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  1. Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (haart In hiv positive patients admitted to the treatment Program of “atencion integral ips” in the city of Cartagena. Colombia

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    Torres-Mora Gustavo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although HIV infection / AIDS are one of the major health problems inColombia, there are few clinical and epidemiological studies assessing the treatment ofthese patients. The city of Cartagena de Indias, has favorable conditions for infectionwith HIV because of their status as tourist district and for being an epicenter of socialand demographic changes that are associated with an increased risk of HIV infection(4, however no studies have evaluated the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment.Aim: To estimate effectiveness of six months of HAART therapy in HIV patients admittedto a treatment program in a health center of the city.Methods: Retrospective descriptive study that examined all patients assigned to theprogram for HIV / AIDS in the health center “Atencion integral” from January 2007 toJuly 2010. We studied demographic variables as sex, age, weight, body mass index,different antiretroviral schemes, CD4 count and viral load.Results: There were 167 patients assigned to the program. Nine cases wereexcluded for failing to adherence HAART and 96 for not having the reportof viral load before or after treatment. A total of 62 cases were analyzed.59.7% were male, average age was 35 years with standard deviation (SD of 9.4 years.49.5% of patients were 30 years or less, the minimum age was 20 and maximum of 58years. An average of 44.4% of medical charts had no reports of any of the initial labs.16.1% of patients had anemia, 19.4% hipertrigliridemia 17.7% hypercholesterolemiaand 21.0% low HDL cholesterol levels.The five schemes more frequently used of HAART were Lamivudine Stavudine Nevirapinewith 29.0% of cases, 19.4% Lamivudine Zidovudine Efavirenz, 11.3% Kaletra®Stavudine Lamivudine and 8.1% Lamivudine Abacavir Kaletra®. The effectiveness ofHAART, taking into account the above parameters, shows that there is a statisticallysignificant decrease in viral load. The proportion of overall effectiveness of HAART was9.9% for decrease

  2. La traduccion del conocimiento en cancer cervicouterino: una brecha entre la investigacion sobre las causas y la investigacion sobre la atencion al paciente?

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    David Fajardo-Ortiz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo construimos un mapa de la traducción del conocimiento sobre cáncer cervicouterino, basado en el análisis de redes de citación y en el uso de términos del “Gene Ontology” y del Medical Heading Subject. Identificamos dos campos de investigación sobre cáncer cervicouterino, pobremente conectados entre sí, que difieren en estructura, contenido y evolución. Un área esta centrada en el estudio de las causas de la enfermedad, mientras que la otra se centra en la atención al paciente. En la primera área encontramos un proceso de traducción del conocimiento en la que la investigación clínica y la investigación básica se comunican a través de un conjunto de artículos que consolidan la infección por el papilomavirus como la causa necesaria del cáncer cervicouterino. La primera área está orientada a prevenir la infección por el virus del papiloma humano y el subsecuente desarrollo del cáncer cervicouterino, mientras que la otra área se ocupa de la estadificación y tratamiento de la enfermedad.

  3. déficit atencional e hiperactividad

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    Nancy Consuelo Martínez-León

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio teórico realiza una revisión sobre la psicopatología del déficit atencional e hiperactividad, el cual se cataloga como un trastorno que se manifiesta por presentar dificultades crónicas en atención, impulsividad e hiperactividad que interfieren visiblemente en el desarrollo social, académico, ocupacional o recreativo del niño. Se inicia antes de los 7 años y puede en un 75% de los casos perdurar hasta la vida adulta. Afecta en torno a un 3% y un 5% de los niños; en Colombia se informa de una prevalencia alrededor del 15%. Es más común en hombres que en mujeres. Presenta comorbilidad con problemas de aprendizaje, trastorno oposicionista desafiante y con problemas de conducta, aunque también están asociadas algunas condiciones neuropsicológicas. Se acepta una multicausalidad del trastorno, que incluye un componente genético, factores perinatales, unas deficiencias a nivel neurobiológico en la corteza prefrontal, en las ondas alfa, theta y delta, a nivel bioquímico en la dopamina y norepinefrina, y deficiencias a nivel motivacional en la conducta gobernada por reglas.

  4. EVALUACIÓN DEL DESEMPEÑO ATENCIONAL EN NIÑOS: EFICACIA, EFICIENCIA Y RENDIMIENTO

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    JUAN MANUEL MONTEOLIVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ámbito educativo, las conductas problemas y los desórdenes atencionales son factores de riesgo que afectan el rendimiento académico y social del niño. La importancia del desarrollo de los procesos de aprendizaje genera la necesidad de evaluar las habilidades atencionales de los ni ños en el ámbito educativo con instrumentos válidos, confiables y adaptados a la población escolar. Desde la Neuropsicología del Desarrollo se proponen nuevos indicadores para la evaluación atencional a través del Test CARAS denominados: eficiencia atencional y rendimiento atencional . Esta prueba es utilizada para evaluar la atención focalizada y sostenida y la aptitud para percibir, rápida y correctamente, semejanzas, diferencias y patrones estimulantes parcialmente ordenados. Las expresiones matemáticas derivadas de los indicadores propuestos surgen de la revisión cronológica de los avances producidos en este instrumento de evaluación y la necesidad de conocer con mayor precisión las capacidades de los sujetos evaluados. Los indicadores propuestos han evidenciado en la prueba piloto con 48 sujetos una mayor representatividad de las habilidades atencionales y sus fluctuaciones, a partir del estudio de éstas en diferentes tiempos de evaluación. El trabajo que se informa permite introducir el término desempeño atencional como re sultante de integrar los conceptos de eficacia atencional (EA, eficiencia atencional (FA y rendimiento atencional (RA en tareas de búsqueda visual. Con este tipo de estudio se pretende brindar una modalidad de análisis que contemple los diferentes as pectos que intervienen en tareas de búsqueda visual utilizadas para evaluar el desempeño atencional.

  5. 75 FR 13147 - Integrity Life Insurance Company, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... COMMISSION Integrity Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application March 10, 2010. AGENCY: Securities...: Integrity Life Insurance Company (``Integrity''), Separate Account I of Integrity Life Insurance Company (``Integrity Separate Account I''), Separate Account II of Integrity Life Insurance Company...

  6. Genética y Conducta en el Síndrome de Déficit Atencional e Hiperactividad:

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    Francisco Aboitiz

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de déficit atencional e hiperactividad es una condición de alta prevalencia entre niños y adultos, que puede afectar seriamente el desempeño escolar y laboral. En este artículo revisamos los aspectos genéticos de este síndrome y los interpretamos en función de una falla en el sistema de señalización dopaminérgica, que se caracteriza por un bajo coeficiente señal/ruido y una excesiva recaptación presináptica del neurotransmisor liberado.

  7. Introducción al cálculo integral

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Basauri, Vicente; Defez Candel, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente libro es introducir en el estudio del cálculo integral para su posterior aplicación, mediante el uso de métodos básicos del cálculo integral. La intención principal es disponer de herramientas que permitan abordar el cálculo de integralse que aparecen en diferentes aplicaciones Soler Basauri, V.; Defez Candel, E. (2013). Introducción al cálculo integral. Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/28101.

  8. Complicaciones obstétricas y médicas en el Trastorno de Déficit Atencional/Hiperactividad (TDAH: ¿hay diferencias entre los subtipos?

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    Connie Capdevila-Brophy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El debate actual sobre los subtipos de Trastorno de Déficit Atencional/ Hiperactividad (TDAH se centra en determinar si las similitudes y diferencias halladas en la sintomatología asociada aportan evidencia para conceptualizar los subtipos como manifestaciones de distinto trastorno. El objetivo de este estudio retrospectivo ex post facto es investigar las diferencias entre los subtipos de TDAH con predominio de inatención (TDAH-I (n = 20 y TDAH combinado (TDAH-C (n = 39 en su historia prenatal, perinatal, del primer año y los problemas médicos posteriores. Los resultados indican que ambos subtipos presentan índices elevados de complicaciones obstétricas y problemas médicos. El subtipo TDAH-I se asocia con hemorragias prenatales, infecciones de oído y alergias, y el TDAH-C con cólicos del lactante y lesiones con sutura. La principal conclusión sugiere que las noxas de curso más continuo o dilatadas en el tiempo estarían más presentes en el grupo TDAH-I mientras que algunas características en el primer año y las lesiones que requieren suturas estarían más asociadas al subtipo TDAH-C.

  9. Conocimientos que tiene el profesional de enfermeria sobre legislacion colombiana en enfermeria y el sistema obligatorio de garantia de calidad de la atencion de salud

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    Blanca Merchan-Niño

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Se desarrolló un estudio descriptivo transversal con abordaje cuantitativo con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimientos de 98 profesionales de enfermería que laboran en la FOSCAL sobre legislación de enfermería y el sistema obligatorio de garantía de calidad de la atención de salud en el 2009. Materiales y Métodos: El instrumento que se utilizó fue una entrevista auto aplicada de 19 preguntas de selección simple, al cuál se le realizó una validez facial y de contenido expuesto a una comisión de siete expertos de la ciudad de Bucaramanga. Resultados: Las ramas del conocimiento evaluadas el 51% es bueno y el 43.8% es aceptable, resultado atribuible mas a los conocimientos sobre legislación colombiana en enfermería que a los del Sistema Obligatorio de Garantía de Calidad de la Atención de la Salud. Discusión y Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimientos que posee el personal en estudio es bueno con tendencia a aceptable, pues la diferencia entre estas dos no es tan significativa, generando encender una alarma a nivel institucional incrementando el desarrollo de actividades en pro del conocimiento en ésta área de cultura organizacional. (Rev Cuid 2011; 2(2: 175-81Palabras clave: Legislación, Enfermería, Calidad, Atencion de Salud, Seguridad. (Fuente: DeCs BIREME.

  10. Surface integrity after pickling and anodization of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermesse, Eric; Mabru, Catherine; Arurault, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    The surface integrity of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy was studied at different stages of surface treatments, especially pickling and compact anodization, through surface characteristics potentially worsening fatigue resistance.

  11. Ru/Al Multilayers Integrate Maximum Energy Density and Ductility for Reactive Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woll, K; Bergamaschi, A; Avchachov, K; Djurabekova, F; Gier, S; Pauly, C; Leibenguth, P; Wagner, C; Nordlund, K; Mücklich, F

    2016-01-01

    Established and already commercialized energetic materials, such as those based on Ni/Al for joining, lack the adequate combination of high energy density and ductile reaction products. To join components, this combination is required for mechanically reliable bonds. In addition to the improvement of existing technologies, expansion into new fields of application can also be anticipated which triggers the search for improved materials. Here, we present a comprehensive characterization of the key parameters that enables us to classify the Ru/Al system as new reactive material among other energetic systems. We finally found that Ru/Al exhibits the unusual integration of high energy density and ductility. For example, we measured reaction front velocities up to 10.9 (± 0.33) ms(-1) and peak reaction temperatures of about 2000 °C indicating the elevated energy density. To our knowledge, such high temperatures have never been reported in experiments for metallic multilayers. In situ experiments show the synthesis of a single-phase B2-RuAl microstructure ensuring improved ductility. Molecular dynamics simulations corroborate the transformation behavior to RuAl. This study fundamentally characterizes a Ru/Al system and demonstrates its enhanced properties fulfilling the identification requirements of a novel nanoscaled energetic material.

  12. An integrated water resources management strategy for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Al-Ain is the second largest city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the third in the UAE. Currently, desalination plants are the only source of drinking water in the city with an average daily supply of 170 MIG. Recently, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) released Al-Ain 2030 Plan. Projects suggested in this plan, over and above the expected natural population growth, will certainly put additional stress on the water resources in the city. Therefore, Al-Ain city seems to be in urgent need for an integrated water resources management strategy towards achieving sustainable development. This strategy will contain three main components; namely, a Water Demand Forecasting Model (WDFM), a Water Budget Model (WBM), and a Water Resources Optimization Model (WROM). The main aim of this paper is to present the WBM that estimates all inflows and outflows to assess water resources sustainability in the city.

  13. Inconsistencias en la afiliación al sistema de salud colombiano: barrera administrativa para la atención integral de las urgencias médicas / Inconsistencies in the affiliation of the Colombian health system: an administrative barrier to the comprehensive treatment of medical emergencies

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    Yuly A. Marín O

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: explorar la atención de las urgencias médicas de los pacientes con inconsistencias en la afiliación al Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud (sgsss, en diferentes IPS de Medellín en el año 2012. Metodología: Se realizó una investigación cualitativa aplicando la Teoría Fundamentada; se realizaron 20 entrevistas semiestructuradas al personal de salud que laboraba en los servicios de urgencias y a pacientes con inconsistencias en la afiliación al sgsss. Resultados: existe incumplimiento de la normatividad que regula la prestación de los servicios de urgencias, convirtiendo los procesos administrativos en barreras para el acceso y la atención de las urgencias médicas, lo que deriva en atenciones carentes de integralidad. Conclusión: es necesario que los organismos de vigilancia del sgsss garanticen el cumplimiento de la normatividad vigente; además se requiere de un cambio en la legislación que supere los vacíos normativos, y una transformación en la forma de vinculación de los ciudadanos al sistema de salud que garantice el acceso universal y la atención integral de manera independiente de la estabilidad de las relaciones laborales Objective: to explore the healthcare provided for medical emergencies to patients with inconsistencies in their affiliation with the General System of Social Health Security (gsshs in various Health Providing Institutions (hpi of Medellin in 2012. Methodology: we conducted a qualitative study using Grounded Theory. Twenty semi-structured interviews were applied to healthcare professionals working at emergency departments and to patients with inconsistencies in their gsshs affiliation. Results: there is non-compliance with the regulations governing the provision of emergency services, which turns the administrative processes into barriers preventing access to the system and for providing healthcare in medical emergencies; this ultimately results in a lack of comprehensive healthcare

  14. The Galactic $^{26}$Al emission map as revealed by INTEGRAL/SPI

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, Laurent; Roques, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse emission is often challenging since it is undetectable by most instruments, which are generally dedicated to point-source studies. The $^{26}$Al emission is a good illustration: the only available $^{26}$Al map to date has been released, more than fifteen years ago, thanks to the COMPTEL instrument. However, at the present time, the SPI spectrometer aboard the INTEGRAL mission offers a unique opportunity to enrich this first result. In this paper, 2 $\\times$ 10$^8$ s of data accumulated between 2003 and 2013 are used to perform a dedicated analysis, aiming to deeply investigate the spatial morphology of the $^{26}$Al emission. The data are first compared with several sky maps based on observations at various wavelengths to model the $^{26}$Al distribution throughout the Galaxy. For most of the distribution models, the inner Galaxy flux is compatible with a value of 3.3$\\times$ 10$^{-4}$ ph.cm$^{-2}$.s$^{-1}$ while the preferred template maps correspond to young stellar components such as core-collapse...

  15. Pre-Eminent Curriculum in Islamic Basic School Integrated Comparative Studies in Islamic Basic School Integrated Al-Izzah Serang and Al-Hanif Cilegon, Banten, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauz, Anis; Hasbullah

    2016-01-01

    Compare to General SD (Primary school), the superiority of SD Islam Terpadu (Integrated Islamic Primary School) lies on the development of the curriculum and learning that is more emphasize on integrated curriculum and integrated learning. Curriculum model applied in Sekolah Dasar Islam Terpadu (SDIT) is integrated curriculum. This curriculum is…

  16. Application of Al2O3-based polyimide composite thick films to integrated substrates using aerosol deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al2O3-based polyimide composite thick films were successfully fabricated with reduction of residual stress and improvement in plasticity for integrated substrates at room temperature by aerosol deposition method. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy mappings exhibited a high content of Al2O3 evenly distributed in the composite thick films. The relative dielectric permittivity and loss tangent of Al2O3-based polyimide composite thick films were 7.6 and 0.007, respectively. There was almost no change in the crystallite size of Al2O3-based polyimide composite thick films compared with that of starting powder due to the reduction of kinetic energy by polyimide during collision on the substrates. Moreover, it was confirmed that the residual stress of Al2O3-based polyimide composite thick films remarkably decreased compared with that of Al2O3 thick films.

  17. Toward a Theory of Integrated Urban Ecology: Complementing Pickett et al.

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    Robert Mugerauer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The analyses substantially delineating "integrative studies of large urban areas as bio-physical-social complexes" and the suggestions by Pickett et al. in "Beyond Urban Legends" (Bioscience 2008 58 139-150 provide an initial framework for a theory of urban ecology. This article intends to contribute to the project by: 1 improving the philosophical rigor of critical concepts and epistemologies; 2 making explicit the complementary theoretical and empirical work in urban ecology already being done that can be better integrated, for example, studies from outside the U.S. and uses of actor network theory; 3 bringing forward more disciplines and theories which successfully deploy modes of thinking, research procedures, and practices more adequate to the phenomena at all scales and levels of particularity, i.e., micro, phenomenal, macro, to fill in some of the empirical gaps in the middle, specifically those having to do with human values and the richness of the everyday lifeworld. In addition to what is available within complexity theory itself, chief among the approaches to be utilized are phenomenology, ethnographic thick description, and actor network theory.

  18. 9RU2 Radiological protection, attention to the detail-EPU; 9RU2 Proteccion radiologica, atencion al detalle-EPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla C, I. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: ipadilla@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-07-01

    To optimize times and movements in a reload project of nuclear fuel in a nuclear plant, where they are programmed more three thousand maintenance activities, modifications, monitoring and inspection in a smaller period to 30 days, and additionally to optimize the individual and collective dose in the same one, turn out to be important challenges where the used strategies must be accompanied of a deep knowledge of the installation in the radiological sense and of the spaces conceptualized in the time. The attention to the detail makes possible that the objectives are fulfilled. During the shutdown of reload 9 of Unit 2 (9RU2) of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, the attention in detail applied in the critical points allowed a saving of dose of 0.7 Sv-person and one deviation of the goal of only +0.85% (smaller to 1% of the goal established like 2 challenge of Sv-person). Analysis of times, movements and training to develop skills in inspection activities in service that requires intervention in the external surface of the reactor vessel to examine the condition of welds, allowed reducing times of execution of 12 to 2 hours. Analysis of the environment and attention to the detail are techniques that allowed optimizing dose in 9RU2 and they were used in the project Power Increase. In this work the strategies of the surroundings and attention in detail applied in 9RU2 would appear and detail attention in the increase of power in the reload 13 Unit 1. (Author)

  19. Response to Niklasson's comment on Lin, et al. (2012) : "the relation between postural movement and bilateral motor integration".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Wu, Huey-Min

    2014-10-01

    In the study of Lin, Wu, Lin, Wu, Wu, Kuo, and Yeung (2012 ), the relationship between the validity of postural movement and bilateral motor integration in terms of sensory integration theory was examined. Postural movement is the ability to use the antigravity postures required for stabilization of the neck, trunk and upper extremities via muscle co-contractions in the neck and upper extremities, and balance. Niklasson's (2013 ) comment argued that postural movement should include primitive reflexes in terms of the general abilities approach. Niklasson (2013 ) focused on the efficacy of the treatment rather than the theoretical frameworks implied in the therapeutic activities. For that purpose Lin, et al. (2012 ) used sensory integration as the theoretical foundation, and the relationship between postural movement and bilateral motor integration was assessed via empirical data. The result of Lin, et al. (2012 ) was offered as a theoretical reference for therapeutic activities.

  20. The Use of Al, Cu, and Fe in an Integrated Electrocoagulation-Ozonation Process

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    Carlos E. Barrera Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of supplying electrochemically generated metallic ions (Al, Cu, and Fe during an ozonation process for treating industrial wastewater. The pollutant removal efficiencies of the electrocoagulation (EC, ozonation, and coupled EC-ozonation processes were examined by the decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD as a function of treatment time. The EC was performed in a raw industrial wastewater, which has contributions from 39 chemical, 34 metal finishing, 22 textile, 11 leather, and 5 automotive plants, at pH (7.3 using a current density of 150 A/m2 for 60 min, giving a 45% reduction in COD. The ozonation process was more effective with the same wastewater, reducing the COD by 52% after 60 min of treatment. Combining the EC and ozonation methods resulted in a synergistic process that improves the reduction of COD in a shorter time. In just 12 min the integrated process reduced the COD by 88%. Thus, the combination of EC and ozonation processes improves noticeably the wastewater quality, decreasing the treatment time and also reducing the sludge production.

  1. Integrated HS and ALS Remote Sensing Data Sources to Develop Green Corridors in Sopron Mountains

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    János Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The green corridors are part of the European Union rural landscapes, but the regional increase in size of agricultural parcels had a significant effect on European land use in the 20th century. This effect radically reduced the coverage of natural forest. One ecological problem with the remaining forests is the partial missing of the network connecting the parts with ecological green corridors. Another economical problem is the verifiability for the payment system of agroforestry. Remote sensing methods are currently used to supervise monitoring the arable lands, plantations, natural reserve areas, as well as to help for the European Union payment system. Nowadays the airborne hyperspectral (HS and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging; ALS remote sensing technologies are becoming of more widespread use. They can be applied especially in spatial decision support system (SDSS, used in decisions about for nature, environment, forests, agriculture protection, conservation and monitoring, as well as for monitoring of biomass production. Our site selection model was the first step towards planning an agroforestry plantation which uses these integrated technologies to connect the parts with green corridors.

  2. Integration and focus from the perspective of social impact assessment : A response to Morrison-Saunders et al.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The paper by Morrison-Saunders et al. [Morrison-Saunders A, Pope J, Gunn J, Bond A, Retief F. 2014. Strengthening impact assessment: a call for integration and focus. Impact Assess Project Appraisal. 32(1):2–8] was interesting reading, but ultimately unconvincing in that it did not adequately prove

  3. Technology of integrated self-aligned E/D-mode n++GaN/InAlN/AlN/GaN MOS HEMTs for mixed-signal electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaho, M.; Gregušová, D.; Haščík, Š.; Seifertová, A.; Ťapajna, M.; Šoltýs, J.; Šatka, A.; Nagy, L.; Chvála, A.; Marek, J.; Carlin, J.-F.; Grandjean, N.; Konstantinidis, G.; Kuzmík, J.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the technology and performance of integrated enhancement/depletion (E/D)-mode n++GaN/InAlN/AlN/GaN HEMTs with a self-aligned metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate structure. An identical starting epi-structure was used for both types of devices without the additional need for a contacts regrowth. The n++GaN cap layer was etched away in the gate trenches of the E-mode HEMT while it was left intact for the D-mode HEMT. The plasma etching process was shown to be highly selective between the cap and the InAlN barrier and also to polish the InAlN surface. However, different GaN etching initiation times inside and outside the mesa region were obtained. Gate contacts were isolated using a dielectric layer deposited at low temperature through an e-beam resist to retain the self-aligned approach. Feasibility of the approach for future fast GaN-based mixed-signal electronic circuits was shown by obtaining alternative HEMT threshold voltage values of +0.8 V and -2.6 V, invariant maximal output current of ˜0.35 A mm-1 despite large source-to-drain distances and by demonstrating a functional logic invertor.

  4. La relación entre la capacidad de atencion dividida y la estimación prospectiva del tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Celeste Azzollini

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación cuyo objetivo fue determinar si la capacidad de atención dividida resultaba explicativa de la variabilidad de las estimaciones prospectivas del tiempo. Los modelos teóricos sobre dicha estimación postulan que los recursos atencionales de procesamiento están divididos entre un procesador temporal, que cuenta y almacena unidades temporales subjetivas (Subjective Temporal Units - STUs y otras actividades de procesamiento no temporal (Zakay, 1993. Se seleccionó una muestra de 36 estudiantes universitarios que fueron asignados al azar a cada una de las seis condiciones experimentales, determinadas por un diseño factorial 3 x 2, y sus factores básicos fueron: cantidad de tareas y niveles de complejidad del material. Se confeccionaron materiales para las diferentes tareas y otros con el fin de evaluar las aptitudes mnémicas y la capacidad de atención dividida. Se solicitó a los sujetos que mientras realizaban las tareas, detuvieran un cronómetro cuando consideraran que había pasado un período de tiempo predeterminado. La estimación del tiempo se calculó por la diferencia en segundos entre el tiempo real y el tiempo estimado. Los datos se procesaron con análisis de correlación, discriminante y factorial de variancia. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la capacidad de atención dividida se correlaciona con la estimación temporal prospectiva y además, la capacidad de atención dividida resulta un buen predictor de la capacidad estimativa de los sujetos, especialmente de los sobre-estimadores. Las diferencias en las aptitudes mnémicas no explicaron la variabilidad de las estimaciones prospectivas.

  5. An integrated water resources management strategy for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Al-Ain is the second largest city in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the third in the UAE. Currently, desalination plants are the only source of drinking water in the city with an average daily supply of 170 MIG. Recently, Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) released Al-Ain 2030 Plan. Projects suggested in this plan, over and above the expected natural population growth, will certainly put additional stress on the water resources in the city. Therefore, Al-Ain city seems to be in urgent need ...

  6. Rare-earth-ion-doped Al IIO 3 waveguides for active integrated optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jonathan D. B.; Ay, Feridun; Blauwendraat, Tom; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Pollnau, Markus

    2007-06-01

    Reactively co-sputtered amorphous Al IIO 3 waveguide layers with low propagation losses have been deposited. In order to define channel waveguides in such Al IIO 3 films, the etching behaviour of Al IIO 3 has been investigated using an inductively coupled reactive ion etch system. The etch rate of Al IIO 3 and possible mask materials was studied by applying various common process gases and combinations of these gases, including CF 4/O II, BCl 3, BCl 3/HBr and Cl II. Based on a comparison of the etch rates and patterning feasibility of the different mask materials, a BCl 3/HBr plasma and and standard resist mask were used to fabricate channel waveguide structures. The etched structures exhibit straight sidewalls with minimal roughness and etch depths of up to 530 nm, sufficient for defining waveguides with strong optical confinement and low bending losses. Low additional propagation losses were measured in single-mode Al IIO 3 ridge waveguides defined using the developed etch process. In initial investigations, Al IIO 3:Er layers fabricated using the same deposition method applied for the undoped layers show typical emission cross-sections, low green upconversion luminescence and lifetimes up to 7 ms.

  7. 75 FR 53355 - The Integrity Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... (``Advisers Act''). The Adviser is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Corridor Investors, LLC. The Adviser serves as... and Integrity Money Management, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Integrity Mutual Funds, Inc... affiliated person, as defined in section 2(a)(3) of the Act, of a Fund or the Adviser (other than by...

  8. Micro-chip initiator realized by integrating Al/CuO multilayer nanothermite on polymeric membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a new nanothermite based polymeric electro-thermal initiator for non-contact ignition of a propellant. A reactive Al/CuO multilayer nanothermite resides on a 100 µm thick SU-8/PET (polyethyleneterephtalate) membrane to insulate the reactive layer from the silicon bulk substrate. When current is supplied to the initiator, the chemical reaction Al+CuO occurs and sparkles are spread to a distance of several millimeters. A micro-manufacturing process for fabricating the initiator is presented and the electrical behaviors of the ignition elements are also investigated. The characteristics of the initiator made on a 100 µm thick SU-8/PET membrane were compared to two bulk electro-thermal initiators: one on a silicon and one on a Pyrex substrate. The PET devices give 100% of Al/CuO ignition success for an electrical current >250 mA. Glass based reactive initiators give 100% of Al/CuO ignition success for an electrical current >500 mA. Reactive initiators directly on silicon cannot initiate even with a 4 A current. At low currents (<1 A), the initiation time is two orders of magnitude longer for Pyrex initiator compared to those obtained for PET initiator technology. We also observed that, the Al/CuO thermite film on PET membrane reacts within 1 ms (sparkles duration) whereas it reacts within 4 ms on Pyrex. The thermite reaction is 40 times greater in intensity using the PET substrate in comparison to Pyrex. (paper)

  9. RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENTS AND STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY IMPLICATIONS FOR SELECTIVE LASER MELTED TI-6AL-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knowles, C. R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM of Ti-6Al-4V has significant potential in the aerospace and biotechnology industries. SLM employs a focused laser beam to melt successive layers of metallic powder into complex components. This process can result in the generation of high thermally-induced residual stresses. These residual stresses, together with micro-flaws/ pores from the inherent fabrication process, may lead to premature fatigue crack initiation and propagation at relatively low cyclic stresses. The hole-drilling strain gauge method was used to evaluate residual stresses within SLM Ti-6Al-4V specimens, with the intention of understanding the associated mechanisms for the successful application of SLM Ti-6Al-4V in industry.

  10. Micro-chip initiator realized by integrating Al/CuO multilayer nanothermite on polymeric membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taton, G.; Lagrange, D.; Conedera, V.; Renaud, L.; Rossi, C.

    2013-10-01

    We have developed a new nanothermite based polymeric electro-thermal initiator for non-contact ignition of a propellant. A reactive Al/CuO multilayer nanothermite resides on a 100 µm thick SU-8/PET (polyethyleneterephtalate) membrane to insulate the reactive layer from the silicon bulk substrate. When current is supplied to the initiator, the chemical reaction Al+CuO occurs and sparkles are spread to a distance of several millimeters. A micro-manufacturing process for fabricating the initiator is presented and the electrical behaviors of the ignition elements are also investigated. The characteristics of the initiator made on a 100 µm thick SU-8/PET membrane were compared to two bulk electro-thermal initiators: one on a silicon and one on a Pyrex substrate. The PET devices give 100% of Al/CuO ignition success for an electrical current >250 mA. Glass based reactive initiators give 100% of Al/CuO ignition success for an electrical current >500 mA. Reactive initiators directly on silicon cannot initiate even with a 4 A current. At low currents (thermite film on PET membrane reacts within 1 ms (sparkles duration) whereas it reacts within 4 ms on Pyrex. The thermite reaction is 40 times greater in intensity using the PET substrate in comparison to Pyrex.

  11. Monolithically integrated AlN/GaN electronics for harsh environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recently, resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) based circuits employing monolithically-integrated RTD on high electron mobility (HEMT) structures have been developed in a...

  12. Inserción de terapias complementarias en el sistema único de salud atendiendo al cuidado integral en la asistencia

    OpenAIRE

    Ceolin, T.; Heck, RM.; D.B. Pereira; Martins, A R; Coimbra, V.C.C.; Silveira, D.S.S.

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de esta reflexión es discutir el uso de las terapias complementarias en Brasil cara a una atención integral al individuo y la inserción del profesional enfermero en estas prácticas. El modelo biomédico se basa en la visión médica tradicional, considerando sólo factores biológicos. El interés por las terapias complementarias contraponiéndose al modelo y a las prácticas alopáticas ha ido ampliándose y son cada vez más demandadas por todas las capas de la población. É...

  13. Integrated AlGaAs source of highly indistinguishable and energy-time entangled photons

    CERN Document Server

    Autebert, Claire; Martin, Anthony; Lemaître, Aristide; Carbonell, Carmen Gomez; Favero, Ivan; Leo, Giuseppe; Zbinden, Hugo; Ducci, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The generation of nonclassical states of light in miniature chips is a crucial step towards practical implementations of future quantum technologies. Semiconductor materials are ideal to achieve extremely compact and massively parallel systems and several platforms are currently under development. In this context, spontaneous parametric down conversion in AlGaAs devices combines the advantages of room temperature operation, possibility of electrical injection and emission in the telecom band. Here we report on a chip-based AlGaAs source, producing indistinguishable and energy-time entangled photons with a brightness of $7.2\\times10^6$ pairs/s and a signal-to-noise ratio of $141\\pm12$. Indistinguishability between the photons is demonstrated via a Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment with a visibility of $89\\pm3\\%$, while energy-time entanglement is tested via a Franson interferometer leading to a value for the Bell parameter $ S=2.70\\pm0.10$.

  14. EFECTO DE LA ACUPUNTURA EN EL MANEJO INTEGRAL DE LA ADICCION AL TABACO

    OpenAIRE

    GOVANTES LORA, MARIA CRISTINA

    2010-01-01

    EL TABAQUISMO CONSTITUYE LA CAUSA NUMERO UNO DE ENFERMEDAD Y MUERTE PREMATURA, E INCREMENTA EL RIESGO A PRESENTAR CANCER PULMONAR EN UN 90 POR CIENTO. LAS METAS QUE PERSIGUE EL TRATAMIENTO DE LAS PERSONAS ADICTAS AL TABACO SE CENTRA EN TRES ASPECTOS: DESINTOXICACION, TRATAMIENTO DE LA ABSTINENCIA Y LA PREVENCION DE LA REINCIDENCIA DEL HABITO. EN EL PRESENTE ENSAYO CLINICO CONTROLADO, SE ESTUDIO EL EFECTO DE LA ACUPUNTURA ASOCIADO A UNA TERAPIA COGNITIVA CONDUCTUAL EN PACIENTES QUE ACUDIERON A...

  15. Ru/Al Multilayers Integrate Maximum Energy Density and Ductility for Reactive Materials

    OpenAIRE

    K. Woll; Bergamaschi, A; Avchachov, K.; Djurabekova, F.; Gier, S.; Pauly, C.; Leibenguth, P.; Wagner, C; Nordlund, K.; Mücklich, F

    2016-01-01

    Established and already commercialized energetic materials, such as those based on Ni/Al for joining, lack the adequate combination of high energy density and ductile reaction products. To join components, this combination is required for mechanically reliable bonds. In addition to the improvement of existing technologies, expansion into new fields of application can also be anticipated which triggers the search for improved materials. Here, we present a comprehensive characterization of the ...

  16. RESIDUAL STRESS MEASUREMENTS AND STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY IMPLICATIONS FOR SELECTIVE LASER MELTED TI-6AL-4V

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, C. R.; Becker, T. H.; Tait, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) of Ti-6Al-4V has significant potential in the aerospace and biotechnology industries. SLM employs a focused laser beam to melt successive layers of metallic powder into complex components. This process can result in the generation of high thermally-induced residual stresses. These residual stresses, together with micro-flaws/ pores from the inherent fabrication process, may lead to premature fatigue crack initiation and propagation at relatively low cyclic stress...

  17. Superconductor-insulator-normal-conductor-insulator-superconductor (Nb/Al{sub x}O{sub y}/Al/Al{sub x}O{sub y}/Nb) process development for integrated circuit applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balashov, D.; Buchholz, F.M.; Schulze, H.; Khabipov, M.I.; Kessel, W.; Niemeyer, J. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    The paper reports on recent developments in a new technology process in LTS implementation to fabricate intrinsically shunted tunnel junctions. The process has been realized in SINIS Nb/Al{sub x}O{sub y}/Al/Al{sub x}O{sub y}/Nb multilayer thin-film technology. In various test series, circuits containing a large variety of single junctions and junction arrays of different contact areas and sizes were fabricated and measured. By variation of the oxidation parameters the fabrication process has been optimized for application in integrated circuits operating in RSFQ impulse logic. The junction parameter values realized for the critical current density j{sub c} range to up to about j{sub c} = 1000 A cm{sup -2}, those for the characteristic voltage V{sub c} to up to about V{sub c} = 230 {mu}V. The junctions show nearly non-hysteretic current-voltage characteristics; the intra-wafer parameter spread is below 10%. The junctions realized fulfil the requirements imposed for digital RSFQ circuit operation at clock frequencies in the lower GHz frequency range. (author)

  18. Innovational radiation sensor by integrating AL2O3:C optically stimulated luminescent dosemeter and GaN detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a new dosimetry concept that is built on an earlier integrated sensor concept by our group at Univ. of Washington to integrate a radiation-dosimetry-quality Al2O3:C and a high quantum-efficiency GaN-based p-i-n photodiode on one side, and light emitting diodes (LEDs) on the opposite side as the stimulation source. The performance of the sensor has been evaluated by computer simulation, the performance of GaN photodiodes and studying the GaN films. The absorption spectrum of the GaN film was measured and indicated that the GaN photodiodes would not respond to the output wavelengths of the stimulating LEDs. The electrical properties and the performance of GaN p-i-n photodiode under irradiation were simulated. The results showed that the sensor offered comparable radiation sensitivity to current technologies and could be operated in active mode. (authors)

  19. Ethnisches Unternehmertum als Chance sozio-kultureller Integration? Entwicklung eines system- und integrationstheoretischen Modells

    OpenAIRE

    Aigner, Petra

    2012-01-01

    "Anhand einer kurzen Diskussion zum bisherigen theoretischen und empirischen nationalen, aber auch internationalen Forschungsstand zu 'Ethnischem Unternehmertum' wird dieser Artikel Modelle zu Entstehung, Etablierung und Struktur sowie zu derzeit sichtbaren sozio-ökonomischen und sozio-kulturellen Wirkungsweisen, insbesondere zu Integrations- und Segregationsaspekten, diskutieren und weiterentwickeln. Anhand eines eigenen Modells, unter Einbeziehung und theoretischer Weiterentwicklung von Ans...

  20. Aproximaciones al valor de la integral definida utilizando una calculadora graficadora

    OpenAIRE

    Ansola, Esther; Rodríguez, Eugenio Carlos; Hernández, Nelson; Gómez, Pablo Ignacio; Alfonso, Débora Oliva; Sánchez, Danelia

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo muestra una experiencia llevada a cabo con un grupo de estudiantes de primer año de ingeniería a través de un curso facultativo en el que se retomó el cálculo de integrales definidas, utilizando la tecnología, con el propósito de:• Consolidar el concepto de integral definida a través de su definición y de su interpretación geométrica. • Mostrar otras formas de calcular una integral definida mediante aproximaciones numéricas y su interpretación geométrica. El recurso tecnológic...

  1. Bistable optical electrical/microwave switching using optically coupled monolithically integrated GaAlAs translasers

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, K Y; Yariv, A.

