizations to exchange information about external events, their own physical or motivational state, or about individuality and social affiliation. Infant babbling can enhance the development of the full adult vocal repertoire by providing ample opportunity for practice. Giant otters are very social and frequently vocalizing animals. They live in highly cohesive groups, generally including a reproductive pair and their offspring born in different years. This basic social structure may vary in the degree of relatedness of the group members. Individuals engage in shared group activities and different social roles and thus, the social organization of giant otters provides a basis for complex and long-term individual relationships. We recorded and analysed the vocalizations of adult and neonate giant otters from wild and captive groups. We classified the adult vocalizations according to their acoustic structure, and described their main behavioural context. Additionally, we present the first description of vocalizations uttered in babbling bouts of new born giant otters. We expected to find 1 a sophisticated vocal repertoire that would reflect the species' complex social organisation, 2 that giant otter vocalizations have a clear relationship between signal structure and function, and 3 that the vocal repertoire of new born giant otters would comprise age-specific vocalizations as well as precursors of the adult repertoire. We found a vocal repertoire with 22 distinct vocalization types produced by adults and 11 vocalization types within the babbling bouts of the neonates. A comparison within the otter subfamily suggests a relation between vocal and social complexity, with the giant otters being the socially and vocally most complex species.

  5. Microdistribution of chromated copper arsenate preservative in rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Ismail Bin

    2000-08-01

    Rubberwood is popular for making indoor furniture since rubberwood is relatively abundant and sustainable. Currently more than 60% of the total annual rubberwood produced by rubber plantation is used as fuelwood. Rubberwood has the potential for both indoor and outdoor application. For exterior applications, preservative treatment is needed to extend the service life of rubberwood. The objectives of this study are to (1) assess treatability of rubberwood with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservative, (2) evaluate the natural decay resistance and efficacy of CCA on rubberwood, and (3) study the microdistribution of CCA components in rubberwood cells. The treatability of rubberwood was determined by measuring the penetration and retention of CCA type C preservative after a full-cell treatment. Natural decay resistance and efficacy of CCA treatment on rubberwood was estimated using a laboratory soilblock test according to AWPA E 10-91. The microdistribution of chromium, copper and arsenic in CCA-treated rubberwood was studied using scanning electron microscope in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDXA). As expected, longitudinal permeability was found to be better than the radial and the tangential permeability. The penetration and retention in the radial direction was about 3 times better than in the tangential direction. Longer pressure period increased penetration and retention of CCA type C in rubberwood. Complete penetration was achieved after 4 hours of pressure (1240 kPa) treatment. A pre-treatment steaming improved the treatability of rubberwood regardless of the anatomical direction. The average weight loss by white rot and brown rot was about 1.5 times higher than that of soft rot. A linear relationship was found between the weight loss and the incubation period for all the six test fungi. A CCA retention of 4.1 kg/m3 reduced weight loss to about 10% and retention of 14.5 kg/m3 reduced the weight loss of all test fungi at less than 2%. Vessels contained high level of chromium, copper, and arsenic compared to fibers. Chromium level was the highest, followed by arsenic and then copper in rubberwood cells. After the full cell treatment, fibers contained about 0.42%, 0.63%, and 1.02% of copper after treatment with 4.1 kg/m3, 10.5 kg/m 3, and 14.5 kg/m3 of CCA, respectively. Highest levels of Cr, Cu, and As were recorded in fiber-to-vessel cell corner (FVCC ) and Fiber-to-vessel middle lamella (FVML) and the lowest was recorded in S2 layer of fiber. Linescan analyses showed that higher count rates of carbon, oxygen, chromium, copper, and arsenic were found in the middle lamella compared to the fiber S2 layer in CCA-treated rubberwood. The increase of the solution strength in chromium, copper, and arsenic corresponds to an increase in Cr, Cu, and As level in wood cells.

  6. Melanin as a virulence factor of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and other dimorphic pathogenic fungi: a minireview

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos P Taborda; da Silva, Marcelo B.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Travassos, Luiz R.

    2008-01-01

    Melanin pigments are substances produced by a broad variety of pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and helminths. Microbes predominantly produce melanin pigment via tyrosinases, laccases, catecholases, and the polyketide synthase pathway. In fungi, melanin is deposited in the cell wall and cytoplasm, and melanin particles (“ghosts”) can be isolated from these fungi that have the same size and shape of the original cells. Melanin has been reported in several human pathogenic ...

  7. Biodegradation of Hevea brasiliensis wood by Rigidoporus lignosus and Phellinus noxius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.P.; Rio, B.; Nicole, M.; Nandris, D.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro wood slats degradation assays reveal that both the white root rot fungus R. lignosus and the brown root rot fungus P. noxius cause a white rot of wood. In vivo (infected tap roots) they cause the same type of decay. Nevertheless lignin determination show the rubber-tree ability to react against the parasite aggression by increased lignification of tissues.

  8. L-lactic acid production by Aspergillus brasiliensis overexpressing the heterologous ldha gene from Rhizopus oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Liaud, Nadège; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Fabre, Nicolas; Crapart, Sylvaine; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Raouche, Sana; Levasseur, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    International audience Background: Lactic acid is the building block of poly-lactic acid (PLA), a biopolymer that could be set to replace petroleum-based plastics. To make lactic acid production cost-effective, the production process should be carried out at low pH, in low-nutrient media, and with a low-cost carbon source. Yeasts have been engineered to produce high levels of lactic acid at low pH from glucose but not from carbohydrate polymers (e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose, starch). Aspe...

