WorldWideScience

Sample records for ath5 neurogenic network

  1. Neurogenic Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Dorsher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

  2. Neurogenic heterotopic ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L L; Halar, E; Little, J W; Brooke, M M

    1987-12-01

    Neurogenic heterotopic ossification is a potential sequela of neurological disorders, especially spinal cord injury and head injury. The etiology is unknown. Clinical, radiologic, and bone scan findings are typical. Complications may threaten function. The differential diagnosis is crucial in its early stages. Treatment options include diphosphonates, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and surgery. This article has reviewed the literature on neurogenic heterotopic ossification (HO), soft tissue ossification of neurologic disease, including pathogenesis, histology, presentation, diagnosis, natural history, complications, and current treatments. PMID:3124630

  3. [Neurogenic erectile dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Antonio Sánchez; Durán, Juan Antonio Godino; Oliviero, Antonio

    2010-10-01

    Neurogenic erectile dysfunction is a consequence of alterations in neural pathways, autonomic, somatic, the combination of both or brain components that induce erection. This review aims to explain the physiopathological mechanisms of the most frequent neurological alterations causing erectile dysfunction and sexual disorders. PMID:20978292

  4. Neurogenic muscle cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Hans D

    2015-08-01

    Muscle cramps are sustained, painful contractions of muscle and are prevalent in patients with and without medical conditions. The objective of this review is to present updates on the mechanism, investigation and treatment of neurogenic muscle cramps. PubMed and Embase databases were queried between January 1980 and July 2014 for English-language human studies. The American Academy of Neurology classification of studies (classes I-IV) was used to assess levels of evidence. Mechanical disruption, ephaptic transmission, disruption of sensory afferents and persistent inward currents have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurogenic cramps. Investigations are directed toward identifying physiological triggers or medical conditions predisposing to cramps. Although cramps can be self-limiting, disabling or sustained muscle cramps should prompt investigation for underlying medical conditions. Lifestyle modifications, treatment of underlying conditions, stretching, B-complex vitamins, diltiezam, mexiletine, carbamazepine, tetrahydrocannabinoid, leveteracitam and quinine sulfate have shown evidence for treatment. PMID:25673127

  5. Neurogenic Bladder and Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupin V.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been presented general information of neurogenic bladder and the data on pathophysiology of lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis. The characteristics of clinical presentations of neurogenic bladder in multiple sclerosis have been stated. There have been considered diagnosis and treatment problems of urinary disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  6. Etiopathogenesis of neurogenic pulmonary edema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 160, 5-6 (2010), s. 152-154. ISSN 0043-5341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : neurogenic pulmonary edema * intracranial pressure * sympathetic system Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  7. Neurogenic tumors of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general and radiologic features of neurogenic tumors of the stomach are reviewed in connection with 18 cases (16 benign and 2 maglignant tumors). Such neurogenic tumors are rare in the stomach, representing less than 0.5% of all tumors. Solitary neurogenic tumors must be differentiated from those encountered during von Recklinghausen's disease. Radiological or endoscopic examination can generally determine the benign or malignant nature of solitary neurogenic tumors, which are essentially represented by schwannomas. Since these tumors are submucosal, a deep biopsy is imperative; furthermore, since such tumors are subject to hemorrhage, prior investigation by CT appears advisable to detect possible hypervascularization after injection of contrast material. For patients with von Recklinghausen's disease, a neurofibroma is usually diagnosed when faced with a digestive hemorrhage. Radiological exploration of the entire digestive tract appears essential to confirm the solitary nature of the gastric lesion and to be sure it is responsible for the clinical symptoms. (orig.)

  8. Cough responsiveness in neurogenic dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    SMITH, P.; Wiles, C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—In neurogenic dysphagia a good cough is important for airway protection. If triggering of cough, or its effectiveness, is impaired this might result in an increased aspiration risk. Capsaicin, an agent which induces cough through sensory nerve stimulation, was used to test cough sensitivity in groups of patients with and without neurogenic dysphagia.
METHODS—On the basis of swallowing speed (ml/s) in a validated water test 28 alert neurological inpatients (16 wome...

  9. Sarcopenia, a Neurogenic Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is an aging-associated condition, which is currently characterized by the loss of muscle mass and muscle strength. However, there is no consensus regarding its characterization hitherto. As the world older adult population is on the rise, the impact of sarcopenia becomes greater. Due to the lack of effective treatments, sarcopenia is still a persisting problem among the global older adults and should not be overlooked. As a result, it is vital to investigate deeper into the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of sarcopenia in order to develop more effective therapeutic interventions and to inscribe a more uniform characterization. The etiology of sarcopenia is currently found to be multifactorial, and most of the pharmacological researches are focused on the muscular factors in aging. Although the complete mechanism underlying the development of sarcopenia is still waiting to be elucidated, we propose in this article that the primary trigger of sarcopenia may be neurogenic in origin based on the intimate relationship between the nervous and muscular system, namely, the motor neuron and its underlying muscle fibers. Both of them are affected by the cellular environment and their physiological activity.

  10. Neurogenic and non neurogenic functions of endogenous neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eButti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis is a lifelong process that occurs in two main neurogenic niches of the brain, namely in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG in the hippocampus. In the 1960s, studies on adult neurogenesis have been hampered by the lack of established phenotypic markers. The precise tracing of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs was therefore, not properly feasible. After the (partial identification of those markers, it was the lack of specific tools that hindered a proper experimental elimination and tracing of those cells to demonstrate their terminal fate and commitment. Nowadays, irradia-tion, cytotoxic drugs as well as genetic tracing/ablation procedures have moved the field forward and increased our understanding of neurogenesis processes in both physiological and pathological conditions. Newly formed NPC progeny from the SVZ can replace granule cells in the olfactory bulbs of rodents, thus contributing to orchestrate sophisticated odour behaviour. SGZ-derived new granule cells, instead, integrate within the DG where they play an essential role in memory functions. Furthermore, converging evidence claim that endogenous NPCs not only exert neurogenic functions, but might also have non-neurogenic homeostatic functions by the release of different types of neuroprotective molecules. Remarkably, these non-neurogenic homeostatic functions seem to be necessary, both in healthy and diseased conditions, for example for preventing or limiting tissue damage. In this review, we will discuss the neurogenic and the non-neurogenic functions of adult NPCs both in physiological and pathological conditions.

  11. Neurogenic inflammation in human and rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelz, M; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup

    2001-01-01

    The combination of vasodilation and protein extravasation following activation of nociceptors has been termed "neurogenic inflammation." In contrast to rodents, no neurogenic protein extravasation can be elicited in healthy human skin. Dermal microdialysis has considerably increased our knowledge...... about neurogenic inflammation in human skin, including the involvement of mast cells....

  12. Neurostimulation for Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    J. Worsøe; Rasmussen, M.; Christensen, P.; Krogh, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Loss of normal bowel function caused by nerve injury, neurological disease or congenital defects of the nervous system is termed neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD). It usually includes combinations of fecal incontinence, constipation, abdominal pain and bloating. When standard treatment of NBD fails surgical procedures are often needed. Neurostimulation has also been investigated, but no consensus exists about efficacy or clinical use. Methods. A systematic literature search of NB...

  13. Bibliometric profile of neurogenic bladder in the literature: a 20-year bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic bladder is a dysfunction of the lower urinary tract caused by nervous system disorder. We investigated the trends in publication of articles under the topic "neurogenic bladder" using bibliometric analysis. Articles on neurogenic bladder, published between 1995 and 2014, were retrieved from the ISI Web of Science citation database. We analyzed the search results for authors, countries, institutions, journals, and top-cited papers. A total of 1,904 articles were retrieved. There was a small increase in the number of articles on neurogenic bladder from 1995 (n = 43 to 2014 (n = 117. The USA was the leading country in the total number of articles (n = 598. However, the number of publications from China has rapidly increased, and China was ranked second in 2014. Emmanuel Chartier-Kastler (n = 65 was the most productive author, and University of Paris VI (Paris 6 (n = 61 was the most productive institution. The Journal of Urology published the greatest number of articles on this topic (n = 285. Articles on neurogenic bladder were often published in a professional journal under the category Urology & Nephrology, Neurosciences & Neurology, or Rehabilitation. Visualization analysis based on co-citation networks was conducted using CiteSpace III. Visualization analysis revealed that the hot spots in neurogenic bladder were botulinum toxin-A, prazosin, bethanechol, and afferent pathways. These findings provide new insight into the publication trends and hot spots in neurogenic bladder.

  14. Understanding migraine: Potential role of neurogenic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic inflammation, a well-defined pathophysiologial process is characterized by the release of potent vasoactive neuropeptides, predominantly calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP, and neurokinin A from activated peripheral nociceptive sensory nerve terminals (usually C and A delta-fibers. These peptides lead to a cascade of inflammatory tissue responses including arteriolar vasodilation, plasma protein extravasation, and degranulation of mast cells in their peripheral target tissue. Neurogenic inflammatory processes have long been implicated as a possible mechanism involved in the pathophysiology of various human diseases of the nervous system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract, and skin. The recent development of several innovative experimental migraine models has provided evidence suggestive of the involvement of neuropeptides (SP, neurokinin A, and CGRP in migraine headache. Antidromic stimulation of nociceptive fibers of the trigeminal nerve resulted in a neurogenic inflammatory response with marked increase in plasma protein extravasation from dural blood vessels by the release of various sensory neuropeptides. Several clinically effective abortive antimigraine medications, such as ergots and triptans, have been shown to attenuate the release of neuropeptide and neurogenic plasma protein extravasation. These findings provide support for the validity of using animal models to investigate mechanisms of neurogenic inflammation in migraine. These also further strengthen the notion of migraine being a neuroinflammatory disease. In the clinical context, there is a paucity of knowledge and awareness among physicians regarding the role of neurogenic inflammation in migraine. Improved understanding of the molecular biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology of neurogenic inflammation may provide the practitioner the context-specific feedback to identify the novel and most effective therapeutic

  15. Understanding migraine: Potential role of neurogenic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic inflammation, a well-defined pathophysiologial process is characterized by the release of potent vasoactive neuropeptides, predominantly calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and neurokinin A from activated peripheral nociceptive sensory nerve terminals (usually C and A delta-fibers). These peptides lead to a cascade of inflammatory tissue responses including arteriolar vasodilation, plasma protein extravasation, and degranulation of mast cells in their peripheral target tissue. Neurogenic inflammatory processes have long been implicated as a possible mechanism involved in the pathophysiology of various human diseases of the nervous system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract, and skin. The recent development of several innovative experimental migraine models has provided evidence suggestive of the involvement of neuropeptides (SP, neurokinin A, and CGRP) in migraine headache. Antidromic stimulation of nociceptive fibers of the trigeminal nerve resulted in a neurogenic inflammatory response with marked increase in plasma protein extravasation from dural blood vessels by the release of various sensory neuropeptides. Several clinically effective abortive antimigraine medications, such as ergots and triptans, have been shown to attenuate the release of neuropeptide and neurogenic plasma protein extravasation. These findings provide support for the validity of using animal models to investigate mechanisms of neurogenic inflammation in migraine. These also further strengthen the notion of migraine being a neuroinflammatory disease. In the clinical context, there is a paucity of knowledge and awareness among physicians regarding the role of neurogenic inflammation in migraine. Improved understanding of the molecular biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology of neurogenic inflammation may provide the practitioner the context-specific feedback to identify the novel and most effective therapeutic approach to treatment

  16. The role of histamine in neurogenic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, A. C.; Fantozzi, R

    2013-01-01

    The term ‘neurogenic inflammation’ has been adopted to describe the local release of inflammatory mediators, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, from neurons. Once released, these neuropeptides induce the release of histamine from adjacent mast cells. In turn, histamine evokes the release of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide; thus, a bidirectional link between histamine and neuropeptides in neurogenic inflammation is established. The aim of this review is to...

  17. Central Neurogenic Respiratory Failure: A Challenging Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Flávio A.; Bernardino, Tenille; Maciel, Ricardo O.H.; Felizola, Sérgio F.A.; Costa, Eduardo L.V.; Silva, Gisele S

    2011-01-01

    Background Central nervous system lesions are rare causes of respiratory failure. Simple observation of the breathing pattern can help localize the lesion, but the examiner needs to be aware of potential pitfalls such as metabolic or pulmonary alterations. Methods We describe 3 cases in which central neurogenic respiratory failure occurred simultaneously with other alterations or in an unusual presentation. Results All patients were diagnosed with central neurogenic respiratory failure and tr...

  18. Neurostimulation for Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Worsøe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Loss of normal bowel function caused by nerve injury, neurological disease or congenital defects of the nervous system is termed neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD. It usually includes combinations of fecal incontinence, constipation, abdominal pain and bloating. When standard treatment of NBD fails surgical procedures are often needed. Neurostimulation has also been investigated, but no consensus exists about efficacy or clinical use. Methods. A systematic literature search of NBD treated by sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS, sacral nerve stimulation (SNS, peripheral nerve stimulation, magnetic stimulation, and nerve re-routing was made in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Results. SARS improves bowel function in some patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI. Nerve re-routing is claimed to facilitate defecation through mechanical stimulation of dermatomes in patients with complete or incomplete SCI or myelomeningocele. SNS can reduce NBD in selected patients with a variety of incomplete neurological lesions. Peripheral stimulation using electrical stimulation or magnetic stimulation may represent non-invasive alternatives. Conclusion. Numerous methods of neurostimulation to treat NBD have been investigated in pilot studies or retrospective studies. Therefore, larger controlled trials with well-defined inclusion criteria and endpoints are recommended before widespread clinical use of neurostimulation against NBD.

  19. Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 15 (2015), s. 1135-1145. ISSN 0897-7151 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : baroreflex-induced bradycardia * blood pressure rise * blood volume redistribution * neurogenic pulmonary edema * spinal cord injury * sympathetic nervous system Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.714, year: 2014

  20. Microglia from neurogenic and non-neurogenic regions display differential proliferative potential and neuroblast support

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    Gregory Paul Marshall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microglia isolated from the neurogenic subependymal zone (SEZ and hippocampus (HC are capable of massive in vitro population expansion that is not possible with microglia isolated from non-neurogenic regions. We asked if this regional heterogeneity in microglial proliferative capacity is cell intrinsic, or is conferred by interaction with respective neurogenic or non-neurogenic niches. By combining SEZ and cerebral cortex (CTX primary tissue dissociates to generate heterospatial cultures, we find that exposure to the SEZ environment does not enhance CTX microglia expansion; however, the CTX environment exerts a suppressive effect on SEZ microglia expansion. Furthermore, addition of purified donor SEZ microglia to either CTX- or SEZ-derived cultures suppresses the expansion of host microglia, while the addition of donor CTX microglia enhances the over-all microglia yield. These data suggest that SEZ and CTX microglia possess intrinsic, spatially restricted characteristics that are independent of their in vitro environment, and that they represent unique and functionally distinct populations. Finally, we determined that the repeated supplementation of neurogenic SEZ cultures with expanded SEZ microglia allows for sustained levels of inducible neurogenesis, provided that the ratio of microglia to total cells remains within a fairly narrow range.

  1. Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema Developing After Cesarean Section

    OpenAIRE

    Güleç, Handan; Babayigit, Münire; Kurtay, Aysun; Tutal, Zehra; Dereli, Necla; Sahin, Saziye; Horasanli, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a pathogenesis of pulmonary edema which occurs often in the early period following the acute neurologic changes affecting the central nervous system and proceeds with respiratory failure. It causes respiratory problems requiring intubation in the patient. When evaluated in general terms, the pathophysiology of NPE includes cardiopulmonary dysfunction caused by catecholamines that are secreted rapidly and abundantly. This case study will examine the respirat...

  2. Understanding migraine: Potential role of neurogenic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic inflammation, a well-defined pathophysiologial process is characterized by the release of potent vasoactive neuropeptides, predominantly calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and neurokinin A from activated peripheral nociceptive sensory nerve terminals (usually C and A delta-fibers). These peptides lead to a cascade of inflammatory tissue responses including arteriolar vasodilation, plasma protein extravasation, and degranulation of mast cells in their peripher...

  3. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Taweel W

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Waleed Al Taweel, Raouf SeyamDepartment of Urology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury poses a significant threat to the well-being of patients. Incontinence, renal impairment, urinary tract infection, stones, and poor quality of life are some complications of this condition. The majority of patients will require management to ensure low pressure reservoir function of the bladder, complete emptying, and dryness. Management typically begins with anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. Patients who fail this treatment because of inefficacy or intolerability are candidates for a spectrum of more invasive procedures. Endoscopic managements to relieve the bladder outlet resistance include sphincterotomy, botulinum toxin injection, and stent insertion. In contrast, patients with incompetent sphincters are candidates for transobturator tape insertion, sling surgery, or artificial sphincter implantation. Coordinated bladder emptying is possible with neuromodulation in selected patients. Bladder augmentation, usually with an intestinal segment, and urinary diversion are the last resort. Tissue engineering is promising in experimental settings; however, its role in clinical bladder management is still evolving. In this review, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the pathology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury.Keywords: neurogenic bladder, spinal cord injury, urodynamics, intestine, intermittent catheterization

  4. Preoperative neurogenic pulmonary edema: A dilemma for decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Siva Kumar Reddy Lakkireddigari; Padmaja Durga; Madhukar Nayak; Gopinath Ramchandran

    2012-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema may be a less-recognized consequence of obstructive hydrocephalus. The authors report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to cerebellar metastatic lesion, who presented with neurogenic pulmonary edema. The edema resolved on placement of the ventriculoperitonial shunt. This report addresses the importance of recognition of neurogenic pulmonary edema as a possible perioperative complication resulting from an increase in intracranial pressure and the iss...

  5. Neurogenic Inflammation – The Peripheral Nervous System’s Role in Host Defense and Immunopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Isaac M.; von Hehn, Christian A.; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2012-01-01

    The peripheral nervous and immune systems are traditionally thought of as serving separate functions. This line is, however, becoming increasingly blurred by new insights into neurogenic inflammation. Nociceptor neurons possess many of the same molecular recognition pathways for danger as immune cells and in response to danger, the peripheral nervous system directly communicates with the immune system, forming an integrated protective mechanism. The dense innervation network of sensory and au...

  6. Neurogenic stunned myocardium following hemorrhagic cerebral contusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium NSM is a well-known complication of subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but has been reported rarely in association with other central nervous system disorders. A case of NSM is described in a patient with hemorrhagic brain contusion associated with cerebral edema. An 18-year-old man was admitted with severe cranial trauma following a car roll-over. Six days after admission, he developed findings suggestive for NSM. The troponin T and creatine kinase-MB level were elevated and echocardiogram showed apical and inferoposterior hypokinesis and diffuse left ventricular akinesis with severely reduced ejection fraction 18%. Invasive measurements confirmed low cardiac output. His cardiac function resolved completely within 6 days after decompressive craniotomy. This case supports the presumed unifying role of the increased intracranial pressure, probably triggering a vigorous sympathetic outflow hyperactivity leading to NSM. (author)

  7. Ureteral reimplantation in children with neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloli, G P; Musi, L; Campobasso, P; Cattaneo, A

    1979-04-01

    The treatment of urologic complications from myelomeningocele and especially of vesico-renal reflux is a controversial problem. A series of 26 reimplanted ureters in 17 children, with good results in more than 85%, is reported. Ureteroneocystostomy, carried out with a few technical innovation, may represent a useful method for the treatment of vesico-renal reflux and obstruction of the uretero-vesical junction in neurogenic bladder associated with myelomeningocele. This surgical approach leads to the disappearance of the reflux, decrease of dilatation of the upper urinary tract and preservation of renal function in most cases; moreover, infection can be more easily controlled. Ureteral reimplantation should be preceded by periodic urethral dilatation, external transurethral sphincterotomy, and pharmacologic regulation in order to attempt to decrease urethral resistance. After successful surgery, it is possible to try to reeducate the bladder. Reimplantation should be preferred to permanent urinary diversion even if there is gross reflux. PMID:458534

  8. Neurogenic dysphagia resulting from Chiari malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, I F; Pang, D; Kocoshis, S; Putnam, P

    1992-05-01

    Between 1980 and 1989, 15 of 46 patients (11 children, 4 adults) who underwent suboccipital craniectomy and cervical laminectomy for symptomatic Chiari malformations presented with manifestations of neurogenic dysphagia. Each of these patients had normal swallowing function before the development of dysphagic symptoms. Dysphagia was progressive in all 15 and, in most cases, preceded the onset of other severe brain stem signs. The rate of symptom progression varied depending on the age of the patient. Whereas the six infants (all Chiari II) deteriorated rapidly after the onset of initial symptoms, the five older children (two Chiari I, three Chiari II) and four adults (all Chiari I) showed a more gradual deterioration. In 11 patients with severe dysphagia, barium video esophagograms, pharyngoesophageal motility studies, continuous esophageal pH monitoring, and appropriate scintigraphic studies were useful in defining the scope of the swallowing impairment and determining whether perioperative nasogastric or gastrostomy feedings, gastric fundoplication, and/or tracheostomy were needed to maintain adequate nutrition and avoid aspiration. These patients all had widespread dysfunction of the swallowing mechanism, with a combination of diffuse pharyngoesophageal dysmotility, cricopharyngeal achalasia, nasal regurgitation, tracheal aspiration, and gastroesophageal reflux. The pathophysiology of these swallowing impairments and their relation to the hindbrain malformation is discussed. Postoperative outcome with regard to swallowing function correlated with the severity of preoperative symptoms. The four patients with mild dysphagia showed rapid improvement in swallowing function after surgery. Seven patients with more severe impairment but without other signs of severe brain stem compromise, such as central apnea or complete bilateral vocal cord paralysis, also improved, albeit more slowly. In contrast, the outcome in the four patients who developed other signs of severe

  9. Urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Humberto R; Hickling, Duane R

    2016-02-01

    There is a high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract function. This results in significant morbidity and health care utilization. Multiple well-established risk factors unique to a neurogenic bladder (NB) exist while others require ongoing investigation. It is important for care providers to have a good understanding of the different structural, physiological, immunological and catheter-related risk factors so that they may be modified when possible. Diagnosis remains complicated. Appropriate specimen collection is of paramount importance and a UTI cannot be diagnosed based on urinalysis or clinical presentation alone. A culture result with a bacterial concentration of ≥10(3) CFU/mL in combination with symptoms represents an acceptable definition for UTI diagnosis in NB patients. Cystoscopy, ultrasound and urodynamics should be utilized for the evaluation of recurrent infections in NB patients. An acute, symptomatic UTI should be treated with antibiotics for 5-14 days depending on the severity of the presentation. Antibiotic selection should be based on local and patient-based resistance patterns and the spectrum should be as narrow as possible if there are no concerns regarding urosepsis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) should not be treated because of rising resistance patterns and lack of clinical efficacy. The most important preventative measures include closed catheter drainage in patients with an indwelling catheter and the use of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) over other methods of bladder management if possible. The use of hydrophilic or impregnated catheters is not recommended. Intravesical Botox, bacterial interference and sacral neuromodulation show significant promise for the prevention of UTIs in higher risk NB patients and future, multi-center, randomized controlled trials are required. PMID:26904414

  10. Survey of spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder studies using the Web of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Benjing; Zhang, Yongli; Li, Yucheng; WANG, ZANTAO; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Xiyin; Wang, Bingdong; Long, Zhixin; Wang, Feng; SONG, GUO; Yan WANG

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify global trends in research on spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder, through a bibliometric analysis using the Web of Science. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder using the Web of Science. Data retrieval was performed using key words “spinal cord injury”, “spinal injury”, “neurogenic bladder”, “neuropathic bladder”, “neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction”, “neurogenic voiding dysfun...

  11. Management options for sphincteric deficiency in adults with neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Erik N.; Lenherr, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder is a very broad disease definition that encompasses varied disease and injury states affecting the bladder. The majority of patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction do not have concomitant intrinsic sphincteric deficiency (ISD), but when this occurs the challenges of management of urinary incontinence from neurogenic bladder are compounded. There are no guidelines for surgical correction of ISD in adults and most of the literature on treatment of the problem comes from treatment of children with congenital diseases, such as myelomeningocele. Our goal, in this review, is to present some of the common surgical options for ISD [including artificial urinary sphincters, bladder slings, bladder neck reconstruction (BNR) and urethral bulking agents] and the evidence underlying these treatments in adults with neurogenic bladder. PMID:26904420

  12. Capsaicin-induced neurogenic inflammation in the skin in patients with symptoms induced by odorous chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Helle; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mosbech, Holger; Serup, Jørgen; Elberling, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Intradermal injection of capsaicin induces the axonal release of neuropeptides, vasodilatation and flare, e.g. neurogenic inflammation. The spatial profile of neurogenic inflammation in the skin has been studied in various experimental models. Polarization spectroscopy imaging introduced recently...

  13. Discerning neurogenic vs. non-neurogenic postnatal lateral ventricular astrocytes via activity-dependent input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena W. Adlaf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Throughout development, neural stem cells (NSCs give rise to differentiated neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes which together modulate perception, memory, and behavior in the adult nervous system. To understand how NSCs contribute to postnatal/adult brain remodeling and repair after injury, the lateral ventricular (LV neurogenic niche in the rodent postnatal brain serves as an excellent model system. It is a specialized area containing self-renewing GFAP+ astrocytes functioning as NSCs generating new neurons throughout life. In addition to this now well-studied regenerative process, the LV niche also generates astrocytes, playing an important role for glial scar formation after cortical injury. While LV NSCs can be clearly distinguished from their neuroblast and oligodendrocyte progeny via molecular markers, the astrocytic identity of NSCs has complicated their distinction from terminally-differentiated astrocytes in the niche. Our current models of postnatal/adult LV neurogenesis do not take into account local astrogenesis, or the possibility that cellular markers may be similar between non-dividing GFAP+ NSCs and their differentiated astrocyte daughters. Postnatal LV neurogenesis is regulated by NSC-intrinsic mechanisms interacting with extracellular/niche-driven cues. It is generally believed that these local effects are responsible for sustaining neurogenesis, though behavioral paradigms and disease states have suggested possibilities for neural circuit-level modulation. With recent experimental findings that neuronal stimulation can directly evoke responses in LV NSCs, it is possible that this exciting property will add a new dimension to identifying postnatal/adult NSCs. Here, we put forth a notion that neural circuit-level input can be a distinct characteristic defining postnatal/adult NSCs from non-neurogenic astroglia.

  14. Two malignant peripheral nerve lesions of non-neurogenic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The imaging features and histology of two cases of non-neurogenic intraneural malignancy – an epithelioid sarcoma and myeloma – are described. These cases are important reminders that not all nerve tumours are of neural origin and also show the crucial importance of a robust multidisciplinary approach to achieve the correct diagnosis and management.

  15. Neurogen dysfagi ses hyppigt hos patienter på intensivafdelinger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Barbre; Kjærsgaard, Annette; Larsen, Jens Kjærgaard Rolighed;

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia (NOD) is a frequent condition in neurological patients admitted to the ICU, particularly in patients with brainstem lesions. The CNS damage itself can predispose to dysphagia, but also the treatment and preventive measures may predispose to and exacerbate the...... rehabilitation is important....

  16. Mapping of potential neurogenic niche in the human temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Barreto Nogueira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ are known neurogenic niches in adult mammals. Nonetheless, the existence of neurogenic niches in adult humans is controversial. We hypothesized that mapping neurogenic niches in the human temporal lobe could clarify this issue. Neurogenic niches and neurogenesis were investigated in 28 temporal lobes via immunostaining for nestin and doublecortin (DCX, respectively. Nestin was observed in a continuous layer formed by the SVZ, the subpial zone of the medial temporal lobe and the SGZ, terminating in the subiculum. In the subiculum, remarkable DCX expression was observed through the principal efferent pathway of the hippocampus to the fimbria. A possible explanation for the results is that the SVZ, the subpial zone of the medial temporal lobe and the SGZ form a unit containing neural stem cells that differentiate into neurons in the subiculum. Curiously, the area previously identified as the human rostral migratory stream may in truth be the fornix, which contains axons that originate in the subiculum. This study suggests that neurogenesis may occur in an orchestrated manner in a broad area of the human temporal lobe.

  17. Sympathoadrenal dysfunction in rats with chronic neurogenic hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Dominiak, P; Kees, Frieder K.; Grobecker, H

    1985-01-01

    Compared to sham-operated controls 5 weeks after surgery neurogenic hypertensive rats with sino-aortic baroreceptor deafferentation had higher blood pressure, higher plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels, lower heart noradrenaline concentrations, higher adrenomedullary adrenaline levels and increased cardiac intraventricular pressure (dp/dtmax).

  18. The treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with neurogenic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Anand N; Brant, William O

    2016-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) related to compromise of the nervous system is an increasingly common occurrence. This may be due to the multifactorial nature of ED, the myriad of disorders affecting the neurotransmission of erectogenic signals, and improved awareness and diagnosis of ED. Nevertheless, neurogenic ED remains poorly understood and characterized. Disease related factors such as depression, decreased physical and mental function, the burden of chronic illness, and loss of independence may preclude sexual intimacy and lead to ED as well. The amount of data regarding treatment options in subpopulations of differing neurologic disorders remains scarce except for men with spinal cord injury. The treatment options including phosphodiesterase inhibitors, intracavernosal or intraurethral vasoactive agents, vacuum erection devices (VED) and penile prosthetic implantation remain constant. This review discusses the options in specific neurologic conditions, and briefly provides insight into new and future developments that may reshape the management of neurogenic ED. PMID:26904415

  19. CLINICAL AND BIOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF NEUROGENIC TUMOR AFTER PREOPERATIVE CHEMOTHERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Jiechun; Dong Kuiran; Jing Baixiang

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of preoperative chemotherapy for the treatment of neurogenic tumor in children. Methods: VMA, MYCN gene and DNA content of 21 cases of neuroblastoma treated with preoperative chemotherapy were studied with a control group. Results: Resection rate was 95.5%. Mean survival time was 28.1±10.2 months, which was significantly higher than the control group (8.8±6.8 months, P<0.01).Post chemotherapeutic VMA was lower. DNA index was also reduced and the percentage of cells in G0+G1 phases was elevated. The MYCN expression was suppressed.Conclusion: Preoperative chemotherapy can induce the apoptosis of neurogenic tumor cells and inhibit its proliferative activity.

  20. Surgical management of the neurogenic bladder and bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingin Gerald C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Spina bifida and myelodysplasia are associated with neurogenic abnormalities of the bladder and bowel function. All children with myelodysplasia require an evaluation of their urinary tract with ultrasound and urodynamics to confirm normal bladder and kidney function. Patients with anatomical and functional abnormalities require treatment, the mainstay being intermittent catheterization and anticholinergic medication. The treatment goals for patients with a neurogenic bladder are the preservation of the upper urinary tract, bladder and bowel continence, independence, autonomy, and facilitation of self-esteem. A minority of children will not respond to conservative therapy and will ultimately require surgical intervention. This review will discuss the surgical options for bladder augmentation, bladder neck reconstruction and closure, as well as the methods for the creation of continent catheterizable stomas. The timing, indications, and description for each procedure will be addressed. Finally, the antegrade continence enema procedure will be described for the management of refractory fecal incontinence.

  1. Adult Neurogenesis: Ultrastructure of a Neurogenic Niche and Neurovascular Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Grazielle Chaves da Silva; Jeanne L Benton; Beltz, Barbara S.; Silvana Allodi

    2012-01-01

    The first-generation precursors producing adult-born neurons in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) brain reside in a specialized niche located on the ventral surface of the brain. In the present work, we have explored the organization and ultrastructure of this neurogenic niche, using light-level, confocal and electron microscopic approaches. Our goals were to define characteristics of the niche microenvironment, examine the morphological relationships between the niche and the vasculature an...

  2. Preventing Kidney Injury in Children with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Faezeh Javadi Larijani; Mastaneh Moghtaderi; Nilofar Hajizadeh; Farahnak Assadi

    2013-01-01

    The most common cause of neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD) in newborn infants is myelomeningocele. The pathophysiology almost always involves the bladder detrusor sphincter dyssynergy (DSD), which if untreated can cause severe and irreversible damage to the upper and lower urinary tracts. Early diagnosis and adequate management of NBD is critical to prevent both renal damage and bladder dysfunction and to reduce chances for the future surgeries. Initial investigation of the affected newbor...

  3. Peripheral tumor and tumor-like neurogenic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Evandro [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Aubert, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.aubert@chru-lille.fr [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie-Pathologie, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Wavreille, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.wavreille@chru-lille.fr [Service d’Orthopédie B, Hôpital R Salengro, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Gheno, Ramon; Canella, Clarissa [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Cotten, Anne, E-mail: anne.cotten@chru-lille.fr [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France)

    2013-01-15

    Neoplasms of neurogenic origin account for about 12% of all benign and 8% of all malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Traumatic neuroma, Morton neuroma, lipomatosis of a nerve, nerve sheath ganglion, perineurioma, benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) are included in this group of pathologies. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of patients with neurogenic tumors and pseudotumors often reveals distinctive features. In this context, advanced imaging techniques, especially ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) play an important role in the characterization of these lesions. Imaging findings such as location of a soft tissue mass in the region of a major nerve, nerve entering or exiting the mass, fusiform shape, abnormalities of the muscle supplied by the nerve, split-fat sign, target sign and fascicular appearance should always evoke a peripheric nerve sheath neoplasm. Although no single imaging finding or combination of findings allows definitive differentiation between benign from malign peripheric neurogenic tumors, both US and MR imaging may show useful features that can lead us to a correct diagnosis and improve patient treatment. Traumatic neuromas and Morton neuromas are commonly associated to an amputation stump or are located in the intermetatarsal space. Lipomatosis of a nerve usually appears as a nerve enlargement, with thickened nerve fascicles, embedded in evenly distributed fat. Nerve sheath ganglion has a cystic appearance and commonly occurs at the level of the knee. Intraneural perineuroma usually affects young people and manifests as a focal and fusiform nerve enlargement. In this article, we review clinical characteristics and radiologic appearances of these neurogenic lesions, observing pathologic correlation, when possible.

  4. In silico Therapeutics for Neurogenic Hypertension and Vasovagal Syncope

    OpenAIRE

    Bojić, Tijana; Perović, Vladimir R.; Glišić, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Neurocardiovascular diseases (NCVD) are the leading cause of death in the developed world and will remain so till 2020. In these diseases the pathologically changed nervous control of cardiovascular system has the central role. The actual NCV syndromes are neurogenic hypertension, representing the sympathetically mediated disorder, and vasovagal syncope, which is the vagally mediated disorders. Vasovagal syncope, the disease far from its etiological treatment, could benefit from recruiting an...

  5. Peripheral tumor and tumor-like neurogenic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoplasms of neurogenic origin account for about 12% of all benign and 8% of all malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Traumatic neuroma, Morton neuroma, lipomatosis of a nerve, nerve sheath ganglion, perineurioma, benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) are included in this group of pathologies. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of patients with neurogenic tumors and pseudotumors often reveals distinctive features. In this context, advanced imaging techniques, especially ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) play an important role in the characterization of these lesions. Imaging findings such as location of a soft tissue mass in the region of a major nerve, nerve entering or exiting the mass, fusiform shape, abnormalities of the muscle supplied by the nerve, split-fat sign, target sign and fascicular appearance should always evoke a peripheric nerve sheath neoplasm. Although no single imaging finding or combination of findings allows definitive differentiation between benign from malign peripheric neurogenic tumors, both US and MR imaging may show useful features that can lead us to a correct diagnosis and improve patient treatment. Traumatic neuromas and Morton neuromas are commonly associated to an amputation stump or are located in the intermetatarsal space. Lipomatosis of a nerve usually appears as a nerve enlargement, with thickened nerve fascicles, embedded in evenly distributed fat. Nerve sheath ganglion has a cystic appearance and commonly occurs at the level of the knee. Intraneural perineuroma usually affects young people and manifests as a focal and fusiform nerve enlargement. In this article, we review clinical characteristics and radiologic appearances of these neurogenic lesions, observing pathologic correlation, when possible

  6. Neurogenic pulmonary edema due to delayed radiation necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic pulmonary edema is oftten missed in the ICU setting as it is mistaken for pneumonia or ARDS. The case presented here illustrates how a high index of suspicion in the appropriate setting can lead to the diagnosis. The patient in this report developed acute-on-chronic cerebral edema due to radiation necrosis following gamma-knife radiation therapy for cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

  7. Neurogenic Inflammation Involves in Systemic Spread of Oral Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Haryono Utomo

    2014-01-01

    Focal infection theory proposed in early 1900’s stated that dental infection caused systemic disorders. Nevertheless, the theory was abandoned since large number of teeth were extracted with no satisfying result. Recent reports revealed that oral infections were able to spread systemically. However, there is no rationalization available to explain how assisted drainage therapy (ADT), a periodontal therapy that could relief migraine and asthma within minutes. Oral neurogenic and immunogenic in...

  8. Role of Neurogenic Inflammation in Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Portocarrero, Louis; Karin N Westlund

    2005-01-01

    Pain arising from pancreatic diseases can become chronic and difficult to treat. There is a paucity of knowledge regarding the mechanisms that sensitize neural pathways that transmit noxious information from visceral organs. In this review, neurogenic inflammation is presented as a possible amplifier of the noxious signal from peripheral organs including the pancreas. The nerve pathways that transmit pancreatic pain are also reviewed as a conduit of the amplified signals. It is likely that co...

  9. Circulating and tissue catecholamines in rats with chronic neurogenic hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Dominiak, P; Kees, Frieder K.; Grobecker, H

    1986-01-01

    To study the role of peripheral catecholamines in plasma and different tissues in neurogenic hypertension we measured directly blood pressure, maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise (dp/dtmax) and heart rate through an aortic catheter 5 weeks after total sino-aortic baroreceptor deafferentation in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected through the same catheter to determine plasma catecholamine concentrations. Blood pressure and dp/dtmax were significantly higher in ne...

  10. The role of botulinum toxin A in treating neurogenic bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Weckx, Filip; Tutolo, Manuela; De Ridder, Dirk; Van der Aa, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) can result in lower and upper urinary tract complications and eventually even in end-stage kidney failure. Since the driving force of this clinical cascade is high bladder pressure, controlling intravesical pressure in NDO patients improves both quality of life and life-expectancy in these patients. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) has proven its efficacy in reducing intravesical pressure and in reducing incontinence episodes. BTX-A also improves quality of lif...

  11. Neurogenic Tumors of the Mediastinum: A Report of 60 Cases

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    Salih Topçu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze retrospectively 60 patients (13 infants and children, 47 adults - 21 men and 39 women with mediastinal neurogenic tumours admitted to Atatürk Centre for Chest Disease and Chest Surgery, Ankara, Turkey between 1988 and 1999. This comprised 21.2% of 283 patients who had surgical operations for all mediastinal masses during the same period.

  12. Imaging diagnosis of neurogenic tumors of the brachial plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyse the imaging characteristics of neurogenic tumors in the brachial plexus, six cases of neurogenic tumors of the brachial plexus were reported pathologically proved as schwannoma in 4 and neurofibroma in 2 cases. The plain films demonstrated the mass at the apex of lung in 3 cases, enlargement of cervical intervertebral foremen in 1. CT scan revealed that the average diameter of the masses was 4 cm, with spindle shape in 4, dumb-bell shape in 2 cases. The averaged CT value was similar to that of muscle on plain scan. The density of the tumor was higher than that of muscle and lower than that of vessels after contrast enhancement. On MRI T1W image, the masses were all hyperintense. Three schwannoma presented high signal intensity similar to CSF. The lesion demonstrated moderate enhancement after contrast administration in 1 case. Based on the location of the mass and its imaging features, diagnosis of neurogenic tumor of the brachial plexus could possibly be established before operation. MRI imaging is the imaging modality of choice in displaying the anatomy and the lesion of brachial plexus

  13. In silico Therapeutics for Neurogenic Hypertension and Vasovagal Syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojić, Tijana; Perović, Vladimir R; Glišić, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Neurocardiovascular diseases (NCVD) are the leading cause of death in the developed world and will remain so till 2020. In these diseases the pathologically changed nervous control of cardiovascular system has the central role. The actual NCV syndromes are neurogenic hypertension, representing the sympathetically mediated disorder, and vasovagal syncope, which is the vagally mediated disorders. Vasovagal syncope, the disease far from its etiological treatment, could benefit from recruiting and application of antimuscarinic drugs used in other parasympathetic disorders. The informational spectrum method (ISM), a method widely applied for the characterization of protein-protein interactions in the field of immunology, endocrinology and anti HIV drug discovery, was applied for the first time in the analysis of neurogenic hypertension and vasovagal syncope therapeutic targets. In silico analysis revealed the potential involvement of apelin in neurogenic hypertension. Applying the EIIP/ISM bioinformatics concept in investigation of drugs for treatment of vasovagal syncope suggests that 78% of tested antimuscarinic drugs could have anti vasovagal syncope effect. The presented results confirm that ISM is a promissing method for investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying pathophysiological proceses of NCV syndromes and discovery of therapeutics targets for their treatment. PMID:26834545

  14. Effects of electrotherapy in treatment of neurogenic bladder in children with occult spinal dysraphism

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirović Dragana; Petronić Ivana; Nikolić Dejan; Brdar Radivoj; Pavićević Polina; Knežević Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Neurogenic bladder can develop as a result of various degrees of neurogenic lesion in spina bifida. The degree of bladder dysfunction depends on the level and type of spina bifida. Due to results upon complete diagnostic protocols, treatment options are applied. Objective Comparison of therapy results of patients with occult spinal dysraphism with neurogenic bladder that under-went medicamentous therapy and medicamentous with electrotherapy treatment. Methods We had 49 patients w...

  15. Exosomes as novel regulators of adult neurogenic niches

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    Luis Federico Batiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis has been convincingly demonstrated in two regions of the mammalian brain: the sub-granular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG in the hippocampus, and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles. SGZ newborn neurons are destined to the granular cell layer of the DG, while new neurons from the SVZ neurons migrate rostrally into the olfactory bulb. The process of adult neurogenesis persists throughout life and is supported by a pool of neural stem cells (NSCs, which reside in a unique and specialized microenvironment known as neurogenic niche. Neurogenic niches are structured by a complex organization of different cell types, including the NSC-neuron lineage, glial cells and vascular cells. Thus, cell-to-cell communication plays a key role in the dynamic modulation of homeostasis and plasticity of the adult neurogenic process. Specific cell-cell contacts and extracellular signals originated locally provide the necessary support and regulate the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of NSCs. Furthermore, extracellular signals originated at distant locations, including other brain regions or systemic organs, may reach the niche through the cerebrospinal fluid or the vasculature and influence its nature. The role of several secreted molecules, such as cytokines, growth factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones, in the biology of adult NSCs, has been systematically addressed. Interestingly, in addition to these well-recognized signals, a novel type of intercellular messengers has been identified recently: the extracellular vesicles (EVs. EVs, and particularly exosomes, are implicated in the transfer of mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs, proteins and lipids between cells and thus are able to modify the function of recipient cells. Exosomes appear to play a significant role in different stem cell niches such as the mesenchymal stem cell niche, cancer stem cell niche and pre-metastatic niche; however, their roles in adult

  16. Exosomes as Novel Regulators of Adult Neurogenic Niches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bátiz, Luis Federico; Castro, Maite A.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Velásquez, Zahady D.; Muñoz, Rosa I.; Lafourcade, Carlos A.; Troncoso-Escudero, Paulina; Wyneken, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis has been convincingly demonstrated in two regions of the mammalian brain: the sub-granular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) in the hippocampus, and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles (LV). SGZ newborn neurons are destined to the granular cell layer (GCL) of the DG, while new neurons from the SVZ neurons migrate rostrally into the olfactory bulb (OB). The process of adult neurogenesis persists throughout life and is supported by a pool of neural stem cells (NSCs), which reside in a unique and specialized microenvironment known as “neurogenic niche”. Neurogenic niches are structured by a complex organization of different cell types, including the NSC-neuron lineage, glial cells and vascular cells. Thus, cell-to-cell communication plays a key role in the dynamic modulation of homeostasis and plasticity of the adult neurogenic process. Specific cell-cell contacts and extracellular signals originated locally provide the necessary support and regulate the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of NSCs. Furthermore, extracellular signals originated at distant locations, including other brain regions or systemic organs, may reach the niche through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or the vasculature and influence its nature. The role of several secreted molecules, such as cytokines, growth factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones, in the biology of adult NSCs, has been systematically addressed. Interestingly, in addition to these well-recognized signals, a novel type of intercellular messengers has been identified recently: the extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs, and particularly exosomes, are implicated in the transfer of mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), proteins and lipids between cells and thus are able to modify the function of recipient cells. Exosomes appear to play a significant role in different stem cell niches such as the mesenchymal stem cell niche, cancer stem cell niche and pre-metastatic niche; however, their

  17. Clinical and Treatment Features of Orbital Neurogenic Tumors

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    Pınar Bingöl Kızıltunç

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and treatment features of orbital neurogenic tumors. Material and Method: The records of 35 patients with orbital neurogenic tumors who were diagnosed and treated at Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, between 1998 and 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Orbitotomy via a cutaneous approach was performed in 21 (60% cases and orbitotomy via a transconjunctival approach was performed in 7 (20% cases. Three (8% cases had been operated at different centers. Four (12% cases were diagnosed clinically. Total excisional biopsy was performed in 11 (31.4% cases, subtotal excisional biopsy was performed in 7 (20%, and incisional biopsy was performed in 10 (28.6% cases. 14 (40% 35 cases were diagnosed as meningioma, 12 (34% as peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and 9 (26% cases were diagnosed as optic nerve glioma. Six (43% meningioma cases were optic nerve sheath meningioma, 5 (36% were sphenoid wing meningioma, 2 (14% were ectopic meningioma, and 1 (7% was perisellar meningioma. Six (50% of peripheral nerve sheath tumors were schwannoma, 2 (16% were solitary neurofibroma, 4 (34% were plexiform neurofibroma. External beam radiotherapy was performed in 15 (42.8% cases, cyberknife radiosurgery in 1 (2.8% , chemotherapy in 1 (2.8%, and enucleation ( because of neovascular glaucoma and vitreous hemorrhage was performed in 1 (2.8% case. Discussion: The most common orbital neurogenic tumors are meningioma, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and optic nerve glioma. For meningioma and glioma, external beam radiotherapy is required; for schwannoma and solitary neurofibroma, total excisional biopsy is the preferred treatment. The success of visual and anatomic results are high after treatment. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 335-9

  18. Renal function in children with congenital neurogenic bladder

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    Karen Previdi Olandoski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Preservation of renal function in children with congenital neurogenic bladder is an important goal of treatment for the disease. This study analyzed the evolution of renal function in patients with congenital neurogenic bladder. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 58 pediatric patients with respect to the following attributes: gender, age, etiology of neurogenic bladder, reason for referral, medical/surgical management, episodes of treated urinary tract infections, urodynamics, DMSA scintigraphy, weight, height, blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, microalbuminuria and metabolic acidosis. Statistical analysis was performed, adopting the 5% significance level. RESULTS: The mean age at presentation was 4.2 ± 3.5 years. Myelomeningocele was the most frequent etiology (71.4%. Recurrent urinary tract infection was the reason for referral in 82.8% of the patients. Recurrent urinary tract infections were diagnosed in 84.5% of the patients initially; 83.7% of those patients experienced improvement during follow-up. The initial mean glomerular filtration rate was 146.7 ± 70.1 mL/1.73 m²/min, and the final mean was 193.6 ± 93.6 mL/1.73 m²/min, p = 0.0004. Microalbuminuria was diagnosed in 54.1% of the patients initially and in 69% in the final evaluation. Metabolic acidosis was present in 19% of the patients initially and in 32.8% in the final assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Patient referral to a pediatric nephrologist was late. A reduction in the number of urinary tract infections was observed with adequate treatment, but microalbuminuria and metabolic acidosis occurred frequently despite adequate management.

  19. Posterior mediastinal hemangioma mimicking neurogenic tumor: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Han Byeoul; Park, Jong Chun [Dept. of Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Medical Center, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Mediastinal hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor and is located most frequently in the anterior mediastinum. Computed tomography showed a well-marginated central enhancing mass with extension into the adjacent foramen. The mass was relatively hyperintense to the skeletal muscle on T2-weighted image and on fat-saturated T1-weighted image with gadolinium enhancement. The tumor was confirmed to be a cavernous hemangioma by pathologic examination after surgery. The authors recently experienced a cavernous hemangioma in the posterior mediastinum. Thus, we report a case of a posterior mediastinal mass which was difficult to differentiate from a neurogenic tumor.