    1984-01-01

    A novel switching device consisting of optically coupled laser and field-effect transistor monolithically integrated on a semi-insulating substrate is demonstrated. The physical origin of the bistable behavior is illustrated. The input and output to this device can take the form of optical and/or electrical signals. Applications of this device in optical, electrical, microwave switching, and pulse-position/pulse frequency demodulation are illustrated.

  2. Caracterización de las atenciones kinésicas en un consultorio de atención primaria de Antofagasta durante el año 2011.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Soto B; Gino Sturione K.; Diego González S.; Jessica Troncoso A.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN : Las patologías músculoesqueléticas son prevalentes en atención primaria, alcanzando 50,6% en mujeres y 31,4% de los hombres entre 45 y 64 años. En la sala de atención kinésica del CESFAM Corvallis de Antofagasta, se realiza manejo kinésico a las patologías musculoesqueléticas agudas. OBJETIVO : Caracterización de las atenciones kinésicas en patologías musculoesqueléticas en CESFAM Corvallis. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO : Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Se incluyeron todos los pacien...

  3. Integration of iron in natural and synthetic Al-pyrophyllites: an infrared spectroscopic study

    CERN Document Server

    Lantenois, Sébastien; Muller, Fabrice; Champallier, Rémi

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies focus on the relationships between chemical composition and OHband positions in the infrared (IR) spectra of micaceous minerals. These studies are based on the coexistence, in dioctahedral micas or smectites, of several cationic pairs around the hydroxyl group which each produce a characteristic band in the IR spectrum. The aim of this work is to obtain the wavenumber values of the IR OH vibration bands of the (Al-Fe3+)-OH and (Fe3+-Fe3+)-OH local cationic environments of 'pyrophyllite type' in order to prove, disprove or modify a model of dioctahedral phyllosilicate OH-stretching band decomposition. Natural samples are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies and electron microprobe; the hydrothermal synthesis products are also analysed by powder XRD and FTIR after inductively coupled plasma measurements to obtain the chemical compositions of nascent gel phases. Natural samples contain some impurities which were eliminated af...

  4. An integrated experimental and computational approach to laser surface nitriding of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahotre, Sanket N.; Vora, Hitesh D.; Pavani, K.; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2013-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been commonly used in many biological and industrial applications owing to their excellent mechanical and physical properties. However, they have been specifically inadequate for biomedical implants due to their inferior tribological properties (low wear resistance, higher coefficient of friction, and lower hardness). As a remedy, the process of laser nitriding has emerged from the past few decades as a unique method for tailoring the surface microstructures and/or composition of titanium for enhanced tribological characteristics of titanium and its alloys. In the present study, a multiphysics computational model was developed to predict the nitrogen diffusion length into the Ti-6Al-4V alloy under various laser processing conditions (laser power and scanning speed). XRD, SEM and EDS analyses were also conducted for phase identification, microstructural investigation, and estimating the nitrogen concentration, respectively. Both computational and experimental results indicated that the depth of nitrogen diffusion increased with decrease in scanning speed, and subsequent increase in laser interaction time and increase in input laser energy density.

  5. Characterization of Ti6Al4V for integral transition structures in FRP-aluminum compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimanski, Kai; Schumacher, Jens; Von Hehl, Axel; Zoch, Hans-Werner [Stiftung Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik, Bremen (Germany); Wottschel, Vitalij; Vollertsen, Frank [Bremer Institut fuer Angewandte Strahltechnik, Bremen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Components in hybrid design become more and more important in terms of their lightweight potential. In this context, the demand for weight saving in aerospace industry leads to increase numbers of applications of fiber reinforced composites for primary structural components. In consequence, the use of FRP-metal compounds is necessary. In the context of the investigations of the researcher group named ''Black-Silver'' (''Schwarz Silber'', FOR 1224) founded by the DFG (German Research Foundation) material optimized interface structures for advanced carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP)-aluminum compounds are currently being studied. Within their work the researcher group focussed on three concepts realizing the transition structures: the usage of wires (titanium), foils (titanium), and fibers (glass fiber) as transition elements between CFRP and aluminum. For the connection of the aluminum sheet and the transition element die-casting and laser beam welding are basically used. The paper concentrates on the characterization of suitable materials for transition structures. Due to their high strength and low density (in comparison to steel) and the resulting potential in view on light-weight design Ti-alloys were investigated. Because of the increased availability of Ti-wires compared to Ti-foils in suitable thickness the former were used for the basic investigations on Ti-alloys which are suitable for integral transition structures. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Optimization of an integrated electrodisinfection/electrocoagulation process with Al bipolar electrodes for urban wastewater reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillas, Salvador; Llanos, Javier; Cañizares, Pablo; Mateo, Sara; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2013-04-01

    In this work, a novel integrated electrochemical process for urban wastewater regeneration is described. The electrochemical cell consists in a Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) or a Dimensionally Stable Anode (DSA) as anode, a Stainless Steel (SS) as cathode and a perforated aluminum plate, which behaves as bipolar electrode, between anode and cathode. Thus, in this cell, it is possible to carry out, at the same time, two different electrochemical processes: electrodisinfection (ED) and electrocoagulation (EC). The treatment of urban wastewater with different anodes and different operating conditions is studied. First of all, in order to check the process performance, experiments with synthetic wastewaters were carried out, showing that it is possible to achieve a 100% of turbidity removal by the electrodissolution of the bipolar electrode. Next, the effect of the current density and the anode material are studied during the ED-EC process of actual effluents. Results show that it is possible to remove Escherichia coli and turbidity simultaneously of an actual effluent from a WasteWater Treatment Facility (WWTF). The use of BDD anodes allows to remove the E. coli completely at an applied electric charge of 0.0077 A h dm(-3) when working with a current density of 6.65 A m(-2). On the other hand, with DSA anodes, the current density necessary to achieve the total removal of E. coli is higher (11.12 A m(-2)) than that required with BDD anodes. Finally, the influence of cell flow path and flow rate have been studied. Results show that the performance of the process strongly depends on the characteristics of the initial effluent (E. coli concentration and Cl(-)/NH(4)(+) initial ratio) and that a cell configuration cathode (inlet)-anode (outlet) and a higher flow rate enhance the removal of the turbidity from the treated effluent. PMID:23351433

  7. Improved high temperature integration of Al2O3 on MoS2 by using a metal oxide buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We deposited a metal oxide buffer layer before atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 onto exfoliated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) in order to accomplish enhanced integration. We demonstrate that even at a high temperature, functionalization of MoS2 by means of a metal oxide buffer layer can effectively provide nucleation sites for ALD precursors, enabling much better surface coverage of Al2O3. It is shown that using a metal oxide buffer layer not only allows high temperature ALD process, resulting in highly improved quality of Al2O3/MoS2 interface, but also leaves MoS2 intact

  8. Design, fabrication, and calibration of curved integral coils for measuring transfer function, uniformity, and effective length of LBL ALS [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source] Booster Dipole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A matched pair of curved integral coils has been designed, fabricated and calibrated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for measuring Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole Magnets. Distinctive fabrication and calibration techniques are described. The use of multifilar magnet wire in fabrication integral search coils is described. Procedures used and results of AC and DC measurements of transfer function, effective length and uniformity of the prototype booster dipole magnet are presented in companion papers. 8 refs

  9. Investigating chlorophyll and nitrogen levels of mangroves at Al-Khor, Qatar: an integrated chemical analysis and remote sensing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naimi, Noora; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Balakrishnan, Perumal

    2016-05-01

    Mangroves are unique ecosystems that dominate tropical and subtropical coastlines around the world. They provide shelter and nursery to wide variety of species such as fish and birds. Around 73 species of mangroves were recognized around the world. In Qatar, there is only one mangrove species Avicennia marina that is predominant along the northeastern coast. Assessing the health of these valuable ecosystems is vital for protection, management, and conservation of those resources. In this study, an integrated approach of chemical and remote sensing analysis was implemented to investigate the current status of the mangrove trees in Al-Khor, Qatar. Fifteen different A. marina trees from different locations in the mangrove forest were examined for their chlorophyll and nitrogen content levels. Soil analysis was also conducted to understand the effect of moisture on nitrogen availability. Results shows that currently, mangroves are in a good status in terms of nitrogen availability and chlorophyll levels which are related and both are key factors for photosynthesis. Remote sensing techniques were used for chlorophyll prediction. The results showed that these methods have the potential to be used for chlorophyll prediction and estimation. PMID:27048493

  10. Investigating chlorophyll and nitrogen levels of mangroves at Al-Khor, Qatar: an integrated chemical analysis and remote sensing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naimi, Noora; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Balakrishnan, Perumal

    2016-05-01

    Mangroves are unique ecosystems that dominate tropical and subtropical coastlines around the world. They provide shelter and nursery to wide variety of species such as fish and birds. Around 73 species of mangroves were recognized around the world. In Qatar, there is only one mangrove species Avicennia marina that is predominant along the northeastern coast. Assessing the health of these valuable ecosystems is vital for protection, management, and conservation of those resources. In this study, an integrated approach of chemical and remote sensing analysis was implemented to investigate the current status of the mangrove trees in Al-Khor, Qatar. Fifteen different A. marina trees from different locations in the mangrove forest were examined for their chlorophyll and nitrogen content levels. Soil analysis was also conducted to understand the effect of moisture on nitrogen availability. Results shows that currently, mangroves are in a good status in terms of nitrogen availability and chlorophyll levels which are related and both are key factors for photosynthesis. Remote sensing techniques were used for chlorophyll prediction. The results showed that these methods have the potential to be used for chlorophyll prediction and estimation.

  11. Direct optical injection locking of monolithically integrated In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As/In(0.52)Al(0.48)As MODFET oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D.; Bhattacharya, P. K.; Brock, T.

    1993-05-01

    The authors have fabricated monolithically integrated In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As/In(0.52)Al(0.48)As 0.25-micron gate MODFET oscillators. The results of direct optical subharmonic injection locking of these oscillator circuits at 10.159 and 19.033 GHz are presented.

  12. El Síndrome de Déficit Atencional del Escolar como Expresión Clínica de los Trastornos del Sueño de Tipo Comicial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Bartolotti Laurens

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente articulo realiza un primer informe del trabajo clínico realizado a lo largo de los últimos doce años fundamentando que el Síndrome de Déficit atencional con o sin hiperactividad, (TDAH y TDA, así como otros signos y síntomas descritos como trastornos de conducta y desadaptación escolar, que se observan en un considerable número de sujetos, resultan ser expresiones diferentes de un mismo cuadro clínico, los que se pueden clasificar en lo etiológico como una comicialidad del sueño, Lo anterior se verifica observando los resultados del EEG digital durante el sueño espontáneo los cuales evidencian crisis paroxísticas de tipo onda lenta de aparición intermitente, parciales o generalizadas. Se aporta, de este modo, un nuevo enfoque para el estudio de estos cuadros además de un más pertinente abordaje de tipo terapéutico farmacológico.

  13. Monolithic integration of an AlGaN/GaN metalinsulator field-effect transistor with an ultra-low voltage-drop diode for self-protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Gang; Chen Wan-Jun; Zhang Jing; Zhang Bo; Li Zhao-Ji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we present a monolithic integration of a self-protected AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator field-effect transistor (MISFET).An integrated field-controlled diode on the drain side of the AlGaN/GaN MISFET features a selfprotected function for a reverse bias.This diode takes advantage of the recessed-barrier enhancement-mode technique to realize an ultra-low voltage drop and a low turn-ON voltage.In the smart monolithic integration,this integrated diode can block a reverse bias (> 70 V/μm) and suppress the leakage current (< 5 × 10-11 A/mm).Compared with conventional monolithic integration,the numerical results show that the MISFET integrated with a field-controlled diode leads to a good performance for smart power integration.And the power loss is lower than 50% in conduction without forward current degeneration.

  14. Perfil dos atendimentos a acidentes de transporte terrestre por serviços de emergência em São Paulo, 2005 Perfil de las atenciones a accidentes de transporte terrestre por servicios de emergencia en São Paulo, 2005 Land transport injuries among emergency department visits in the state of São Paulo, in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Pinheiro Gawryszewski

    2009-04-01

    voltadas para a proteção dos usuários vulneráveis do sistema.OBJETIVO: Analizar las características de las atenciones derivadas de lesiones relacionadas con transporte terrestre. MÉTODOS: Fueron analizadas 5.934 atenciones en cuatro unidades de emergencias hospitalarias del estado de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, en 2005. El instrumento utilizado fue un cuestionario basado en modelos disponibilizados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Las variables analizadas fueron: tipo de usuario (ocupante del vehículo, peatón, motociclista y ciclista, sexo y grupo de edad y tipo de lesión sufrida. Fue utilizado análisis de regresión logística para evaluar asociaciones entre variables. Fueron calculados los odds ratios con los respectivos intervalos de confianza de 95%. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de las atenciones fueron para el sexo masculino (74,2% y para el grupo de 20 a 29 años (35,0%. Los usuarios vulnerables del sistema respondieron por 72,4% del total de casos (motociclistas 29,8%, peatones 24,1% y ciclistas 18,5%. Las víctimas con edades entre cero y 14 años que sufrieron lesiones eran principalmente peatones y ciclistas; entre 15 y 39 años predominaron los motociclistas y en edades por encima de 50 años, peatones. Cerca de la mitad de los casos sufrieron lesiones de menor gravedad (esguinces, luxaciones, contusiones y cortes y la otra mitad estuvo compuesta por fracturas, traumatismos cráneo-encefálicos y lesiones de órganos internos. Las extremidades fueron el segmento del cuerpo más afectado, especialmente entre motociclistas. La mayoría de los casos recibió alta directamente del sector de atención (87,6%. En comparación con las mujeres, los hombres presentaron oportunidad 1,5 veces más de ser internados, transferidos o de morir. Comparativamente a los ciclistas, los peatones, los ocupantes de vehículos y motociclistas presentaron oportunidad, respectivamente, 2,7 y 1,9 veces más de ser internados, transferidos o de morir. CONCLUSIONES

  15. High-quality MOVPE butt-joint integration of InP/AlGaInAs/InGaAsP-based all-active optical components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Kuznetsova, Nadezda;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of MOVPE butt-joint regrowth for integration of all-active InP/AlGaAs/InGaAsP optical components and the realization of high-functionality compact photonic devices. Planar high-quality integration of semiconductor optical amplifiers of various epi......-structures with a multi-quantum well electro-absorption modulator has been successfully performed and their optical and crystalline quality was experimentally investigated. The regrown multi-quantum well material exhibits a slight bandgap blue-shift of less than 20 meV, when moving away from the regrowth interface...

  16. Towards Al3+-Induced Manganese-Containing Superoxide Dismutase Inactivation and Conformational Changes: An Integrating Study with Docking Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Liu Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1 plays an important antioxidant defense role in skins exposed to oxygen. We studied the inhibitory effects of Al3+ on the activity and conformation of manganese-containing SOD (Mn-SOD. Mn-SOD was significantly inactivated by Al3+ in a dose-dependent manner. The kinetic studies showed that Al3+ inactivated Mn-SOD follows the first-order reaction. Al3+ increased the degree of secondary structure of Mn-SOD and also disrupted the tertiary structure of Mn-SOD, which directly resulted in enzyme inactivation. We further simulated the docking between Mn-SOD and Al3+ (binding energy for Dock 6.3: −14.07 kcal/mol and suggested that ASP152 and GLU157 residues were predicted to interact with Al3+, which are not located in the Mn-contained active site. Our results provide insight into the inactivation of Mn-SOD during unfolding in the presence of Al3+ and allow us to describe a ligand binding via inhibition kinetics combined with the computational prediction.

  17. Der Nucleus praeopticus medianus im Hypothalamus der Ratte als prä-integrative Struktur afferenter Signale zur Aufrechterhaltung des Salz- und Wasserhaushaltes sowie der Körperkerntemperatur

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Der in der Lamina terminalis des rostralen Hypothalamus gelegene Nucleus medianus praeopticus (MnPO) innerhalb, sowie das Organum subfornicale (SFO) bzw. vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) außerhalb der Blut-Hirn Schranke spielen eine bedeutende Rolle als sensorische (SFO, OVLT) bzw. sensorisch/integrative (MnPO) neurogliale Einheiten im Rahmen der zentralnervösen Kontrolle des Salz- und Wasser- sowie Wärmehaushalts von Säugetieren wie der Ratte. Einerseits sind Neurone und gliale Zellen vo...

  18. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  19. PREVALENCIA DE LA ENFERMEDAD RENAL CRÓNICA DETERMINADA MEDIANTE LA APLICACIÓN DE ECUACIONES PREDICTIVAS EN PERSONAS HIPERTENSAS ATENDIDAS EN ATENCION PRIMARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gómez Navarro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La enfermedad renal crónica (ERC constituye un importante problema de salud en las sociedades desarrolladas vinculado al progresivo envejecimiento de la población y a la elevada prevalencia de patologías como la hipertensión arterial (HTA y la diabetes mellitus. Los objetivos de este trabajo son: estudiar la función renal (FR en las personas hipertensas mediante ecuaciones predictivas y creatinina plasmática (Crp. Conocer el porcentaje de personas con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC que presentan valores normales de Crp. Analizar los factores que colaboran en el deterioro de su FR. Metodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal de las personas con hipertensión arterial (HTA. Se determinó Crp y tensión arterial (TA. Se calculó el filtrado glomerular mediante las fórmulas de Cockroft-Gault y MDRD. Se registraron los años de evolución de la HTA. Se realizó estudio descriptivo de las variables estudiadas y se analizó la posible dependencia entre algunas mediante regresión lineal múltiple.. Resultados: Se estudió un total de 52 pacientes (57,7% mujeres. Edad media 72,4 ± 10,8. Un 32,6% (Cockcroft-Gault o un 21,5% (MDRD cumplían criterio de ERC. Predomina la ERC en las mujeres. El 21,4% (Cockcroft-Gault y 9,5% (MDRD de pacientes con ERC tenían valores normales de Crp. No encontramos dependencia lineal entre las cifras de TA y la FR. El cumplimiento de los objetivos de TA no supone un menor desarrollo de ERC. En los varones encontramos dependencia lineal entre la FR (MDRD y los años de evolución de la HTA. Conclusiones: La ERC es una patología frecuente en las personas hipertensas. La utilización sistemática de ecuaciones predictivas facilita la detección de ERC oculta en pacientes con Crp normal.

  20. Selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN driving transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaojun; Ma, Jun; Huang, Tongde; Liu, Chao; May Lau, Kei, E-mail: eekmlau@ust.hk [Photonics Technology Center, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-03-03

    In this Letter, we report selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) drivers. A comparison of two integration schemes, selective epitaxial removal (SER), and selective epitaxial growth (SEG) was made. We found the SER resulted in serious degradation of the underlying LEDs in a HEMT-on-LED structure due to damage of the p-GaN surface. The problem was circumvented using the SEG that avoided plasma etching and minimized device degradation. The integrated HEMT-LEDs by SEG exhibited comparable characteristics as unintegrated devices and emitted modulated blue light by gate biasing.

  1. El desempeño sintáctico de niños con Trastorno de Déficit Atencional e Hiperactividad: Perspectiva comparativa y ontogenética Syntactic performance on children with Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity: A comparative and ontogenetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JACQUELINE ELÍAS LILLO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El Trastorno de Déficit Atencional e Hiperactividad (TDAH es de alta prevalencia entre niños y adultos, y está caracterizado por un inapropiado nivel de atención, conducta hiperactiva e impulsividad. Además de la sintomatología nuclear, presenta una serie de trastornos cognitivos y conductuales como las alteraciones de naturaleza lingüística. Las mismas pasan desapercibidas en la primera infancia del sujeto, evidenciándose cuando ingresa al sistema escolar. Para dar cuenta de esto, la presente investigación buscó determinar diferencias en la complejidad sintáctica de los discursos orales producidos por niños y niñas con TDAH y con desarrollo típico en diferentes niveles de escolaridad (kinder, 4º y 8º básico. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de tipo correlacional con un diseño ex post-facto retrospectivo en el que participaron 120 niños(as (60 con TDAH y 60 grupo control, de colegios particulares pagados y particulares subvencionados en San Felipe, Chile. Luego de ver un video, cada niño narraba lo observado, su discurso era registrado, trascrito y analizado. Los índices de complejidad sintáctica revelaron diferencias significativas a favor de los niños sin TDAH cuando se evaluaba el grupo en general, a pesar de no probarse significatividad estadística en las diferencias al interior de cada nivel. Asimismo, fue posible observar que tanto en el grupo de niños con TDAH como en los que no padecían el síndrome se daba un aumento en el puntaje de los de 8º básico respecto de los de 4º básico y de éstos respecto de los de kínder, indicando un incremento en la madurez sintáctica.Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity (ADDH presents high prevalence among children and adults and is characterized by an inappropriate attention level, hyperactive behavior and impulsiveness. Apart from the nuclear symptomatology, it presents a number of cognitive and behavioral disorders as well as linguistic alterations. These get

  2. Integration of a pAL2-1 homologous mitochondrial plasmid associated with life span extension in Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.F.P.M.; Sellem, C.H.; Rincheval, V.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Debets, A.J.M.; Sainsard-Chanet, A.

    2007-01-01

    We isolated and characterized a novel spontaneous longevity mutant of Podospora anserina strain Wa32 carrying one of the pAL2-1 homologous mitochondrial plasmids. This mutant is at least ten fold longer-lived than the wild type, and is hence a formal suppressor of both the regular and the `plasmid-b

  3. Theoretical analysis and experiment of subwavelength structure-integrated red AlGaInP light-emitting diodes for uniform field distribution and enhanced light extraction efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil Ju; Song, Young Min

    2016-03-01

    We report theoretical and experimental analysis of antireflective subwavelength structures (SWSs) on GaP substrates to enhance the light output with a uniform light distribution of AlGaInP-based red light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Scaling issues on the optical performance are analyzed by the calculation results from finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) methods. The optical simulation reveals that SWSs with a period of 100-150 nm achieve highest optical output power, while maintaining a uniform light field distribution, in the subwavelength regime. To validate our theoretical results, disordered SWSs with a tapered shape were fabricated on a GaP layer of AlGaInP red LEDs by lithography-free dry etching of Ag nanoparticles. The SWS-integrated LED shows a uniform light output distribution with an improved light output power compared with the conventional LED.

  4. Angle-integrated measurements of the {sup 26}Al(d, n){sup 27}Si reaction cross section: a probe of spectroscopic factors and astrophysical resonance strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankainen, A.; Woods, P.J.; Doherty, D.T.; Estrade, A.; Lotay, G. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Nunes, F.; Schatz, H.; Brown, B.A.; Browne, J.; Meisel, Z.; Zegers, R. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, East Lansing, MI (United States); Langer, C.; Montes, F.; Pereira, J.; Stevens, J. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, East Lansing, MI (United States); Bader, V.; Gade, A.; Stroberg, R.; Scott, M. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Lansing, MI (United States); Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Kontos, A.; Noji, S.; Recchia, F.; Weisshaar, D. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Perdikakis, G. [Michigan State University, JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, East Lansing, MI (United States); Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI (United States); Redpath, T.; Wimmer, K. [Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI (United States); Seweryniak, D. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Measurements of angle-integrated cross sections to discrete states in {sup 27}Si have been performed studying the {sup 26}Al(d, n) reaction in inverse kinematics by tagging states by their characteristic γ-decays using the GRETINA array. Transfer reaction theory has been applied to derive spectroscopic factors for strong single-particle states below the proton threshold, and astrophysical resonances in the {sup 26}Al(p, γ){sup 27}Si reaction. Comparisons are made between predictions of the shell model and known characteristics of the resonances. Overall very good agreement is obtained, indicating this method can be used to make estimates of resonance strengths for key reactions currently largely unconstrained by experiment. (orig.)

  5. Cogeneration as a means of integrating renewable energy sources. Development of the balancing power market; KWK als Baustein zur Integration erneuerbarer Energien. Erschliessung des Regelleistungsmarkts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steck, Michael; Beer, Michael [FfE Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany); Henle, Markus [SWM Services GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Arndt, Ulli [EWE AG, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Cogeneration plants can help to level fluctuations of power supply from renewable energy sources. The balancing power will bring profits in the market. The authors analyze the dynamic performance and economic efficiency of industrial-scale cogeneration plants, as well as the possibility of pooling several small-scale cogeneration units for integrated operation.

  6. Caracterización de las atenciones kinésicas en un consultorio de atención primaria de Antofagasta durante el año 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Soto B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN : Las patologías músculoesqueléticas son prevalentes en atención primaria, alcanzando 50,6% en mujeres y 31,4% de los hombres entre 45 y 64 años. En la sala de atención kinésica del CESFAM Corvallis de Antofagasta, se realiza manejo kinésico a las patologías musculoesqueléticas agudas. OBJETIVO : Caracterización de las atenciones kinésicas en patologías musculoesqueléticas en CESFAM Corvallis. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO : Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes atendidos con disponibilidad de datos, por lo que no hubo exclusión. Se analizaron las variables edad, sexo y diagnóstico en las hojas de estadística diaria. RESULTADOS : Del total de 604 pacientes, la edad promedio fue 56,4 años, siendo 78% mujeres. El rango de edad más frecuente fue entre 45 y 64 años (48,2%. Según región anatómica, 51,3% fue en extremidades superiores, 33,9% en cabeza y columna y 14,1% en extremidades inferiores. De extremidades superiores la más frecuente fue hombro doloroso (48,1% y tendinitis del manguito rotador (12,3%. En cabeza y columna la más frecuente fue lumbago mecánico (42,9%, seguido de cervicobraquialgia (16,1%. En extremidades inferiores, la más frecuente fue la artrosis de rodilla (23,5%, seguido de esguince de tobillo (17,6% y fascitis plantar (15,3%. DISCUSIÓN : Los resultados son compatibles con estudios nacionales, mostrando predominio en mujeres, así como rango de edad más frecuente entre los 45 y 64 años. La mayor frecuencia de patologías en extremidades superiores en este estudio pudo deberse a un sobrediagnóstico, factores geográficos o biopsicosociales. Es necesaria la implementación de un sistema de registro adecuado para el seguimiento de estos pacientes.

  7. Levels of analysis in neuroscientific studies of emotion: Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: an integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiken, Don; Douglas, Shawn

    2015-06-01

    In the conduct of neuroscience research, methodological choices and theoretical claims often reveal underlying metamethodological and ontological commitments. Koelsch et al. [1] accentuate such commitments in their description of four "neuroanatomically distinct systems," each the substrate of "a specific class of affects" (p. 1). Explication of those classes of affect require theoretical integration across methodologically diverse disciplines, including "psychology, neurobiology, sociology, anthropology, and psycholinguistics" (p. 3). (Philosophy is noticeably missing from this list, but several aspects of the authors' stance indicate that it is not ignored.)

  8. Prediseño integral de la via Puente La Libertad - El Arbolito sector K19+970 al K21+970

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Betancur, Jorge William; Salgado Galeano, Julio Cesar

    2005-01-01

    La vía puente la libertad – el arbolito es una carretera secundaria que hace parte de la red vial del Departamento de Caldas; ubicada en la zona centro sur del Departamento en los municipios de Manizales y Villamaría. Es de suma importancia para el desarrollo turístico del Parque Natural Nevado del Ruiz y de sus aguas termales. El prediseño integral de la vía mencionada, se llevó a cabo en el sector k19+970 al k21+970, siendo el K0+000 el Puente La Libertad, ubicado en la salida del Municipio...

  9. Aspects g\\'eom\\'etriques et int\\'egrables des mod\\`eles de matrices al\\'eatoires

    CERN Document Server

    Marchal, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the geometric and integrable aspects associated with random matrix models. Its purpose is to provide various applications of random matrix theory, from algebraic geometry to partial differential equations of integrable systems. The variety of these applications shows why matrix models are important from a mathematical point of view. First, the thesis will focus on the study of the merging of two intervals of the eigenvalues density near a singular point. Specifically, we will show why this special limit gives universal equations from the Painlev\\'e II hierarchy of integrable systems theory. Then, following the approach of (bi) orthogonal polynomials introduced by Mehta to compute partition functions, we will find Riemann-Hilbert and isomonodromic problems connected to matrix models, making the link with the theory of Jimbo, Miwa and Ueno. In particular, we will describe how the hermitian two-matrix models provide a degenerate case of Jimbo-Miwa-Ueno's theory that we will generalize in t...

  10. Monolithically integrated enhancement/depletion-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMTs SRAM unit and voltage level shifter using fluorine plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonghe, Chen; Xuefeng, Zheng; Jincheng, Zhang; Xiaohua, Ma; Yue, Hao

    2016-05-01

    A GaN-based E/D mode direct-couple logic 6 transistors SRAM unit and a voltage level shifter were designed and fabricated. E-mode and D-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMTs were integrated in one wafer using fluorine plasma treatment and using a moderate AlGaN barrier layer heterojunction structure. The 6 transistors SRAM unit consists of two symmetrical E/D mode inverters and two E-mode switch HEMTs. The output low and high voltage of the SRAM unit are 0.95 and 0.07 V at a voltage supply of 1 V. The voltage level shifter lowers the supply voltage using four Ni-AlGaN Schottky diodes in a series at a positive supply voltage of 6 V and a negative supply voltage of -6 V. By controlling the states of inverter modules of the level shifter in turn, the level shifter offers two channel voltage outputs of -0.5 and -5 V. The flip voltage of the level shifter is 0.76 V. Both the SRAM unit and voltage shifter operate correctly, demonstrating the promising potential for GaN-based E/D mode digital and analog integrated circuits. Several considerations are proposed to avoid the influence of threshold voltage degradation of D-mode and E-mode HEMT on the operation of the circuit. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61334002), the Opening Project of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory (No. ZHD201206), and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (No. NCET-12-0915).

  11. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions of...

  12. Metal-interconnection-free integration of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chao; Cai, Yuefei; Liu, Zhaojun; Ma, Jun; Lau, Kei May, E-mail: eekmlau@ust.hk [Photonics Technology Center, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2015-05-04

    We report a metal-interconnection-free integration scheme for InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) by combining selective epi removal (SER) and selective epitaxial growth (SEG) techniques. SER of HEMT epi was carried out first to expose the bottom unintentionally doped GaN buffer and the sidewall GaN channel. A LED structure was regrown in the SER region with the bottom n-type GaN layer (n-electrode of the LED) connected to the HEMTs laterally, enabling monolithic integration of the HEMTs and LEDs (HEMT-LED) without metal-interconnection. In addition to saving substrate real estate, minimal interface resistance between the regrown n-type GaN and the HEMT channel is a significant improvement over metal-interconnection. Furthermore, excellent off-state leakage characteristics of the driving transistor can also be guaranteed in such an integration scheme.

  13. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al{sup +} ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichsel, T., E-mail: tim.weichsel@fep.fraunhofer.de; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Kreller, M.; Philipp, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al{sup +} ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm{sup 2} is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  14. J-integral in the description of fatigue crack growth rate induced by different ratios of torsion to bending Loading in AlCu4Mg1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozumek, D.; Macha, E. [Opole University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Machine Design, Opole (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    The paper presents the results of tests on fatigue crack growth under proportional torsion with bending in AlCu4Mg1 aluminium alloy. Specimens with rectangular cross-sections and stress concentrator in the form of external one-sided sharp notch were used. The tests were performed under the different ratios of torsion to bending moments. The results of the experimental tests have been described by a nonlinear formula based on {delta}J-integral range. The tests have shown that the change of ratio of torsion to bending moments from 0.58 to 1.73 caused an increase in crack growth rate. It has been shown that at the constant loading and the change of stress ratio (R) from - 1 to 0, the fatigue crack growth rate also increases. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Effect of Al2O3 insulator thickness on the structural integrity of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide based thin film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Jun; Hwang, In-Ju; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2014-12-01

    The current transparent oxide semiconductors (TOSs) technology provides flexibility and high performance. In this study, multi-stack nano-layers of TOSs were designed for three-dimensional analysis of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) based thin film transistors (TFTs). In particular, the effects of torsional and compressive stresses on the nano-sized active layers such as the a-IGZO layer were investigated. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the structural integrity of a-IGZO based TFTs with three different thicknesses of the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) insulator (δ = 10, 20, and 30 nm), respectively, using a commercial code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The results are graphically depicted for operating conditions. PMID:25971080

  16. Implementación del cuadro de mando integral como herramienta de gestión complementaria al plan estratégico en un hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Martínez Malqui

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los grandes problemas que afronta un gobierno es la asistencia sanitaria accesible y de calidad a la población, siendo alta la exigencia en los resultados de las instituciones de salud. Este estudio se centra en el proceso de aplicación del Cuadro de Mando Integral (CMI, como instrumento de gestión que alinea y comunica los objetivos estratégicos a la organización. El objetivo fue valorar la implementación del CMI como herramienta complementaria al Plan Estratégico Institucional (PEI en un hospital peruano de salud pública de alta complejidad. La metodología se basó en un diseño de tipo descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la aplicación del CMI, permitió mejorar el control de la gestión institucional en todas las áreas, logrando alto impacto en el incremento de los ingresos por prestaciones del Seguro Integral de Salud, reducción de las intervenciones quirúrgicas suspendidas y optimización de la utilización de camas, además de alinear el Plan Operativo con el PEI y generar una cultura de gestión por resultados; este estudio contribuye a demostrar que en un hospital público de alta complejidad la implementación del CMI genera impactos favorables y motiva al desarrollo de nuevas investigaciones en instituciones similares.

  17. Novel integration of ultrathin Al2O3 with low-k dielectric as bilayer liner for capacitance optimization and stress mitigation in Cu through-silicon-via

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Hong Yu; Shang, Yang; Yoo, Woosik; Yu, Hao; Tan, Chuan Seng

    2016-04-01

    Through-silicon-via (TSV) used in three-dimensional (3D) stacked dies must present small electrical parasitic, such as capacitance, to allow for low latency signal transmission. Stable TSV capacitance is desired to overcome the spatial circuit performance variation caused by non-uniform hot-spot heating. In this work, a novel combination of low-k with ultrathin Al2O3 bilayer liner is successfully integrated in the TSV. The TSV capacitance is reduced by ˜26% as compared to plasma-enhanced tetrahydrothosilicate (PETEOS) oxide liner. Stable TSV capacitance within the operating voltage of interest (˜0-5 V) is achieved by operating the TSV in a stable accumulation capacitance region. The positive shift in the flat-band voltage (ΔV FB = +19 V) is achieved by utilizing Al2O3-induced negative fixed charge (|Q f| = 1.3 × 1012 cm-2) at the Si/low-k interface. Leakage current density of the bilayer liner is improved to a level comparable with the PETEOS oxide liner post annealing [forming gas (N2/H2) at 350 °C for 2 h or 400 °C for 0.5 h]. Low-k material with a smaller elastic modulus improves the thermo-mechanical stress exerted on the surrounding Si substrate compared with PETEOS oxide.

  18. High density Al2O3/TaN-based metal-insulator metal capacitors in application to radio frequency integrated circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Shi-Jin; Huang Yu-Jian; Huang Yue; Pan Shao-Hui; Zhang Wei; Wang Li-Kang

    2007-01-01

    Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors with atomic-layer-deposited A12O3 dielectric and reactively sputtered TaN electrodes in application to radio frequency integrated circuits have been characterized electrically. The capacitors exhibit a high density of about 6.05 fF/μm2, a small leakage current of 4.8 × 10-8 A/cm2 at 3 V, a high breakdown electric field of 8.61 MV/cm as well as acceptable voltage coefficients of capacitance (VCCs) of 795 ppm/V2 and 268 ppm/V at 1 MHz. The observed properties should be attributed to high-quality Al2O3 film and chemically stable TaN electrodes.Further, a logarithmically linear relationship between quadratic VCC and frequency is observed due to the change of relaxation time with carrier mobility in the dielectric. The conduction mechanism in the high field ranges is dominated by the Poole-Frenkel emission, and the leakage current in the low field ranges is likely to be associated with trap-assisted tunnelling. Meanwhile, the Al2O3 dielectric presents charge trapping under low voltage stresses, and defect generation under high voltage stresses, and it has a hard-breakdown performance.

  19. Avances al estudio de impacto ambiental del proyecto de aprovechamiento integral de recursos naturales "Mar de Trafalgar"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejarano, A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The project "Sea of Trafalgar" was conceived with the objective to take advantage of the natural resources the gulf of Cadiz, of a clean, sustainable form and with little or null environmental repercussion, settling down as it bases of the mentioned development the advantage of the enormous aeolian potential that displays the areas that they surround to the Straight of Gibraltar bounded to offshore electrical wind generation were considered in parallel way, other vectors of development, being the impulse of a modern aquaculture in open sea and the regeneration of the traditional places for casting fishing-nets were the best alternatives selected to profit the excellent bioclimatic conditions of the gulf of Cadiz. The group of all this considerations in a single performance does that the project "Sea of Trafalgar" appears to the vanguard of the present technological development, not telling on any type of referring to European nor world-wide level.El proyecto "Mar de Trafalgar" fue concebido con el objetivo de aprovechar íntegramente los recursos naturales del golfo de Cádiz, de una forma limpia, sostenible y con escasa o nula repercusión ambiental, estableciéndose como base del citado desarrollo el aprovechamiento del enorme potencial eólico que presentan las áreas que circundan al Estrecho de Gibraltar. Íntimamente ligado a la aerogeneración eléctrica offshore se plantearon, de forma paralela, otros vectores de desarrollo, siendo el impulso de una moderna acuicultura en mar abierto y la regeneración de los caladeros artesanales de pesca las alternativas seleccionadas para la internalización de las excelentes condiciones bioclimáticas del golfo gaditano. El agrupamiento de toda esta batería de consideraciones en una sola actuación hace que el proyecto "Mar de Trafalgar" se presente a la vanguardia del desarrollo tecnológico actual, no contando con ningún tipo de referentes a nivel europeo ni mundial.