  9. First Record of Ticks in Free-Ranging Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Weber Rosas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Decline in the populations of the Smooth-coated Otter throughout its range of distribution and a perception that it is a 'keystone species' for riverine ecosystem stirred the idea of the presented paper. The species inhabits major freshwater wetlands throughout the south and south-east Asia and often comes into the direct conflict with humans for food and habitat. Further the species is also suffering with neglecting attitude and mismanagement due to lack of baseline information. Thus WWF India initiated the conservation work towards the documentation of the distribution of the species in Punjab in 2010. State wide population assessment surveys and secondary information obtained shows the occurrence of smooth-coated otters along some stretches of Rivers Beas, Sutlej and Ravi and Harike wetland in Punjab.

  10. Poliploidia artificial em seringueira (Hevea Brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. Colchicine induced polyploidy of hevea rubber plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz O. T. Mendes

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista verificar se, com a duplicação do número de cromossômios, obter-se-iam seringueiras com vasos laticíferos de maior diâmetro que o observado em plantas normais e, conseqüentemente, de maior produção de látex, os autores, por meio de soluções de colchicina, trataram plantas recém-germinadas, assim obtendo poliplóides artificiais. No decurso dos trabalhos foi desenvolvida uma técnica especial, pela qual, de uma mesma semente de seringueira, eram obtidas duas plantas, uma normal e outra com o número duplo de cromossômios; dessa maneira, a planta normal se constitui em perfeita testemunha da planta poliplóide, podendo-se, assim, atribuir à poliploidia tôda e qualquer alteração que se venha a verificar na planta com o número duplo de cromossômios. Acreditam os autores que êsse mesmo processo poderá ser utilizado com êxito em outras plantas dicotiledôneas. Os resultados mostram que, nas plantas poliplóides, os estornas são maiores e em menor número, por unidade de superfície foliar, que nas plantas normais; observam-se também diferenças morfológicas nessas plantas, que se desenvolvem satisfatòriamente. Ainda não foram feitos estudos para a determinação do diâmetro dos vasos laticíferos. O material foi multiplicado por enxertia e está sendo incluído em experimentos a cargo da Seção de Plantas Tropicais.Based on the assumption that latex production is positively correlated to the diameter of the latex vessels and hoping to obtain rubber plants with larger latex vessels than those observed in normal plants, the authors duplicated the chromosome number of small seedlings, using aqueous solutions of colchicine. Some polyploid plants with 72 chromosomes were obtained. A special technique was developed, ensuring the obtention of twin plants from a single seed, by splitting very young seedlings; one of them remained untreated, while the other was submitted to a colchicine aqueous solution. Any difference noted later between the plants could only be attributed to the treatment and in several cases chromosome doubling has been achieved. In this way the pair was constituted by a diploid (2n =36 and a tetraploid plant (2n =72. The results show that in the polyploid as compared to the normal plants the stomata are larger and in smaller number per area unit. Some morphological differences were also noticed. Up to now no measurements were taken of the latex vessels neither of the polyploids nor of the normal plants. The material was propagated by budding, and a large number of each developed clone is being included in field experiments to test their productivity and resistance to diseases.

  11. The Vocal Repertoire of Adult and Neonate Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Mumm, Christina A. S.; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    Animals use vocalizations to exchange information about external events, their own physical or motivational state, or about individuality and social affiliation. Infant babbling can enhance the development of the full adult vocal repertoire by providing ample opportunity for practice. Giant otters are very social and frequently vocalizing animals. They live in highly cohesive groups, generally including a reproductive pair and their offspring born in different years. This basic social structu...

  12. Regulation of MIR Genes in Response to Abiotic Stress in Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaorong Tang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for natural rubber (NR calls for an increase in latex yield and also an extension of rubber plantations in marginal zones. Both harvesting and abiotic stresses lead to tapping panel dryness through the production of reactive oxygen species. Many microRNAs regulated during abiotic stress modulate growth and development. The objective of this paper was to study the regulation of microRNAs in response to different types of abiotic stress and hormone treatments in Hevea. Regulation of MIR genes differs depending on the tissue and abiotic stress applied. A negative co-regulation between HbMIR398b with its chloroplastic HbCuZnSOD target messenger is observed in response to salinity. The involvement of MIR gene regulation during latex harvesting and tapping panel dryness (TPD occurrence is further discussed.

  13. Dracunculus brasiliensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Dracunculidae) from the anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Ophidia: Boidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Santos, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 3 (2009), s. 589-592. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Dracunculus * Eunectes * Brazil Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.721, year: 2009

  14. Cyclopentenyl acids from sapucainha (Carpotroche brasiliensis Endl, Flacourtiaceae): the first antileprotic used in Brazil; Acidos ciclopentenicos do oleo da sapucainha (Carpotroche brasiliensis Endl, Flacourtiaceae): o primeiro antileprotico usado no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Adriana S.; Lima, Joselia A.; Rezende, Claudia M.; Pinto, Angelo C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Inst. de