  20. From blood to brain: the neurogenic niche of the crayfish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenstein, Volker

    2014-08-11

    Adult neurogenic niches are present in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Where do stem cells populating these niches originate, and what are the mechanisms maintaining their self-renewal? In this issue of Developmental Cell, Benton et al. (2014) show that in crayfish, hemolymph-derived cells enter a neurogenic niche to replenish neural progenitors. PMID:25117680

  1. Neurogenic effect of VEGF is related to increase of astrocytes transdifferentiation into new mature neurons in rat brains after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu-Wen; Duan, Chun-Ling; Chen, Xian-Hua; Wang, Yong-Quan; Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Qiu-Wan; Cui, Hui-Ru; Sun, Feng-Yan

    2016-09-01

    To study the cellular mechanism of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-enhanced neurogenesis in ischemic brain injury, we used middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model to induce transient focal ischemic brain injury. The results showed that ischemic injury significantly increased glial fibrillary acidic protein immunopositive (GFAP(+)) and nestin(+) cells in ipsilateral striatum 3 days following MCAO. Most GFAP(+) cells colocalized with nestin (GFAP(+)-nestin(+)), Pax6 (GFAP(+)-Pax6(+)), or Olig2 (GFAP(+)-Olig2(+)). VEGF further increased GFAP(+)-nestin(+) and GFAP(+)-Pax6(+) cells, and decreased GFAP(+)-Olig2(+) cells. We used striatal injection of GFAP targeted enhanced green fluorescence protein (pGfa2-EGFP) vectors combined with multiple immunofluorescent staining to trace the neural fates of EGFP-expressing (GFP(+)) reactive astrocytes. The results showed that MCAO-induced striatal reactive astrocytes differentiated into neural stem cells (GFP(+)-nestin(+) cells) at 3 days after MCAO, immature (GFP(+)-Tuj-1(+) cells) at 1 week and mature neurons (GFP(+)-MAP-2(+) or GFP(+)-NeuN(+) cells) at 2 weeks. VEGF increased GFP(+)-NeuN(+) and BrdU(+)-MAP-2(+) newborn neurons after MCAO. Fluorocitrate, an astrocytic inhibitor, significantly decreased GFAP and nestin expression in ischemic brains, and also reduced VEGF-enhanced neurogenic effects. This study is the first time to report that VEGF-mediated increase of newly generated neurons is dependent on the presence of reactive astrocytes. The results also illustrate cellular mechanism of VEGF-enhanced neural repair and functional plasticity in the brains after ischemic injury. We concluded that neurogenic effect of VEGF is related to increase of striatal astrocytes transdifferentiation into new mature neurons, which should be very important for the reconstruction of neurovascular units/networks in non-neurogenic regions of the mammalian brain. PMID:26603138

  2. [Neurological Signs and Symptoms of True Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashihara, Mana; Konoeda, Fumie; Sonoo, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a well-known disorder, but many aspects of its pathology, including its definition, has been disputed. True neurogenic TOS (TN-TOS) is a rare but well-defined clinical condition. TN-TOS results from the compression of the C8/T1 roots (dominant for the T1 root) or the proximal lower trunk of the brachial plexus by a fibrous band. The band extends from the first rib to either the tip of an elongated C7 transverse process or a rudimentary cervical rib. The most common presenting symptoms of TN-TOS are insidious-onset atrophy and weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles, predominantly in the thenar eminence and radial digit flexors. Nerve conduction studies demonstrate pathognomonic findings: severely attenuated compound muscle action potential of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, and usually, loss of the sensory nerve action potential of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Numbness and sensory loss are typically observed, mainly in the medial forearm, although they are usually mild, and may be absent in some patients. Severe pain or paresthesia proximal to the elbow is not observed. The classical concept of TOS underlie nonspecific neurogenic TOS. It has been primarily diagnosed using provocative maneuvers. However, there is controversy regarding its pathological conceptualization and existence, as objective evidence of the disease is still lacking. PMID:27156505

  3. Msxb is a core component of the genetic circuitry specifying the dorsal and ventral neurogenic midlines in the ascidian embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roure, Agnès; Darras, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The tail ascidian larval peripheral nervous system is made up of epidermal sensory neurons distributed more or less regularly in ventral and dorsal midlines. Their formation occurs in two-steps: the ventral and dorsal midlines are induced as neurogenic territories by Fgf9/16/20 and Admp respectively. The Delta2/Notch interaction then controls the number of neurons that form. The genetic machinery acting between the inductive processes taking place before gastrulation and neuron specification at tailbud stages are largely unknown. The analysis of seven transcription factors expressed in the forming midlines revealed an unexpected complexity and dynamic of gene expression. Their systematic overexpression confirmed that these genes do not interact following a linear cascade of activation. However, the integration of our data revealed the distinct key roles of the two upstream factors Msxb and Nkx-C that are the earliest expressed genes and the only ones able to induce neurogenic midline and ESN formation. Our data suggest that Msxb would be the primary midline gene integrating inputs from the ventral and dorsal inducers and launching a pan-midline transcriptional program. Nkx-C would be involved in tail tip specification, in maintenance of the pan-midline network and in a posterior to anterior wave controlling differentiation. PMID:26592100

  4. Outcomes of bowel program in spinal cord injury patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuhal Ozisler; Kurtulus Koklu; Sumru Ozel; Sibel Unsal-Delialioglu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine gastrointestinal problems associated with neurogenic bowel dysfunction in spinal cord injury patients and to assess the efifcacy of bowel program on gas-trointestinal problems and the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Fifty-ifve spinal cord injury patients were included in this study. A bowel program according to the characteristics of neurogenic bowel dysfunction was performed for each patient. Before and after bowel program, gastrointestinal problems (constipation, dififcult intestinal evacuation, incontinence, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, loss of appetite, hemorrhoids, rectal bleeding and gastrointestinal induced autonomic dysrelfexia) and bowel evacuation methods (digital stimulation, oral med-ication, suppositories, abdominal massage, Valsalva maneuver and manual evacuation) were determined. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was used to assess the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. At least one gastrointestinal problem was identiifed in 44 (80%) of the 55 patients before bowel program. Constipation (56%, 31/55) and incontinence (42%, 23/55) were the most common gastrointestinal problems. Digital rectal stimulation was the most common method for bowel evacuation, both before (76%, 42/55) and after (73%, 40/55) bowel program. Oral medication, enema and manual evacuation application rates were signiifcantly decreased and constipation, dififcult intestinal evacuation, abdominal distention, and abdominal pain rates were signiifcantly reduced after bowel program. In addition, mean neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was decreased after bowel program. An effective bowel program decreases the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction and reduces associated gastrointestinal problems in patients with spinal cord injury.

  5. Outcomes of bowel program in spinal cord injury patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction

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    Zuhal Ozisler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to determine gastrointestinal problems associated with neurogenic bowel dysfunction in spinal cord injury patients and to assess the efficacy of bowel program on gastrointestinal problems and the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Fifty-five spinal cord injury patients were included in this study. A bowel program according to the characteristics of neurogenic bowel dysfunction was performed for each patient. Before and after bowel program, gastrointestinal problems (constipation, difficult intestinal evacuation, incontinence, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, loss of appetite, hemorrhoids, rectal bleeding and gastrointestinal induced autonomic dysreflexia and bowel evacuation methods (digital stimulation, oral medication, suppositories, abdominal massage, Valsalva maneuver and manual evacuation were determined. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was used to assess the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. At least one gastrointestinal problem was identified in 44 (80% of the 55 patients before bowel program. Constipation (56%, 31/55 and incontinence (42%, 23/55 were the most common gastrointestinal problems. Digital rectal stimulation was the most common method for bowel evacuation, both before (76%, 42/55 and after (73%, 40/55 bowel program. Oral medication, enema and manual evacuation application rates were significantly decreased and constipation, difficult intestinal evacuation, abdominal distention, and abdominal pain rates were significantly reduced after bowel program. In addition, mean neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was decreased after bowel program. An effective bowel program decreases the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction and reduces associated gastrointestinal problems in patients with spinal cord injury.

  6. Discriminating neurogenic from myopathic disease via measurement of muscle anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmirian, Lindsay P; Chin, Anne B; Rutkove, Seward B

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is electrically anisotropic, with a tendency for applied electrical current to flow more readily along muscle fibers than across them. In this study, we assessed a method for non-invasive measurement of anisotropy to determine its potential to serve as a new technique for distinguishing neurogenic from myopathic disease. Measurements were made on the biceps brachii and tibialis anterior muscles in 15 normal subjects and 12 patients with neuromuscular disease (6 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 6 with various myopathies) using 50 kHZ applied current. Consistent multi-angle anisotropic patterns were found for reactance and phase in both muscles in normal subjects. Normalized anisotropy differences for each subject were defined, and group average values identified. The amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients demonstrated increased and distorted anisotropy patterns, whereas myopathic patients demonstrated normal or reduced anisotropy. These results suggest that non-invasive measurement of muscle anisotropy has potential for diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases. PMID:19058193

  7. Lumbosacral perineural cysts as a cause for neurogenic muscular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoiridis, G; Wöhrle, J; Heye, N; Przuntek, H

    1997-08-01

    We report the case of a 40 year-old man with a severe lesion of the anterior rami of the left spinal nerves L5 and S1 who showed hypertrophy of the leg and atrophy of the intrinsic foot and gluteal muscles. In the biopsy of the hypertrophied gastrocnemius muscle, perivascular inflammatory infiltrates were observed, apart from atrophied and hypertrophied muscle fibres. Electromyography revealed no pathologic spontaneous activity but chronic neurogenic changes. The precise site of the lesion was predicted by electrophysiologic investigations. The lesion was caused by two perineural cysts in the region of the upper sacral plexus, as demonstrated by MRI and CT of the small pelvis and confirmed at operation. Three years earlier, when almost only L5 muscles were affected, an intervertebral disc prolapse L5/S1 had been suspected on myelography and CT but could not have been confirmed at operation. PMID:9298339

  8. Atropine may prevent the development of neurogenic pulmonary edema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Syková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2009), s. 42-44. ISSN 0306-9877 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/06/1246; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA MZd(CZ) 1A8697; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538; EC FP6 RESCUE(FR) LSHB-CT-2005-518233; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0021620803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : central nervous system * neurogenic pulmonary edema Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.393, year: 2009

  9. Sacral Fracture Causing Neurogenic Bladder: A Case Report

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    Tatsuro Sasaji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old man presented with a Denis Zone III sacral fracture after a traffic accident. He also developed urinary retention and perineal numbness. The patient was diagnosed with neurogenic bladder dysfunction caused by the sacral fracture. A computed tomogram (CT revealed that third sacral lamina was fractured and displaced into the spinal canal, but vertebral body did not displace. The fracture lines began at the center of lamina and extended bilateraly. The fracture pattern was unique. The sacrum was osteoporosis, and this fracture may be based on osteoporosis. We performed laminectomy to decompress sacral nerve roots. One month after surgery, the patient was able to urinate. Three months after surgery, his bladder function recovered normally. One year after surgery, he returned to a normal daily life and had no complaints regarding urination. One-year postoperative CT showed the decompressed third sacrum without displacement.

  10. Neurogenic Inflammation Involves in Systemic Spread of Oral Infection

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    Haryono Utomo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Focal infection theory proposed in early 1900’s stated that dental infection caused systemic disorders. Nevertheless, the theory was abandoned since large number of teeth were extracted with no satisfying result. Recent reports revealed that oral infections were able to spread systemically. However, there is no rationalization available to explain how assisted drainage therapy (ADT, a periodontal therapy that could relief migraine and asthma within minutes. Oral neurogenic and immunogenic inflammation interaction involving pro-inflammatory markers such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, TNF-α; and antiinflammatory vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP was still under investigation. Objective: To verify the spread of oral inflammation to distant organ after performing ADT by analysing CGRP, VIP and TNF-α expressions. Methods: Two different concentration of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (PgLPS1435/1450 was injected intragingivally into two groups of 12 Wistar rats. After four days, 12 rats were given ADT and all samples were subsequently sacrificed 40 mins after ADT. Immunohistochemistry analysis using CGRP, VIP and TNF-α on the nasal and bronchus tissue was performed. ANOVA was used for statistical analyisis of the difference between CGRP, VIP and TNF-α expression between experimental groups. Results: PgLPS injections slightly increased CGRP, VIP and TNF-α expressions in the control group. Rats undergone ADT had lower CGRP and TNF-α but higher VIP expressions. Conclusion: Neurogenic inflammation involved in systemic spread of oral infection. ADT was able to downregulate inflammation in distant organ posibly by stimulating VIP.

  11. The Neurogenic Potential of Astrocytes Is Regulated by Inflammatory Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelucci, Alessandro; Bithell, Angela; Burney, Matthew J; Johnston, Caroline E; Wong, Kee-Yew; Teng, Siaw-Wei; Desai, Jyaysi; Gumbleton, Nigel; Anderson, Gregory; Stanton, Lawrence W; Williams, Brenda P; Buckley, Noel J

    2016-08-01

    Although the adult brain contains neural stem cells (NSCs) that generate new neurons throughout life, these astrocyte-like populations are restricted to two discrete niches. Despite their terminally differentiated phenotype, adult parenchymal astrocytes can re-acquire NSC-like characteristics following injury, and as such, these 'reactive' astrocytes offer an alternative source of cells for central nervous system (CNS) repair following injury or disease. At present, the mechanisms that regulate the potential of different types of astrocytes are poorly understood. We used in vitro and ex vivo astrocytes to identify candidate pathways important for regulation of astrocyte potential. Using in vitro neural progenitor cell (NPC)-derived astrocytes, we found that exposure of more lineage-restricted astrocytes to either tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (via nuclear factor-κB (NFκB)) or the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor, noggin, led to re-acquisition of NPC properties accompanied by transcriptomic and epigenetic changes consistent with a more neurogenic, NPC-like state. Comparative analyses of microarray data from in vitro-derived and ex vivo postnatal parenchymal astrocytes identified several common pathways and upstream regulators associated with inflammation (including transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)) and cell cycle control (including TP53) as candidate regulators of astrocyte phenotype and potential. We propose that inflammatory signalling may control the normal, progressive restriction in potential of differentiating astrocytes as well as under reactive conditions and represent future targets for therapies to harness the latent neurogenic capacity of parenchymal astrocytes. PMID:26138449

  12. Ruptured spinal arteriovenous malformation: Presenting as stunned myocardium and neurogenic shock

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    Tasneem H Mehesry

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Spinal AVM rupture can present as neurogenic shock, stunned myocardium, and pulmonary edema. Early recognition of AVM rupture and prompt surgical intervention, as well as aggressive treatment of shock, may enhance recovery and decrease the long-term morbidity.

  13. Neurogenic overactive bladder in spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis: role of onabotulinumtoxinA

    OpenAIRE

    Ethans, Karen

    2014-01-01

    KD Ethans,1,2 AR Casey,1,2 RJ Bard,1,3 MP Namaka1 1University of Manitoba, 2Section of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Health Sciences Centre, 3Section of Urology, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Abstract: People with neurogenic overactive bladder from either multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury often suffer significant morbidity and decreased quality of life. Here we review the pathophysiology of neurogenic overactive bladder and the impact it can have on people...

  14. A Case of Hypokalemic Paralysis in a Patient With Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Frederic N.; Kar, Jitesh K.; Verduzco-Gutierrez, Monica; Zakaria, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Acute hypokalemic paralysis is characterized by muscle weakness or paralysis secondary to low serum potassium levels. Neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition where the patient excretes large volume of dilute urine due to low levels of antidiuretic hormone. Here, we describe a patient with neurogenic DI who developed hypokalemic paralysis without a prior history of periodic paralysis. A 30-year-old right-handed Hispanic male was admitted for refractory seizures and acute DI after dev...

  15. Drinking to near death--acute water intoxication leading to neurogenic stunned myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losonczy, Lia I; Lovallo, Emily; Schnorr, C Daniel; Mantuani, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a rare disease entity that has been typically described as a consequence of subarachnoid hemorrhage and, less commonly, seizures. Here we describe a case of a healthy young woman who drank excessive free water causing acute hyponatremia complicated by cerebral edema and seizure, leading to cardiogenic shock from neurogenic stunned myocardium. Two days later, she had complete return of her normal cardiac function. PMID:26238098

  16. Effects of electrotherapy in treatment of neurogenic bladder in children with occult spinal dysraphism

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    Ćirović Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neurogenic bladder can develop as a result of various degrees of neurogenic lesion in spina bifida. The degree of bladder dysfunction depends on the level and type of spina bifida. Due to results upon complete diagnostic protocols, treatment options are applied. Objective Comparison of therapy results of patients with occult spinal dysraphism with neurogenic bladder that under-went medicamentous therapy and medicamentous with electrotherapy treatment. Methods We had 49 patients with neurogenic bladder that were treated at the University Children's Hospital in Belgrade in the period 2003-2008. The first group of children received medicamentous therapy and the second group received medicamentous therapy with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation. In both groups we evaluated 4 symptoms: daily enuresis, enuresis nocturna, urgency and frequency and 4 urodynamic parameters: lower bladder capacity, unstable contractions and residual urine and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia. Follow-up urodynamic evaluation was done after 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. Results Our findings pointed out a high statistical significance of improvement in all evaluated urodynamic parameters of neurogenic bladder (predominantly in bladder capacity in the group of children with combined therapy as well in resolution of symptoms (predominantly enuresis nocturna, urgency and frequency. Conclusion Combined therapy is more efficient in treatment of children with neurogenic bladder. Electrotherapy is non-invasive, easily applicable and has had a significant place in treatment of children with dysfunctional voiding.

  17. Synostosis Between Pubic Bones due to Neurogenic, Heterotopic Ossification

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    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic, heterotopic ossification is characterised by the formation of new, extraosseous (ectopic bone in soft tissue in patients with neurological disorders. A 33-year-old female, who was born with spina bifida, paraplegia, and diastasis of symphysis pubis, had indwelling urethral catheter drainage and was using oxybutynin bladder instillations. She was prescribed diuretic for swelling of feet, which aggravated bypassing of catheter. Hence, suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Despite anticholinergic therapy, there was chronic urine leak around the suprapubic catheter and per urethra. Therefore, the urethra was mobilised and closed. After closure of the urethra, there was no urine leak from the urethra, but urine leak persisted around the suprapubic catheter. Cystogram confirmed the presence of a Foley balloon inside the bladder; there was no urinary fistula. The Foley balloon ruptured frequently, leading to extrusion of the Foley catheter. X-ray of abdomen showed heterotopic bone formation bridging the gap across diastasis of symphysis pubis. CT of pelvis revealed heterotopic bone lying in close proximity to the balloon of the Foley catheter; the sharp edge of heterotopic bone probably acted like a saw and led to frequent rupture of the balloon of the Foley catheter. Unique features of this case are: (1 temporal relationship of heterotopic bone formation to suprapubic cystostomy and chronic urine leak; (2 occurrence of heterotopic ossification in pubic region; (3 complications of heterotopic bone formation viz. frequent rupture of the balloon of the Foley catheter by the irregular margin of heterotopic bone and difficulty in insertion of suprapubic catheter because the heterotopic bone encroached on the suprapubic track; (4 synostosis between pubic bones as a result of heterotopic ossification..Common aetiological factors for neurogenic, heterotopic ossification, such as forceful manipulation, trauma, or spasticity, were absent in this

  18. Preventing kidney injury in children with neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Faezeh Javadi; Moghtaderi, Mastaneh; Hajizadeh, Nilofar; Assadi, Farahnak

    2013-12-01

    The most common cause of neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD) in newborn infants is myelomeningocele. The pathophysiology almost always involves the bladder detrusor sphincter dyssynergy (DSD), which if untreated can cause severe and irreversible damage to the upper and lower urinary tracts. Early diagnosis and adequate management of NBD is critical to prevent both renal damage and bladder dysfunction and to reduce chances for the future surgeries. Initial investigation of the affected newborn infant includes a renal and bladder ultrasound, measurement of urine residual, determination of serum creatinine level, and urodynamics study. Voiding cystogram is indicated when either hydronephrosis or DSD is present. The main goal of treatment is prevention of urinary tract deterioration and achievement of continuance at an appropriate age. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) in combination with anticholinergic (oxybutynin) and antibiotics are instituted in those with high filling and voiding pressures, DSD and/or high grade reflux immediately after the myelomeningocele is repaired. Botulium toxin-A injection into detrusor is a safe alternative in patients with insufficient response or significant side effects to anticholinergic (oral or intravesical instillation) therapy. Surgery is an effective alternative in patients with persistent detrusor hyperactivity and/or dyssynergic detrusor sphincter despites of the CIC and maximum dosage of anticholinergic therapy. Children with NBD require care from a multidisciplinary team approach consisting of pediatricians, neurosurgeon, urologist, nephrologists, orthopedic surgeon, and other allied medical specialists. PMID:24498490

  19. Preventing kidney injury in children with neurogenic bladder dysfunction

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    Faezeh Javadi Larijani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD in newborn infants is myelomeningocele. The pathophysiology almost always involves the bladder detrusor sphincter dyssynergy (DSD, which if untreated can cause severe and irreversible damage to the upper and lower urinary tracts. Early diagnosis and adequate management of NBD is critical to prevent both renal damage and bladder dysfunction and to reduce chances for the future surgeries. Initial investigation of the affected newborn infant includes a renal and bladder ultrasound, measurement of urine residual, determination of serum creatinine level, and urodynamics study. Voiding cystogram is indicated when either hydronephrosis or DSD is present. The main goal of treatment is prevention of urinary tract deterioration and achievement of continuance at an appropriate age. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC in combination with anticholinergic (oxybutynin and antibiotics are instituted in those with high filling and voiding pressures, DSD and/or high grade reflux immediately after the myelomeningocele is repaired. Botulium toxin-A injection into detrusor is a safe alternative in patients with insufficient response or significant side effects to anticholinergic (oral or intravesical instillation therapy. Surgery is an effective alternative in patients with persistent detrusor hyperactivity and/or dyssynergic detrusor sphincter despites of the CIC and maximum dosage of anticholinergic therapy. Children with NBD require care from a multidisciplinary team approach consisting of pediatricians, neurosurgeon, urologist, nephrologists, orthopedic surgeon, and other allied medical specialists.

  20. Thoraco-retroperitoneal neurogenic tumors. Report of two cases

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    C.E. Roată

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal and posterior thoracic neurogenic tumors are rare tumors and may have different origins: ganglion cell (ganglioneuromas, ganglioneuroblastomas, neuroblastomas, paraganglionic system (paragangliomas, pheochromocytomas and nerve sheath (schwannomas, neurofibromas, malignant nerve sheath tumors. Nerve sheath tumors are mostly benign tumors. These tumors usually present late and cause symptoms or become palpable once they have reached a significant size. Good quality cross-sectional imaging is necessary to evaluate these types of tumors and the diagnosis may be suggested by the imaging appearance of the lesion, including its location, shape, and internal structure. Distinguish between benign and malignant tumors is difficult to make preoperatively unless distant metastases are present. A core needle biopsy may be helpful but tumor location and its frequently encountered close relations with vascular structures preclude it. Surgery remains the mainstay of curative therapy for these tumors. We present two cases, a retroperitoneal benign schwannoma and a posterior thoracic malignant nerve sheath tumor with retroperitoneal extension, which were successfully resected through an abdominal approach and phrenotomy. Preoperative imaging, surgical approach and intraoperative strategy are emphasized

  1. Neurogenic heterotopic ossification : a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in neurorehabilitation.

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    Taly A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic ossification (HO is an important cause of restriction in range of movements and secondary motor disability following neurotrauma, orthopaedic interventions and burns. It has not received focussed attention in non-traumatic neurological disorders. In a prospective study of 377 patients, on medical problems in neurological rehabilitation setting, 15 subjects (3.97% had neurogenic heterotopic ossification. Their clinical diagnosis was: transverse myelitis (7, neurotuberculosis (4, traumatic myelopathy (2 and stroke (2. Hip (10, knee (4 and elbow joints (1 were involved. The risk factors included urinary tract infection (15, spasticity (6, pressure sores (13 and deep venous thrombosis (DVT (6. The initial diagnosis was often other than HO and included DVT (3, haematoma (2 and arthritis (2. ESR and serum alkaline phosphatase levels were elevated in all but one subject. The diagnosis of HO was established using X-rays, CT Scan and three-phase bone scan. Following treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the range of motion improved in only four patients. HO resulted in significant loss of therapy time during rehabilitation. High index of suspicion about this complication is necessary for early diagnosis and prompt intervention.

  2. The role of botulinum toxin A in treating neurogenic bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckx, Filip; Tutolo, Manuela; De Ridder, Dirk; Van der Aa, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) can result in lower and upper urinary tract complications and eventually even in end-stage kidney failure. Since the driving force of this clinical cascade is high bladder pressure, controlling intravesical pressure in NDO patients improves both quality of life and life-expectancy in these patients. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) has proven its efficacy in reducing intravesical pressure and in reducing incontinence episodes. BTX-A also improves quality of life in patients with NDO. Both onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox(®), Allergan, Irvine, USA) and abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport(®), Ipsen, Paris, France) have a level A recommendation for NDO-treatment. The recommended dose for intradetrusor injections in NDO patients is 200 U of onabotulinumtoxinA or 500 U of abobotulinumtoxinA. The drug is generally administered extratrigonal in the detrusor muscle, via cystoscopic guided injection at 20 sites in 1 mL injections. Intradetrusor BTX-A injections are safe, with mostly local complications such as urinary tract infection and high post-void residual or retention. The effect of the toxin lasts for approximately 9 months. Repeat injections can be performed without loss of efficacy. Different injection techniques, novel ways of BTX-A administration, eliminating the need for injection or new BTX-A types with better/longer response rates could change the field in the future. PMID:26904413

  3. Inosine Improves Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity following Spinal Cord Injury.

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    Yeun Goo Chung

    Full Text Available Neurogenic detrusor overactivity and the associated loss of bladder control are among the most challenging complications of spinal cord injury (SCI. Anticholinergic agents are the mainstay for medical treatment of detrusor overactivity. However, their use is limited by significant side effects such that a search for new treatments is warranted. Inosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside with neuroprotective, neurotrophic and antioxidant effects that is known to improve motor function in preclinical models of SCI. However, its effect on lower urinary tract function has not been determined. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of systemic administration of inosine on voiding function following SCI and to delineate potential mechanisms of action. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent complete spinal cord transection, or cord compression by application of an aneurysm clip at T8 for 30 sec. Inosine (225 mg/kg or vehicle was administered daily via intraperitoneal injection either immediately after injury or after a delay of 8 wk. At the end of treatment, voiding behavior was assessed by cystometry. Levels of synaptophysin (SYP, neurofilament 200 (NF200 and TRPV1 in bladder tissues were measured by immunofluorescence imaging. Inosine administration decreased overactivity in both SCI models, with a significant decrease in the frequency of spontaneous non-voiding contractions during filling, compared to vehicle-treated SCI rats (p<0.05, including under conditions of delayed treatment. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated increased levels of the pan-neuronal marker SYP and the Adelta fiber marker NF200, but decreased staining for the C-fiber marker, TRPV1 in bladder tissues from inosine-treated rats compared to those from vehicle-treated animals, including after delayed treatment. These findings demonstrate that inosine prevents the development of detrusor overactivity and attenuates existing overactivity following SCI, and may

  4. Neurogenic overactive bladder in spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis: role of onabotulinumtoxinA

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    Ethans KD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available KD Ethans,1,2 AR Casey,1,2 RJ Bard,1,3 MP Namaka1 1University of Manitoba, 2Section of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Health Sciences Centre, 3Section of Urology, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Abstract: People with neurogenic overactive bladder from either multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury often suffer significant morbidity and decreased quality of life. Here we review the pathophysiology of neurogenic overactive bladder and the impact it can have on people with multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury. We also address the various traditional treatment options and focus on the use of botulinum toxin A (specifically onabotulinumtoxinA for this condition. Keywords: neurogenic detrusor overactivity, overactive bladder, onabotulinumtoxinA, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury

  5. The effect of penile vibratory stimulation on male fertility potential, spasticity and neurogenic detrusor overactivity in spinal cord lesioned individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Læssøe, Line; Sønksen, J;

    2005-01-01

    Present the possibility for treatment of male infertility, spasticity, and neurogenic detrusor overactivity in spinal cord lesioned (SCL) individuals with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS).......Present the possibility for treatment of male infertility, spasticity, and neurogenic detrusor overactivity in spinal cord lesioned (SCL) individuals with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS)....

  6. Neurogenic differentiation from adipose-derived stem cells and application for autologous transplantation in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Hui; Liu, Xin-wei; Chen, Jian-Ting; Xiang, Liang-Bi; Zhou, Da-Peng

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue have the capacity to differentiate into endodermal, mesoderm and ectodermal cell lineages in vitro, which are an ideal engraft in tissue-engineered repair. In this study, mouse adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were isolated from subcutaneous fat. The markers of ADSCs, CD13, CD29, CD44, CD71, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD166, Nestin, GFAP and MAP-2 were detected by immunofluorescence assays. The ADSCs were cultured in cocktail factors (including ATRA, GGF-2, bFGF, PDGF and forskolin) for neurogenic differentiation. The neurogenic cells markers, Nestin, GFAP and MAP-2 were analyzed using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR after dramatic changes in morphology. Neurogenic cells from ADSCs were autologous transplanted into the mouse of spinal cord injury for observation neurogenic cells colonization in spinal cord. The result demonstrated that the mouse ADSCs were positive for the CD13, CD29, CD44, CD71, CD73, CD90, CD105 and CD166 but negative for neurogenic cell markers, MAP-2, GFAP and Nestin. After neurogenic differentiation, the neurogenic cells were positive for neurogenic cell special markers, gene expression level showed a time-lapse increase, and the cells were successful colonized into spinal cord. In conclusion, our research shows that a population of neuronal cells can be specifically generated from ADSCs and that induced cells may allow for participation in tissue-repair. PMID:25330756

  7. Intravesical prostatic protrusion correlates well with storage symptoms in elderly male patients with non-neurogenic overactive bladder

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    Shih-Yen Lu

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: In elderly male patients with non-neurogenic OAB, more severe storage symptoms are associated with a lower maximum flow rate and a more prominent IPP, indicating that a significant cause of male non-neurogenic OAB is prostate associated.

  8. Botulinum toxin A for treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity and incontinence in patients with spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, Per; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intravesical botulinum toxin A (BTA) in the treatment of severe neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) with incontinence in patients with spinal cord lesions (SCLs).......To evaluate the efficacy of intravesical botulinum toxin A (BTA) in the treatment of severe neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) with incontinence in patients with spinal cord lesions (SCLs)....

  9. The conceptualization and development of a patient-reported neurogenic bladder symptom score

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    Welk B

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Blayne Welk,1 Sarah A Morrow,2 Wendy Madarasz,3 Patrick Potter,4 Keith Sequeira41Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Western University, London, ON, Canada; 3St Joseph's Health Care, London Ontario, Canada; 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Western University, London, ON, CanadaBackground: There is no single patient-reported instrument that was developed specifically to assess symptoms and bladder-related consequences for neurogenic bladder dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to identify and consolidate items for a novel measurement tool for this population.Methods: Item generation was based on a literature review of existing instruments, open-ended semistructured interviews with patients, and expert opinion. Judgment-based item reduction was performed by a multidisciplinary expert group. The proposed questionnaire was sent to external experts for review.Results: Eight neurogenic quality of life measures and 29 urinary symptom-specific instruments were identified. From these, 266 relevant items were extracted and used in the creation of the new neurogenic symptom score. Qualitative interviews with 16 adult patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction as a result of spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, or spina bifida were completed. Dominant themes included urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, urgency, and bladder spasms. Using the literature review and interview data, 25 proposed items were reviewed by 12 external experts, and the questions evaluated based on importance on a scale of 1 (not important to 5 (very important. Retained question domains had high mean importance ratings of 3.1 to 4.3 and good agreement with answer hierarchy.Conclusion: The proposed neurogenic bladder symptom score is a novel patient-reported outcome measure. Further work is underway to perform a data-based item reduction and to assess the validity and reliability of this instrument

  10. Characterization of multiciliated ependymal cells that emerge in the neurogenic niche of the aged zebrafish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Takashi; Sawada, Masato; Takase, Hiroshi; Nakai, Chiemi; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Kaneko, Naoko; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2016-10-15

    In mammals, ventricular walls of the developing brain maintain a neurogenic niche, in which radial glial cells act as neural stem cells (NSCs) and generate new neurons in the embryo. In the adult brain, the neurogenic niche is maintained in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral wall of lateral ventricles and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In the neonatal V-SVZ, radial glial cells transform into astrocytic postnatal NSCs and multiciliated ependymal cells. On the other hand, in zebrafish, radial glial cells continue to cover the surface of the adult telencephalic ventricle and maintain a higher neurogenic potential in the adult brain. However, the cell composition of the neurogenic niche of the aged zebrafish brain has not been investigated. Here we show that multiciliated ependymal cells emerge in the neurogenic niche of the aged zebrafish telencephalon. These multiciliated cells appear predominantly in the dorsal part of the ventral telencephalic ventricular zone, which also contains clusters of migrating new neurons. Scanning electron microscopy and live imaging analyses indicated that these multiple cilia beat coordinately and generate constant fluid flow within the ventral telencephalic ventricle. Analysis of the cell composition by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the neurogenic niche in the aged zebrafish contains different types of cells, with ultrastructures similar to those of ependymal cells, transit-amplifying cells, and migrating new neurons in postnatal mice. These data suggest that the transformation capacity of radial glial cells is conserved but that its timing is different between fish and mice. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2982-2992, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991819

  11. Leiomyosarcoma of the Oropharynx and Neurogenic Tumors in a YoungPatient With Turner's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Borghese; Vito Ninfo; Vincenzo De Rosa; Francesco Ionna; Gerardo Botti; Simona Losito; Giustino Silvestro; Gaetano Apice; Annarosaria De Chiara

    2001-01-01

    Patient: A case of Turner's syndrome developing a leiomyosarcoma of the oropharynx and metachronous neurogenic tumors (mediastinal ‘ganglioneuroblastoma intermixed’, subcutaneous neurilemoma) is described. Discussion: To our knowledge, this case is the second reported leiomyosarcoma in a patient with Turner's syndrome. Also the site of involvement (palate and oropharynx) is particularly unusual for the already rare leiomyosarcomas in the young age.

  12. A Clinician Survey of Speech and Non-Speech Characteristics of Neurogenic Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, Catherine; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Nil, Luc F.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents survey data on 58 Dutch-speaking patients with neurogenic stuttering following various neurological injuries. Stroke was the most prevalent cause of stuttering in our patients, followed by traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and other causes. Speech and non-speech characteristics were analyzed separately for…

  13. Neurogenic pulmonary edema due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary edema is caused by the accumulation of fluid within the air spaces and the interstitium of the lung. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a clinical syndrome characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema following a significant central nervous system insult. It may be a less-recognized consequence of raised intracranial pressure due to obstructive hydrocephalus by blocked ventricular shunts. It usually appears within minutes to hours after the injury and has a high mortality rate if not recognized and treated appropriately. CASE REPORT: We report a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction, proposed to urgent surgery for placement of external ventricular drainage, who presented with neurogenic pulmonary edema preoperatively. She was anesthetized and supportive treatment was instituted. At the end of the procedure the patient showed no clinical signs of respiratory distress, as prompt reduction in intracranial pressure facilitated the regression of the pulmonary edema. CONCLUSIONS: This report addresses the importance of recognition of neurogenic pulmonary edema as a possible perioperative complication resulting from an increase in intracranial pressure. If not recognized and treated appropriately, neurogenic pulmonary edema can lead to acute cardiopulmonary failure with global hypoperfusion and hypoxia. Therefore, awareness of and knowledge about the occurrence, clinical presentation and treatment are essential.

  14. Neurogenética en el Perú, ejemplo de investigación traslacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mazzetti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La neurogenética es una disciplina emergente en el Perú que vincula la investigación básica con la práctica clínica. El Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, es el único centro en el Perú dedicado a la atención especializada de enfermedades neurogenéticas. La investigación en esta área está estrechamente ligada a la enfermedad de Huntington, desde la genotipificación del gen HTT por PCR, hasta los actuales estudios de haplogrupos en esta enfermedad. La investigación en otras enfermedades monogénicas permitió la implementación de metodologías alternativas para la genotipificación del síndrome X frágil y distrofia miotónica tipo 1. Esfuerzos colaborativos nacionales e internacionales han permitido conocer nuevas variantes genéticas en enfermedades complejas, como la enfermedad de Parkinson y Alzheimer. El entrenamiento multidisciplinario y la mentoría fomentan la formación de nuevos especialistas en neurogenética, permitiendo el crecimiento sostenido de esta disciplina en el país. El impulso de la investigación en el Perú ha impulsado el crecimiento de la investigación en neurogenética; sin embargo, las limitaciones en infraestructura, tecnología y capacitación aún son un reto para el crecimiento de investigación en esta disciplina

  15. Regional Comparison of the Neurogenic Effects of CNTF-Derived Peptides and Cerebrolysin in AβPP Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rockenstein, Edward; Ubhi, Kiren; Doppler, Edith; Novak, Philipp; Moessler, Herbert; Bin LI; Blanchard, Julie; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid; Mante, Michael; Adame, Anthony; Crews, Leslie; Masliah, Eliezer

    2011-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in certain brain regions, is known to decrease with age and the loss of neurogenic potential has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Cerebrolysin (CBL) has been shown to increase neurogenesis in models of stroke and AD. CBL is composed of small peptides with activity similar to neurotrophic factors including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), which may mediate its neurogenic effects. This s...

  16. Coronavirus-induced demyelination of neural pathways triggers neurogenic bladder overactivity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, Matthew T; Pan, Xiao-Qing; Smith, Ariana L.; Newman, Diane K.; Weiss, Susan R.; Ruggieri, Michael R.; Malykhina, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to determine whether mice with coronavirus-induced encephalomyelitis (CIE) develop neurogenic bladder dysfunction that is comparable with the neurogenic detrusor overactivity observed in patients with multiple sclerosis. Adult mice (C57BL/6J, 8 wk of age, n = 146) were inoculated with a neurotropic strain of mouse hepatitis virus (A59 strain) and followed for 4 wk. Inoculation with the virus caused a significant neural deficit in mice with an average clinical sy...

  17. Evaluation and Management of Neurogenic Bladder: What Is New in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Liao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic bladder (NB or neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD, a dysfunction of the urinary bladder and urethra due to disease of the central nervous system or peripheral nerves, is a major global medical and social problem. Numerous nervous system abnormalities, such as: stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, traumatic spinal cord injury, spinal cord tumors, congenital spina bifida, and diabetes, can cause NB/NLUTD. There are two major types of bladder control problems associated with NB/NLUTD: the bladder becomes either overactive or underactive depending on the nature, level, and extent of nerve damage. This review specifically focuses on the diagnosis and management of NB/NLUTD in China as well as on recent efforts to treat this disease.

  18. Evaluation and Management of Neurogenic Bladder: What Is New in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder (NB) or neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD), a dysfunction of the urinary bladder and urethra due to disease of the central nervous system or peripheral nerves, is a major global medical and social problem. Numerous nervous system abnormalities, such as: stroke, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, traumatic spinal cord injury, spinal cord tumors, congenital spina bifida, and diabetes, can cause NB/NLUTD. There are two major types of bladder control problems associated with NB/NLUTD: the bladder becomes either overactive or underactive depending on the nature, level, and extent of nerve damage. This review specifically focuses on the diagnosis and management of NB/NLUTD in China as well as on recent efforts to treat this disease. PMID:26266405

  19. Endogenous neurogenic cell response in the mature mammalian brain following traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong

    2016-01-01

    In the mature mammalian brain, new neurons are generated throughout life in the neurogenic regions of the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Over the past two decades, extensive studies have examined the extent of adult neurogenesis in the SVZ and DG, the role of the adult generated new neurons in normal brain function and the underlying mechanisms regulating the process of adult neurogenesis. The extent and the function of adult neurogenesis under neuropathological conditions have also been explored in varying types of disease models in animals. Increasing evidence has indicated that these endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells may play regenerative and reparative roles in response to CNS injuries or diseases. This review will discuss the potential functions of adult neurogenesis in the injured brain and will describe the recent development of strategies aimed at harnessing this neurogenic capacity in order to repopulate and repair the injured brain following trauma. PMID:25936874

  20. Early revealing of neurogenic disorders of urination in patients with anorectal anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makedonsky I.O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 148 patients with anorectal malformations (ARM were examined. Using clinical, X-ray, ultrasound and urodynamical methods of detections, factors which can cause bladder dysfunction in anorectal malformations are revealed. It was noted that patients with high and low forms of this defect have significant percentage of neurogenec disorders of urination. Absence of anomalies of spinal column development does not exclude these children from the group of scheduled profound urologic investigation. We propose ultrasound measurement of bladder wall thickness and 4-hour monitoring of voiding, urodynamic examination as early diagnostic methods of neurogenic bladder dysfunctions. For timely revealing and treatment of neurogenic disorders of urination we recommend urologic inves¬tigation to all ARM patients. Improvement of diagnostic methods and development of algorithm of revealing mentioned pathologies against ARM with the aim to prevent com¬plications in the urinary system, being perspective in decreasing lethality and disability.

  1. Acute intraoperative neurogenic myocardial stunning during intracranial endoscopic fenestration and shunt revision in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Kristen Elizabeth; Patten, William D; Elzamzamy, Osama M; Attaallah, Ahmed Fikry

    2016-02-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM) is syndrome of myocardial dysfunction following an acute neurological insult. We report a case of NSM that occurred intraoperatively in a pediatric patient undergoing endoscopic fenestration and shunt revision. Accidental outflow occlusion of irrigation fluid and ventricular distension resulted in an acute increase in heart rate and arterial blood pressure. Subsequently, the patient developed stunned myocardium with global myocardial hypokinesia and pulmonary edema. She was promptly treated intraoperatively then admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with resolution of her symptoms within 12 h. She was later discharged to home on the fourth postoperative day. In the current endoscopic era, this report highlights the possibility of intraoperative NSM and neurogenic pulmonary edema in the pediatric population. Early detection and treatment with a team approach help to achieve optimal control of this life-threatening condition and improve the outcome. PMID:26314948

  2. Precocious puberty: clinical and endocrine profile and factors indicating neurogenic precocity in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Anurag; Sharma, Jyoti; Kabra, Madhulika; Kumar Gupta, Arun; Menon, P S N

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and endocrine profile of patients with precocious puberty followed up in a tertiary care hospital. Records of 140 patients (114 girls, 26 boys) with precocious puberty were reviewed. Clinical features including age of onset, stage of pubertal development, presenting symptoms, features suggestive of CNS involvement and family history were analyzed. Endocrine investigations included basal and GnRH-stimulated levels of LH and FSH as well as 17OHP, DHEA, hCG and thyroid profile. Abdominal and pelvic ultrasonography and CNS imaging were correlated with clinical features. Girls outnumbered boys in this series (4.4:1). Neurogenic central isosexual precocious puberty (CIPP) was more common in boys (10 out of 18, 55.6%) than girls (16 out of 77, 20.8%). The most common cause of neurogenic CIPP was hypothalamic hamartoma present in five girls and four boys. Other causes of neurogenic CIPP included neurotuberculosis, pituitary adenoma, hydrocephalus, post radiotherapy, CNS tumors and malformations. Peripheral precocious puberty (PPP) was secondary to adrenal causes in boys and ovarian cysts in girls. Benign variants of precocious puberty, such as premature thelarche and premature adrenarche, were present in 23 and six girls, respectively. Hypothyroidism was present in four girls and McCune-Albright syndrome in one girl. Girls with neurogenic CIPP had a lower age of onset as compared to idiopathic CIPP (3.6 +/- 2.7 years vs 5.4 +/- 2.5 years, p = 0.014). The lowest age of onset was seen in girls with hypothalamic hamartoma (1.6 +/- 0.9 years). Forty-seven girls with CIPP (seven neurogenic and 40 idiopathic) presented after the age of 6 years. Features of CNS involvement, in the form of seizures, mental retardation, raised intracranial tension or focal neurological deficits, were present in seven girls (43.8%) and four boys (40%), and gelastic seizures were present in three children. Girls with CIPP had greater bone age

  3. Neurogenic period of ascending tract neurons in the upper lumbar spinal cord of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the neurogenic period for neurons in the lumbar spinal cord has been clearly established (Days 12 through 16 of gestation), it is not known when the neurogenesis of ascending tract neurons is completed within this period. The purpose of the present study was to determine the duration of the neurogenic period for projection neurons of the ascending tracts. To label neurons undergoing mitosis during this period, tritiated thymidine was administered to fetal rats on Embryonic (E) Days E13 through E16 of gestation. Ascending tract neurons of the lumbar cord were later (Postnatal Days 40-50) labeled in each animal with a retrograde tracer, Fluoro-Gold, applied at the site of a hemisection at spinal cord segment C3. Ascending tract neurons which were undergoing mitosis in the upper lumbar cord were double labeled, i.e., labeled with both tritiated thymidine and Fluoro-Gold. On Day E13, 89-92% of the ascending tract neurons were double labeled; on Day E14, 35-37%; and on Day E15, 1-4%. Results showed, then, that some ascending tract neurons were double labeled through Day E15 and were, therefore, proliferating in the final one-third of the neurogenic period. Ascending tract neurons proliferating on Day E15 were confined to laminae III, IV, V, and X and the nucleus dorsalis. Long tract neurons in the superficial dorsal horn (laminae I and II), on the other hand, were found to have completed neurogenesis on Day E14 of gestation. Results of the present study show that spinal neurogenesis of ascending projection neurons continues throughout most of the neurogenic period and does not completely follow the well-established ventral to dorsal gradient

  4. Hypertonic saline increases vascular permeability in the rat trachea by producing neurogenic inflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Umeno, E; McDonald, D M; Nadel, J A

    1990-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether inhalation of hypertonic saline aerosols increases vascular permeability in the rat trachea, and we examined the role of neurogenic inflammation in this response. Stereological point counting was performed to measure the percent area occupied by Monastral blue-labeled blood vessels as a means of quantifying the increase in vascular permeability in tracheal whole mounts. Hypertonic saline aerosols (3.6-14.4% NaCl) increased vascular permeability in a dose-dep...

  5. Urodynamic profile of patients with neurogenic bladder following non-traumatic myelopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the urodynamic profile of the patients following non-traumatic myelopathies (NTMs with neurogenic bladder. Setting: Neurological rehabilitation department of university tertiary research hospital. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine patients (44 men with monophasic NTM, with the age range 8-65 years (31.0 ± 16.0 years, were admitted for inpatients′ rehabilitation. Length of stay in rehabilitation ranged from 6 to 120 days (32.0 ± 24.8 days. Fifty-six patients (70.9% had spinal lesion above D10, 17 had lesion between D10 and L2 (21.5%, and 6 (7.6% had cauda equina syndrome. All patients had neurogenic bladder with urinary complaints. Urodynamic study (UDS was performed in all patients. Results: UDS showed 71.4% patients (40/56 had neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO with or without sphincter dyssynergy (DSD with lesion above D10; only 52.9% patients (9/17 had NDO with or without DSD detrusor with lesion between D10 and L2; and majority (5/6 patients had underactive detrusor in the cauda equina group. Bladder management was based on the UDS findings. No significant correlation was found (P > 0.05 between detrusor behavior and the level, severity (ASIA Impairment Scale of spinal injury, or gender using chi-square test. Conclusions: Neurogenic bladder following NTM was observed in all patients. UDS suggested predominantly NDO in lesions above D10 and mixed pattern in between D10 and L2 lesions. No significant correlation was found between detrusor behavior and the level or severity of NTM in the study.

  6. Notch receptor expression in neurogenic regions of the adult zebrafish brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Oliveira-Carlos

    Full Text Available The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 [Formula: see text] of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches.

  7. Neurogenic pulmonary edema induced by spinal cord injury in spontaneously hypertensive and Dahl salt hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 6 (2011), s. 975-979. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0336; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : hypertension * neurogenic pulmonary edema * Dahl salt-sensitive rats * SHR Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.555, year: 2011

  8. Neurogenic pulmonary edema due to ventriculo-atrial shunt dysfunction: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sofia Cruz; Sónia Menezes; Maria Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary edema is caused by the accumulation of fluid within the air spaces and the interstitium of the lung. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a clinical syndrome characterized by the acute onset of pulmonary edema following a significant central nervous system insult. It may be a less-recognized consequence of raised intracranial pressure due to obstructive hydrocephalus by blocked ventricular shunts. It usually appears within minutes to hours after the in...

  9. Heated indoor swimming pools, infants, and the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a neurogenic hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster Marianne E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In a case-control study a statistically significant association was recorded between the introduction of infants to heated indoor swimming pools and the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). In this paper, a neurogenic hypothesis is formulated to explain how toxins produced by chlorine in such pools may act deleteriously on the infant's immature central nervous system, comprising brain and spinal cord, to produce the deformity of AIS. Presentation of the hy...

  10. Neurogenic heterotopic ossification: epidemiology and morphology on conventional radiographs in an early neurological rehabilitation population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To retrospectively evaluate neurogenic heterotopic ossification in an early neurological rehabilitation population (phases B and C) with respect to epidemiology and morphology on conventional radiographs. Over a 4-year period, 1,463 patients treated at a clinic for early neurological rehabilitation were evaluated for clinical symptoms of neurogenic heterotopic ossification. In case of clinical suspicion, plain radiographs of the expected sites were obtained. If heterotopic ossification was detected, the initial and subsequent radiographs were retrospectively analyzed for sites, size, and morphology. Immature lesions were categorized as small (<10 mm) or large (10-100 mm). The prevalence rate of neurogenic heterotopic ossification was 2.05%. The condition was most common in young male adults. The hip was the most common site accounting for more than half of the cases. Two or more ossifications were seen in 56.7% of the affected patients with approximately two-thirds showing bilateral symmetric involvement of corresponding joint regions. The size of ossifications strongly varied interindividually. Small immature lesions demonstrated less progression in size than large lesions during maturation (P < 0.05). Standard radiographs, as a fast and inexpensive technique, allow the expected size progression of heterotopic ossifications during maturation to be estimated, which is relevant in terms of therapeutic decisions, patient mobilization, and neurological rehabilitation. (orig.)