  20. Band edge tailoring of InGaAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells for a monolithically integrated all-optical switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jijun; Akimoto, Ryoichi; Gozu, Shin-ichiro; Mozume, Teruo; Hasama, Toshifumi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate a compact all-optical Michelson interferometer (MI) gating switch with monolithic integration of two different bandgap energies. Based on the ion-induced intermixing in InGaAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells, the blueshift of the band edge can be tailored. Through phosphorus ion implantation with a dose of 5 × 10(14) cm(-2) and subsequent annealing at 720 °C for 60 s, an implanted sample can acquire a high transmittance compared with the as-grown one. Meanwhile, the cross-phase modulation (XPM) efficiency of a non-implanted sample undergoing the same annealing process decreases little. An implanted part for signal propagation and a non-implanted section for XPM are thus monolithically integrated for an MI switch by an area-selective manner. Full switching of a π-rad nonlinear phase shift is achieved with pump pulse energy of 5.6 pJ at a 10-GHz repetition rate.

  1. A return to the Qur’ānic paradigm of development and integrated knowledge: The Ulū al-Albāb model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights that the secular and modernistic paradigm of development that lacks spiritual and ethical moorings is partly responsible for the 2009 global economic and financial crisis. Muslim policy-makers, intellectuals and scholars are duty-bound to promote the Tawḥīdic paradigm of holistic development and holistic knowledge. Closely related to the paradigm of development is the issue of the epistemology of autonomous human reason which denies the importance and validity of Divine revelation as a higher source of knowledge and wisdom. The Qur’ān projects the model of the Ulū al-Albāb, “people of sound reason” as intellectuals and scholars par excellence who combine the understanding of the Book of Nature with the Book of Revelation, and integrate human reason with Divine revelation. The paper ends by suggesting that Muslim countries develop institutions of learning or systems of education which integrates worldly knowledge with religious knowledge in a harmonious and symbiotic manner.

  2. Protocolo para la alimentación- nutrición en la atención integral al paciente con enfermedad de Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Marcos Plasencia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La Enfermedad de Parkinson (EP es un proceso neurodegenerativo de presentación esporádica. Fue descrita por James Parkinson en 1817. De causa multifactorial, siendo los principales factores etiológicos de naturaleza genética y ambiental. Hasta el momento sólo se dispone de "tratamiento paliativo" mediante medicamentos como la levodopa, la cual restaura los niveles de dopamina cerebral y pueden mejorar los síntomas por un tiempo. Como factores responsables directos de la pobre calidad de vida de los pacientes parkinsonianos están los síntomas no motores, variados, frecuentes y de impacto infravalorado. Los enfermos son propensas a la pérdida de peso y la desnutrición. Los movimientos involuntarios resultan en un gasto de energía creciente y los síntomas de la enfermedad como los efectos secundarios del tratamiento pueden limitar el consumo de alimentos. Es necesaria una atención integral para minimizar sus limitaciones y mejorar así su calidad de vida y la de su familia. Dentro de una atención integral, el aspecto de la alimentación-nutrición es cardinal por lo que se ofrece aquí un protocolo de trabajo para la intervención nutricional al enfermo de Parkinson

  3. Estudo da assistência integral à criança e ao adolescente através da pesquisa qualitativa Estudio de asistencia integral al niño y al adolescente a través de la investigación cualitativa Qualitative study on integral care to children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semiramis Melani Melo Rocha

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de apresentar o referencial teórico e a metodologia que embasa a pesquisa qualitativa desenvolvida pelo Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisa em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente da Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, tendo por objeto de investigação a assistência integral à saúde da criança e do adolescente. Inicialmente, as autoras apresentam o setor saúde na sociedade brasileira atual no qual desenvolvem-se as ações de saúde, passando à apresentação do Grupo de Estudos em questão. Desenvolvem, a seguir, o referencial teórico metodológico, definindo as categorias analíticas - política e políticas sociais, organização tecnológica do trabalho, serviços de saúde, criança e família. Finalizando, apresentam uma síntese dos resultados de algumas investigações concluídas nos três últimos anos (1995 a 1997.Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar el referencial teórico y la metodología en la que se fundamenta la investigación cualitativa, desarrollada por el grupo de estudios e investigación del niño y del adolescente de la Escuela de Enfermería de Ribeirão Preto de la Universidad de San Pablo - Brasil; inicialmente las autorasa presentan al sector salud en la sociedad Brasileña actual, en el cual desarrollan las acciones de salud y luego presentan el grupo de estudio en cuestión. A continuación desarrollan el referencial teórico y metodológico, definiendo las categorías analíticas, política y políticas sociales, organización tecnológica del trabajo, servivicios de salud, niño y familia. Al finalizar presentan una síntesis de resultados de algunas investigaciones concluidas en los últimos años (1995 a 1997.This paper presents the theoretical reference and methodology applied by the Group of Study on Children's and Adolescent's Health of the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing, in their qualitative research aiming

  4. A Constitutive Equation Relating Composition and Microstructure to Properties in Ti-6Al-4V: As Derived Using a Novel Integrated Computational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamarian, Iman; Samimi, Peyman; Dixit, Vikas; Collins, Peter C.

    2015-11-01

    While it is useful to predict properties in metallic materials based upon the composition and microstructure, the complexity of real, multi-component, and multi-phase engineering alloys presents difficulties when attempting to determine constituent-based phenomenological equations. This paper applies an approach based upon the integration of three separate modeling approaches, specifically artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, and Monte Carlo simulations to determine a mechanism-based equation for the yield strength of α+ β processed Ti-6Al-4V (all compositions in weight percent) which consists of a complex multi-phase microstructure with varying spatial and morphological distributions of the key microstructural features. Notably, this is an industrially important alloy yet an alloy for which such an equation does not exist in the published literature. The equation ultimately derived in this work not only can accurately describe the properties of the current dataset but also is consistent with the limited and dissociated information available in the literature regarding certain parameters such as intrinsic yield strength of pure hexagonal close-packed alpha titanium. In addition, this equation suggests new interesting opportunities for controlling yield strength by controlling the relative intrinsic strengths of the two phases through solid solution strengthening.

  5. Modelo de capacitación para el tratamiento integral de pacientes con trastornos de la conducta alimentaria resistentes al cambio Training model for integral treatment of patients with eating disorders resistant to change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Calvo Sagardoy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de buscar tratamientos eficaces para los pacientes con Anorexia o Bulimia nerviosa ha inducido a los profesionales que les atienden a elaborar nuevas formas de tratamiento que tengan en cuenta las variables causantes de su resistencia al cambio. Los pacientes del presente estudio (2006-2009 presentan las siguientes características: 340 pacientes que llevan 7 o más años de evolución y/ o han intentado numerosos tratamiento previos sin que se haya logrado iniciar y/o mantener los cambios deseados, que les hayan permitido recuperarse de forma estable. En cuanto al tratamiento propuesto, la relación paciente-equipo terapéutico se apoya en los principios del modelo de capacitación. Éste, considera al paciente de forma integral, le informa y le provee de recursos para que incremente su compromiso de cambio. Enseña al paciente a cuidarse física y psíquicamente como medio de recuperar su salud y salir del trastorno de forma estable. Incluye a los familiares como apoyo esencial en la recuperación de su allegado/a. Los terapeutas requieren amplia experiencia en el tratamiento de TCA, flexibilidad, capacidad para integrarse con otros compañeros aunque utilicen modelos teóricos diferentes, habilidades para realizar sesiones grupales, capacidad para manejar emociones negativas y tolerancia a la frustración. Finalmente, el modelo que a continuación se presenta se ha puesto en práctica, ha recuperado a pacientes cuya permanencia en el trastorno superaba 15 años de evolución y laboralmente tenían la invalidez permanente.The need to find effective treatments for patients with Anorexia or Bulimia nervosa has led to the professionals who care for them to develop new forms of treatment that take into account the variables that cause resistance to change. Patients in this study (2006-2009 have the following characteristics: 340 patients who have 7 or more years of evolution and/or have tried numerous previous treatments without

  6. Integration of robotics and neuroscience beyond the hand: What kind of synergies?. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Santello et al. [1] review an impressive amount of work on the control of biological and artificial hands that demonstrates how the concept of synergies can lead to a successful integration of robotics and neuroscience. Is it possible to generalize the same approach to the control of biological and artificial limbs and bodies beyond the hand? The human hand synergies that appear most relevant for robotic hands are those defined at the kinematic level, i.e. postural synergies [2]. Postural synergies capture the geometric relations among the many joints of the hand and allow for a low dimensional characterization and synthesis of the static hand postures involved in grasping and manipulating a large set of objects. However, many other complex motor skills such as walking, reaching, throwing, and catching require controlling multi-articular time-varying trajectories rather than static postures. Dynamic control of biological and artificial limbs and bodies, especially when geometric and inertial parameters are uncertain and the joints are compliant, poses great challenges. What kind of synergies might simplify the dynamic control of motor skills involving upper and lower limbs as well as the whole body?

  7. Optimization of a Common Buffer Platform for Monolithic Integration of InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes and AlGaN/GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Cai, Yuefei; Jiang, Huaxing; Lau, Kei May

    2016-04-01

    For the development of a metal-interconnection-free integration scheme for monolithic integration of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs), a common buffer to achieve high brightness, low leakage current, and high breakdown in the integrated HEMT-LED device is essential. Different buffer structures have been investigated, and their impacts upon both the LED and HEMT parts of the HEMT-LED device have been analyzed. Results indicated that a GaN/AlN buffer structure is the most ideal to serve as a common buffer platform, offering both the excellent crystalline quality and superior buffer resistivity required by the HEMT-LED device. Growth of the AlN layer was particularly crucial for engineering the dislocation density, surface morphology, as well as resistivity of the buffer layer. Using the optimized GaN/AlN buffer structure, the LED part of the HEMT-LED device was improved, showing greatly enhanced light output power and suppressed reverse leakage current, while the breakdown characteristics of the HEMT part were also improved.

  8. Exchange integrals in the helimagnetic phase of ZnCr2xAl2-2xS4 (0.85 ≤ x ≤ 1): A neutron diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spinel solid solutions ZnCr2xAl2-2xS4 have been studied by neutron diffraction experiments. They show a helimagnetic phase in the concentration range: 0.85 ≤ x ≤ 1. The helix angle decreases as x is decreased. In this paper, the three first exchange integrals and their evolution with x are obtained. The disappearance of the long range order is shown to be due to the large decrease of the ferromagnetic in-plane interaction. The results are extended to obtain the fourth exchange integral. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

  9. Evaluation of the implementation of an integrated primary care network for prevention and management of cardiometabolic risk in Montréal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provost Sylvie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this project is to evaluate the implementation of an integrated and interdisciplinary program for prevention and management of cardiometabolic risk (PCMR. The intervention is based on the Chronic Care Model. The study will evaluate the implementation of the PCMR in 6 of the 12 health and social services centres (CSSS in Montréal, and the effects of the PCMR on patients and the practice of their primary care physicians up to 40 months following implementation, as well as the sustainability of the program. Objectives are: 1-to evaluate the effects of the PCMR and their persistence on patients registered in the program and the practice of their primary care physicians, by implementation site and degree of exposure to the program; 2-to assess the degree of implementation of PCMR in each CSSS territory and identify related contextual factors; 3-to establish the relationships between the effects observed, the degree of PCMR implementation and the related contextual factors; 4-to assess the impact of the PCMR on strengthening local services networks. Methods/Design The evaluation will use a mixed design that includes two complementary research strategies. The first strategy is similar to a quasi-experimental "before-after" design, based on a quantitative approach; it will look at the program's effects and their variations among the six territories. The effects analysis will use data from a clinical database and from questionnaires completed by participating patients and physicians. Over 3000 patients will be recruited. The second strategy corresponds to a multiple case study approach, where each of the six CSSS constitutes a case. With this strategy, qualitative methods will set out the context of implementation using data from semi-structured interviews with program managers. The quantitative data will be analyzed using linear or multilevel models complemented with an interpretive approach to qualitative data analysis

  10. ALS - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry -- ...

  11. El principio de la responsabilidad civil objetiva limitada: un elemento de equilibrio sistémico que no contradice al denominado principio de la reparación integral del daño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Franco Rosso Elorriaga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La tendencia moderna a objetivar la responsabilidad civil ha generado diferentes incoherencias sistémicas que exigen la introducción de elementos de equilibrio entre la responsabilidad subjetiva y la responsabilidad objetiva. Ante la permanente infracción al principio de la tipicidad, se propone como vía de equilibrio el reconocimiento del principio según el cual no puede haber responsabilidad objetiva sin limitación cuantitativa de la indemnización. Sin embargo, este principio entraría aparentemente en contradicción con otro, denominado principio de la reparación integral del daño. El artículo analiza dicha posible contradicción desde el fundamento moral de ambas clases de responsabilidad, así como del principio de la reparación integral del daño. Además, profundiza la problemática a partir de su elemento esencial, como es el daño resarcible, de modo de verificar qué elementos puede aportar a este aquel principio. En esta perspectiva, se estudia si tiene verdaderamente un carácter normativo, y qué cambios a su respecto produce su reconocimiento expreso a nivel legal o constitucional. Por último, se trata el principio de la reparación integral bajo un concepto distinto al tradicional y que ha venido sosteniéndose en los últimos años, a fin de confrontarlo con la citada contradicción. Al término del artículo, se sintetizan las conclusiones alcanzadas, las cuales concuerdan con la inexistencia de la contradicción entre el principio según el cual no hay responsabilidad objetiva sin limitación cuantitativa y el principio de la reparación integral del daño.

  12. Evolutionary considerations on complex emotions and music-induced emotions. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M.

    2015-06-01

    Recent efforts to uncover the neural underpinnings of emotional experiences have provided a foundation for novel neurophysiological theories of emotions, adding to the existing body of psychophysiological, motivational, and evolutionary theories. Besides explicitly modeling human-specific emotions and considering the interactions between emotions and language, Koelsch et al.'s original contribution to this challenging endeavor is to identify four brain areas as distinct "affect systems" which differ in terms of emotional qualia and evolutionary pathways [1]. Here, we comment on some features of this promising Quartet Theory of Emotions, focusing particularly on evolutionary and biological aspects related to the four affect systems and their relation to prevailing emotion theories, as well as on the role of music-induced emotions.

  13. Bridges from affect to language. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, David S.; Aryani, Arash

    2015-06-01

    The comprehensive Quartet Theory of Human Emotions proposed by Koelsch et al. [4] offers an exceptional synopsis regarding major developments in affective neuroscience, encompassing classical data based on animal studies as well as emotions generally classified as uniquely human. In doing so, it becomes apparent that while general anatomical grounds appear well covered mainly based on animal studies, neuroanatomical underpinnings of interactions between emotion and language may not be readily understood.

  14. A micro-chip initiator with controlled combustion reactivity realized by integrating Al/CuO nanothermite composites on a microhotplate platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interfacial contact area between the fuel and oxidizer components plays an important role in determining the combustion reactivity of nanothermite composites. In addition, the development of compact and reliable ignition methods can extend the applicability of nanothermite composites to various thermal engineering fields. In this study we report the development of a micro-chip initiator with controlled combustion reactivity using concepts usually applied to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and simple nanofabrication processes. The nanothermite composites fabricated in this study consisted of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs) as the fuel and copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) as the oxidizer accumulated on a silicon oxide substrate with a serpentine-shaped gold (Au) electrode. The micro-chip initiator rapidly ignited and exploded when minimal current was supplied. The effects of stacking structures of Al and CuO-based multilayers on the combustion properties were systematically investigated in terms of the pressurization rate, peak explosion time, and heat flow. Pressurization rates of 0.004–0.025 MPa μs−1 and heat flows of 2.0–3.8 kJ g−1 with a commonly fast response time of less than 20 ms could be achieved by simply changing the interfacial structures of the Al and CuO multilayers. The controllability of combustion reactivity of micro-chip initiator can be made for general nanothermite composites composed of Al and various metal oxides (e.g. Fe2O3, CuO, KMnO4, etc). The micro-chip initiator fabricated in this study was reliable, compact, and proved to be a versatile platform, exhibiting controlled combustion reactivity and fast response time, which could be used for various civilian and military thermal engineering applications, such as in initiators and propulsion, welding, and ordinance systems. (paper)

  15. Tool Wear, Surface Integrity and Dimensional Accuracy in Turning Al2124SiCp (45%wt Metal Matrix Composite using CBN and PCD Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muguthu Joseph Njuguna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is the turning of Al2124SiCp (45% wt Metal Matrix Composite using PCD, CBN-coated and CBN-uncoated tools. The machinability of Al2124SiCp (45% wt Metal Matrix Composite is evaluated by measurement of tool wear, surface finish and dimensional accuracy of the work-piece. Wear mechanisms and patterns of tools in turning of Al2124SiCp (45% wt Metal Matrix Composite are discussed. The experimental setup involved turning Al2124SiCp (45% wt 78.0 mm long and 31.8 mm diameter on a precision lathe at fixed feed rate, different depth of cut and cutting speed using PCD, CBN-coated and CBN-uncoated tools. The reinforcement of the matrix consists of SiC 5-8 µm in diameter. Experimental results reveal that abrasion and adhesion presented the most prevalent mode of wear among all the tools. Fracture was observed among CBN tools while chipping on PCD tools. Flank and crater wear were observed in all tools with flank wear more prevalent in both CBN-coated and CBN-uncoated. Wear among PCD tools was low as compared to CBN tools. Further analysis reveal that the outer layer of the CBN-coated tools wear off fast creating a good platform for adhesion of matrix material on to the tool. This further increases wear of the tool due to adhesive wear as the built-up edge breaks off from the tool. PCD tool presented better surface finish than CBN tools with CBN-coated performing better than CBN-uncoated. Due to high SiC content, discontinuous chips are formed which are also curled due to increase in temperature at cutting zone causing bimetallic effect on the chip. On dimensional accuracy it was observed that PCD tool produced lowest diameter error followed by CBN-uncoated and finally CBN-Coated. It is concluded that in machining Al2124SiCp (45% wt Metal Matrix Composite PCD tools are the best followed by CBN-coated and lastly CBN-uncoated.

  16. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the attitudes…

  17. Language limits the experience of emotions. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Adrienne; Niedenthal, Paula

    2015-06-01

    Emotions are phylogenetically ancient and involve complex interactions of neural, behavioral, and physiological processes. A complete theory of emotions must incorporate, or at least be informed by, current knowledge from neurobiology and comparative psychology [1]. The Quartet Theory of Human Emotions by Koelsch and colleagues [2] is therefore a welcome step towards a more integrative affective science.

  18. The Quartet does not play alone. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Mas-Herrero, Ernest

    2015-06-01

    The study of emotions has been an important topic in cognitive and affective neuroscience in the last decades. In the present manuscript, Koelsch et al. [1] propose a new neurobiological framework based on four emotional core systems (the Quartet), involved in different aspects of human emotion processing. This is an interesting theory that goes beyond classical emotion classification to describe the emotional experience based on four main cerebral components (brainstem, diencephalon, hippocampus, and orbitofrontal cortex). This approach allows the description of different classes of affects, including those that are unique in humans as emotional responses associated to abstract stimuli (for example, aesthetical stimuli such as art and music).

  19. Prediseño integral de la via Puente La Libertad - El Arbolito, sector K17+970 al K19+970

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona Castro, Julián; Cortes Reina, Mauricio Antonio

    2005-01-01

    La vía en estudio “Puente La Libertad – El Arbolito”, hace parte de la red secundaria de carreteras del Departamento de Caldas, dicha vía se encuentra localizada en Villamaría, Municipio turístico por excelencia y ruta obligada de acceso al Parque Nacional Natural de los Nevados. Es de allí donde radica la importancia del estudio, para desarrollar alternativas que mejoren el acceso a dichos centros y poder desarrollar una nueva industria de gran aceptación en nuestro país, el ecoturismo. El d...

  20. AVL e-fusion. Functional integration as a key technology for an affordable electrified powertrain; AVL e-Fusion. Funktionsintegration als Schluessel zur leistbaren Elektrifizierung des Antriebsstranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorger, Helfried; Ellinger, Raimund; Ebner, Peter [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)] [and others

    2012-11-01

    The progressive electrification of the power train for passenger cars currently brings a massive cost increase of the overall system itself. The additional cost result primarily due to the additional systems and components, such as battery, generator, electric motor, power electronics and the like causes, but is also increased due to the extended complexity in the control of these systems and their integration into the vehicle. Even in case of economies of scale in mass production for electric components maintaining well known power train technologies still remain substantial additional cost compared with non-electrified power trains. AVL's approach to cost reduction for comparable performance and fuel consumption target values with current production solutions is a radical and continuous integration of functions. The concept of functional integration critically scrutinizes and redefines existing interfaces, based on the established manufacturing and assembly sequences in mass production. This functional integration considers not only the singular main elements of the drive train, such as engine, gearbox and electric motor, but it also presents innovative solutions that logically bring these key elements together, in terms of overall power train function. Despite the high functional integration, it was possible to realize a modular drive train family, consisting of a conventional drive train, mild hybrid, plug-in hybrid up to a range extender and a pure electric drive line. The compactness and the wide spread of performance range of the modular AVL e-Fusion family allows an universal application for A, B, and C segment passenger cars, whereas the 2 cylinder TGDI engine is capable to also cover the entra-/volume-power class in the C segment. The 3 cylinder TGDI is also able to cover higher vehicle segments. Center of attention was also paid on the NVH behavior of engines with lower number of cylinders. The unit cost reductions for the entire drive train

  1. Monolithically integrated InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well laser grown by MOCVD on exact Ge/Si(001) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Baidus, N. V.; Dubinov, A. A.; Fefelov, A. G.; Krasilnik, Z. F.; Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Nekorkin, S. M.; Novikov, A. V.; Pavlov, D. A.; Samartsev, I. V.; Skorokhodov, E. V.; Shaleev, M. V.; Sushkov, A. A.; Yablonskiy, A. N.; Yunin, P. A.; Yurasov, D. V.

    2016-08-01

    We report on realization of the InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well laser grown by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition on a virtual Ge-on-Si(001) substrate. The Ge buffer layer has been grown on a nominal Si(001) substrate by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. Such Ge buffer possessed rather good crystalline quality and smooth surface and so provided the subsequent growth of the high-quality A3B5 laser structure. The laser operation has been demonstrated under electrical pumping at 77 K in the continuous wave mode and at room temperature in the pulsed mode. The emission wavelengths of 941 nm and 992 nm have been obtained at 77 K and 300 K, respectively. The corresponding threshold current densities were estimated as 463 A/cm2 at 77 K and 5.5 kA/cm2 at 300 K.

  2. Estudio integral de las respuestas ecofisiológicas al estrés hídrico: caracterización de variedades de almendro

    OpenAIRE

    Herralde Travería, Felicidad de

    2000-01-01

    [spa] El almendro (Prunus amygdalus Batsch, syn P.dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) es un cultivo leñoso típicamente mediterráneo, que se adapta con facilidad a regiones con escasos recursos hídricos. El clima mediterráneo promueve estrés hídrico que da lugar a reducciones en la producción y respuestas de la especie frente al ambiente. En este contexto el conocimiento de las características del material vegetal puede permitir una optimización de su manejo agronómico y de los programas de mejora gené...

  3. Aesthetic emotions goals. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2015-06-01

    Review by Koelsch et al. [10] presents an interdisciplinary theory of emotions, including a neurobiological emotion theory originating in four core emotional systems. The Quartet Theory (QT) includes specifically human emotions and considers the role of language for emotions. This comment considers questions about how the QT can address aesthetic emotions, what class of emotions they are, and what their function in cognition is. Can QT help defining aesthetic emotions neurally and functionally? Such a definition of aesthetic emotions would be necessary for their scientific exploration, because as widely used today there is no definition, aesthetics is defined through art, and art through aesthetics. Since contents of many art museums are not accepted as art by many artists and admirers of art, it is not clear what should be the subject of aesthetic emotions research.

  4. Musical rhythm and affect. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Maria A. G.; Kringelbach, Morten L.; Vuust, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The Quartet Theory of Human Emotion (QT) proposed by Koelsch et al. [1] adds to existing affective models, e.g. by directing more attention to emotional contagion, attachment-related and non-goal-directed emotions. Such an approach seems particularly appropriate to modelling musical emotions, and music is indeed a recurring example in the text, used to illustrate the distinct characteristics of the affect systems that are at the centre of the theory. Yet, it would seem important for any theory of emotion to account for basic functions such as prediction and anticipation, which are only briefly mentioned. Here we propose that QT, specifically its focus on emotional contagion, attachment-related and non-goal directed emotions, might help generate new ideas about a largely neglected source of emotion - rhythm - a musical property that relies fundamentally on the mechanism of prediction.

  5. Measurement of quality factor and losses in superconducting microwave resonator integrated with NbN/AlN/NbN qubit circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, W.; Makise, K.; Terai, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2014-05-01

    Dielectric loss from two-level systems (TLSs) formed by local defects have shown a significant impact on the qubit coherence time. These defects can originate in the insulation material for superconducting wires isolation or in the Josephson junction tunnel barrier material. Due to the complexity of the qubit circuit fabrication process, identifying the contribution from each decoherence source is challenging. In an effort to address this issue, we have developed superconducting qubit that consists of full epitaxially-grown NbN/AlN/NbN Josephson junctions in NbN coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonator circuit. The dielectric loss introduced from TLFs in tunnel junction barrier has been largely reduced due to the unique epitaxial feature of the tunnel junction. The quality factor Qi of the CPW resonator was measured and the dielectric loss tanδ is 3×10-4. The relaxation time inferred from the measured resonator quality factor was comparable to the qubit relaxation time.

  6. Gelingende Integration? Anmerkungen zur Studie von D. Katzenbach u.a. uber den Hamburger Schulversuch "Integrative Grundschule" in ZfPad. 45 (1999), S. 567-590 (Successful Integration? Remarks on the Study by D. Katzenbach et al. on the Hamburg School Experiment "Integrative Elementary School" in ZfPad. 45 (1999), S. 567-590).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Peter Martin

    1999-01-01

    Critiques two normative premises that guide the researchers' interpretation of results from the Hamburg School Experiment, an empirical study that focused on mainstreaming elementary students diagnosed as needing special education: (1) integrating these children in normal classrooms is legitimated; and (2) social integration should not preclude…

  7. Thermal utilization of wastes as a part of an integrated waste management concept of the Balearic Islands; Thermische Abfallbehandlung als Teil des integrierten Abfallwirtschaftskonzepts der Balearen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbermann, Georg [Hitachi Zosen Inova AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    For several years, a rethinking in the tourist paradise Mallorca took place. Due to the limited land resources it was clear to the public authorities that the waste cannot be deposited unlimited and unsorted. An ambitious concept for the waste management has to be developed, and an integrated system has to be planned. The ambiguous goal is zero landfill: In future, as many waste materials as possible should be led back in the product cycle. The non-recyclable materials should be incinerated efficiently and utilized energetically.

  8. Beyond synergies. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew B.

    2016-07-01

    The target paper by Santello et al. [1] uses the observation that hand shape during grasping can be described by a small set of basic postures, or "synergies," to describe the possible neural basis of motor control during this complex behavior. In the literature, the term "synergy" has been used with a number of different meanings and is still loosely defined, making it difficult to derive concrete analogs of corresponding neural structure. Here, I will define "synergy" broadly, as a set of parameters bound together by a pattern of correlation. With this definition, it can be argued that behavioral synergies are just one facet of the correlational structuring used by the brain to generate behavior. As pointed out in the target article, the structure found in synergies is driven by the physical constraints of our bodies and our surroundings, combined with the behavioral control imparted by our nervous system. This control itself is based on correlational structure which is likely to be a fundamental property of brain function.

  9. Regulating with imagery and the complexity of basic emotions. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marcel; Kuchinke, Lars

    2015-06-01

    Literature, music and the arts have long attested to the complexity of human emotions. Hitherto, psychological and biological theories of emotions have largely neglected this rich heritage. In their review Koelsch and colleagues [1] have embarked upon the pioneering endeavour of integrating the diverse perspectives in emotion research. Noting that the focus of prior neurobiological theories relies mainly on animal studies, the authors sought to complement this body of research with a model of complex ("moral") emotions in humans (henceforth: complex emotions). According to this novel framework, there are four main interacting affective centres in the brain. Each centre is associated with a dominant affective function, such as ascending activation (brainstem), pain/pleasure (diencephalon), attachment-related affects (hippocampus) or moral emotions and unconscious cognitive appraisal (orbitofrontal cortex). Furthermore, language is ascribed a key role in (a) the communication of subjective feeling (reconfiguration) and (b) in the conscious regulation of emotions (by means of logic and rational thought).

  10. Jebel Hafit and the Al Ain oases (Eastern Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates): an integrative approach of a cultural landscape through the scope of geodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian; Louchet, André; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Ragala, Rachid; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Fouache, Éric; Cohen, Marianne; Desruelles, Stéphane; Gramond, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    human settlements and occupation, it is possible to characterize a threefold transition: first, the former transition between the pre-Islamic prehistoric societies and the development of Muslim societies; second, the more recent transition between the traditional historical society (farmers) and the contemporary society, characterized by the growth of urbanization, the creation of modern transport infrastructure and the concomitant growth of tourist flows; third, the current transition between the yesterday and tomorrow Al Ain City, due to the transformation of a local town centred on national economics all along the second half of the twentieth century, into an international town more open to the wider world with the management of a possible increased 20 % of tourist flow because of the inscription of Cultural Sites of Al Ain on the UNESCO's World Heritage List. It is not possible to completely ignore the fact that the Jebel Hafit and its foothills are partly crossed by an international boundary. In case of political tensions, this may cause some difficulties for the management of this territory, with contradictory requirements between security, tourism, traditional land use, and scientific research.

  11. The hippocampus is an integral part of the temporal limbic system during emotional processing. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Wiebke; Frühholz, Sascha

    2015-06-01

    The proposed quartet theory of human emotions by Koelsch and colleagues [1] identifies four different affect systems to be involved in the processing of particular types of emotions. Moreover, the theory integrates both basic emotions and more complex emotion concepts, which include also aesthetic emotions such as musical emotions. The authors identify a particular brain system for each kind of emotion type, also by contrasting them to brain structures that are generally involved in emotion processing irrespective of the type of emotion. A brain system that has been less regarded in emotion theories, but which represents one of the four systems of the quartet to induce attachment related emotions, is the hippocampus.

  12. Variability and situatedness of human emotions. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Marcos; Rosselló, Jaume

    2015-06-01

    We commend Koelsch and colleagues [14] for developing a broad and integrative explanation of the neurobiological foundations of emotions. We especially welcome this framework's emphasis on the interaction between language and emotion, and its focus on the characteristically human moral emotions. Emotions elicited by art and aesthetics also seem to be distinctively human, but comparatively little research has been devoted to understanding these. This is probably because they are usually viewed as atypical in several respects. William James [12], for instance, regarded emotional responses to artworks and aesthetic qualities as subtler emotions, because they lacked the strong bodily changes and adaptive value characteristic of coarser emotions, such as joy, anger, or fear. This view is still predominant today, and aesthetic emotions are often distinguished from everyday emotions [13]. However, the notion of a class of aesthetic emotions, separate from everyday emotions, rests on the questionable assumption that artistic and aesthetic experiences and activities are different in essence from everyday experiences and activities. The discontinuity between "aesthetic experience [and] normal processes of living" [9, p. 10], however, is the product of social and cultural developments in Europe during the 18th century [7,15,20]. Distinctions that oppose art to craft, or aesthetic to practical, in reference to objects, behaviors, experiences, and emotions, make little sense in a broader historic and geographic context [1,7,20], and hinder empirical research [7].

  13. La influencia de factores relativos a la estrategia organizativa y al entorno en la adopción del Cuadro de Mando Integral en empresas portuguesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Rodrigues Quesado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo identificar y analizar un conjunto de variables relativas a la estrategia y entorno organizativo que pueden potencialmente influir en la adopción del Cuadro de Mando Integral (CMI en empresas portuguesas de distintos tamaños. Para comprobar empíricamente las hipótesis formuladas hemos recurrido a los datos obtenidos mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario postal a 549 organizaciones privadas portuguesas (pequeñas y medianas empresas y grandes empresas, con una tasa de respuesta total del 28,2%. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la implementación del CMI es independiente de la actividad/sector económico en el que opera la organización. Además, hemos comprobado que las organizaciones que siguen una estrategia defensiva atribuyen mayor importancia a la perspectiva financiera o equivalente del CMI. Por otro lado, no hemos obtenido evidencia empírica respecto a la posible relación entre la implementación del CMI, el tipo de estrategia adoptada por la organización, la fase/etapa del ciclo de vida en que se encuentra la organización y la intensidad de competencia del entorno.

  14. AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desport Estelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and

  15. Nutrition Protocol in General Care for Patients with Parkinson Disease Protocolo para la alimentación- nutrición en la atención integral al paciente con enfermedad de Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Marcos Plasencia

    2011-07-01

    tratamiento pueden limitar el consumo de alimentos. Es necesaria una atención integral para minimizar sus limitaciones y mejorar así su calidad de vida y la de su familia. Dentro de una atención integral, el aspecto de la alimentación-nutrición es cardinal por lo que se ofrece aquí un protocolo de trabajo para la intervención nutricional al enfermo de Parkinson

  16. Faraday rotation and photoluminescence in heavily Tb(3+)-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses for fiber-integrated magneto-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guojun; Winterstein-Beckmann, Anja; Surzhenko, Oleksii; Dubs, Carsten; Dellith, Jan; Schmidt, Markus A; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2015-03-10

    We report on the magneto-optical (MO) properties of heavily Tb(3+)-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses towards fiber-integrated paramagnetic MO devices. For a Tb(3+) ion concentration of up to 9.7 × 10(21) cm(-3), the reported glass exhibits an absolute negative Faraday rotation of ~120 rad/T/m at 632.8 nm. The optimum spectral ratio between Verdet constant and light transmittance over the spectral window of 400-1500 nm is found for a Tb(3+) concentration of ~6.5 × 10(21) cm(-3). For this glass, the crystallization stability, expressed as the difference between glass transition temperature and onset temperature of melt crystallization exceeds 100 K, which is a prerequisite for fiber drawing. In addition, a high activation energy of crystallization is achieved at this composition. Optical absorption occurs in the NUV and blue spectral region, accompanied by Tb(3+) photoluminescence. In the heavily doped materials, a UV/blue-to-green photo-conversion gain of ~43% is achieved. The lifetime of photoluminescence is ~2.2 ms at a stimulated emission cross-section σem of ~1.1 × 10(-21) cm(2) for ~ 5.0 × 10(21) cm(-3) Tb(3+). This results in an optical gain parameter σem*τ of ~2.5 × 10(-24) cm(2)s, what could be of interest for implementation of a Tb(3+) fiber laser.

  17. Der Kontext als Schlüssel für ein angemessenes Verständnis der Integration durch Recht in Europa am Beispiel der aktuellen Grundrechtsprechung des EuGH

    OpenAIRE

    Grimmel, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In einem bedeutenden Teil der integrationstheoretischen Literatur wird die Ansicht vertreten, der Europäische Gerichtshof (EuGH) sei als ein politischer Akteur zu konzipieren und zu verstehen. Diese Annahme spiegelt sich jedoch eher bestimmte politikwissenschaftliche Erklärungsmuster als die Handlungsgründe im europäischen Recht wider. Hier wird daher für einen Ansatz argumentiert, der das europäische Recht als einen spezifischen - lokal, temporal und funktional differenzierten - Kontext mit ...

  18. ESTADO ACTUAL DE LA POBLACION VICTIMA DE DESPLAZAMEINTO FORZADO EN CUANTO AL ENFOQUE DIFERENCIAL DE SU ATENCIÓN, EL DERECHO A LA INTEGRIDAD, LA SUBSISTENCIA MINIMA Y AL INGRESO ECONOMICO.(CURRENT STATUS OF THE POPULATION VICTIM OF FORCED DISPLACEMENT AS FOR ITS DIFFERENTIAL APPROACH OF ITS ATTENTION, THE RIGHT TO INTEGRITY, THE MINIMUM SUSTENANCE AND THE ECONOMIC INCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Esteban Monsalve Rojas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo recoge algunos aspectos de la investigación que sobre el Goce Efectivo de Derechos (Informe GED elaborara el Observatorio Departamental de Desplazamiento Forzado de Antioquia en 2011. En esta entrega, la tercera de una serie de cuatro, se recogen algunos contenidos, metodologías de la medición, diseño de indicadores y resultados que arrojara el informe GED. En particular, en este aparte se exponen aspectos relativos a la atención de la población víctima del desplazamiento en términos del respeto a su integridad y las garantías para obtener un tratamiento acorde al enfoque diferencial. Así mismo, se tratan los diseños y resultados de la medición de los indicadores sociales sobre garantías de subsistencia mínima y alcance de la cobertura de ingresos económicos y educación en la población de estudio.Abstract:The following article contains some aspects of the research that about the effective enjoyment of rights (EER report developed by the State Observatory of Forced Displacement in Antioquia in 2011. In this installment, the third in a series of four, the measurement methodologies, the design of indicators, and the results which the EER report will produce, are included. In particular, in this supplement, aspects relating to the care of the victims of displacement in terms of respect for their integrity and guarantees to obtain a treatment according to the differential approach. It also shows the design and the results of the measurement of the social indicators about the warranty of minimum sustenance and the scope of the coverage of the economic income and education, in the population under study.

  19. Factoring multivariate integral polynomials.

    OpenAIRE

    Lenstra, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to factorize polynomials in several variables with integral coefficients that is polynomial-time in the degrees of the polynomial to be factored, for any fixed number of variables. The algorithm generalizes the algorithm presented by A. K. Lenstra et al. to factorize integral polynomials in one variable.

  20. Children as carers: an integrative review Niños como cuidadores: revisión integrativa Crianças como cuidadoras: revisão integrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Filipe Marote

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to undertake an integrative literature review on the issue of "Children as carers". This is an emerging topic in the provision of health care, but nevertheless has a low profile in the literature. METHODOLOGY: this study was based in a survey of nine databases of scientific articles, using as descriptor: child, young, caregivers, lay carer and nursing role, as well as the corresponding terms in Portuguese. 21 articles were analyzed. RESULTS: these were organized into six categories - factors which motivate the child to take on the role of caregiver; these children's characteristics; tasks performed; time spent in caring; consequences of providing care and the role of the nurse in partnership with these children and their families. CONCLUSION: the children as carers are a focus of attention relevant to nursing practice, this issue representing an opportunity for investigation in Portuguese-speaking countries, as no article was found on the subject in Portuguese. In addition, with this first study in Portuguese, a work of the creation of a bibliography is begun, allowing an awareness of the issue and the identification of ways to respond to the families involved, in line with their needs.OBJETIVO: realizar una revisión bibliográfica integrativa del tema "Niños como Cuidadores". Se Trata de un tema emergente en la prestación de atenciones de salud, que sin embargo se mantiene poco visible en la literatura. METODOLOGÍA: se basó en una investigación sobre nueve bases de datos de artículos científicos, utilizándose como descriptores: child, young, caregivers, lay carer y nursing role, así como los correspondientes en portugués. Fueron analizados 21 artículos. RESULTADOS: fueron organizados en seis categorías - factores que motivan el niño a asumir el papel de cuidador; características de esos niños; tareas desempeñadas; tiempo pasado a cuidar; consecuencias de la prestación de atenciones y papel del enfermero junto de

  1. AlGaAs-On-Insulator nonlinear photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Ottaviano, Luisa; Semenova, Elizaveta;

    We present an AlGaAs-on-insulator platform for integrated nonlinear photonics. We demonstrate the highest reported conversion efficiency and ultra-broadband four-wave mixing for an integrated platform around 1550nm......We present an AlGaAs-on-insulator platform for integrated nonlinear photonics. We demonstrate the highest reported conversion efficiency and ultra-broadband four-wave mixing for an integrated platform around 1550nm...

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Flexible Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 Hybrid Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijiang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural brittleness of oxide ceramics heavily inhibits their more extensive applications. In present research, a highly flexible Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 hybrid composite was fabricated by employing plasma electrolysis oxidation to in situ grow alumina layers on Al foil, in which an outside layer of nanostructured polycrystalline oxide ceramic was composed of nanosized grains with the size of around 17 nm. Due to shear band formation, nanosized circle bubbles prolonging the crack path, grain rotation, and deformation, the fabricated Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 hybrid composite contains no observable cracks even after being bent on a cylindrical bar with a curvature of 1.5 mm. The composite exhibits alumina stiffness at the elastic stage and aluminum ductility during plastic deformation, which provides high flexibility with the well-integrated properties of the components. In a synergistic interaction, the alumina on the outside exhibited a strain of 0.33% at room temperature, which was higher than optimum value of 0.25% presented by reported most flexible oxide ceramics. With the unique characteristics and properties, the Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 composite demonstrates a great potential for various engineering applications.

  3. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit of 16 months before onset of severe respiratory failure. Other treatments are designed to relieve symptoms and ... of ALS. Most people with ALS die from respiratory failure, usually within 3 to 5 years from the ...

  4. Slimplectic Integrators: Variational Integrators for Nonconservative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, David

    2016-05-01

    Symplectic integrators are widely used for long-term integration of conservative astrophysical problems due to their ability to preserve the constants of motion; however, they cannot in general be applied in the presence of nonconservative interactions. Here we present the “slimplectic” integrator, a new type of numerical integrator that shares many of the benefits of traditional symplectic integrators yet is applicable to general nonconservative systems. We utilize a fixed-time-step variational integrator formalism applied to a newly developed principle of stationary nonconservative action (Galley, 2013, Galley et al 2014). As a result, the generalized momenta and energy (Noether current) evolutions are well-tracked. We discuss several example systems, including damped harmonic oscillators, Poynting–Robertson drag, and gravitational radiation reaction, by utilizing our new publicly available code to demonstrate the slimplectic integrator algorithm. Slimplectic integrators are well-suited for integrations of systems where nonconservative effects play an important role in the long-term dynamical evolution. As such they are particularly appropriate for cosmological or celestial N-body dynamics problems where nonconservative interactions, e.g., gas interactions or dissipative tides, can play an important role.

  5. The Ni-Al-Hf Multiphase Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Darken method was applied to simulate the diffusion between γ-Ni| γ’-Ni3Al and γ’-Ni3Al|β-NiAl interfaces. The results of calculations were compared with the experimental concentration’s profiles of nickel, aluminum and hafnium in aluminide and hafnium doped aluminide coatings deposited by the CVD and PVD methods on pure nickel. The method deals with the Wagner’s integral diffusion coefficients and thermodynamic data - activities of components. The experimental results agree with the simulated ones.

  6. High-purity hydrogen generation in a microfabricated 23 wt % Ag-Pd membrane device integrated with 8:1 LaNi{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, B.A.; Weiss, S.E.; Ying, J.Y.; Jensen, K.F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 25 Ames Street, 66-501 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Schmidt, M.A. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, and Microsystems Technology Laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2006-07-04

    Micromembranes integrating nanometer-scale Pd films with complex oxide methanol-reforming catalysts demonstrate high-purity hydrogen generation. Washcoating of an 8:1 LaNi{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst serves the dual purposes of preventing thin-film disintegration upon direct exposure to methanol while providing improved selectivity and conversion of methanol to hydrogen through partial oxidation. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Undulators at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/- 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10-11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10-10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented

  8. On the role of language from basic to cultural modulation of affect. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Koelsch et al. [1] propose the following two emotion-relevant functions of language: "(a) With regard to subjective feelings, language is an important means to express as well as communicate emotions (and, therefore, also to elicit emotions in other individuals). (b) With regard to conscious appraisal, language is an important means to regulate emotions" - assuming that "activity of affect systems and effector systems is synthesized into an emotion percept (pre-verbal subjective feeling), which can be transformed (or reconfigured) into a symbolic code such as language".

  9. Una mirada al tránsito de la comuna 3 de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires : Diagnóstico y producción del Plan Integral para Peatones Solidarios y Conductores Responsables

    OpenAIRE

    Contartessi, Mariana; Forniciti, Florencia; Gonzalo, Diego; Pinto, Marcela

    2008-01-01

    A partir del análisis de la situación del tránsito en la Comuna 3 de la Capital Federal, el trabajo concluye con las propuestas para la elaboración y posterior presentación al Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires del Plan de Desarrollo Comunal de Seguridad Vial para Peatones Solidarios y Conductores Responsables. En la primera parte, los dos primeros capítulos desarrollan los paquetes conceptuales a través de los cuales se analizó la temática y culminan con el trabajo de campo sobre...

  10. La Adaptación al Cambio Climático Más que nuevos retos, oportunidades para mejorar la gestión integral del riesgo y la gestión ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Olave, Dora Catalina

    2011-01-01

    El cambio climático se ha constituido en una temática internacional prioritaria debido al registro del acelerado aumento de la temperatura de la Tierra en las últimas décadas, de eventos climatológicos extremos que han aumentado su frecuencia e intensidad, de eventos sobre los que no se tenía registro histórico, y de cambios en la duración y extensión de estaciones y temporadas de lluvias, los cuales vienen causando graves daños y consecuencias alrededor del mundo. Es así co...

  11. Are we ready to move beyond the reductionist approach of classical synergy control?. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; Zago, Myrka

    2016-07-01

    Starting from the classical concepts introduced by Sherrington [1] and considerably elaborated by Bernstein [2], much has been learned about motor synergies in the last several years. The contributions of the group funded by the European project "The Hand Embodied" are remarkable in the field of biological and robotic control of the hand based on synergies, and they are reflected in this enjoyable review [3]. There, Santello et al. adopt Bernstein's definition of motor synergies as multiple elements working together towards a common goal, with the result that multiple degrees of freedom are controlled within a lower-dimensional space than the available number of dimensions.

  12. Volver al desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ornelas Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo, categoría empleada para expresar el crecimiento económico, surge durante la "guerra fría" y si bien fue propuesta por teóricos metropolitanos, se asumió en Latinoamérica como parte de los instrumentos disponibles para lograr el crecimiento y alternativa al socialismo. El desarrollo mantuvo su vigencia entre 1945 y 1975, cuando al advenimiento del neoliberalismo fue paulatinamente retirado de la agenda de las preocupaciones nacionales e internacionales. Al iniciarse el siglo xxi, el fracaso del mercado autorregulado trajo de nueva cuenta al debate los problemas del desarrollo, lo que obliga a revisarlo críticamente, tanto como al concepto mismo para mostrar su carácter colonial, si se quiere construir caminos ajenos al neoliberal y superar los problemas que han hecho de Latinoamérica una de las regiones más desiguales del mundo.

  13. Jalta als Heterotopie

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Jalta ist ein Ort, der sich im europäischen Kulturgedächtnis sowohl historisch als auch literarisch als "radikal anderer Ort" - als " Heterotopie" - festgesetzt hat. An der Konferenz von Jalta wurde 1945 eine neue Weltordnung geschaffen in der Hoffnung auf eine bessere Welt. Auch in den Werken von Anton ?echov, vor allem in denjenigen, die in Jalta entstanden sind, wird von einer anderen und besseren Welt geträumt.

  14. Pornographie als Metapher

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-01-01

    In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article...

  15. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.

  16. Aproximation to the Modelling of Charge and Discharge Processes in Electrochemical Batteries by Integral Equation; Aproximacion al Modelo de los Procesos de Carga y Descarga en Baterias Electroquimicas mediante Ecuaciones Integrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balenzategui, J. L. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    A new way for the modelling of the charge and discharge processes in electrochemical batteries based on the use of integral equations is presented. The proposed method models the charge curves by by the so called fractional or cumulative integrals of a certain objective function f(t) that must be sought. The charge figures can be easily fitted by breaking down this objective function as the addition of two different Lorentz-type functions: the first one is associated to the own charge process and the second one to the overcharge process. The method allows calculating the starting voltage for overcharge as the intersection between both functions. The curve fitting of this model to different experimental charge curves, by using the Marquardt algorithm, has shown very accurate results. In the case of discharge curves, two possible methods for modelling purposes are suggested, well by using the same kind of integral equations, well by the simple subtraction of an objective function f(t) from a constant value V{sub o}D. Many other aspects for the study and analysis of this method in order to improve its results in further developments are also discussed. (Author) 10 refs.

  17. Gezondheid als marketinginstrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, van de L.P.L.; Berg, van den I.

    2008-01-01

    Is biologisch voedsel beter dan gangbaar? Hoe hard zijn de bewijzen daarvoor? En hoe sterk moet het bewijs zijn voordat je het als claim op een product mag zetten? In dit Biokennis bericht een overzicht van de wetenschappelijke conclusies en de mogelijkheden om biologisch te promoten als beter, neer

  18. Al-Anon/Alateen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find an Al-Anon meeting Español | Français 2018 Int'l Convention Home About Group Meetings What If I'm not ready ... a meeting? What can I expect at an Al-Anon meeting? What was my first meeting like? ...

  19. Programa de Atención Integral al Enfermo Mental en las prisiones españolas (PAIEM): valoración tras cuatro años de funcionamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz, J.; P. Gómez-Pintado; A. Ruiz; F. Pozuelo; J.M. Arroyo

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el programa de atención integral a los enfermos mentales (PAIEM) implantado desde hace 3 años en las prisiones españolas, con el fin de mejorar su funcionamiento y resultados. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo de los datos recogidos en un cuestionario anónimo cumplimentado por los miembros del equipo PAIEM de los centros penitenciarios. Se obtuvieron distribuciones de frecuencia de todas las variables acerca de hechos, actitudes, opiniones, experiencias, situaciones y proceso...

  20. Working hard to make a simple definition of synergies. Comment on: "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandro, Cristiano; Oliveira Barroso, Filipe; Tresch, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    The paper "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" [1] presents a comprehensive review of the work carried out as part of the EU funded project "The Hand Embodied". The work uses the concept of "synergy" to study the neuromuscular control of the human hand and to design novel robotics systems. The project has been very productive and has made important contributions. We are therefore confident that it will lead to further advancements and experiments in the future.

  1. Al - BASED CAST COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Yadav

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The economy is very important feature nowadays in themarket. The researches are playing an important role inengineering field to increase the life of machine parts /components and decrease the cost. The compositematerials have the potential to replace widely used steeland aluminium due to their good characteristics withbetter performance. The Al-based composites have foundextensive applications in automobile industries andaerospace industries due to their increased stiffness,strength, thermal conductivity and wear resistanceproperties. A number of particulate phases have beenemployed in the Al-alloy matrix. The cast aluminiumceramicparticulate composites are finding applications inpistons, connecting rods, cylinder liner, engine cylinderblock, electrical contacts etc.The present investigation isbased on study of the effect of particulate phase on theSEM study, micro-hardness, elastic modulus, tensilestrength and the wear behaviour of Al-5 % SiC-7 % Fe,Al-10 % SiC-6 % Fe and Al-15 % SiC-5 % Fe composites.

  2. Cenomanian-Turonian biostratigraphy of the Jardas Al Abid area, Al Jabal Al Akhdar, northeast Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Qot, Gamal M.; Abdulsamad, Esam O.

    2016-09-01

    The Upper Cenomanian-Turonian succession exposed at Jardas al'Abid area consists mainly of carbonates with siliciclastic intercalations. This succession is subdivided lithostratigraphically into: Qasr al'Abid (Late Cenomanian) and Al Baniyah (Late Cenomanian-Coniacian) formations. This sequence is relatively rich in macrofossil assemblages especially bivalves, gastropods, and echinoids with rare ammonites. Based on the first occurrence (FO) and last occurrence (LO) of some index species of these macrofossil groups, an integrated biostratigraphic framework has been constructed. The studied Cenomanian-Turonian sequence is subdivided biostratigraphically into three ammonite biozones; Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides Total Range Zone, Choffaticeras segne Total Range Zone, and Coilopoceras requienianum Total Range Zone. Based on the rest of macrofossil assemblages other than the ammonites, eight biozones were recognized; Mecaster batnensis Total Range Zone, Ceratostreon flabellatum-Neithea dutrugei Acme Zone, Costagyra olisiponensis Acme Zone, Pycnodonte (Phygraea) vesicularis vesiculosa Acme Zone, Mytiloides labiatus Total Range Zone = Mecaster turonensis Acme Zone, Rachiosoma rectilineatum-Curvostrea rouvillei-Tylostoma (T.) globosum Assemblage Zone, Radiolites sp.-Apricardia? matheroni Total Range Zone, and Nerinea requieniana Total Range Zone. Most of the proposed biozones are recorded for the first time from Libya. The integration among these biozones as well as local and inter-regional correlation of the biozones have been discussed. The stage boundaries of the studied stratigraphic intervals are discussed, where the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary is delineated at the last occurrence (LO) of Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides (Choffat), while the Turonian/Coniacian boundary is delineated arbitrary being agree with the LO of the Turonian fauna.

  3. Elephants produce their electricity by themselves. Wilhelma an integrated energy efficiency concept of Stuttgart (SEE); Elefanten machen ihren Strom selbst. Die Wilhelma als integriertes Energieeffizienzkonzept der Stadt Stuttgart (SEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilse, Annika; Leix, Carmen; Fischer, Klaus; Kranert, Martin [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    2013-10-01

    As a part of the overall project Stuttgart city with energy efficiency - SEE an integrated bioenergy concept Wilhelma at the Institute for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Waste Management (ISWA) in cooperation with the Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER) is created. The biomass potential analysis was recently completed; a differentiated analysis of energy demand is still pending. The Stuttgart Zoo Wilhelma has a significant biomass potential. With about 340 acres of gardens and parks which fall Wilhelma to care and the residue biomass of around 9000 zoo animals, offers the Stuttgart Zoo and Garden Wilhelma, together with the urban green space a high biomass potential, which is currently unused. For energy recovery through anaerobic digestion in a biogas plant are suitable 3900 t/a of biomass, which are 87% of the total exploitable biomass. For energy recovery by incineration are suitable 600 t/a of biomass, equivalent to the remaining 13% of recoverable biomass. This could be a total energy potential of about 6219 MWh/year are covered if the biomass is fully developed. Of these, 64% come from the fermentation and 36% from burning. About the determined biomass potential can be expected to be covered the electricity and heat demand of up to 16% (integrated bio-energy concept). To fully cover the energy requirements possibility of further use of renewable energy sources (e.g. solar panels on the roofs) must be examined and evaluated. (orig.)

  4. Path Integral and Asset Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Zura Kakushadze

    2014-01-01

    We give a pragmatic/pedagogical discussion of using Euclidean path integral in asset pricing. We then illustrate the path integral approach on short-rate models. By understanding the change of path integral measure in the Vasicek/Hull-White model, we can apply the same techniques to "less-tractable" models such as the Black-Karasinski model. We give explicit formulas for computing the bond pricing function in such models in the analog of quantum mechanical "semiclassical" approximation. We al...

  5. Evolutionary perspectives on emotions and their link to intentions, dispositions and behavior. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgruber, Dirk; Kreifelts, Benjamin

    2015-06-01

    Koelsch and coworkers present a sophisticated neuroanatomical model of emotions comprising four affect-systems and four output-systems, each bound to a specific brain area [1]. Moreover, they suggest the emergence of distinct components of subjective feelings or "emotion percepts" due to integration of the activation across these subsystems. Incorporating numerous neurobiological, psychological and philosophical findings on human emotions, the model reflects an extensive interdisciplinary approach. Considering an evolutionary perspective, however, we would like to address some issues concerning emotions and their link to intentions, dispositions and behavior that are not fully covered by the Quartet Model. Charles Darwin pointed out that individuals that are better adapted to their environment have increased chances of survival and reproduction. Therefore, natural selection leads to a rising prevalence of properties offering a survival benefit across generations [2]. To better understand the biological functions of emotions we propose to ask the question: How do emotions provide a benefit for survival and reproduction?

  6. Compressed air energy storage power plants as an option for the grid integration of renewable energy sources. A comparison of the concepts; Druckluftspeicherkraftwerke als Option zur Netzintegration erneuerbarer Energiequellen. Ein Vergleich der Konzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschy, Ilja [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiesystemtechnik

    2008-07-01

    The integration of an increasing amount of power generation from renewable energy sources is a large challenge for the electricity supply. Apart from the compensation of varying production by supra-regional grids and apart from the further development of peak load power stations the energy storage is discussed as an option. Several power suppliers referred to compressed air energy storage plants as a possible solution. The authors of the contribution under consideration compare the different concepts for compressed air energy power stations systematically. A special emphasis is the thermodynamic evaluation of the different concepts. Also energy-technical aspects are addressed which decide on possibilities of application and perspectives of development for compressed air energy power stations.

  7. New methodologies for the integrated analysis of groundwater management. Altiplano water system case study (Murcia, SE Spain); Nuevas metodologias para el analisis integrado de la gestion del agua subterranea. Aplicacion al caso de estudio del Altiplano (Murcia, SE Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, J. L.; Garcia Arostegui, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Integrated analysis of water management incorporates a great range of dimensions and aspects involved in the management of a water system. Lately, these kind of studies have become numerous because they allow getting a holistic knowledge and they also help managers with the decision making process. Nevertheless, there is not yet a general methodology for tackling this type of studies and there is a big opened field concerning the tools and techniques application. This paper establishes a methodology, which can be extrapolated to other case studies, and a practical procedure for the integrated analysis of groundwater management. This analysis starts with the identification and conceptualization of the hydric problematic. Then, a second phase is focused on the development of sectorial and detailed studies. The third phase is the building of the Decision Support System (DSS) based on the results from the sectorial studies. This research develops and proposes the application of a stochastic DSS based on Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBNs) that allows incorporating a huge range of aspects such as hydrogeological, socioeconomic and environmental, among others. The last phase of the procedure is the simulation of water management scenarios through the DSS. This allows comparing and quantifying the impacts generated by three water management interventions which have been proposed previously. The first scenario establishes the continuation of the current situation, the second scenario is made up of for several water management interventions which are the incoming of external water resources, the purchase of water rights and a reduction of the water demand; finally, the third scenario implies to reach the equilibrium in the aquifer water budgets. (Author) 19 refs.

  8. Integrated Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Sawitzki, Günther

    2000-01-01

    An introduction to integrated documents in statistics. Integrated documents allow a seamless integration of interactive statistics and data analysis components in 'life' documents while keeping the full computational power needed for simulation or resampling.

  9. Sociale media als leermiddel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubens, Wilfred

    2012-01-01

    Rubens, W. (2012, 5 juni). Sociale media als leermiddel. Presentatie over het gebruik van sociale media binnen het onderwijs, verzorgd tijdens een ouderraadbijeenkomst van de Katholieke Scholengemeenschap Etten-Leur, Etten-Leur, Nederland.

  10. MDA ALS Caregiver's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R.D., C.N.S.D., L.D.N. Nutritionist MDA/ALS Center at Vanderbilt University Medical Center ... neurologists, physiatrists, therapists (physical, occupa- tional, speech, respiratory), nutritionists, social work- ers, pulmonologists, gastroenterologists and medical equipment ...

  11. Regionale Herkunft als Bonus

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvil, Dr. Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Der Bio-Sektor durchlebt bewegte Zeiten. Die biologische Landwirtschaft hat sich aus der Nische herausbewegt und dafür an „Besonderheiten“ eingebüßt. Diese müssen als Zusatznutzen wiedergefunden werden.

  12. Partizipation als Ausnahmezustand

    OpenAIRE

    Korf, Benedikt

    2009-01-01

    In «Die Erfindung des Politischen» (1993) beschreibt Ulrich Beck Subpolitik als den Ort, an dem die Grenze zwischen Politik und Nichtpolitik verschwindet. Aus der zunehmenden Wirkkraft von Subpolitik erwächst die grundlegende Frage, mit welcher Legitimation diese Art von Subpolitik in die Sphäre der institutionalisierten Politik eindringt. Beck’s Subpolitik soll im Anschluss an theoretische Arbeiten von Chantal Mouffe und Giorgio Agamben als post-politische Aspiration bezeichnet werden, die e...

  13. 基于语义网的中文百科知识组织与集成%FU Yuxin, WANG Xin, FENG Zhiyong, et al Organization and integration of Chinese encyclopedia knowledge based on semantic web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付宇新; 王鑫; 冯志勇; 吕雪栋

    2015-01-01

    It identifies important structural features from immense knowledgeable data in three largest Chinese encyclope-dias(Baidu Encyclopedia, Hudong Encyclopedia, Chinese Wikipedia)and generates RDF triples, then integrates the in-formation data and sets into a distributed large-scale RDF data storage system, and constructs the RDF dataset of Chinese Encyclopedia Knowledge Base that fits with the requirements of Linked Data. The main work includes, configuring the web crawler to crawl the html pages from Baidu Encyclopedia and Hudong Encyclopedia, parsing the content of the infor-mation box to generate RDF triples, downloading Chinese triples data from DBpedia, integrating the data sets into the dis-tributed large-scale RDF data storage system Jingwei, designing the display of dynamic inserting and triple pattern query pages, it also verifies the validity of the method through prototype system experiments.%通过从3个最大的中文百科全书(百度百科、互动百科、中文维基百科)所包含的大规模知识数据中识别重要的结构化特征生成RDF三元组,并将这些信息数据整合加入分布式大规模RDF数据存储系统,从而构成符合Linked Data要求的中文百科知识库RDF数据集。主要工作包括,通过配置网络爬虫对百度百科和互动百科的网页进行爬取,解析其中信息框等内容,生成RDF三元组并实现三元组的动态插入;下载需要的DBpedia中文三元组数据,将三元组进行整合并存储到课题组的大规模语义数据存储库Jingwei中;设计显示动态插入和三元组模式查询的页面,通过原型系统实验,验证了该方法的有效性。

  14. Der Preis als Kaufbarriere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Die Preispolitik hat eine herausragende Stellung im Marketing. Der Preis eines Produktes ist für Verbraucher ein direkter Kostenfaktor und für Unternehmen die Stellgröße im Mar-ketingmix, die den Umsatz am stärksten beeinflusst (vgl. Nieschlag et al. 2002). Wenn die Akzeptanz und der regelmäßige...... Verzehr gesunder Lebensmittel erhöht werden soll, ist es sowohl für die Verbraucherpolitik als auch für Lebensmittelproduzenten wichtig, den Ein-fluss des Preises auf die Kaufentscheidung zu verstehen. Aus Verbrauchersicht ist der Preis neben dem Geschmack die wichtigste Produkteigen-schaft beim Kauf von...... Lebensmitteln (vgl. Brunsø/Grunert 1998) und stellt eine Kaufbarrie-re für Lebensmittel mit gesundheitsfördernden Eigenschaften dar. Studien in den USA (vgl. Cassady et al. 2007), Frankreich (vgl. Drewnowski et al. 2004; Andrieu et al. 2005) und Deutschland (vgl. Karg et al. 2008) kommen übereinstimmend zu dem...

  15. Acoustic integrated extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    The integrated extinction (IE) is defined as the integral of the scattering cross-section as a function of wavelength. Sohl et al. [1] derived an IE expression for acoustic scattering that is causal, i.e. the scattered wavefront in the forward direction arrives later than the incident plane wave in the background medium. The IE formula was based on electromagnetic results, for which scattering is causal by default. Here we derive a formula for the acoustic IE that is valid for causal and non-causal scattering. The general result is expressed as an integral of the time dependent forward scattering function. The IE reduces to a finite integral for scatterers with zero long-wavelength monopole and dipole amplitudes. Implications for acoustic cloaking are discussed and a new metric is proposed for broadband acoustic transparency.

  16. Human emotion in the brain and the body: Why language matters. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cornelia

    2015-06-01

    What is an Emotion? This question has fascinated scientific research since William James. Despite the fact that a consensus has been reached about the biological origin of emotions, uniquely human aspects of emotions are still poorly understood. One of these blind spots concerns the relationship between emotion and human language. Historically, many theories imply a duality between emotions on the one hand and cognitive functions such as language on the other hand. Especially for symbolic forms of written language and word processing, it has been assumed that semantic information would bear no relation to bodily, affective, or sensorimotor processing (for an overview see Ref. [1]). The Quartet Theory proposed by Koelsch and colleagues [2] could provide a solution to this problem. It offers a novel, integrative neurofunctional model of human emotions which considers language and emotion as closely related. Crucially, language - be it spoken or written - is assumed to "regulate, modulate, and partly initiate" activity in core affective brain systems in accord with physical needs and individual concerns [cf. page 34, line 995]. In this regard, the Quartet Theory combines assumptions from earlier bioinformational theories of emotions [3], contemporary theories of embodied cognition [4], and appraisal theories such as the Component Process Model [5] into one framework, thereby providing a holistic model for the neuroscientific investigation of human emotion processing at the interface of emotion and cognition, mind and body.

  17. Pedagogía de la Afectividad: La afectividad en la educación que le apuesta a la formación integral, ir al núcleo del sujeto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Trujillo García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una síntesis del trabajo de grado "La sujetualidad: un argumento para implicar", que realicé para obtener la Maestría en Educación en la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana en diciembre de 2005. Se trata de una investigación teórica en la que se realiza un abordaje hermenéutico y crítico de algunos textos pedagógicos y didácticos modernos a fin de comprender cómo ha sido tratada la afectividad en la educación. Se profundiza en las posibilidades de la formación integral centrada en la afectividad y se derivan de ella algunas implicaciones educativas para la constitución del sujeto en la posmodernidad, asumiendo como presupuesto que la afectividad y no la razón, es el núcleo de constitución del sujeto, desde allí, se proponen algunos lineamientos para una pedagogía de los afectos, en particular: prever conscientemente la condicionabilidad de las emociones, construir proyectos para desarrollar sentimientos perdurables, propiciar la enseñanza dialogante y asumir el discernimiento como estilo de vida.

  18. Learning in robotic manipulation: The role of dimensionality reduction in policy search methods. Comment on "Hand synergies: Integration of robotics and neuroscience for understanding the control of biological and artificial hands" by Marco Santello et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficuciello, Fanny; Siciliano, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    A question that often arises, among researchers working on artificial hands and robotic manipulation, concerns the real meaning of synergies. Namely, are they a realistic representation of the central nervous system control of manipulation activities at different levels and of the sensory-motor manipulation apparatus of the human being, or do they constitute just a theoretical framework exploiting analytical methods to simplify the representation of grasping and manipulation activities? Apparently, this is not a simple question to answer and, in this regard, many minds from the field of neuroscience and robotics are addressing the issue [1]. The interest of robotics is definitely oriented towards the adoption of synergies to tackle the control problem of devices with high number of degrees of freedom (DoFs) which are required to achieve motor and learning skills comparable to those of humans. The synergy concept is useful for innovative underactuated design of anthropomorphic hands [2], while the resulting dimensionality reduction simplifies the control of biomedical devices such as myoelectric hand prostheses [3]. Synergies might also be useful in conjunction with the learning process [4]. This aspect is less explored since few works on synergy-based learning have been realized in robotics. In learning new tasks through trial-and-error, physical interaction is important. On the other hand, advanced mechanical designs such as tendon-driven actuation, underactuated compliant mechanisms and hyper-redundant/continuum robots might exhibit enhanced capabilities of adapting to changing environments and learning from exploration. In particular, high DoFs and compliance increase the complexity of modelling and control of these devices. An analytical approach to manipulation planning requires a precise model of the object, an accurate description of the task, and an evaluation of the object affordance, which all make the process rather time consuming. The integration of

  19. Modification of residual stress in Al-[AlBO]w/Al compound plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜传海; 吴建生; 王德尊

    2001-01-01

    The application of compound parts of Al-[AlBO]w/Al not only reduces the cost of the parts but also improves its properties. However, there is a large thermal residual stress between Al and [AlBO]w/Al, and it is harmful for practical application. From the theoretical analyses and experimental results, it was found that by the compressive pre-plastic deformation perpendicular to the interface between Al and [AlBO]w/Al, the interlayer residual stress of compound parts can be reduced, while the mechanical properties of compound parts can be improved.

  20. High quality semipolar (11¯02) AlGaN/AlN quantum wells with remarkably enhanced optical transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjusting the growth conditions from those for c-plane growth realizes high-quality semipolar (11¯02) AlGaN/AlN quantum wells (QWs) with atomically smooth surfaces and abrupt interfaces on AlN substrates. Upon comparing the optical properties to those of c-plane QWs using time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, the estimated internal electric field is much smaller in (11¯02) AlGaN/AlN QWs than in c-plane QWs. Thus, (11¯02) AlGaN/AlN QWs have narrower emission line widths and remarkably faster radiative recombination lifetimes, realizing highly efficient deep ultraviolet emissions.

  1. THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND ITS INTEGRATION TO THE UNIVERSITY EDUCATION: A LOOK TO THE FUTURE / LAS TECNOLOGÍAS DE LA INFORMACIÓN Y LA COMUNICACIÓN Y SU INTEGRACIÓN A LA EDUCACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA: UNA MIRADA AL FUTURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lidia Martínez Leyet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we offer a current look to the panorama of rapid development of the information and communication technologies (ICT, its trends and challenges, as well as its impact on the university education and in specific in the skills that must be formed in future professionals to be prepared to face the challenges of the knowledge society. This vision of the main trends and challenges of the ICT integration in the field of education is offered on the basis of the results of important international research and projects: the 2013 Horizon Report (New Media Consortium, the “Future Work Skills 2020” Report, developed by the Institute for the Future of the University of Phoenix (2011 and the research report “The new generation learning systems for 2020”, published by EDUTEKA and developed by “Federation for Learning” from USA. The integration of ICT is analyzed from a didactic and psycho-pedagogical perspective, offering a look at the main theoretical and methodological approaches that sustain their application in the pedagogical models in the modern universities. RESUMEN En este trabajo se ofrece una mirada muy actual al panorama de rápido desarrollo de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC, sus tendencias y retos, así como su impacto en la educación universitaria y en específico en las habilidades que se deben formar en los futuros profesionales para que lleguen al mundo laboral preparados para enfrentar los retos de la sociedad del conocimiento. Esta visión de las principales tendencias y retos de la integración de las TIC más avanzadas al campo de la educación se realiza en base a los resultados de investigaciones y proyectos internacionales: el Reporte Horizonte del 2013 (New Media Consortium, el reporte “Future Work Skills 2020”, por el Instituto para el Futuro del Instituto de Investigación de la Universidad de Phoenix (2011 y el reporte de investigación “Los Sistemas de Aprendizaje de

  2. Geschlechterperspektive als integraler Bestandteil eines Seminars zur Prävention des Tabakkonsums [Sex- and gender-related perspectives as an integral part of a seminar dealing with smoking prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisson, Susanne

    2009-08-01

    entwickelt und evaluiert. Eine zeitgleiche, allen Studierenden zugängliche Vorlesung zum selben Thema unterstützt dieses Ziel.Das Seminar besteht aus vier Unterrichtseinheiten. Darin wird der geschlechtsunspezifischen Perspektive eine spezifische gegenübergestellt. Unter Verwendung sich einander ergänzender Arbeitsblätter wird die Thematik in studentischen Kleingruppen erarbeitet. Der interaktiven Unterrichtsform liegt das Konzept des Kooperativen Lernens zugrunde. Das Seminar wurde von Juli 2006 bis Juli 2008 siebenmal durchgeführt. An den sieben Seminaren nahmen insgesamt 145 Studierende (94 weiblich/51 männlich teil; 25% der Studierenden gaben an zu rauchen. In allen Seminaren war die Akzeptanz der Geschlechterperspektive nach dem Seminar signifikant höher als zuvor. Kein Zusammenhang zeigte sich zwischen der Zunahme der Akzeptanz einerseits sowie dem Geschlecht und Rauchstatus der Studierenden andererseits.Die umfassende Sex- und Genderperspektive innerhalb der Seminare bezieht die Geschlechtlichkeit der Medizinstudierenden, der Lehrenden sowie der virtuellen und realen Patientinnen und Patienten ein. Die Wissensvermittlung zeichnet sich durch Geschlechteradäquatheit auf inhaltlicher, sprachlicher und prozessualer Ebene aus.

  3. Fortschritt als Fortschrittsdiskurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schmid-Zartner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zur Erzielung gesellschaftlichen Fortschritts in demokratisch verfassten Gesellschaften soll die Möglichkeit am Fortschrittsdiskurs teilnehmen zu können für alle Mitglieder der Gesellschaft als selbstverständliche Prämisse gelten. Fortschritt wird also als Bewusstseinsbildung dem Fortschritt selbst gegenüber und als Entscheidungs- und Handlungsfähigkeit auf individueller und gesellschaftlicher Ebene definiert. Dies setzt entsprechende Maßnahmen zur Befähigung dazu voraus, die alle Mitglieder der Gesellschaft erfassen. Dabei ist der Bildungsbereich angesprochen, insbesondere der Schulunterricht. Neben dem in der aktuellen blidungspolitischen Debatte forcierten Fokus auf den Aspekt der Kompetenzorientierung, der hier nicht infrage gestellt wird, ist als notwendige Ergänzung ein reflexionsorientierter Schulunterricht in allen Bildungsfächern einzufordern und umzusetzen. Im Weiteren beschreibt der Text den Weg von der Brauchbarkeit zur Bedeutsamkeit von schulischem Wissen durch Relevanzreflexionsprovokationen im Schulunterricht, um Sinn und Bedeutung der vermittelten Bildungsinhalte zu verhandeln. Am Beispiel von Mathematik als Bildungsfach wird der Inhalt von reflexionsorientertem Unterricht verdeutlicht. Darüber hinaus beschreibt der Text eine Reihe von konkreten Fallbeispielen aus der aktuell versuchsweise durchgeführten Unterrichtspraxis in Mathematik.

  4. Integrative Musterbildung kranialer Strukturen

    OpenAIRE

    Hardt, Thorolf

    2008-01-01

    Form und Gestalt kraniofazialer Strukturen sind primär beeinflusst durch die inhärente Integration der unterschiedlichsten Funktionssysteme und externer selektiver Einflüsse. Die Variabilität der Schädel-Morphe ist ein Indikator für solche Einflussfaktoren und damit ein idealer Gegenstand für vergleichende Analysen morphogenetischer Formbildung. Zur Ermittlung morphologisch-adaptiver Trends und Muster wurden sowohl Hypothesen zur morphologischen Differenziertheit als auch zu Korrelationen zwi...