  11. Neurogenic heterotopic ossification: epidemiology and morphology on conventional radiographs in an early neurological rehabilitation population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seipel, R.; Langner, S.; Lippa, M.; Kuehn, J.P.; Hosten, N. [Ernst Moritz Arndt Universitaet Greifswald, Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Greifswald (Germany); Platz, T. [An-Institut der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, BDH-Klinik Greifswald GmbH, Neurologisches Rehabilitationszentrum und Querschnittgelaehmtenzentrum, Greifswald (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    To retrospectively evaluate neurogenic heterotopic ossification in an early neurological rehabilitation population (phases B and C) with respect to epidemiology and morphology on conventional radiographs. Over a 4-year period, 1,463 patients treated at a clinic for early neurological rehabilitation were evaluated for clinical symptoms of neurogenic heterotopic ossification. In case of clinical suspicion, plain radiographs of the expected sites were obtained. If heterotopic ossification was detected, the initial and subsequent radiographs were retrospectively analyzed for sites, size, and morphology. Immature lesions were categorized as small (<10 mm) or large (10-100 mm). The prevalence rate of neurogenic heterotopic ossification was 2.05%. The condition was most common in young male adults. The hip was the most common site accounting for more than half of the cases. Two or more ossifications were seen in 56.7% of the affected patients with approximately two-thirds showing bilateral symmetric involvement of corresponding joint regions. The size of ossifications strongly varied interindividually. Small immature lesions demonstrated less progression in size than large lesions during maturation (P < 0.05). Standard radiographs, as a fast and inexpensive technique, allow the expected size progression of heterotopic ossifications during maturation to be estimated, which is relevant in terms of therapeutic decisions, patient mobilization, and neurological rehabilitation. (orig.)

  12. SPOT14-Positive Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells in the Hippocampus Respond Dynamically to Neurogenic Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Knobloch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs in the adult brain is tightly controlled to prevent exhaustion and to ensure proper neurogenesis. Several extrinsic stimuli affect NSPC regulation. However, the lack of unique markers led to controversial results regarding the in vivo behavior of NSPCs to different stimuli. We recently identified SPOT14, which controls NSPC proliferation through regulation of de novo lipogenesis, selectively in low-proliferating NSPCs. Whether SPOT14-expressing (SPOT14+ NSPCs react in vivo to neurogenic regulators is not known. We show that aging is accompanied by a marked disappearance of SPOT14+ NSPCs, whereas running, a positive neurogenic stimulus, increases proliferation of SPOT14+ NSPCs. Furthermore, transient depletion of highly proliferative cells recruits SPOT14+ NSPCs into the proliferative pool. Additionally, we have established endogenous SPOT14 protein staining, reflecting transgenic SPOT14-GFP expression. Thus, our data identify SPOT14 as a potent marker for adult NSPCs that react dynamically to positive and negative neurogenic regulators.

  13. Neurogenic pruritus: an unrecognised problem? A retrospective case series of treatment by acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellon, Anthony

    2002-12-01

    Intractable localised segmental pruritus without a rash has been reported over the years under various titles depending on the area of the body affected. Notalgia paresthetica and brachioradial pruritus are the two terms used for what is believed to be a form of neuropathy. The clinical observations reported here suggest that other localised cases of pruritus exist that share common clinical features, and the term neurogenic pruritus is suggested to encompass these under one clinical condition. Acupuncture has been used to treat skin conditions, of which pruritus is one symptom. This retrospective study looked at the symptomatic relief of neurogenic pruritus in 16 patients using acupuncture. In 12 cases the affected dermatomes of the body were innervated by cervical spinal nerves, seven innervated by dorsal spinal nerves and four innervated by the lumbar spinal nerves. Seven patients had areas affected by two different regions of the spine. Restricted neck or back movements were noted in patients as were areas of paravertebral spasm or tenderness of the muscles. Total resolution of symptoms as judged by VAS occurred in 75% of patients. Relapse occurred in 37% of patients within 1-12 months following treatment. Acupuncture appeared to be effective in alleviating the distressing symptom of itching in patients presenting with neurogenic pruritus. PMID:12512793

  14. Complications of untreated and ineffectively treated neurogenic bladder dysfunctions in children: our own practical classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, P; Zachwieja, J

    2016-04-01

    The neurogenic dysfunctions of the detrusor and the sphincter are caused by either a known congenital defect of the nervous system or by acquired damage to the nervous system. In patients with idiopathic bladder dysfunctions neurological examinations fail to reveal any pathology in the nervous system. The treatment strategy for the patient with detrusor-sphincter dysfunction should be based on a comprehensive functional and morphological evaluation. Clean Intermittent Catheterization is mandatory if voiding is ineffective. Reduced bladder capacity related to detrusor overactivity and decreased bladder walls compliance is successfully managed conservatively with oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment prevents complications in the majority of patients. However, despite proper conservative treatment, some patients still develop complications. We propose our own practical classification of complications characteristic for the bladder and sphincter dysfunctions: 1. Urinary tract infections; 2. Urolithiasis; 3. Anatomic changes in the lower urinary tract; 4. Anatomic changes in the upper urinary tract; 5. Functional disturbances of kidneys parenchyma; 6. Urinary incontinence. Proposed practical classification of complications of bladder and sphincter dysfunctions is clear and simple. This classification can be used both in children with neurogenic and non-neurogenic dysfunctions. It is helpful in planning follow-up procedures and evaluation of treatment results. PMID:27097940

  15. Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Considerations for Non-Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Hidehiro; Kita, Masafumi; Watanabe, Masaki; Wada, Naoki

    2016-05-01

    Non-neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) in children is very common in clinical practice and is important as an underlying cause of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux in affected children. LUTD in children is caused by multiple factors and might be related with a delay in functional maturation of the lower urinary tract. Behavioral and psychological problems often co-exist in children with LUTD and bowel dysfunction. Recent findings in functional brain imaging suggest that bladder bowel dysfunction and behavioral and psychiatric disorders in children might share common pathophysiological factors in the brain. Children with suspected LUTD should be evaluated properly by detailed history taking, validated questionnaire on voiding and defecation, voiding and bowel diary, urinalysis, screening ultrasound, uroflowmetry and post-void residual measurement. Invasive urodynamic study such as videourodynamics should be reserved for children in whom standard treatment fails. Initial treatment of non-neurogenic LUTD is standard urotherapy comprising education of the child and family, regular optimal voiding regimens and bowel programs. Pelvic floor muscle awareness, biofeedback and neuromodulation can be used as a supplementary purpose. Antimuscarinics and α-blockers are safely used for overactive bladder and dysfunctional voiding, respectively. For refractory cases, botulinum toxin A injection is a viable treatment option. Prudent use of urotherapy and pharmacotherapy for non-neurogenic LUTD should have a better chance to cure various problems and improve self-esteem and quality of life in affected children. PMID:27111618

  16. Botulinumtoxin-A in the treatment for neurogenic bladder dysfunctions in children and adolescents in consideration of Botulinumtoxin-a antibidies in therapie failures

    OpenAIRE

    Herholz, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The standard treatment for neurogenic bladder dysfunctions in children is administration of anticholinergic medication in combination with a intermittend catheteriziation. However, not all patients can be sufficiently stabilized with this established therapy. Botulinum toxins are gaining increasing importance in treating neurogenic and non-neurogenic bladder dysfunctions in children. For my doctoral thesis I studied the efficiency side effects, and causes for failures of this new treatmen...

  17. Loss of capsaicin-induced meningeal neurogenic sensory vasodilatation in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dux, M; Rosta, J; Pintér, S; Sántha, P; Jancsó, G

    2007-11-30

    Neuropathic alterations of sensory nerves involved in the mediation of neurogenic inflammation of the meninges may contribute to the increased incidence of headaches in diabetics. In the rat, activation of capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors, which express the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor, induces meningeal vasodilatation, a significant component of neurogenic inflammation, through the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). This study examines the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on TRPV1 receptor-mediated neurogenic sensory vasodilatation, CGRP release and nerve fiber density in the rat dura mater. In a cranial window preparation, epidural application of capsaicin (10(-7) M) produced distinct vasodilatory responses in control animals as measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. In diabetic rats, capsaicin-induced vasodilatation was reduced or even abolished 6, but not 2 or 4 weeks after diabetes induction. In contrast, vasoconstriction, a non-neurogenic response to capsaicin at a higher concentration (10(-5) M), was not altered in diabetic rats. The vasodilatory effects of histamine (10(-5) M), acetylcholine (10(-4) M) and CGRP (10(-5) M) were similar in control, diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic animals. In diabetic rats, a significant decrease in the capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP and reduction in the density of TRPV1-immunoreactive (IR) nerves were demonstrated. Treatment of the diabetic rats with insulin restored both the vasodilatory response and the capsaicin-induced CGRP release toward control values. In conclusion, this study revealed a marked impairment of meningeal TRPV1-IR nerves in streptozotocin diabetic rats by showing reduced neurogenic sensory vasodilatation, decreased capsaicin-evoked CGRP release and reduction in the number of TRPV1-IR nerve fibers of the dura mater. The findings suggest that capsaicin-sensitive afferents may play an important role in meningeal nociceptor function and their

  18. Furosemide modifies heart hypertrophy and glycosaminoglycan myocardium content in a rat model of neurogenic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourzitaki, Chryssa; Tsaousi, Georgia; Manthou, Maria Eleni; Karakiulakis, Georgios; Kouvelas, Dimitrios; Papakonstantinou, Eleni

    2016-08-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for atherogenesis and heart hypertrophy, both of which are associated with specific morphological and functional changes of the myocardium. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex molecules involved both in tissue morphology and function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of neurogenic hypertension and subsequent antihypertensive treatment with furosemide, on heart hypertrophy and the content of GAGs in the myocardium. Neurogenic hypertension was achieved in male Wistar rats by bilateral aortic denervation (bAD). At days 2, 7 and 15 after surgery, animals were sacrificed and the hearts were dissected away, weighted, and homogenized. Total GAGs were assessed by measuring the uronic acid content colorimetrically and individual GAGs were isolated and characterized by enzymatic treatment, with GAG-degrading enzymes, using electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gradient gels and cellulose acetate membranes. In bAD-animals blood pressure, blood pressure lability, heart rate and heart weight were significantly increased 15 days postoperatively. These effects were prevented by treatment with furosemide. Major GAGs identified in the heart were chondroitin sulphates, heparin (H), heparan sulphate (HS) and hyaluronic acid. The content of uronic and the relative content of H and HS in the heart in bAD animals significantly decreased from day 2 to day 15 postoperatively. Furosemide prevented the bAD induced decrease in GAG content. Considering that H and HS are potent inhibitors of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, our results indicate that heart hypertrophy induced by neurogenic hypertension may be associated with decreases in the relative content of heparin and heparan sulphate in the heart. PMID:27221775

  19. Environmental Enrichment, Age, and PPARα Interact to Regulate Proliferation in Neurogenic Niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Lorefice, Clara; Decara, Juan; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ligands have been shown to modulate recovery after brain insults such as ischemia and irradiation by enhancing neurogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the genetic deletion of PPARα receptors on the proliferative rate of neural precursor cells (NPC) in the adult brain. The study was performed in aged Pparα(-/-) mice exposed to nutritional (treats) and environmental (games) enrichments for 20 days. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of cells containing the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (Dcx+) in the main neurogenic zones of the adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ), and/or hypothalamus. Results indicated a reduction in the number of BrdU+ cells in the neurogenic zones analyzed as well as Dcx+ cells in the SGZ during aging (2, 6, and 18 months). Pparα deficiency alleviated the age-related reduction of NPC proliferation (BrdU+ cells) in the SVZ of the 18-months-old mice. While no genotype effect on NPC proliferation was detected in the SGZ during aging, an accentuated reduction in the number of Dcx+ cells was observed in the SGZ of the 6-months-old Pparα(-/-) mice. Exposing the 18-months-old mice to nutritional and environmental enrichments reversed the Pparα(-/-)-induced impairment of NPC proliferation in the neurogenic zones analyzed. The enriched environment did not modify the number of SGZ Dcx+ cells in the 18 months old Pparα(-/-) mice. These results identify PPARα receptors as a potential target to counteract the naturally observed decline in adult NPC proliferation associated with aging and impoverished environments. PMID:27013951

  20. Environmental Enrichment, Age, and PPARα Interact to Regulate Proliferation in Neurogenic Niches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Lorefice, Clara; Decara, Juan; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ligands have been shown to modulate recovery after brain insults such as ischemia and irradiation by enhancing neurogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the genetic deletion of PPARα receptors on the proliferative rate of neural precursor cells (NPC) in the adult brain. The study was performed in aged Pparα−/− mice exposed to nutritional (treats) and environmental (games) enrichments for 20 days. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of cells containing the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (Dcx+) in the main neurogenic zones of the adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ), and/or hypothalamus. Results indicated a reduction in the number of BrdU+ cells in the neurogenic zones analyzed as well as Dcx+ cells in the SGZ during aging (2, 6, and 18 months). Pparα deficiency alleviated the age-related reduction of NPC proliferation (BrdU+ cells) in the SVZ of the 18-months-old mice. While no genotype effect on NPC proliferation was detected in the SGZ during aging, an accentuated reduction in the number of Dcx+ cells was observed in the SGZ of the 6-months-old Pparα−/− mice. Exposing the 18-months-old mice to nutritional and environmental enrichments reversed the Pparα−/−-induced impairment of NPC proliferation in the neurogenic zones analyzed. The enriched environment did not modify the number of SGZ Dcx+ cells in the 18 months old Pparα−/− mice. These results identify PPARα receptors as a potential target to counteract the naturally observed decline in adult NPC proliferation associated with aging and impoverished environments. PMID:27013951

  1. Bioimpedance based monitoring system for people with neurogenic dysfunction of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, Alessandro; Rossi, Stefano; Fanucci, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Patients with impaired bladder volume sensation have the necessity to monitor bladder level in order to avoid urinary tract infections and urinary reflux that can lead to renal failure. In this paper the the effectiveness of an embedded and wearable solution for bladder volume monitoring using the bioimpedance measurement is tested. Data are streamed real-time using Bluetooth wireless technology. The bioimpedance measurements on a healthy subject prove the effectiveness of the proposed solution. In the future the system will be evaluated in real world scenarios with patients affected by spinal paralysis and bladder neurogenic dysfunction. PMID:26294580

  2. [The treatment of neurogenic hyperreflexic bladder dysfunctions in girls with low-intensity laser radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosilov, K V; Itskovich, A I; Orekhov, V R

    1995-01-01

    120 girls were investigated for the efficacy of three methods of treatment: conventional, infrared laser radiation on the projection of the bladder plus He-Ne laser radiation on biologically active points (BAP), red He-Ne laser BAP radiation. All the patients suffered from neurogenic hyperreflexic dysfunctions of the bladder, 99.8% had the diagnosis of vegetovascular dystonia, 94.9% had sympathetic-tonic or mixed patterns. The combined laser exposure brought about the greatest response rate-90.0%. PMID:7785111

  3. A step-wise approach to sperm retrieval in men with neurogenic anejaculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Ohl, Dana A; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Normal fertility is dependent on intravaginal delivery of semen through ejaculation. This process is highly dependent on an intact ejaculatory reflex arc, which can be disrupted through any type of trauma or disease causing damage to the CNS and/or peripheral nerves. Neurogenic anejaculation is m...... reasonable options. In such cases the most inexpensive and least invasive methods should be considered first. The obtained semen can be used for intravaginal or intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection....

  4. Cerebral cortical neurons with activity linked to central neurogenic spontaneous and evoked elevations in cerebral blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golanov, E. V.; Reis, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    We recorded neurons in rat cerebral cortex with activity relating to the neurogenic elevations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) coupled to stereotyped bursts of EEG activity, burst-cerebrovascular wave complexes, appearing spontaneously or evoked by electrical stimulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) or fastigial nucleus (FN). Of 333 spontaneously active neurons only 15 (5%), in layers 5-6, consistently (P neurons in deep cortical laminae whose activity correlates with neurogenic elevations of rCBF. These neurons may function to transduce afferent neuronal signals into vasodilation.

  5. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; de Fries, Louise Skovlund

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social...

  6. Electrically evoked neuropeptide release and neurogenic inflammation differ between rat and human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerstein, K; Klede, M; Hilliges, M; Schmelz, M

    2000-12-15

    Protein extravasation and vasodilatation can be induced by neuropeptides released from nociceptive afferents (neurogenic inflammation). We measured electrically evoked neuropeptide release and concomitant protein extravasation in human and rat skin using intradermal microdialysis. Plasmapheresis capillaries were inserted intradermally at a length of 1.5 cm in the volar forearm of human subjects or abdominal skin of rats. Capillaries were perfused with Ringer solution at a flow rate of 2.5 or 1.6 microl min(-1). After a baseline period of 60 min capillaries were stimulated electrically (1 Hz, 80 mA, 0.5 ms or 4 Hz, 30 mA, 0.5 ms) for 30 min using a surface electrode directly above the capillaries and a stainless-steel wire inserted in the capillaries. Total protein concentration was assessed photometrically and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In rat skin, electrical stimulation increased CGRP and total protein concentration in the dialysate. SP measurements showed a larger variance but only for the 1 Hz stimulation was the increased release significant. In human skin, electrical stimulation provoked a large flare reaction and at a frequency of 4 Hz both CGRP and SP concentrations increased significantly. In spite of the large flare reactions no protein extravasation was induced, which suggests major species differences. It will be of interest to investigate whether the lack of neurogenic protein extravasation is also valid under pathophysiological conditions. PMID:11118507

  7. Cocaine and MDMA Induce Cellular and Molecular Changes in Adult Neurogenic Systems: Functional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the brain to generate new adult neurons is a recent discovery that challenges the old theory of an immutable adult brain. A new and fascinating field of research now focuses on this regenerative process. The two brain systems that constantly produce new adult neurons, known as the adult neurogenic systems, are the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the lateral ventricules/olfactory bulb system. Both systems are involved in memory and learning processes. Different drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and MDMA, have been shown to produce cellular and molecular changes that affect adult neurogenesis. This review summarizes the effects that these drugs have on the adult neurogenic systems. The functional relevance of adult neurogenesis is obscured by the functions of the systems that integrate adult neurons. Therefore, we explore the effects that cocaine and MDMA produce not only on adult neurogenesis, but also on the DG and olfactory bulbs. Finally, we discuss the possible role of new adult neurons in cocaine- and MDMA-induced impairments. We conclude that, although harmful drug effects are produced at multiple physiological and anatomical levels, the specific consequences of reduced hippocampus neurogenesis are unclear and require further exploration.

  8. Are neural crest stem cells the missing link between hematopoietic and neurogenic niches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Neirinckx

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic niches are defined as cellular and molecular microenvironments that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC function together with stem cell autonomous mechanisms. Many different cell types have been characterized as contributors to the formation of HSC niches, such as osteoblasts, endothelial cells, Schwann cells, and mesenchymal progenitors. These mesenchymal progenitors have themselves been classified as CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL12-abundant reticular (CAR cells, stem cell factor expressing cells, or nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, which have been recently identified as neural crest-derived cells (NCSCs. Together, these cells are spatially associated with HSCs and believed to provide appropriate microenvironments for HSC self-renewal, differentiation, mobilization and hibernation both by cell-to-cell contact and soluble factors. Interestingly, it appears that regulatory pathways governing the hematopoietic niche homeostasis are operating in the neurogenic niche as well. Therefore, this review paper aims to compare both the regulation of hematopoietic and neurogenic niches, in order to highlight the role of NCSCs and nervous system components in the development and the regulation of the hematopoietic system.

  9. Are neural crest stem cells the missing link between hematopoietic and neurogenic niches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Cécile; Neirinckx, Virginie; Gothot, André; Wislet, Sabine; Rogister, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic niches are defined as cellular and molecular microenvironments that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function together with stem cell autonomous mechanisms. Many different cell types have been characterized as contributors to the formation of HSC niches, such as osteoblasts, endothelial cells, Schwann cells, and mesenchymal progenitors. These mesenchymal progenitors have themselves been classified as CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, stem cell factor expressing cells, or nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have been recently identified as neural crest-derived cells (NCSCs). Together, these cells are spatially associated with HSCs and believed to provide appropriate microenvironments for HSC self-renewal, differentiation, mobilization and hibernation both by cell-cell contact and soluble factors. Interestingly, it appears that regulatory pathways governing the hematopoietic niche homeostasis are operating in the neurogenic niche as well. Therefore, this review paper aims to compare both the regulation of hematopoietic and neurogenic niches, in order to highlight the role of NCSCs and nervous system components in the development and the regulation of the hematopoietic system. PMID:26136659

  10. Microneedle Electrode Array for Electrical Impedance Myography to Characterize Neurogenic Myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Li, Yi; Liu, Mingsheng; Cui, Liying; Yu, Yude

    2016-05-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a noninvasive technique for neuromuscular assessment, wherein a low-intensity alternating current is applied to a muscle, and the consequent surface voltage patterns are evaluated. Commercial wet electrodes are most commonly used for EIM. However, these electrodes are not suitable for use on small muscles, as they do not effectively solve the problem of high electrode-skin contact impedance (ESCI) that negatively influences the quality of recorded biopotentials. To address this problem, we fabricated a novel microneedle electrode array (MEA) that consists of 124-µm-long microneedles. Compared to wet electrodes, the MEA could pierce through the outer skin surface in a painless and micro-invasive manner, and could thus effectively reduce ESCI. The MEA has excellent test-retest reproducibility, with intraclass correlation coefficients exceeding 0.920. When used in combination with EIM, the MEA differentiated the affected muscles from the unaffected muscles in patients with neurogenic myopathy, by using EIM parameters of reactance and phase (p = 0.023 and 0.008, respectively). Thus, the novel MEA is a practical and reusable device for EIM assessment in cases of neurogenic myopathy. However, further refinement of the electrode is needed to enhance the clinical application of the system. PMID:26407702

  11. A case of hypokalemic paralysis in a patient with neurogenic diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Frederic N; Kar, Jitesh K; Verduzco-Gutierrez, Monica; Zakaria, Asma

    2014-04-01

    Acute hypokalemic paralysis is characterized by muscle weakness or paralysis secondary to low serum potassium levels. Neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition where the patient excretes large volume of dilute urine due to low levels of antidiuretic hormone. Here, we describe a patient with neurogenic DI who developed hypokalemic paralysis without a prior history of periodic paralysis. A 30-year-old right-handed Hispanic male was admitted for refractory seizures and acute DI after developing a dental abscess. He had a history of pituitary adenoma resection at the age of 13 with subsequent pan-hypopituitarism and was noncompliant with hormonal supplementation. On hospital day 3, he developed sudden onset of quadriplegia with motor strength of 0 of 5 in the upper extremities bilaterally and 1 of 5 in both lower extremities with absent deep tendon reflexes. His routine laboratory studies revealed severe hypokalemia of 1.6 mEq/dL. Nerve Conduction Study (NCS) revealed absent compound motor action potentials (CMAPs) with normal sensory potentials. Electromyography (EMG) did not reveal any abnormal insertional or spontaneous activity. He regained full strength within 36 hours following aggressive correction of the hypokalemia. Repeat NCS showed return of CMAPs in all nerves tested and EMG revealed normal motor units and normal recruitment without myotonic discharges. In patients with central DI with polyuria, hypokalemia can result in sudden paralysis. Hypokalemic paralysis remains an important differential in an acute case of paralysis and early recognition and appropriate management is key. PMID:24707338

  12. p73 is required for ependymal cell maturation and neurogenic SVZ cytoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Cano, L; Fuertes-Alvarez, S; Robledinos-Anton, N; Bizy, A; Villena-Cortes, A; Fariñas, I; Marques, M M; Marin, Maria C

    2016-07-01

    The adult subventricular zone (SVZ) is a highly organized microenvironment established during the first postnatal days when radial glia cells begin to transform into type B-cells and ependymal cells, all of which will form regenerative units, pinwheels, along the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle. Here, we identify p73, a p53 homologue, as a critical factor controlling both cell-type specification and structural organization of the developing mouse SVZ. We describe that p73 deficiency halts the transition of the radial glia into ependymal cells, leading to the emergence of immature cells with abnormal identities in the ventricle and resulting in loss of the ventricular integrity. p73-deficient ependymal cells have noticeably impaired ciliogenesis and they fail to organize into pinwheels, disrupting SVZ niche structure and function. Therefore, p73 is essential for appropriate ependymal cell maturation and the establishment of the neurogenic niche architecture. Accordingly, lack of p73 results in impaired neurogenesis. Moreover, p73 is required for translational planar cell polarity establishment, since p73 deficiency results in profound defects in cilia organization in individual cells and in intercellular patch orientation. Thus, our data reveal a completely new function of p73, independent of p53, in the neurogenic architecture of the SVZ of rodent brain and in the establishment of ependymal planar cell polarity with important implications in neurogenesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 730-747, 2016. PMID:26482843

  13. Differential vascular permeability along the forebrain ventricular neurogenic niche in the adult murine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín-Castelán, Dannia; Ramírez-Santos, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2016-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis is influenced by blood-borne factors. In this context, greater or lesser vascular permeability along neurogenic niches would expose differentially neural stem cells (NSCs), transit amplifying cells (TACs), and neuroblasts to such factors. Here we evaluate endothelial cell morphology and vascular permeability along the forebrain neurogenic niche in the adult brain. Our results confirm that the subventricular zone (SVZ) contains highly permeable, discontinuous blood vessels, some of which allow the extravasation of molecules larger than those previously reported. In contrast, the rostral migratory stream (RMS) and the olfactory bulb core (OBc) display mostly impermeable, continuous blood vessels. These results imply that NSCs, TACs, and neuroblasts located within the SVZ are exposed more readily to blood-borne molecules, including those with very high molecular weights, than those positioned along the RMS and the OBc, subregions in which every stage of neurogenesis also takes place. These observations suggest that the existence of specialized vascular niches is not a precondition for neurogenesis to occur; specialized vascular beds might be essential for keeping high rates of proliferation and/or differential differentiation of neural precursors located at distinct domains. PMID:26492830

  14. Recent Advances in Neurogenic Small Molecules as Innovative Treatments for Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Arozamena, Clara; Martí-Marí, Olaia; Estrada, Martín; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system of adult mammals has long been considered as a complex static structure unable to undergo any regenerative process to refurbish its dead nodes. This dogma was challenged by Altman in the 1960s and neuron self-renewal has been demonstrated ever since in many species, including humans. Aging, neurodegenerative, and some mental diseases are associated with an exponential decrease in brain neurogenesis. Therefore, the controlled pharmacological stimulation of the endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) niches might counteract the neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other pathologies, opening an exciting new therapeutic avenue. In the last years, druggable molecular targets and signalling pathways involved in neurogenic processes have been identified, and as a consequence, different drug types have been developed and tested in neuronal plasticity. This review focuses on recent advances in neurogenic agents acting at serotonin and/or melatonin systems, Wnt/β-catenin pathway, sigma receptors, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). PMID:27598108

  15. Sphingosine Kinase 1 urothelial expression is increased in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Ballouhey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the expression of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPK1 in the bladder wall in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction and its association with clinical, urodynamic and pathological features. Materials and Methods: The expression of SPK1 was studied in bladder wall specimens obtained from cystectomy using immunohistochemistry in ten patients with spinal cord injury (n=8 or multiple sclerosis (n=2 with urodynamically proven neuropathic bladder dysfunction, and in controls (n=5. Inflammation and fibrosis were analysed with histological criteria and SPK1 expression was determined by individual immunohistochemical staining. Results: Significant increased SPK1 urothelial immunoreactivity was shown in patients compared to control group (p=0.03. By contrast, SPK1 immunoreactivity in patients was significantly decreased in the sub-urothelium, muscles and nerves, p=0.02; 0.01 and 0.003, respectively. Patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO had higher SPK1 urothelium expression than those without any DO (p=0.04. Conclusions: SPK1 is expressed in the human bladder wall, specifically the urothelium, in bladder specimens from patients with NDO. The role of SPK1 in the pathophysiology of NDO needs further elucidation.

  16. Neurogenic Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... show awareness, and possibly express anxiety and even depression about the difficulty they encounter in speaking. This may be accompanied by other behaviors, which may include: Secondary or associated behaviors, such as obvious tension and struggle in speech production; movements of ...

  17. The neurogenic basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor NeuroD6 concomitantly increases mitochondrial mass and regulates cytoskeletal organization in the early stages of neuronal differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Kathleen Baxter

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a central role during neurogenesis by providing energy in the form of ATP for cytoskeletal remodelling, outgrowth of neuronal processes, growth cone activity and synaptic activity. However, the fundamental question of how differentiating neurons control mitochondrial biogenesis remains vastly unexplored. Since our previous studies have shown that the neurogenic bHLH (basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor NeuroD6 is sufficient to induce differentiation of the neuronal progenitor-like PC12 cells and that it triggers expression of mitochondrial-related genes, we investigated whether NeuroD6 could modulate the mitochondrial biomass using our PC12-ND6 cellular paradigm. Using a combination of flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and mitochondrial fractionation, we demonstrate that NeuroD6 stimulates maximal mitochondrial mass at the lamellipodia stage, thus preceding axonal growth. NeuroD6 triggers remodelling of the actin and microtubule networks in conjunction with increased expression of the motor protein KIF5B, thus promoting mitochondrial movement in developing neurites with accumulation in growth cones. Maintenance of the NeuroD6-induced mitochondrial mass requires an intact cytoskeletal network, as its disruption severely reduces mitochondrial mass. The present study provides the first evidence that NeuroD6 plays an integrative role in co-ordinating increase in mitochondrial mass with cytoskeletal remodelling, suggestive of a role of this transcription factor as a co-regulator of neuronal differentiation and energy metabolism.

  18. Effectiveness of interspinous implant surgery in patients with intermittent neurogenic claudication : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moojen, Wouter A.; Arts, Mark P.; Bartels, Ronald H. M. A.; Jacobs, Wilco C. H.; Peul, Wilco C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite an increasing implantation rate of interspinous process distraction (IPD) devices in the treatment of intermittent neurogenic claudication (INC), definitive evidence on the clinical effectiveness of implants is lacking. The main objective of this review was to perform a meta-analysis of all

  19. Effectiveness of interspinous implant surgery in patients with intermittent neurogenic claudication: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moojen, W.A.; Arts, M.P.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Jacobs, W.C.; Peul, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite an increasing implantation rate of interspinous process distraction (IPD) devices in the treatment of intermittent neurogenic claudication (INC), definitive evidence on the clinical effectiveness of implants is lacking. The main objective of this review was to perform a meta-an

  20. Dynamic Pax6 expression during the neurogenic cell cycle influences proliferation and cell fate choices of retinal progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xian-Jie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The paired homeobox protein Pax6 is essential for proliferation and pluripotency of retinal progenitors. However, temporal changes in Pax6 protein expression associated with the generation of various retinal neurons have not been characterized with regard to the cell cycle. Here, we examine the dynamic changes of Pax6 expression among chicken retinal progenitors as they progress through the neurogenic cell cycle, and determine the effects of altered Pax6 levels on retinogenesis. Results We provide evidence that during the preneurogenic to neurogenic transition, Pax6 protein levels in proliferating progenitor cells are down-regulated. Neurogenic retinal progenitors retain a relatively low level of Pax6 protein, whereas postmitotic neurons either elevate or extinguish Pax6 expression in a cell type-specific manner. Cell imaging and cell cycle analyses show that neurogenic progenitors in the S phase of the cell cycle contain low levels of Pax6 protein, whereas a subset of progenitors exhibits divergent levels of Pax6 protein upon entering the G2 phase of the cell cycle. We also show that M phase cells contain varied levels of Pax6, and some correlate with the onset of early neuronal marker expression, forecasting cell cycle exit and cell fate commitment. Furthermore, either elevating or knocking down Pax6 attenuates cell proliferation and results in increased cell death. Reducing Pax6 decreases retinal ganglion cell genesis and enhances cone photoreceptor and amacrine interneuron production, whereas elevating Pax6 suppresses cone photoreceptor and amacrine cell fates. Conclusion These studies demonstrate for the first time quantitative changes in Pax6 protein expression during the preneurogenic to neurogenic transition and during the neurogenic cell cycle. The results indicate that Pax6 protein levels are stringently controlled in proliferating progenitors. Maintaining a relatively low Pax6 protein level is necessary for S phase

  1. Paravertebral Neurogenic Tumors with Intraspinal Extension: Preoperative Evaluation and Surgical Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of Work: To achieve adequate excision of paravertebral neurogenic tumors with intra spinal extension, safe decompression of spinal cord and preservation of spine stability. Patients and Methods: From Nov. 2000 till July 2009 sixteen patients of paravertebral neurogenic tumors with intraspinal extension (dumbbell tumors) were operated upon by combined team work of surgical oncology and neurosurgery at the National Cancer Institute and at Kasr-Al Einy Hospitals, Cairo University. All patients had C-T with guided biopsy and MRI to evaluate extent of tumor bone invasion, intraspinal component, to decide surgical approach and the need for spine fixation. Patients were referred postoperatively to I.C.U for stabilization of general condition. Follow-up with radiology was done for a period from 3-36 month. Results: The group of patients were 9 males and 7 females with age range 1.5-47 year, 8 patients had tumors in post. Mediastinum, 7 in the retroperitoneal space and one in the cervicothoracic inlet. Benign schwannoma were diagnosed in 5 cases, malignant schwannoma in 3, neu-ro fibromatosis in one case, neuroblastoma in 3 cases, ganglioneuroblastoma in 2 cases and ganglioneuroma in 2 cases. Anterior transthoracic resection through posterolateral thoracotomy was used in 6 cases, anterior transabdominal resection was done in 6 cases through midline or transverse incisions. Combined anterior and posterior approach was used in 3 cases while Posterior approach was done in one case using medial para scapular incision. Delivery of the tumor was done in 8 cases, widening of the intervertebral foramina in 3 cases, costotransversectomy with lateral laminectomy in 3 cases while posterior laminectomy and total vertebrectomy was done in one case. We fixed the spine in 3 cases using Z-plate and screws, lateral plates and screws with either iliac crest or isobone graft. All cord compression manifestations improved postoperatively with perfect spine stability. Morbidity was detected

  2. Development of the adult neurogenic niche in the hippocampus of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeina eNicola

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available When does adult hippocampal neurogenesis begin? We describe the development of the neurogenic niche in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We did so from the perspective of the situation in the adult.Ontogeny of the dentate gyrus is complex and results in an ectopic neurogenic niche that lifelong generates new granule cells. Neurogenesis during the fetal and early postnatal periods builds the dentate gyrus and gives way to activity-dependent adult neurogenesis. We used markers most relevant to adult neurogenesis research to describe this transition: Nestin, Sox2, BLBP, GFAP, Tbr2, Doublecortin (DCX, NeuroD1 and Prox1. We found that massive changes and a local condensation of proliferating precursor cells occurs between postnatal day 7 (P7, near the peak in proliferation, and P14. Before and around P7, the spatial distribution of cells and the co-localization of markers were distinct from the situation in the adult. Unlike the adult SGZ, the marker pair Nestin/Sox2 and the radial glial marker BLBP were not overlapping during embryonic development, presumably indicating different types of radial glia-like cells. Before P7 GFAP-positive cells in the hilus lacked the radial orientation that is characteristic of the adult type-1 cells. DCX, which is concentrated in type-2b and type-3 progenitor cells and early postmitotic neurons in the adult, showed diffuse expression before P7. Intermediate progenitor cell marker Tbr2 became restricted to the SGZ but was found in the granule cell layer and hilus before. Lineage markers NeuroD1 and Prox1 confirmed this pattern.We conclude that the neurogenic niche of adult neurogenesis is in place well before true adulthood. This might indicate that consistent with the hypothesized function of adult neurogenesis in activity-dependent plasticity, the early transition from postnatal neurogenesis to adult neurogenesis coincides with the time, when the young mice start to become active themselves.

  3. Neuropeptide Y2 receptors are involved in enhanced neurogenic vasoconstriction in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradin, Kathryn A; Buus, Carsten L; Li, Jia-Yi; Frøbert, Ole; Simonsen, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    The present study addressed the role of neuropeptide (NPY) Y2 receptors in neurogenic contraction of mesenteric resistance arteries from female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Arteries were suspended in microvascular myographs, electrical field stimulation (EFS) was performed, and protein evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In vasopressin-activated endothelium-intact arteries, NPY and fragments with selectivity for Y1 receptors, [Leu31,Pro34]NPY, Y2 receptors, NPY(13–36), and rat pancreatic polypeptide evoked more pronounced contractions in segments from SHR than in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) arteries, even in the presence of the Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP3226 (0.3 μM, (R)-N(2)-(diphenacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]D-arginineamide). In the presence of prazosin and during vasopressin activation, EFS-evoked contractions were larger in arteries from SHR compared to WKY. EFS contractions were enhanced by the Y2 receptor selective antagonist BIIE0246TF (0.5 μM, (S)-N2-[[1-[2-[4-[(R,S)-5,11-dihydro-6(6h)-oxodibenz[b,e]azepin-11-y1]-1-piperazinyl]-2-oxoethyl]cyclo-pentyl-N-[2-[1,2-dihydro-3,5 (4H)-dioxo-1,2-diphenyl-3H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl]ethyl]-argininamide), reduced by BIBP3226, and abolished by the combination of BIBP3226 and BIIE0246TF. Immunoblotting showed NPY Y1 and Y2 receptor expression to be similar in arteries from WKY and SHR, although a specific Y2 receptor band at 80 kDa was detected only in arteries from WKY. Immunoreaction for NPY was enhanced in arteries from SHR. In contrast to arteries from WKY, BIIE0246TF increased NPY immunoreactivity in EFS-stimulated arteries from SHR. The present results suggest that postjunctional neuropeptide Y1 and Y2 receptors contribute to neurogenic contraction of mesenteric small arteries. Moreover, both enhanced NPY content and altered neuropeptide Y1 and Y2 receptor activation apparently contribute to the enhanced neurogenic contraction of arteries from SHR. PMID:16715120

  4. From network structure to network reorganization: implications for adult neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Mizell, Casey M.; Parent, Jack M.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Zochowski, Michal R.; Sander, Leonard M.

    2010-12-01

    Networks can be dynamical systems that undergo functional and structural reorganization. One example of such a process is adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in which new cells are continuously born and incorporate into the existing network of the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. Many of these introduced cells mature and become indistinguishable from established neurons, joining the existing network. Activity in the network environment is known to promote birth, survival and incorporation of new cells. However, after epileptogenic injury, changes to the connectivity structure around the neurogenic niche are known to correlate with aberrant neurogenesis. The possible role of network-level changes in the development of epilepsy is not well understood. In this paper, we use a computational model to investigate how the structural and functional outcomes of network reorganization, driven by addition of new cells during neurogenesis, depend on the original network structure. We find that there is a stable network topology that allows the network to incorporate new neurons in a manner that enhances activity of the persistently active region, but maintains global network properties. In networks having other connectivity structures, new cells can greatly alter the distribution of firing activity and destroy the initial activity patterns. We thus find that new cells are able to provide focused enhancement of network only for small-world networks with sufficient inhibition. Network-level deviations from this topology, such as those caused by epileptogenic injury, can set the network down a path that develops toward pathological dynamics and aberrant structural integration of new cells.

  5. From network structure to network reorganization: implications for adult neurogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Networks can be dynamical systems that undergo functional and structural reorganization. One example of such a process is adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in which new cells are continuously born and incorporate into the existing network of the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. Many of these introduced cells mature and become indistinguishable from established neurons, joining the existing network. Activity in the network environment is known to promote birth, survival and incorporation of new cells. However, after epileptogenic injury, changes to the connectivity structure around the neurogenic niche are known to correlate with aberrant neurogenesis. The possible role of network-level changes in the development of epilepsy is not well understood. In this paper, we use a computational model to investigate how the structural and functional outcomes of network reorganization, driven by addition of new cells during neurogenesis, depend on the original network structure. We find that there is a stable network topology that allows the network to incorporate new neurons in a manner that enhances activity of the persistently active region, but maintains global network properties. In networks having other connectivity structures, new cells can greatly alter the distribution of firing activity and destroy the initial activity patterns. We thus find that new cells are able to provide focused enhancement of network only for small-world networks with sufficient inhibition. Network-level deviations from this topology, such as those caused by epileptogenic injury, can set the network down a path that develops toward pathological dynamics and aberrant structural integration of new cells

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury Activation of the Adult Subventricular Zone Neurogenic Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eun Hyuk; Adorjan, Istvan; Mundim, Mayara V.; Sun, Bin; Dizon, Maria L. V.; Szele, Francis G.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in both civilian and military life, placing a large burden on survivors and society. However, with the recognition of neural stem cells in adult mammals, including humans, came the possibility to harness these cells for repair of damaged brain, whereas previously this was thought to be impossible. In this review, we focus on the rodent adult subventricular zone (SVZ), an important neurogenic niche within the mature brain in which neural stem cells continue to reside. We review how the SVZ is perturbed following various animal TBI models with regards to cell proliferation, emigration, survival, and differentiation, and we review specific molecules involved in these processes. Together, this information suggests next steps in attempting to translate knowledge from TBI animal models into human therapies for TBI. PMID:27531972

  7. TRPA1 channels mediate acute neurogenic inflammation and pain produced by bacterial endotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer, Victor; Alpizar, Yeranddy A.; Luis, Enoch; Tajada, Sendoa; Denlinger, Bristol; Fajardo, Otto; Manenschijn, Jan-Albert; Fernández-Peña, Carlos; Talavera, Arturo; Kichko, Tatiana; Navia, Belén; Sánchez, Alicia; Señarís, Rosa; Reeh, Peter; Pérez-García, María Teresa; López-López, José Ramón; Voets, Thomas; Belmonte, Carlos; Talavera, Karel; Viana, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial infections are accompanied by inflammation and somatic or visceral pain. These symptoms are generally attributed to sensitization of nociceptors by inflammatory mediators released by immune cells. Nociceptor sensitization during inflammation occurs through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling pathway by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a toxic by-product of bacterial lysis. Here we show that LPS exerts fast, membrane delimited, excitatory actions via TRPA1, a transient receptor potential cation channel that is critical for transducing environmental irritant stimuli into nociceptor activity. Moreover, we find that pain and acute vascular reactions, including neurogenic inflammation (CGRP release) caused by LPS are primarily dependent on TRPA1 channel activation in nociceptive sensory neurons, and develop independently of TLR4 activation. The identification of TRPA1 as a molecular determinant of direct LPS effects on nociceptors offers new insights into the pathogenesis of pain and neurovascular responses during bacterial infections and opens novel avenues for their treatment.

  8. Slow negative evoked potentials in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): myogenic versus neurogenic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fria, T J; Saad, M M; Doyle, W J; Cantekin, E I

    1984-02-01

    The influence of myogenic activity on the generation of slow negative evoked potentials (SN10) to octave, toneburst stimuli (0.5-2 Hz) was investigated in 5 rhesus monkeys (M. mulatta) by comparing responses obtained prior to and during total paralysis induced with curare. The SN10 could be easily elicited during paralysis, regardless of stimulus intensity, rate, or frequency. During paralysis, there were no systematic changes in either response latency or amplitude; variability in latency was less than 10% and changes in response amplitude were within 30%. These findings suggest that the myogenic contribution to the SN10 response is negligible and that this response is of neurogenic origin in the rhesus monkey. PMID:6198169

  9. 神经源性肺水肿%Neurogenic pulmonary edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙若鹏; 赵翠芬

    2008-01-01

    @@ Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a type of pulmonary edema that occurs secondary to central nervous sytem (CNS) damage, namely centrogenic pulmonary edema or cerebrogenic pulmonary edema[1,2] NPE is clinically characterized by acute dyspnea and progressive hypoxemia, while tachycardia, hypertension and tachypnea are only nonspecific symptoms in early phase. Early diagnosis of NPE is difficult since chest X-ray shows no remarkable sign or only increased hazy lung markings in early stage[3]. Diagnosis can be made definitely in the late stage of NPE according to the following manifestation : paleness, clamminess, feeling of impending death, rales, frothy pink sputum, hypoxemia and bilateral widespread infiltration on chest roentgenography. However, successful rescue rate is very low and mortality rate could reach as high as 90% at this stage[4-6].

  10. Rapid but not slow spinal cord compression elicits neurogenic pulmonary edema in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2009), s. 269-277. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GA309/06/1246 Grant ostatní: EC FP6 projekt RESCUE(FR) LSHB-CT-2005-518233; GA MZd(CZ) 1A8697; GA MZd(CZ) NR8339; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neurogenic pulmonary edema * rat * spinal cord injury Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  11. Onabotulinum toxin a (botox®) in the treatment of neurogenic bladder overactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrsted, Malene; Nordsten, Cecilie Bagi; Bagi, Per

    2012-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BT) is a potent presynaptic neuromuscular blocking agent which induces selective, reversible muscle weakness for months when injected intramuscularly. During recent years BT has revolutionized the treatment of previously intractable symptoms of detrusor overactivity. Based on a...... systematic search of the PubMed database, a review of the current literature on the use of onabotulinum toxin A (Botox®) in the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity is presented. Onabotulinum toxin A proved to be highly effective in the majority of studies, even though a wide range of injection...... intermittent self/helper catheterization (CIC) may become necessary. Only a few side effects were described, and intravesical onabotulinum toxin A injection seems to be well tolerated. However, details on injection technique, dose interval between injections, etc. are still under debate and only a few...

  12. Neurogenic nitric oxide facilitates the central nociceptive transmission of migraine attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hebo Wang; Huijun Qi; Shengyuan Yu; Sumian Yang; Ruozhuo Liu

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) can induce migraine attacks at three possible sites of action: nitroxidergic nerves, the vascular endothelium, and the central nervous system. Most previous studies have focused on the former two sites of action. Several experiments using exogenic NO donors have suggested that nitroglycerin may induce migraine via central mechanisms. However, few studies have investigated the source of the NO involved in the central mechanisms of migraine. The present study used a cat model of migraine to represent migraine attacks in humans. We performed immunochemical staining of successive frozen sections of the brainstem and upper cervical spinal cord, and then used c-Fos protein expression to label nerve cell activation. We observed the effects of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and 7-nitroindozole (7-NI), a selective neuronal NOS inhibitor, on c-Fos and nNOS expression, which were induced by electrical stimulation to the dura mater near the superior sagittal sinus. The results demonstrated that c-Fos or nNOS immunoreactive cells was concentrated in the superficial layers (laminae I and II) of the spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve. L-NAME and 7-NI pre-treatment significantly decreased c-Fos and neurogenic NOS expression; and there was a significant linear correlation between c-Fos and NOS expression (r= 0.858 2, P< 0.01). These findings suggest that neurogenic NO could facilitate migraine nociceptive transmission to second-order neurons of the trigeminal nerve. However, L-NAME and 7-NI may block the activation of neurons in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve by inhibiting NO synthesis, and thereby attenuate acute migraine attacks.

  13. Anatomical variations in the brachial plexus roots: implications for diagnosis of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhard, Vanessa; Smith, Riley; Caldwell, Gregory; Smith, Heather F

    2016-07-01

    Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) is the most common type of TOS. Typically it results from impingement of the neurovasculature as it passes between the anterior and middle scalene muscles; this classic anatomical relationship being the foundation of clinical diagnosis. Positional testing relies on vascular compromise occurring when the subclavian artery is compressed in this space. This study describes several anatomical variations observed in this relationship. Sixty-five cadavers (35m/30f) were assessed to determine the frequency and extent of brachial plexus branching variants. A total of thirty-one variations from "classic" anatomy were observed (47.7%). In two specimens (3.1%), the entire superior trunk coursed completely anterior to the anterior scalene in a position of relative vulnerability. In 27 instances, a portion of or the entire superior trunk pierced the anterior scalene muscle, and in two, the middle trunk also pierced the muscle belly. Interestingly, while two bilateral branching variations were observed, the majority occurred unilaterally, and almost exclusively on the left side. There were no sex differences in frequency. The high frequency of these variations and their potential to predispose patients to neurogenic TOS suggest that current diagnostic methods may be insufficient in clinical diagnosis. Due to lack of vascular compromise, patients with the piercing variant would not display positive signs on the traditional positional tests. The use of ultrasound to determine the route of the brachial plexus could determine whether this variation is present in patients who suffer from TOS symptoms but lack a diagnosis based on traditional positional testing. PMID:27133185

  14. Stroke increases neural stem cells and angiogenesis in the neurogenic niche of the adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lan Zhang

    Full Text Available The unique cellular and vascular architecture of the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V/SVZ neurogenic niche plays an important role in regulating neural stem cell function. However, the in vivo identification of neural stem cells and their relationship to blood vessels within this niche in response to stroke remain largely unknown. Using whole-mount preparation of the lateral ventricle wall, we examined the architecture of neural stem cells and blood vessels in the V/SVZ of adult mouse over the course of 3 months after onset of focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke substantially increased the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP positive neural stem cells that are in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF via their apical processes at the center of pinwheel structures formed by ependymal cells residing in the lateral ventricle. Long basal processes of these cells extended to blood vessels beneath the ependymal layer. Moreover, stroke increased V/SVZ endothelial cell proliferation from 2% in non-ischemic mice to 12 and 15% at 7 and 14 days after stroke, respectively. Vascular volume in the V/SVZ was augmented from 3% of the total volume prior to stroke to 6% at 90 days after stroke. Stroke-increased angiogenesis was closely associated with neuroblasts that expanded to nearly encompass the entire lateral ventricular wall in the V/SVZ. These data indicate that stroke induces long-term alterations of the neural stem cell and vascular architecture of the adult V/SVZ neurogenic niche. These post-stroke structural changes may provide insight into neural stem cell mediation of stroke-induced neurogenesis through the interaction of neural stem cells with proteins in the CSF and their sub-ependymal neurovascular interaction.