  5. Can modular psychological concepts like affect and emotion be assigned to a distinct subset of regional neural circuits?. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Herrmann, Manfred

    2015-06-01

    The proposed Quartet Theory of Human Emotions by Koelsch and co-workers [11] adumbrates evidence from various scientific sources to integrate and assign the psychological concepts of 'affect' and 'emotion' to four brain circuits or to four neuronal core systems for affect-processing in the brain. The authors differentiate between affect and emotion and assign several facultative, or to say modular, psychological domains and principles of information processing, such as learning and memory, antecedents of affective activity, emotion satiation, cognitive complexity, subjective quality feelings, degree of conscious appraisal, to different affect systems. Furthermore, they relate orbito-frontal brain structures to moral affects as uniquely human, and the hippocampus to attachment-related affects. An additional feature of the theory describes 'emotional effector-systems' for motor-related processes (e.g., emotion-related actions), physiological arousal, attention and memory that are assumed to be cross-linked with the four proposed affect systems. Thus, higher principles of emotional information processing, but also modular affect-related issues, such as moral and attachment related affects, are thought to be handled by these four different physiological sub-systems that are on the other side assumed to be highly interwoven at both physiological and functional levels. The authors also state that the proposed sub-systems have many features in common, such as the selection and modulation of biological processes related to behaviour, perception, attention and memory. The latter aspect challenges an ongoing discussion about the mind-body problem: To which degree do the proposed sub-systems 'sufficiently' cover the processing of complex modular or facultative emotional/affective and/or cognitive phenomena? There are current models and scientific positions that almost completely reject the idea that modular psychological phenomena are handled by a distinct selection of

  6. Programa de Atención Integral al Enfermo Mental en las prisiones españolas (PAIEM: valoración tras cuatro años de funcionamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sanz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el programa de atención integral a los enfermos mentales (PAIEM implantado desde hace 3 años en las prisiones españolas, con el fin de mejorar su funcionamiento y resultados. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo de los datos recogidos en un cuestionario anónimo cumplimentado por los miembros del equipo PAIEM de los centros penitenciarios. Se obtuvieron distribuciones de frecuencia de todas las variables acerca de hechos, actitudes, opiniones, experiencias, situaciones y procesos del PAIEM. Resultados: Han respondido el 91,2% de los equipos del PAIEM. Psicólogos, educadores, médicos y trabajadores sociales son los profesionales que colaboran más activamente en el PAIEM (73%-84% y los que con más frecuencia ejercen como tutores. Los enfermos mentales se ubican habitualmente en módulos ordinarios (80%. Las actividades más utilizadas para su rehabilitación psicosocial son autocuidados (73% y educación para la salud, preparación para la vida diaria y habilidades sociales con más del 60%. Las intervenciones con las familias son básicamente por contacto telefónico (79%. En el análisis bivariante se demuestra que los PAIEM que mejor funcionan son los que tienen una buena coordinación con el resto de los equipos técnicos, los que preparan la derivación con más de seis meses previos a la libertad y en los que las ONG's tramitan las derivaciones. Más del 71% de los profesionales observan mejoras en carencias y discapacidades en más de la mitad de los enfermos y están mayoritariamente satisfechos (3,4/5 de su participación, aunque reconocen mayor carga de trabajo. Conclusiones: Las actividades del PAIEM son adecuadas, en especial en las fases de detección precoz, estabilización y rehabilitación y menos en la fase de reincorporación social que mejora cuando interviene el tercer sector en las derivaciones del enfermo a la red sociosanitaria extrapenitenciaria.

  7. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

  8. Wikipedia als Referenzorgan

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    Wikipedia wird inzwischen von vielen Nutzern regelmäßig als Nachschlagewerk genutzt. Aufgrund des offenen Charakters der Online-Enzyklopädie, bei der sich jeder direkt beteiligen kann, ist jedoch zusätzliche Medienkompetenz notwendig, um die Qualität einzelner Wikipedia-Artikel einschätzen zu können. Im Vortrag sollen Methoden zur Beurteilung von Wikipedia-Artikeln dargestellt und die Frage beleuchtet werden, unter welchen Umständen Wikipedia als Referenzorgan geeignet ist.

  9. Carta al Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés Burgos Zuleta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La medicina al basarse generalmente en la clínica, correlacionaexámenes complementarios y organiza un diagnóstico y tratamiento, es una disciplina donde es imprescindible saber recolectar, analizar, interpretar y concretar una respuesta adecuada, es así que la información que se recibe es esencial para el desempeño médico.La certeza es una realidad que se da en algunas situaciones y enotras las probabilidades establecen conclusiones. Lo normal muchas veces se define sobre la base de criterios estadísticos, basados en riesgos poblacionales que no necesariamente se aplican al caso boliviano.

  10. Integration of the MUSE Software Pipeline into the Astro-WISE System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizagno, J.; Streicher, O.; Vriend, W. -J; Ballester, P.; Egret, D.; Lorente, N.P.F.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the current state of integrating the Mutli Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (hereafter: MUSE) software pipeline (Weilbacher et al. 2006) into the Astro-WISE system (Valentijn et al. 2007a; Vriend et al. 2012). MUSE is a future integral-field spectrograph for the VLT, consisting of 24 Integral

  11. Perioperative latex hypersensitivity reactions: an integrative literature review Hipersensibilidad al latex en el peri-operatório: una revisión integradora de la literatura Hipersensibilidade ao látex no período perioperatório: revisão integrativa da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Nair Biaggio Mota

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article characterizes hypersensitivity reactions during anesthetic-surgical procedures. This integrative literature review was conducted in the LILACS, CINAHL, COCHRANE and MEDLINE databases including papers published from 1966 to September 2011. A total of 17 case reports, two prevalence studies and one cohort study were identified. Latex reactions were mainly type III and the primary source of intraoperative reaction was latex gloves. The average time for clinical manifestation was 59.8 minutes after anesthetic induction; 44.4% of patients reported a reaction to latex at the pre-anesthetic evaluation. It was determined that the history of allergic reactions to latex obtained in the pre-anesthetic evaluation does not ensure the safety of patients if the staff is inattentive to the severity of the issue. There is also a tendency to initially attribute the anaphylactic event to the anesthetic drugs.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las reacciones de hipersensibilidad al látex en la anestesia. Ha sido realizada una revisión integradora de la literatura en LILACS, CINAHL, COCHRANE y MEDLINE, con una selección de artículos publicados en periódicos indexados de 1966 hasta septiembre 2011. Fueron identificados 17 casos clínicos, 2 estudios de prevalencia y 1 de la cohorte. Las reacciones al látex fueron en su mayoría del tipo III y la principal fuente de reacción intra-operatoria fue el contacto con los guantes de látex. El tiempo medio hasta la aparición de respuesta fue de 59.8 minutos después de la inducción, 44,4% de los pacientes informaron una reacción al látex en el periodo pre-anestésico. La historia de reacciones alérgicas al látex en el periodo pre-anestésico no garantiza la seguridad de los pacientes si el profesional no está atento a la gravedad del problema. Al principio, se tiende a atribuir que el efecto de la anafilaxia se debe a los medicamentos anestésicos.Este estudo teve por objetivo

  12. Calculation of interaction of AlCl, AlCl2 and AlCl3 on Al4C3 (001) Al4CO4 (001) and Al2CO (001) planes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段少飞; 陈秀敏; 杨斌; 郁青春; 徐宝强; 刘大春

    2015-01-01

    To make sure the intermediate products of the carbothermic reduction of Al2O3 process, such as Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3, and the interaction of AlCl, AlCl2, AlCl3 with Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3, respectively, thermodynamic analyses were used to study the chloride reaction production of them under the vacuum situation. The stable structures and electronic properties of AlCl, AlCl2 and AlCl3 adsorbed on Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3 were calculated by first-principles calculations by the CASTEP module in the Materials Studio program. The results show that the AlCl3 and AlCl2 molecules have decomposed on the plane of Al4C3 (001), while there are no obvious decomposition of AlCl3 and AlCl2 on Al4CO4 (001) and Al2CO (001) planes. The adsorption of AlCl on the Al4CO4 (001) and Al2CO (001) planes is stronger than that on the Al4C3(001) plane. The interaction strength of AlCl3, as well as AlCl2, with Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3 is in the sequence of Al4CO4Al2CO>Al4C3.

  13. Comentarios al Salto Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facultad de Ciencias Económicas

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. El Plan considera que la política social es un componente central de la estrategia macroeconómica. A diferencia de la administración Gaviria, lo social ha dejado de ser un asunto marginal, es consustancial al desarrollo y, por tanto, se le confiere una dimensión cualitativamente diferente.

  14. Slowenisch als fremdsprache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Toporišič

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicht ganz zwei Millionen Menschen sprechen Slowenisch als Muttersprache. Wenige gibt es, die das Slowenische zwar spre­ chen oder zu sprechen versuchen, aber eine andere Muttersprache haben, vielleicht hunderttausend; für die ist Slowenisch also eine Fremdsprache.

  15. ALS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  16. De GPS al mapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Las coordenadas Lambert obtenidas a partir de mediciones con equipos GPS de mano, llamados a veces navegadores, en ciertos casos confunden al usuario, por diferir claramente de su posición real al ser graficadas en un mapa del Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN: Esto puede resolverse con suficiente exactitud mediante una transformación de Molodensky, seguida de la correspondiente proyección cartográfica. Sin embargo, los tres parámetros necesarios para la transformación, supuestamente válidos para Costa Rica, se encuentran en muchas variantes y producen obviamente resultados diferentes. En este trabajo se analizan los fundamentos del problema y sus posibles soluciones, culminando con un estudio comparativo de ocho casos, que permite seleccionar los valores más adecuados para los parámetros.

  17. AL-IZDIWAJIYYAH AL-LUGHOWIYAH FII ISTIHDHAMI AL-LUGHOH AL-‘ARABIYAH

    OpenAIRE

    Imam Muslimin

    2011-01-01

    Al-Izdiwajiyyah (diglosia) is standardizing a specific language when there are two variants of language that live side by side in societal life and each variant has its own social function. Disglosia is related to the use of local languages variations of low language and high language in a community. In Arabic language, disglosia covers dialects among the speakers, for instance there are two variants of language that each has roles and functions. The use of the variant depends on the situatio...

  18. Carta al editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Pachajoa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Valencia et al., published a very interesting article called «Lipid profile in a group of patients with Turner’s syndrome at Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana in the city of Medellín between 2000 and 2009". An article which evaluated lipid levels in patients withTurner syndrome in a Colombian clinic, the study associated results of lipid profile with karyotype and other risk factors for coronary heart disease.

  19. Carta al editor

    OpenAIRE

    Harry Pachajoa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Valencia et al., published a very interesting article called «Lipid profile in a group of patients with Turner’s syndrome at Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana in the city of Medellín between 2000 and 2009". An article which evaluated lipid levels in patients withTurner syndrome in a Colombian clinic, the study associated results of lipid profile with karyotype and other risk factors for coronary heart disease.

  20. Digital integrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    this report describes a digital integrator in which, by means of digital signal processing, the integral of the input signal is determined continuously. This integrator is a prototype of a, to be constructed, faster integrator which has to integrate fast pulses originating from a detector setup. The prototype operates with a maximum sampling frequency of 40 MHz. By some extension this can be enhanced up to about 70 MHz. Finally an integrator is intended with a sampling frequency of 1 GHz. By means of the prototype the principal operation of the integrator, an extended description of the constructed prototype is given followed by measurements at the prototype and the analysis of the results. (author). 7 refs.; 37 figs.; 7 tabs

  1. Integrated care requires integrated supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Ketelaars, Corry

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Given recent developments in integrated care, it is becoming increasingly important for the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate to direct its supervision in a way that may help speed up the implementation of integrated care.Description of care practice: Since the implementation of integrated care for chronic patients is facing obstacles, alternative methods are required to ensure that the implementation process does not run into any delays. By applying a risk-based approach to integr...

  2. Development of a nano-Al/CuO based energetic material on silicon substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kaili; Rossi, Carole; Ardila Rodriguez, Gustavo Adolfo; Tenailleau, Christophe; Alphonse, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Nanoenergetic materials nEMs have improved performances compared to their bulk counterpart or microcounterpart. The authors propose an approach to synthesize an Al/CuO based nEM that has several advantages over previous investigations such as enhanced contact, reduced impurities and Al oxidation, tailored dimensions, and easier integration into microsystem. CuO nanowires are synthesized by thermally annealing Cu film deposited onto silicon. Nano-Al is integrated with the nanowires to realize ...

  3. Integration von Flüchtlingen als (auch) sicherheitspolitisches Erfordernis

    OpenAIRE

    Heinke, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Deutschland steht angesichts der seit rund sechs Wochen massiv angestiegenen Zahlen von Flüchtlingen insbesondere aus Krisengebieten des Nahen und Mittleren Ostens vor einer der größten gesellschaftlichen Herausforderungen der Nachkriegsgeschichte. Je nach Quelle werden alleine in diesem Jahr rund 800.000 Flüchtlinge (die derzeitige Prognose des Bundesamtes für Migration und Flüchtlinge), bis zu einer Million (Bundesminister Sigmar Gabriel) oder auch 1,5 Millionen Zuwanderer erwartet. Ein seh...

  4. Integración al Aula: Una Estrategia Para la Intervención y Evaluación, Guiada a Través del Uso de las Nuevas Tecnologías de Intervención (TICs Integration Into the Classroom: A Strategy for Intervention and Assessment Guided Through the Use of New Intervention Technologies (ICTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eslava-Cobos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo informa acerca de un proyecto de integración al aula regular de niños con diversas discapacidades, guiado a través de estrategias virtuales (TICs. Se describe un curso guía, su recurso tecnológico para la planeación de la intervención y se evalúa la aplicabilidad, eficacia y utilidad de las TICs, su aceptación por parte de los docentes y el sistema en general; la utilidad de la retroalimentación para la evaluación que genera el instrumento y la factibilidad de implementar proyectos de investigación-acción a través de las TICs. Se exponen las conclusiones como una respuesta afirmativa a este tipo de apoyo discutiendo las implicaciones de las mismas.This article provides information about a project concerning the integration of children with several disabilities into the traditional classroom guided by virtual strategies (ICTs. A guide course is described as well as its technological resource for the intervention planning. Applicability, efficiency and usefulness of ICTs are assessed, as well as their acceptance not only by teachers but the education system as a whole. The usefulness of feedback for evaluation that the instrument generates and the feasibility of implementing action research projects through ICTs are also assessed. Conclusions are presented as a positive answer to this type of support and their implications are discussed.

  5. Europäische Integration

    OpenAIRE

    JACHTENFUCHS, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Das Buch liefert eine breit angelegte und theoretisch reflektierte Behandlung von Institutionen, Politikbereichen und Problemfeldern der europäischen Integration. Die Beiträge orientieren sich an der Leitfrage, wie Regieren in diesem dynamischen Mehrebenensystem sowohl demokratisch als auch effizient erfolgen kann.

  6. Diophantine integrability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halburd, R G [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU(United Kingdom)

    2005-04-22

    The heights of iterates of the discrete Painleve equations over number fields appear to grow no faster than polynomials while the heights of generic solutions of non-integrable discrete equations grow exponentially. This gives rise to a simple and effective numerical test for the integrability of discrete equations. Numerical evidence and theoretical results are presented. Connections with other tests for integrability and Vojta's dictionary are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  7. Interorganisational Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Frølich, Anne

    2016-01-01

    at a university hospital in the Capital Region of Denmark. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results can be grouped into five influencing areas for interorganisational integration: communication/information transfer, committed leadership, patient engagement, the role and competencies of the general practitioner......INTRODUCTION: Despite many initiatives to improve coordination of patient pathways and intersectoral cooperation, Danish health care is still fragmented, lacking intra- and interorganisational integration. This study explores barriers to and facilitators of interorganisational integration...

  8. Integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct but related approaches hold the solutions to many mathematical problems--the forms of expression known as differential and integral equations. The method employed by the integral equation approach specifically includes the boundary conditions, which confers a valuable advantage. In addition, the integral equation approach leads naturally to the solution of the problem--under suitable conditions--in the form of an infinite series.Geared toward upper-level undergraduate students, this text focuses chiefly upon linear integral equations. It begins with a straightforward account, acco

  9. The INTEGRAL mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Di Cocco, G.;

    2003-01-01

    The ESA observatory INTEGRAL (International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) is dedicated to the fine spectroscopy (2.5 keV FWHM @ 1 MeV) and fine imaging (angular resolution: 12 arcmin FWHM) of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy range 15 keV to 10 MeV with concurrent source monitoring......-angular resolution imaging (15 keV-10 MeV). Two monitors, JEM-X (Lund et al. 2003) in the (3-35) keV X-ray band, and OMC (Mas-Hesse et al. 2003) in optical Johnson V-band complement the payload. The ground segment includes the Mission Operations Centre at ESOC, ESA and NASA ground stations, the Science Operations...

  10. Modeling neuronal vulnerability in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Francesco; Caroni, Pico

    2014-08-20

    Using computational models of motor neuron ion fluxes, firing properties, and energy requirements, Le Masson et al. (2014) reveal how local imbalances in energy homeostasis may self-amplify and contribute to neurodegeneration in ALS.

  11. AL-USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Alabama Regional Climate Reference Network (AL-USRCRN) installations in 2006. Installations documented are for AL-USRCRN pilot...

  12. ICT als medicijn tegen onveiligheid

    OpenAIRE

    Linders, Lilian; Steyaert, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Hoe verhoudt ICT zich tot veiligheid? SQM zou niet 'ict oplossingen voor sociale kwesties' als ondertitel hebben, als we geen aandacht gaven aan deze vraag. In de eerste Rode Draad Notitie verkent SQM dit thema.

  13. Problemas de lenguaje en estudiantes con déficit atencional

    OpenAIRE

    Ygual Fernández, Amparo

    2003-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivos: Este trabajo se ha planteado varios objetivos. En primer lugar, el análisis de las habilidades lingüísticas de los niños con Trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH) que hablan español, concretamente se han analizado los niveles de procesamiento de habla (producción de habla, metafonología y fluidez léxica), nivel morfosintáctico, nivel semántico y el nivel pragmático a través de la narración de una historia. En segundo lugar se ha analizado las difere...

  14. Gliricidia sepium al establecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Valle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se asoció Cenchrus ciliaris (Cc y Gliricidia sepium (Gs para evaluar la producción de biomasa y la composición química de los forrajes en la fase de establecimiento, en el estado de Morelos, México, en condiciones de trópico seco. Se empleó un análisis de varianza con diseño en bloques al azar, en donde T1 fue pasto solo, T2 Cc más Gs con 5,000 plantas ha-1 y el T3 Cs más Gs con 14,285 plantas ha-1. Se midió la producción de forraje individual y asociado con materia seca (t MS/Ha, la altura (A en cm, la proteína cruda (PC%, las fracciones de fibra (FDN% y FDA% y la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS%. El T3 tuvo una mejor producción de biomasa (P0.05. La asociación de 14,285 plantas ha-1 de G. sepium con pasto Cenchrus ciliaris mejoró la producción de biomasa y la disponibilidad total de nutrientes por superficie cultivada al establecimiento

  15. Derivados vinculados al seguro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paz Cobo, Sonia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación de los derivados financieros como instrumentos de cobertura de los riesgos del seguro, así como de los principales proyectos que se desarrollan a través de los mismos, como por ejemplo los derivados sobre el clima. Hay que tener presente las pérdidas multimillonarias ocasionadas en casos como el de la banca Baring’s, o el de Orange County, por citar algunas, que si bien ciertos autores afirman que están en relación directa con el uso de estos productos, no podemos olvidar que los instrumentos derivados se desarrollaron con el objetivo principal de proteger al usuario de la posible volatilidad del activo subyacente. Ya en la industria aseguradora los derivados vinculados a tal actividad son instrumentos donde el pago se condiciona a la ocurrencia de su suceso de siniestro, o serie de sucesos múltiples que disparen las pérdidas. Tras el repaso efectuado y la descripción que este tipo de instrumentos puede tener en la gestión del riesgo por parte de la industria aseguradora, concluiremos con la exposición de las relaciones con el reaseguro tradicional así como una breve referencia al futuro de este tipo de instrumentos

  16. Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    1999-01-01

    A homepage on the internet with course material, lecture plan, student exercises, etc. Continuesly updated during the course Integrated Design (80402, 80403)......A homepage on the internet with course material, lecture plan, student exercises, etc. Continuesly updated during the course Integrated Design (80402, 80403)...

  17. [Study of the diagnostic agreement on headaches between neurology and primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Lasaosa, S; Vinueza-Buitron, P R; Velazquez-Benito, A; Iniguez-Martinez, C; Larrode-Pellicer, P; Lopez Del Val, L J; Mauri-Llerda, J A; Sanchez-Valiente, S; Millan-Morales, J L

    2016-06-16

    Introduccion. La cefalea como sintoma es una patologia frecuente y uno de los principales motivos de consulta por parte de atencion primaria. Objetivo. Analizar las caracteristicas de los pacientes derivados desde atencion primaria a la consulta de neurologia general con cefalea o neuralgia como motivo de consulta, y la concordancia diagnostica. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal de todos los pacientes remitidos desde atencion primaria; se recogieron variables demograficas/clinicas y se compararon las hipotesis diagnosticas de atencion primaria y neurologia, determinando su concordancia. Resultados. Se remitieron desde atencion primaria 2.514 pacientes (588 de ellos con caracter preferente); en 378 casos el motivo de la consulta fue cefalea o neuralgia (42,46 años de media; el 77,8%, mujeres). En 139 pacientes se establecio tan solo un diagnostico semiologico y en el resto predominaron la migraña episodica (49,79%), la cefalea tensional cronica (18,41%) y la neuralgia del trigemino (12,13%). Desde neurologia, los diagnosticos mas frecuentes fueron, respectivamente, 33,86%, 24,05% y 18,67%. Se obtuvo un coeficiente kappa de 0,543 (p cefaleas constituyen un motivo de consulta desde atencion primaria muy frecuente (15%). La concordancia diagnostica es moderada en nuestro sector sanitario, por lo que es necesario diseñar programas de formacion que ayuden a perfilar los criterios de derivacion al especialista y mejorar la atencion a nuestros pacientes.

  18. The integration of immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Bauböck, Rainer

    1995-01-01

    from the Table of Contents: Migration and integration - Basic concepts and definitions; Immigration and Integration policies; The legal framework for integration; Dimension of social integration; Cultural integration; Conclusions;

  19. “SLIMPLECTIC” INTEGRATORS: VARIATIONAL INTEGRATORS FOR GENERAL NONCONSERVATIVE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, David; Turner, Alec [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Galley, Chad R. [Theoretical Astrophysics, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stein, Leo C., E-mail: dtsang@physics.mcgill.ca [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    Symplectic integrators are widely used for long-term integration of conservative astrophysical problems due to their ability to preserve the constants of motion; however, they cannot in general be applied in the presence of nonconservative interactions. In this Letter, we develop the “slimplectic” integrator, a new type of numerical integrator that shares many of the benefits of traditional symplectic integrators yet is applicable to general nonconservative systems. We utilize a fixed-time-step variational integrator formalism applied to the principle of stationary nonconservative action developed in Galley et al. As a result, the generalized momenta and energy (Noether current) evolutions are well-tracked. We discuss several example systems, including damped harmonic oscillators, Poynting–Robertson drag, and gravitational radiation reaction, by utilizing our new publicly available code to demonstrate the slimplectic integrator algorithm. Slimplectic integrators are well-suited for integrations of systems where nonconservative effects play an important role in the long-term dynamical evolution. As such they are particularly appropriate for cosmological or celestial N-body dynamics problems where nonconservative interactions, e.g., gas interactions or dissipative tides, can play an important role.

  20. Corrosion behaviour of Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Samir Mahmoud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the static immersion corrosion behavior of Al/Al2O3 and Al/SiC nanocomposites in 1 M HCl acidic solution was evaluated. The nanocomposites were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy (P/M route. The effect of nanoparticulates size and volume fraction on the corrosion behavior of nanocomposites was studied. The durations of the corrosion tests ranged from 24 to 120 hours and the temperatures of the solution ranged from ambient to 75 ºC. The corrosion rates of the nanocomposites were calculated using the weight loss method. The results showed that both Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 MMNCs have lower corrosion rates than the pure Al matrix. Such behavior was noticed at both ambient and higher temperatures. Generally, the Al/Al2O3 nanocomposites exhibited lower corrosion rates than the Al/SiC nanocomposites. The Al/Al2O3 (60 nm nanocomposites exhibited the highest corrosion resistance among all the investigated nanocomposites. The corrosion rate was found to be reduced by increasing of the exposure time and the volume fraction of the nanoparticulates, while it was found to be increased by increasing of the nanoparticulates size and the solution temperature.

  1. Doppelthydrophile Blockcopolymere als Mineralisationstemplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparova, Pavla

    2002-07-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von doppelthydrophilen Blockcopolymeren und ihrer Anwendung in einem biomimetischen Mineralisationsprozeß von Calciumcarbonat und Bariumsulfat. Doppelthydrophile Blockcopolymere bestehen aus einem hydrophilen Block, der nicht mit Mineralien wechselwirkt und einem zweiten Polyelektrolyt-Block, der stark mit Mineraloberflächen wechselwirkt. Diese Blockcopolymere wurden durch ringöffnende Polymerisation von N-carboxyanhydriden (NCA's) und a-methoxy-ω-amino[poly(ethylene glycol)] PEG-NH2 als Initiator hergestellt. Die hergestellten Blockcopolymere wurden als effektive Wachstumsmodifikatoren für die Kristallisation von Calciumcarbonat und Bariumsulfat Mineralien eingesetzt. Die so erhaltenen Mineralpartikel (Kugeln, Hantel, eiförmige Partikel) wurden durch Lichtmikroskopie in Lösung, SEM und TEM charakterisiert. Röntgenweitwinkelstreuung (WAXS) wurde verwendet, um die Modifikation von Calciumcarbonat zu ermitteln und die Größe der Calciumcarbonat- und Bariumsulfat-Nanopartikel zu ermitteln. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of double hydrophilic block copolymers and their use in a biomimetic mineralization process of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate. Double hydrophilic block copolymers consist of a hydrophilic block that does not interact with minerals and another hydrophilic polyelectrolyte block that strongly interacts with mineral surfaces. These polymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation of N-carboxyanhydride (NCA), and the first hydrophilic block a-methoxy-ω-amino[poly(ethylene glycol)] PEG-NH2 was used as an initiator. The prepared block copolymers were used as effective crystal growth modifiers to control the crystallization of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate minerals. The resulting mineral particles (spheres, dumbbells, egg-like particles) were characterised by light microscopy in solution, by SEM, and by TEM. X-Ray scattering

  2. COMENTARIO AL CASO PINOCHET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Contreras Clunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El fallo en el caso Pinochet tiene distintas formas de ser analizado. De partida, desde un punto de vista político, también constitucional, del derecho penal. Sin embargo, nos abocaremos al estudio desde el punto de vista procesal, en especial a lo referido al Debido Proceso. Para ello se analizará los presupuestos, la solución dada por la Excma. Corte Suprema y las consecuencias del mismo. Además, se criticará la solución dada, desde la óptica de las garantías procesales del imputado, contenidas en el nuevo proceso penal y lo dispuesto en la Constitución y la Convención Americana de Derechos Humanos. Finalmente, se argumentará en favor de una interpretación finalista y armónica de la Constitución y los tratados internacionales de derechos humanos.The verdict of the Pinochet Case has different ways of being analyzed: from the political, the constitutional, and the penal law points of view. However, we will approach this study from the legal point of view, especially to that referred to as the Proper Process. To do this, the budgets, the solution given by the Most Excellent Supreme Court, and its consequences will be analyzed. Furthermore, the given solution will be criticized from the point of view of the legal guarantees of the accused contained in the new penal process and what is contained in the Constitution and in the American Convention of Human Rights. In conclusion, we will argue in favor of a final and harmonious interpretation of the Constitution and the international agreement of human rights.

  3. Epitaxial growth of Al/Al2O3 multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain Al-Al2O3 quantum effect devices, it is necessary to deposit epitaxially Al on Al2O3 and Al2O3 on Al. We have already obtained an epitaxial Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111). In this paper, we have deposit Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111), and investigated the crystallinity by using RBS. (author)

  4. Effect of AlN Particulate Size on Superplasticity of AlNp/6061 Al Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Superplastic tensile tests of AlNp/606l Al Composites, fabricated by powder metallurgy techniques, were performed at strain rates ranging from 10-1-10-3S-1 and at temperatures from 833 to 893 K. Hot rolling after extrusion was employed to obtain a fine grained structure before \\superplastic testing. The superplastic behavior of AlNp/6061 Al Composites was compared with that of AlN particulate size. Differential scanning calorimeter was used to ascertain the possibility of any partial melting in the vicinity of optimum superplastic temperatures.

  5. Editorial: Cartas al Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Llanos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En todas las revistas biomédicas del mundo existe una sección habitual denominada como el título de este editorial y que en Colombia Médica la llamamos correspondencia. Este espacio tiene como objetivo fundamental que los lectores escriban a los autores (investigadores comentando los artículos que se han publicado en números anteriores de la revista. Las cartas son, entonces, breves comentarios de desacuerdo o acuerdo (conceptual, metodológico, interpretativo sobre falencias ubicadas por un lector alerta al tema debatido en cualquiera de las secciones como en los artículos originales, editoriales, revisiones, presentación de casos, etc. publicados previamente en la revista. Las cartas deben permitir el intercambio de opiniones y formas de pensar y analizar los problemas planteados entre los autores y los lectores. En ocasiones una serie de cartas motivadas por un artículo original puede ser tan o más interesante como el artículo que generó la correspondencia. Las cartas son también un formato adecuado para comunicar un hecho novedoso de una observación clínica juiciosa no descrita antes. Un ejemplo de ello es la carta de un gineco-obstetra australiano cuando informó a Lancet los primeros efectos adversos informados de la talidomida. Colombia Médica, a pesar de mantener vigente esta sección, no ha sido muy afortunada en establecer una buena cultura del envío de cartas al editor. Pero últimamente han llegado juiciosas observaciones a las cuales se les ha dado prioridad en su publicación. Toda carta que comenta los hallazgos de un artículo es enviada a los autores para su respuesta, porque ello genera el debate académico buscado, y luego se publican, tanto la carta como su respuesta. El Estilo Vancouver recomienda que la carta y su respuesta deban ser breve, no pasar de dos o tres párrafos y contener sólo cuatro o cinco referencias. En lo posible (a menos que sea indispensable no presentar ni cuadros ni gráficos. El t

  6. Malamih al-Ashwat al-'Arabiyyah wa Makharijaha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrah Muhammad Kasim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This writing discusses on al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah that is known with “phonetic” term. It talks and interprets makharij al-huruf or place for producing sounds and also processing production of sounds by parts of mouth in Arabic language. The problems of sounds and its systems in Arabic language have been conducted by the scholars of al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah attractively, neatly, and detail and gotten ahead the phonetic western scholars. Part of their analysis results formulate the study about al-ashwat al-sakinah (al-Shamit is known with vocal and consonant sounds in research questions shawait – shawamit. Ibnu Jinni has formulated “harakat”(wowel in Arabic language and dimension of letter  mad and liyn on alif  letter - waw - ya’ (ا و ي, from these letters create  harakat fathah, dammah, and kasrah. Moreover, in this writing also exist the description of hija’i letters and its makhraj that are correct from parts of mouth and the unity of coordinative sounds that produce sounds in morphemes arrangement, in one word that produces meaning. The result of phonological study has divided al-ashwat to be kinds of sound like the pronounced sounds, produced sounds from mouth, and heard sound.

  7. Integral cryptanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Wagner, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers a cryptanalytic approach called integral cryptanalysis. It can be seen as a dual to differential cryptanalysis and applies to ciphers not vulnerable to differential attacks. The method is particularly applicable to block ciphers which use bijective components only.......This paper considers a cryptanalytic approach called integral cryptanalysis. It can be seen as a dual to differential cryptanalysis and applies to ciphers not vulnerable to differential attacks. The method is particularly applicable to block ciphers which use bijective components only....

  8. Functional Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Pierre; DeWitt-Morette, Cecile

    2010-06-01

    Acknowledgements; List symbols, conventions, and formulary; Part I. The Physical and Mathematical Environment: 1. The physical and mathematical environment; Part II. Quantum Mechanics: 2. First lesson: gaussian integrals; 3. Selected examples; 4. Semiclassical expansion: WKB; 5. Semiclassical expansion: beyond WKB; 6. Quantum dynamics: path integrals and operator formalism; Part III. Methods from Differential Geometry: 7. Symmetries; 8. Homotopy; 9. Grassmann analysis: basics; 10. Grassmann analysis: applications; 11. Volume elements, divergences, gradients; Part IV. Non-Gaussian Applications: 12. Poisson processes in physics; 13. A mathematical theory of Poisson processes; 14. First exit time: energy problems; Part V. Problems in Quantum Field Theory: 15. Renormalization 1: an introduction; 16. Renormalization 2: scaling; 17. Renormalization 3: combinatorics; 18. Volume elements in quantum field theory Bryce DeWitt; Part VI. Projects: 19. Projects; Appendix A. Forward and backward integrals: spaces of pointed paths; Appendix B. Product integrals; Appendix C. A compendium of gaussian integrals; Appendix D. Wick calculus Alexander Wurm; Appendix E. The Jacobi operator; Appendix F. Change of variables of integration; Appendix G. Analytic properties of covariances; Appendix H. Feynman's checkerboard; Bibliography; Index.

  9. Integrating Nephelometer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uin, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Integrating Nephelometer (Figure 1) is an instrument that measures aerosol light scattering. It measures aerosol optical scattering properties by detecting (with a wide angular integration – from 7 to 170°) the light scattered by the aerosol and subtracting the light scattered by the carrier gas, the instrument walls and the background noise in the detector (zeroing). Zeroing is typically performed for 5 minutes every day at midnight UTC. The scattered light is split into red (700 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) wavelengths and captured by three photomultiplier tubes. The instrument can measure total scatter as well as backscatter only (from 90 to 170°) (Heintzenberg and Charlson 1996; Anderson et al. 1996; Anderson and Ogren 1998; TSI 3563 2015) At ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement), two identical Nephelometers are usually run in series with a sample relative humidity (RH) conditioner between them. This is possible because Nephelometer sampling is non-destructive and the sample can be passed on to another instrument. The sample RH conditioner scans through multiple RH values in cycles, treating the sample. This kind of setup allows to study how aerosol particles’ light scattering properties are affected by humidification (Anderson et al. 1996). For historical reasons, the two Nephelometers in this setup are labeled “wet” and “dry”, with the “dry” Nephelometer usually being the one before the conditioner and sampling ambient air (the names are switched for the MAOS measurement site due to the high RH of the ambient air).

  10. AL-IZDIWAJIYYAH AL-LUGHOWIYAH FII ISTIHDHAMI AL-LUGHOH AL-‘ARABIYAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Muslimin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Al-Izdiwajiyyah (diglosia is standardizing a specific language when there are two variants of language that live side by side in societal life and each variant has its own social function. Disglosia is related to the use of local languages variations of low language and high language in a community. In Arabic language, disglosia covers dialects among the speakers, for instance there are two variants of language that each has roles and functions. The use of the variant depends on the situation. The most important characteristic of diglosia is specifying the functions of wach language variant. For high level language variant is aimed for formal situations such as religious ceremony, lectures, news, or editorials of newspaper. On the contrary, the low level language variant is commonly used in less formal situation such as daily communication in the family, chat with friends, stories in radion, and folk literature. In Arabic language, diglosia can be identified when the speaker of the language use diction commonly used for daily communication (amiyah in a formal expression (fusha, and vice versa.

  11. Exploring Essential Conditions: A Commentary on Bull et al. (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, Arlene; Hansen, Randall; Gray, Lucy; Ziemann, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The editorial by Bull et al. (2008) on connections between informal and formal learning made explicit one element of solving what Koehler and Mishra (2008) termed a "wicked problem." This wicked (complex, ill-structured) problem involves working with teachers for effective integration of technology in support of student learning. The…

  12. Al versus Si competition in FeSiAl alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarra, E. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electronica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), CP 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: estibaliz.legarra@ehu.es; Apinaniz, E. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela de Ingenieria Tecnica Superior, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Alameda de Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Plazaola, F. [Dpto. Electricidad y Electronica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), CP 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Jimenez, J.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), Avda. Gregorio del amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pierna, A.R. [Chemical Engineering and Environmental Department, UPV/EHU, Box 1379, 20008 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    In FeSiAl alloys, when Si substitutes for Al, important changes take place in the magnetism as well as in the structural properties. Alloys in the two composition series Fe{sub 75}Al{sub 25-x}Si{sub x} (x=0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5, 25) and Fe{sub 70}Al{sub 30-x}Si{sub x} (x=0, 9, 15, 21, 30) were prepared by induction melting; afterwards they were crushed and then annealed in order to recover the DO{sub 3} stable phase. The deformed FeAl samples show larger lattice parameters than the ordered ones; however, this difference ({delta}a) decreases when Si substitutes for Al until it becomes zero (i.e. until the ordered samples and the deformed ones have the same lattice parameters). This trend is the same for both sample series and does not depend on the Fe content of the alloy. However, the magnetization has a different behaviour depending on the Fe content. For deformed Fe{sub 75}Al{sub 25-x}Si{sub x} alloys the saturation magnetization decreases with increasing Si content while for Fe{sub 70}Al{sub 30-x}Si{sub x} deformed alloys the saturation magnetization has a plateau in which the saturation magnetization values do not vary.

  13. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya), Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Alexandria was taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station in December 2000 using an Electronic Still Camera. A wider-angle view (STS088-739-90) taken from the Space Shuttle in December 1998 is available for context. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. Originally the town was built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos (see referenced website, below) to the mainland. Since then sedimentary deposits have widened the mole. Since 1905, when the 370,000 Alexandrians lived in an area of about 4 sq km between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million; see referenced website, below) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 sq km. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon. Reference Youssef Halim and Fatma Abou Shouk, 2000, Human impacts on Alexandria's marine environment: UNESCO, Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI), Coastal Management Sourcebooks 2 (accessed December 20, 2000) Additional photographs taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Image ISS001-ESC-5025 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  14. Organising integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Runo

    2013-01-01

    to large-scale bureaucratic structures of centralised control. In the 1980’s there was a period of decentralisation to smaller organisational units, which was followed in the 1990’s by an introduction of market mechanisms in accordance with the New Public Management. During this period, there has been......Background: In Sweden, as in many other countries, there has been a succession of trends in the organisation of health care and other welfare services. These trends have had different implications for the integration of services in the health and welfare system. Aims: One aim is to discuss...... the implications of different organisational trends for the integration of health and welfare services. Another aim is to introduce a Swedish model of financial coordination as a flexible way to organise integration. Organisational trends: In the 1960’s there was an expansion of health and welfare services leading...

  15. Classical integrability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the sections consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schrödinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin–Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel’fand–Levitan–Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.

  16. Lebesgue integration

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, JH

    2014-01-01

    This concise introduction to Lebesgue integration is geared toward advanced undergraduate math majors and may be read by any student possessing some familiarity with real variable theory and elementary calculus. The self-contained treatment features exercises at the end of each chapter that range from simple to difficult. The approach begins with sets and functions and advances to Lebesgue measure, including considerations of measurable sets, sets of measure zero, and Borel sets and nonmeasurable sets. A two-part exploration of the integral covers measurable functions, convergence theorems, co

  17. The Integrated Hazard Analysis Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. Terry; Massie, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Hazard analysis addresses hazards that arise in the design, development, manufacturing, construction, facilities, transportation, operations and disposal activities associated with hardware, software, maintenance, operations and environments. An integrated hazard is an event or condition that is caused by or controlled by multiple systems, elements, or subsystems. Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is especially daunting and ambitious for large, complex systems such as NASA s Constellation program which incorporates program, systems and element components that impact others (International Space Station, public, International Partners, etc.). An appropriate IHA should identify all hazards, causes, controls and verifications used to mitigate the risk of catastrophic loss of crew, vehicle and/or mission. Unfortunately, in the current age of increased technology dependence, there is the tendency to sometimes overlook the necessary and sufficient qualifications of the integrator, that is, the person/team that identifies the parts, analyzes the architectural structure, aligns the analysis with the program plan and then communicates/coordinates with large and small components, each contributing necessary hardware, software and/or information to prevent catastrophic loss. As viewed from both Challenger and Columbia accidents, lack of appropriate communication, management errors and lack of resources dedicated to safety were cited as major contributors to these fatalities. From the accident reports, it would appear that the organizational impact of managers, integrators and safety personnel contributes more significantly to mission success and mission failure than purely technological components. If this is so, then organizations who sincerely desire mission success must put as much effort in selecting managers and integrators as they do when designing the hardware, writing the software code and analyzing competitive proposals. This paper will discuss the necessary and

  18. Thermal Modeling of Al-Al and Al-Steel Friction Stir Spot Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrasiak, P.; Shercliff, H. R.; Reilly, A.; McShane, G. J.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, L.; Robson, J.; Prangnell, P.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a finite element thermal model for similar and dissimilar alloy friction stir spot welding (FSSW). The model is calibrated and validated using instrumented lap joints in Al-Al and Al-Fe automotive sheet alloys. The model successfully predicts the thermal histories for a range of process conditions. The resulting temperature histories are used to predict the growth of intermetallic phases at the interface in Al-Fe welds. Temperature predictions were used to study the evolution of hardness of a precipitation-hardened aluminum alloy during post-weld aging after FSSW.

  19. Integral inequalities involving generalized Erdélyi-Kober fractional integral operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baleanu Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the generalized Erdélyi-Kober fractional integrals, an attempt is made to establish certain new fractional integral inequalities, related to the weighted version of the Chebyshev functional. The results given earlier by Purohit and Raina (2013 and Dahmani et al. (2011 are special cases of results obtained in present paper.

  20. KWIN nu ook als app

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotgers, G.; Vermeij, I.

    2014-01-01

    KWIN, Kwantitatieve Informatie Veehouderij, verscheen de afgelopen 25 jaar als lijvig handboek, zowel op papier als digitaal. Dit najaar is daar een serie apps bij gekomen, waarmee adviseurs en veehouders zelf saldo- en kostprijsberekeningen kunnen maken. De apps zijn beschikbaar voor de pluimvee-,

  1. Philosophieren als Unterrichtsprinzip im Mathematikunterricht

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, Diana

    Philosophieren und Mathematik scheinen zunächst gegensätzliche Bereiche zu sein, die sich kaum vereinbaren lassen. Dies trifft für eine Auffassung zu, die Philosophieren als "Gerede" disqualifiziert und Mathematik als eine reine "Formelwissenschaft" begreift. Beide Auffassungen werden den Gegenständen nicht gerecht.

  2. Imaging spectroscopy with Ta/Al DROIDs: Performance for different Al trapping layer thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijmering, R.A. [Science Payload and Advanced Concept Office, European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands)]. E-mail: rhijmeri@rssd.esa.int; Verhoeve, P. [Science Payload and Advanced Concept Office, European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Martin, D.D.E. [Science Payload and Advanced Concept Office, European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Peacock, A. [Science Payload and Advanced Concept Office, European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Kozorezov, A.G. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    To overcome the limited field of view, which can be achieved with single superconducting tunneling junction (STJ) arrays, distributed read-out imaging devices (DROIDs) are being developed. DROIDs consist of a superconducting absorber strip with proximized STJs on either end. The ratio of the two signals from the STJs provides information on the absorption position, and the sum signal is a measure for the energy of the absorbed photon. In our devices, the absorber is an epitaxial Ta strip that extends underneath the Ta/Al read-out STJs. Thus, the bottom electrode of the STJs is an integral part of the absorber. Due to the proximity effect, the STJs have a lower energy gap than the absorber, causing trapping of quasiparticles (QPs) in the STJs. The trapping will change with thicker Al layers because the energy gap of the devices will decrease. A series of 50x200 {mu}m{sup 2} and 20x200 {mu}m{sup 2} absorbers (including 50x50 {mu}m{sup 2} STJs) and different Al trapping layer thicknesses, ranging from 65 to 130 nm, have been tested. The devices have been illuminated with 6 keV {sup 55}Fe photons. The position resolution is found to improve with increasing Al thickness. It is found that the current model needs to be adapted for DROIDs to account for different injection of QPs into the STJ and extra losses to the absorber.

  3. Imaging spectroscopy with Ta/Al DROIDs: Performance for different Al trapping layer thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijmering, R. A.; Verhoeve, P.; Martin, D. D. E.; Peacock, A.; Kozorezov, A. G.

    2006-04-01

    To overcome the limited field of view, which can be achieved with single superconducting tunneling junction (STJ) arrays, distributed read-out imaging devices (DROIDs) are being developed. DROIDs consist of a superconducting absorber strip with proximized STJs on either end. The ratio of the two signals from the STJs provides information on the absorption position, and the sum signal is a measure for the energy of the absorbed photon. In our devices, the absorber is an epitaxial Ta strip that extends underneath the Ta/Al read-out STJs. Thus, the bottom electrode of the STJs is an integral part of the absorber. Due to the proximity effect, the STJs have a lower energy gap than the absorber, causing trapping of quasiparticles (QPs) in the STJs. The trapping will change with thicker Al layers because the energy gap of the devices will decrease. A series of 50×200 μm 2 and 20×200 μm 2 absorbers (including 50×50 μm 2 STJs) and different Al trapping layer thicknesses, ranging from 65 to 130 nm, have been tested. The devices have been illuminated with 6 keV 55Fe photons. The position resolution is found to improve with increasing Al thickness. It is found that the current model needs to be adapted for DROIDs to account for different injection of QPs into the STJ and extra losses to the absorber.

  4. Information Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation introduces the concept of Information Integrity, which is the detection and possible correction of information manipulation by any intermediary node in a communication system. As networks continue to grow in complexity, information theoretic security has failed to keep pace. As a result many parties whom want to communicate,…

  5. Scientific integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2008-01-01

    consent was obtained.Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger...

  6. Numerical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozio, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    Senior secondary students cover numerical integration techniques in their mathematics courses. In particular, students would be familiar with the "midpoint rule," the elementary "trapezoidal rule" and "Simpson's rule." This article derives these techniques by methods which secondary students may not be familiar with and an approach that…

  7. Human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa through integrated management of arthropod transmitted diseases and natural resources Mejoramiento de la salud humana en África al sur del Sahara mediante el manejo integrado de enfermedades transmitidas por artrópodos y el manejo de recursos naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Baumgärtner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of an ecosystem approach to human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa is presented here. Three factors mainly affect the physical condition of the human body: the abiotic environment, vector-transmitted diseases, and natural resources. Our concept relies on ecological principles embedded in a social context and identifies three sets of subsystems for study and management: human disease subsystems, natural resource subsystems, and decision-support subsystems. To control human diseases and to secure food from resource subsystems including livestock or crops, integrated preventive approaches are preferred over exclusively curative and sectorial approaches. Environmental sustainability - the basis for managing matter and water flows - contributes to a healthy human environment and constitutes the basis for social sustainability. For planning and implementation of the human health improvement scheme, participatory decision-support subsystems adapted to the local conditions need to be designed through institutional arrangements. The applicability of this scheme is demonstrated in urban and rural Ethiopia.Se presenta un concepto, basado en el ecosistema, para el mejoramiento de la salud humana en la región del África al sur del Sahara. Las condiciones físicas del cuerpo humano estan afectadas por tres factores: factores ambientales abióticos, enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, y por los recursos naturales. Este concepto se basa en princípios ecológicos dentro de un contexto social, e identifica tres series de subsistemas para estudio y manejo: subsistemas de enfermedades humanas, subsistemas de recursos naturales y subsistemas participativos de toma de decisiones. En el manejo de enfermedades humanas, así como en el manejo de recursos tales como ganadería o agricultura, se da prioridad a programas preventivos de manejo integrado. El concepto de sostenibilidad ambiental - base para el manejo de materia y de aguas - contribuye

  8. Distúrbios osteomusculares relacionados ao trabalho em profissionais de enfermagem: revisão integrativa da literatura Disturbios osteomusculares relacionados al trabajo en profesionales de enfermería: revisión integrativa de la literatura Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in nursing professionals: an integrative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheila Maíra Lelis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as evidências sobre o adoecimento de trabalhadores de enfermagem pelos Distúrbios Osteomusculares Relacionados ao Trabalho (DORT. MÉTODOS: Revisão integrativa da literatura utilizando as bases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS, BVS Enfermagem, Scopus e Banco de Teses da Universidade de São Paulo (USP obtendo-se 17 estudos. RESULTADOS: Evidenciou-se que os DORT acometem os profissionais de enfermagem e relacionam-se às condições inadequadas dos ambientes de trabalho, à organização e estrutura do trabalho. CONCLUSÃO: É necessário investir em programas preventivos, capacitações, educação em saúde, estratégias de intervenção e organização dos serviços existentes.OBJETIVO: Evaluar las evidencias sobre el padecimiento de trabajadores de enfermería por los Disturbios Osteomusculares Relacionados al Trabajo (DORT. MÉTODOS: Revisión integrativa de la literatura utilizando las bases: Biblioteca Virtual en Salud (BVS, BVS Enfermagem, Scopus y Banco de Tesis de la Universidad de Sao Paulo (USP obteniéndose 17 estudios. RESULTADOS: Se evidenció que los DORT atacan a los profesionales de enfermería y se relacionan a las condiciones inadecuadas de los ambientes de trabajo, a la organización y estructura del trabajo. CONCLUSIÓN: es necesario invertir en programas preventivos, capacitaciones, educación en salud, estrategias de intervencion y organización de los servicios existentes.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate evidence of the susceptibility of the nursing staff for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMD. METHODS: An integrative review of the literature using the databases: Virtual Health Library (VHL , VHL Nursing, Scopus and Theses Database of the University of São Paulo (USP, obtained 17 studies. RESULTS: It was evident that WRMD affect nursing professionals and relate to the inadequate conditions of the workplace, and to the organization and structure of work. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to invest in

  9. INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION IN POLITICS?

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu-Aurel GHIUŢĂ

    2009-01-01

    The current study has practical applicability in politic al domain and theoretical involvement at political marketing communication level. The type of the research is a qualitative one, using as survey methods scientific observation and documentary search. The aim of the research is to prove the applicability of marketing communication concept integrated in political marketing and global marketing communication. There are also exceptions, just analyzing the industry – politics, in which integ...

  10. El miedo al rey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François FORONDA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La peur du roi. Sources et premières réflexions à propos d’une émotion aristocratique dans la Castille du XIVe siècleFace à un roi qui à présent pousse les effets de son ire jusqu’au meurtre pour faire le vide autour de lui et imposer sa différence souveraine, ses parents et les riches hommes, soit les principaux visés par cette politique de l’arbitraire qui enfreint les règles du jeu autant qu’elle contribue à les redéfinir, disent la peur (metus qu’ils ressentent, qu’ils utilisent aussi afin de donner à leur stratégie de pouvoir un fondement légitime. Et l’expression de cette émotion politique, qui tend à se muer en un stéréotype d’un discours aristocratique d’opposition, surtout présente dans les chroniques, mises ici en relation ici avec d’autres sources, notamment des correspondances, marque profondément l’histoire des relations souvent conflictuelles au sein de cette compagnie en définitive très étroite pendant un siècle, de la fin du XIIIe siècle à la fin du XIVe siècle. Cet article se propose d’ébaucher une première réflexion sur le sujet et d’en présenter les principales sources.El miedo al rey. Fuentes y primeras reflexiones acerca de una emoción aristocrática en la Castilla del siglo XIVFrente a un rey que ahora lleva hasta la muerte los efectos de su ira para hacer el vacío entorno a su persona e imponer su soberana, sus parientes y ricos hombres, o sea los principales afectados por esta política de la arbitrariedad que rompe las reglas del juego a la vez que contribuye a redefinirlas, dicen el miedo (metus que sienten, que utilizan también para darle a su estrategia de poder un fundamento legítimo. Y la expresión de esta emoción política, que tiende a convertirse en un estereotipo de un discurso aristocrático de oposición, sobre todo presente en la crónicas, aquí puestas en relación con otras fuentes, en particular cartas, marca profundamente la historia de

  11. Quantum dots formed in InSb/AlAs and AlSb/AlAs heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramkin, D. S.; Rumynin, K. M.; Bakarov, A. K.; Kolotovkina, D. A.; Gutakovskii, A. K.; Shamirzaev, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structure of new self-assembled InSb/AlAs and AlSb/AlAs quantum dots grown by molecularbeam epitaxy has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The theoretical calculations of the energy spectrum of the quantum dots have been supplemented by the experimental data on the steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Deposition of 1.5 ML of InSb or AlSb on the AlAs surface carried out in the regime of atomic-layer epitaxy leads to the formation of pseudomorphically strained quantum dots composed of InAlSbAs and AlSbAs alloys, respectively. The quantum dots can have the type-I and type-II energy spectra depending on the composition of the alloy. The ground hole state in the quantum dot belongs to the heavy-hole band and the localization energy of holes is much higher than that of electrons. The ground electron state in the type-I quantum dots belongs to the indirect X XY valley of the conduction band of the alloy. The ground electron state in the type-II quantum dots belongs to the indirect X valley of the conduction band of the AlAs matrix.

  12. MAGNETIC ANISOTROPY AND MAGNETIZATION REVERSAL PROCESS IN Fe-Al-C MAGNETS

    OpenAIRE

    WysŽocki, J.; Szymura, S.

    1988-01-01

    Microstructure of the Fe90.04Al7.86C2.10 magnet was revealed using electron microscopy. Torque curves, rotational hysteresis energy and integral were analysed to explain the magnetization reversal process in this alloy. It is found that this process in Fe-Al-C magnet, according to the Shtrikman-Treves theory, occurs by curling mechanism.

  13. Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael; Nielsen, M. W.; Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the implementation of integrated design in an actual architectural competition. The design process was carried out at a highly esteemed architectural office and attended by both engineers and architects working towards mutual goals of architectural excellence......, low-energy consumption, and high-quality indoor environment. We use this case study to investigate how technical knowledge about building performance can be integrated into the conceptual design stage. We have selected certain points during the design process that represented design challenges...... and describe the decision process. Specific attention is given to how the engineering input was presented and how it was able to facilitate the design development. Site and context, building shape, organization of functions and HVAC-systems were all included to obtain a complete picture of the building...

  14. Consoer et al PFOS dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ScienceHub entry was developed for the published paper: Consoer et al., 2016, Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainow trout (Oncorhynchus...

  15. EKSKURSO AL CANGYAN-MONTO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Verkita; de; Li; Shijun

    1999-01-01

    La Pekina Esperanto-Asocio preskaǚ sta-rigis tradicion organizi ekskurson printempe kajaǚtune. En la pasinta jaro, ni ekskursis al In-terna Mongolio kaj habis agrablajn renkontiojnkun geesperantistoj en Huhehot kaj Baotou. i-

  16. DESAFÍOS AL ORDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina De los Rios

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fradkin, Raúl y Gelman, Jorge (Compiladores, Desafíos al Orden. Política y sociedades rurales durante la Revolución de Independencia, Prohistoria ediciones, Rosario, 2008, 157 pp.

  17. Seltzer_et_al_2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset supports the modeling study of Seltzer et al. (2016) published in Atmospheric Environment. In this study, techniques typically used for future air...

  18. Information als Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz

    OpenAIRE

    Ingold, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Der Informationsbegriff als zentraler Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz wird in der bibliothekarischen Diskussion in der Regel nicht explizit thematisiert, sondern lässt sich aus Fachliteratur und Bibliothekspraxis nur implizit erschließen. Eine theoretische Beschäftigung mit dem Informationsbegriff ist jedoch unabdingbar, soll das Konzept "Informationskompetenz" auch außerhalb des bibliothekarischen Kontextes verständlich und nutzbar gemacht werden. Im vorliegenden Text, der sich als Beit...

  19. From Kitāb al-ḥadā’iq to Kitāb al-dawā’ir: Reconsidering Ibn al-Sīd al-Batalyawsī’s Philosophical Treatise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliyahu, Ayala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The philosophical treatise known as Kitāb al-ḥadā’iq is generally ascribed to the 12th century Andalusian author Ibn al-Sīd al-Batalyawsī, although this attribution is sometimes contested. This paper offers a new interpretation of the title, textual history, authorship, sources, and literary genre of this treatise, on the basis of new textual evidence, a reexamination of known evidence, and a comparison between the treatise and Batalyawsī’s works. The conclusions of this study are first, that Kitāb al-ḥadā’iq was not the treatise’s original title, and therefore it should be renamed Kitāb al-dawā’ir; second, that Kitāb al-dawā’ir was originally part of (one of the versions of Batalyawsī’s Kitāb al-masā’il; and third, that the textual and stylistic similarities between this treatise and Batalyawsī’s other works prove the authenticity of the treatise’s attribution to Batalyawsī. In addition, new findings regarding Batalyawsī’s use of formulas from the Rasā’il Ikhwān al-Safā, in Kitāb al-dawā’ir and Kitāb al-masā’il provide further evidence for the deep impact of the Ikhwān on Batalyawsī’s thought, as well as for the close connection between Kitāb al-dawā’ir and Kitāb al-masā’il. This connection is further highlighted according to the attribution of both treatises to the genre of questions and answers in Arabic literature. The evidence gathered in this paper supports the claim that Batalyawsī’s Kitāb al-dawā’ir should be seen as an integral part of his literary oeuvre, as well as of Andalusian philosophical literature in general.Generalmente el tratado filosófico conocido como Kitāb al-ḥadā’iq se asocia al autor andalusí del siglo XII Ibn al-Sid al-Batalyawsī, aunque esta atribución ha sido discutida en ocasiones. Este artículo ofrece una nueva interpretación del título, la historia del texto, la autoría, las fuentes e incluso del género literario al que se

  20. Pensando al agua como parte del paisaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Salvatelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir la importancia de los estudios de arqueología terrestre y subacuática como parte de un mismo proceso de interpretación del pasado. Se entiende que el registro arqueológico puede hallarse actualmente en una variedad de ambientes tanto terrestres como subacuáticos a causa de varias razones, como por ejemplo las oscilaciones de los niveles de agua ocurridas entre el Pleistoceno Final y el Holoceno Medio. Por lo tanto, se propone que para su recuperación debe utilizarse una metodología adaptada al medio ambiente en el cual se encuentre. En este sentido, es importante la interpretación integral del paisaje para acceder a la comprensión de la diversidad ambiental en la que se puede emplazar un sitio arqueológico, y en consecuencia poder “bucear” un registro integrado.

  1. The photoproton decay of 27Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoproton spectra from 27Al were measured from 14.8 to 27.6 MeV excitation energy in 400 keV steps. From these, high resolution photoproton cross sections to low-lying states of the residual 26Mg nucleus were deduced. The large integrated cross sections to these states justify the interpretation of the de-excitation gamma ray measurements which consistently indicate strong population of low-lying residual states following photodisintegration. Further, the results are discussed with reference to the particle-hole model. By examination of the microscopic configurations of the possible GDR states an explanation is proposed for the differences in the cross sections to various residual states

  2. Strain sensing with sub-micron sized Al-AlOx-Al tunnel junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Koppinen, P. J.; Lievonen, J. T.; Ahlskog, M.; Maasilta, I. J.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a local strain sensing method for nanostructures based on metallic Al tunnel junctions with AlOx barriers. The junctions were fabricated on top of a thin silicon nitride membrane, which was actuated with an AFM tip attached to a stiff cantilever. A large relative change in the tunneling resistance in response to the applied strain (gauge factor) was observed, up to a value 37. This facilitates local static strain variation measurements down to ~10^{-7}.

  3. Ni-Al and NiO-Al Composite Coatings by Combustion-Assisted Flame Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Xanthopoulou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new, cost-efficient and on-site-applicable thermal spraying process for depositing NiAl metallic overlay or bond-coat coatings for high temperature applications by synthesizing the desired intermetallic phases in-flight during oxy-acetylene flame spraying is presented. Base-metal powders were used for spraying and, by adjusting the spraying conditions, excellent NiAl-based coatings were achieved on various substrates, including mild steel, stainless steel and aluminium alloys. Expensive, pre-alloyed or agglomerated powders are avoided and the method is very promising for in-situ work and repairs. We call the new method “Combustion-Assisted Flame Spraying” (CAFSY and its viability has been demonstrated at a pre-industrial level for coating metallic substrates. The NiAl-based coatings produced by CAFSY exhibit very high integrity with good adhesion, very low porosity, high surface hardness and high erosion resistance at a substantially lower cost than equivalent coatings using pre-prepared alloy powders.

  4. Al clamor de les vuvuzeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Olivera Betrán

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El Mundial de Futbol de Sud-àfrica ha situat l’Àfrica al mapa mundial i ha mostrat al món el triomf de l’estil de futbol d’Espanya basat en la col·lectivitat, l’esperit d’equip, la humilitat, la cohesió interna i el joc bonic. L’organització africana, seriosa i eficaç, ha sabut mobilitzar i il·lusionar la població del país que ha participat en el mundial des de l’orgull de ser africà, amb l’esperit alegre, festiu i també reivindicatiu de la gent de l’Àfrica. Aquest esdeveniment suposa el llançament de la marca “Sud-àfrica” al món amb un avís clar d’optar a l’organització d’uns primers Jocs Olímpics a Àfrica (potser els de 2020. S’obre una finestra d’esperança al segle xxi per al continent perdut de la mà de l’esport espectacle tan universal, massiu, emocional i mercantil que també es juga a la canxa de la política i de l’economia.

  5. An Integrative Framework for Evolving A Socially Responsible Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The rise in the strategic importance of maintaining positive stakeholder relationships and the need to protect corporate brand reputation has moved the academic and business debates of ethical issues concerning corporate social responsibility (CSR) from being viewed as paternalistic philanthropy to an integral part of business strategy (Raynard et al., 2002; Husted et al., 2000). Subsequently, the integration of CSR issues into business and marketing strategy transitioned from an option to a ...

  6. A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because flake-like TiAl3 particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl3 particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of α-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption

  7. AlGaAs-On-Insulator Nonlinear Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Pu, Minhao; Semenova, Elizaveta; Yvind, Kresten

    2015-01-01

    The combination of nonlinear and integrated photonics has recently seen a surge with Kerr frequency comb generation in micro-resonators as the most significant achievement. Efficient nonlinear photonic chips have myriad applications including high speed optical signal processing, on-chip multi-wavelength lasers, metrology, molecular spectroscopy, and quantum information science. Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) exhibits very high material nonlinearity and low nonlinear loss when operated below half its bandgap energy. However, difficulties in device processing and low device effective nonlinearity made Kerr frequency comb generation elusive. Here, we demonstrate AlGaAs-on-insulator as a nonlinear platform at telecom wavelengths. Using newly developed fabrication processes, we show high-quality-factor (Q>100,000) micro-resonators with integrated bus waveguides in a planar circuit where optical parametric oscillation is achieved with a record low threshold power of 3 mW and a frequency comb spanning 350 nm i...

  8. Conjuntivitis alérgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tello Hernández

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La conjuntivitis alérgica es una de las causas más comunesde consulta externa en oftalmología y tiene una muy altarelación con las reacciones alérgicas sistémicas. Lafisiopatología de las reacciones de hipersensibilidad noshace entender los cuadros clínicos característicos de estapatología y sus diferentes grados de severidad. Eldiagnostico diferencial es amplio, sin embargo hay clavesdiagnosticas que nos orientan rápidamente al diagnosticocorrecto. El tratamiento se enfoca en las medidasfarmacológicas y no farmacológicas, utilizándolas enconjunto para disminuir la recurrencia del cuadro y prevenirsecuelas visuales.

  9. Electrowinning Al from Al2S3 in Molten Salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Y.; Van der Plas, D.W.; Bohte, J.; Lans, S.C.; Van Sandwijk, A.; Reuter, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate an alternative process for the production of primary aluminum via a sulfide intermediate, the electrochemical behavior of Al2S3 in molten salt has been studied on a laboratory scale. The effects of electrolyte composition, temperature, and cell design on the cell performance

  10. Al2O3/Au/Al2O3 layered films as tritium permeation barrier%Al2O3/Au/Al2O3层状阻氚薄膜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤波楷; 何业东; 曹江利; 唐涛; 饶咏初

    2012-01-01

    Single Al2O3 films, single Au films and Al2O3/Au/Al2O3 layered films were prepared on 316L stainless steel substrate by megnetron sputtering. Then vapour phase permeation experiment of deuterium through 316L substrate and its film materials were carried out at 500℃ with a partial pressure of deuterium 0. 06 MPa. The results indicate that morphology of the three films is good and no phenomenon of cracking and spalling is found after deuterium permeation. Deuterium permeation reduction factors (PRF) of these films are over one order of magnitude relative to clean 316L. The performance of barrying deuterium increases progressively in the order of single Al2O3 films, single Au films and Al2O3/Au/Al2O3 ayered films. Al2O3/Au/Al2O3 layered films exhibit excellent performance of barrying deuterium because the mechanical properties of the layered films are improved visibly by the ductile interlayer Au and the interdiffusion between Au and 316L substratc is hindered by Al2O3 layer, so Au can give full play to barry deuterium. The study shows that layered films like precious metal integrated with ceramics is a new way in the domain of tritium permeation barrier development.%采用磁控溅射法在316L不锈钢基体上分别沉积单层Al2O3,膜、单层Au膜以及Al2O3/Au/Al2O3层状薄膜。采用气相渗透法在500℃,氘分压为0.06MPa条件下测试了薄膜的阻氘性能。结果表明,3种薄膜氘渗透后,薄膜的形貌良好,无开裂、无剥落的现象,氘渗透率减低因子均比316L不锈钢基材增大一个数量级以上,阻氘效能按单层Al2O3,膜、单层Au膜以及Al2O3/Au/Al2O3层状薄膜依次递升。Al2O3/Au/Al2O3层状薄膜的优异阻氘效能可归因于,延性的Au夹层使层状薄膜的力学性能得到显著提高;Al2O3层能阻止Au与基体间互扩散,使Au能充分发挥阻氘效能。本研究表明,由贵金属与陶瓷阻氚材料构成的层状薄膜是发展阻氚涂层的新途径。

  11. Metode Kritis Al-Shawkânî dalam Kitab Nayl Al-Awţâr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Zainuddin MZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the many sources for the study of Hadîth and the science of law and legal arrangements (al-ahkâm wa al-mawâ‘ id, Kitâb Muntaqâ al-Akhbâr by Majd al-Dîn Abd al-Salâm bin Abdullah bin Qâsim better known as Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 652 H is one of the most important. This book has been commented by al-Shawkânî in a book called Nayl al-Awţâr where he employs the following methods. First, elaborating and commenting not of all hadiths but some them in each chapter of the book. Second, describing the narrators of the hadîths, their quality and personality. Third, providing the literal meaning of the hadîths he commented. Fourth, explaining the grammatical position of the vocabularies of the hadîth. Fifth, highlighting the use and benefit of the hadîth. Sixth, explaining the views of various ulama on a hadith. Seventh, extrapolating the legal rules of the hadîth using the dictums of the uşûl al-fiqh. This paper is designed to discuss this. It holds that in providing the commentary of the hadith, al-Shawkânî begins with the issue of how it was narrated (takhrîj, and ends up with extrapolating rules that may be learnt from it. The paper also believes that al-Shawkânî is an objective scholar, who worked in the elaboration and commentary of the hadîths just for the sake of knowledge. The fact that he often offers a commentary against the legal position of his own school of thought indicates that al-Shawkânî a person of academic integrity. The methods that he employs and the spirit behind his determination to provide commentary, all point to one thing of particular importance, that al-Shawkânî is immune of fanaticism and imitation.

  12. Massive Open Online Courses als Teil der Hochschulstrategie

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Anja; Wittke, Andreas; Steinert, Farina; Muschal, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Die Bedeutung von Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in der Hochschule sowie deren didaktische und technische Ausgestaltung wird zwar vielerorts diskutiert, an nachhaltigen Konzepten zur Integration der neuen Lern- und Lehrformate in die Hochschulstrategie mangelt es aber. Der Beitrag beleuchtet Digitalisierung, Kooperationen, Öffnung der Hochschulen und Internationalisierung als strategische Handlungsfelder sowie deren Implementierung an der Fachhochschule Lübeck. Mit der eigenen MOOC-Platt...

  13. ALS:A SAIRASTAVAN TOIMINTATERAPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorinen, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrofinen lateraali skleroosi on harvinainen, etenevä sairaus. Sairaus surkastuttaa edetessään potilaan tahdonalaisen lihaksiston. Sairauden oireet näkyvät yleensä ensin raajoissa, mutta myös nielun lihaksista alkava bulbaarinen taudinmuoto on mahdollinen. ALS voi myös aiheuttaa frontotemporaalista dementiaa. Sairaus etenee yksilöllisesti, mutta sen kesto on yleensä noin 3-5 vuotta. Keski-Suomen keskussairaalassa ALS:n sairastuneen kuntoutukseen osallistuu moniammatillinen työryhmä, j...

  14. Al-Qaeda Since 911

    OpenAIRE

    Brahimi, Alia

    2012-01-01

    Seconds after smiling at her local MP and shaking his hand, Roshonara Choudhry plunged a knife into his stomach. The attack on Stephen Timms in May 2010 was not the most high profile assault inspired by al- Qaeda, nor was it fatal. It did, however, offer a commentary on the changing nature of the terrorist threat since 9/11, al-Qaeda’s major impact on international relations as well as its major failure, and the intimate, perhaps inevitable, connection between the two.

  15. Cultural Competence Integration in the Nursing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Boniface C.

    2013-01-01

    With an increasingly diverse population, it is important to ensure that graduates of nursing programs are able to deliver culturally competent care (Krainovich-Miller et al., 2008; Allen, 2010). This study was undertaken to address this call to include cultural competence integration into nursing curriculum. The purpose of this study was to…

  16. Some new generalizations of Hardy's integral inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, some new generalizations of Hardy's integral inequalities are obtained. These inequalities on the one hand generalize and on the other hand improve some existing results by Bicheng et al. [J. Math. Anal. Appl. 217(1998), 321-327]. (author)

  17. Assistência de enfermagem ao portador de alterações na integridade cutânea: um relato de experiência de ensino-aprendizagem Asistencia de enfermería al portador de alteraciones en la integridad cutánea: un relato de experiencia de enseñanza-aprendizage Nursing asistence to the bearer of alterations in the cutaneous integrity: a learning education experience account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Sanches Marin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O Curso de Enfermagem da Faculdade de Medicina de Marília, vem empenhando-se na construção do Currículo Integrado, utilizando-se da metodologia problematizadora. No presente estudo, os autores apresentam os desempenhos esperados dos estudantes e a seqüência de atividades construída para o ensino dos cuidados de enfermagem ao adulto e idoso portador de alteração da integridade cutânea, a qual permite ao aluno implementar este conhecimento em sua realidade prática. No decorrer das atividades constata-se que tal desafio tem representado um avanço no processo de ensino e aprendizagem, no entanto, apontam-se algumas dificuldades a serem superadas.El Curso de Enfermería de la Facultad de Medicina de Marilia se está empeñando en la construcción de un curriculun integrado, utilizándose de la metodologia problemática. En este estudio, los autores presentan el desarrollo esperado de los estudiantes y la secuencia de actividades construída para la enseñanza de los cuidados de enfermería al adulto y al mayor portador de alteración a la integridad cutánea, la cual permite que el alumno aplique este conocimiento a su realidad práctica. En el transcurso de las actividades se nota que dicho desafio representa un avance en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizage, pero, algunas dificultades son apuntadas y deben ser superadas.The Nursing Course at the Medicine College in Marília, has been making every efforts to create the Integrate Curiculum, making use of the questionable methodology. In this study, the authors present the student' expected performances and the sequency of activities creat to teach the precautions of Nursing for the adult and elder people taking away some changes na the cutaneous integrity, that makes the student implement the konowlege. During the activities it was proved that this kind of challenge has showed a progress in the teachin and learning process, but there are some difficulties to be conquered.

  18. Andalusian astronomy: al-Zij al-Muqtabis of Ibn al-Kammâd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabás, J.; Goldstein, B. R.

    1994-12-01

    In the twelfth century the Arabic astronomer Ibn al-Kammâd, living in Islamic Spain, composed three sets of astronomical tables, called "zijes". The zijes were largely based on the work of predecessors, going back to Ptolemy on the one hand, and Hindu astronomers on the other. None of his zijes survived in the original Arabic, but a Latin manuscript contains a translation of an apparently complete zij, the "al-Zij al-Muqtabis". This paper examines the body of astronomical knowledge contained in this zij. Specifically, it is shown that one can gain valuable information on the solar theory of the Islamic astronomers from this translation. Furthermore, the theory of lunar and solar eclipses in the work is analyzed, and tables of mean planetary and solar motions are discussed. In addition, tables for the motion of the vernal equinox, star tables, and several topics of Islamic spherical astronomy are examined.

  19. ¿COLOMBIA DEBE APOSTARLE AL SOFTWARE LIBRE, AL DE FUENTE ABIERTA O AL PROPIETARIO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Girón Murillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Es complejo para gestores y administradores conocer las implicaciones que la adopción de modelos de desarrollo de software tendría para una región. Este artículo ofrece una evaluación de las implicaciones dinámicas que para el desarrollo de software de una región tendría el apostar de forma excluyente al software libre, al software de fuente abierta y al software propietario. Se desarrolló un modelo de simulación en Vensim de la dinámica de sistemas en donde se evaluaron 3 escenarios: uno en donde se adopta de forma excluyente el software libre, uno en donde se adopta el software propietario y uno en donde se adopta el software de fuente abierta. Se ofrecen descripciones y explicaciones de los resultados que sugieren las potencialidades de cada uno de los modelos de desarrollo evaluados.

  20. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  1. Un controesempio al Modus Ponens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vann McGee

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La traduzione dell’articolo è stata resa possibile grazie al consenso dell’autore e del Journal of Philosophy. Riferimenti originali: Vann McGee (1985: “A Counterexample to Modus Ponens”, Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 82, No. 9 (Sep. 1985, pp. 462-47. [N.d.T.

  2. mobile_al_mhw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission...

  3. Derecho humano al agua y al saneamiento: derechos estrechamente vinculados al derecho a la vida

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Aller, Maria Celia; Luis Romero, Elena de; Guzmán Acha, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están íntimamente relacionados con otros derechos esenciales para la vida, como la alimentación o la salud. Su reconocimiento como derechos humanos en 2010 marca un hito importante en el respeto, protección y realización de estos derechos, que se encuentran seriamente vulnerados para una mayoría de población más vulnerable y empobrecida, sobre todo en el ámbito rural. Mucho camino queda aún para conseguir no sólo la disponibilidad de agua y saneam...

  4. Integrable Bogoliubov Transform and Integrable Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁

    2003-01-01

    By defining Bogoliubov transform as a function of parameters, the integrability of the Bogoliubov transform in parameter space is investigated. It is shown that integrable Bogoliubov transform is closely related to the known integrable model. The relation between the integrable Bogoliubov transform and geometric phase of vacuum induced by the Bogoliubov transform is also discussed.