  15. Sonic hedgehog and notch signaling can cooperate to regulate neurogenic divisions of neocortical progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa K Dave

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hedgehog (Hh signaling is crucial for the generation and maintenance of both embryonic and adult stem cells, thereby regulating development and tissue homeostasis. In the developing neocortex, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation. During neurogenesis, radial glial cells of the ventricular zone (VZ are the predominant neocortical progenitors that generate neurons through both symmetric and asymmetric divisions. Despite its importance, relatively little is known of the molecular pathways that control the switch from symmetric proliferative to differentiative/neurogenic divisions in neural progenitors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that conditional inactivation of Patched1, a negative regulator of the Shh pathway, in Nestin positive neural progenitors of the neocortex leads to lamination defects due to improper corticogenesis and an increase in the number of symmetric proliferative divisions of the radial glial cells. Hedgehog-activated VZ progenitor cells demonstrated a concomitant upregulation of Hes1 and Blbp, downstream targets of Notch signaling. The Notch signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of stem/progenitor cells and the regulation of glial versus neuronal identity. To study the effect of Notch signaling on Hh-activated neural progenitors, we inactivated both Patched1 and Rbpj, a transcriptional mediator of Notch signaling, in Nestin positive cells of the neocortex. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that by mid neurogenesis (embryonic day 14.5, attenuation of Notch signaling reverses the effect of Patched1 deletion on neurogenesis by restoring the balance between symmetric proliferative and neurogenic divisions. Hence, our results demonstrate that correct corticogenesis is an outcome of the interplay between the Hh and Notch signaling pathways.

  16. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury, myelomeningocele, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard A Awad

    2011-01-01

    Exciting new features have been described concerning neurogenic bowel dysfunction, including interactions between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, axonal injury, neuronal loss, neurotransmission of noxious and non-noxious stimuli, and the fields of gastroenterology and neurology. Patients with spinal cord injury, myelomeningocele, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease present with serious upper and lower bowel dysfunctions characterized by constipation, incontinence, gastrointestinal motor dysfunction and altered visceral sensitivity. Spinal cord injury is associated with severe autonomic dysfunction, and bowel dysfunction is a major physical and psychological burden for these patients. An adult myelomeningocele patient commonly has multiple problems reflecting the multisystemic nature of the disease. Multiple sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder in which axonal injury, neuronal loss, and atrophy of the central nervous system can lead to permanent neurological damage and clinical disability. Parkinson's disease is a multisystem disorder involving dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and cholinergic systems, characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Parkinson's disease affects several neuronal structures outside the substantia nigra, among which is the enteric nervous system. Recent reports have shown that the lesions in the enteric nervous system occur in very early stages of the disease, even before the involvement of the central nervous system. This has led to the postulation that the enteric nervous system could be critical in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, as it could represent the point of entry for a putative environmental factor to initiate the pathological process. This review covers the data related to the etiology, epidemiology, clinical expression, pathophysiology, genetic aspects, gastrointestinal motor dysfunction, visceral sensitivity, management, prevention and prognosis of neurogenic bowel

  17. Neurogenic vision loss: Causes and outcome. An experience from a tertiary center in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vision loss can be a consequence of numerous disorders of eye and neural pathway conveying visual input to brain. A variety of conditions can affect visual pathway producing neurogenic vision loss. The presentation and course of vision loss depends on the site of involvement and underlying etiology. We conducted this unprecedented study to evaluate the characteristics and outcome of various diseases of the visual pathway. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we evaluated 64 patients with neurogenic visual impairment. Ophthalmological causes were excluded in all of them. Their presentation, ophthalmological characteristics and investigation findings were recorded. These patients were followed up till 6 months. Results: Out of 69 patients evaluated, 5 were excluded as they had ophthalmological abnormalities. The remaining 64 cases (113 eyes were enrolled. 54 cases were due to diseases of anterior visual pathway and rest 10 had cortical vision loss. The etiologic distribution is as follows: Isolated optic neuritis- 12 (19%, multiple sclerosis- 4 (6.3%, neuromyelitis optica- 5 (7.9%, tubercular meningitis- 15 (23.8%, non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy, ischemic optic neuropathy complicating cavernous sinus thrombosis, cryptococcal meningitis, malignant infiltration of optic nerve, Crouzon′s syndrome, calvarial thickening and traumatic occipital gliosis- 1 (1.6% case each, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, pituitary adenoma, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy- 3 (4.8% cases each, cortical venous thrombosis 5 (7.9%, subacute scleroing panencephalitis- 4 (6.3% cases. Conclusions: The diseases of anterior visual pathway were much more common than cortical vision loss. A majority of our patients had severe impairment of vision at presentation.

  18. Radiological consideration of neurogenic bladder in patients with traumatic spinal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Han; Yu, Yun Jeong; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    We evaluated 104 patients of neurogenic bladder secondary to traumatic spinal cord injury. Those were diagnosed by I. V. P. and V. C. U. at Korea Veterans Hospital during 9 years from January, 1978 to May, 1987. The type of neurogenic bladder, complications and urethral configuration, according to the level of spinal cord injury were discusses. The result were as follows: 1. The incidence of patient according to the level of spinal cord injury was 49 out of 104 in those with vertebral level T7 or above, 15 out of 104 in those with T8-T10 level, and 40 in those with vertebral level T11 or below. The incidence of UMNB was 67.3% in those with vertebral T7 or above, 53.3% in T8-T10. The incidence of LMNB was 62.5% in those with vertebral level T11 or below. 2. Overall incidence of urinary tract calculus was 32.7%. Highest incidence of calculus was 46.7% in those with vertebral level T8-T10. 3. Overall incidence of vesicoureteral reflux was 23.1%. Highest incidence of reflux was 46.7% in those with vertebral level T11 or below. 4. Overall incidence of pyelonephritis was 26.9%. 5. Overall incidence of hydronephrosis was 20.2%. Highest incidence of hydronephrosis was 27.5% in those with vertebral level T11 or below. 6. Almost entire urethra was shown funnel type in 66 out of 73 cases. Saccular dilatation of posterior urethra was 7 cases. Saccular dilatation of posterior urethra with LMNB was 4 cases, which were occurred only in those with vertebral level T11 or below.

  19. Short-Term Effect of Percutaneous Bipolar Continuous Radiofrequency on Sacral Nerves in Patients Treated for Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity After Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Ahn, Sang Ho; Cho, Yun Woo; Kwak, Sang Gyu; Kim, Hyo Sung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the short-term effects of bipolar radiofrequency applied to sacral nerves to treat neurogenic detrusor overactivity in patients with spinal cord injury. Methods Ten patients with spinal cord injury with neurogenic detrusor overactivity were recruited. These subjects were randomized to two groups: intervention (n=5) and control (n=5), members of which received conventional treatment. Voiding diary, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ) and the...

  20. Cytoarchitecture and Ultrastructure of Neural Stem Cell Niches and Neurogenic Complexes Maintaining Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Midbrain of Spiny Lobsters, Panulirus argus

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Manfred; Derby, Charles D.

    2011-01-01

    New interneurons are continuously generated in small proliferation zones within neuronal somata clusters in the olfactory deutocerebrum of adult decapod crustaceans. Each proliferation zone is connected to a clump of cells containing one neural stem cell (i.e., adult neuroblast), thus forming a “neurogenic complex.” Here we provide a detailed analysis of the cytoarchitecture of neurogenic complexes in adult spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, based on transmission electron microscopy and labelin...

  1. Differences between the neurogenic and proliferative abilities of Müller glia with stem cell characteristics and the ciliary epithelium from the adult human eye

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Bhairavi; Jayaram, Hari; Singhal, Shweta; Jones, Megan F; Limb, G. Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Much controversy has arisen on the nature and sources of stem cells in the adult human retina. Whilst ciliary epithelium has been thought to constitute a source of neural stem cells, a population of Müller glia in the neural retina has also been shown to exhibit neurogenic characteristics. This study aimed to compare the neurogenic and proliferative abilities between these two major cell populations. It also examined whether differences exist between the pigmented and non-pigmented ciliary ep...

  2. The sythetic endomorphin-1 analog, CYT-1010, inhibits sensory neuropeptide release, acute neurogenic inflammation and heat injury-induced thermal hyperalgesia in rodent models

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Helyes; J. Szolcsanyi; T. Maione

    2011-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P released from capsaicin-sensitive afferents induce neurogenic inflammatory and nociceptive actions. Since we have shown that the m opioid receptor agonist endomorphin-1 inhibits sensory neuropeptide outflow, the effects of its synthetic, peptidase-resistant analog, CYT-1010, was studied on CGRP release, acute neurogenic inflammation and thermal hyperalgesia. CGRP release from sensory fibres of isolated rat tracheae was evoked by electrica...

  3. Neurogenic bladder evaluation and management after spinal cord injury: Current practice among urologists working in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Al Taweel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the current trends in the management and surveillance of the NB population secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI or myelomeningocele by certified urologist working in Saudi Arabia and to compare it to the current guidelines. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 12-points questionnaire distributed to urologists working in Saudi Arabia and registered at the Saudi medical association. The assessment and follow-up of upper and lower urinary tract function in neurogenic bladder patients, their optimal frequency and management of related infections were the topics of inquiry. Results: Of the 272 urologists surveyed, 105 responded, yielding a response rate of 38%. Eighty-nine percent of respondents said that ultrasound was their diagnostic tool of choice for upper tract evaluation. Sixty-one percent of respondents said that they would follow their patients with a multichannel urodynamic study. Forty percent of urologists stated that they would treat asymptomatic bacteriuria. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC was the most common modality chosen for the management of neurogenic bladder in patients with emptying difficulties. Conclusion: This study confirms that most urologists in Saudi Arabia involved with neurogenic bladder management. However, more than one third of the urologists do not have urodynamic machine and only two of the reporting practitioners has a videourodynamic machine. The results emphasize the need for clear guidelines in this field of urology in Saudi Arabia. Highly specialized rehabilitation centers for neurogenic bladder secondary to SCI are required for optimal care and urologist teaching.

  4. The Role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in the Development of Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity (NDO)

    OpenAIRE

    Frias, Bárbara; Santos, João; Morgado, Marlene; Sousa, Mónica Mendes; Gray, Susannah M Y; McCloskey, Karen; Allen, Shelley; Cruz, Francisco; Cruz, Célia Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) is a well known consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI), recognizable after spinal shock, during which the bladder is areflexic. NDO emergence and maintenance depend on profound plastic changes of the spinal neuronal pathways regulating bladder function. It is well known that neurotrophins (NTs) are major regulators of such changes. NGF is the best-studied NT in the bladder and its role in NDO has already been established. Another very abundant neurotrop...

  5. The role of sympathetic nervous system in the development of neurogenic pulmonary edema in spinal cord-injured rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Zicha, Josef; Nedvídková, J.; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-8. ISSN 8750-7587 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0139; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neurogenic pulmonary edema * sympathetic nervous system * baroreflex Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 3.484, year: 2012

  6. New grading system for upper urinary tract dilation using magnetic resonance urography in patients with Neurogenic Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Limin; Zhang, Fan; CHEN, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with neurogenic bladder (NB), elevated intravesical pressures can be transmitted to the upper urinary tract, causing hydronephrosis (HN) and ureteral dilation (UD), which are referred to as upper urinary tract dilation (UUTD). Ureteral obstruction at the bladder wall is another cause for UUTD, but is less of a concern. UUTD can lead to chronic renal failure. Therefore, evaluation and protection of UUT function is extremely important in the management for NB. Currently, ...

  7. Harnableitung bei Kindern und Jugendlichen mit neurogener Blasenfunktionsstörung: auch langfristig eine sichere Therapieoption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Pharmakotherapie, der saubere Einmalkatheterismus (clean intermittent catheterization = CIC und die Infektionsprophylaxe sind die drei Säulen der konservativen Therapie bei Patienten mit neurogener Blasenfunktionsstörung. Während der Pubertät werden die Patienten zunehmend unabhängiger vom Elternhaus. Gleichzeitig nimmt jedoch die Compliance der Medikamenteneinnahme und der Durchführung des regelmäßigen CIC ab. Der orthopädische und/oder neurologische Status kann sich ebenfalls verändern. Dies kann letztlich zum Fehlschlagen der konservativen Therapie (Inkontinenz, Restharn, Verschlechterung der Funktion des oberen Harntraktes führen. In einem multidisziplinären Team wird diese Problematik der Kinder und Jugendlichen unter Berücksichtigung der Wünsche des Patienten als auch der medizinischen Ziele (z. B. Schutz der Nierenfunktion in unserer Klinik diskutiert. Die Harnableitung wurde hierbei in einigen Fällen als notwendige Kompromißlösung angesehen. In der vorliegenden retrospektiven Studie untersuchten wir, ob die Harnableitung auch langfristig ein sicheres Verfahren darstellt. Material und Methode: Zwischen 1967 und 1997 erfolgte bei 149 Kindern und Heranwachsenden die Anlage einer Harnableitung. 129 Patienten konnten durchschnittlich 11,8 Jahre (0,8-28,5 nachbeobachtet werden. Das durchschnittliche Alter bei der Operation betrug 12,1 Jahre (0,8-20. Ein Colon-Conduit wurde bei 59 Patienten (in der Mehrzahl der Fälle vor der Ära des CIC und der kontinenten Harnableitung angelegt, eine orthotope Blasensubstitution erfolgte bei 12, eine kontinente kutane Harnableitung bei 58 Patienten (50 % Rollstuhlfahrer. Ergebnisse: Der obere Harntrakt blieb bei 95-97 % der renoureteralen Einheiten (RUE stabil, bzw. verbesserte sich. Alle Patienten mit einer orthotopen Blasensubstitution sind tagsüber kontinent; eine Patientin benötigt zur Sicherheit zeitweise eine Vorlage während der Nacht. 7 der 12 Patienten führen einen

  8. The various types of neurogenic bladder dysfunction: an update of current therapeutic concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madersbacher, H

    1990-05-01

    weak reflex detrusor contractions are present. (3) With the combination of an areflexive or hyporeflexive detrusor and a flaccid pelvic floor, passive voiding by abdominal straining or by the Credé manoeuvre is usually recommended, but should be replaced by CIC if this mechanism of bladder emptying creates unphysiological high and dangerous intravesical pressures, or if vesico-uretero-renal reflux is present. Neurogenic urinary stress incontinence is usually associated with this type of lesion and can be successfully treated by the implantation of an artificial urinary sphincter (Scott). However in two thirds of the patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction, additional, usually operative treatment is necessary to meet the criteria for implantation. Moreover, a 30% rate of repair operations must be accepted by patients, but is becoming less frequently required with an improved design of the device.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2235029

  9. The multifaceted subventricular zone astrocyte: From a metabolic and pro-neurogenic role to acting as a neural stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, J C; Bordey, A

    2016-05-26

    A few decades ago it was discovered that two regions of the adult brain retain the ability to generate new neurons. These regions include the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) located at the border of the lateral ventricle. In the V-SVZ, it was discovered that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) share many features of mature astrocytes and are often referred as V-SVZ astrocytes. We will first describe the markers, the morphology, and the neurophysiological characteristics of the mouse V-SVZ astrocytes. We will then discuss the fact that V-SVZ astrocytes constitute a mixed population with respect to their neurogenic properties, e.g., quiescent versus activated state, neurogenic fate, and transcription factors expression. Finally, we will describe two functions of V-SVZ astrocytes, their metabolic coupling to blood vessels and their neurogenic-supportive role consisting of providing guidance and survival cues to migrating newborn neurons. PMID:26546469

  10. Neurogenic bladder: Highly selective rhizotomy of specific dorsal rootlets maybe a better choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Genying; Zhou, Mouwang; Wang, Wenting; Zeng, Fanshuo

    2016-02-01

    Spinal cord injury results not only in motor and sensory dysfunctions, but also in loss of normal urinary bladder functions. A number of clinical studies were focused on the strategies for improvement of functions of the bladder. Completely dorsal root rhizotomy or selective specific S2-4 dorsal root rhizotomy suppress autonomic hyper-reflexia but have the same defects: it could cause detrusor and sphincter over-relaxation and loss of reflexive erection in males. So precise operation needs to be considered. We designed an experimental trail to test the possibility on the basis of previous study. We found that different dorsal rootlets which conduct impulses from the detrusor or sphincter can be distinguished by electro-stimulation in SD rats. Highly selective rhizotomy of specific dorsal rootlets could change the intravesical pressure and urethral perfusion pressure respectively. We hypothese that for neurogenic bladder following spinal cord injury, highly selective rhizotomy of specific dorsal rootlets maybe improve the bladder capacity and the detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, and at the same time, the function of other pelvic organ could be maximize retainment. PMID:26643667

  11. Osteogenic and neurogenic stem cells in their own place: unraveling differences and similarities between niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Lattanzi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although therapeutic use of stem cells is already available in some tissues (cornea, blood, skin, in most organs we are far from reaching the translational goal of regenerative medicine. In the nervous system, due to intrinsic features which make it refractory to regeneration/repair,it is very hard to obtainfunctionally-integrated regenerative outcomes, evenstarting from its own stem cells(the neural stem cells; NSCs. Besides NSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have also been proposed for therapeutic purposes in neurological diseases. Yet, direct (regenerative and indirect (bystander effects are often confused, as are MSCs and bone marrow-derived (stromal, osteogenic stem cells (BMSCs, whoseplasticity isactually overestimated (i.e. trans-differentiation along non-mesodermal lineages, including neural fates.In order to better understand failure in the "regenerative" use of stem cells for neurological disorders,it could be helpful to understand how NSCs and BMSCs have adapted to their respective organ niches. In this perspective, here the adult osteogenic and neurogenic niches are considered and compared within their in vivo environment.

  12. Neurogenic plasticity of mesenchymal stem cell, an alluring cellular replacement for traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Soumya; Muthuraju, Sangu; Hadi, Raisah Ab; Huat, Tee Jong; Singh, Shailja; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Jaafar, Hasnan

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) imposes horrendous neurophysiological alterations leading to most devastating forms of neuro-disability. Which includes impaired cognition, distorted locomotors activity and psychosomatic disability in both youths and adults. Emerging evidence from recent studies has identified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as one of the promising category of stem cells having excellent neuroregenerative capability in TBI victims. Some of the clinical and animal studies reported that MSCs transplantation could cure neuronal damage as well as improve cognitive and locomotors behaviors in TBI. However, mechanism behind their broad spectrum neuroregenerative potential in TBI has not been reviewed yet. Therefore, in the present article, we present a comprehensive data on the important attributes of MSCs, such as neurotransdifferentiation, neuroprotection, axonal repair and plasticity, maintenance of blood-brain integrity, reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and immunomodulation. We have reviewed in detail the crucial neurogenic capabilities of MSCs in vivo and provided consolidated knowledge regarding their cellular remodeling in TBI for future therapeutic implications. PMID:26763886

  13. Potential neurogenic and vascular roles of nitric oxide in migraine headache and aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, D E

    1999-02-01

    It has long been known that nitrate and nitrite medications consistently cause significant headache as a side effect. Classical research has shown that cerebral vasodilation accompanies the use of these medications. More modern studies suggest that these vasodilators exert their action on blood vessels via nitric oxide and its second messenger, cyclic guanosine monophosphate. This paper reviews research studies and theoretical articles which address the concept that nitric oxide plays a major role in the vasodilation associated with the headache phase of migraine with aura. A brief discussion of nitric oxide biochemistry and pharmacology follows. In addition, there is a review of evidence examining the possible contributions of nitric oxide to the neurogenic and vascular events associated with spreading cortical depression, an animal model of migraine aura. The paradoxical hypotheses that nitric oxide may contribute to both the propagation of spreading cortical depression and its limitation are presented. Finally, a rationale for the experimental use of nitric oxide agonists and antagonists in the abortion of migraine aura is introduced. PMID:15613204

  14. A step-wise approach to sperm retrieval in men with neurogenic anejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fode, Mikkel; Ohl, Dana A; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Normal fertility is dependent on intravaginal delivery of semen through ejaculation. This process is highly dependent on an intact ejaculatory reflex arc, which can be disrupted through any type of trauma or disease causing damage to the CNS and/or peripheral nerves. Neurogenic anejaculation is most commonly associated with spinal cord injury. This aetiology is especially relevant because most men with spinal cord injuries are injured at reproductive age. Assisted ejaculation in the form of penile vibratory stimulation is the first choice for sperm retrieval in such patients because it is noninvasive and inexpensive. In patients in whom vibratory stimulation fails, electroejaculation is almost always successful. When both methods of assisted ejaculation are unsuccessful, sperm retrieval by aspiration from either the vas deferens or the epididymis, or by testicular biopsy or surgery are reasonable options. In such cases the most inexpensive and least invasive methods should be considered first. The obtained semen can be used for intravaginal or intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:26481575

  15. [Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoll, K; Kunert, H J; Sass, H

    2000-10-01

    The development of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event is recorded in 2 own patients and in 19 cases from the clinical literature. With a single exception, all patients were accident victims with closed head injuries. Only about three quarters of the patients completely fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria of PTSD. Nineteen patients displayed involuntary conscious memories of aspects of the traumatic event (presenting as recurrent intrusive thoughts, images or dreams) co-existent with a complete or partial lack of voluntary conscious memories of the trauma, suggesting that different memory systems and distinct brain mechanisms subserve these phenomena. The said clinical observations are discussed against the background of current neuropsychological models of multiple memory systems. The recorded cases demonstrate that declarative episodic memory is not necessary for symptoms of PTSD to emerge, whereas preserved functions of non-declarative memory systems represent a sufficient condition for the development of PTSD symptoms. PMID:11103682

  16. Neurogenic differentiation factor NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Du, Aonan; Xu, Jing; Ma, Yanchao; Cao, Han; Yang, Chao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xing, Chun-Gen; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, especially the small intestine, is particularly sensitive to radiation, and is prone to radiation-induced injury as a result. Neurogenic differentiation factor (NeuroD) is an evolutionarily-conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor. NeuroD contains a protein transduction domain (PTD), which allows it to be exogenously delivered across the membrane of mammalian cells, whereupon its transcription activity can be unleashed. Whether NeuroD has therapeutic effects for radiation-induced injury remains unclear. In the present study, we prepared a NeuroD-EGFP recombinant protein, and explored its protective effects on the survival and intestinal damage induced by ionizing radiation. Our results showed that NeuroD-EGFP could be transduced into small intestine epithelial cells and tissues. NeuroD-EGFP administration significantly increased overall survival of mice exposed to lethal total body irradiation (TBI). This recombinant NeuroD also reduced radiation-induced intestinal mucosal injury and apoptosis, and improved crypt survival. Expression profiling of NeuroD-EGFP-treated mice revealed upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), a known inhibitor of apoptosis in mammalian cells. In conclusion, NeuroD confers protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury, and provides a novel therapeutic clinical option for the prevention of intestinal side effects of radiotherapy and the treatment of victims of incidental exposure. PMID:27436572

  17. The anatomical basis and prevention of neurogenic voiding dysfunction following radical hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, X K; Huo, R J

    1991-01-01

    The disorder of neurogenic dysfunction is one of the most important complications of radical hysterectomy. In order to prevent this potential complication, the authors have studied the composition and layers of the pelvic paravisceral structures. The nerve branching and distribution of the pelvic plexus of 12 adult female cadavers were analyzed. From lateral to medial the pelvic paravisceral structure is made up of three layers. The lateral layer is the pelvic visceral fascia, the middle, a vascular layer, and the medial one, a nervous one which consists of the pelvic plexus and subsidiary plexuses. The pelvic plexus and subsidiary plexuses are laid closely to the lateral walls of pelvic organs. The ischial spine was taken as the central point and two perpendicular lines penetrating through the ischial spine were used as the longitudinal axis and transverse axis. According to these landmarks, the pelvic plexus could be divided into three parts: behind the longitudinal axis are the roots of the pelvic plexus, near the longitudinal axis is the uterovaginal plexus, and in front of the longitudinal axis are the branches distributed to bladder and urethra. The pelvic plexus and the uterosacral and cardinal ligaments are closely related. The pelvic and subsidiary plexuses can be damaged in radical hysterectomy and voiding dysfunction may then develop. Some anatomic bases are provided to explain and hopefully prevent this from happening. PMID:1925917

  18. Conversion of MyoD to a Neurogenic Factor: Binding Site Specificity Determines Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P. Fong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MyoD and NeuroD2, master regulators of myogenesis and neurogenesis, bind to a “shared” E-box sequence (CAGCTG and a “private” sequence (CAGGTG or CAGATG, respectively. To determine whether private-site recognition is sufficient to confer lineage specification, we generated a MyoD mutant with the DNA-binding specificity of NeuroD2. This chimeric mutant gained binding to NeuroD2 private sites but maintained binding to a subset of MyoD-specific sites, activating part of both the muscle and neuronal programs. Sequence analysis revealed an enrichment for PBX/MEIS motifs at the subset of MyoD-specific sites bound by the chimera, and point mutations that prevent MyoD interaction with PBX/MEIS converted the chimera to a pure neurogenic factor. Therefore, redirecting MyoD binding from MyoD private sites to NeuroD2 private sites, despite preserved binding to the MyoD/NeuroD2 shared sites, is sufficient to change MyoD from a master regulator of myogenesis to a master regulator of neurogenesis.

  19. A clinically authentic mouse model of enterovirus 71 (EV-A71)-induced neurogenic pulmonary oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chua, Beng Hooi; Alonso, Sylvie; Chow, Vincent T K; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic virus that sporadically causes fatal neurologic illness among infected children. Animal models of EV-A71 infection exist, but they do not recapitulate in animals the spectrum of disease and pathology observed in fatal human cases. Specifically, neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPE)-the main cause of EV-A71 infection-related mortality-is not observed in any of these models. This limits their utility in understanding viral pathogenesis of neurologic infections. We report the development of a mouse model of EV-A71 infection displaying NPE in severely affected animals. We inoculated one-week-old BALB/c mice with an adapted EV-A71 strain and identified clinical signs consistent with observations in human cases and other animal models. We also observed respiratory distress in some mice. At necropsy, we found their lungs to be heavier and incompletely collapsed compared to other mice. Serum levels of catecholamines and histopathology of lung and brain tissues of these mice strongly indicated onset of NPE. The localization of virally-induced brain lesions also suggested a potential pathogenic mechanism for EV-A71-induced NPE. This novel mouse model of virally-induced NPE represents a valuable resource for studying viral mechanisms of neuro-pathogenesis and pre-clinical testing of potential therapeutics and prophylactics against EV-A71-related neurologic complications. PMID:27357918

  20. The blocking effect of iontophoretic administration of lidocaine on neurogenic vascular reactions in rat dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostouros, G D; Olgart, L; Edwall, L

    1996-01-01

    The blocking effect of lidocaine on nerve-induced vascular reactions was investigated in lower incisor teeth of anaesthetized rats. Pulpal blood flow was measured with laser Doppler flowmetry. Monopolar electrical stimulation of the rat incisor evoked a biphasic vascular response: an initial vasoconstriction was followed by a long-lasting vasodilation. Iontophoresis of lidocaine on a superficially exposed dentin surface with 60 microA of anodal direct current for 20 min blocked almost completely the stimulus-induced blood flow increase for about 25 min without any systemic effects. Iontophoresis of lidocaine with 40 microA for 20 min was almost without effect. Topical application of a mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (25 + 25 mg/ml) in deep dentinal cavities was also without effect on the neurogenic reactions. Intravenous administration of lidocaine at 5 and 10 mg/kg in rats pretreated with phenoxybenzamine reduced the stimulus-induced increase in blood flow by an average of 29% and 54%, respectively, whereas the remaining alpha-adrenoceptor resistant vasoconstriction was not influenced. The present results show that iontophoresis of lidocaine on exposed dentin blocks nerve-induced vascular responses without causing systemic effects. PMID:9021328

  1. Potential Therapies by Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes in CNS Diseases: Focusing on the Neurogenic Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Luarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative disorders are one of the leading causes of death and disability and one of the biggest burdens on health care systems. Novel approaches using various types of stem cells have been proposed to treat common neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, or stroke. Moreover, as the secretome of these cells appears to be of greater benefit compared to the cells themselves, the extracellular components responsible for its therapeutic benefit have been explored. Stem cells, as well as most cells, release extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, which are nanovesicles able to target specific cell types and thus to modify their function by delivering proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Exosomes have recently been tested in vivo and in vitro as therapeutic conveyors for the treatment of diseases. As such, they could be engineered to target specific populations of cells within the CNS. Considering the fact that many degenerative brain diseases have an impact on adult neurogenesis, we discuss how the modulation of the adult neurogenic niches may be a therapeutic target of stem cell-derived exosomes. These novel approaches should be examined in cellular and animal models to provide better, more effective, and specific therapeutic tools in the future.

  2. MDM2 inhibition rescues neurogenic and cognitive deficits in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Stockton, Michael E; Bhuiyan, Ismat; Eisinger, Brian E; Gao, Yu; Miller, Jessica L; Bhattacharyya, Anita; Zhao, Xinyu

    2016-04-27

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). However, the mechanism remains unclear, and effective treatment is lacking. We show that loss of FMRP leads to activation of adult mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) and a subsequent reduction in the production of neurons. We identified the ubiquitin ligase mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) as a target of FMRP. FMRP regulates Mdm2 mRNA stability, and loss of FMRP resulted in elevated MDM2 mRNA and protein. Further, we found that increased MDM2 expression led to reduced P53 expression in adult mouse NSCs, leading to alterations in NSC proliferation and differentiation. Treatment with Nutlin-3, a small molecule undergoing clinical trials for treating cancer, specifically inhibited the interaction of MDM2 with P53, and rescued neurogenic and cognitive deficits in FMRP-deficient mice. Our data reveal a potential regulatory role for FMRP in the balance between adult NSC activation and quiescence, and identify a potential new treatment for fragile X syndrome. PMID:27122614

  3. Compilation of a preliminary checklist for the differential diagnosis of neurogenic stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska Lundie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurogenic stuttering (NS is the most frequently occurring acquired form of stuttering in children and adults. This form of stuttering is primarily caused by neurological incidents. Owing to controversies with regard to similarities between developmental stuttering (DS and NS symptomatology, differential diagnosis is problematic. Differential diagnosis will guide the appropriate management of persons who stutter (PWS.Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe and highlight the characteristics of NS in order to compile a preliminary checklist for accurate diagnosis and intervention.Method: An explorative, applied mixed method, multiple case study research design was followed. Purposive sampling was used to select four participants. A comprehensive assessment battery was compiled for data collection.Results: The results revealed a distinct pattern of core stuttering behaviours in NS, although discrepancies existed regarding stuttering severity and frequency. It was also found that DS and NS can co-occur. The case history and the core stuttering pattern are important considerations during differential diagnosis, as these are the only consistent characteristics in people with NS.Conclusion: It is unlikely that all the symptoms of NS are present in an individual. The researchers scrutinised the findings of this study and the findings of previous literature to compile a potentially workable checklist.

  4. CIT, a gene involved in neurogenic cytokinesis, is mutated in human primary microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Sulman; Al-Harbi, Khalid M; Alhijji, Sabri A M; Albalawi, Alia M; Alharby, Essa; Eldardear, Amr; Samman, Mohammed I

    2016-10-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a static neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by congenital small head circumference and non-progressive intellectual disability without additional severe brain malformations. MCPH is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Sixteen genes (MCPH1-MCPH16) have been discovered so far, mutations thereof lead to autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. In a family, segregating MCPH in an autosomal recessive manner, genome-wide homozygosity mapping mapped a disease locus to 16.9-Mb region on chromosome 12q24.11-q24.32. Following this, exome sequencing in three affected individuals of the family discovered a splice site variant (c.753+3A>T) in citron kinase (CIT) gene, segregating with the disorder in the family. CIT co-localizes to the midbody ring during cytokinesis, and its loss of expression results in defects in neurogenic cytokinesis in both humans and mice. Splice site variant in CIT, identified in this study, is predicted to abolish splice donor site. cDNA sequence of an affected individual showed retention of an intron next to the splice donor site. The study, presented here, revealed the first variant in the CIT causing MCPH in the family. PMID:27519304

  5. Potential Therapies by Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes in CNS Diseases: Focusing on the Neurogenic Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luarte, Alejandro; Bátiz, Luis Federico; Wyneken, Ursula; Lafourcade, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are one of the leading causes of death and disability and one of the biggest burdens on health care systems. Novel approaches using various types of stem cells have been proposed to treat common neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, or stroke. Moreover, as the secretome of these cells appears to be of greater benefit compared to the cells themselves, the extracellular components responsible for its therapeutic benefit have been explored. Stem cells, as well as most cells, release extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, which are nanovesicles able to target specific cell types and thus to modify their function by delivering proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Exosomes have recently been tested in vivo and in vitro as therapeutic conveyors for the treatment of diseases. As such, they could be engineered to target specific populations of cells within the CNS. Considering the fact that many degenerative brain diseases have an impact on adult neurogenesis, we discuss how the modulation of the adult neurogenic niches may be a therapeutic target of stem cell-derived exosomes. These novel approaches should be examined in cellular and animal models to provide better, more effective, and specific therapeutic tools in the future. PMID:27195011

  6. Sensory and other neurogenic effects of exposures to airborne office dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølhave, L.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Attermann, J.

    This Danish Office Dust Experiment investigated the response of 24 healthy non-sensitive adult subjects to exposure to normal office dust in the air (7 μg m -3 clean air, 136 and 390 μg m -3 TSP). The dust had no major identifiable specific reactive components. The exposure duration was 5 1/4 h and was arranged in a climate chamber in controlled atmospheric conditions. Measurements were made acutely at exposure onset, subacutely at exposure end and next day (late). As secondary aims the time course and threshold of any observed effect of the exposures, and the characteristics of any hyperresponding subgroup were investigated. In a questionnaire with 36 questions the dust exposures caused increased acute, subacute and late perceptions of reduced air quality, acute and subacute increased odor intensity, acute eye irritation, acute and late heavy head, subacute feeling of perspiration, and subacute general irritation. Cough increased subacutely during exposures. In addition, a performance test showed effects of dust exposures which also affected "Mood Scale" ratings. No effect was seen on an addition test for distraction, and objective measurements of skin humidity. The overall conclusion of the study is that healthy subjects without hypersensitivity reactions seem to respond to airborne house dust. The responses are both subjective sensory reactions and other neurogenic effects even at exposure levels within the range found in normal buildings. Some of the effects appeared acutely and decreased through adaptation while others increased during prolonged exposure and remained for more than 17 h after the exposure ended. The findings may indicate for this type of dust a threshold level for the dose-response relationships below 140 μg m -3.

  7. Sciatic nerve compression by neurogenic heterotopic ossification: use of CT to determine surgical indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the characteristics of neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) based on clinical tests, electroneuromyography (ENMG) and CT in a database of patients with lesions of the central nervous system who required sciatic nerve neurolysis along with posterior hip NHO resection, and to determine the respective roles of ENMG and CT in the management of posterior hip NHOs in patients who are unable to communicate or express pain. The consistency of the ENMG results with clinical findings, CT results and macroscopic signs of lesions was retrospectively assessed after sciatic nerve neurolysis and ablation of 55 posterior hip NHOs. Sciatic nerve neurolysis was necessary in 55 cases (47.4 %; 55 out of 116). CT showed contact of the NHO with the nerve in all cases: 5 in contact with no deflection, 3 in contact with deflection, 21 moulded into a gutter and 26 entrapped in the NHO. There were clinical signs of sciatic nerve lesion in 21.8 % of cases (12 out of 55). ENMG showed signs of sciatic nerve lesions in only 55.6 % (10 out of 18), only 4 of whom presented with clinical signs of a nerve lesion. No significant relationship was found between clinical symptoms and ENMG findings of sciatic nerve compression (n = 13, p = 0.77). Nerve compression by NHO is likely an underdiagnosed condition, particularly in patients who are unable to communicate. Diagnosis of sciatic compression by NHO should be based on regular clinical examinations and CT. ENMG is not sufficiently sensitive to be used alone for surgical decision-making. (orig.)

  8. Minocycline treatment ameliorates interferon-alpha-induced neurogenic defects and depression-like behaviors in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Shun eZheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-alpha (IFN-α is a proinflammatory cytokine that is widely used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and malignancy, because of its immune-activating, antiviral, and antiproliferative properties. However, long-term IFN-α treatment frequently causes depression, which limits its clinical utility. The precise molecular and cellular mechanisms of IFN-α-induced depression are not currently understood. Neural stem cells (NSCs in the hippocampus continuously generate new neurons, and some evidence suggests that decreased neurogenesis plays a role in the neuropathology of depression. We previously reported that IFN-α treatment suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis and induced depression-like behaviors via its receptors in the brain in adult mice. However, it is unclear how systemic IFN-α administration induces IFN-α signaling in the hippocampus. In this study, we analyzed the role of microglia, immune cells in the brain, in mediating the IFN-α-induced neurogenic defects and depressive behaviors. In vitro studies demonstrated that IFN-α treatment induced the secretion of endogenous IFN-α from microglia, which suppressed NSC proliferation. In vivo treatment of adult mice with IFN-α for five weeks increased the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-α, and reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Both effects were prevented by simultaneous treatment with minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation. Furthermore, minocycline treatment significantly suppressed IFN-α-induced depressive behaviors in mice. These results suggest that microglial activation plays a critical role in the development of IFN-α-induced depression, and that minocycline is a promising drug for the treatment of IFN-α-induced depression in patients, especially those who are low responders to conventional antidepressant treatments.

  9. Benign and malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin on FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differentiation between benign and malignant nerve sheath tumors is difficult based on conventional radiological imaging. This study was undertaken to investigate the value of FDG PET in distinguishing benign from malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin. We performed a retrospective review of the medical record to select patients with nerve sheath tumors who had underdone FDG PET imaging. Fifteen patients (7F: 8M) with benign or malignant nerve sheath tumors were included in this study. Of the 15 patients, 9 were diagnosed with the known neurofibromatosis type I. A total of 19 nerve sheath tumors were included from the 15 patients. All patients had undergone FDG PET to evaluate for malignant potential of the known lesions. Images of FDG PET were semi-quantitatively analyzed and a region of interest (ROI) was placed over the area of the maximum FDG uptake and an average standardized uptake value was taken for final analysis. There were 5 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 5 schwannomas, and 9 neurofibromas. The mean SUV was 2 (ranged from 1.6 to 3.3) for schwannomas, 1.3 (0.7 to 2.5) for neurofibromas, and 8.4 (4.6 to 12.2) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Of 14 benign tumors, all except one schwannoma showed a SUV less than 3. When a cutoff SUV of 4 was used to differentiate the nerve sheath tumors, all tumors were correctly classified as benign or malignant, respectively. Among the 9 patients diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type I. 4 had malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and FDG PET accurately detected all the 4 lesions with malignant transformation. According to our results, FDG PET seems to have a great potential for accurately characterizing benign versus malignant nerve sheath tumors. It appears to be extremely useful for patients with neurofibromatosis to localize the lesion with malignant transformation

  10. Benign and malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin on FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, M. J.; Go, D. H.; Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, K. H.; Lee, J. D [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The differentiation between benign and malignant nerve sheath tumors is difficult based on conventional radiological imaging. This study was undertaken to investigate the value of FDG PET in distinguishing benign from malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin. We performed a retrospective review of the medical record to select patients with nerve sheath tumors who had underdone FDG PET imaging. Fifteen patients (7F: 8M) with benign or malignant nerve sheath tumors were included in this study. Of the 15 patients, 9 were diagnosed with the known neurofibromatosis type I. A total of 19 nerve sheath tumors were included from the 15 patients. All patients had undergone FDG PET to evaluate for malignant potential of the known lesions. Images of FDG PET were semi-quantitatively analyzed and a region of interest (ROI) was placed over the area of the maximum FDG uptake and an average standardized uptake value was taken for final analysis. There were 5 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 5 schwannomas, and 9 neurofibromas. The mean SUV was 2 (ranged from 1.6 to 3.3) for schwannomas, 1.3 (0.7 to 2.5) for neurofibromas, and 8.4 (4.6 to 12.2) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Of 14 benign tumors, all except one schwannoma showed a SUV less than 3. When a cutoff SUV of 4 was used to differentiate the nerve sheath tumors, all tumors were correctly classified as benign or malignant, respectively. Among the 9 patients diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type I. 4 had malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and FDG PET accurately detected all the 4 lesions with malignant transformation. According to our results, FDG PET seems to have a great potential for accurately characterizing benign versus malignant nerve sheath tumors. It appears to be extremely useful for patients with neurofibromatosis to localize the lesion with malignant transformation.

  11. Sciatic nerve compression by neurogenic heterotopic ossification: use of CT to determine surgical indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salga, Marjorie [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Jourdan, Claire [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Handi-Resp, (EA4047), Versailles (France); Durand, Marie-Christine [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Neurophysiology, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hangard, Chloe; Carlier, Robert-Yves [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Medical Imaging, Garches (France); Denormandie, Philippe [Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Garches (France); Genet, Francois [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Military Medical Service, Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Percy, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clamart (France)

    2014-09-14

    To describe the characteristics of neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) based on clinical tests, electroneuromyography (ENMG) and CT in a database of patients with lesions of the central nervous system who required sciatic nerve neurolysis along with posterior hip NHO resection, and to determine the respective roles of ENMG and CT in the management of posterior hip NHOs in patients who are unable to communicate or express pain. The consistency of the ENMG results with clinical findings, CT results and macroscopic signs of lesions was retrospectively assessed after sciatic nerve neurolysis and ablation of 55 posterior hip NHOs. Sciatic nerve neurolysis was necessary in 55 cases (47.4 %; 55 out of 116). CT showed contact of the NHO with the nerve in all cases: 5 in contact with no deflection, 3 in contact with deflection, 21 moulded into a gutter and 26 entrapped in the NHO. There were clinical signs of sciatic nerve lesion in 21.8 % of cases (12 out of 55). ENMG showed signs of sciatic nerve lesions in only 55.6 % (10 out of 18), only 4 of whom presented with clinical signs of a nerve lesion. No significant relationship was found between clinical symptoms and ENMG findings of sciatic nerve compression (n = 13, p = 0.77). Nerve compression by NHO is likely an underdiagnosed condition, particularly in patients who are unable to communicate. Diagnosis of sciatic compression by NHO should be based on regular clinical examinations and CT. ENMG is not sufficiently sensitive to be used alone for surgical decision-making. (orig.)

  12. Taiwanese Continence Society clinical guidelines for diagnosis and management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hann-Chorng Kuo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the current evidence and expert opinions on diagnosis and management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD in Taiwan. The main problems of NLUTD are failure to store, failure to empty, and combined failure to store and empty. The priority of management of NLUTD should follow the order of: (1 preservation of renal function; (2 freedom from urinary tract infection (UTI; (3 efficient bladder emptying; and (4 freedom from indwelling catheter, and patients' expectation of management should be respected. Management of the urinary tract in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI or multiple sclerosis (MS must be based on urodynamic findings, rather than inferences from the neurologic evaluation. Selecting high risk patients is important to prevent renal function impairment in patients with chronic NLUTD. Patients with NLUTD should be regularly followed up for their lower urinary tract dysfunction by urodynamic study and any urological complication should be adequately treated. Avoiding a chronic indwelling catheter can reduce the incidence of developing a low compliant bladder. Antimuscarinic agents with clean intermittent catheterization (CIC may reduce urological complications and improve quality of life (QoL in patients with NLUTD. Intravesical injection of botulinum toxin A provides an alternative treatment for refractory detrusor overactivity (DO or low compliant bladder and can replace the need for bladder augmentation. When surgical intervention is necessary, we should consider the least invasive type of surgery and reversible procedure first and avoid any unnecessary surgery of the lower urinary tract. Keeping the bladder and urethra in a good condition without interference of the neuromuscular continuity provides patients with NLUTD a chance for future new technologies. It is most important to never give up on improving the QoL in patients with NLUTD.

  13. Botulinum toxin A in the treatment of spinal cord injury patients with refractory neurogenic detrusor overactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo A. Alvares

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A injections in the detrusor muscle in patients with spinal cord injury and urinary incontinence due to detrusor overactivity and refractory to anticholinergic agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 22 patients with spinal cord injuries, whose bladders were emptied by intermittent catheterization. All patients had detrusor overactivity and urinary incontinence that proved difficult to treat, despite using high doses of two different anticholinergics. The pre-treatment assessment included a complete urodynamic study and ultrasonography of the kidneys and urinary tract. A one-month follow-up was completed with urodynamic evaluation and the clinical response was evaluated through outpatient consultations and telephone contact. RESULTS: After the procedure, the maximum cystometric capacity and the bladder reflex volume increased, whereas the maximum detrusor pressure and compliance decreased. The mean duration of continence was 7 ± 7 months. In 18 patients (81.8%, it was necessary to administer anticholinergics to achieve continence. Five patients (22.7% had indication of reinjection, and augmentation cystoplasty was indicated in 9 patients (40.9%. CONCLUSION: The use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity refractory to anticholinergics is an option before more invasive treatments, such as augmentation cystoplasty, are attempted. In our study as well as in the literature, there was improvement in most urodynamic parameters. Overall, 40.9% of patients underwent augmentation cystoplasty and 81.8% of patients needed anticholinergic agents to reach urinary continence. Further studies are necessary to improve the procedure and to achieve better clinical results.

  14. Staphylococcus saprophyticus native valve endocarditis in a diabetic patient with neurogenic bladder: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarifuchi, Hiroki; Kusaba, Koji; Yamakuchi, Hiroki; Hamada, Yohei; Urakami, Toshiharu; Aoki, Yosuke

    2015-09-01

    A 61-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with 2-day history of malaise and dyspnea. He had mitral prolapse and type II diabetes mellitus with neurogenic bladder, which was cared for by catheterization on his own. On arrival the patient was in septic condition with hypoxemia, and physical examination revealed systolic murmur at the apex. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed vegetation of the mitral and the aortic valve. The presence of continuous bacteremia was confirmed by multiple sets of blood culture, whereby gram-positive cocci was retrieved and identified as Staphylococcus saprophyticus (S. saprophyticus) both phenotypically and genetically. Because two major criteria of the Modified Duke Criteria were met, the patient was diagnosed with native valve endocarditis due to S. saprophyticus. The urine culture was also positive for gram-positive cocci, phenotypically identified as Staphylococcus warneri, which was subsequently identified as S. saprophyticus with the use of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry), indicating strongly that the intermittent catheterization-associated urinary tract infection resulted in bacteremia that eventually lead to infective endocarditis. This patient was treated with vancomycin and clindamycin. Because of multiple cerebral infarctions, the patient underwent mitral and aortic valve replacement on hospital day 5. Blood culture turned negative at 6th hospital day. Antibiotic therapy was continued for six weeks after surgery. The patient's clinical course was uneventful thereafter, and was discharged home. This is the first case report of native valve endocarditis caused by S. saprophyticus of confirmed urinary origin. PMID:26184852

  15. Co-effects of matrix low elasticity and aligned topography on stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shenglian; Liu, Xi; Yu, Shukui; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Shuming; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Xiaodan; Mao, Haiquan

    2016-05-01

    The development of novel biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to direct stem cell fate for nerve regeneration is the focus of current intensive research efforts. In this study, a hierarchically aligned fibrillar fibrin hydrogel (AFG) that was fabricated through electrospinning and the concurrent molecular self-assembly process mimics both the soft and oriented features of nerve tissue, thus providing hybrid biophysical cues to instruct cell behavior in vitro and in vivo. The electrospun hydrogels were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering assay and atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing a hierarchically linear-ordered structure from the nanoscale to the macroscale with a soft elastic character (elasticity ~1 kPa). We found that this low elasticity and aligned topography of AFG exhibit co-effects on promoting the neurogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUMSCs) in comparison to random fibrin hydrogel (RFG) and tissue culture plate (TCP) control after two week cell culture in growth medium lacking supplementation with soluble neurogenic induction factors. In addition, AFG also induces dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to rapidly project numerous long neurite outgrowths longitudinally along the AFG fibers for a total neurite extension distance of 1.96 mm in three days in the absence of neurotrophic factor supplementation. Moreover, the AFG implanted in a rat T9 dorsal hemisection spinal cord injury model was found to promote endogenous neural cell fast migration and axonal invasion along AFG fibers, resulting in aligned tissue cables in vivo. Our results suggest that matrix stiffness and aligned topography may instruct stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth, providing great promise for biomaterial design for applications in nerve regeneration.The development of novel biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to

  16. Co-effects of matrix low elasticity and aligned topography on stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shenglian; Liu, Xi; Yu, Shukui; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Shuming; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Xiaodan; Mao, Haiquan

    2016-05-21

    The development of novel biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to direct stem cell fate for nerve regeneration is the focus of current intensive research efforts. In this study, a hierarchically aligned fibrillar fibrin hydrogel (AFG) that was fabricated through electrospinning and the concurrent molecular self-assembly process mimics both the soft and oriented features of nerve tissue, thus providing hybrid biophysical cues to instruct cell behavior in vitro and in vivo. The electrospun hydrogels were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering assay and atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing a hierarchically linear-ordered structure from the nanoscale to the macroscale with a soft elastic character (elasticity ∼1 kPa). We found that this low elasticity and aligned topography of AFG exhibit co-effects on promoting the neurogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUMSCs) in comparison to random fibrin hydrogel (RFG) and tissue culture plate (TCP) control after two week cell culture in growth medium lacking supplementation with soluble neurogenic induction factors. In addition, AFG also induces dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to rapidly project numerous long neurite outgrowths longitudinally along the AFG fibers for a total neurite extension distance of 1.96 mm in three days in the absence of neurotrophic factor supplementation. Moreover, the AFG implanted in a rat T9 dorsal hemisection spinal cord injury model was found to promote endogenous neural cell fast migration and axonal invasion along AFG fibers, resulting in aligned tissue cables in vivo. Our results suggest that matrix stiffness and aligned topography may instruct stem cell neurogenic differentiation and rapid neurite outgrowth, providing great promise for biomaterial design for applications in nerve regeneration. PMID:27124547

  17. Metformin therapy to reduce weight gain and visceral adiposity in children and adolescents with neurogenic or myogenic motor deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Casteels, Kristina; Fieuws, Steffen; van Helvoirt, Maria; Verpoorten, Carla; Goemans, Nathalie; Coudyzer, Walter; Loeckx, Dirk; de Zegher, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled study was to explore the effect of metformin in children with a neurogenic or myogenic motor deficit, who are therefore prone to develop overweight, adiposity, and insulin resistance. Study participants (n = 42) had a mean age of 15.5 yr, a short stature (height -2.4 SD), a relatively high BMI (+1.7 SD), and a high body fat fraction (41.9% or +2.8 SD). Abdominal CT confirmed the high fat mass and disclosed a high fraction of visceral fat. As expe...

  18. Long-term follow-up after botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection into the detrusor for treatment of neurogenic detrusor hyperactivity in children

    OpenAIRE

    Zeino, Mazen; Becker, Tanja; Koen, Mark; Berger, Christoph; Riccabona, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To prove the long-term efficacy of BTX-A injection in the management of children with neurogenic detrusor hyperactivity. Materials and methods 28 out of 145 children with neurogenic bladder (15 male and 13 female, mean age 10.7 years) who were treated between 2002 and 2010 and became non-responders to conservative treatment were included into the retrospective study. We injected 10-12 U/kg of BTX-A (Botox®) into the detrusor at 20-30 sites, sparing the trigone. The mean follow-up was ...

  19. Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve measurements to diagnose neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machanic, Bennett I; Sanders, Richard J

    2008-03-01

    A reliable objective test is still needed to confirm the diagnosis of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS). Over the past 20 years, it has been suggested that responses to medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MAC) and C8 nerve root stimulation could be used for this purpose. Herein, we explore this thesis. A clinical diagnosis of NTOS was established in 41 patients, all of whom underwent surgical decompression. Preoperatively, all patients were studied with MAC sensory neural action potential (SNAP) determinations and C8 nerve root stimulation. Controls were 19 asymptomatic, healthy volunteers. MAC sensory latency on 79 control sides was 1.5-2.4 msec, while latency in 41 symptomatic patients ranged 2.2-2.8 msec. Latency of 2.5 or greater was noted in 30 patients (specificity 99%, sensitivity 73%), confirming a diagnosis of NTOS, while the remaining 11 (27%) fell into the borderline zone of 2.2-2.4 msec. The latency difference between right and left sides in controls was 0-0.2 msec in 17 (89%), while in NTOS patients 31 had a difference of 0.3 msec or more (sensitivity 89%, specificity 63%). Amplitudes of 10 muV or more occurred in 77 of 79 control sides, whereas the amplitude was under 10 muV in 28 patients (specificity 97%, sensitivity 68%). Amplitude ratios between right and left sides in controls were 1.7 or less. Ratios of 2.0 or more were measured in 25 patients (specificity 100%, sensitivity 61%). Using the four diagnostic criteria (latency over 2.4 msec, latency difference between sides of 0.3 or more, amplitude under 10 muV, and amplitude ratios of 2.0 or more), 40 of the 41 patients had at least one of the four diagnostic criteria, 23 patients (56%) had three or four positive criteria, and 12 (29%) had two. C8 nerve root stimulation responses were below normal (56 M/sec) in 54%. MAC measurement is a fairly reliable technique for confirming the diagnosis of NTOS. Latency determination appeared to be a slightly more consistent measurement in this study

  20. A new treatment for neurogenic inflammation caused by EV71 with CR2-targeted complement inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Shaofu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71, one of the most important neurotropic EVs, has caused death and long-term neurological sequelae in hundreds of thousands of young children in the Asia-Pacific region in the past decade. The neurological diseases are attributed to infection by EV71 inducing an extensive peripheral and central nervous system (CNS inflammatory response with abnormal cytokine production and lymphocyte depletion induced by EV71 infection. In the absence of specific antiviral agents or vaccines, an effective immunosuppressive strategy would be valuable to alleviate the severity of the local inflammation induced by EV71 infection. Presentation of the hypothesis The complement system plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response. Inappropriate or excessive activation of the complement system results in a severe inflammatory reaction or numerous pathological injuries. Previous studies have revealed that EV71 infection can induce complement activation and an inflammatory response of the CNS. CR2-targeted complement inhibition has been proved to be a potential therapeutic strategy for many diseases, such as influenza virus-induced lung tissue injury, postischemic cerebral injury and spinal cord injury. In this paper, a mouse model is proposed to test whether a recombinant fusion protein consisting of CR2 and a region of Crry (CR2-Crry is able to specifically inhibit the local complement activation induced by EV71 infection, and to observe whether this treatment strategy can alleviate or even cure the neurogenic inflammation. Testing the hypothesis CR2-Crry is expressed in CHO cells, and its biological activity is determined by complement inhibition assays. 7-day-old ICR mice are inoculated intracranially with EV71 to duplicate the neurological symptoms. The mice are then divided into two groups, in one of which the mice are treated with CR2-Crry targeted complement inhibitor, and in the other with phosphate-buffered saline. A

  1. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla contribute to neurogenic hypertension induced by systemic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Kay LH

    2012-09-01

    upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Finally, the LPS-promoted long-term pressor response and the reduction in expression of voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv4.3 in RVLM were antagonized by minocycline, NS398, pentoxifylline, or a superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol, either infused into cisterna magna or microinjected bilaterally into RVLM. The same treatments, on the other hand, were ineffective against LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Conclusion These results suggest that systemic inflammation activates microglia in RVLM to induce COX-2-dependent neuroinflammation that leads to an increase in O2·- production. The resultant oxidative stress in RVLM in turn mediates neurogenic hypertension.

  2. PET-Scan Shows Peripherally Increased Neurokinin 1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow: Visualizing Neurogenic Inflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Magnus; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Aarnio, Mikko; Gordh, Torsten; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In response to pain, neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor availability is altered in the central nervous system. The NK1 receptor and its primary agonist, substance P, also play a crucial role in peripheral tissue in response to pain, as part of neurogenic inflammation. However, little is known about alterations in NK1 receptor availability in peripheral tissue in chronic pain conditions and very few studies have been performed on human beings. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow were therefore examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1 specific radioligand [11C]GR205171 before and after treatment with graded exercise. The radioligand signal intensity was higher in the affected arm as compared with the unaffected arm, measured as differences between the arms in volume of voxels and signal intensity of this volume above a reference threshold set as 2.5 SD above mean signal intensity of the unaffected arm before treatment. In the eight subjects examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in all subjects but signal intensity decreased in five and increased in three. In conclusion, NK1 receptors may be activated, or up-regulated in the peripheral, painful tissue of a chronic pain condition. This up-regulation does, however, have moderate correlation to pain ratings. The increased NK1 receptor availability is interpreted as part of ongoing neurogenic inflammation and may have correlation to the pathogenesis of chronic tennis elbow. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00888225 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ PMID:24155873

  3. Neurogenic Niche Microglia Undergo Positional Remodeling and Progressive Activation Contributing to Age-Associated Reductions in Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Fonseca, Rene; Mahesula, Swetha; Apple, Deana M; Raghunathan, Rekha; Dugan, Allison; Cardona, Astrid; O'Connor, Jason; Kokovay, Erzsebet

    2016-04-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) exist throughout life in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the mammalian forebrain. During aging NSC function is diminished through an unclear mechanism. In this study, we establish microglia, the immune cells of the brain, as integral niche cells within the V-SVZ that undergo age-associated repositioning in the V-SVZ. Microglia become activated early before NSC deficits during aging resulting in an antineurogenic microenvironment due to increased inflammatory cytokine secretion. These age-associated changes were not observed in non-neurogenic brain regions, suggesting V-SVZ microglia are specialized. Using a sustained inflammatory model in young adult mice, we induced microglia activation and inflammation that was accompanied by reduced NSC proliferation in the V-SVZ. Furthermore, in vitro studies revealed secreted factors from activated microglia reduced proliferation and neuron production compared to secreted factors from resting microglia. Our results suggest that age-associated chronic inflammation contributes to declines in NSC function within the aging neurogenic niche. PMID:26857912

  4. Simplified scoring of the Actionable 8-item screening questionnaire for neurogenic bladder overactivity in multiple sclerosis: a comparative analysis of test performance at different cut-off points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, P.J.; Blok, B.F.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Heerings, M.; Lemmens, W.A.J.G.; Donders, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Actionable questionnaire is an 8-item tool to screen patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for neurogenic bladder problems, identifying those patients who might benefit from urological referral and bladder-specific treatment. The original scoring yields a total score of 0 to 24 with

  5. Simplified scoring of the Actionable 8-item screening questionnaire for neurogenic bladder overactivity in multiple sclerosis : a comparative analysis of test performance at different cut-off points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Blok, Bertil F.; Heesakkers, John P.; Heerings, Marco; Lemmens, Wim A.; Donders, Rogier

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Actionable questionnaire is an 8-item tool to screen patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for neurogenic bladder problems, identifying those patients who might benefit from urological referral and bladder-specific treatment. The original scoring yields a total score of 0 to 24 with

  6. An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Selective Alpha-Blockers in the Treatment of Children with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction—Preliminary Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kroll

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of selective α1-blockers in children with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunctions and increased leak point pressure (LPP. 14 children from age 6 to 16 years with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunctions (neurogenic bladder and LPP > 40 cm H2O were enrolled in the study. All patients received a selective α1-blocker (doxazosin for 6–8 weeks with an initial dosage of 0.03 mg/kg. During the observation period the continuation of oral anticholinergics, Clean Intermittent Catheterization (CIC, observation of “urinary dryness” and urinary incontinence periods were recommended. Patients were scheduled for a follow-up visit and urodynamic investigation after 6–8 weeks after the doxazosin therapy was started. In 4 patients, urine leakage occurred at lower pressures; in 9 patients, no significant changes in urine leak point pressures were detected; in 3 patients, there was a significant increase in the bladder capacity; in one patient, deterioration in continence was noted. The differences both in LPP and LPV before and after the treatment were not statistically significant. Our observations are consistent with the conclusions from other studies and showed no evident efficacy of doxazosin in children with neurogenic bladder.

  7. An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Selective Alpha-Blockers in the Treatment of Children with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction-Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Paweł; Gajewska, Ewa; Zachwieja, Jacek; Sobieska, Magdalena; Mańkowski, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of selective α1-blockers in children with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunctions and increased leak point pressure (LPP). 14 children from age 6 to 16 years with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunctions (neurogenic bladder) and LPP > 40 cm H₂O were enrolled in the study. All patients received a selective α1-blocker (doxazosin) for 6-8 weeks with an initial dosage of 0.03 mg/kg. During the observation period the continuation of oral anticholinergics, Clean Intermittent Catheterization (CIC), observation of "urinary dryness" and urinary incontinence periods were recommended. Patients were scheduled for a follow-up visit and urodynamic investigation after 6-8 weeks after the doxazosin therapy was started. In 4 patients, urine leakage occurred at lower pressures; in 9 patients, no significant changes in urine leak point pressures were detected; in 3 patients, there was a significant increase in the bladder capacity; in one patient, deterioration in continence was noted. The differences both in LPP and LPV before and after the treatment were not statistically significant. Our observations are consistent with the conclusions from other studies and showed no evident efficacy of doxazosin in children with neurogenic bladder. PMID:26999168

  8. An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Selective Alpha-Blockers in the Treatment of Children with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction—Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Paweł; Gajewska, Ewa; Zachwieja, Jacek; Sobieska, Magdalena; Mańkowski, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of selective α1-blockers in children with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunctions and increased leak point pressure (LPP). 14 children from age 6 to 16 years with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunctions (neurogenic bladder) and LPP > 40 cm H2O were enrolled in the study. All patients received a selective α1-blocker (doxazosin) for 6–8 weeks with an initial dosage of 0.03 mg/kg. During the observation period the continuation of oral anticholinergics, Clean Intermittent Catheterization (CIC), observation of “urinary dryness” and urinary incontinence periods were recommended. Patients were scheduled for a follow-up visit and urodynamic investigation after 6–8 weeks after the doxazosin therapy was started. In 4 patients, urine leakage occurred at lower pressures; in 9 patients, no significant changes in urine leak point pressures were detected; in 3 patients, there was a significant increase in the bladder capacity; in one patient, deterioration in continence was noted. The differences both in LPP and LPV before and after the treatment were not statistically significant. Our observations are consistent with the conclusions from other studies and showed no evident efficacy of doxazosin in children with neurogenic bladder. PMID:26999168

  9. Inhibitory effect of mitragynine, an analgesic alkaloid from Thai herbal medicine, on neurogenic contraction of the vas deferens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Yamamoto, Leonardo T; Watanabe, Kazuo; Yano, Shingo; Shan, Jie; Pang, Peter K T; Ponglux, Dhavadee; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Horie, Syunji

    2005-11-26

    The effect of an indole-alkaloid mitragynine isolated from the Thai medicinal herb kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) on neurogenic contraction of smooth muscle was studied in guinea-pig vas deferens. Mitragynine inhibited the contraction of the vas deferens produced by electrical transmural stimulation. On the other hand, mitragynine failed to affect the responses to norepinephrine and ATP. Mitragynine did not reduce KCl-induced contraction in the presence of tetrodotoxin, prazosin and alpha,beta-methylene ATP. Mitragynine inhibited nicotine- or tyramine-induced contraction. By using the patch-clamp technique, mitragynine was found to block T- and L-type Ca2+ channel currents in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. In the Ca2+ measurement by a fluorescent dye method, mitragynine reduced KCl-induced Ca2+ influx in neuroblastoma cells. The present results suggest that mitragynine inhibits the vas deferens contraction elicited by nerve stimulation, probably through its blockade of neuronal Ca2+ channels. PMID:16107269

  10. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channel localized to non-neuronal airway cells promotes non-neurogenic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassini, Romina; Pedretti, Pamela; Moretto, Nadia;

    2012-01-01

    inflammation in asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease raises an alternative possibility that airway inflammation is promoted by non-neuronal TRPA1.By using Real-Time PCR and calcium imaging, we found that cultured human airway cells, including fibroblasts, epithelial and smooth muscle cells express...... functional TRPA1 channels. By using immunohistochemistry, TRPA1 staining was observed in airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells in sections taken from human airways and lung, and from airways and lung of wild-type, but not TRPA1-deficient mice. In cultured human airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells...... (BAL) fluid of wild-type mice. This effect of TRPA1 agonists was attenuated by TRPA1 antagonism or in TRPA1-deficient mice, but not by pharmacological ablation of sensory nerves.Our results demonstrate that, although either TRPV1 or TRPA1 activation causes airway neurogenic inflammation, solely TRPA1...

  11. Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 Channel Localized to Non-Neuronal Airway Cells Promotes Non-Neurogenic Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassini, Romina; Pedretti, Pamela; Moretto, Nadia;

    2012-01-01

    inflammation in asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease raises an alternative possibility that airway inflammation is promoted by non-neuronal TRPA1.By using Real-Time PCR and calcium imaging, we found that cultured human airway cells, including fibroblasts, epithelial and smooth muscle cells express...... functional TRPA1 channels. By using immunohistochemistry, TRPA1 staining was observed in airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells in sections taken from human airways and lung, and from airways and lung of wild-type, but not TRPA1-deficient mice. In cultured human airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells...... (BAL) fluid of wild-type mice. This effect of TRPA1 agonists was attenuated by TRPA1 antagonism or in TRPA1-deficient mice, but not by pharmacological ablation of sensory nerves.Our results demonstrate that, although either TRPV1 or TRPA1 activation causes airway neurogenic inflammation, solely TRPA1...

  12. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors can antagonize neurogenic and calcitonin gene-related peptide induced dilation of dural meningeal vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerman, S; Williamson, D J; Kaube, H; Goadsby, P J

    2002-01-01

    The detailed pathophysiology of migraine is beginning to be understood and is likely to involve activation of trigeminovascular afferents. Clinically effective anti-migraine compounds are believed to have actions that include peripheral inhibition of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from trigeminal neurones, or preventing dural vessel dilation, or both. CGRP antagonists can block both neurogenic and CGRP-induced dural vessel dilation. Nitric oxide (NO) can induce headache in migraine patients and often triggers a delayed migraine. The initial headache is thought to be caused via a direct action of the NO–cGMP pathway that causes vasodilation by vascular smooth muscle relaxation, while the delayed headache is likely to be a result of triggering trigeminovascular activation. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors are effective in the treatment of acute migraine. The present studies used intravital microscopy to examine the effects of specific NOS inhibitors on neurogenic dural vasodilation (NDV) and CGRP-induced dilation. The non-specific and neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitors were able to partially inhibit NDV, while the non-specific and endothelial NOS (eNOS) inhibitors were able to partially inhibit the CGRP induced dilation. There was no effect of the inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor. The data suggest that the delayed headache response triggered by NO donors in humans may be due, in part, to increased nNOS activity in the trigeminal system that causes CGRP release and dural vessel dilation. Further, eNOS activity in the endothelium causes NO production and smooth muscle relaxation by direct activation of the NO–cGMP pathway, and may be involved in the initial headache response. PMID:12183331

  13. Adult neurogenesis in the short-lived teleost Nothobranchius furzeri: localization of neurogenic niches, molecular characterization and effects of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzini, Eva Terzibasi; Baumgart, Mario; Battistoni, Giorgia; Cellerino, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    We studied adult neurogenesis in the short-lived annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri and quantified the effects of aging on the mitotic activity of the neuronal progenitors and the expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) in the radial glia. The distribution of neurogenic niches is substantially similar to that of zebrafish and adult stem cells generate neurons, which persist in the adult brain. As opposed to zebrafish, however, the N. furzeri genome contains a doublecortin (DCX) gene. Doublecortin is transiently expressed by newly generated neurons in the telencephalon and optic tectum (OT). We also analyzed the expression of the microRNA miR-9 and miR-124 and found that they have complementary expression domains: miR-9 is expressed in the neurogenic niches of the telencephalon and the radial glia of the OT, while miR-124 is expressed in differentiated neurons. The main finding of this paper is the demonstration of an age-dependent decay in adult neurogenesis. Using unbiased stereological estimates of cell numbers, we detected an almost fivefold decrease in the number of mitotically active cells in the OT between young and old age. This reduced mitotic activity is paralleled by a reduction in DCX labeling. Finally, we detected a dramatic up-regulation of GFAP in the radial glia of the aged brain. This up-regulation is not paralleled by a similar up-regulation of S100B and Musashi-1, two other markers of the radial glia. In summary, the brain of N. furzeri replicates two typical hallmarks of mammalian aging: gliosis and reduced adult neurogenesis. PMID:22171971

  14. Properties of doublecortin-(DCX-expressing cells in the piriform cortex compared to the neurogenic dentate gyrus of adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Klempin

    Full Text Available The piriform cortex receives input from the olfactory bulb and (via the entorhinal cortex sends efferents to the hippocampus, thereby connecting the two canonical neurogenic regions of the adult rodent brain. Doublecortin (DCX is a cytoskeleton-associated protein that is expressed transiently in the course of adult neurogenesis. Interestingly, the adult piriform cortex, which is usually considered non-neurogenic (even though some reports exist that state otherwise, also contains an abundant population of DCX-positive cells. We asked how similar these cells would be to DCX-positive cells in the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Using BAC-generated transgenic mice that express GFP under the DCX promoter, we studied DCX-expression and electrophysiological properties of DCX-positive cells in the mouse piriform cortex in comparison with the dentate gyrus. While one class of cells in the piriform cortex indeed showed features similar to newly generated immature granule neurons, the majority of DCX cells in the piriform cortex was mature and revealed large Na+ currents and multiple action potentials. Furthermore, when proliferative activity was assessed, we found that all DCX-expressing cells in the piriform cortex were strictly postmitotic, suggesting that no DCX-positive "neuroblasts" exist here as they do in the dentate gyrus. We conclude that DCX in the piriform cortex marks a unique population of postmitotic neurons with a subpopulation that retains immature characteristics associated with synaptic plasticity. DCX is thus, per se, no marker of neurogenesis but might be associated more broadly with plasticity.

  15. High-concentration L-menthol exhibits counter-irritancy to neurogenic inflammation, thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia caused by TRPA1-agonist trans-cinnamaldehyde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Gazerani, Parisa; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    volunteers. In one of two sessions, 1) 10% CA alone, 2) 40% L-menthol + 10% CA applied simultaneously were administered for 20min throughout which the subjects rated the pain intensity on a VAS0-10. Extensive quantitative sensory testing was conducted and superficial blood flow (neurogenic inflammation) was......<0.05), secondary mechanical hyperalgesia (P<0.05), and heat hyperalgesia (P<0.05), but not cold hyperalgesia. L-menthol exhibited inhibitory effects on simultaneously established pain, hypersensitivity, and neurogenic inflammation in a human TRPA1-induced pain model. Potent TRPM8-agonists could be...... useful as topical anti-hyperalgesics. The study and the trial protocol is registered and approved by the local research ethics committee under the jurisdiction of the Danish Medicines Agency no.: N-20130005. The protocol also is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov under the no.: NCT02653703. PERSPECTIVE...

  16. Variation in eligibility criteria from studies of radiculopathy due to a herniated disc and of neurogenic claudication due to lumbar spinal stenosis: a structured literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Genevay, Stéphane; Atlas, Steve J.; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A structured literature review. SUMMARY OF THE BACKGROUND DATA: Widely recognized classification criteria for rheumatologic disorders have resulted in well-defined patient populations for clinical investigation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether similar criteria were needed for back pain disorders by examining variability in eligibility criteria in published studies. METHODS: Studies involving radiculopathy due to lumbar herniated disc (HD) and for neurogenic claudicatio...

  17. Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) for neurogenic dysphagia: training curriculum of the German Society of Neurology and the German stroke society

    OpenAIRE

    Dziewas, Rainer; Glahn, Jörg; Helfer, Christine; Ickenstein, Guntram; Keller, Jochen; Ledl, Christian; Lindner-Pfleghar, Beate; G. Nabavi, Darius; Prosiegel, Mario; Riecker, Axel; Lapa, Sriramya; Stanschus, Sönke; Warnecke, Tobias; Busse, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurogenic dysphagia is one of the most frequent and prognostically relevant neurological deficits in a variety of disorders, such as stroke, parkinsonism and advanced neuromuscular diseases. Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is now probably the most frequently used tool for objective dysphagia assessment in Germany. It allows evaluation of the efficacy and safety of swallowing, determination of appropriate feeding strategies and assessment of the efficacy of diff...

  18. Onabotulinumtoxin A for Treating Overactive/Poor Compliant Bladders in Children and Adolescents with Neurogenic Bladder Secondary to Myelomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was performed to verify the efficacy and safety of Onabotulinumtoxin A (BTX-A in treating children with neurogenic bladder (NB secondary to myelomeningocele (MMC with detrusor overactivity/low compliance. From January 2002 to June 2011, 47 patients out of 68 with neuropathic bladder were selected (22 females, 25 males, age range 5–17 years; mean age 10.7 years at first injection. They presented overactive/poor compliant neurogenic bladders on clean intermittent catheterization, and were resistant or non compliant to pharmacological therapy. Ten patients presented second to fourth grade concomitant monolateral/bilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. All patients were incontinent despite catheterization. In the majority of patients Botulinum-A toxin was administered under general/local anesthesia by the injection of 200 IU of toxin, without exceeding the dosage of 12IU/kg body weight, diluted in 20 cc of saline solution in 20 sites, except in the periureteral areas. Follow-up included clinical and ultrasound examination, urodynamics performed at 6, 12 and 24 weeks, and annually thereafter. Seven patients remained stable, 21 patients required a second injection after 6–9 months and 19 a third injection. VUR was corrected, when necessary, in the same session after the BT-A injection, by 1–3 cc of subureteral Deflux®. Urodynamic parameters considered were leak point pressure (LPP, leak point volume (LPV and specific volume at 20 cm H2O pressure. The results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. All patients experienced a significant 66.45% average increase of LPV (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 7169 × 10 −10 and a significant 118.57% average increase of SC 20 (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 2.466 × 10 −12. The difference between preoperative and postoperative LPP resulted not significant (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 0.8858 No patient presented severe systemic complications; 38/47 patients presented slight hematuria for

  19. Onabotulinumtoxin A for treating overactive/poor compliant bladders in children and adolescents with neurogenic bladder secondary to myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marte, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective study was performed to verify the efficacy and safety of Onabotulinumtoxin A (BTX-A) in treating children with neurogenic bladder (NB) secondary to myelomeningocele (MMC) with detrusor overactivity/low compliance. From January 2002 to June 2011, 47 patients out of 68 with neuropathic bladder were selected (22 females, 25 males, age range 5-17 years; mean age 10.7 years at first injection). They presented overactive/poor compliant neurogenic bladders on clean intermittent catheterization, and were resistant or non compliant to pharmacological therapy. Ten patients presented second to fourth grade concomitant monolateral/bilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). All patients were incontinent despite catheterization. In the majority of patients Botulinum-A toxin was administered under general/local anesthesia by the injection of 200 IU of toxin, without exceeding the dosage of 12 IU/kg body weight, diluted in 20 cc of saline solution in 20 sites, except in the periureteral areas. Follow-up included clinical and ultrasound examination, urodynamics performed at 6, 12 and 24 weeks, and annually thereafter. Seven patients remained stable, 21 patients required a second injection after 6-9 months and 19 a third injection. VUR was corrected, when necessary, in the same session after the BT-A injection, by 1-3 cc of subureteral Deflux®. Urodynamic parameters considered were leak point pressure (LPP), leak point volume (LPV) and specific volume at 20 cm H(2)O pressure. The results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. All patients experienced a significant 66.45% average increase of LPV (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 7169 × 10(-10)) and a significant 118.57% average increase of SC 20 (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 2.466 × 10(-12)). The difference between preoperative and postoperative LPP resulted not significant (Wilcoxon paired rank test = 0.8858) No patient presented severe systemic complications; 38/47 patients presented slight hematuria for 2-3 days. Two

  20. Botulinumtoxin-A in der Behandlung neurogener Blasenfunktionsstörungen bei Kindern: Funktionelle und histomorphologische Langzeitergebnisse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulte-Baukloh H

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Die etablierte Therapie der neurogenen Detrusorhyperaktivität bei Kindern besteht in der Gabe von Anticholinergika und begleitendem intermittierendem Einmalkatheterismus. Eine hohe Nebenwirkungsrate der Anticholinergika oder eine nicht ausreichende Dämpfung der Detrusoraktivität limitiert jedoch die Anwendung und zwingt nicht selten zu einem operativen Vorgehen. Wir untersuchten deshalb die Wirksamkeit von Botulinumtoxin-A (BTX-A auf die neurogene Detrusorhyperaktivität bei Kindern mit neurogener Blasenfunktionsstörung. Hierzu wurden 24 Kinder (11 Mädchen, 13 Jungen; 2,5–20 (Ø 11,9 Jahre mit maximalem Detrusordruck 40 cm H2O trotz anticholinerger Medikation in die Studie eingeschlossen. Nach urodynamischer Evaluierung wurden gewichtsadaptiert 85–300 U BTX-A (Botox(R zystoskopisch an 30–40 Stellen in den M. detrusor injiziert. Urodynamische Kontrollen erfolgten nach 1, 3 und 6 Monaten. Urodynamisch fand sich ein erhöhtes Reflexvolumen nach 1 Monat um +84 %, nach 3 Monaten um +68 % und nach 6 Monaten um +23 %. Entsprechend verhielten sich die Maximalkapazitäten: +35 % (nach 1 Monat, +23 % (nach 3 Monaten und +36 % (nach 6 Monaten. Die Maximaldrücke veränderten sich im o.g. Zeitraum um –41 %, –22 % bzw. +4 %. Die korrespondierenden Veränderungen der Inkontinenzrate betrug –46 %, –15 % bzw. –13 %. Bei 5 Kindern konnte jedoch auch mit dieser Therapie keine zufriedenstellende Drucksituation sichergestellt werden; nach der daraufhin durchgeführten Blasenaugmentation fanden sich in den Blasenresektaten histomorphologisch typische BTX-A bedingte Veränderungen, die jedoch in ihrer Ausprägung keinen signifikanten Gradienten aufwiesen. Zusammenfassend läßt sich festhalten, daß es nach Botulinumtoxin-A-Injektion in den Detrusormuskel bei der Mehrzahl der Patienten zu einer ausgeprägten und therapeutisch relevanten Verbesserung sämtlicher urodynamischer Parameter bei sehr guter Verträglichkeit des Medikamentes kommt

  1. Cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to alleviate pain in sickle cell anemia via inhibition of mast cell activation and neurogenic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Lucile; Vang, Derek; Nguyen, Julia; Benson, Barbara; Lei, Jianxun; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-05-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a manifestation of a single point mutation in hemoglobin, but inflammation and pain are the insignia of this disease which can start in infancy and continue throughout life. Earlier studies showed that mast cell activation contributes to neurogenic inflammation and pain in sickle mice. Morphine is the common analgesic treatment but also remains a major challenge due to its side effects and ability to activate mast cells. We, therefore, examined cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to mitigate mast cell activation, neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia, using HbSS-BERK sickle and cannabinoid receptor-2-deleted sickle mice. We show that cannabinoids mitigate mast cell activation, inflammation and neurogenic inflammation in sickle mice via both cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2. Thus, cannabinoids influence systemic and neural mechanisms, ameliorating the disease pathobiology and hyperalgesia in sickle mice. This study provides 'proof of principle' for the potential of cannabinoid/cannabinoid receptor-based therapeutics to treat several manifestations of sickle cell anemia. PMID:26703965

  2. The Effect of Pro-Neurogenic Gene Expression on Adult Subventricular Zone Precursor Cell Recruitment and Fate Determination After Excitotoxic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kathryn S; Connor, Bronwen J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the presence of on-going neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain, neurons are generally not replaced after injury. Using a rodent model of excitotoxic cell loss and retroviral (RV) lineage tracing, we previously demonstrated transient recruitment of precursor cells from the subventricular zone (SVZ) into the lesioned striatum. In the current study we determined that these cells included migratory neuroblasts and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC), with the predominant response from glial cells. We attempted to override this glial response by ectopic expression of the pro-neurogenic genes Pax6 or Dlx2 in the adult rat SVZ following quinolinic acid lesioning. RV-Dlx2 over-expression stimulated repair at a previously non-neurogenic time point by enhancing neuroblast recruitment and the percentage of cells that retained a neuronal fate within the lesioned area, compared to RV-GFP controls. RV-Pax6 expression was unsuccessful at inhibiting glial fate and intriguingly, increased OPC cell numbers with no change in neuronal recruitment. These findings suggest that gene choice is important when attempting to augment endogenous repair as the lesioned environment can overcome pro-neurogenic gene expression. Dlx2 over-expression however was able to partially overcome an anti-neuronal environment and therefore is a promising candidate for further study of striatal regeneration.

  3. CD133 is not present on neurogenic astrocytes in the adult subventricular zone, but on embryonic neural stem cells, ependymal cells, and glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfenninger, Cosima V; Roschupkina, Teona; Hertwig, Falk; Kottwitz, Denise; Englund, Elisabet; Bengzon, Johan; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik; Nuber, Ulrike A

    2007-06-15

    Human brain tumor stem cells have been enriched using antibodies against the surface protein CD133. An antibody recognizing CD133 also served to isolate normal neural stem cells from fetal human brain, suggesting a possible lineage relationship between normal neural and brain tumor stem cells. Whether CD133-positive brain tumor stem cells can be derived from CD133-positive neural stem or progenitor cells still requires direct experimental evidence, and an important step toward such investigations is the identification and characterization of normal CD133-presenting cells in neurogenic regions of the embryonic and adult brain. Here, we present evidence that CD133 is a marker for embryonic neural stem cells, an intermediate radial glial/ependymal cell type in the early postnatal stage, and for ependymal cells in the adult brain, but not for neurogenic astrocytes in the adult subventricular zone. Our findings suggest two principal possibilities for the origin of brain tumor stem cells: a derivation from CD133-expressing cells, which are normally not present in the adult brain (embryonic neural stem cells and an early postnatal intermediate radial glial/ependymal cell type), or from CD133-positive ependymal cells in the adult brain, which are, however, generally regarded as postmitotic. Alternatively, brain tumor stem cells could be derived from proliferative but CD133-negative neurogenic astrocytes in the adult brain. In the latter case, brain tumor development would involve the production of CD133. PMID:17575139

  4. Radiographical investigations of organic lesions of the hypothalamus in patients suffering from neurogenic pulmonary edema due to serious intracranial diseases. Relationship between radiographical findings and outcome of patients suffering from neurogenic pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographical investigations of the hypothalamus by computerized tomography (CT) have rarely been performed despite the fact that the damage to the hypothalamus owing to serious intracranial organic diseases may cause neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE). We presented 22 consecutive cases of patients suffering from NPE caused by serious intracranial organic diseases and investigated the relationship between NPE and abnormal radiographical findings of the hypothalamus. In 11 cases, organic lesions were noted in the hypothalami and 10 of these patients died of NPE (91.0%). In contrast, of the remaining 11 cases without significant radiographical findings of organic lesions in the hypothalami, only 2 patients were lost (18.2%). In general, various factors including systemic ones are considered to contribute to the prognosis of the patients suffering NPEs caused by serious intracranial diseases. It was concluded that hypothalamic damage was not always found by radiograph in patients with NPE due to critical intracranial diseases, but once abnormal findings in their hypothalamus of these patients were noted, their prognosis would become significantly poor (p<0.05). (author)

  5. Neurogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells on aligned electrospun polypyrrole/polylactide composite nanofibers with electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junfeng; Cheng, Liang; Sun, Xiaodan; Wang, Xiumei; Jin, Shouhong; Li, Junxiang; Wu, Qiong

    2016-09-01

    Adult central nervous system (CNS) tissue has a limited capacity to recover after trauma or disease. Recent medical cell therapy using polymeric biomaterialloaded stem cells with the capability of differentiation to specific neural population has directed focuses toward the recovery of CNS. Fibers that can provide topographical, biochemical and electrical cues would be attractive for directing the differentiation of stem cells into electro-responsive cells such as neuronal cells. Here we report on the fabrication of an electrospun polypyrrole/polylactide composite nanofiber film that direct or determine the fate of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), via combination of aligned surface topography, and electrical stimulation (ES). The surface morphology, mechanical properties and electric properties of the film were characterized. Comparing with that on random surface film, expression of neurofilament-lowest and nestin of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stemcells (huMSCs) cultured on film with aligned surface topography and ES were obviously enhanced. These results suggest that aligned topography combining with ES facilitates the neurogenic differentiation of huMSCs and the aligned conductive film can act as a potential nerve scaffold.

  6. Effectiveness of manipulative physiotherapy for the treatment of a neurogenic cervicobrachial pain syndrome: a single case study -- experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, I M; Phillips, D R

    2002-02-01

    A single case study ABC design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of manipulative physiotherapy in a 44-year-old woman with an 8-month history of neurogenic cervicobrachial pain. Clinical examination demonstrated significant signs of upper quadrant neural tissue mechanosensitivity indicating that neural tissue was the dominant tissue of origin for the subject's complaint of pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed correlating discal pathology at the C5/6 intersegmental level. The study involved a 4-week pre-assessment phase, a 4-week treatment phase and a 2-week home exercise phase. Functional disability was measured using the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire and pain was assessed using the McGill Short Form Pain Questionnaire. Cervical motion was measured by a cervical range of motion device (CROM) and the range of shoulder abduction with a mediclino inclinometer. Manipulative physiotherapy treatment involved a cervical lateral glide mobilization technique. Following treatment, visual analysis revealed beneficial effects on pain, functional disability as well as cervical and shoulder mobility. These improvements were maintained over the home exercise phase and at 1-month follow-up. The single case limits generalization of the findings, but the results support previous studies in this area and gives further impetus to controlled clinical trials. PMID:11884154

  7. The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the development of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Bárbara; Santos, João; Morgado, Marlene; Sousa, Mónica Mendes; Gray, Susannah M Y; McCloskey, Karen D; Allen, Shelley; Cruz, Francisco; Cruz, Célia Duarte

    2015-02-01

    Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) is a well known consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI), recognizable after spinal shock, during which the bladder is areflexic. NDO emergence and maintenance depend on profound plastic changes of the spinal neuronal pathways regulating bladder function. It is well known that neurotrophins (NTs) are major regulators of such changes. NGF is the best-studied NT in the bladder and its role in NDO has already been established. Another very abundant neurotrophin is BDNF. Despite being shown that, acting at the spinal cord level, BDNF is a key mediator of bladder dysfunction and pain during cystitis, it is presently unclear if it is also important for NDO. This study aimed to clarify this issue. Results obtained pinpoint BDNF as an important regulator of NDO appearance and maintenance. Spinal BDNF expression increased in a time-dependent manner together with NDO emergence. In chronic SCI rats, BDNF sequestration improved bladder function, indicating that, at later stages, BDNF contributes NDO maintenance. During spinal shock, BDNF sequestration resulted in early development of bladder hyperactivity, accompanied by increased axonal growth of calcitonin gene-related peptide-labeled fibers in the dorsal horn. Chronic BDNF administration inhibited the emergence of NDO, together with reduction of axonal growth, suggesting that BDNF may have a crucial role in bladder function after SCI via inhibition of neuronal sprouting. These findings highlight the role of BDNF in NDO and may provide a significant contribution to create more efficient therapies to manage SCI patients. PMID:25653370

  8. CROATIAN UROLOGISTS' CLINICAL PRACTICE AND COMPLIANCE WITH GUIDELINES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF NON-NEUROGENIC MALE LOWER URINARY TRACT SYMPTOMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasković, Igor; Tomić, Miroslav; Nikles, Sven; Neretljak, Ivan; Milicić, Valerija

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the Croatian urologists' management of non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and their compliance with the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines. A cross-sectional survey included 51/179 Croatian urologists. We developed a questionnaire with questions addressing compliance with EAU guidelines. The rate of performing recommended evaluations on the initial assessment of patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)/LUTS varied from 8.0% (serum creatinine and voiding diary) to 100.0% (physical examination, prostate specific antigen and ultrasound). The international prostate symptom score was performed by 31%, analysis of urine sediment by 83%, urine culture by 53%, and serum creatinine by 8% of surveyed urologists. Only 8% of urologists regularly used bladder diary in patients with symptoms of nocturia. Our results indicated that 97% of urologists preferred alpha blockers as the first choice of treatment; 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARI) were mostly prescribed (84%) in combination with an alpha-blocker, preferably as a continuous treatment, whilst 29% of urologists used to discontinue 5ARI after 1-2 years. Half of the Croatian urologists used antimuscarinics in the treatment of BPH/LUTS and recommended phytotherapeutic drugs in their practice. In conclusion, Croatian urologists do not completely comply with the guidelines available. PMID:27017719

  9. Differential regulation of cell proliferation in neurogenic zones in mice lacking cystine transport by xCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cystine/glutamate exchanger (xCT) supplies intracellular cyst(e)ine for the production of glutathione, a major cellular anti-oxidant. xCT is enriched in brain regions associated with neurogenesis. Previous studies have shown that the malfunction of this protein greatly attenuates cell proliferation in vitro and is associated with brain atrophy in vivo. Using mice that are homozygous for a function-blocking deletion in xCT (Sut mice), we examined in vivo the role of xCT in cell proliferation in neurogenic regions of the subventricular zone (SVZ) and denate gyrus (DG) in the adult brain. Our results indicate that a high level of cellular proliferation in the adult brain persists even in the absence of functional xCT. Furthermore, in both young adult and middle-aged mice (3 and 11 months old), rates of SVZ cell proliferation were comparable between Sut and wild-type controls, although there was trend towards reduced proliferation in Sut mice (12% and 9% reduction, respectively). To our surprise, rates of cell proliferation in the DG were elevated in both 3- and 11-month-old Sut mice relative to controls (22% and 28% increase, respectively). These results demonstrate that xCT expression plays a role in regulating cellular proliferation in the DG, but not the SVZ of adult mice. Furthermore, unlike previous in vitro studies, our in vivo observations clearly indicate that xCT is not essential for ongoing cellular proliferation

  10. Neurogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells on aligned electrospun polypyrrole/polylactide composite nanofibers with electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junfeng; Cheng, Liang; Sun, Xiaodan; Wang, Xiumei; Jin, Shouhong; Li, Junxiang; Wu, Qiong

    2016-07-01

    Adult central nervous system (CNS) tissue has a limited capacity to recover after trauma or disease. Recent medical cell therapy using polymeric biomaterialloaded stem cells with the capability of differentiation to specific neural population has directed focuses toward the recovery of CNS. Fibers that can provide topographical, biochemical and electrical cues would be attractive for directing the differentiation of stem cells into electro-responsive cells such as neuronal cells. Here we report on the fabrication of an electrospun polypyrrole/polylactide composite nanofiber film that direct or determine the fate of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), via combination of aligned surface topography, and electrical stimulation (ES). The surface morphology, mechanical properties and electric properties of the film were characterized. Comparing with that on random surface film, expression of neurofilament-lowest and nestin of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stemcells (huMSCs) cultured on film with aligned surface topography and ES were obviously enhanced. These results suggest that aligned topography combining with ES facilitates the neurogenic differentiation of huMSCs and the aligned conductive film can act as a potential nerve scaffold.

  11. Loss of neurogenesis in Hydra leads to compensatory regulation of neurogenic and neurotransmission genes in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Y; Buzgariu, W; Galliot, B

    2016-01-01

    Hydra continuously differentiates a sophisticated nervous system made of mechanosensory cells (nematocytes) and sensory-motor and ganglionic neurons from interstitial stem cells. However, this dynamic adult neurogenesis is dispensable for morphogenesis. Indeed animals depleted of their interstitial stem cells and interstitial progenitors lose their active behaviours but maintain their developmental fitness, and regenerate and bud when force-fed. To characterize the impact of the loss of neurogenesis in Hydra, we first performed transcriptomic profiling at five positions along the body axis. We found neurogenic genes predominantly expressed along the central body column, which contains stem cells and progenitors, and neurotransmission genes predominantly expressed at the extremities, where the nervous system is dense. Next, we performed transcriptomics on animals depleted of their interstitial cells by hydroxyurea, colchicine or heat-shock treatment. By crossing these results with cell-type-specific transcriptomics, we identified epithelial genes up-regulated upon loss of neurogenesis: transcription factors (Dlx, Dlx1, DMBX1/Manacle, Ets1, Gli3, KLF11, LMX1A, ZNF436, Shox1), epitheliopeptides (Arminins, PW peptide), neurosignalling components (CAMK1D, DDCl2, Inx1), ligand-ion channel receptors (CHRNA1, NaC7), G-Protein Coupled Receptors and FMRFRL. Hence epitheliomuscular cells seemingly enhance their sensing ability when neurogenesis is compromised. This unsuspected plasticity might reflect the extended multifunctionality of epithelial-like cells in early eumetazoan evolution. PMID:26598723

  12. An interneuron progenitor maintains neurogenic potential in vivo and differentiates into GABAergic interneurons after transplantation in the postnatal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Hong, Peiwei; Gao, Hui; Chen, Yuntian; Yang, Qi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Hedong

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of cortical GABAergic interneurons are involved in numerous neurological disorders including epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism; and replenishment of these cells by transplantation strategy has proven to be a feasible and effective method to help revert the symptoms in several animal models. To develop methodology of generating transplantable GABAergic interneurons for therapy, we previously reported the isolation of a v-myc-induced GABAergic interneuron progenitor clone GE6 from embryonic ganglionic eminence (GE). These cells can proliferate and form functional inhibitory synapses in culture. Here, we tested their differentiation behavior in vivo by transplanting them into the postnatal rat forebrain. We found that GE6 cells migrate extensively in the neonatal forebrain and differentiate into both neurons and glia, but preferentially into neurons when compared with a sister progenitor clone CTX8. The neurogenic potential of GE6 cells is also maintained after transplantation into a non-permissive environment such as adult cortex or when treated with inflammatory cytokine in culture. The GE6-derived neurons were able to mature in vivo as GABAergic interneurons expressing GABAergic, not glutamatergic, presynaptic puncta. Finally, we propose that v-myc-induced human interneuron progenitor clones could be an alternative cell source of transplantable GABAergic interneurons for treating related neurological diseases in future clinic. PMID:26750620

  13. cis-Regulatory control of the initial neurogenic pattern of onecut gene expression in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julius C; Davidson, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Specification of the ciliated band (CB) of echinoid embryos executes three spatial functions essential for postgastrular organization. These are establishment of a band about 5 cells wide which delimits and bounds other embryonic territories; definition of a neurogenic domain within this band; and generation within it of arrays of ciliary cells that bear the special long cilia from which the structure derives its name. In Strongylocentrotus purpuratus the spatial coordinates of the future ciliated band are initially and exactly determined by the disposition of a ring of cells that transcriptionally activate the onecut homeodomain regulatory gene, beginning in blastula stage, long before the appearance of the CB per se. Thus the cis-regulatory apparatus that governs onecut expression in the blastula directly reveals the genomic sequence code by which these aspects of the spatial organization of the embryo are initially determined. We screened the entire onecut locus and its flanking region for transcriptionally active cis-regulatory elements, and by means of BAC recombineered deletions identified three separated and required cis-regulatory modules that execute different functions. The operating logic of the crucial spatial control module accounting for the spectacularly precise and beautiful early onecut expression domain depends on spatial repression. Previously predicted oral ectoderm and aboral ectoderm repressors were identified by cis-regulatory mutation as the products of goosecoid and irxa genes respectively, while the pan-ectodermal activator SoxB1 supplies a transcriptional driver function. PMID:26522848

  14. Clinical course of a cohort of children with non-neurogenic daytime urinary incontinence symptoms followed at a tertiary center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Lebl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To characterize a cohort of children with non-neurogenic daytime urinary incontinence followed-up in a tertiary center. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 50 medical records of children who had attained bladder control or minimum age of 5 years, using a structured protocol that included lower urinary tract dysfunction symptoms, comorbidities, associated manifestations, physical examination, voiding diary, complementary tests, therapeutic options, and clinical outcome, in accordance with the 2006 and 2014 International Children's Continence Society standardizations. Results: Female patients represented 86.0% of this sample. Mean age was 7.9 years and mean follow-up was 4.7 years. Urgency (56.0%, urgency incontinence (56.0%, urinary retention (8.0%, nocturnal enuresis (70.0%, urinary tract infections (62.0%, constipation (62.0%, and fecal incontinence (16.0% were the most prevalent symptoms and comorbidities. Ultrasound examinations showed alterations in 53.0% of the cases; the urodynamic study showed alterations in 94.7%. At the last follow-up, 32.0% of patients persisted with urinary incontinence. When assessing the diagnostic methods, 85% concordance was observed between the predictive diagnosis of overactive bladder attained through medical history plus non-invasive exams and the diagnosis of detrusor overactivity achieved through the invasive urodynamic study. Conclusions: This subgroup of patients with clinical characteristics of an overactive bladder, with no history of urinary tract infection, and normal urinary tract ultrasound and uroflowmetry, could start treatment without invasive studies even at a tertiary center. Approximately one-third of the patients treated at the tertiary level remained refractory to treatment.