  5. Nonplanar integrability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Warren; de Mello Koch, Robert; Lin, Hai

    2011-03-01

    In this article we study operators with a dimension Δ ˜ O( N) and show that simple analytic expressions for the action of the dilatation operator can be found. The operators we consider are restricted Schur polynomials. There are two distinct classes of operators that we consider: operators labeled by Young diagrams with two long columns or two long rows. The main complication in working with restricted Schur polynomials is in building a projector from a given S n+ m irreducible representation to an S n × S m irreducible representation (both specified by the labels of the restricted Schur polynomial). We give an explicit construction of these projectors by reducing it to the simple problem of addition of angular momentum in ordinary non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The diagonalization of the dilatation operator reduces to solving three term recursion relations. The fact that the recursion relations have only three terms is a direct consequence of the weak mixing at one loop of the restricted Schur polynomials. The recursion relations can be solved exactly in terms of symmetric Kravchuk polynomials or in terms of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. This proves that the dilatation operator reduces to a decoupled set of harmonic oscillators and therefore it is integrable.

  6. First principles calculation of ac conductance for Al-BDT-Al and Al-Cn-Al systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ning Zhuang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We perform first-principles calculation to investigate the dynamic conductance of atomic wires of the benzenedithiol (BDT as well as carbon chains with different length in contact with two Al(100 electrodes (Al-Cn-Al. Our calculation is based on the combination of the non-equilibrium Green's function and the density functional theory. For ac conductance, there are two theories that ensures the current conservation: (1. the global formula which is a phenomenological theory that partitions the total displacement current into each leads so that the current is conserved.(2. the local formula which is a microscopic theory that includes Coulomb interaction explicitly so that the current is conserved automatically. In this work, we use the local formula to calculate the dynamic conductance, especially the emittance. We give a detailed comparison and analysis for the results obtained from two theories. Our numerical results show that the global formula overestimates the emittance by two orders of magnitude. We also obtain an inequality showing that the emittance from global formula is greater than that from local formula for real atomic structures. For Al-Cn-Al structures, the oscillatory behavior as the number of carbon chain N varies from even to odd remains unchanged when local formula is used. However, the prediction of local formula gives rise to opposite response when N is odd (inductive-like as compared with that of global formula. Therefore, one should use the local formula for an accurate description of ac transport in nanoscale structures. In addition, the ‘size effect’ of the ac emittance is analyzed and can be understood by the kinetic inductance. Since numerical calculation using the global formula can be performed in orbital space while the local formula can only be used in real space, our numerical results indicate that the calculation using the local formula is extremely computational demanding.

  7. Personalidad y tolerancia al dolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS M.ª CARRILLO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina la relación de algunas variables de personalidad -EPQ-A (Eysenck y Eysenck, 1975, NEO-PI (McCrae y Costa, 1988 y STA -personalidad esquizotípica- y STB -personalidad límite-, de Claridge y Broks (1984, con la tolerancia al dolor experimental inducido mediante agua fría (cold pressor test, según el procedimiento de Staats, Heckmat y Staats (1998 en una muestra filtrada mediante un cuestionario sobre dolor crónico, dolores de cabeza, de espalda, artritis, síndrome de Raynaud, y personas bajo medicación. La tolerancia al dolor experimental se evaluó mediante el Umbral del dolor (tiempo en segundos desde la introducción de la mano en el agua hasta el primer informe de dolor, Mantenimiento del dolor (duración en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde la aparición del umbral hasta su retirada y Tolerancia al dolor (duración total en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde su introducción hasta su retirada. Un análisis correlacional, factorial y de regresión por pasos mostraron un efecto cruzado entre medidas de ansiedad (tolerancia negativa al dolor y psicoticismo, siendo psicoticismo junto con control emocional predictores de tolerancia positiva al dolor. En cuanto a psicoticismo, parece que son sus elementos de naturaleza paranoide y de "dureza" los que afectan a una percepción atenuada del dolor.

  8. 76 FR 38700 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.; Public Comments and Response...), the United States hereby publishes below its Response to public comments received on the proposed Final Judgment in United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al., Civil Action No....

  9. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-Huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-Tao; Tian, Yu-Feng; Yan, Shi-Shen; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Kang, Shi-Shou; Chen, Yan-Xue; Liu, Guo-Lei; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2015-09-21

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices.

  10. Al/Au/n-Si/Al surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged-particle detectors are required to be operated sometimes in ambient light for applications like alpha counting and range finding. Detectors like Al/p-Si surface barrier with aluminium on the front side are found quite suitable. Gold/n-Si surface barrier detectors are not usable because of their excessive background photo current. These detectors, we fabricate for use in nuclear experiments, were given an aluminium coating on their gold side for use in room light. The Au/n-Si/Al surface barrier diodes were characterized for their electrical properties and performance as alpha detectors. Detectors showing good energy resolution (∼ 50 KeV) were selected and provided with another thin reflecting coat of aluminium on their front sides

  11. PEDAGOGI USUL AL FIQH BERBASIS PENDIDIKAN PERDAMAIAN DI ERA MULTIKULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusli Rusli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of usul al fiqh in constructing humanist values ​​and principles to build ‘peace education’ in the current multicultural era. Usul al fiqh is considered as the source of value and change, and has played a significant role to start reforms in legal and social institutions because of the pressures of context and religious integrity. The values ​​contained in the sources of Islamic law, such as al Quran, Sunnah, ijma', qiyas, istislah, istihsan, sadd al dhara'i, and also maqasid al shari'ah, are translated into the community and are wholly implemented in the educational institutions. These values ​​are transmitted to the learners through methods such as dialogue, cooperation, problem solving and the democratic limit creation. In transferring knowledge and values​​, an educator must be grounded on two important approaches: first, encouraging respect to the diversity based on the concept that education as a mirror, window, and conversation; second, doing class activity which is more cooperative based on the principle of justice and equality.

  12. Path Integral Approach to 't Hooft's Derivation of Quantum from Classical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Blasone, Massimo; Jizba, Petr; Kleinert, Hagen

    2004-01-01

    We present a path-integral formulation of 't Hooft's derivation of quantum from classical physics. The crucial ingredient of this formulation is Gozzi et al.'s supersymmetric path integral of classical mechanics. We quantize explicitly two simple classical systems: the planar mathematical pendulum and the Roessler dynamical system.

  13. El Cuadro de mando integral

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Lacalle, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    El trabajo se centra en la figura del mando integral como nueva herramienta enla gestión de las empresas de la era de la información para las cuales la contabilidad de gestón tradicional y sus métodos han quedado obsoletos. El trabajo se divide en tres partes diferentes: una introducción teórica al concepto de mando integral, un descripción del sector de distribución minorista de carburantes de automoción a través de estaciones de servicio en España y, por último,la aplicación del cuadro de ...

  14. Al-Anon and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, T L

    1989-01-01

    The history of Al-Anon and its current demographics are reviewed. In order to understand 12-step recovery and psychotherapy for family members of alcoholics, the concept of codependence is defined with a set of diagnostic criteria consistent with the DSM-III-R definition of personality traits and disorders. At the core of codependence are denial and an unrealistic relationship to willpower. The therapeutic implications of considering codependence as a personality disorder are explored, as are the characteristics that make codependence unique among personality disorders: the central role of denial and the existence of a self-help organization to facilitate recovery. The dynamics of working the 12 steps on codependent characteristics are outlined. A synergistic relationship between psychotherapy and the 12 steps is described. Special attention is given the emergence of Al-Anon adult children of alcoholic meetings, and the future of codependence is discussed.

  15. Sui controesempi al Modus Ponens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Sbardolini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In McGee (1985 si presentano tre controesempi al modus ponens (MP, e si argomenta di come esistano restrizioni alla validità di questa regola deduttiva. Nel presente articolo, intendo ridiscutere questi tre controesempi a MP mostrando perché non colgono il bersaglio, e presentare altri casi in cui l'applicazione di MP non sembra efficace.In [McGee, 1985] si presentano 3 controesempi al modus ponens (MP, e si argomenta di come esistano restrizioni alla validità di questa regola deduttiva. Nel presente articolo, intendo ridiscutere questi 3 controesempi a MP mostrando perché non colgono il bersaglio, e presentare altri casi in cui l'applicazione di MP non sembra efficace.

  16. Sustainability Balanced Scorecard and Business Ethics - Developing a Balanced Scorecard for Integrity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bieker, Thomas; Waxenberger, Bernhard

    2002-01-01

    The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is being discussed as a possible appropriate conceptual framework for Corporate Social Responsibility (e.g. see Bieker et al., Figge et al., Orssatto et al., 2001). As research activities underlying this paper show, the predominance of the financial perspective of the concept prevents companies from integrating sustainability-related issues in an equal way into this concept. Coming up from an integrative ethical point of view, this paper tries to illustrate, the s...

  17. Modelo de Medición de la Gestión Estratégica Mediante el Empleo de una Estructura de Cuadro de Mando Integral Dirigido a las Empresas Pertenecientes al Sector Manufacturero de Artículos de Talabartería y Guarnicionería en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    López Garcia, Iván José

    2015-01-01

    En éste artículo se analiza las características y dimensiones de los indicadores de las Estrategias Genéricas (Porter, 1980) y de los Cuadro de Mando Integral (Kaplan y Norton, 1992), para posteriormente integrarlas y conjugarlas con el propósito de conformar un “Modelo de Medición de la Gestión Estrategia mediante una Estructura del Cuadro de Mando Integral para el Sector Manufacturero de Talabartería y Guarnicionería de Venezuela” (CMI-EGP). Los datos fueron recolectados con dos cuestionari...

  18. Technological and Physical Compatibilities in Hybrid Integration of Laser and Monolithic Integration of Waveguide, Photodetector and CMOS Circuits on Silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, M.J.; Ikkink, T.; Chalmers, J.; Kranenburg, H. van; Albers, H.; Holleman, J.; Lambeck, P.V.; Joppe, J.L.; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Krijger, A.J.T. de

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, technological and physical compatibilities in hybrid integration of AlInGaP laser and monolithic integration of ZnO monomode waveguide, pin-photodetector, CMOS circuits for laser power control and signal amplification on silicon substrate are studied. Prospective problems and their po

  19. Technological and physical compatibilities in hybrid integration of laser and monolithic integration of waveguide, photodetector and CMOS circuits on silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Ming-Jiang; Ikkink, Ton; Chalmers, John; Kranenburg, van Herma; Albers, Hans; Holleman, Jisk; Lambeck, Paul; Joppe, Jan Leendert; Bekman, Herman; Krijger, de Ton; Lambeck, P.V.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, technological and physical compatibilities in hybrid integration of AlInGaP laser and monolithic integration of ZnO monomode waveguide, pin-photodetector, CMOS circuits for laser power control and signal amplification on silicon substrate are studied. Prospective problems and their po

  20. Al Margen de las Cooperativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Estrada Julio

    1941-04-01

    Full Text Available El sistema Cooperativista, propiamente hablando, no viene a constituir una doctrina económica, es más bien una práctica, un modo de proceder en provecho de determinada agrupación de individuos que se asocian para defenderse de la usura del comercio y del intermediarismo parasitario. "El movimiento cooperativo es tan viejo como la revolución industrial, y ha crecido paralelamente a ella, podría decirse como una protesta en contra del sistema capitalista industrial. Generalmente se considera que tres principios fundamentales determinan su carácter distintivo. 1-Se esfuerza por dar "servido al costo" a sus miembros antes que beneficiarse del negocio con el público en general. El servicio de un grupo organizado se considera como un medio para obtener el máximum de eficacia con mínimo de desperdicio. 2-Insiste en que los beneficios pecuniarios se distribuyan al miembro como productor, después de deducir solamente el interés del capital al tipo que compite, y los salarios y jornales de los trabajadores. 3-Mantiene el control democrático del negocio por todos los participantes en él".

  1. Vormundschaftsrecht als Grundlage politischer Herrschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer beachtlichen und sehr gewissenhaft dokumentierten Arbeit über vormundschaftliche Regentschaften im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert beschreibt Pauline Puppel unter ausführlichem Bezug auf zeitgenössische Literatur und Archivalien sowohl die allgemeine Rechtslage im damaligen Reich als auch die Anwendungsfälle in Hessen, wo zwischen 1500 und 1700 insgesamt viermal eine Landgräfin als Vormünderin des Fürsten zur Regentin ihres Landes wurde. Dies steht exemplarisch für eine bereits in der Frühen Neuzeit mögliche und nicht einmal ganz seltene Form politischer Frauenherrschaft, die bisher oft nicht hinreichend gewürdigt wurde. Puppels Untersuchung ist in zwei Hauptteile gegliedert. Der erste Teil (Das juristische Regelwerk“, S. 34-143 behandelt die zeitgenössischen Rahmenbedingungen der durch Frauen ausgeübten Vormundschaft und Regentschaft. Der zweite Abschnitt („Die Landgräfinnen von Hessen als Regentinnen“, S. 144-307 befasst sich mit der Ausfüllung dieser Regeln durch konkrete Fallbeispiele in Gestalt von Leben und Regentschaft der regierenden Landgräfinnen von Hessen.

  2. Microstructure of interaction interface between Al-Si, Zn-Al alloys and Al2O3p/6061Al composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志武; 闫久春; 吕世雄; 杨士勤

    2004-01-01

    Interaction behaviors between Al-Si, Zn-AI alloys and Al2O3p/6061AI composite at different heating temperatures were investigated. It is found that Al2O3p/6061Al composite can be wetted well by AlSi-1, AlSi-4 and Zn-Al alloys and an interaction layer forms between the alloy and composite during interaction. Little Al-Si alloys remain on the surface when they fully wet the composite and Si element in Al-Si alloy diffuses into composite entirely and assembles in the composite near the interface of Al-Si alloy/composite to form a Si-rich zone. The microstructure in interaction layer with Si penetration is still dense. Much more residual Zn-Al alloy exists on the surface of composite when it wets the composite, and porosities appear at the interface of Zn-Al alloy/composite. The penetration of elements Zn, Cu of Zn-Al alloy into composite leads to the generation of shrinkage cavities in the interaction layer and makes the microstructure of Al2 O3p/6061A1 composite loose.

  3. Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

  4. Memahami Tasawuf Ibnuu Arabi dan Ibnuu al Farid: Konsep al Hubb Illahi, Wahdat al Wujud, Wahdah al Syuhud dan Wahdat al Adyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Robith Fuadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaum sufi menapaki jalan yang berbeda untuk menuju hakikat, mereka tidak menggunakan akal dan rasio untuk sampai pada hakikat. Akan tetapi, akal bukan satu-satunya jalan untuk menuju hakikat. Karena kita sering melihat sesuatu yang di luar jangkauan akal dalam hidup ini. Jalan yang ditempuh kaum sufi untuk menuju hakikat seperti kasyf, dzauq, 'iyan, musyahadah dan sebagainya dinilai sebagai sesuatu yang samar, tidak mempunyai batasan dan kaidah pasti, bahkan sering kali bercampur dengan igauan, mimpi, khayalan dan angan-angan. Tapi yang perlu kita ingat adalah bahwa media-media tersebut telah mampu menuntun manusia untuk memecahkan sesuatu yang tidak bisa dipecahkan oleh akal dan hukum-hukum fisika. Tulisan ini akan mengkaji gagasan-gagasan dua tokoh tasawuf besar yaitu Ibnu Arabi dan Ibnu al-Farid yang hidup  pada abad keenam dan ketujuh Hijriah. Tulisan ini secara spesifik akan mengkaji tiga gagasan penting ke dua tokoh tersebut. Yaitu al hubb al Ilahi, wahdat al Wujud dan wahdat al adyan.

  5. Definite Integrals using Orthogonality and Integral Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard S. Cohl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We obtain definite integrals for products of associated Legendre functions with Bessel functions, associated Legendre functions, and Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind using orthogonality and integral transforms.

  6. Backward integration, forward integration, and vertical foreclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Yossi

    2013-01-01

    I show that partial vertical integration may either alleviates or exacerbate the concern for vertical foreclosure relative to full vertical integration and I examine its implications for consumer welfare.

  7. Electrical conductivity of (Na3AlF6-40%K3AlF6)-AlF3-Al2O3 melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effects of contents of AlF3 and Al2O3,and temperature on electrical conductivity of (Na3AlF6-40%K3AlF6)-AlF3-Al2O3 were studied by continuously varying cell constant (CVCC) technique.The results show that the conductivities of melts increase with the increase of temperature,but by different extents.Every increasing 10 ℃ results in an increase of 1.85×10-2,1.86×10-2,1.89×10-2 and 2.20×10-2 S/cm in conductivity for the (Na3AlF6-40%K3AlF6)-AlF3 melts containing 0%,20%,24%,and 30% AlF3,respectively.An increase of every 10 ℃ in temperature results an increase about 1.89×10-2,1.94×10-2,1.95×10-2,1.99×10-2 and 2.10×10-2 S/cm for (Na3AlF6-40%K3AlF6)-AlF3-Al2O3 melts containing 0%,1%,2%,3% and 4% A12O3,respectively.The activation energy of conductance was calculated based on Arrhenius equation.Every increasing 1% of AlF3 results in a decrease of 0.019 and 0.020 S/cm in conductivity for (Na3AlF6-40%K3AlF6)-AIF3 melts at 900 and 1 000 ℃,respectively.Every increase of 1% Al2O3 results in a decrease of 0.07 S/cm in conductivity for (Na3AlF6-40%K3AlF6)-AlF3-Al2O3 melts.The activation energy of conductance increases with the increase in content of AlF3 and Al2O3.

  8. United modification of Al-24Si alloy by Al-P and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延峰; 刘相法; 王海梅; 王振卿; 边秀房; 张均艳

    2003-01-01

    The modification effect of a new type of Al-P master alloy on Al-24Si alloys was investigated. It is foundthat excellent modification effect can be obtained by the addition of this new type of A1-P master alloy into Al-24Simelt and the average primary Si grain size is decreased below 47 μm from original 225 μm. It is also found that theTiC particles in the melt coming from Al8Ti2C can improve the modification effect of the Al-P master alloy. Whenthe content of TiC particles in the Al-24Si melt is 0.03 %, the improvement reaches the maximum and keeps steadywith increasing content of TiC particles. Modification effect occurs at 50 min after the addition of the Al-P master al-loy and TiC particles, and keeps stable with prolonging holding time.

  9. Strong vector valued integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Strong Bochner type integrals with values in locally convex spaces are introduced. It is shown that the strong integral exists in the same cases as the weak (Gelfand-Pettis) integral is known to exist. The strong integral has better continuity properties that the weak integral.

  10. Optimización de la Exactitud Geométrica al Integrar Diversas Fuentes de Datos en Proyectos de Inventario Forestal Basados en Escaneo Laser Aerotransportado=Optimizing Geometric Accuracy in Data Source Integration for Airborne Laser Scanning-based Forest Inventory Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Valbuena Puebla, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    La mayoría de las aplicaciones forestales del escaneo laser aerotransportado (ALS, del inglés airborne laser scanning) requieren la integración y uso simultaneo de diversas fuentes de datos, con el propósito de conseguir diversos objetivos. Los proyectos basados en sensores remotos normalmente consisten en aumentar la escala de estudio progresivamente a lo largo de varias fases de fusión de datos: desde la información más detallada obtenida sobre un área limitada (la parcela de campo), hasta ...

  11. Discrete integrable system and its integrable coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhu

    2009-01-01

    This paper derives new discrete integrable system based on discrete isospectral problem. It shows that the hierarchy is completely integrable in the Liouville sense and possesses bi-Hamiltonian structure. Finally, integrable couplings of the obtained system is given by means of semi-direct sums of Lie algebras.

  12. ASPECTS OF INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemy Varshapetian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For manufacturing companies to succeed in today's unstable economic environment, it is necessary to restructure the main components of its activities: designing innovative product, production using modern reconfigurable manufacturing systems, a business model that takes into account the global strategy and management methods using modern management models and tools. The first three components are discussed in numerous publications, for example, (Koren, 2010 and is therefore not considered in the article. A large number of publications devoted to the methods and tools of production management, for example (Halevi, 2007. On the basis of what was said in the article discusses the possibility of the integration of only three methods have received in recent years, the most widely used, namely: Six Sigma method - SS (George et al., 2005 and supplements its-Design for six sigm? - DFSS (Taguchi, 2003; Lean production transformed with the development to the "Lean management" and further to the "Lean thinking" - Lean (Hirano et al., 2006; Theory of Constraints, developed E.Goldratt - TOC (Dettmer, 2001. The article investigates some aspects of this integration: applications in diverse fields, positive features, changes in management structure, etc.

  13. Ce对Al-Si-Cu合金中α(Al)-Al2Cu共晶形貌的影响%Effect of Ce on morphology ofα(Al)-Al2Cu eutectic in Al-Si-Cu alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maja VONINA; Joef MEDVED; Tonica BONINA; Franc ZUPANI

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Ce addition on the morphology of the α(Al)-Al2Cu eutectic in Al-Si-Cu alloy was investigated using thermal analysis, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam and energy dispersive analysis. The results show that the eutectic α(Al)-Al2Cu forms within small space between dendrites, silicon and AlSiFeMn plates. Eutectic Al2Cu is not lamellar but degenerated. However, Al2Cu in Ce-modified alloys is more compact. Ce partially dissolves in Al2Cu, which is a viable reason for the formation of coarser Al2Cu. The addition of Ce also increases the microhardness of theα(Al)-Al2Cu eutectic by almost 10%compared with the basic Al-Si-Cu alloy.%采用热分析、光学显微镜技术、扫描电镜技术、聚焦离子束和能量色散谱分析方法研究Ce对Al-Si-Cu合金中α(Al)-Al2Cu共晶形貌的影响。结果表明,在枝晶、硅和AlSiFeMn之间较小空间内形成了α(Al)-Al2Cu共晶。Al2Cu为非层状的不规则共晶组织。Al2Cu在经Ce改性的合金中更加致密。部分Ce溶解于Al2Cu中,这是粗晶Al2Cu形成的原因。与基体Al-Si-Cu合金相比,Ce的加入能使α(Al)-Al2Cu共晶合金的显微硬度提高约10%。

  14. Reply to Pachai et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William J; Bex, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral vision is fundamentally limited by the spacing between objects. When asked to report a target's identity, observers make erroneous reports that sometimes match the identity of a nearby distractor and sometimes match a combination of target and distractor features. The classification of these errors has previously been used to support competing 'substitution' [1] or 'averaging' [2] models of the phenomenon known as 'visual crowding'. We recently proposed a single model in which both classes of error occur because observers make their reports by sampling from a biologically-plausible population of weighted responses within a region of space around the target [3]. It is critical to note that there is no probabilistic substitution or averaging process in our model; instead, we argue that neither substitution nor averaging occur, but that these are misclassifications of the distribution of reports that emerge when a population response distribution is sampled. This is a fundamentally different way of thinking about crowding, and on this basis we claim to have provided a mechanism unifying categorically distinct perceptual errors. Our goal was not to model all crowding phenomena, such as the release from crowding when target and flanks differ in color or depth [4]. Pachai et al.[5] have suggested that our model is not unifying because it inaccurately predicts perceptual performance for a particular stimulus. Although we agree that our model does not predict their data, this specific demonstration overlooks the critical aspect of the model: perceptual reports are drawn from a weighted population code. We show that Pachai et al.'s [5] own data actually provide evidence for the population code we have described [3], and we suggest a biologically-plausible analysis of their stimuli that provides a computational basis for their 'grouping' account of crowding.

  15. Reply to Pachai et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William J; Bex, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral vision is fundamentally limited by the spacing between objects. When asked to report a target's identity, observers make erroneous reports that sometimes match the identity of a nearby distractor and sometimes match a combination of target and distractor features. The classification of these errors has previously been used to support competing 'substitution' [1] or 'averaging' [2] models of the phenomenon known as 'visual crowding'. We recently proposed a single model in which both classes of error occur because observers make their reports by sampling from a biologically-plausible population of weighted responses within a region of space around the target [3]. It is critical to note that there is no probabilistic substitution or averaging process in our model; instead, we argue that neither substitution nor averaging occur, but that these are misclassifications of the distribution of reports that emerge when a population response distribution is sampled. This is a fundamentally different way of thinking about crowding, and on this basis we claim to have provided a mechanism unifying categorically distinct perceptual errors. Our goal was not to model all crowding phenomena, such as the release from crowding when target and flanks differ in color or depth [4]. Pachai et al.[5] have suggested that our model is not unifying because it inaccurately predicts perceptual performance for a particular stimulus. Although we agree that our model does not predict their data, this specific demonstration overlooks the critical aspect of the model: perceptual reports are drawn from a weighted population code. We show that Pachai et al.'s [5] own data actually provide evidence for the population code we have described [3], and we suggest a biologically-plausible analysis of their stimuli that provides a computational basis for their 'grouping' account of crowding. PMID:27166690

  16. Discovery of a metastable Al{sub 20}Sm{sub 4} phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Z., E-mail: zye@iastate.edu, E-mail: kmh@ameslab.gov; Zhang, F.; Mendelev, M. I.; Ott, R. T.; Park, E.; Besser, M. F.; Kramer, M. J.; Wang, C.-Z. [Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Sun, Y. [Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ding, Z. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ho, K.-M., E-mail: zye@iastate.edu, E-mail: kmh@ameslab.gov [Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2015-03-09

    We present an efficient genetic algorithm, integrated with experimental diffraction data, to solve a nanoscale metastable Al{sub 20}Sm{sub 4} phase that evolves during crystallization of an amorphous magnetron sputtered Al{sub 90}Sm{sub 10} alloy. The excellent match between calculated and experimental X-ray diffraction patterns confirms an accurate description of this metastable phase. Molecular dynamic simulations of crystal growth from the liquid phase predict the formation of disordered defects in the devitrified crystal.

  17. The Al-Al3Ni Eutectic Reaction: Crystallography and Mechanism of Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yangyang; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M.

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of the Al-Al3Ni eutectic structure are examined with emphasis on its morphology and crystallography. Based on these examinations, the mechanism of formation of this technologically important eutectic is postulated. It is found that a thin shell of α-Al forms coherently around each Al3Ni fiber. The excellent thermal stability of the Al-Al3Ni eutectic may be attributed to the presence of this coherent layer.

  18. Hydrography - Integrated List Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only attaining segments of the Integrated List. The Streams Integrated List represents stream assessments in an integrated format for the Clean...

  19. Formaline of alternatieven als ontsmettingsmiddel voor broedeieren

    OpenAIRE

    Meijerhof, R.; Dijk, D. van

    1997-01-01

    Formaline wordt algemeen gezien als een goed middel om broedeieren te ontsmetten. Toch geeft ontsmetting met middelen als ozon en waterstofperoxyde vaak een iets beter broedresultaat. Een eventuele verklaring hiervoor is momenteel nog niet te geven.

  20. Grainreifnementlimit of commercialpureAl inoculatedbyAl-Ti-C(B)masteralloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-zhao Wang; Xiang-fa Liu

    2015-01-01

    The grain reifnement limits of commercial pure Al inoculated by Al-5Ti-1B, Al-5Ti-0.25C and Al-5Ti-0.3C-0.2B master al oys were studied, and the inlfuence of melting temperature on the grain reifning performance of these three master al oys was investigated using a high scope video microscope (HSVM), a ifeld-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and X–ray diffraction (XRD) method. Results show that there is a grain reifnement limit of commercial pure Al reifned by these three master al oys; with the same addition level of 1.5% under the present experimental conditions, the grain reifnement limits (smal est average grain size) of commercial pure Al reifned by Al-5Ti-1B, Al-5Ti-0.25C and Al-5Ti-0.3C-0.2B master al oys are 50 µm, 80 µm and 80 µm, respectively. In addition, with an increase in the melting temperature of the pure Al, the grain reifning performance of Al-5Ti-1B and Al-5Ti-0.25C master al oys decreases, but the grain reifning performance of Al-5Ti-0.3C-0.2B changes little.

  1. Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kok-Van Meer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Do paid work activities displace volunteering? A potential explanation from role overload theoryRecent changes in Dutch society might lead to a shortage of volunteers. On the one hand, the demand for volunteers is increasing: in the social welfare domain because of governmental austerity policies and in other domains such as sports because of the higher supervision intensity of activities. On the other hand, the supply of volunteers is likely to decrease as more and more women and older workers are active in the labor market, which reduces the time that is available for volunteering. Role overload theory would suggest that the increasing labor participation rate of certain categories of workers goes along with a decline of participation in voluntary work. The secondary data analysis shows that various role loads (work, care for children living at home are associated with differences in participation in voluntary work. However, while a higher number of contractual work hours and hours spent on work-related training are negatively associated with volunteer work, care for children living at home is positively associated with volunteering. These results provide only limited support for role overload theory.Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaringDe afgelopen jaren hebben zich enkele maatschappelijke veranderingen voorgedaan, die wellicht tot schaarste op de Nederlandse vrijwilligersmarkt zouden kunnen leiden. Enerzijds neemt de vraag naar vrijwilligers toe doordat subsidieregelingen versoberen (bijvoorbeeld in zorg en welzijn en de begeleidingsintensiteit in bepaalde organisaties stijgt (bijvoorbeeld in sport. Anderzijds neemt het aanbod van vrijwilligers af doordat vrouwen en ouderen meer en langer op de arbeidsmarkt actief zijn, waardoor minder tijd beschikbaar is voor vrijwilligerswerk. In dit artikel wordt aan de hand van de role overload theorie nagegaan of het al dan niet deelnemen aan

  2. IDB-9: IDB Integrated Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation, and Sustainable and Renewable Energy Title: IDB-9: Estrategia Integrada del BID de Mitigación y Adaptación al Cambio Climático y Energía Sostenible y Renovable

    OpenAIRE

    John Redwood; Lourdes Alvarez Prado; Veronica Gonzalez Diez

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the Inter-American Development Bank¿s Integrated Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation, and Sustainable and Renewable Energy (CCS). The Strategy was produced as a requirement of the IDB-9 Agreement and approved by Board of Executive Directors in March 2011. Management produced an Action Plan for the CCS in February 2012. Although the IDB-9 also mentions "food security" as a sector priority, the CCS does not include this topic, nor does it discuss "protection...

  3. AlON-SiAlON复合材料的制备及特性%Preparation and properties of AlON-SiAlON composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山下敬; 山口明良

    2003-01-01

    为提高AlON陶瓷材料的抗氧化性能,制备了AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料.在1750℃、0.5 MPa的N2气氛中,保温2 h烧成不同Al2O3/AlN/Si3N4配比的原料得到不同AlON/SiAl7O2N7比的复相材料.因为在烧结SiAl7O2N7的过程中,蒸发-凝聚的同时伴随着SiO气体的挥发,因此很难得到致密的AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料.研究了AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料在1300℃、空气中的抗氧化性能,同时作为比较,研究了相同条件下单相的AlON材料的抗氧化性能.结果表明,AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料显示了较之单相的AlON陶瓷材料更好的抗氧化性能,这是因为氧化过程中所形成的含玻璃相的表面氧化层抑制了氧的向内扩散所致.

  4. Effects of microstructural control on the failure kinetics and the reliability improvement of Al and Al-alloy interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seung Hyuk Kang

    1996-12-01

    The reliability of microelectronic systems is often limited by electromigration failure in Al-based thin-film conducting lines which interconnect devices to form an integrated circuit. Under an applied electric field Al atoms migrate with the electron flow, causing a counterflow of vacancies that accumulate into voids, eventually leading to an open circuit failure. The work reported here is concerned with clarifying the microstructural mechanism of electromigration failure, and with developing a metallurgical method to improve the electromigration resistance of Al-based interconnects. Pure Al, Al-2Cu, and Al-2Cu-1Si lines with quasi-bamboo microstructures are explored as a function of heat treatment conditions and current density. The {open_quotes}weakest{close_quotes} microstructural unit that causes failure is identified by electron microscopy; with rare exceptions, failure occurs at the upstream end of the longest polygranular segment in a given line. This microstructural characteristic of electromigration failure is even observed in lines whose maximum segment lengths are less than a few microns. The time to failure appears to increase exponentially with decreasing longest polygranular segment length. A simple constitutive equation is reported to describe the failure kinetics as a function of the polygranular segment length that leads to failure. Given correct values of the kinetic constants included in the equation, this microstructure-based constitutive relation will provide a way to assess interconnect reliability. An effective metallurgical method that can eliminate relatively long polygranular segments is post-pattern annealing. This heat treatment particularly narrows the distribution of the longest polygranular segment lengths over a large set of lines. As a consequence, the time-to-failure distribution narrows as well, so that the time to first failure increases more substantially than the median time to failure.

  5. con bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mora Antó

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación dio cuenta de la relación entre el estilo de funcionamiento familiar, los patrones de crianza y las edades de desarrollo evolutivo en niños, nacidos con bajo peso. El estudio descriptivo correlacional se realizó con 41 niños y sus madres, aplicándose cuestionarios sobre funcionamiento familiar, prácticas de crianza y desarrollo infantil. Los resultados señalaron la existencia de un funcionamiento familiar caracterizado por una cohesión amalgamada y una adaptabilidad caótica, una disciplina complaciente, falta de control y de límites claros en la díada madre-hijo. Se trataba de familias monoparentales, donde la temprana edad de concepción, el madresolterismo y el apoyo de la familia extensa eran constantes. Las edades evolutivas registradas indicaron un desarrollo inferior a la edad cronológica, en la mayor parte de los casos; sin embargo, éstas tendieron a ser superiores al compararlas con la edades reales de los infantes. No se encontró una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la edad de desarrollo y los diferentes factores del funcionamiento familiar para algunos de los rangos de edad considerados; sin embargo, no se lo descartó por completo, especialmente en lo referente al optimismo familiar

  6. Topiramat als Phasenprophylaktikum - ein Fallbericht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letmaier M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Topiramat ist ein neues Antiepileptikum mit einem breiten Wirkspektrum. Aktuelle klinische Studien geben Hinweise darauf, daß Topiramat stimmungsstabilisierende Eigenschaften besitzt und somit effizient in der Behandlung der bipolaren affektiven Störung sein könnte. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Studienberichte, behandelten wir eine 41jährige, erstmals vor 10 Jahren erkrankte Patientin mit der Diagnose einer therapierefraktären, bipolaren affektiven Störung (Rapid-Cycling mit Topiramat. Im Rahmen ihrer Erkrankung wurde die Patientin insgesamt 12mal stationär aufgenommen und meist aufgrund von akuten manischen Episoden behandelt. Dabei kamen seit 1991 folgende Phasenprophylaktika zur Anwendung: Carbamazepin, Valproat und Lamotrigin ? zuletzt nur mit mäßigem Erfolg. Daraufhin wurde zu Beginn einer neuerlichen manischen Episode ambulant eine Therapie mit Topiramat begonnen. Acht Wochen nach Therapiestart kam die Patientin in stationäre Behandlung. Der Aufenthalt dauerte weniger als drei Wochen; Topiramat wurde von der Patientin gut vertragen. Infolge eines belastenden Lebensereignisses kam es unter kontinuierlicher Therapie mit Topiramat zu einer Destabilisierung des psychischen Zustandsbildes (manische Symptome. Durch eine ambulante Erhöhung der Topiramatdosis bei gleichzeitiger Gabe von Risperidon und Clonazepam konnte jedoch eine neuerliche manische Episode erstmals ambulant behandelt werden. Die Patientin erhält derzeit 200 mg Topiramat pro Tag und ist seit mehr als 20 Monaten nahezu beschwerdefrei.

  7. Hybrid UV Imager Containing Face-Up AlGaN/GaN Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu; Pain, Bedabrata

    2005-01-01

    A proposed hybrid ultraviolet (UV) image sensor would comprise a planar membrane array of face-up AlGaN/GaN photodiodes integrated with a complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) readout-circuit chip. Each pixel in the hybrid image sensor would contain a UV photodiode on the AlGaN/GaN membrane, metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) readout circuitry on the CMOS chip underneath the photodiode, and a metal via connection between the photodiode and the readout circuitry (see figure). The proposed sensor design would offer all the advantages of comparable prior CMOS active-pixel sensors and AlGaN UV detectors while overcoming some of the limitations of prior (AlGaN/sapphire)/CMOS hybrid image sensors that have been designed and fabricated according to the methodology of flip-chip integration. AlGaN is a nearly ideal UV-detector material because its bandgap is wide and adjustable and it offers the potential to attain extremely low dark current. Integration of AlGaN with CMOS is necessary because at present there are no practical means of realizing readout circuitry in the AlGaN/GaN material system, whereas the means of realizing readout circuitry in CMOS are well established. In one variant of the flip-chip approach to integration, an AlGaN chip on a sapphire substrate is inverted (flipped) and then bump-bonded to a CMOS readout circuit chip; this variant results in poor quantum efficiency. In another variant of the flip-chip approach, an AlGaN chip on a crystalline AlN substrate would be bonded to a CMOS readout circuit chip; this variant is expected to result in narrow spectral response, which would be undesirable in many applications. Two other major disadvantages of flip-chip integration are large pixel size (a consequence of the need to devote sufficient area to each bump bond) and severe restriction on the photodetector structure. The membrane array of AlGaN/GaN photodiodes and the CMOS readout circuit for the proposed image sensor would

  8. Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory is used to design and integrate computer hardware and software and related electronic subsystems for tactical vehicles....

  9. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  10. Nonstoichiometry of Al-Zr intermetallic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radmilovic, V.; Thomas, G.