  15. Molecular Targets of Chromatin Repressive Mark H3K9me3 in Primate Progenitor Cells within Adult Neurogenic Niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Foret

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Histone 3 Lysine 9 (H3K9 methylation is known to be associated with pericentric heterochromatin and important in genomic stability. In this study, we show that trimethylation at H3K9 (H3K9me3 is enriched in an adult neural stem cell niche- the subventricular zone (SVZ on the walls of the lateral ventricle in both rodent and non-human primate baboon brain. Previous studies have shown that there is significant correlation between baboon and human regarding genomic similarity and brain structure, suggesting that findings in baboon are relevant to human. To understand the function of H3K9me3 in this adult neurogenic niche, we performed genome-wide analyses using ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep-sequencing and RNA-Seq for in vivo SVZ cells purified from baboon brain. Through integrated analyses of ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq, we found that H3K9me3-enriched genes associated with cellular maintenance, post-transcriptional and translational modifications, signaling pathways, and DNA replication are expressed, while genes involved in axon/neuron, hepatic stellate cell, or immune-response activation are not expressed. As neurogenesis progresses in the adult SVZ, cell fate restriction is essential to direct proper lineage commitment. Our findings highlight that H3K9me3 repression in undifferentiated SVZ cells is engaged in the maintenance of cell type integrity, implicating a role for H3K9me3 as an epigenetic mechanism to control cell fate transition within this adult germinal niche.

  16. Diminished neurogenic femoral artery vasoconstrictor response in a Zucker obese rat model: differential regulation of NOS and COX derivatives.

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    Ana Cristina Martínez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Peripheral arterial disease is one of the macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study addresses femoral artery regulation in a prediabetic model of obese Zucker rats (OZR by examining cross-talk between endothelial and neural factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Arterial preparations from lean (LZR and OZR were subjected to electrical field stimulation (EFS on basal tone. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS and cyclooxygenase (COX isoform expression patterns were determined by immunohistochemical labelling and Western blotting. Results indicate significantly reduced noradrenergic contractions in preparations from OZR compared with those of LZR. Functional inhibition of endothelial NOS (eNOS indicated a predominant role of this isoform in LZR and its modified activity in OZR. Neural (nNOS and inducible NOS (iNOS were activated and their expression was higher in femoral arteries from OZR. Neurotransmission modulated by large-conductance Ca2+-activated (BKCa or voltage-dependent (KV K+ channels did not seem compromised in the obese animals. Endothelial COX-1 and COX-2 were expressed in LZR and an additional adventitial location of COX-2 was also observed in OZR, explaining the higher COX-2 protein levels detected in this group. Prostanoids derived from both isoforms helped maintain vasoconstriction in LZR while in OZR only COX-2 was active. Superoxide anion inhibition reduced contractions in endothelium-intact arteries from OZR. CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial dysfunction led to reduced neurogenic vasoconstriction in femoral arteries from OZR. In a setting of obesity, NO-dependent nNOS and iNOS dilation activity could be an alternative mechanism to offset COX-2- and reactive oxygen species-mediated vasoconstriction, along with impaired endothelial NO relaxation.

  17. The neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD6 enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics to confer tolerance of neuronal PC12-NeuroD6 cells to the mitochondrial stressor rotenone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental question of how and which neuronal specific transcription factors tailor mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics to the need of developing neuronal cells has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we report that the neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD6 possesses mitochondrial biogenic properties by amplifying the mitochondrial DNA content and TFAM expression levels, a key regulator for mitochondrial biogenesis. NeuroD6-mediated increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in the neuronal progenitor-like PC12-NEUROD6 cells is concomitant with enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetic functions, including increased expression levels of specific subunits of respiratory complexes of the electron transport chain, elevated mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels produced by oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, NeuroD6 augments the bioenergetic capacity of PC12-NEUROD6 cells to generate an energetic reserve, which confers tolerance to the mitochondrial stressor, rotenone. We found that NeuroD6 induces an adaptive bioenergetic response throughout rotenone treatment involving maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels in conjunction with preservation of the actin network. In conclusion, our results support the concept that NeuroD6 plays an integrative role in regulating and coordinating the onset of neuronal differentiation with acquisition of adequate mitochondrial mass and energetic capacity to ensure energy demanding events, such as cytoskeletal remodeling, plasmalemmal expansion, and growth cone formation. -- Highlights: ► NeuroD6 induces mitochondrial biogenesis in neuroprogenitor-like cells. ► NeuroD6 augments the bioenergetic reserve of the neuronal PC12-NeuroD6 cells. ► NeuroD6 increases the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels. ► NeuroD6 confers tolerance to rotenone via an adaptive mitochondrial response.

  18. The neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD6 enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics to confer tolerance of neuronal PC12-NeuroD6 cells to the mitochondrial stressor rotenone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Kristin Kathleen; Uittenbogaard, Martine [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Chiaramello, Anne, E-mail: achiaram@gwu.edu [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The fundamental question of how and which neuronal specific transcription factors tailor mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics to the need of developing neuronal cells has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we report that the neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD6 possesses mitochondrial biogenic properties by amplifying the mitochondrial DNA content and TFAM expression levels, a key regulator for mitochondrial biogenesis. NeuroD6-mediated increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in the neuronal progenitor-like PC12-NEUROD6 cells is concomitant with enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetic functions, including increased expression levels of specific subunits of respiratory complexes of the electron transport chain, elevated mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels produced by oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, NeuroD6 augments the bioenergetic capacity of PC12-NEUROD6 cells to generate an energetic reserve, which confers tolerance to the mitochondrial stressor, rotenone. We found that NeuroD6 induces an adaptive bioenergetic response throughout rotenone treatment involving maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels in conjunction with preservation of the actin network. In conclusion, our results support the concept that NeuroD6 plays an integrative role in regulating and coordinating the onset of neuronal differentiation with acquisition of adequate mitochondrial mass and energetic capacity to ensure energy demanding events, such as cytoskeletal remodeling, plasmalemmal expansion, and growth cone formation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 induces mitochondrial biogenesis in neuroprogenitor-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 augments the bioenergetic reserve of the neuronal PC12-NeuroD6 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 increases the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 confers tolerance to rotenone via an adaptive

  19. Roles of TRPV1 and neuropeptidergic receptors in dorsal root reflex-mediated neurogenic inflammation induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Xiaoju

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute cutaneous neurogenic inflammation initiated by activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1 receptors following intradermal injection of capsaicin is mediated mainly by dorsal root reflexes (DRRs. Inflammatory neuropeptides are suggested to be released from primary afferent nociceptors participating in inflammation. However, no direct evidence demonstrates that the release of inflammatory substances is due to the triggering of DRRs and how activation of TRPV1 receptors initiates neurogenic inflammation via triggering DRRs. Results Here we used pharmacological manipulations to analyze the roles of TRPV1 and neuropeptidergic receptors in the DRR-mediated neurogenic inflammation induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin. The degree of cutaneous inflammation in the hindpaw that followed capsaicin injection was assessed by measurements of local blood flow (vasodilation and paw-thickness (edema of the foot skin in anesthetized rats. Local injection of capsaicin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP or substance P (SP resulted in cutaneous vasodilation and edema. Removal of DRRs by either spinal dorsal rhizotomy or intrathecal administration of the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline, reduced dramatically the capsaicin-induced vasodilation and edema. In contrast, CGRP- or SP-induced inflammation was not significantly affected after DRR removal. Dose-response analysis of the antagonistic effect of the TRPV1 receptor antagonist, capsazepine administered peripherally, shows that the capsaicin-evoked inflammation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and nearly completely abolished by capsazepine at doses between 30–150 μg. In contrast, pretreatment of the periphery with different doses of CGRP8–37 (a CGRP receptor antagonist or spantide I (a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist only reduced the inflammation. If both CGRP and NK1 receptors were blocked by co-administration of CGRP8–37 and spantide I

  20. Electrophysiological monitoring and identification of neural roots during somatic-autonomic reflex pathway procedure for neurogenic bladder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Cheng-fu; XIAO Chuan-guo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify and separate the ventral root from dorsal root, which is the key for success of the artificial somatic-autonomic reflex pathway procedure for neurogenic bladder after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we report the results of intra-operating room monitoring with 10 paralyzed patients.Methods: Ten male volunteers with complete suprasacral SCI underwent the artificial somatic-autonomic procedure under general anesthesia. Vastus medialis, tibialis anticus and gastrocnemius medialis of the left lower limb were monitored for electromyogram (EMG) activities resulted from L4, L5, and S1 stimulation respectively to differentiate the ventral root from dorsal root. A Laborie Urodynamics system was connected with a three channel urodynamic catheter inserted into the bladder. The L2 and L3 roots were stimulated separately while the intravesical pressure was monitored to evaluate the function of each root.Results: The thresholds of stimulation on ventral root were 0.02 ms duration, 0.2-0.4 mA, (mean 0.3 mA±0.07 mA), compared with 0.2-0.4 ms duration, 1.5-3 mA (mean 2.3 mA±0.5 mA)for dorsal root (P<0.01) to cause revoked potentials and EMG. Electrical stimulation on L4 roots resulted in the EMG being recorded mainly on vastus medialis, while stimulation on L5 or S1 roots caused electrical activities of tibialis anticus or gastrocnemius medialis respectively. The continuous stimulation for about 3-5 seconds on S2 or S3 ventral root (0.02 ms, 20 Hz, and 0.4 mA) could resulted in bladder detrusor contraction, but the strongest bladder contraction over 50 cm H2O was usually caused by stimulation on S3 ventral root in 7 of the 10 patients.Conclusions: Intra-operating room electrophysiological monitoring is of great help to identify and separate ventral root from dorsal root, and to select the appropriate sacral ventral root for best bladder reinnervation. Different parameters and thresholds on different roots are the most important factors to keep in mind to

  1. The value of magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation between malignant peripheral nerve-sheath tumors and non-neurogenic malignant soft-tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the sensitivity and specificity of MRI criteria in the differentiation between malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and non-neurogenic malignant soft-tissue tumors (MSTT). MRI examinations of 105 patients with pathologically proven malignant soft-tissue lesions (35 MPNST and 70 MSTT) were retrospectively reviewed, the reviewers being unaware of the pathological diagnosis. Using a standardized protocol, the tumors were evaluated for multiple parameters regarding morphology and appearance on different sequences before and after gadolinium contrast administration (location, distribution, delineation, homogeneity, size, shape, relationship to bone and neurovascular bundle, intralesional hemorrhage, necrosis, perilesional edema, lymphangitis and signal intensities). Results were compared using a chi-square or Fisher's exact test. MRI findings suggestive of MPNST (p<0,05) were intermuscular distribution, location on the course of a large nerve, nodular morphology, and overall non-homogeneity on T1-weighted images, T2-weighted images and T1-weighted images after gadolinium contrast injection. MRI findings in favor of MSTT were intramuscular distribution, ill-delineated appearance of more than 20% of the lesion's circumference, and presence of intralesional blood vessels, perilesional edema and lymphangitis. There is no significant difference for degree and pattern of enhancement after gadolinium contrast injection, nor for presence of bone involvement or cystic or necrotic areas. MRI provides several features that contribute to the differentiation between MPNST and non-neurogenic malignant soft-tissue tumors. MRI findings suggestive of MPNST should be helpful to pathologists in the strategy for further examination. (orig.)

  2. DYRK1A-mediated Cyclin D1 Degradation in Neural Stem Cells Contributes to the Neurogenic Cortical Defects in Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sònia Najas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cerebral cortex connectivity lead to intellectual disability and in Down syndrome, this is associated with a deficit in cortical neurons that arises during prenatal development. However, the pathogenic mechanisms that cause this deficit have not yet been defined. Here we show that the human DYRK1A kinase on chromosome 21 tightly regulates the nuclear levels of Cyclin D1 in embryonic cortical stem (radial glia cells, and that a modest increase in DYRK1A protein in transgenic embryos lengthens the G1 phase in these progenitors. These alterations promote asymmetric proliferative divisions at the expense of neurogenic divisions, producing a deficit in cortical projection neurons that persists in postnatal stages. Moreover, radial glial progenitors in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome have less Cyclin D1, and Dyrk1a is the triplicated gene that causes both early cortical neurogenic defects and decreased nuclear Cyclin D1 levels in this model. These data provide insights into the mechanisms that couple cell cycle regulation and neuron production in cortical neural stem cells, emphasizing that the deleterious effect of DYRK1A triplication in the formation of the cerebral cortex begins at the onset of neurogenesis, which is relevant to the search for early therapeutic interventions in Down syndrome.

  3. Quick note on tissue engineering-based surgical measures to treat patients with neurogenic bladder-due detrusor/sphincter dyssynergia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Contardo

    2015-01-01

    To treat the neurogenic bladder-due detrusor/urethral rhabdosphincter dyssynergia, early combined clean intermittent catheterization/ pharmacotherapy (anticholinergic-, β3-adrenoceptor agonist drugs) management may be at times crowned with success of preserving an adequate bladder compliance and renal safe conditions.The persistence, instead, of elevated bladder filling pressure levels with high voiding pressure/uroflow values, together with aberrant urethral rhabdosphincter electromyographic findings, make necessary the resort to surgery strategies, among which - a part from rhabdosphincterotomy or alternatively intrasphincteric botulinum A toxin injection or urethral stent insertion - the bladder augmentation cystoplasty, with either reconfigurated bowel- or gastric segment, is today the most efficacious surgical measure to increase the bladder urinary storage meanwhile lowering bladder filling pressure. Given the enterocistoplasty-dependent both potential systemic metabolic imbalances - such as hyperchloremic acidosis/hypokaliemia, hyperoxaluria, bone demineralization, chologenic diarrhoea/steatorrhoea, vit B12 deficiency - together with bowel prosthetic mucus overproduction-due recurrent stone formation, and, sometimes, malignant complications particularly at the intestinal-urinary tract suture line, tissue engineering techniques have been taken into consideration, more than twenty years ago, as alternative measure for bladder augmentation cystoplasty, until to reach successful clinical validation just in patients suffering from either congenital dysraphism- or acquired spinal cord injury-dependent neurogenic bladder. Nevertheless, also the tissue engineering-made augmentation cistoplasty, as well as that bowel-based one, unfortunately remains influenced by spinal cord neuropathydue dysfunctional effects, hence the tissue engineering research could be today directed to suitably overcome such disadvantageous conditions. PMID:26042661

  4. TGF-β superfamily gene expression and induction of the Runx1 transcription factor in adult neurogenic regions after brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor T Logan

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI increases neurogenesis in the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ and the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β superfamily cytokines are important regulators of adult neurogenesis, but their involvement in the regulation of this process after brain injury is unclear. We subjected adult mice to controlled cortical impact (CCI injury, and isolated RNA from the SVZ and DG at different post-injury time points. qPCR array analysis showed that cortical injury caused significant alterations in the mRNA expression of components and targets of the TGF-β, BMP, and activin signaling pathways in the SVZ and DG after injury, suggesting that these pathways could regulate post-injury neurogenesis. In both neurogenic regions, the injury also induced expression of Runt-related transcription factor-1 (Runx1, which can interact with intracellular TGF-β Smad signaling pathways. CCI injury strongly induced Runx1 expression in activated and proliferating microglial cells throughout the neurogenic regions. Runx1 protein was also expressed in a subset of Nestin- and GFAP-expressing putative neural stem or progenitor cells in the DG and SVZ after injury. In the DG only, these Runx1+ progenitors proliferated. Our data suggest potential roles for Runx1 in the processes of microglial cell activation and proliferation and in neural stem cell proliferation after TBI.

  5. Exercise as a pro-cognitive, pro-neurogenic and anti-inflammatory intervention in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sinéad M; Kelly, Áine M

    2016-05-01

    It is now well established, at least in animal models, that exercise elicits potent pro-cognitive and pro-neurogenic effects. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia and represents one of the greatest burdens on healthcare systems worldwide, with no effective treatment for the disease to date. Exercise presents a promising non-pharmacological option to potentially delay the onset of or slow down the progression of AD. Exercise interventions in mouse models of AD have been explored and have been found to reduce amyloid pathology and improve cognitive function. More recent studies have expanded the research question by investigating potential pro-neurogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. In this review we summarise studies that have examined exercise-mediated effects on AD pathology, cognitive function, hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroinflammation in transgenic mouse models of AD. Furthermore, we attempt to identify the optimum exercise conditions required to elicit the greatest benefits, taking into account age and pathology of the model, as well as type and duration of exercise. PMID:27039886

  6. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Learning Networks are on-line social networks through which users share knowledge with each other and jointly develop new knowledge. This way, Learning Networks may enrich the experience of formal, school-based learning and form a viable setting for professional development. Although networked learning enjoys an increasing interest, many questions remain on how exactly learning in such networked contexts can contribute to successful education and training. Put differently, how should networke...

  7. Diabetic Ulcer (Neurogenic Ulcer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... commonly occur on the pressure points of the foot: the ball, heel, and side of the foot if a person's shoes are too tight. However, ... streaking up the leg, drainage of the area, pain, foul odor, rising blood glucose, ... of the top of the foot. Your doctor may have you wear a special ...

  8. Sarcopenia, a Neurogenic Syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia is an aging-associated condition, which is currently characterized by the loss of muscle mass and muscle strength. However, there is no consensus regarding its characterization hitherto. As the world older adult population is on the rise, the impact of sarcopenia becomes greater. Due to the lack of effective treatments, sarcopenia is still a persisting problem among the global older adults and should not be overlooked. As a result, it is vital to investigate deeper into the mechani...

  9. Stimulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels inhibits neurogenic contraction of human bladder from patients with urinary symptoms and reverses acetic acid-induced bladder hyperactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fuente, José M; Fernández, Argentina; Cuevas, Pedro; González-Corrochano, Rocío; Chen, Mao Xiang; Angulo, Javier

    2014-07-15

    We have analysed the effects of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) stimulation on neurogenic and myogenic contraction of human bladder from healthy subjects and patients with urinary symptoms and evaluated the efficacy of activating BK to relief bladder hyperactivity in rats. Bladder specimens were obtained from organ donors and from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Contractions elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and carbachol (CCh) were evaluated in isolated bladder strips. in vivo cystometric recordings were obtained in anesthetized rats under control and acetic acid-induced hyperactive conditions. Neurogenic contractions of human bladder were potentiated by blockade of BK and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) but were unaffected by the blockade of intermediate calcium-activated potassium channels (IK). EFS-induced contractions were inhibited by BK stimulation with NS-8 or NS1619 or by SK/IK stimulation with NS309 (3µM). CCh-induced contractions were not modified by blockade or stimulation of BK, IK or SK. The anti-cholinergic agent, oxybutynin (0.3µM) inhibited either neurogenic or CCh-induced contractions. Neurogenic contractions of bladders from BPH patients were less sensitive to BK inhibition and more sensitive to BK activation than healthy bladders. The BK activator, NS-8 (5mg/kg; i.v.), reversed bladder hyperactivity induced by acetic acid in rats, while oxybutynin was ineffective. NS-8 did not significantly impact blood pressure or heart rate. BK stimulation specifically inhibits neurogenic contractions in patients with urinary symptoms and relieves bladder hyperactivity in vivo without compromising bladder contractile capacity or cardiovascular safety, supporting its potential therapeutic use for relieving bladder overactivity. PMID:24747752

  10. The value of magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation between malignant peripheral nerve-sheath tumors and non-neurogenic malignant soft-tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herendael, B.H. van; Heyman, S.R.G.; Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Parizel, P.M.; Schepper, A.M. de [University Hospital of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Temmerman, G. de; Bloem, J.L. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    To assess the sensitivity and specificity of MRI criteria in the differentiation between malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and non-neurogenic malignant soft-tissue tumors (MSTT). MRI examinations of 105 patients with pathologically proven malignant soft-tissue lesions (35 MPNST and 70 MSTT) were retrospectively reviewed, the reviewers being unaware of the pathological diagnosis. Using a standardized protocol, the tumors were evaluated for multiple parameters regarding morphology and appearance on different sequences before and after gadolinium contrast administration (location, distribution, delineation, homogeneity, size, shape, relationship to bone and neurovascular bundle, intralesional hemorrhage, necrosis, perilesional edema, lymphangitis and signal intensities). Results were compared using a chi-square or Fisher's exact test. MRI findings suggestive of MPNST (p<0,05) were intermuscular distribution, location on the course of a large nerve, nodular morphology, and overall non-homogeneity on T1-weighted images, T2-weighted images and T1-weighted images after gadolinium contrast injection. MRI findings in favor of MSTT were intramuscular distribution, ill-delineated appearance of more than 20% of the lesion's circumference, and presence of intralesional blood vessels, perilesional edema and lymphangitis. There is no significant difference for degree and pattern of enhancement after gadolinium contrast injection, nor for presence of bone involvement or cystic or necrotic areas. MRI provides several features that contribute to the differentiation between MPNST and non-neurogenic malignant soft-tissue tumors. MRI findings suggestive of MPNST should be helpful to pathologists in the strategy for further examination. (orig.)

  11. Neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway of adult decapod crustaceans: development of the neurogenic niche in the brains of procambarid crayfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintoni Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the decapod crustacean brain, neurogenesis persists throughout the animal's life. After embryogenesis, the central olfactory pathway integrates newborn olfactory local and projection interneurons that replace old neurons or expand the existing population. In crayfish, these neurons are the descendants of precursor cells residing in a neurogenic niche. In this paper, the development of the niche was documented by monitoring proliferating cells with S-phase-specific markers combined with immunohistochemical, dye-injection and pulse-chase experiments. Results Between the end of embryogenesis and throughout the first post-embryonic stage (POI, a defined transverse band of mitotically active cells (which we will term 'the deutocerebral proliferative system' (DPS appears. Just prior to hatching and in parallel with the formation of the DPS, the anlagen of the niche appears, closely associated with the vasculature. When the hatchling molts to the second post-embryonic stage (POII, the DPS differentiates into the lateral (LPZ and medial (MPZ proliferative zones. The LPZ and MPZ are characterized by a high number of mitotically active cells from the beginning of post-embryonic life; in contrast, the developing niche contains only very few dividing cells, a characteristic that persists in the adult organism. Conclusions Our data suggest that the LPZ and MPZ are largely responsible for the production of new neurons in the early post-embryonic stages, and that the neurogenic niche in the beginning plays a subordinate role. However, as the neuroblasts in the proliferation zones disappear during early post-embryonic life, the neuronal precursors in the niche gradually become the dominant and only mechanism for the generation of new neurons in the adult brain.

  12. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning. Presentation at Annual Assembly of the European Society for the Systemic Innovation of Education - ESSIE. May, 27, 2011, Leuven, Belgium: Open University in the Netherlands.

  13. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  14. Simulated apoptosis/neurogenesis regulates learning and memory capabilities of adaptive neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, R Andrew; Potenza, Marc N; Hoffman, Ralph E; Miranker, Willard

    2004-04-01

    Characterization of neuronal death and neurogenesis in the adult brain of birds, humans, and other mammals raises the possibility that neuronal turnover represents a special form of neuroplasticity associated with stress responses, cognition, and the pathophysiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Multilayer neural network models capable of learning alphabetic character representations via incremental synaptic connection strength changes were used to assess additional learning and memory effects incurred by simulation of coordinated apoptotic and neurogenic events in the middle layer. Using a consistent incremental learning capability across all neurons and experimental conditions, increasing the number of middle layer neurons undergoing turnover increased network learning capacity for new information, and increased forgetting of old information. Simulations also showed that specific patterns of neural turnover based on individual neuronal connection characteristics, or the temporal-spatial pattern of neurons chosen for turnover during new learning impacts new learning performance. These simulations predict that apoptotic and neurogenic events could act together to produce specific learning and memory effects beyond those provided by ongoing mechanisms of connection plasticity in neuronal populations. Regulation of rates as well as patterns of neuronal turnover may serve an important function in tuning the informatic properties of plastic networks according to novel informational demands. Analogous regulation in the hippocampus may provide for adaptive cognitive and emotional responses to novel and stressful contexts, or operate suboptimally as a basis for psychiatric disorders. The implications of these elementary simulations for future biological and neural modeling research on apoptosis and neurogenesis are discussed. PMID:14702022

  15. Network Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Subhadip; Gilles, Robert Paul

    2005-01-01

    A network payoff function assigns a utility to all participants in a (social) network. In this paper we discuss properties of such network payoff functions that guarantee the existence of certain types of pairwise stable networks and the convergence of certain network formation processes. In particular we investigate network payoff functions that admit an exact network potential or an ordinal network potential. We relate these network potentials to exact and ordinal potentials of a non-cooper...

  16. 脊髓损伤病人神经源性膀胱功能评估及分类研究进展%Research progress on classification and functional evaluation of neurogenic bladder in patients with spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊帆; 汤爱玲; 叶文琴

    2015-01-01

    It summarized the research status quo of functional evaluation and classification method of neurogenic bladder of spinal cord inj ury patients.According to the inspection results,only the neurogenic bladder function of spinal cord inj ury patients was classified by nursing personnel,targeted individualized rehabilitation care was carried out for bladder function of spinal cord inj ury patients.%对脊髓损伤病人神经源性膀胱功能评估及分类方法研究现状进行综述,护理人员根据检查结果对脊髓损伤神经源性膀胱功能进行分类,才能对脊髓损伤病人膀胱功能进行针对性个性化的康复护理。

  17. Network Competition with Local Network

    OpenAIRE

    Oystein Fjeldstad; Moen, Espen R; Christian Riis

    2007-01-01

    Local network externalities are present when the network externalities associated with entering a certain network depends not only on the total number of agents in the network, but on the identity of the agents in the network. We explore the consequences of local network externalities within a framework where two networks compete on the Hotelling circle. We first show that local network externalities, in contrast to global network externalities, do not sharpen competition. Then we show that t...

  18. Neurogenic Bladder in Lumbosacral Myelomeningocele%腰骶部脊髓脊膜膨出并发神经源性膀胱的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑百俊; 李恭才; 张宪生; 徐泉; 高亚

    1997-01-01

    目的:随访、复查腰骶部囊性脊柱裂术后患儿,观察神经源性膀胱发病情况.方法:对38例行尿流动力学、排尿性膀胱尿道造影、B超及(或)静脉尿路造影检查.结果:①脊髓脊膜膨出占囊性脊柱裂的62%,脊髓脊膜膨出并发神经源性膀胱发病率为96%;②骨质缺损≥1.5 cm×1.5 cm者多为脊髓脊膜膨出(P<0.005);③共有8例上尿路功能受损者,残余尿量均≥60 ml,其中4例充盈期膀胱内压力≥1.96 kPa(20 cm H_2O),而3例膀胱逼尿肌-尿道括约肌协同失调者伞部出现膀胱输尿管返流.结论:①腰骶部囊性脊柱裂骨质缺损≥1.5 cm×1.5 cm者易并发神经源性膀胱;②允盈期膀胱内压力增高、膀胱逼尿肌-尿道括约肌协同失调、残余尿量明显增多是上尿路功能受损的危险因素.%Dept.of Pediat.Surgery,The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Xian Medical University,Xian,710004Abstract Objective:To determine the incidence of neurogenic bladder among patients with spina bifida cystica in lumbosacral region.Methods:Urodyanmic studies,voiding cystourethrogram,B-uhrasonogram and/or intravenous urography were performed on 38 cases of spina bifida cystica.Results:1.Myeiomeningocele accounted for 62%of the lumbosacral spina bifida cystica and the incidence of neurogenic bladder in myelomeningocele was 96%;2.Spinal defect more than 1.5 cm×1.5 cm was indicative of myelomeningocele(P<0.005);and 3.Eight patients with upper urinary tract deterioration had residual urine more than 60ml.Four had filling intravesical pressure over 1.96 kPa(20 cm H_2O),3 had detrusor urinae disorder with vesicoureteral reflux.Conclusions:1.The diameter of spinal defect in cases of lumbosacral spina bifida cystica more than 1.5 cm are liable to have neurogenic bladder.2.Elevated filling intravesical pressure,detrusorsphincter dyssynergia and high residual urine are harmful factors of upper urinary tract deterioration.

  19. True neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome in a competitive swimmer: a case report of this rare association Síndrome do desfiladeiro torácico verdadeiro em um nadador competitivo: relato de caso desta rara associação

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Fraxino de Almeida; Meyer, Richard D.; Oh, Shin J.

    2007-01-01

    True neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is an uncommon disorder despite of be a frequent reason for referral to the EMG laboratories. We describe the second case in the literature of true TOS in a competitive swimmer with progressive weakness and severe atrophy of the left thenar eminence. EMG showed lower trunk plexopathy. X-ray and MRI of the cervical spine and brachial plexus were normal. Surgical exploration evidenced the lower trunk retracted and pulled by a fibrous band. It was e...

  20. Inducible and targeted deletion of the ERK5 MAP kinase in adult neurogenic regions impairs adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and several forms of olfactory behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Wei Pan

    Full Text Available Although adult-born neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB have been extensively characterized at the cellular level, their functional impact on olfactory behavior is still highly controversial with many conflicting results reported in the literature. Furthermore, signaling mechanisms regulating adult SVZ/OB neurogenesis are not well defined. Here we report that inducible and targeted deletion of erk5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the adult neurogenic regions of the adult brain, impairs adult neurogenesis in the SVZ and OB of transgenic mice. Although erk5 deletion had no effect on olfactory discrimination among discrete odorants in the habituation/dishabituation assay, it reduced short-term olfactory memory as well as detection sensitivity to odorants and pheromones including those evoking aggression and fear. Furthermore, these mice show impaired acquisition of odor-cued associative olfactory learning, a novel phenotype that had not been previously linked to adult neurogenesis. These data suggest that ERK5 MAP kinase is a critical kinase signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and provide strong evidence supporting a functional role for adult neurogenesis in several distinct forms of olfactory behavior.

  1. Progress on rehabilitation nursing of neurogenic dysphagia WANG%神经性吞咽困难康复护理的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王若婧; 黄燕梅; 许红璐

    2008-01-01

    Dysphagia is a commonly documented morbidity in neurology patients. Dysphasia can cause complications such as malnutrition, suffocation, pneumonia and death. Complications can not only influence the patients' quality of life, but also increase the overall healthcare expenditures. So it is highly needed to pay more attention to the assessment and rehabilitation of these patients. This review aims at systematically capturing current published literature about the methods for assessment and rehabilitation of neurogenic dysphagia.%吞咽困难在神经性失调患者中是一种常见的临床症状,神经性吞咽困难可引起多种并发症,降低患者生活质量,加重经济负担.为此,需重视该类患者的吞咽困难评估和康复.本文概述了神经性吞咽困难评估和康复护理的新进展.

  2. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  3. Network Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kosfeld

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of recent experimental work in eco- nomics focussing on social and economic networks.The experiments consider networks of coordination and cooperation,buyer-seller net- works,and network formation.

  4. Spatial Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Barthelemy, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields ranging from urbanism t...

  5. Network Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase in computer, mobile applications and wireless networks has globally changed the features of network security. A series of Internet attack and fraudulent acts on companies and individual network have shown us that open computer networks have no immunity from intrusions. The traditional way of protecting computer networks, such as firewalls and software encryption are insufficient and ineffective. The wireless ad-hoc network is susceptible to physical attack or harm due to...

  6. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  7. Identification of eight new mutations in familial neurogenic diabetes insipidus supports the concept that defective folding of the mutant provasopressin-neurophysin causes the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittig, S.; Siggaard, C.; Pedersen, E.B. [University Hospital in Aarhus (Denmark)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Familial neurogenic diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is an autosomal dominant disorder with a uniform phenotype characterized by polyuria, polydipsia and a severe deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP). These abnormalities develop postnatally and appear to be due to progressive degeneration of AVP producing neurons. Previous studies in 8 FNDI kindreds have identified 5 different mutations in the gene that codes for the AVP-neurophysin (NP) precursor, AVP-NP. Four kindreds had the same missense mutation in the part of exon 1 that codes for the C-terminal amino acid of the signal peptide (SP). The other 4 had different missense mutations or a codon deletion in exon 2 which codes for the highly conserved part of NP. In the present study, the AVP-NP genes from 8 other kindreds with FNDI were sequenced bidirectionally using sequence and single-stranded DNA amplified by PCR with biotinylated primers flanking each of the 3 exons. We find that each of the 8 kindreds has a different, previously unreported mutation in either the SP coding part of exon 1, in exon 2 or in the variable, NP-coding part of exon 3. Combining these 8 new mutations with the 5 described previously reveals a distribution pattern that corresponds closely to the domains involved in the mutually interactive processes of AVP binding, folding and dimerization of NP. Based on these findings and the clinical features of FNDI, we postulate that the precursors produced by the mutant alleles are cytotoxic because they do not fold or dimerize properly for subsequent packaging and processing.

  8. Nerve sheath tumor, benign neurogenic slow-growing solitary neurilemmoma of the left ulnar nerve: A case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andra Elena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper represent a report of a case with ulnar nerve schwannoma (neurilemmoma, benign neurogenic slow-growing, tumors originating from Schwann cells along the course of a nerve (1 (2 (3. Schwannomas are the most common tumors of the peripheral nerves which occur in the adults (0.8–2% (5. Usually they progress slowly and so they can remain painless swellings for a few years before other symptoms appear. Most of these lesions could be diagnosed clinically, are mobile in the longitudinal plane along the course of the involved nerve but not in the transverse plane (7. EMG, MRI, and ultrasonography are useful tools in the diagnosis. The definitive treatment of benign peripheral nerve schwannomatosis is complete enucleation of the tumor mass without damaging the intact nerve fascicles followed by confirmatory hystopathological examination (12. We present the case of a 62 years old right hand-dominant female who notice a slow increasing bulge over the inner aspect of her distal volar left forearm superior to the wrist, for a longer period of time not exactly specified; this was tracked and associated by pain, tingling and numbness over inner one and half fingers of her left hand in progress until the presentations. A diagnosis of soft-tissue tumor was presumed clinically. The other investigations were ultrasonography (US, nerve conduction studies (NCSs such as sensory nerve action potential (SNAP and compound muscle action potential (CMAP. In this case IRM was suggestive of a benign growth in her left ulnar nerve in the forearm region. Microsurgical techniques were used for ample enucleation of the tumor the distal volar left forearm. Subsequent histopathological examination confirmed the presumed diagnosis of a benign cellular schwannoma. At her last follow-up one month after surgery, the patient was neurological gradually improving sensory and motor function and she is highly satisfied with the results of surgery.

  9. Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Bindila, Laura; Alen, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Rubio, Leticia; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure reduces endocannabinoid activity and disrupts adult neurogenesis in rodents, which results in structural and functional alterations. Cannabinoid receptor agonists promote adult neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation. We evaluated the protective effects of the selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 and the fatty-acid amide-hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which enhances endocannabinoid receptor activity, on NPC proliferation in rats with forced consumption of ethanol (10%) or sucrose liquid diets for 2 weeks. We performed immunohistochemical and stereological analyses of cells expressing the mitotic phosphorylation of histone-3 (phospho-H3+) and the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) in the main neurogenic zones of adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ) and hypothalamus. Animals were allowed ad libitum ethanol intake (7.3 ± 1.1 g/kg/day) after a controlled isocaloric pair-feeding period of sucrose and alcoholic diets. Alcohol intake reduced the number of BrdU+ cells in SGZ, SVZ, and hypothalamus. The treatments (URB597, ACEA, JWH133) exerted a differential increase in alcohol consumption over time, but JWH133 specifically counteracted the deleterious effect of ethanol on NPC proliferation in the SVZ and SGZ, and ACEA reversed this effect in the SGZ only. JWH133 also induced an increased number of BrdU+ cells expressing neuron-specific β3-tubulin in the SVZ and SGZ. These results indicated that the specific activation of CB2 receptors rescued alcohol-induced impaired NPC proliferation, which is a potential clinical interest for the risk of neural damage in alcohol dependence. PMID:26483633

  10. Research Progress in Rehabilitation Treatment on Neurogenic Bladder after Spinal Cord Injury%脊髓损伤后神经源性膀胱的康复治疗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the etiology and pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis and rehabilitation evaluation of neurogenic bladder after spinal cord injury, and respectively introduces the effect of conservative treatment, physical therapy, drug therapy, acupuncture therapy, operation therapy and other rehabilitation methods.%本文总结脊髓损伤后神经源性膀胱的病因病机、临床诊断及康复评定,分别介绍保守治疗、物理疗法、药物治疗、针灸疗法、手术治疗及其它康复方法的作用。

  11. 前列腺增生合并神经系统疾病的尿动力学检查分析%The Analysis of Urodynamic Test in Treating BPH Complicated with Neurogenic Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢绩; 王春喜; 侯宇川; 郝元元; 陈岐辉

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To explore the directive significance of urodynamic test in treating BPH complicated with neurogenic disease. [Methods] We retrospectively analyze the urodynamic data of 144 cases of BPH patients with neurogenic disease, including P-Q nomogram and the detrusor contractility. [Results] Through P-Q nomogram, we found that 70 cases had definite bladder outlet obstruction and 32 cases had the equivocal status of bladder outlet obstruction. There were also 4 cases with bladder outlet unobstruction and 38 cases without P-Q nomogram detection for some reasons. 12 cases had bladder overactivity and 36 cases had detrusor underactivity or acontractile detrusor. [Conclusion] The urodynamic test is important for correct diagnosing BPH complicated with neurogenic disease. And it also helps doctors to choose the appropriate therapeutic schedule. If BPH complicated with neurogenic dis- , ease, the LUTS symptoms may attribute to bladder outlet obstruction caused by BPH, or the dysfunction of detrusor. Some of the patients do not have bladder outlet obstruction. The urodynamic test has directive significance in diagnosing and treating this kind of patients.%目的 探讨前列腺增生合并神经系统疾病患者的尿动力学检查对临床治疗的指导意义.方法 回顾分析我科收治的144例前列腺增生合并神经系统疾病患者的尿动力学资料,包括P-Q图及逼尿肌收缩能力的评价.结果 P-Q图提示膀胱出口梗阻70例,P-Q图提示膀胱出口梗阻不明确32例,P-Q图提示膀胱出口无梗阻4例,P-Q图未测出38例.逼尿肌过度活动12例,逼尿肌活动低下或收缩无力36例.结论 前列腺增生患者如合并有神经系统疾病,其下尿路症状既可由前列腺增生所致的膀胱出口梗阻引起,亦可由逼尿肌本身功能障碍所引起,部分患者并不存在膀胱出口梗阻;尿动力学检查对正确诊治此类患者具有指导意义.

  12. Green networking

    CERN Document Server

    Krief, Francine

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on green networking, which is an important topic for the scientific community composed of engineers, academics, researchers and industrialists working in the networking field. Reducing the environmental impact of the communications infrastructure has become essential with the ever increasing cost of energy and the need for reducing global CO2 emissions to protect our environment.Recent advances and future directions in green networking are presented in this book, including energy efficient networks (wired networks, wireless networks, mobile networks), adaptive networ

  13. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  14. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  15. Temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saramäki, Jari

    2013-01-01

    The concept of temporal networks is an extension of complex networks as a modeling framework to include information on when interactions between nodes happen. Many studies of the last decade examine how the static network structure affect dynamic systems on the network. In this traditional approach  the temporal aspects are pre-encoded in the dynamic system model. Temporal-network methods, on the other hand, lift the temporal information from the level of system dynamics to the mathematical representation of the contact network itself. This framework becomes particularly useful for cases where there is a lot of structure and heterogeneity both in the timings of interaction events and the network topology. The advantage compared to common static network approaches is the ability to design more accurate models in order to explain and predict large-scale dynamic phenomena (such as, e.g., epidemic outbreaks and other spreading phenomena). On the other hand, temporal network methods are mathematically and concept...

  16. Managing neurogenic bowel dysfunction: what do patients prefer? A discrete choice experiment of patient preferences for transanal irrigation and standard bowel management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees B

    2016-02-01

    . Conclusion: Participants with bowel dysfunction regarded “risk of FI”, “frequency of use”, and “avoiding UTIs” as the most important features of a TAI device. These preferences are valuable in informing decision makers and clinicians regarding different bowel management solutions as well as for development of future devices. Keywords: neurogenic bowel dysfunction, UK, transanal irrigation, patient preference, discrete choice

  17. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data...... and analysed networks using the commonly used and freely available software Gephi (gephi.org). Reflecting upon why science education researchers might be hesitant to adopt network methodology we identify a key problem for networks in science education research: The cost in resources of learning how to include...

  18. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  19. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  20. Network Ambivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jagoda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  1. Fermionic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2016-08-01

    We study the structure of fermionic networks, i.e. a model of networks based on the behavior of fermionic gases, and we analyze dynamical processes over them. In this model, particle dynamics have been mapped to the domain of networks, hence a parameter representing the temperature controls the evolution of the system. In doing so, it is possible to generate adaptive networks, i.e. networks whose structure varies over time. As shown in previous works, networks generated by quantum statistics can undergo critical phenomena as phase transitions and, moreover, they can be considered as thermodynamic systems. In this study, we analyze fermionic networks and opinion dynamics processes over them, framing this network model as a computational model useful to represent complex and adaptive systems. Results highlight that a strong relation holds between the gas temperature and the structure of the achieved networks. Notably, both the degree distribution and the assortativity vary as the temperature varies, hence we can state that fermionic networks behave as adaptive networks. On the other hand, it is worth to highlight that we did not finding relation between outcomes of opinion dynamics processes and the gas temperature. Therefore, although the latter plays a fundamental role in gas dynamics, on the network domain, its importance is related only to structural properties of fermionic networks.

  2. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Bård; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept of organizational network are identified and critically discussed. Special focus is placed on how information and communication technologies as communication mediators and cognitive pictures influence...

  3. Classification and surgical treatment of spinal neurogenic foot deformity%脊髓神经源性足部畸形的分类和治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡新永; 杨华清; 陈建文

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究脊髓神经源性足部畸形的发病机理、分类和手术治疗方案.[方法]1988年10月~2006年6月,回顾性分析脊髓病变、脊髓和脊神经因被牵拉或压迫引起的足部畸形167例258足,根据脊髓损伤的性质和发病机理,将足部畸形分为上运动神经元损伤型和下运动神经元损伤型两大类,两类足部畸形采用不同的治疗方案.上运动神经元损伤型足部畸形,手术方案以选择性脊神经后根切断术或周围神经缩窄术为主;下运动神经元损伤型足部畸形,手术方案以软组织松解、肌腱转位术和截骨术为主,其中僵硬性足部畸形使用Ilizarov外固定器缓慢矫正.[结果]得到至少5年随访的147例228足进行总结分析,上运动神经元损伤型足部畸形42足,下运动神经元损伤型足部畸形186足.采用Laaveg-Ponseti足功能评分系统:优94足,良84足,可32足,差18足;优良率78.1%.第1次术后复发36足,复发率15.8%.第2次术后复发8足.[结论]根据脊髓神经源性足部畸形的分类,采用不同的手术治疗方案,可提高治疗效果,减少术后畸形复发.%[ Objective] To study the pathogenesis, classification and surgical treatment of spinal neurogenic foot deformity. [Methods] From October 1988 to June 2006, 167 cases (258 feet) treated with operation were statistically analysed retrospectively. The pathogenesis were spinal cord disease, with pulled and oppressed spinal cord or spinal nerves. Accoding to the characteristic and pathogenesis, the foot deformity was divided into two groups; the type of upper motor neurons injury and the type of lower motor neurons injury. Different operative methods were adopted to two different types. Foot deformity in the type of upper motor neurons injury were mainly treated with functionally selective posterior rhizotomy or tibiai neurotomy. Fool deformity in the type of lower motor neurons injury were mainly treated with soft tissue release

  4. Neurogenic Bladder in Lyme Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi-Hwa; Kim, Won Chan; Park, Dong-Su

    2012-01-01

    Lyme disease is a multi-systemic, tick-borne infectious disease caused by a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Various urologic symptoms are associated with Lyme disease, which can be primary or late manifestations of the disease. Although voiding dysfunction is a rarely reported symptom in patients with Lyme disease, it is one of the most disabling complications of Lyme disease. Korea is not an endemic area of Lyme disease, thus, fewer cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of a 3...

  5. Cosmological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Networks often represent systems that do not have a long history of study in traditional fields of physics; albeit, there are some notable exceptions, such as energy landscapes and quantum gravity. Here, we consider networks that naturally arise in cosmology. Nodes in these networks are stationary observers uniformly distributed in an expanding open Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker universe with any scale factor and two observers are connected if one can causally influence the other. We show that these networks are growing Lorentz-invariant graphs with power-law distributions of node degrees. These networks encode maximum information about the observable universe available to a given observer. (paper)

  6. Network regularizability

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschet, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    A network is regularizable if it is possible to assign weights to its edges so that all nodes have the same degree. We define a hierarchy of four network classes in terms of their regularization properties. For the classes of the hierarchy, we investigate structural conditions on both the network and the corresponding adjacency matrix that are necessary and sufficient for the inclusion of a network in the class. Moreover, we provide an algorithmic solution for the problem of positioning a network in the hierarchy. We argue that the regularization solution is useful to build an egalitarian, friction-free network in which all actors of the network has the same centrality (and power).

  7. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  8. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  9. Understanding of Nursing Diabetes Complicated with Neurogenic Retention of Urine and Urinary Tract Mycotic Infection%糖尿病合并神经源性尿潴留、泌尿道真菌感染的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李柳芳; 顾华英; 巫织娥; 蔡秀英

    2002-01-01

    To treat patients with diabetic nearogenie bladder and neurogenic retention of urine by treating diabetes and evacuatingneurogenic retention of urine and restoring the function of the bladder. When the disease is complicated with urinary tract mycotic infection,the nursing become more important for the treatment.

  10. Multilayer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kivelä, Mikko; Barthelemy, Marc; Gleeson, James P; Moreno, Yamir; Porter, Mason A

    2013-01-01

    Most real and engineered systems include multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity, and it is important to take such features into account to try to obtain a complete understanding of these systems. It is thus necessary to generalize "traditional" network theory by developing (and validating) a framework and associated tools to study multilayer systems in a comprehensive fashion. The origins of such efforts occurred several decades ago, but now the study of multilayer networks has become one of the major directions in network science. In this paper, we discuss the history of multilayer networks (and related concepts) and then review the exploding body of work on such networks. To unify the disparate terminology in the large body of recent work, we discuss a general framework for multilayer networks, construct a dictionary of terminology to relate the numerous existing concepts to each other, and provide a thorough discussion that compares, contrasts, and translates between related notions such as multila...

  11. Networked Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...... of CoPs we shall argue that the metaphor or theory of networked learning is itself confronted with some central tensions and challenges that need to be addressed. We then explore these theoretical and analytic challenges to the network metaphor, through an analysis of a Danish social networking site. We...... argue that understanding meaning-making and ‘networked identities’ may be relevant analytic entry points in navigating the challenges....

  12. Telecommunication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard;

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we look into the role of telecommunication networks and their capability of supporting critical infrastructure systems and applications. The focus is on smart grids as the key driving example, bearing in mind that other such systems do exist, e.g., water management, traffic control......, etc. First, the role of basic communication is examined with a focus on critical infrastructures. We look at heterogenic networks and standards for smart grids, to give some insight into what has been done to ensure inter-operability in this direction. We then go to the physical network, and look...... at the deployment of the physical layout of the communication network and the related costs. This is an important aspect as one option to use existing networks is to deploy dedicated networks. Following this, we look at some generic models that describe reliability for accessing dynamic information. This part...

  13. Networks, Urban

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, N.

    2009-01-01

    For much of the twentieth century, urban networks was a term used by sociologists and others to describe social networks, their importance for bonding within communities and bridging between communities, and their relationship to the geographical mobility implied by late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century urbanization, mid-twentieth-century suburbanization, and late-twentieth-century globalization. This relationship is often assumed to be one in which social networks are threatened by ge...

  14. Channel Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rigon, Riccardo

    This review proceeds from Luna Leopold's and Ronald Shreve's lasting accomplishments dealing with the study of random-walk and topologically random channel networks. According to the random perspective, which has had a profound influence on the interpretation of natural landforms, nature's resiliency in producing recurrent networks and landforms was interpreted to be the consequence of chance. In fact, central to models of topologically random networks is the assumption of equal likelihood of any tree-like configuration. However, a general framework of analysis exists that argues that all possible network configurations draining a fixed area are not necessarily equally likely. Rather, a probability P(s) is assigned to a particular spanning tree configuration, say s, which can be generally assumed to obey a Boltzmann distribution: P(s) % e^-H(s)/T, where T is a parameter and H(s) is a global property of the network configuration s related to energetic characters, i.e. its Hamiltonian. One extreme case is the random topology model where all trees are equally likely, i.e. the limit case for T6 4 . The other extreme case is T 6 0, and this corresponds to network configurations that tend to minimize their total energy dissipation to improve their likelihood. Networks obtained in this manner are termed optimal channel networks (OCNs). Observational evidence suggests that the characters of real river networks are reproduced extremely well by OCNs. Scaling properties of energy and entropy of OCNs suggest that large network development is likely to effectively occur at zero temperature (i.e. minimizing its Hamiltonian). We suggest a corollary of dynamic accessibility of a network configuration and speculate towards a thermodynamics of critical self-organization. We thus conclude that both chance and necessity are equally important ingredients for the dynamic origin of channel networks---and perhaps of the geometry of nature.

  15. Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Samaka, Mohammed; Khan, Khaled M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless communication is the fastest-growing field in the telecommunication industry. Wireless networks have grown significantly as an important segment of the communications industry. They have become popular networks with the potential to provide high-speed, high-quality information exchange between two or more portable devices without any wire or conductors. Wireless networks can simply be characterized as the technology that provides seamless access to information, anywhere, anyplace, an...

  16. Network Security

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Scott; Du, Ding-Zhu

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a reference tool for the increasing number of the scientists whose research is related to sensor network security. The book is organized into several sections, each including some chapters exploring a specific topic. Network security is attracting great attention and there are many research topics waiting to be studied. In this book, the topics covered include network design and modeling, network management, data management, security and applications. The aim, intent, and motivation of this book is to provide a reference tool for the increasing number of scientists whose res

  17. Network security

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  18. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage buffe......). Our results on single–hop, multi–hop, and multi–path scenarios show that gains of 3x to 11x are attainable over standard TCP and multi–path TCP....

  19. Network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics: A scientific outline

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.

  20. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2010-01-01

    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  1. Bibliometric Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Havemann, Frank; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This text is based on a translation of a chapter in a handbook about network analysis (published in German) where we tried to make beginners familiar with some basic notions and recent developments of network analysis applied to bibliometric issues (Havemann and Scharnhorst 2010). We have added some recent references.

  2. Diophantine networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogne', C.; Masucci, A. P.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2008-03-01

    We introduce a new class of deterministic networks by associating networks with Diophantine equations, thus relating network topology to algebraic properties. The network is formed by representing integers as vertices and by drawing cliques between M vertices every time that M distinct integers satisfy the equation. We analyse the network generated by the Pythagorean equation x2 +y2 =z2 showing that its degree distribution is well approximated by a power law with exponential cut-off. We also show that the properties of this network differ considerably from the features of scale-free networks generated through preferential attachment. Remarkably we also recover a power law for the clustering coefficient. We then study the network associated with the equation x2 +y2 = z showing that the degree distribution is consistent with a power law for several decades of values of k and that, after having reached a minimum, the distribution begins rising again. The power-law exponent, in this case, is given by γ ∼ 4.5 We then analyse clustering and ageing and compare our results to the ones obtained in the Pythagorean case.

  3. Probabilistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....

  4. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning; Grande, Bård

    1996-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed.......The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed....

  5. Temporal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari

    2012-10-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered

  6. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  7. Natural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hartonen, Tuomo

    2011-01-01

    Scale-free and non-computable characteristics of natural networks are found to result from the least-time dispersal of energy. To consider a network as a thermodynamic system is motivated since ultimately everything that exists can be expressed in terms of energy. According to the variational principle, the network will grow and restructure when flows of energy diminish energy differences between nodes as well as relative to nodes in surrounding systems. The natural process will yield scale-free characteristics because the nodes that contribute to the least-time consumption of free energy preferably attach to each other. Network evolution is a path-dependent and non-deterministic process when there are two or more paths to consume a common source of energy. Although evolutionary courses of these non-Hamiltonian systems cannot be predicted, many mathematical functions, models and measures that characterize networks can be recognized as appropriate approximations of the thermodynamic equation of motion that has...

  8. Technological Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Bivas

    The study of networks in the form of mathematical graph theory is one of the fundamental pillars of discrete mathematics. However, recent years have witnessed a substantial new movement in network research. The focus of the research is shifting away from the analysis of small graphs and the properties of individual vertices or edges to consideration of statistical properties of large scale networks. This new approach has been driven largely by the availability of technological networks like the Internet [12], World Wide Web network [2], etc. that allow us to gather and analyze data on a scale far larger than previously possible. At the same time, technological networks have evolved as a socio-technological system, as the concepts of social systems that are based on self-organization theory have become unified in technological networks [13]. In today’s society, we have a simple and universal access to great amounts of information and services. These information services are based upon the infrastructure of the Internet and the World Wide Web. The Internet is the system composed of ‘computers’ connected by cables or some other form of physical connections. Over this physical network, it is possible to exchange e-mails, transfer files, etc. On the other hand, the World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet where nodes represent web pages and links represent hyperlinks between the pages. Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks [26] also have recently become a popular medium through which huge amounts of data can be shared. P2P file sharing systems, where files are searched and downloaded among peers without the help of central servers, have emerged as a major component of Internet traffic. An important advantage in P2P networks is that all clients provide resources, including bandwidth, storage space, and computing power. In this chapter, we discuss these technological networks in detail. The review

  9. Temporal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2011-01-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamic systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via email, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, an...

  10. Accelerating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  11. Network Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An

  12. Social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Etaner-Uyar, A Sima

    2014-01-01

    The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many

  13. Network medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Tony; Linding, Rune

    2008-01-01

    To more effectively target complex diseases like cancer, diabetes and schizophrenia, we may need to rethink our strategies for drug development and the selection of molecular targets for pharmacological treatments. Here, we discuss the potential use of protein signaling networks as the targets...... for new therapeutic intervention. We argue that by targeting the architecture of aberrant signaling networks associated with cancer and other diseases new therapeutic strategies can be implemented. Transforming medicine into a network driven endeavour will require quantitative measurements of cell...... signaling processes; we will describe how this may be performed and combined with new algorithms to predict the trajectories taken by a cellular system either in time or through disease states. We term this approach, network medicine....

  14. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from...... 2009 HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of...

  15. Nepal Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Technical Assistance courses have many functions apart from disseminating knowledge and information, one such function is to engender networks. During the course period, participants meet and establish contact and some of these contacts remain connections between alumni for many years after the...... courses are finished. The alumni networks depend on the uses they are put to by the individual alumni and the support they get from alumni and host countries. The United Nations initiated technical assistance courses in the late 1940s in order to train nationals from developing countries as a means to......, Denmark, as a Danida fellow. Today, the older sister works in Nepal and the younger in Seattle, where they still make use of their personal networks including connections to their fellow alumni of technical assistance courses. Inspired by work on social remittances in combination with network theory , I...

  16. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Companies organize in a way that involves many activities that are external to the traditional organizational boundaries. This presents challenges to operations management and managing operations involves many issues and actions dealing with external networks. Taking a network perspective changes...... the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  17. Sentinel Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sentinel Network is an integrated, electronic, national medical product safety initiative that compiles information about the safe and effective use of medical products accessible to patients and healthcare practitioners.

  18. Managing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Heidi; Vintergaard, Christian

    Logically it seems that companies pursuing different business strategies wouldalso manage their relationships with other firms accordingly. Nevertheless, due tothe lack of research in the field of network strategies, this link still remainsinadequately examined. Based on the well-known framework...... of organisationalbehaviour developed by Miles and Snow (1978), this paper argues that thepatterns of network behaviour practiced by firms greatly depend on the businesstypology of the company. That is, a company's business typology will to a certaindegree dictate the network identity of the company. In this paper evidence...... isprovided, that the relation between a company's strategy, structure and processesin fact have a considerable influence on its pattern of network behaviour. Threecase studies from the Danish biotech industry exemplify and illustrate how acompany's strategy is directly correlated with how it manages its...

  19. Network Power Fault Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Siviero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Network power fault detection. At least one first network device is instructed to temporarily disconnect from a power supply path of a network, and at least one characteristic of the power supply path of the network is measured at a second network device connected to the network while the at least one first network device is temporarily disconnected from the network

  20. Delegation Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Drewes, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a generalization of tree-based generators called delegation networks. These make it possible to generate objects such as strings, trees, graphs, and pictures in a modular way by combining tree-based generators of several types. Our main result states that, if all underlying tree generators generate regular tree languages (or finite tree languages), then the tree-generating power of delegation networks is the same as that of context-free tree grammars working in IO mode.

  1. Chemical networks*

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Wing-Fai

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One o...

  2. Sentient networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapline, G.

    1998-03-01

    The engineering problems of constructing autonomous networks of sensors and data processors that can provide alerts for dangerous situations provide a new context for debating the question whether man-made systems can emulate the cognitive capabilities of the mammalian brain. In this paper we consider the question whether a distributed network of sensors and data processors can form ``perceptions`` based on sensory data. Because sensory data can have exponentially many explanations, the use of a central data processor to analyze the outputs from a large ensemble of sensors will in general introduce unacceptable latencies for responding to dangerous situations. A better idea is to use a distributed ``Helmholtz machine`` architecture in which the sensors are connected to a network of simple processors, and the collective state of the network as a whole provides an explanation for the sensory data. In general communication within such a network will require time division multiplexing, which opens the door to the possibility that with certain refinements to the Helmholtz machine architecture it may be possible to build sensor networks that exhibit a form of artificial consciousness.

  3. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  4. Network virtualization and programmability

    OpenAIRE

    Colle, Didier; Jooris, Bart; Gurzi, Pasquale; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet

    2010-01-01

    We present network virtualization (building virtual or logical networks over a physical infrastructure) and network programmability (allowing the network operator to at least control the network but more fundamentally to define its behavior) concepts.

  5. Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicists use large detectors to measure particles created in high-energy collisions at particle accelerators. These detectors typically produce signals indicating either where ionization occurs along the path of the particle, or where energy is deposited by the particle. The data produced by these signals is fed into pattern recognition programs to try to identify what particles were produced, and to measure the energy and direction of these particles. Ideally, there are many techniques used in this pattern recognition software. One technique, neural networks, is particularly suitable for identifying what type of particle caused by a set of energy deposits. Neural networks can derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, extract patterns, and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer related processes. To assist in the advancement of this technology, Physicists use a tool kit to experiment with several neural network techniques. The goal of this research is interface a neural network tool kit into Java Analysis Studio (JAS3), an application that allows data to be analyzed from any experiment. As the final result, a physicist will have the ability to train, test, and implement a neural network with the desired output while using JAS3 to analyze the results or output. Before an implementation of a neural network can take place, a firm understanding of what a neural network is and how it works is beneficial. A neural network is an artificial representation of the human brain that tries to simulate the learning process [5]. It is also important to think of the word artificial in that definition as computer programs that use calculations during the learning process. In short, a neural network learns by representative examples. Perhaps the easiest way to describe the way neural networks learn is to explain how the human brain functions. The human brain contains billions of neural cells that are responsible for processing

  6. Network Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguna, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Causal sets are an approach to quantum gravity in which the causal structure of spacetime plays a fundamental role. The causal set is a quantum network which underlies the fabric of spacetime. The nodes in this network are tiny quanta of spacetime, with two such quanta connected if they are causally related. Here we show that the structure of these networks in de Sitter spacetime, such as our accelerating universe, is remarkably similar to the structure of complex networks -- the brain or the Internet, for example. Specifically, we show that the node degree distribution of causal sets in de Sitter spacetime is described by a power law with exponent 2, similar to many complex networks. Quantifying the differences between the causal set structure in de Sitter spacetime and in the real universe, we find that since the universe today is relatively young, its power-law exponent is not 2 but 3/4, yet exponent 2 is currently emerging. Finally, we show that as a consequence of a simple geometric duality, the growth d...

  7. Network interruptions

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Sunday 12 June 2005, a site-wide security software upgrade will be performed on all CERN network equipment. This maintenance operation will cause at least 2 short network interruptions of 2 minutes on each equipment item. There are hundreds of such items across the CERN site (Meyrin, Prévessin and all SPS and LHC pits), and it will thus take the whole day to treat them all. All network users and services will be affected. Central batch computing services will be interrupted during this period, expected to last from 8 a.m. until late evening. Job submission will still be possible but no jobs will actually be run. It is hoped to complete the computer centre upgrades in the morning so that stable access can be restored to lxplus, afs and nice services as soon as possible; this cannot be guaranteed, however. The opportunity will be used to interrupt and perform upgrades on the CERN Document Servers.

  8. Network Survivability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzo, José L.; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée;

    2010-01-01

    – are vital to modern services such as mobile telephony, online banking and VoIP. This book examines communication networking from a mathematical viewpoint. The contributing authors took part in the European COST action 293 – a four-year program of multidisciplinary research on this subject. In this book...... they offer introductory overviews and state-of-the-art assessments of current and future research in the fields of broadband, optical, wireless and ad hoc networks. Particular topics of interest are design, optimization, robustness and energy consumption. The book will be of interest to graduate students......, researchers and practitioners in the areas of networking, theoretical computer science, operations research, distributed computing and mathematics....

  9. Innovation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrweiler, Petra

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances a framework for modeling the component interactions between cognitive and social aspects of scientific creativity and technological innovation. Specifically, it aims to characterize Innovation Networks; those networks that involve the interplay of people, ideas and organizations to create new, technologically feasible, commercially-realizable products, processes and organizational structures. The tri-partite framework captures networks of ideas (Concept Level), people (Individual Level) and social structures (Social-Organizational Level) and the interactions between these levels. At the concept level, new ideas are the nodes that are created and linked, kept open for further investigation or closed if solved by actors at the individual or organizational levels. At the individual level, the nodes are actors linked by shared worldviews (based on shared professional, educational, experiential backgrounds) who are the builders of the concept level. At the social-organizational level, the nodes...

  10. Network dismantling

    CERN Document Server

    Braunstein, Alfredo; Semerjian, Guilhem; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of network dismantling, that is of finding a minimal set of vertices whose removal leaves the network broken in connected components of sub-extensive size. For a large class of random graphs this problem is tightly connected to the decycling problem (the removal of vertices leaving the graph acyclic). Exploiting this connection and recent works on epidemic spreading we present precise predictions for the minimal size of a dismantling set in a large random graph with a prescribed (light-tailed) degree distribution. Building on the statistical mechanics perspective we propose a three-stage Min-Sum algorithm for efficiently dismantling networks, including heavy-tailed ones for which the dismantling and decycling problems are not equivalent. We also provide insight into the dismantling problem concluding that it is an intrinsically collective problem and optimal dismantling sets cannot be viewed as a collection of individually well performing nodes.

  11. Sentient Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chapline, G

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we consider the question whether a distributed network of sensors and data processors can form "perceptions" based on the sensory data. Because sensory data can have exponentially many explanations, the use of a central data processor to analyze the outputs from a large ensemble of sensors will in general introduce unacceptable latencies for responding to dangerous situations. A better idea is to use a distributed "Helmholtz machine" architecture in which the collective state of the network as a whole provides an explanation for the sensory data.

  12. String Network

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Ashoke

    1997-01-01

    Type IIB string theory admits a BPS configuration in which three strings (of different type) meet at a point. Using this three string configuration we construct a string network and study its properties. In particular we prove supersymmetry of this configuration. We also consider string lattices, which can be used to construct BPS states in toroidally compactified string theory.

  13. Virtual network functions orchestration in wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Riggio, Roberto; Bradai, Abbas; Rasheed, Tinku; Schulz-Zander, Julius; Kuklinski, Slawomir; Ahmed, Toufik

    2015-01-01

    Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is emerging as one of the most innovative concepts in the networking landscape. By migrating network functions from dedicated mid-dleboxes to general purpose computing platforms, NFV can effectively reduce the cost to deploy and to operate large networks. However, in order to achieve its full potential, NFV needs to encompass also the radio access network allowing Mobile Virtual Network Operators to deploy custom resource allocation solutions within their...

  14. Ecological network analysis: network construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fath, B.D.; Scharler, U.M.; Ulanowicz, R.E.; Hannon, B.

    2007-01-01

    Ecological network analysis (ENA) is a systems-oriented methodology to analyze within system interactions used to identify holistic properties that are otherwise not evident from the direct observations. Like any analysis technique, the accuracy of the results is as good as the data available, but t

  15. Network Security : Securing Network Equipment and Network Users’ Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mbah, Mbah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this final year project is to research on new network security products and implementation techniques in order to enhance the current network security structure of Savonia University of Applied Sciences. This is very important because, it will avoid the university from suffering any major network attack associated with the present network security architecture. At the time this final project was approved, the university network security architecture was optimized...

  16. Linear network theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sander, K F

    1964-01-01

    Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies

  17. Network Security Scanner

    OpenAIRE

    G. MURALI; M.Pranavi; Y.Navateja; K. Bhargavi

    2011-01-01

    Network Security Scanner (NSS) is a tool that allows auditing and monitoring remote network computers for possible vulnerabilities, checks your network for all potential methods that a hacker might use to attack it. Network Security Scanner is a complete networking utilities package that includes a wide range of tools for network security auditing, vulnerability Auditing, scanning, monitoring and more. Network Security Scanner (NSS) is an easy to use, intuitive network security scanner that c...

  18. Network Traffic Anomaly Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hong; Al-Azzawi, Hussein; Brani, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a tutorial for network anomaly detection, focusing on non-signature-based approaches. Network traffic anomalies are unusual and significant changes in the traffic of a network. Networks play an important role in today's social and economic infrastructures. The security of the network becomes crucial, and network traffic anomaly detection constitutes an important part of network security. In this paper, we present three major approaches to non-signature-based network detect...

  19. Network Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, John

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the construction of a new framework for probing discrete emergent geometry and boundary-boundary observables based on a fundamentally a-dimensional underlying network structure. Using a gravitationally motivated action with Forman weighted combinatorial curvatures and simplicial volumes relying on a decomposition of an abstract simplicial complex into realized embeddings of proper skeletons, we demonstrate properties such as a minimal volume-scale cutoff, the necessity of a positive-definite cosmological constant as a regulator for non-degenerate geometries, and naturally emergent simplicial structures from Metropolis network evolution simulations with no restrictions on attachment rules or regular building blocks. We see emergent properties which echo results from both the spinfoam formalism and causal dynamical triangulations in quantum gravity, and provide analytical and numerical results to support the analogy. We conclude with a summary of open questions and intent for future work in develop...

  20. Chemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Wing-Fai

    2015-09-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One on-going research subject is finding new paths to synthesize species either in the gas-phase or on grain surfaces. Specific formation routes for water or carbon monoxide are discussed in more details. 13th Lecture of the Summer School "Protoplanetary Disks: Theory and Modelling Meet Observations"

  1. Socialist Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Agarez, Ricardo; Bechini, Thibault; Dalachanis, Angelos; El-Wakil, Leila; Gzowska, Alicja; James-Chakraborty, Kathleen; Kögel, Eduard; Kulić, Vladimir; Lagae, Johan; Schwenkel, Christina; Stanek, Łukasz; Zandi-Sayek, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    This issue of ABE focuses on the internationalization of building culture after WWII and the contributions of architects, planners, and engineers from socialist countries to these processes. Complementing the studies of colonial and postcolonial links, international organizations such as the UN, and economic globalization as conduits of the world-wide spread of architecture, this issue discusses the intersection of these networks with flows of labor power, materials, technologies, discourses ...

  2. Sentient Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chapline, George

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we consider the question whether a distributed network of sensors and data processors can form "perceptions" based on the sensory data. Because sensory data can have exponentially many explanations, the use of a central data processor to analyze the outputs from a large ensemble of sensors will in general introduce unacceptable latencies for responding to dangerous situations. A better idea is to use a distributed "Helmholtz machine" architecture in which the collective state of...

  3. Neural networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vajda, Igor; Grim, Jiří

    Oxford : Eolss Publishers-UNESCO, 2008 - (Parra-Luna, F.), s. 224-248 ISBN 978-1-84826-654-4. - (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. Volume III) R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/07/1594 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : neural networks * probabilistic approach Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/SI/vajda-systems science and cybernetics .pdf

  4. Conflict Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jörg; Öztürk, Tahir

    2009-01-01

    Conflict parties are frequently involved into more than one conflict at a given time. In this paper the interrelated structure of conflictive relations is modeled as a conflict network where opponents are embedded in a local structure of bilateral conflicts. Conflict parties invest in specific conflict technology to attack their respective rivals and defend their own resources. We show that there exists a unique equilibrium for this conflict game and examine the relation between aggregated eq...

  5. Open innovation in networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei

    Open innovation in networks has been a popular topic for long, this paper rethinks the concepts of innovation network and network organization, and clarifies the differences between them based on the network perspective. Network perspective means that: network is the context of firms; market...... and hierarchy can be analyzed from a network approach. Within a network perspective, there are different levels of network, and a firm may not always has the power to “manage” innovation networks due to different levels of power. Based on the strength of a firm’s power, its role may varies from manager...

  6. Geographical networks: geographical effects on network properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong-qing YANG; Lei YANG; Bai-hua GONG; Zhong-cai LIN; Hong-sheng HE; Liang HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Complex networks describe a wide range of sys-tems in nature and society. Since most real systems exist in certain physical space and the distance between the nodes has influence on the connections, it is helpful to study geographi-cal complex networks and to investigate how the geographical constrains on the connections affect the network properties. In this paper, we briefly review our recent progress on geo-graphical complex networks with respect of statistics, mod-elling, robustness, and synchronizability. It has been shown that the geographical constrains tend to make the network less robust and less synchronizable. Synchronization on random networks and clustered networks is also studied.

  7. Network Management Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewoo; Jeon, Hahnearl; Lee, Jaiyong

    Network Management is the process of managing, monitoring, and controlling the network. Conventional network management was based on wired network which is heavy and unsuitable for resource constrained WSNs. WSNs can have large scale network and it is impossible to manage each node individually. Also, polling mechanism of Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) impose heavy management traffic overhead. Since management messages consume resources of WSNs, it can affect the performance of the network. Therefore, it is necessary for WSNs to perform energy efficient network management. In this paper, we will propose network management framework. We will introduce cluster-based network management architecture, and classify the Management Information Base (MIB) according to their characteristics. Then, we will define management messages and message exchange operation for each kind of MIB. The analysis result of the management overhead indicates that the proposed framework can reduce management traffic compared to polling mechanism.

  8. Network epidemiology and plant trade networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pautasso, Marco; Jeger, Mike J.

    2014-01-01

    Models of epidemics in complex networks are improving our predictive understanding of infectious disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, applying network theory to plant pathology is still a challenge. This overview summarizes some key developments in network epidemiology that are likely to facilitate its application in the study and management of plant diseases. Recent surveys have provided much-needed datasets on contact patterns and human mobility in social networks, but plant trade networks are s...

  9. Improving network management with Software Defined Networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Software-defined networking (SDN) is developed as an alternative to closed networks in centers for data processing by providing a means to separate the control layer data layer switches, and routers. SDN introduces new possibilities for network management and configuration methods. In this article, we identify problems with the current state-of-the-art network configuration and management mechanisms and introduce mechanisms to improve various aspects of network management

  10. 吞咽功能训练结合神经肌肉电刺激对神经源性吞咽功能障碍疗效的影响%Treating neurogenic dysphagia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李寄婧; 王正盛; 王建文; 杨敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察吞咽功能训练结合神经肌肉电刺激(NMES)治疗神经源性吞咽功能障碍(ND)的疗效,探讨ND治疗的更佳方案.方法 采用随机数字表法将82例患者分为3组,吞咽功能训练组(吞咽训练组)根据吞咽受累不同部位采用相应的训练方法,包括口颜面功能训练、咽部冷刺激、门德尔松吞咽法训练等,每日1次,每次30 min,10次为1个疗程;NMES组在吞咽功能障碍发生部位予以低频电刺激治疗,采用双向方波,波宽为700 ms,频率范围在30~80 Hz可调,电流强度为0~15 mA,每日1次,每次30 min,10次为1个疗程;综合治疗组(综合组)采用吞咽功能训练加NMES疗法.治疗前、后进行X线透视吞咽功能检查(VFSS),根据VFSS评分进行吞咽功能分级.结果 2个疗程后,3组患者吞咽功能均有不同程度的提高,吞咽训练组总有效率为73%、NMES组总有效率为83%、综合组总有效率为94%;综合组的VFSS分级结果显示,其吞咽功能明显优于吞咽训练组和NMES组(P<0.05).结论 吞咽功能训练加NMES治疗能更好地改善ND患者的吞咽功能,尤其是对假性延髓麻痹患者效果明显.%Objective To explore the best treatment program for neurogenic dysphagia (ND) by observing the efficacy of three different rehabilitation programs.Methods Eighty-two dysphagic patients were randomly divi-ded into a swallowing training group (which received mouth,facial,and tongue function training along with cold sti-mulation of the pharynx,Mendelson's swallowing training,and swallowing behavior coordination training) and a group which received neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) only.Low-frequency NMES was applied at the location of the swallowing obstacle using a biphase square wave 700ms long at 30-80 Hz with a current intensity of 0-15 mA.There was also a combined treatments group which received swallowing behavior therapy combined with NMES.All three groups were treated for 30 min daily for 20 days

  11. ENLIGHT Network

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    State-of-the-art techniques borrowed from particle accelerators and detectors are a key element in hadrontherapy and several European projects are actively fostering the collaboration amongst the various disciplines and countries. ENLIGHT was established in 2002 to coordinate these European efforts in hadron therapy. The ENLIGHT network is formed by the European hadrontherapy Community, with more than 300 participants from twenty European countries. A major achievement of ENLIGHT has been the blending of traditionally separate communities so that clinicians, physicists, biologists and engineers with experience and interest in particle therapy are working together.

  12. Local Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks have become essential for many users in their daily communication. Through a combination of the online social networks with opportunistic networks, a new concept arises: Local Social Networks. The target of local social networks is to promote social networking benefits in physical environment in order to leverage personal affinities in the users' surroundings. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the concept of local social networks as a new social commun...

  13. Network Security with Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Mukund R. Joshi; Renuka Avinash Karkade

    2015-01-01

    Network Security & Cryptography is a concept to protect network and data transmission over wireless network. Data Security is the main aspect of secure data transmission over unreliable network. Network security involves the authorization of access to data in a network, which is controlled by the network administrator. Users choose or are assigned an ID and password or other authenticating information that allows them access to information and programs within their authority. Netw...

  14. True neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome in a competitive swimmer: a case report of this rare association Síndrome do desfiladeiro torácico verdadeiro em um nadador competitivo: relato de caso desta rara associação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Fraxino de Almeida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available True neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS is an uncommon disorder despite of be a frequent reason for referral to the EMG laboratories. We describe the second case in the literature of true TOS in a competitive swimmer with progressive weakness and severe atrophy of the left thenar eminence. EMG showed lower trunk plexopathy. X-ray and MRI of the cervical spine and brachial plexus were normal. Surgical exploration evidenced the lower trunk retracted and pulled by a fibrous band. It was excised and neurolysis of the plexus was done with gradual improvement of function. We discuss the possible pathophysiology of this association.A síndrome do desfiladeiro torácico verdadeiro é condição incomum, apesar de ser uma razão freqüente de encaminhamento aos laboratórios de eletroneuromiografia. Nós descrevemos o segundo caso na literatura desta doença rara em um nadador competitivo com fraqueza e atrofia severa da eminência tenar esquerda. A ENMG mostrou plexopatia do tronco inferior. O RX e as ressonâncias magnéticas da coluna cervical e do plexo braquial foram normais. Exploração cirúrgica mostrou o tronco inferior tracionado por uma banda fibrosa. Ela foi ressecada e procedeu-se a neurólise do plexo com melhora gradual da função. Nós discutimos a possível fisiopatologia desta associação.

  15. Robustness of a Network of Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianxi; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2012-02-01

    Network research has been focused on studying the properties of a single isolated network, which rarely exists. We develop a general analytical framework for studying percolation of n interdependent networks. We illustrate our analytical solutions for three examples: (i) For any tree of n fully dependent Erdos-R'enyi (ER) networks, each of average degree k, we find that the giant component P∞=p[1-(-kP∞)]^n where 1 - p is the initial fraction of removed nodes. This general result coincides for n = 1 with the known second-order phase transition for a single network. For any n>1 cascading failures occur and the percolation becomes an abrupt first-order transition. (ii) For a starlike network of n partially interdependent ER networks, P∞ depends also on the topology--in contrast to case (i). (iii) For a looplike network formed by n partially dependent ER networks, P∞ is independent of n.

  16. Clinical analysis of positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation in the treatment of 64 cases with neurogenic pulmonary edema%采用呼气末正压通气治疗神经源性肺水肿64例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄跃清; 叶少波; 王芳; 叶敏球

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilation in the treatment of neurogenic pulmonary edema. Method 64 patients with neurogenic pulmonary edema were treated with the timely use of positive end-expiratory pressure(PEEP) ventilation. Then the curative effect was observed. Result The symptoms of hypoxia, pulmonary edema were had a rapid improvement in ventilation with PEEP. the improvementof heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, partial pressure of oxygen, carbon dioxide partial pressure had significant difference compared with that before treatment(P < 0.01). Conclusion Neurogenic pulmonary edema patients treated with PEEP therapy had goved clinical effect.%目的 探讨采用呼气末正压(PEEP)通气治疗神经源性肺水肿的疗效.方法 对64例神经源性肺水肿患者经过及时采用PEEP通气治疗,观察临床治疗效果.结果 采用PEEP通气治疗后所有患者的缺氧症状、肺水肿体征均得迅速改善,与治疗前比较心率、呼吸频率、血氧饱和度、氧分压、二氧化碳分压的改善均具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 采用PEEP通气治疗神经源性肺水肿有较好的临床效果.

  17. Network Monitoring with Zabbix

    OpenAIRE

    Shokhin, Anatolii

    2015-01-01

    Network monitoring became an essential part of any network size. It brings monitoring of network components 24/7. This provides clarity and transparency of network infrastructure and performance. With on time alert notification, network administrator may start failure troubleshooting immediately. As a result, end users may not even notice the issue.

  18. Decentralized Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Fragouli, C.; Soljanin, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes deterministic algorithms for decentralized network coding. Decentralized coding allows to locally specify the coding operations at network nodes without knowledge of the overall network topology, and to accommodate future changes in the network such as addition of receivers. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first deterministic decentralized algorithms proposed for network coding.

  19. Social Network Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Pugacheva, E

    2015-01-01

    In the offered review some key issues of social network analysis are discussed. This is a brief summary of social network characteristics, models of network formation, and the network perspective. The aim of this overview is to contribute to interdisciplinary dialogue among researchers in physics, mathematics, sociology, who share a common interest in understanding the network phenomena.

  20. Interconnection networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, V.; Moore, J.W.

    1988-06-20

    A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs GAMMA/sub d/(k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d + 1)exclamation/ (d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k and GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) with degree d /minus/ 1, diameter k + 1, and (d + 1)exclamation/(d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k greater than or equal to 4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction delta/sub 1/. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations. 9 figs.

  1. A Network-of-Networks Model for Electrical Infrastructure Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Hogan, Emilie; Duncan, Daniel; Zhenyu,; Huang,; Hines, Paul D H

    2015-01-01

    Modeling power transmission networks is an important area of research with applications such as vulnerability analysis, study of cascading failures, and location of measurement devices. Graph-theoretic approaches have been widely used to solve these problems, but are subject to several limitations. One of the limitations is the ability to model a heterogeneous system in a consistent manner using the standard graph-theoretic formulation. In this paper, we propose a {\\em network-of-networks} approach for modeling power transmission networks in order to explicitly incorporate heterogeneity in the model. This model distinguishes between different components of the network that operate at different voltage ratings, and also captures the intra and inter-network connectivity patterns. By building the graph in this fashion we present a novel, and fundamentally different, perspective of power transmission networks. Consequently, this novel approach will have a significant impact on the graph-theoretic modeling of powe...

  2. Hormone Health Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce risk for other diseases The Hormone Health Network helps you and your health care provider have ... Copyright Endocrine Society. All rights reserved. Terms & Policies Network Partners The Hormone Health Network partners with other ...

  3. Visualization of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  4. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Camarinha-Matos; H. Afsarmanesh

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  5. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... with changing and increasing demands. Two-layer networks consist of one backbone network, which interconnects cluster networks. The clusters consist of nodes and links, which connect the nodes. One node in each cluster is a hub node, and the backbone interconnects the hub nodes of each cluster and thus...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks...

  6. Network robustness of correlated multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Min, Byungjoon; Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K -I

    2013-01-01

    We study the network robustness properties of multiplex networks which contain multiple types of links, focusing on the role of correlation between degrees of a node in different layers. We use generating function formalism to address various types of network robustness of multiplex networks: the ordinary and mutual connectivity under random or targeted node removals as well as the biconnectivity. We found that correlated multiplexity can affect the resilience of networks in diverse ways. Specifically, for maximally-correlated multiplex networks, all pairs of nodes in the giant component are connected by at least two independent paths and networks structure is highly robust to random failures. In contrast, anti-correlated networks are resilient against attacks on targeted nodes with high degrees but vulnerable to random failures.

  7. Tunable Sparse Network Coding for Multicast Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Soheil; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Sørensen, Chres Wiant;

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the potential and key enabling mechanisms for tunable sparse network coding, a scheme in which the density of network coded packets varies during a transmission session. At the beginning of a transmission session, sparsely coded packets are transmitted, which benefits decoding...... complexity. At the end of a transmission, when receivers have accumulated degrees of freedom, coding density is increased. We propose a family of tunable sparse network codes (TSNCs) for multicast erasure networks with a controllable trade-off between completion time performance to decoding complexity....... Coding density tuning can be performed by designing time-dependent coding matrices. In multicast networks, this tuning can be performed within the network by designing time-dependent pre- coding and network coding matrices with mild conditions on the network structure for specific densities. We present a...

  8. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  9. Heterogeneous Economic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Souma, Wataru; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Aoyama, Hideaki

    2005-01-01

    The Japanese shareholding network at the end of March 2002 is studied. To understand the characteristics of this network intuitively, we visualize it as a directed graph and an adjacency matrix. Especially detailed features of networks concerned with the automobile industry sector are discussed by using the visualized networks. The shareholding network is also considered as an undirected graph, because many quantities characterizing networks are defined for undirected cases. For this undirect...

  10. Wireless Fidelity Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Vítězslav

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with main problems of wireless fidelity networks. In details it’s showing the terminology, used technical standards, network’s architecture and built-in security of wireless fidelity networks. For the question of the network’s security it’s handled regarding to VPN (Virtual Private Network) technology. Based on these theoretical assumptions there is new company’s network designed. This designed network offers combination of free wireless network with internet access and secure...

  11. The Economics of Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory.......The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory....

  12. Stem Cell Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a general computational theory of stem cell networks and their developmental dynamics. Stem cell networks are special cases of developmental control networks. Our theory generates a natural classification of all possible stem cell networks based on their network architecture. Each stem cell network has a unique topology and semantics and developmental dynamics that result in distinct phenotypes. We show that the ideal growth dynamics of multicellular systems generated by stem cell ...

  13. Corporate Business Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Kanepeja, Zane

    2012-01-01

    Conscious networking is emerging as a mindset, similar to knowledge society, who were known for their drive for knowledge. The new network society is driven by a networking mindset. This emerging tendency of network requirement and usage in social environment sets a ”must- agenda” for companies to implement networking in their business strategies as companies in the current market situation do not only have to compete with each other but also with their networks. It is a sink or swim choice....

  14. Packet Tracer network simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jesin, A

    2014-01-01

    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  15. Flexible Memory Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Curto, Carina; Degeratu, Anda; Itskov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Networks of neurons in some brain areas are flexible enough to encode new memories quickly. Using a standard firing rate model of recurrent networks, we develop a theory of flexible memory networks. Our main results characterize networks having the maximal number of flexible memory patterns, given a constraint graph on the network's connectivity matrix. Modulo a mild topological condition, we find a close connection between maximally flexible networks and rank 1 matrices. The topological cond...

  16. Super sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Fjukstad, Bård

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation studies composing a super sensor network from the combination of three functional sensor networks; A Sensor data producing network, a sensor data computing network and a sensor controlling network. The target devices are today labeled as large sensor nodes. The communication are based on an IP network using HTTP as the main protocol. Bonjour is used for service discovery, with some adjustments for technical reasons. This allows for naming and location of available servi...

  17. Spatially embedded random networks

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Lionel; Di Paolo, Ezequiel; Bullock, Seth

    2007-01-01

    Many real-world networks analyzed in modern network theory have a natural spatial element; e.g., the Internet, social networks, neural networks, etc. Yet, aside from a comparatively small number of somewhat specialized and domain-specific studies, the spatial element is mostly ignored and, in particular, its relation to network structure disregarded. In this paper we introduce a model framework to analyze the mediation of network structure by spatial embedding; specifically, we model connecti...

  18. Software Defined Networking for Heterogeneous Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonca, Marc; Astuto, Bruno Nunes; Obraczka, Katia; Turletti, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, motivated by the vision that future internets will comprise infrastructure--based and infrastructure--less networks, we explore the use of the Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm in these so-called ''heterogeneous'' networked environments. To make the case for SDN in heterogeneous networks, we examine an application scenario in which SDN is a key enabling technology. We also identify the additional requirements imposed by the SDN paradigm and discuss the research challen...

  19. Software defined networking for community network testbeds

    OpenAIRE

    Dimogerontakis, Emmanouil; Vilalta, Ivan; Navarro Moldes, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Community Networks have received increasing attention the latest years. In an effort to set the cornerstone for an internet without central authorities and monopolies, network engineers throughout the world have started creating community networks. To enhance this effort, Community-lab, a wireless community networks testbed, was created which allows researchers to experiment with new protocols and applications in a realistic environment. Nevertheless, this testbed does not offer the ...

  20. Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Schwartz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two network types had been existing in Slovakia by the end of the year 2004 – public switched telephone network – PSTN and packet switched data network – DCN. The other network, known as the next generation network – NGN, has been put into operation since the beginning of the year 2005. The role of the next generation network is to merge the both previous network types into one unified complex network with the full centralised control, based on routing and packet switching. The T-Com company (previous Slovak Telecom was the first who did it.

  1. Local Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks have become essential for many users in their daily communication. Through a combination of the online social networks with opportunistic networks, a new concept arises: Local Social Networks. The target of local social networks is to promote social networking benefits...... in physical environment in order to leverage personal affinities in the users' surroundings. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the concept of local social networks as a new social communication system. Particularly, the preliminary architecture and the prototype of local social networks...

  2. Defining Business Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Trequattrini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present scientific contribution is to investigate from the business economics standpoing the emerging phenomenon of company networks. In particular, through the analysis of the theory of networks will be proposed the principal categories of business networks, and even before this the concept of the network will be defined. The proposed research, qualitatively, represents the point of departure for the study of the network phenomenon in light of the current economic phase termed “economy of knowledge”. Moreover, the research questions are the following: From where does the theory of networks arise? Do company networks consider themselves equal to knowledge networks?

  3. Enlightenment on Computer Network Reliability From Transportation Network Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Wenjun; Zhou Xizhao

    2011-01-01

    Referring to transportation network reliability problem, five new computer network reliability definitions are proposed and discussed. They are computer network connectivity reliability, computer network time reliability, computer network capacity reliability, computer network behavior reliability and computer network potential reliability. Finally strategies are suggested to enhance network reliability.

  4. Enlightenment on Computer Network Reliability From Transportation Network Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Wenjun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Referring to transportation network reliability problem, five new computer network reliability definitions are proposed and discussed. They are computer network connectivity reliability, computer network time reliability, computer network capacity reliability, computer network behavior reliability and computer network potential reliability. Finally strategies are suggested to enhance network reliability.

  5. Isomorphisms in Multilayer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kivelä, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    We extend the concept of graph isomorphisms to multilayer networks, and we identify multiple types of isomorphisms. For example, in multilayer networks with a single "aspect" (i.e., type of layering), permuting vertex labels, layer labels, and both of types of layers each yield a different type of isomorphism. We discuss how multilayer network isomorphisms naturally lead to defining isomorphisms in any type of network that can be represented as a multilayer network. This thereby yields isomorphisms for multiplex networks, temporal networks, networks with both such features, and more. We reduce each of the multilayer network isomorphism problems to a graph isomorphism problem, and we use this reduction to prove that the multilayer network isomorphism problem is computationally equally hard as the graph isomorphism problem. One can thus use software that has been developed to solve graph isomorphism problems as a practical means for solving multilayer network isomorphism problems.

  6. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    While most research in Social Network Analysis has focused on single networks, the availability of complex on-line data about individuals and their mutual heterogenous connections has recently determined a renewed interest in multi-layer network analysis. To the best of our knowledge, in this paper...... we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...... networks. Our model, motivated by an empirical analysis of real multi-layered network data, is a conservative extension of single-network models and emphasizes the additional level of complexity that we experience when we move from a single- to a more complete and realistic multi-network context....

  7. Robustness of Interdependent Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, Shlomo

    2011-03-01

    In interdependent networks, when nodes in one network fail, they cause dependent nodes in other networks to also fail. This may happen recursively and can lead to a cascade of failures. In fact, a failure of a very small fraction of nodes in one network may lead to the complete fragmentation of a system of many interdependent networks. We will present a framework for understanding the robustness of interacting networks subject to such cascading failures and provide a basic analytic approach that may be useful in future studies. We present exact analytical solutions for the critical fraction of nodes that upon removal will lead to a failure cascade and to a complete fragmentation of two interdependent networks in a first order transition. Surprisingly, analyzing complex systems as a set of interdependent networks may alter a basic assumption that network theory has relied on: while for a single network a broader degree distribution of the network nodes results in the network being more robust to random failures, for interdependent networks, the broader the distribution is, the more vulnerable the networks become to random failure. We also show that reducing the coupling between the networks leads to a change from a first order percolation phase transition to a second order percolation transition at a critical point. These findings pose a significant challenge to the future design of robust networks that need to consider the unique properties of interdependent networks.

  8. Data center networks and network architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    This paper discusses and proposes the architectural framework, which is for data center networks. The data center networks require new technical challenges, and it would be good opportunity to change the functions, which are not need in current and future networks. Based on the observation and consideration on data center networks, this paper proposes; (i) Broadcast-free layer 2 network (i.e., emulation of broadcast at the end-node), (ii) Full-mesh point-to-point pipes, and (iii) IRIDES (Invitation Routing aDvertisement for path Engineering System).

  9. 肠道病毒71型致神经源性肺水肿机制研究进展%Research Progress in the Pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 Induced Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟涛(综述); 郑伟华; 李雄(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 ( EV71 ) , a-highly-neurotropic, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus, belongs to the Enterovirus genus of Picornaviridae family.In recent decades,EV71 spreads mainly in main-land China,Taiwan,Malaysia and other Asia-pacific regions.EV71 infections mainly cause hand, foot, and mouth disease and herpangina in young children ,though it may also cause brain stem encephalitis ,and circu-lation problems,among which neurogenic pulmonary edema ( NPE) is one of the most serious complications and main causes of death.How EV71 infection causes NPE and its exact pathogenesis is still unclear .Here is make an elaboration focusing on the pathogenesis of EV71 infection combined with NPE from the aspects of abnormal secretion of catecholamine, cytokine abnormalities, immune disorder, respiratory myoparalysis, age, and gene etc.%肠道病毒71型(EV71)是有高度嗜神经性的正链RNA病毒,属于小RNA病毒科肠道病毒属,近几十年来,EV71在中国大陆、中国台湾、马来西亚等亚太地区流行。 EV71主要引起青少年手足口病和疱疹性咽峡炎,也可引起脑干脑炎等严重并发症,其中神经源性肺水肿( NPE)是最严重的并发症及主要死亡原因之一。 EV71感染引起NPE的确切发病机制仍不清楚。该文从儿茶酚胺分泌异常、细胞因子异常、免疫紊乱、呼吸肌麻痹、年龄及基因等方面对 EV71感染并发 NPE 的机制进行阐述。

  10. Medial calcaneal nerve and neurogenic painful heel syndrome: anatomic basis%跟内侧神经与神经源性跟痛症关系的解剖学基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯成安; 孙俊; 刘宗良; 范炜; 张东葵; 叶频

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the medial calcaneal nerve (MCN) and neurogenic painful heel syndrome (NPHS), and provide anatomical evidence for study, diagnosis and therapy. Methods 32 formalin-fixed adult lower limb specimens were used in the study. MCN was dissected for demonstrating the origin, course, branches and the distribution. Results 41.42% of MCN originated from the trunk of tibial nerve, however, 28.57% originated from the bifurcation site of tibial nerve, 18.57% from the medial plantar nerve, and 11.42% from the lateral plantar nerve. The distance from the origin of MCN to the middle point between the lowest margin of the medial malleolus and the medial process of calcaneal tuberosity was about (30.22± 15.34)mm. MCN distributed to medial heel, the skin of footplate, and soft tissue of heel, after passing through flexor retinaculum. Conclusions MCN maybe compressed in the ankle canal, or the calcaneal tunnel, or at the site of passing from the flexor retinaculum, which are probably related to the occurrence of the plantar fasciitis and heel pain.%目的 探讨跟内侧神经的局部解剖特点及其与神经源性跟痛症的关系,为临床诊断治疗提供解剖学依据.方法 32侧防腐成人尸体下肢标本,解剖观察跟内侧神经的起源、分支、走行和分布特点.结果 跟内侧神经41.42%起源于胫神经,28.57%起源于胫神经分叉处,18.57%起源于足底内侧神经,11.42%起源于足底外侧神经.起点距O点(内踝尖最下缘与跟骨结节内侧突连线中点)(30.22±15.34)mm.跟内侧神经穿出屈肌支持带后分布于足跟内侧及跟底的皮肤和跟垫组织.结论 跟内侧神经在踝管内,浅出屈肌支持带处及跟管内可能被卡压;神经卡压或病变可能与足底腱膜炎发生及疼痛有关.

  11. Network Externality: An Uncommon Tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    S. J. Liebowitz; Stephen E. Margolis

    1994-01-01

    Economists have defined 'network externality' and have examined putative inframarginal market failures associated with it. This paper distinguishes between network effects and network externalities, where the latter are market failures. The authors argue that while network effects are important, network externalities are theoretically fragile and empirically undocumented. Some network externalities are merely pecuniary. Network ownership or transactions among network participants can internal...

  12. Networks around entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Entrepreneurs are networking with others to get advice for their businesses. The networking differs between men and women; notably, men are more often networking in the public sphere and women are more often networking in the private sphere. The aim here is to account for how such gender...

  13. Convex Congestion Network Problems

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes convex congestion network problems.It is shown that for network problems with convex congestion costs, an algorithm based on a shortest path algorithm, can be used to find an optimal network for any coalition. Furthermore an easy way of determining if a given network is optimal is provided.

  14. Technologies for Home Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A broad overview of the home networking field, ranging from wireless technologies to practical applications. In the future, it is expected that private networks (e.g. home networks) will become part of the global network ecosystem, participating in sharing their own content, running IP...

  15. Holographic neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Manger, R

    1998-01-01

    Holographic neural networks are a new and promising type of artificial neural networks. This article gives an overview of the holographic neural technology and its possibilities. The theoretical principles of holographic networks are first reviewed. Then, some other papers are presented, where holographic networks have been applied or experimentally evaluated. A case study dealing with currency exchange rate prediction is described in more detail.

  16. About Network Telecom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    NETWORK TELECOM magazine is the network & telecommunications industry's leading publication in China. specializing in the field of optic fiber communications, access network, mobile communications. CATV network,cabling system and data communications;and has established its reputation by a combination of authoritative editorial content, targeting a circulation of high quality covering the entire China region.

  17. About Network telecom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    NETWORK TELECOM magazine, commenced publication in 1999, is the network & telecommunicationsindust0?s leading publication in China. specializing in the field of optic fiber communications, access network,mobile communications, CATV network,cabling system and data communications; and has established itsrepuion by a combination of authoritative editorial content, targeting a ckcuatlon of high o.uality covering theentire China regiom

  18. About Network Telecom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    NETWORK TELECOM magazine is the network & telecommunications industry's leading publication in China, specializing in the field of optic fiber communications, access network, mobile communications, CATV network,cabling system and data communications; and has established its reputation by a combination of authoritative editorial content, targeting a circulation of high quality covering the entire China region.

  19. Engineering technology for networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Arthur S.; Benjamin, Norman

    1991-01-01

    Space Network (SN) modeling and evaluation are presented. The following tasks are included: Network Modeling (developing measures and metrics for SN, modeling of the Network Control Center (NCC), using knowledge acquired from the NCC to model the SNC, and modeling the SN); and Space Network Resource scheduling.

  20. Network simulation experiments manual

    CERN Document Server

    Aboelela, Emad

    2011-01-01

    Network Simulation Experiments Manual, Third Edition, contains simulation-based experiments to help students and professionals learn about key concepts in computer networking. The simulation approach provides a virtual environment for a wide range of desirable features, such as modeling a network based on specified criteria and analyzing its performance under different scenarios. The experiments include the basics of using OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition; operation of the Ethernet network; partitioning of a physical network into separate logical networks using virtual local area networks (V

  1. Networking for big data

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shui; Misic, Jelena; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2015-01-01

    Networking for Big Data supplies an unprecedented look at cutting-edge research on the networking and communication aspects of Big Data. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to Big Data and its networking issues, it offers deep technical coverage of both theory and applications.The book is divided into four sections: introduction to Big Data, networking theory and design for Big Data, networking security for Big Data, and platforms and systems for Big Data applications. Focusing on key networking issues in Big Data, the book explains network design and implementation for Big Data. It exa

  2. A logic for networks

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschet, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Networks are pervasive in the real world. Nature, society, economy, and technology are supported by ostensibly different networks that in fact share an amazing number of interesting structural properties. Network thinking exploded in the last decade, boosted by the availability of large databases on the topology of various real networks, mainly the Web and biological networks, and converged to the new discipline of network analysis - the holistic analysis of complex systems through the study of the network that wires their components. Physicists mainly drove the investigation, studying the structure and function of networks using methods and tools of statistical mechanics. Here, we give an alternative perspective on network analysis, proposing a logic for specifying general properties of networks and a modular algorithm for checking these properties. The logic borrows from two intertwined computing fields: XML databases and model checking.

  3. Control of Multilayer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Menichetti, Giulia; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-01-01

    The controllability of a network is a theoretical problem of relevance in a variety of contexts ranging from financial markets to the brain. Until now, network controllability has been characterized only on isolated networks, while the vast majority of complex systems are formed by multilayer networks. Here we build a theoretical framework for the linear controllability of multilayer networks by mapping the problem into a combinatorial matching problem. We found that correlating the external signals in the different layers can significantly reduce the multiplex network robustness to node removal, as it can be seen in conjunction with a hybrid phase transition occurring in interacting Poisson networks. Moreover we observe that multilayer networks can stabilize the fully controllable multiplex network configuration that can be stable also when the full controllability of the single network is not stable.

  4. Complex networks and computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuigeng ZHOU; Zhongzhi ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nowadays complex networks are pervasive in various areas of science and technology. Popular examples of complex networks include the Internet, social networks of collaboration, citations and co-authoring, as well as biological networks such as gene and protein interactions and others. Complex networks research spans across mathematics, computer science, engineering, biology and the social sciences. Even in computer science area, increasing problems are either found to be related to complex networks or studied from the perspective of complex networks, such as searching on Web and P2P networks, routing in sensor networks, language processing, software engineering etc. The interaction and mergence of complex networks and computing is inspiring new chances and challenges in computer science.

  5. Network effects in railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross....../overtake each other everywhere in the network. First this paper describes network effects in general (section 1). In section 2 the network effects for trains and how they can be measured by scheduled waiting time is described. When the trains are affected by network effects the passengers are also affected....... Therefore, sections 3 and 4 describe the network effects for passengers and how they can be measured using passenger delay models. Before the concluding remarks in section 6, section 5 discusses how the operation can be improved by examining network effects in the planning process. © 2012 WIT Press....

  6. Epidemics on Interconnected Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dickison, M; Stanley, H E

    2012-01-01

    Populations are seldom completely isolated from their environment. Individuals in a particular geographic or social region may be considered a distinct network due to strong local ties, but will also interact with individuals in other networks. We study the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) process on interconnected network systems, and find two distinct regimes. In strongly-coupled network systems, epidemics occur simultaneously across the entire system at a critical infection strength $\\beta_c$, below which the disease does not spread. In contrast, in weakly-coupled network systems, a mixed phase exists below $\\beta_c$ of the coupled network system, where an epidemic occurs in one network but does not spread to the coupled network. We derive an expression for the network and disease parameters that allow this mixed phase and verify it numerically. Public health implications of communities comprising these two classes of network systems are also mentioned.

  7. Hemodynamic parameters and neurogenic pulmonary edema following spinal cord injury: an experimental model Parâmetros hemodinâmicos e edema pulmonar neurogênico após traumatismo raquimedular: modelo experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Baldoino Leal Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a serious and always life-threatening complication following several lesions of the central nervous system. We report an experiment with 58 Wistar-Hanover adult male rats. Two groups were formed: control (n=4 and experimental (n=54. The experimental group sustained acute midthoracic spinal cord injury by Fogarty’s balloon-compression technique containing 20µL of saline for 5, 15, 30 or 60 seconds. The rats were anesthetized by intraperitoneal (i.p. sodium pentobarbital (s.p. 60 mg/Kg. The quantitative neurological outcome was presented at 4, 24 and 48 hours from compression to characterize the injury graduation in different groups. Poor outcome occurred with 60 seconds of compression. Six animals died suddenly with pulmonary edema. Using the procedure to investigate the pulmonary edema during 60 seconds of compression, followed by decompression and time-course of 60 seconds, 20 rats were randomly asigned to one of the following groups: control (1, n=4, anesthetized by i.p. s.p., 60 mg/Kg but without compression and experimental (2, n=7, anesthetized by i.p. xylazine 10 mg/Kg and ketamine 75 mg/Kg and (3, n=9, anesthetized by i.p. s.p., 60 mg/Kg. The pulmonary index (100 x wet lung weight / body weight was 0.395 ± 0.018 in control group, rose to 0.499 ± 0.060 in group 2, and was 0.639 ± 0.14 in group 3. Histologic examination of the spinal cord showed parenchymal ruptures and acute hemorrhage. Comparison of the pulmonary index with morphometric evaluation of edema fluid-filled alveoli by light microscopy showed that relevant intra-alveolar edema occurred only for index values above 0.55. The results suggest that the pulmonary edema induced by spinal compression is of neurogenic nature and that the type of anesthesia used might be important for the genesis of lung edema.Edema pulmonar neurogênico é complicação séria e aumenta o risco de vida em pacientes com várias lesões do sistema nervoso central

  8. Security of computer networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is focused on design and documentation of computer network and its security in the medium-sized company. First part of this thesis describes basics of computer networks, computer infiltrations, types of assault and preventive protection of corporate networks. The practical part of this thesis is devoted to documentation of the old corporate network and the complete design of a new computer network, its security against attacks and the loss corporate data.

  9. On bibliographic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Batagelj, Vladimir; Cerinšek, Monika

    2013-01-01

    In the paper we show that the bibliographic data can be transformed into a collection of compatible networks. Using network multiplication different interesting derived networks can be obtained. In defining them an appropriate normalization should be considered. The proposed approach can be applied also to other collections of compatible networks. We also discuss the question when the multiplication of sparse networks preserves sparseness. The proposed approaches are illustrated with analyses...

  10. Toward a network hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Germann Molz, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    The growing popularity of online hospitality exchange networks like Couchsurfing and Airbnb point toward a new paradigm of sociality for a mobile and networked society as hospitable encounters among friends and strangers become entangled with social media and networking technologies. Inspired by Andreas Wittel’s notion of ‘network sociality’, this paper introduces the concept of ‘network hospitality’ to describe the kind of sociality that emerges around these new mobile, peer–to–peer, and onl...

  11. Generalized Network Externality Function

    OpenAIRE

    A. Paothong; G.S. Ladde

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we focus on the development of mathematical modeling of network externality processes. The introduction of the generalized network externality function provides a unified source of a tool for developing and analyzing the planning, policy and performance of the network externality process and network goods/services in a systematic way. This leads to fulfill all existing network externality assumptions as special cases. We study its properties and applications. This study provides...

  12. Stochastic Weighted Fractal Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, Timoteo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce new models of complex weighted networks sharing several properties with fractal sets: the deterministic non-homogeneous weighted fractal networks and the stochastic weighted fractal networks. Networks of both classes can be completely analytically characterized in terms of the involved parameters. The proposed algorithms improve and extend the framework of weighted fractal networks recently proposed in (T. Carletti & S. Righi, in press Physica A, 2010)

  13. Networks: An Economic Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Matthew O; Zenou, Yves

    2016-01-01

    We discuss social network analysis from the perspective of economics. We organize the presentaion around the theme of externalities: the effects that one's behavior has on others' well-being. Externalities underlie the interdependencies that make networks interesting. We discuss network formation, as well as interactions between peoples' behaviors within a given network, and the implications in a variety of settings. Finally, we highlight some empirical challenges inherent in the statistical analysis of network-based data.

  14. Open social network

    OpenAIRE

    Robas, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we explore the possibilities of open social networks which could be connected with each other. In the first part we describe social networks in general and basic futures of most popular social networks, then we introduce the idea of open social network. We focus on the problem of monopoly position and privacy of social networks. In the middle section we describe research and development of the prototype that we developed using free technology over the idea of open social ...

  15. Network security - Firewalls

    OpenAIRE

    Nepovím, Bohuslav

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the security of computer networks. A theoretical part gradually provides the description of fundamental principles of computer networks, computer network security, possible network attacks and protection against them, social engineering, functions of firewalls and various integration of the firewalls in the network. The practical part consequently describes personal firewall tests by means of the Nessus program, and utilities, so-called the leak tests. Whereas the Ne...

  16. Complex networks theory for analyzing metabolic networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; YU Hong; LUO Jianhua; CAO Z.W.; LI Yixue

    2006-01-01

    One of the main tasks of post-genomic informatics is to systematically investigate all molecules and their interactions within a living cell so as to understand how these molecules and the interactions between them relate to the function of the organism,while networks are appropriate abstract description of all kinds of interactions. In the past few years, great achievement has been made in developing theory of complex networks for revealing the organizing principles that govern the formation and evolution of various complex biological, technological and social networks. This paper reviews the accomplishments in constructing genome-based metabolic networks and describes how the theory of complex networks is applied to analyze metabolic networks.

  17. Minimal Increase Network Coding for Dynamic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoyin; Fan, Xu; Wu, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    Because of the mobility, computing power and changeable topology of dynamic networks, it is difficult for random linear network coding (RLNC) in static networks to satisfy the requirements of dynamic networks. To alleviate this problem, a minimal increase network coding (MINC) algorithm is proposed. By identifying the nonzero elements of an encoding vector, it selects blocks to be encoded on the basis of relationship between the nonzero elements that the controls changes in the degrees of the blocks; then, the encoding time is shortened in a dynamic network. The results of simulations show that, compared with existing encoding algorithms, the MINC algorithm provides reduced computational complexity of encoding and an increased probability of delivery. PMID:26867211

  18. Software Defined Networking and Virtualization for Broadband Satellite Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bertaux, Lionel; Medjiah, Samir; Berthou, Pascal; Abdellatif, Slim; Hakiri, Akram; Gelard, Patrick; Planchou, Fabrice; De Bruyère, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Satellite networks have traditionally been considered for specific purposes. Recently, new satellite technologies have been pushed to the market enabling high-performance satellite access networks. On the other hand, network architectures are taking advantages from emerging technologies such as Software-Defined Networking (SDN), network virtualization and Network Functions Virtualization (NFV). Therefore, benefiting communications services over satellite networks from these new technologies a...

  19. Intonation in Neurogenic Foreign Accent Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschmann, Anja; Lowit, Anja; Miller, Nick; Mennen, Ineke

    2012-01-01

    Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is a motor speech disorder in which changes to segmental as well as suprasegmental aspects lead to the perception of a foreign accent in speech. This paper focuses on one suprasegmental aspect, namely that of intonation. It provides an in-depth analysis of the intonation system of four speakers with FAS with the aim…

  20. Neurogenic and neuroendocrine effects of goldfish pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Rees, Christopher Benjamin; Bryan, Mara Beth; Li, Weiming

    2008-12-31

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) use reproductive hormones as endocrine signals to synchronize sexual behavior with gamete maturation and as exogenous signals (pheromones) to mediate spawning interactions between conspecifics. We examined the differential effects of two hormonal pheromones, prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) and 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P) on neurogenesis, neurotransmission, and neuronal activities, and on plasma androstenedione (AD) levels. Exposure to waterborne PGF(2alpha) induced a multitude of changes in male goldfish brain. Histological examination indicated an increase in the number of dividing cells in male diencephalon (p GnRH) in the male telencephalon and cerebellum (p chicken-II GnRH) in the female cerebellum (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA). PGF(2alpha) and 17,20beta-P thereby seemed to act through distinct pathways to elicit different responses in the neuroendocrine system. This is the first finding that links a specific pheromone molecule (PGF(2alpha)) to neurogenesis in a vertebrate animal. PMID:19118184

  1. Neurogenic Hippocampal Targets of Deep Brain Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Encinas, Juan M.; Hamani, Clement; Lozano, Andres M.; Enikolopov, Grigori

    2011-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is being used to treat movement, neurological, and psychiatric disorders; it has been recently successfully applied to patients with treatment-resistant depression or in minimally conscious state. In addition to its clinical importance, DBS presents a powerful approach to target specific neural circuits and determine the functional relationship between the components of these circuits. We examined the effect of high frequency stimulation of a crucial component of ...

  2. Social Network Analysis Based on Network Motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Hong-lin; Yan Han-bing; Gao Cui-fang; Zhu Ping

    2014-01-01

    Based on the community structure characteristics, theory, and methods of frequent subgraph mining, network motifs findings are firstly introduced into social network analysis; the tendentiousness evaluation function and the importance evaluation function are proposed for effectiveness assessment. Compared with the traditional way based on nodes centrality degree, the new approach can be used to analyze the properties of social network more fully and judge the roles of the nodes effectively. I...

  3. Online social networks and networked academic identity

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Katy

    2014-01-01

    Academic online social networking has received increasing focus in recent years with the development of a number of services aimed specifically at academics. There has, however, been little empirical work on the subject. This study  seeks  to  understand  the  structure  and  role  of  academics’  ego-networks on social networking sites in relation to developing an academic identity and becoming professional in their disciplines. To this end, a mixed-methods social network analysis approach w...

  4. Network Percolation Based on Complex Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Network percolation model is an abstraction of many practical problems, while the spread of the disease model can be described by percolation model. The problem of the spread of the disease has been the focus of academia and the medical. Recently years, the complex network is a true reflection of the some important characteristics of the system, which is the effective means to study realistic network. In this paper, we will introduce the complex networks and network percolation. We will research the disease propagation model while research the network percolation based on complex network. We will summary and analysis the two traditional disease propagation model—SIR and SIS. And it can provide some important reference for controlling the spread of the virus.  In this paper we will analyze the propagation of SIR model when consider the propagation media and the reflection SIS model. At last we will use some experiments to verify the results of those two models. And we can know that the complex network can accurate analyze the network percolation model such as disease propagation model.

  5. Weighted Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Menichetti, Giulia; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of $N$ nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multipa...

  6. Proliferation Networks and Financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to propose practical solutions aimed at completing and strengthening the existing arrangement for the control of nuclear proliferation through a control of financial as well as material or immaterial flows. In a first part, the author proposes a systemic analysis of networks of suppliers and demanders. He notably evokes the Khan's network and the Iraqi acquisition network during the 1993-2001 period. He also proposes a modelling of proliferation networks (supplier networks and acquisition networks) and of their interactions. In a second part, the author examines possible means and policies aimed at neutralising proliferation networks: organisation, adaptation and improvement of intelligence tools in front of proliferation networks, and means, limitations and perspectives of network neutralisation. He also briefly addresses the possibility of military action to contain proliferation flows

  7. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhihao; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geo...

  8. Wayfinding in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liben-Nowell, David

    With the recent explosion of popularity of commercial social-networking sites like Facebook and MySpace, the size of social networks that can be studied scientifically has passed from the scale traditionally studied by sociologists and anthropologists to the scale of networks more typically studied by computer scientists. In this chapter, I will highlight a recent line of computational research into the modeling and analysis of the small-world phenomenon - the observation that typical pairs of people in a social network are connected by very short chains of intermediate friends - and the ability of members of a large social network to collectively find efficient routes to reach individuals in the network. I will survey several recent mathematical models of social networks that account for these phenomena, with an emphasis on both the provable properties of these social-network models and the empirical validation of the models against real large-scale social-network data.

  9. Intelligent networked teleoperation control

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhijun; Su, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a unified framework for networked teleoperation systems involving multiple research fields: networked control systems for linear and nonlinear forms, bilateral teleoperation, trilateral teleoperation, multilateral teleoperation and cooperative teleoperation. It closely examines networked control as a field at the intersection of systems & control and robotics and presents a number of experimental case studies on testbeds for robotic systems, including networked haptic devices, robotic network systems and sensor network systems. The concepts and results outlined are easy to understand, even for readers fairly new to the subject. As such, the book offers a valuable reference work for researchers and engineers in the fields of systems & control and robotics.

  10. Networks design and management

    CERN Document Server

    Karris, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Networks are growing in size and complexity and this trend has created a rapid increase for networking engineers to provide practical and efficient solutions. Networking needs vary from one network to another; there is no such thing as ""one size fits all."" Also, a properly designed network must allow for expansion. The management of a small company may feel that this advanced technology is of no use to them since their monetary budget is limited. However, with proper planning, small companies can start with an affordable and versatile network and later expand on the next level of affordabili

  11. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  12. Robustness of networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, H.

    2009-01-01

    Our society depends more strongly than ever on large networks such as transportation networks, the Internet and power grids. Engineers are confronted with fundamental questions such as “how to evaluate the robustness of networks for a given service?”, “how to design a robust network?”, because networks always affect the functioning of a service. Robustness is an important issue for many complex networks, on which various dynamic processes or services take place. In this work, we define robust...

  13. Social network data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2011-01-01

    Social network analysis applications have experienced tremendous advances within the last few years due in part to increasing trends towards users interacting with each other on the internet. Social networks are organized as graphs, and the data on social networks takes on the form of massive streams, which are mined for a variety of purposes. Social Network Data Analytics covers an important niche in the social network analytics field. This edited volume, contributed by prominent researchers in this field, presents a wide selection of topics on social network data mining such as Structural Pr

  14. Defining Business Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Trequattrini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present scientific contribution is to investigate from the businesseconomics standpoing the emerging phenomenon of company networks. In particular,through the analysis of the theory of networks will be proposed the principal categories ofbusiness networks, and even before this the concept of the network will be defined. Theproposed research, qualitatively, represents the point of departure for the study of thenetwork phenomenon in light of the current economic phase termed “economy of knowledge”.Moreover, the research questions are the following: From where does the theory of networksarise? Do company networks consider themselves equal to knowledge networks?

  15. Strategic Network Disruption and Defense

    OpenAIRE

    K.J.M. De Jaegher; Hoyer, B

    2010-01-01

    Networks are one of the essential building blocks of society. Not only do firms cooperate in R&D networks, but firms themselves may be seen as networks of information-exchanging workers. Social movements increasingly make use of networks to exchange information, just as on the negative side criminal and terrorist networks use them. However, the literature on networks has mainly focused on the cooperative side of networks and has so far neglected the competition side of networks. Networks them...

  16. 肌电生物反馈治疗慢性神经源性吞咽障碍的临床观察%Electromyographic biofeedback therapy for treating chronic neurogenic dysphagia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭钢花; 宋垒垒; 李哲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of electromyographic biofeedback therapy (EMG-BFT) on patients with dysphagia more than one month after stroke or traumatic brain injury.Methods Sixty-four patients with dysphagia were randomly divided into treatment group and control group.Both groups were given dysphagia training,while those in the treatment group were given EMGBFT and dysphagia training.VFSS and sEMG was conducted before and after treatment to assess swallowing function.Results Both groups demonstrated statistically and clinically significant improvements in swallowing function.The effective rate was 84.85% in treatment group and 55.56% in control group,with statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05).The improvement of swallowing function in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group (P < 0.05).Conclusions EMGBFT combined with swallowing behavior therapy can obviously improve swallowing function in patients with neurogenic dysphagia,and it is a effective therapy.%目的 观察肌电生物反馈对病程超过1个月的脑卒中或脑外伤患者吞咽障碍的影响.方法 选择64例慢性神经源性吞咽障碍患者,随机分为观察组和对照组,两组均给予吞咽训练,观察组在吞咽训练的基础上给予肌电生物反馈治疗,两组于治疗前及治疗4周后进行电视透视吞咽检查(VFSS)和表面肌电图检查.结果 两组患者治疗后吞咽功能均较治疗前改善,观察组的治疗有效率为84.85%,对照组为55.56%,两组患者在治疗前、后疗效比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组吞咽功能改善较显著,优于对照组,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在吞咽训练的基础上使用肌电生物反馈辅助性治疗慢性神经源性吞咽障碍患者,能明显提高患者的吞咽功能,是一种有效的治疗方法.

  17. Ultrasonographic Diagnostic Neurogenic Tumors in the Neuroma of the Neck%超声检查对诊断颈部神经源肿瘤很有价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛丽娟; 郝玉芝; 周纯武; 戴景蕊; 谢敏

    2001-01-01

    ObjectiveTo further improve the sonographic diagnostic accuracy, we summarize the value of ultrasound for the neuroma of the neck. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on 48 cases with the neuroma of the neck. The results of preoperative ultrasonographic examination were compared with that of preoperative cytology and postoperative pathology. ResultsOf 48 neurogenic tumors in the neck, 47 were benign, its shape round or ellipse, its border clear, and inner echo uniform, the rate of cyst was 61.7%(29/47),the morphology of the cyst is the unique. The another one was malignant, the volume was bigger than that of the benigns, its border not clear, inner echo not uniform. Most of the tumors have the rich blood supply in colour Doppler sonography, 39 cases belong to II~III grade, and the blood supply is the unique. ConclusionThe diagnostic accurate rate is 85% for neuroma of the neck by ultrasound, preoperative sonographic examination is considered to be very significance in the diagnosis of the neuroma in the neck.%目的探讨并总结超声检查对颈部神经源肿瘤的价值,进一步提高诊断准确性。方法对48例患者行术前超声检查,并与穿刺细胞学及术后病理结果进行对照分析。结果47例良性颈部神经源肿瘤均为圆形或椭圆形肿物,边界清楚,内部回声均匀,其中多伴囊变61.7%(29/47),其囊变形态也有一定特点;另1例神经源肿瘤恶变,表现为肿物较大,边界不清,内部回声不均匀。彩超显示大部分病变血流较丰富,属II~III级,共计39例,检测部分病灶内血流情况发现有一定的特点。结论总结分析超声图像特点,注重颈部神经源肿瘤的诊断及鉴别诊断,其诊断正确率可达85%,术前超声检查对诊断颈部神经源肿瘤很有价值。

  18. Substance P in Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats%大鼠脊髓损伤后P物质与神经源性肠道功能障碍的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙志华; 高飞; 张锋良; 岳军忠; 王磊; 王烨; 刘文国; 徐青

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨脊髓损伤后结肠中P物质与神经源性肠道功能障碍的关系。方法60只体质量(220±40) g的雄性Sprague-Dawley大鼠随机分为假手术组(n=20)、正常对照组(n=20)和模型组(n=20)。氯胺酮60 mg/kg腹腔注射麻醉大鼠,利用NYU脊髓打击器,以75 g⋅cm致伤力制作T10脊髓损伤模型,分别于造模后24 h、1周、3周和5周时切除大鼠结肠组织制作标本,检测肠道传输功能,采用ELISA方法测定血清中和组织中的P物质含量,实时荧光定量PCR和Western blotting法检测P物质mRNA和蛋白表达。结果模型组大鼠脊髓损伤后出现肠道传输功能下降,且于造模后3周时肠道传输达到最低值;造模后3周时模型组血清和组织中P物质含量与假手术组相比均降低,结肠组织中P物质的mRNA及蛋白表达水平也下调,与假手术组、正常对照组相比具有显著性差异,假手术组P物质的表达是模型组的(3.12±0.51)倍(P<0.05)。结论大鼠脊髓损伤后神经源性肠道功能障碍与结肠中P物质的表达降低有关。%Objective To investigate the relationship between neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) and substance P in rats suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighted (220±40) g, were randomly divided into three groups:sham group (n=20), normal group (n=20) and model group (n=20) and then were subdivided into subgroups of 24 h, 1 week, 3 weeks, and 5 weeks respectively after SCI. SCI model was established at thoracic 10 segment of rat with NYU impactor device. The colon tissue of the rats was resected and stored. Substance P in serum and tissue was measured by ELISA. The tissue was examined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting to analyze the expression of substance P. Results The colon intestinal transmission function decreased and delineated at minimum value at 3 weeks in the model group. There was statistical significance with respect to the

  19. Network biomarkers, interaction networks and dynamical network biomarkers in respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaodan; Chen, Luonan; Wang, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Identification and validation of interaction networks and network biomarkers have become more critical and important in the development of disease-specific biomarkers, which are functionally changed during disease development, progression or treatment. The present review headlined the definition, significance, research and potential application for network biomarkers, interaction networks and dynamical network biomarkers (DNB). Disease-specific interaction networks, network biomarkers, or DNB...

  20. Epidemic Network Failures in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Katsikas, Dimitrios; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a failure propagation model for transport networks which are affected by epidemic failures. The network is controlled using the GMPLS protocol suite. The Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model is investigated and new signaling functionality of GMPLS to support...

  1. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    To analyze social network data using standard statistical approaches is to risk incorrect inference. The dependencies among observations implied in a network conceptualization undermine standard assumptions of the usual general linear models. One of the most quickly expanding areas of social and...... policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs), and...... stochastic actor-oriented models. We focus most attention on ERGMs by providing an illustrative example of a model for a strategic information network within a local government. We draw inferences about the structural role played by individuals recognized as key innovators and conclude that such an approach...

  2. Networks and Networking - A Statistical Physics Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, Chi Ho

    2013-01-01

    Efficient networking in communication systems, both wired and wireless, has a substantial economic and societal impact. While communication networks become increasingly more complex, the ever increasing demand for higher transmission volume, quality of service, robustness and reduced energy consumption require new tools and methods to meet these conflicting pressures. The new methodology should serve for gaining better understanding of the properties of these networks at the macroscopic level, as well as for the development of new principled optimization and management algorithms at the microscopic level. Methods of statistical physics seem the best place to start the search for new approaches as they have been developed specifically to deal with non-linear large scale systems. This review aims at presenting an overview of tools that have been developed within the statistical physics community and that can be readily applied to address the emerging problems in networking. As network properties are at the hear...

  3. Congenital Heart Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  4. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... future bladder cancer research through the Patient Survey Network. Read More... Don’t Miss the 2016 BCAN ... Click here for more details Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network 4915 St. Elmo Avenue, Suite 202 Bethesda, Maryland ...

  5. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  6. Learning to Generate Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Atwood, James

    2014-01-01

    The recent explosion in social network data has stimulated interest in probabilistic models of networks. Such models are appealing because they are empirically grounded; in contrast to more traditional network models, their parameters are estimated from data, and the models are evaluated on how well they represent the data. The exponential random graph model (ERGM, or, alternatively $p^*$) is currently the dominant framework for probabilistic network modeling. Despite their popularity, ERGMs suffer from a very serious flaw: near degeneracy. Briefly, an ERGM fit to a network or set of networks often ends up generating networks that look nothing at all like the training data. It is deeply troubling that the most likely model will generate instances that look nothing like data, and this calls the validity of models into question. In this work, we seek to address the general problem of learning to generate networks that do look like data. This is a large, challenging problem. To gain an understanding, we decompos...

  7. Heterogeneous network architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2006-01-01

    Future networks will be heterogeneous! Due to the sheer size of networks (e.g., the Internet) upgrades cannot be instantaneous and thus heterogeneity appears. This means that instead of trying to find the olution, networks hould be designed as being heterogeneous. One of the key equirements here...... is flexibility. This thesis investigates such heterogeneous network architectures and how to make them flexible. A survey of algorithms for network design is presented, and it is described how using heuristics can increase the speed. A hierarchical, MPLS based network architecture is described...... and it is discussed that it is advantageous to heterogeneous networks and illustrated by a number of examples. Modeling and simulation is a well-known way of doing performance evaluation. An approach to event-driven simulation of communication networks is presented and mixed complexity modeling, which can simplify...

  8. Determinants of Network Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ysa, Tamyko; Sierra, Vicenta; Esteve, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The literature on network management is extensive. However, it generally explores network structures, neglecting the impact of management strategies. In this article we assess the effect of management strategies on network outcomes, providing empirical evidence from 119 urban revitalization...... networks. We go beyond current work by testing a path model for the determinants of network outcomes and considering the interactions between the constructs: management strategies, trust, complexity, and facilitative leadership. Our results suggest that management strategies have a strong effect on network...... outcomes and that they enhance the level of trust. We also found that facilitative leadership has a positive impact on network management as well as on trust in the network. Our findings also show that complexity has a negative impact on trust. A key finding of our research is that managers may wield more...

  9. Intelligent metro network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongsheng; Kan, Yulun; Wang, Licun

    2001-10-01

    Metro networks have evolved dynamically since its position in the network infrastructure. To gain competitive advantage in this attractive market, carriers should emphasize not only just the power of their networks in terms of the speed, number of channels, distance covered, but also the network's versatility in supporting variety of access interfaces, flexibility in bandwidth provisioning, ability of differentiated service offering, and capability of network management. Based on an overview of four emerging metro network technologies, an intelligent metro network control platform is introduced. The intelligent control platform is necessary for carriers to meet the new metro requirements. Intelligent control and management functions of the platform are proposed respectively. Intelligent metro network will bridge the metro gap and open up a whole new set of services and applications.

  10. Concurrency and network disassortativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between a network's degree-degree correlation and a loose version of graph coloring is studied on networks with broad degree distributions. We find that, given similar conditions on the number of nodes, number of links, and clustering levels, fewer colors are needed to color disassortative than assortative networks. Since fewer colors create fewer independent sets, our finding implies that disassortative networks may have higher concurrency potential than assortative networks. This in turn suggests another reason for the disassortative mixing pattern observed in biological networks such as those of protein-protein interaction and gene regulation. In addition to the functional specificity and stability suggested by Maslov and Sneppen, a disassortative network topology may also enhance the ability of cells to perform crucial tasks concurrently. Hence, increased concurrency may also be a driving force in the evolution of biological networks. PMID:20586579

  11. Directed network modules

    CERN Document Server

    Pálla, G; Farkas, I J; Pollner, P; Vicsek, T; Derenyi, Imre; Farkas, Illes J.; Palla, Gergely; Pollner, Peter; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    A search technique locating network modules, i.e., internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the Clique Percolation Method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own webpages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and among Google's webpages the overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and t...

  12. Virtualized Network Control (VNC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Thomas [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Guok, Chin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghani, Nasir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-01-31

    The focus of this project was on the development of a "Network Service Plane" as an abstraction model for the control and provisioning of multi-layer networks. The primary motivation for this work were the requirements of next generation networked applications which will need to access advanced networking as a first class resource at the same level as compute and storage resources. A new class of "Intelligent Network Services" were defined in order to facilitate the integration of advanced network services into application specific workflows. This new class of network services are intended to enable real-time interaction between the application co-scheduling algorithms and the network for the purposes of workflow planning, real-time resource availability identification, scheduling, and provisioning actions.

  13. Flexible memory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Carina; Degeratu, Anda; Itskov, Vladimir

    2012-03-01

    Networks of neurons in some brain areas are flexible enough to encode new memories quickly. Using a standard firing rate model of recurrent networks, we develop a theory of flexible memory networks. Our main results characterize networks having the maximal number of flexible memory patterns, given a constraint graph on the network's connectivity matrix. Modulo a mild topological condition, we find a close connection between maximally flexible networks and rank 1 matrices. The topological condition is H (1)(X;ℤ)=0, where X is the clique complex associated to the network's constraint graph; this condition is generically satisfied for large random networks that are not overly sparse. In order to prove our main results, we develop some matrix-theoretic tools and present them in a self-contained section independent of the neuroscience context. PMID:21826564

  14. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached...

  15. Time and Citation Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Clough, James R

    2015-01-01

    Citation networks emerge from a number of different social systems, such as academia (from published papers), business (through patents) and law (through legal judgements). A citation represents a transfer of information, and so studying the structure of the citation network will help us understand how knowledge is passed on. What distinguishes citation networks from other networks is time; documents can only cite older documents. We propose that existing network measures do not take account of the strong constraint imposed by time. We will illustrate our approach with two types of causally aware analysis. We apply our methods to the citation networks formed by academic papers on the arXiv, to US patents and to US Supreme Court judgements. We show that our tools can reveal that citation networks which appear to have very similar structure by standard network measures turn out to have significantly different properties. We interpret our results as indicating that many papers in a bibliography were not directly...

  16. Wireshark network security

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    If you are network administrator or a security analyst with an interest in using Wireshark for security analysis, then this is the book for you. Basic familiarity with common network and application services terms and technologies is assumed.

  17. Energy Sciences Network (ESnet)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energy Sciences Network is the Department of Energy’s high-speed network that provides the high-bandwidth, reliable connections that link scientists at national...

  18. National Lymphedema Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and article archives // Knowledge and support National Lymphedema Network News Stay up to date with NLN activities and goings-on. Follow the National Lymphedema Network newsfeed below. Also, see the following links for ...

  19. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Lorenzo, Ruben M.;

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project.......Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project....

  20. Networked learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This chapter introduces the idea of networked learning environments and argues that these environments provide the totality of surrounding conditions for learning in digital networks. It provides illustrative vignettes of the ways that students appropriate networked environments for learning. The chapter then examines the notion of networked learning environments in relation to the idea of infrastructure and infrastructures for learning and sets out some issues arising from this perspective. ...

  1. Local network assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, D. V.

    1985-04-01

    Local networks, related standards activities of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers the American National Standards Institute and other elements are presented. These elements include: (1) technology choices such as topology, transmission media, and access protocols; (2) descriptions of standards for the 802 local area networks (LAN's); high speed local networks (HSLN's) and military specification local networks; and (3) intra- and internetworking using bridges and gateways with protocols Interconnection (OSI) reference model. The convergence of LAN/PBX technology is also described.

  2. Social Networking and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Curran; Michael Mc Hugh

    2013-01-01

    The rise of social networking has revolutionised how people communicate on a daily basis. In a world where more people are connecting to the internet, social networking services create an immediate communication link between users. Social networking sites provide multiple services which include emailing, instant messaging, uploading files, gaming and finding friends. Just as social networking has become a more popular method of communication in recent years, the ways in which people look afte...

  3. Information Horizons in Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Trusina, A.; Rosvall, M.; K. Sneppen

    2004-01-01

    We investigate and quantify the interplay between topology and ability to send specific signals in complex networks. We find that in a majority of investigated real-world networks the ability to communicate is favored by the network topology on small distances, but disfavored at larger distances. We further discuss how the ability to locate specific nodes can be improved if information associated to the overall traffic in the network is available.

  4. Survivable Virtual Network Embedding

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Muntasir Raihan; Aib, Issam; Boutaba, Raouf

    2010-01-01

    International audience Network virtualization can offer more flexibility and better manageability for the future Internet by allowing multiple heterogeneous virtual networks (VN) to coexist on a shared infrastructure provider (InP) network. A major challenge in this respect is the VN embedding problem that deals with the efficient mapping of virtual resources on InP network resources. Previous research focused on heuristic algorithms for the VN embedding problem assuming that the InP netwo...

  5. Securing personal network clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Jehangir, Assed; Heemstra de Groot, Sonia M.

    2007-01-01

    A Personal Network is a self-organizing, secure and private network of a user’s devices notwithstanding their geographic location. It aims to utilize pervasive computing to provide users with new and improved services. In this paper we propose a model for securing Personal Network clusters. Clusters are ad-hoc networks of co-located personal devices. The ad-hoc makeup of clusters, coupled with the resource constrained nature of many constituent devices, makes enforcing security a challenging ...

  6. Evolution of neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Uršič, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work is construction of an artificial life model and simulation of organisms in an environment with food. Organisms survive if they find food successfuly. With evolution and learning organisms develop a neural network which enables that. First neural networks and their history are introduced with the basic concepts like a neuron model, a network, transfer functions, topologies and learning. I describe the backpropagation learning on multilayer feed forward network and dem...

  7. WLAN visual sensor networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Wang, Wenjian; Jannson, Tomasz P.

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a discussion on constructing a wireless ad hoc network using unattended ground visual sensors. The IEEE 802.11 WLAN standard is used to implement a single-hop ad hoc network because of its simplicity. The bandwidth allocation and traffic control between visual sensors is coordinated by the Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol. A ground visual sensor tower is designed for the networking purpose with specially designed video compression, power management, and network module to achieve maximum thoroughput

  8. Understanding telecommunications networks

    CERN Document Server

    Valdar, Andy

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to all aspects of modern telecommunications networks, covering the principles of operation of the technology and the way that networks using this technology are structured. The main focus is on those technologies in use today in the majority of the public telecommunications networks. Discussion of new technology, in particular the move to the so-called next generation networks (NGN) is also included.

  9. Optimization of Computer Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Saoud Sarwar; Deepa Mahra

    2011-01-01

    Computer Networks have pervaded our life like anything. They are present in all aspects of our life.Information transmission like Internet usage uses computer networks. As more and more people use computer networks, traffic increases. This puts a heavy toll on the infrastructure delivering the data from one point to another. Consequently the design issues in a network need to use the optimized parameters to deliver quality of service. This paper attempts to find a mathematical model for optim...

  10. Multimedia communications and networking

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Mario Marques

    2012-01-01

    The result of decades of research and international project experience, Multimedia Communications and Networking provides authoritative insight into recent developments in multimedia, digital communications, and networking services and technologies. Supplying you with the required foundation in these areas, it illustrates the means that will allow for improved digital communications and networks. The book starts with a review of the fundamental concepts, requirements, and constraints in networks and telecommunications. It describes channel disturbances that can hinder system performance--inclu

  11. A Network Synthesis Model for Generating Protein Interaction Network Families

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Mohammad Ebrahim Sahraeian; Byung-Jun Yoon

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a novel network synthesis model that can generate families of evolutionarily related synthetic protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Given an ancestral network, the proposed model generates the network family according to a hypothetical phylogenetic tree, where the descendant networks are obtained through duplication and divergence of their ancestors, followed by network growth using network evolution models. We demonstrate that this network synthesis model ca...

  12. On Random Linear Network Coding for Butterfly Network

    OpenAIRE

    Guang, Xuan; Fu, Fang-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Random linear network coding is a feasible encoding tool for network coding, specially for the non-coherent network, and its performance is important in theory and application. In this letter, we study the performance of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network by analyzing the failure probabilities. We determine the failure probabilities of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network and the butterfly network with channel failure probability p.

  13. Underwater Acoustic Networking Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Otnes, Roald; Casari, Paolo; Goetz, Michael; Husøy, Thor; Nissen, Ivor; Rimstad, Knut; van Walree, Paul; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This literature study presents an overview of underwater acoustic networking. It provides a background and describes the state of the art of all networking facets that are relevant for underwater applications. This report serves both as an introduction to the subject and as a summary of existing protocols, providing support and inspiration for the development of network architectures.

  14. Networks and Industry Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, F P

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores how the network approach to marketing might be informed by concepts drawn from traditional industry structure analysis. It argues that industry structures defined by small numbers of participants such as oligopolies are more likely to lead to network effects while industry structures that approach perfect competition are unlikely to involve network formation.

  15. Random Boolean Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Drossel, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This review explains in a self-contained way the properties of random Boolean networks and their attractors, with a special focus on critical networks. Using small example networks, analytical calculations, phenomenological arguments, and problems to solve, the basic concepts are introduced and important results concerning phase diagrams, numbers of relevant nodes and attractor properties are derived.

  16. Neural Network Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Salamon, Peter

    1990-01-01

    We propose several means for improving the performance an training of neural networks for classification. We use crossvalidation as a tool for optimizing network parameters and architecture. We show further that the remaining generalization error can be reduced by invoking ensembles of similar...... networks....

  17. Network Descriptions and NEC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, H.E.; Ham, J.J. van der; Daal, M. van; Laat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    The network is one of the most important components of NEC. In order to achieve high levels of agility and flexibility it is important that all users and providers have a good overview of the capabilities and possibilities of the network. Historically network applications have used their own discove

  18. Networks and Economic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Matthew O.

    2009-01-01

    Recent analyses of social networks, both empirical and theoretical, are discussed, with a focus on how social networks influence economic behavior, as well as how social networks form. Some challenges of such research are discussed as are some of the important considerations for the future.

  19. Managing Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awate, Snehal Suyash; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Mudambi, Ram

    the costs and benefits of being centrally located on multiplex network versus having an equal distribution of ties between the different network layers. Using patent data on the global wind power industry, we find evidence suggesting that being centrally positioned on a multiplex network with an equal...

  20. New Networks for Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eekelen, R. van [Kiwa Gas Technology B. V., Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    The study of 'New Networks for Biogas' main goal is to reduce the uncertainties associated with the design choices for biogas network configurations. Supplementary to the objective an overview of the state-of-the-art on the design, operations and maintenance of biogas networks in Europe is given.

  1. Electronic Networking. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Susan

    This digest discusses several aspects of electronic networking, including network functions, implementation, and applications in education. Electronic networking is defined as including the four basic services of electronic mail (E-mail), electronic "bulletin boards," teleconferencing, and online databases, and an overview of these four functions…

  2. Metallic nanowire networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A.

    2012-11-06

    A metallic nanowire network synthesized using chemical reduction of a metal ion source by a reducing agent in the presence of a soft template comprising a tubular inverse micellar network. The network of interconnected polycrystalline nanowires has a very high surface-area/volume ratio, which makes it highly suitable for use in catalytic applications.

  3. Spanish Museum Libraries Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Prado, Rosario

    This paper describes the creation of an automated network of museum libraries in Spain. The only way in which the specialized libraries in the world today can continue to be active and to offer valid information is to automate the service they offer, and create network libraries with cooperative plans. The network can be configured with different…

  4. Networking and Security Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Vaibhav Gupta; Sumit Goswami; Ashok Kumar; Mohinder Singh

    2004-01-01

    By writing this paper a small effort has been put to understand the growing network needs and its security. Various types of network threats and security services are discussed. This will help in designing a secure and robust network infrastructure by discussing management security policies and risk analysis.

  5. Emergent Network Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Earl Newell

    2013-01-01

    The research problem that inspired this effort is the challenge of managing the security of systems in large-scale heterogeneous networked environments. Human intervention is slow and limited: humans operate at much slower speeds than networked computer communications and there are few humans associated with each network. Enabling each node in the…

  6. Biometrics for home networks security

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-01-01

    Hacking crimes committed to the home networks are increasing. Advanced network protection is not always possible for the home networks. In this paper we will study the ability of using biometric systems for authentication in home networks. ©2009 IEEE.

  7. Giant prostatic calculus with neurogenic bladder disease and prostate diverticulus:A case report and review of the literature%伴有神经源性膀胱和前列腺憩室的前列腺巨大结石1例报告并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓石; 权昌益; 李刚; 蔡启亮; 胡斌; 王久威; 牛远杰

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨和总结伴有神经源性膀胱和前列腺憩室的前列腺巨大结石的病因、临床表现、诊断与治疗. 方法:结合相关文献复习并回顾性分析1例伴有神经源性膀胱和前列腺憩室的前列腺巨大结石患者的临床资料.患者男,37岁,尿失禁22年,间断排尿困难伴尿频9年,加重3个月.既往有脊柱裂及耻骨上膀胱切开取石术病史.术前尿常规:WBC 17 ~ 20/HPF,RBC 12 ~ 15/HPF.腹部平片(KUB)+静脉尿路造影(IVU)及盆腔CT:隐性脊柱裂,神经源性膀胱,前列腺巨大结石. 结果:患者行经尿道前列腺电切(TURP)+钬激光碎石术,结石成分为碳酸磷灰石.术后2周复查影像尿动力学:最大尿流率及残余尿量均明显好转.术后至今随访17个月,尿失禁较术前明显减轻,尿线粗. 结论:前列腺憩室合并前列腺巨大结石非常罕见,而神经源性膀胱可能为其发病的一个因素.膀胱镜检查是准确的检查方法.对于年轻和需要保留性功能者可采取TURP联合钬激光碎石术,术中结合直肠指检尽量彻底清除结石,术后密切随访.%Objective: To study the etiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of giant prostatic calculus with neurogenic bladder disease and prostate diverticulus. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of a case of giant prostatic calculus with neurogenic bladder disease and prostate diverticulus and reviewed the relevant literature. The patient was a 37-year-old man, with urinary incontinence for 22 years and intermittent dysuria with frequent micturition for 9 years, aggravated in the past 3 months. He had received surgery for spina bifida and giant vesico-prostatic calculus. The results of preoperative routine urinary examination were as follows: WBC 17 - 20 / HPF, RBC 12 - 15 / HPF. KUB, IVU and pelvic CT revealed spina bifida occulta, neurogenic bladder and giant prostatic calculus. Results: The patient underwent TURP and transurethral

  8. Is the immune network a complex network?

    CERN Document Server

    Souza-e-Silva, Hallan

    2012-01-01

    Some years ago a cellular automata model was proposed to describe the evolution of the immune repertoire of B cells and antibodies based on Jerne's immune network theory and shape-space formalism. Here we investigate if the networks generated by this model in the different regimes can be classified as complex networks. We have found that in the chaotic regime the network has random characteristics with large, constant values of clustering coefficients, while in the ordered phase, the degree distribution of the network is exponential and the clustering coefficient exhibits power law behavior. In the transition region we observed a mixed behavior (random-like and exponential) of the degree distribution as opposed to the scale-free behavior reported for other biological networks. Randomness and low connectivity in the active sites allow for rapid changes in the connectivity distribution of the immune network in order to include and/or discard information and generate a dynamic memory. However it is the availabil...

  9. Flow networks analysis and optimization of repairable flow networks, networks with disturbed flows, static flow networks and reliability networks

    CERN Document Server

    Todinov, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Repairable flow networks are a new area of research, which analyzes the repair and flow disruption caused by failures of components in static flow networks. This book addresses a gap in current network research by developing the theory, algorithms and applications related to repairable flow networks and networks with disturbed flows. The theoretical results presented in the book lay the foundations of a new generation of ultra-fast algorithms for optimizing the flow in networks after failures or congestion, and the high computational speed creates the powerful possibility of optimal control

  10. Complexity of Public Transport Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Huapu; SHI Ye

    2007-01-01

    The theory of complex networks was used to classify public transport networks into public transportation route networks, public transportation transfer networks, and bus station networks. The practical significance of the network parameters was then analyzed. The public transport networks in Langfang, Jining, and Dalian were then chosen as specific research cases. The results show that the public transportation networks have the characteristics of complex networks. In addition, the urban transportation network parameters all significantly affect the accessibility, convenience, and terrorist security capability of the urban public transportation network. The results link the findings with the actual situations to explore means to solve transportation system problems.

  11. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  12. Logistical networking: a global storage network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absence of an adequate distributed storage infrastructure for data buffering has become a significant impediment to the flow of work in the wide area, data intensive collaborations that are increasingly characteristic of leading edge research in several fields. One solution to this problem, pioneered under DOE's SciDAC program, is Logistical Networking, which provides a framework for a globally scalable, maximally interoperable storage network based on the Internet Backplane Protocol (IBP). This paper provides a brief overview of the Logistical Networking (LN) architecture, the middleware developed to exploit its value, and a few of the applications that some of research communities have made of it

  13. Computer-communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meditch, James S

    1983-01-01

    Computer- Communication Networks presents a collection of articles the focus of which is on the field of modeling, analysis, design, and performance optimization. It discusses the problem of modeling the performance of local area networks under file transfer. It addresses the design of multi-hop, mobile-user radio networks. Some of the topics covered in the book are the distributed packet switching queuing network design, some investigations on communication switching techniques in computer networks and the minimum hop flow assignment and routing subject to an average message delay constraint

  14. Network Characterization Service (NCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Guojun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, George [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Crowley, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-06-06

    Distributed applications require information to effectively utilize the network. Some of the information they require is the current and maximum bandwidth, current and minimum latency, bottlenecks, burst frequency, and congestion extent. This type of information allows applications to determine parameters like optimal TCP buffer size. In this paper, we present a cooperative information-gathering tool called the network characterization service (NCS). NCS runs in user space and is used to acquire network information. Its protocol is designed for scalable and distributed deployment, similar to DNS. Its algorithms provide efficient, speedy and accurate detection of bottlenecks, especially dynamic bottlenecks. On current and future networks, dynamic bottlenecks do and will affect network performance dramatically.

  15. Introduction to communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Anttalainen, Tarmo

    2014-01-01

    This new book is an introduction to modern communications networks that now rely far less on telephone services and more on cellular and IP networks. The resource is designed to provide answers to the fundamental questions concerning telecommunications networks and services. This includes the structure and main components of a modern telecommunications network; the importance of standardization; and how cellular mobile networks operate; among many others. In addition, you are provided with problems and review questions to work though and help you master the material.

  16. Next Generation Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to discussing the future of electronic communication, social networking is the buzzword. The Internet has become a platform where new social networks emerge and the Internet it itself support the more traditional computer supported communication. The way users build and verifies...... different online networks for communities of people who share interests or individuals who presents themselves through user produced content is what makes up the social networking of today. The purpose of this paper is to discuss perceived user requirements to the next generation social networks. The paper...

  17. Cisco Networking Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2011-01-01

    An engaging approach for anyone beginning a career in networking As the world leader of networking products and services, Cisco products are constantly growing in demand. Yet, few books are aimed at those who are beginning a career in IT--until now. Cisco Networking Essentials provides a solid foundation on the Cisco networking products and services with thorough coverage of fundamental networking concepts. Author Troy McMillan applies his years of classroom instruction to effectively present high-level topics in easy-to-understand terms for beginners. With this indispensable full-color resour

  18. Networks in Cognitive Science

    CERN Document Server

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Chater, Nick; Christiansen, Morten H

    2013-01-01

    Networks of interconnected nodes have long played a key role in cognitive science, from artificial neural networks to spreading activation models of semantic memory. Recently, however, a new Network Science has been developed, providing insights into the emergence of global, system-scale properties in contexts as diverse as the Internet, metabolic reactions or collaborations among scientists. Today, the inclusion of network theory into cognitive sciences, and the expansion of complex systems science, promises to significantly change the way in which the organization and dynamics of cognitive and behavioral processes are understood. In this paper, we review recent contributions of network theory at different levels and domains within the cognitive sciences.

  19. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  20. Architecture of Network Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Serpanos, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Network systems require technical skills in computer architecture, design methodologies, algorithm design, and networking. Architecture of Network Systems explains the practice and methodologies that will allow you to solve a broad range of problems in system design, including problems related to security, quality of service, performance, manageability, and more. Leading researchers Dimitrios Serpanos and Tilman Wolf develop architectures for all network sub-systems, bridging the gap between operation and VLSI. Discussing the major challenges in the design of networks and the architectures tha