    1994-06-01

    Nonstoichiometry of metastable cubic {beta}{prime} and equilibrium tetragonal {beta} Al-Zr intermetallic phases of the nominal composition Al{sub 3}Zr in Al-rich alloys has been extensively studied. It is proposed that the ``dark contrast`` of {beta}{prime} core in {beta}{prime}/{sigma}{prime} complex precipitates, in Al-Li-Zr based alloys, is caused by incorporation of Al and Li atoms into the {beta}{prime} phase on Zr sublattice sites, forming nonstoichiometric Al-Zr intermetallic phases, rather than by Li partitioning only. {beta}{prime} particles contain very small amounts of Zr, approximately 5 at.%, much less than the stoichiometric 25 at.% in the Al{sub 3}Zr metastable phase. These particles are, according to simulation of high resolution images, of the Al{sub 3}(Al{sub 0.4}Li{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 0.2}) type. Nonstoichiometric particles of average composition Al{sub 4}Zr and Al{sub 6}Zr are observed also in the binary Al-Zr alloy, even after annealing for several hours at 600{degree}C.

  11. Electroplating Zn-Al Alloy Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The method of controlling separating anode and separating power source was used to perform orthogonal optimization for the parameters in electroplating Zn-Al alloy.The electroplating Zn-Al alloy technology was decided, in which the content of Al is about 12%-15%.

  12. Investigation of grain boundary chemistry in Al-Li 2195 welds using Auger electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.H. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL (United States). George C. Marshall Space Flight Center

    1996-05-01

    Al-Li alloy 2195 is a low-density material with high fracture toughness that is particularly well-suited for aerospace systems. It will replace Al-Cu alloy 2219 in the Super Light Weight Tank (SLWT), a modified version of the external tank being developed for the Space Shuttle to support Space Station deployment. Recent efforts have focused on joining 2195 with variable polarity plasma arc welding, as well as repairing 2195 welds with tungsten inert gas techniques. During this study, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to examine grain boundary chemistry in 2195 welds. Results indicated that weld integrity depends on whether (and how much) the grain boundaries are covered with thin films comprised of a mixture of discontinuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in Al (Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which form during weld solidification. O was probably introduced as a contaminant in the shielding gases, occurring at low levels considered negligible for Al alloys that do not contain Li. However, oxidation kinetics in 2195 are increased by Li enrichment of small quantities of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, further enhancing thin film formation at the grain boundaries. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can ultimately occupy sufficient grain boundary area to degrade the material`s mechanical properties, producing negative effects that are compounded by the cumulative heat input of multi-pass repair welding. (orig.)

  13. Studies on the Structure and Properties of Multiphase Al2O3 Abrasion-resistant Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ren-Ping; YU Yan; RUAN Yu-Zhong

    2006-01-01

    The Al2O3 abrasion-resistant ceramics is successfully prepared by using waste aluminum sludge as the main raw material with the addition of a little clay, talc and barium carbonate. The crystal structure and microstructure of ceramic are characterized by means of XRD,SEM, etc., and the physical and mechanical properties are also tested. The results show that besides the phase of corundum, a little mullite, Mg-Al spinel and hyalophane phases also exist in the product. These phases are produced via reaction in-situ, which can inhibit the overgrowth of Al2O3grain in grain boundary, and improve the integral property of the material.

  14. Pergeseran Ideologi al-Ikhwân al-Muslimûn dari Islam Fundamentalis menjadi Islam Moderat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Huda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The reform in Egypt was originally considered as the end of the Islamic political system and replaced by the democratic system. However, after H{izb al-H{urrîyah wa al-‘Adâlah (Freedom and Justice Party in Egypt was able to win the election and wiped out two of the most strategic positions, i.e. the speakerman of parliament and the president, it should be admitted that the Islamic political system has never ceased. There is a new fact that the Arab nations, especially Egypt, began to accept the democratic system without having to necessarily remove the role of Islam from it. Collaboration and integration between Islam and democracy is what has been introduced in Egypt today. Islamic system of democracy which is introduced in Egypt becomes the new hallmark of the Islamic movement or more precisely what so-called moderate Islam. Al-Ikhwân al-Muslimûn (IM is a religious organization that is worthy of being a representation of the moderate Islamic forces today. It has managed to get out of the mode of fanaticism and conservatism (fundamentalist toward adaptive patterns of thought and compromise. This study focuses on the factors and measures of IM changes from fundamentalist Islam to moderate Islam. This study concludes that IM’s ideological changes were driven by several factors, such as the role of the figure, government’s treatment, social condition, and human resources organization.

  15. Youth services: the need to integrate mental health, physical health and social care: Commentary on Malla et al.: From early intervention in psychosis to youth mental health reform: a review of the evolution and transformation of mental health services for young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Alison R

    2016-03-01

    Mental distress and mental health disorders are common in young people. Indeed, over 75 % of mental disorders begin before the age of 25 years. Long delays in seeking help for illnesses are common, initial intervention is often ineffective and young people are at risk of disengaging with treatment, particularly when they are expected to move from child and adolescent treating teams to adult services. All of these factors mean that young people are vulnerable to prolonged mental ill-health and its consequences, including educational failure, unemployment, social disengagement and deprivation, and development of further mental health problems including substance misuse. Malla et al. present different service models that attempt to address these issues. Additionally, there needs to be a focus on physical health and social care as these are intertwined with mental health.

  16. Integración al Aula: Una Estrategia Para la Intervención y Evaluación, Guiada a Través del Uso de las Nuevas Tecnologías de Intervención (TICs) Integration Into the Classroom: A Strategy for Intervention and Assessment Guided Through the Use of New Intervention Technologies (ICTs)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Eslava-Cobos; Jennifer Ricaurte-Perdomo

    2007-01-01

    Este artículo informa acerca de un proyecto de integración al aula regular de niños con diversas discapacidades, guiado a través de estrategias virtuales (TICs). Se describe un curso guía, su recurso tecnológico para la planeación de la intervención y se evalúa la aplicabilidad, eficacia y utilidad de las TICs, su aceptación por parte de los docentes y el sistema en general; la utilidad de la retroalimentación para la evaluación que genera el instrumento y la factibilidad de implementar proye...

  17. El tren de los pensamientos: cómo responde nuestro cerebro al entorno mientras evocamos imágenes mentales o generamos un discurso interno

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Villena-González

    2016-01-01

    Cuando nuestra atención se orienta internamente hacia nuestros pensamientos existe una atenuación del procesamiento cerebral a estímulos externos. Algunos estudios han demostrado que pensar en imágenes o en palabras activa regiones del cerebro implicadas en la percepción visual o auditiva, respectivamente. Sin embargo, se desconocían los efectos potenciales que podrían tener los diferentes contenidos mentales sobre el procesamiento atencional. Un estudio reciente de nuestro laboratorio mostró...

  18. Progresses in analyzing 26Al with SMCAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanghai Mini-Cyclotron based Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (SMCAMS) was especially designed for analyzing 14C. In order to accelerate and analyze 26Al the accelerated orbit and beam optics in injection system were calculated and harmonic number and acceleration turns was optimized. Preliminary experiment was carried out. In which a beam current of 1.15 x 10-9A for 27Al- and 0.038 CPS background for 26Al were measured. The limited sensitivity of 26Al/27Al is 5.25 x 10-12. (authors)

  19. Consecuencias conductuales derivadas del proceso atencional en el aula de aprendizaje: propuestas de detección

    OpenAIRE

    González Gómez, Carlota; Menchén Aparicio, Marina; Fernández Carrasco, Francisco; Sempere Tortosa, Mireia Luisa; García Fernández, José Manuel; Navarro Soria, Ignacio Javier; Vicent Juan, Maria; Gonzálvez Macià, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Uno de los factores fundamentales a tener en cuenta en el proceso de aprendizaje es la atención, máxime si consideramos que se trata del primer paso que debe darse en todo proceso de aprendizaje. Derivado de una falta de atención, inatención o dificultad para mantenerla o focalizarla, pueden surgir otros problemas con frecuencia asociados a ellos, como son un bajo rendimiento, problemas de comprensión, inadecuado desarrollo de las competencias esperadas e incluso conductas asociadas que dific...

  20. La atencion preescolar en Chile: desafios para la redemocratizacion (Preschool Care in Chile: Challenges for Redemocratization. Discussion Paper No. 13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo

    This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…

  1. Layer disordering and doping compensation of an intersubband AlGaN/AlN superlattice by silicon implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierer, J. J.; Allerman, A. A.; Skogen, E. J.; Tauke-Pedretti, A.; Alford, C.; Vawter, G. A.; Montaño, I.

    2014-09-01

    Layer disordering and doping compensation of an Al0.028Ga0.972N/AlN superlattice by implantation are demonstrated. The as-grown sample exhibits intersubband absorption at ˜1.56 μm which is modified when subject to a silicon implantation. After implantation, the intersubband absorption decreases and shifts to longer wavelengths. Also, with increasing implant dose, the intersubband absorption decreases. It is shown that both layer disordering of the heterointerfaces and doping compensation from the vacancies produced during the implantation cause the changes in the intersubband absorption. Such a method is useful for removing absorption in spatially defined areas of III-nitride optoelectronic devices by, for example, creating low-loss optical waveguides monolithically that can be integrated with as-grown areas operating as electro-absorption intersubband modulators.

  2. Capacitance-voltage characteristics of (Al/Ti)/Al2O3/n-GaN MIS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacitance-voltage characteristics of (Al/Ti)/Al2O3/n-GaN metal—insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures are measured and analyzed. n-Type GaN films are grown on sapphire (0001) substrates by the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method. An aluminum-oxide layer with a thickness of 60 nm is deposited onto the surface of GaN by the method of atomic-layer deposition from the gas phase. Metallic contacts are deposited by the electron-beam evaporation of titanium and aluminum in vacuum. According to the measurement results, the breakdown-field strength of the oxide, its dielectric constant, and the integrated electron density of states at the oxide-semiconductor interface are 5 × 106 V/cm, 7.5, and 3 × 1012 cm−2, respectively

  3. Transparent and flexible capacitors based on nanolaminate Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guozhen; Wu, Hao; Chen, Chao; Wang, Ti; Yue, Jin; Liu, Chang

    2015-02-01

    Transparent and flexible capacitors based on nanolaminate Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3 dielectrics have been fabricated on indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene naphthalate substrates by atomic layer deposition. A capacitance density of 7.8 fF/μm2 at 10 KHz was obtained, corresponding to a dielectric constant of 26.3. Moreover, a low leakage current density of 3.9 × 10-8 A/cm2 at 1 V has been realized. Bending test shows that the capacitors have better performances in concave conditions than in convex conditions. The capacitors exhibit an average optical transmittance of about 70% in visible range and thus open the door for applications in transparent and flexible integrated circuits.

  4. Trato verbal paterno al adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Juan Carlos

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En alguna ocasión se ha escuchado una palabra, que causa un sentimiento y a la vez un recuerdo, que lleva a evocar la adolescencia o la infancia, se recuerda quien la pronunciaba y en que ocasión la decía. Este es el poder que tiene una palabra y más aún si es dicha por el padre, puesto que este es la figura significativa que se lleva en la memoria. De aquí nace el interés de realizar un estudio, en donde se describe y analice la percepción y el sentimiento del adolescente, quien en esta etapa es vulnerable al cambio, ya que está buscando su propia identidad; que con el trato verbal paterno la encontrara sin ninguna dificultad o por el contrario nunca la encontrará.

     

  5. Entscheidung als Häresie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaanus Sooväli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Man könnte sagen, dass Aristoteles so etwas wie eine traditionelle und dominierende Auffassung der Entscheidung in der westlichen Philosophie gründet. Das Ziel dieses Aufsatzes ist es, diese Auffassung von Aristoteles zu entwerfen, einige ihrer wichtigsten Probleme anzusprechen, und sie damit zu kontrastieren, was ich Jacques Derridas häretische „Konzeptualisierung“ der Entscheidung nennen würde. Es wird gezeigt, dass diese häretische Thematisierung von Derrida nicht nur und einfach mit dem traditionellen aristotelischen Begriff bricht, sondern vielmehr auch zu Recht einige seiner wichtigsten Züge auf solcher Weise schärft, dass von diesem radikalisierten Standpunkt die Behandlung von Aristoteles als die Annullierung der Entscheidung zum Vorschein kommt. Es wird zudem impliziert, wie Derridas häretische Auffassung die Erneuerung der Ethik und Politik mit sich bringt.

  6. STUDY OF THE Al/GRAPHITE INTERFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU HUA(陆华); SHEN DIAN-HONG(沈电洪); DENG XIN-FA(邓新发); XUE QI-KUN(薛其坤); N.FROUMIN; M.POLAK

    2001-01-01

    Thin Al films with a thickness of 20-30nm were prepared by ltra-high vacuum deposition of Al onto a graphite surface arallel to a (0001) basal plane. The samples were annealed up to 1070K. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis has shown that for temperatures just higher than 770K, a little carbide occurs in the Al film and only an AI-C phase is present at the Al/graphite interface. After nnealing at 970K, the Al4C3 phase can be observed, and the binding energy of the Al2p electrons increases continuously from 72.7 to 74.2eV with increasing temperature up to 1070K. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles are measured to investigate the phases existing in the Al film as well as at the Al/graphite interface. It is found that the Al4C3 hase at the interface is the final product of a series of Al carbides from the interfacial reaction between Al and graphite.

  7. The GRAVITY integrated optics beam combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocou, L.; Perraut, K.; Nolot, A.; Berger, J. P.; Moulin, T.; Labeye, P.; Lacour, S.; Perrin, G.; Lebouquin, J. B.; Bartko, H.; Thiel, M.; Eisenhauer, F.

    2010-07-01

    Gravity is a 2nd generation interferometric instrument for VLTI. It will combine 4 telescopes in dual feed in the K band to study general relativity effects around the Galactic Center black hole. The concept of Gravity is based on two equivalent beam combiner instruments: the scientific one fed by the science target (Sgr A*) and the fringe tracker fed by a bright reference star (See Gillessen et al.1). Both beam combination instruments are based on silica on silicon integrated optics (IO) component glued to fluoride glass fiber array. The beam combiners are implemented in a cryogenic vessel cooled at 200°K and back-illuminated by a high power laser used for metrology (Bartko et al.2). This paper is dedicated to the description of the development of the integrated beam combiner assembly.

  8. AlON粉体的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小军; 茹红强; 张宁; 孙有政

    2009-01-01

    以α-Al2O3和AlN为原料,利用高温固相反应在氮气气氛下常压合成了AlON粉体。研究了成分配比、合成温度、保温时间对合成AlON粉体含量的影响,并通过热分析测试了合成过程热流和质量的变化。结果表明,当原料Al2O3和AlN的质量比为81:18、合成工艺为1750℃,2h时,得到AlON相的含量达到95%以上。

  9. Relation Between Hyperelliptic Integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Pakuliak, S.; Perelomov, A.

    1994-01-01

    A simple property of the integrals over the hyperelliptic surfaces of arbitrary genus is observed. Namely, the derivatives of these integrals with respect to the branching points are given by the linear combination of the same integrals. We check that this property is responsible for the solution to the level zero Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation given in terms of hyperelliptic integrals.

  10. Numerical Integration with Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Cheng

    2006-01-01

    A new formula with derivatives for numerical integration was presented. Based on this formula and the Richardson extrapolation process, a numerical integration method was established. It can converge faster than the Romberg's. With the same accuracy, the computation of the new numerical integration with derivatives is only half of that of Romberg's numerical integration.

  11. The integrated PWR; Les REP integres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, G.M. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs

    2002-07-01

    This document presents the integrated reactors concepts by a presentation of four reactors: PIUS, SIR, IRIS and CAREM. The core conception, the operating, the safety, the economical aspects and the possible users are detailed. From the performance of the classical integrated PWR, the necessity of new innovative fuels utilization, the research of a simplified design to make easier the safety and the KWh cost decrease, a new integrated reactor is presented: SCAR 600. (A.L.B.)

  12. Adaptación al cambio climático para Manizales

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    Los siniestros que abaten a Manizales, obligan a repensar la gestión integral del riesgo asociado al cambio climático. Partiendo del examen de los conflictos y contradicciones que han desnudado los desastres, se proponen tres acciones: investigación e instrumentación de la amenaza, cambios en el modelo socioambiental, y políticas públicas para una planificación que incorpore la gestión integral del riesgo.

  13. Further Integrating Euro Area Economies: Some Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Claude Trichet

    2006-01-01

    Als Gastredner bei der diesjährigen Jahresversammlung konnte der Vorsitzende der Präsident der Europäischen Zentralbank, Jean-Claude Trichet, gewonnen werden. In seinem Festvortrag ging er der Frage nach, inwieweit die Einführung des Euro die europäische Integration befördert hat und welche Reformen noch ausstehen, um die Wirtschaftssysteme der Euroländer flexibler zu gestalten.

  14. MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATION AND THERMAL STABILITY IN Cu-Al-Co AND Cu-Al-Zr ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Q. Ma; C.B. Jiang; H.B. Xu

    2003-01-01

    Cu-Al-Co and Cu-Al-Zr alloys were explored with Co or Zr additions in Cu-Al alloys for high temperature shape memory alloys. Samples were quenched after homogenized at 850℃ for 48h. It was found that both Cu-Al-Co and Cu-Al-Zr show AlCu3 martensitic phase at room temperature and exhibit martensitic transformation temperatures higher than 200℃, showing the potentials for developing as high temperature shape memory alloys. Thermal cycles were performed by DSC instrument on both Cu-Al-Co and Cu-Al-Zr alloys. The results show that Cu-Al-Co loses its martensitic transformation after five thermal cycles, and Cu-Al-Zr exhibits no martensitic transformation in the second thermal cycle.

  15. Friction Stir Welding of Al 5052 with Al 6061 Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Kumbhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW, a solid-state joining technique, is being extensively used in similar as well as dissimilar joining of Al, Mg, Cu, Ti, and their alloys. In the present study, friction stir welding of two aluminium alloys—AA6061 and AA5052—was carried out at various combinations of tool rotation speeds and tool traverse speeds. The transverse cross-section of the weld was used for optical as well as electron microscopy observations. The microstructural studies were used to get an indication of the extent of material mixing both at the macro- and microscales. It was observed that, at the interface region, both materials exhibited similar texture despite the nonrigorous mixing of the materials in the nugget. The extent of interdiffusion of alloying elements at the interface was studied using electron probe microanalysis. The tensile testing evaluation of these specimens showed good mechanical properties. The interdiffusion of alloying elements and development of similar orientations in the nugget could have contributed to the better tensile properties of the friction-stir-welded AA5052-AA6061 specimens.

  16. How integrated are immigrants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Sandell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The successful integration of immigrants is seen as a principal means to secure economic growth and welfare in many countries. Success in this task depends on the capacity to formulate effective integration policies, which in turn is based on research capable of describing and explaining the integration process properly. Objective: Our objective is to define a conceptual and quantifiable measure of full immigrant integration.This enables a quantitative evaluation of how integrated immigrants are in a specific context in an immigrant - native system - a question poorly addressed by past research. Methods: Our approach consists of looking at the functional dependency of different integrationquantifiers on immigrant density. The empirical analysis uses register data from Spain. We focus on social integration and labour market integration in formal employment. Results: In our empirical analysis we find dramatic differences in immigrant integration levels across integration contexts. While labour market integration approaches the level of full integration, social integration quickly declines as immigration levels surge. It is shown that these differences are primarily due to the presence of social network effects in the social integration process, absent in the labour market integration process. Conclusions: Proper identification of integration deficits and its causes is likely to improve the efficiency of integration policy making, and the capacity to reach integration targets. Our framework has this quality. The research presented here shows that full labour market integration of immigrants is a realistic target. However, it also shows that, if left unattended, the segregation forces contained in social networks, quite dramatically obstruct the social integration process. Lack of social integration undermines the strategy of reliance on increasing immigration to secure future economic well-being that many governments andinternational

  17. The universal path integral

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Seth; Dreyer, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Path integrals represent a powerful route to quantization: they calculate probabilities by summing over classical configurations of variables such as fields, assigning each configuration a phase equal to the action of that configuration. This paper defines a universal path integral, which sums over all computable structures. This path integral contains as sub-integrals all possible computable path integrals, including those of field theory, the standard model of elementary particles, discrete...

  18. Sisteme de management al bibliotecilor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Enache

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bibliotecile de azi se confruntă cu numeroasele provocări ale unui univers informaţional aflat într-o expansiune rapidă. Creşterea aşteptărilor şi nevoia utilizatorilor pentru un acces mai rapid şi mai uşor la informaţiile relevante sunt în relaţie permanentă cu cerinţele instituţionale pentru creşterea eficienţei operaţionale. Sistemele integrate de bibliotecă oferă tuturor tipurilor de biblioteci instrumente accesibile şi asistenţa de care au nevoie în fluxul de lucru pentru a satisface cerinţe personale şi instituţionale în prezent şi în viitor. Sistemele integrate pot fi configurate astfel încât să satisfacă aproape orice politică de bibliotecă sau procedură şi care să permită crearea unui flux de lucru unic.

  19. Efficiency droop in high-Al-content AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulaitis, G.; Mickevicius, J.; Kazlauskas, K.; Zukauskas, A. [Institute of Applied Research and Department of Semiconductor Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9-III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Shur, M.S. [Department of ECE and CIE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Yang, J.; Gaska, R. [Sensor Electronic Technology Inc., 1195 Atlas Road, Columbia, SC 29209 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Excitation power density dependence of photoluminescence (PL) efficiency is studied in the temperature range from 8 to 300 K for AlGaN multiple quantum well structures containing quantum wells of different width. PL efficiency droop is observed and dependence of the droop effect on the well width and lattice temperature is discussed. Photoluminescence band shape reveals strong carrier heating. It is shown that the heating effect has a substantial influence on the photoluminescence efficiency droop, especially at low lattice temperatures. Fitting of the temperature dependence of the PL band width with that obtained by the Monte Carlo simulation of carrier (exciton) hopping via localized states shows that (i) the potential fluctuations can be fairly accurately described using a double-scaled potential profile model, (ii) the localization becomes stronger in narrower quantum wells. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Lunjie Zeng; Dung Trung Tran; Cheuk-Wai Tai; Gunnar Svensson; Eva Olsson

    2016-01-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure...

  1. Al-Si/Al2O3 in situ composite prepared by displacement reaction of CuO/Al system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 particle-reinforced ZL109 composite was prepared by in situ reaction between CuO and Al. The microstructure was observed by means of OM, SEM and TEM. The Al2O3 particles in sub-micron sizes distribute uniformly in the matrix, and the Cu displaced from the in situ reaction forms net-like alloy phases with other alloy elements. The hardness and the tensile strength of the composites at room temperature have a slight increase as compared to that of the matrix. However, the tensile strength at 350 ℃ has reached 90.23 MPa, or 16.92 MPa higher than that of the matrix. The mechanism of the reaction in the CuO/Al system was studied by using of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermodynamic calculation. The reaction between CuO and Al involves two steps. First, CuO reacts with Al to form Cu2O and Al2O3 at the melting temperature of the matrix alloy, and second, Cu2O reacts with Al to form Cu and Al2O3 at a higher temperature. At ZL109 casting temperature of 750–780 ℃, the second step can also take place because of the effect of exothermic reaction of the first step.

  2. Simplification of integrity constraints for data integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide

    2004-01-01

    together with given a priori constraints on the combination, so that only a minimal number of tuples needs to be considered. Combination from scratch, integration of a new source, and absorption of local updates are dealt with for both the local-as-view and global-as-view approaches to data integration....

  3. The Characterization of Surface Acoustic Wave Devices Based on AlN-Metal Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report in this paper on the study of surface acoustic wave (SAW resonators based on an AlN/titanium alloy (TC4 structure. The AlN/TC4 structure with different thicknesses of AlN films was simulated, and the acoustic propagating modes were discussed. Based on the simulation results, interdigital transducers with a periodic length of 24 μm were patterned by lift-off photolithography techniques on the AlN films/TC4 structure, while the AlN film thickness was in the range 1.5–3.5 μm. The device performances in terms of quality factor (Q-factor and electromechanical coupling coefficient (k2 were determined from the measure S11 parameters. The Q-factor and k2 were strongly dependent not only on the normalized AlN film thickness but also on the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM of AlN (002 peak. The dispersion curve of the SAW phase velocity was analyzed, and the experimental results showed a good agreement with simulations. The temperature behaviors of the devices were also presented and discussed. The prepared SAW resonators based on AlN/TC4 structure have potential applications in integrated micromechanical sensing systems.

  4. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  5. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE`s Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  6. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD)

  7. Feynman integrals and hyperlogarithms

    CERN Document Server

    Panzer, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We study Feynman integrals in the representation with Schwinger parameters and derive recursive integral formulas for massless 3- and 4-point functions. Properties of analytic (including dimensional) regularization are summarized and we prove that in the Euclidean region, each Feynman integral can be written as a linear combination of convergent Feynman integrals. This means that one can choose a basis of convergent master integrals and need not evaluate any divergent Feynman graph directly. Secondly we give a self-contained account of hyperlogarithms and explain in detail the algorithms needed for their application to the evaluation of multivariate integrals. We define a new method to track singularities of such integrals and present a computer program that implements the integration method. As our main result, we prove the existence of infinite families of massless 3- and 4-point graphs (including the ladder box graphs with arbitrary loop number and their minors) whose Feynman integrals can be expressed in ...

  8. Entrevista al narrador Tommaso Pincio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Zangrilli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El autor Tommaso Pincio, seudónimo di Marco Colapietro (Roma, 1963, es sin lugar a dudas uno de los narradores de mayor proyección en el panorama literario de los últimos tiempos. Iniciada su carrera en 1999 con M., ha publicado títulos como Lo spazio sfinito (2000 y Un amore dell'altro mondo (2002, en el que narra la vida de Kurt Cobain, líder del grupo Nirvana, a través de la visión de un amigo imaginario. A estas dos novelas siguieron La ragazza che non era lei (2005, Gli alieni (2006 o Cinacittà. Memorie del mio delitto efferato (2008, ambientada en una Roma colonizada por los chinos y abandonada por los mismos romanos a causa de problemas medioambientales. Títulos como L'hotel a zero stelle (2011, un ensayo autobiográfico en el que plantea diálogos ficticios con algunos de los grandes nombres de la literatura o la más reciente Panorama (2015, le han hecho valerse un hueco provilegiado entre los nuevos narradores surgidos en estas primeras décadas de siglo. Justamente la publicación de esta última novela, Panorama, ha servido de excusa al profesor Franco Zangrilli, gran conocedor de su obra, a plantearle algunas preguntas sobre temas clave de su producción.

  9. Fabrication of TiAl3 coating on TiAl-based alloy by Al electrodeposition from dimethylsulfone bath and subsequent annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Masao; Tajikara, Seiya; Hirato, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    TiAl3 coating was formed on TiAl alloy by Al electrodeposition from a dimethylsulfone (DMSO2) bath and subsequent annealing. Before the Al electrodeposition, anodic dissolution of TiAl substrate in the DMSO2 bath was conducted to remove the surface oxide layer of the TiAl substrate. By performing the Al electrodeposition immediately after the anodic dissolution, uniform Al films adherent to the TiAl substrate could be obtained. Annealing at 650–1000 °C yielded a single TiAl3 layer or two laye...

  10. [Doppler effect on width of characteristic line in plasma induced by pulsed laser ablating Al].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi-Zhong; He, An-Zhi

    2005-05-01

    Aluminum (Al) plasma was induced with a pulsed Nd: YAG laser beam ablating Al target in Ar. Time-resolved information of the plasma radiation was taken with time-resolved technique, and the spectra of the radiation were recorded with an optical multi-path analyzer (OMA III ), whereupon, time-resolved spectra of the plasma radiation induced by pulsed laser were acquired. Based on the experiment data, Al resonant double lines, Al I 396.15 nm, Al I 394.40 nm, were respectively fitted with Lorentz, Gauss and their linear integrated function (abbr. Integrated function), whereupon, Lorentz and Gauss elements were separated from the experiment data profile curve. By contrasting Lorentz with Gauss curve separated, it was found that the experiment curve mainly consisted of Lorentz element, a with little Gauss. By contrasting Lorentz with Integrated fitting curve for experiment data, a visual picture of the characteristic lines broadened by Doppler effect was exhibited. According to the visual picture, the increase of full half-high width of the characteristic line broadened by Doppler effect was estimated. It was about 2 x 10(-)3 -8 x 10(-3) nm, approximating the theoretical value 6.7 x 10(-)3 nm. As a result, Doppler effect on the width of characteristic lines in the plasma could be reasonably explained by curve fitting analysis and theoretical calculation.

  11. Emprego de soluções adocicadas no alívio da dor neonatal em recém-nascido prematuro: uma revisão integrativa Empleo de soluciones edulcoradas en el manejo del dolor neonatal en recién nacido prematuro: una revisión integrativa Use of sweet solutions for neonatal pain relief in premature newborns: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Oliveira Alves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As experiências dolorosas repetida em recém-nascidos podem ter efeito a curto e a longo prazo, especialmente nos prematuros. Como uma medida de alívio da dor, tem sido recomendado o uso de soluções adocicadas em procedimentos dolorosos. Este estudo objetiva avaliar as evidências do efeito da sacarose e da glicose oral no alívio da dor aguda em recém-nascidos prematuros. Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa, nas bases de dados MEDLINE e LILACS, no período de 2005 a 2010, foram selecionados oito artigos. A análise destes revelou o efeito analgésico da glicose e da sacarose em procedimentos agudos. Nenhum efeito colateral foi encontrado nos recém-nascidos que receberam a glicose/sacarose. Ressalta-se a importância do uso da escala de avaliação da dor que mais se identifique com a população predominante nas unidades neonatais, que seja de fácil aplicação e manuseio pelos profissionais de saúde.Repetidas experiencias dolorosas en los recién nacidos pueden tener un efecto en el corto y largo plazo, especialmente en recién nacidos prematuros. Como una medida de aliviar el dolor, se ha recomendado el uso de soluciones azucaradas durante los procedimientos dolorosos. Así, este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la evidencia del efecto de la sacarosa o glucosa oral en el alivio del dolor agudo en niños recién nacidos prematuros. Se realizó una revisión integrativa en las bases de datos: MEDLINE y LILACS en el período 2005 a 2010, habiendo sido seleccionados ocho artículos. El análisis reveló el efecto analgésico de la glucosa y la sacarosa en los procedimientos agudos. No se encontró ningún efecto colateral significativo en los recién nacidos que recibieron la glucosa/sacarosa. Se resalta la importancia del uso de la escala de evaluación del dolor que más se identifique con la población predominante en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales y que sea de fácil aplicación y manipulación para los profesionales

  12. Fabrication of AlN-TiC/Al composites by gas injection processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Huashun; CHEN Hongmei; MA Rendian; MIN Guanghui

    2006-01-01

    The fabrication of AlN-TiC/Al composites by carbon-and nitrogen-containing gas injection into Al-Mg-Ti melts was studied. It was shown that AlN and TiC particles could be formed by the in situ reaction of mixture gas (N2+C2H2+NH3) with Al-Mg-Ti melts. The condition for the formation of AlN was that the treatment temperature must be higher than 1373 K, and the amounts of AlN and TiC increased with the increase of the treatment temperature and the gas injection time.It was considered that AlN was formed by the direct reaction of Al with nitrogen-containing gas at the interface of the gas bubble and the melt. However, the mechanism of TiC formation is a combination mechanism of solution-precipitation and solid-liquid reaction.

  13. Orientation relationship of eutectoid FeAl and FeAl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherf, A.; Kauffmann, A.; Kauffmann-Weiss, S.; Scherer, T.; Li, X.; Stein, F.; Heilmaier, M.

    2016-01-01

    Fe–Al alloys in the aluminium range of 55–65 at.% exhibit a lamellar microstructure of B2-ordered FeAl and triclinic FeAl2, which is caused by a eutectoid decomposition of the high-temperature Fe5Al8 phase, the so-called ∊ phase. The orientation relationship of FeAl and FeAl2 has previously been studied by Bastin et al. [J. Cryst. Growth (1978 ▸), 43, 745] and Hirata et al. [Philos. Mag. Lett. (2008 ▸), 88, 491]. Since both results are based on different crystallographic data regarding FeAl2, the data are re-evaluated with respect to a recent re-determination of the FeAl2 phase provided by Chumak et al. [Acta Cryst. (2010 ▸), C66, i87]. It is found that both orientation relationships match subsequent to a rotation operation of 180° about a 〈112〉 crystallographic axis of FeAl or by applying the inversion symmetry of the FeAl2 crystal structure as suggested by the Chumak data set. Experimental evidence for the validity of the previously determined orientation relationships was found in as-cast fully lamellar material (random texture) as well as directionally solidified material (∼〈110〉FeAl || solidification direction) by means of orientation imaging microscopy and global texture measurements. In addition, a preferential interface between FeAl and FeAl2 was identified by means of trace analyses using cross sectioning with a focused ion beam. On the basis of these habit planes the orientation relationship between the two phases can be described by (01)FeAl || (114) and [111]FeAl || [10]. There is no evidence for twinning within FeAl lamellae or alternating orientations of FeAl lamellae. Based on the determined orientation and interface data, an atomistic model of the structure relationship of Fe5Al8, FeAl and FeAl2 in the vicinity of the eutectoid decomposition is derived. This model is analysed with respect to the strain which has to be accommodated at the interface of FeAl and FeAl2. PMID:27047304

  14. Electron channelling enhanced microanalysis on Ni-Al-Mn and Al-Mn-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atom location by channelling enhanced microanalysis (ALCHEMI) was performed for Ni-Al-Mn compounds and Al-Mn-Si quasicrystals. For Ni75Al25-xMnx (x=5,9) with the L12-type structure, an occupation fraction of Mn atoms at the Ni site was quantitatively determined using planar channelling conditions. The occupation fraction increases with the Mn concentration or by quenching the compound from high temperature. In quasicrystals of Al74Mn20Si6 and Al68Mn20Ru8Si4, axial channelling conditions were used to locate Si and Ru, respectively. It was shown that Si atoms occupy the Al site in Al74Mn20Si6 whereas Ru atoms occupy the site different from that of Al in Al68Mn20Ru8Si4. (author)

  15. A New Phase in ALS Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, P Andrew; Forman-Kay, Julie D

    2016-09-01

    In this issue of Structure, Conicella et al. (2016) present evidence that the low complexity C-terminal region of TDP-43 undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation. ALS-associated mutations alter this phase separation process, providing a possible mechanism for the pathology caused by these TDP-43 mutations. The work is strongly supportive of toxic loss of RNA processing function in ALS. PMID:27602988

  16. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now,...

  17. Casting fabrication of in situ Al3Ti-Al composites and their wear behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Tijun; Li Jian; Hao Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The Al3li intermetallic reinforced pure Al, Al-13Si and Al-17Cu matrix composites were prepared by casting method. Their microstructures and dry sliding wear behaviors at room temperature and 100℃ were particularly investigated. The results indicated that the Al3Ti phases in these composites were all in flaky form. But the aspect ratio of the Al3Ti platelets decreased with the increase of Ti content in the pure AI, Al-Cu and Al-Si matrix composites, in order of effectiveness. The effect of Si on the Al3Ti morphology seemed to be greater than that of Cu. The distributions of the Al3Ti platelets were different in the different matrix composites, leading to different grain refining effects. Except for the sub-wear regime of adhesive wear, the plastic deformation induced wear was a dominant wear mechanism for all of the composites at room temperature and 100℃. Increasing the testing temperature, decreasing the Al3Ti content or the hardness of materials could enhance these two wear mechanisms, and thus increase the wear rate. The Al-Cu matrix composite had the best wear resistance, while the pure Al matrix composite showed the worst for the same Ti content. These differences or changes were attributed to the differences in materials' hardness or the strengthening effects of the Al3Ti platelets.

  18. Integrating Gricean and Attentional Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Passonneau, R J

    1995-01-01

    This paper concerns how to generate and understand discourse anaphoric noun phrases. I present the results of an analysis of all discourse anaphoric noun phrases (N=1,233) in a corpus of ten narrative monologues, where the choice between a definite pronoun or phrasal NP conforms largely to Gricean constraints on informativeness. I discuss Dale and Reiter's [To appear] recent model and show how it can be augmented for understanding as well as generating the range of data presented here. I argue that integrating centering [Grosz et al., 1983] [Kameyama, 1985] with this model can be applied uniformly to discourse anaphoric pronouns and phrasal NPs. I conclude with a hypothesis for addressing the interaction between local and global discourse processing.

  19. El Hombre, un ser integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alexander Solórzano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo pretende mostrar la dificultad que existe al momento de elaborar una precisa definición del hombre como ser integral, para ello se recurre a las nociones esenciales de la antropología filosófica, la nueva concepción del giro cristia- no de la fenomenología francesa, se mira grosso modo la visión personalista de Juan Pablo II sobre el hombre y la visión integradora de Panikkar del humanismo cosmote- ándrico, por último se encuentra la visión del humanismo cristiano y el desarrollo soli- dario enfatizado en el Magisterio de la Iglesia Católica como intento de respuesta a la crucial pregunta sobre el hombre y su mundo relacional. Palabras clave: Filosofía, Teología moral, Fenomenología, Humanismo, Perso- nalismo, Cosmoteándrico. 

  20. Focused ion beam nano-structuring of photonic Bragg gratings in $Al_2O_3$ waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranga, Amaia; Ay, Feridun; Bradley, Jonathan D.B.; Ridder, de René M.; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Pollnau, Markus; Emplit, Ph.; Delqué, M.; Gorza, S.-P.; Kockaart, P.; Leijtens, X.

    2007-01-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) etching is receiving increasing attention for the fabrication of active integrated optical components such as waveguide amplifiers and lasers. Si-technology compatible low-loss $Al_2O_3$ channel waveguides grown on thermally oxidized silicon substrates have been reported recen

  1. Efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs-on-insulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Ottaviano, Luisa; Semenova, Elizaveta;

    2016-01-01

    The combination of nonlinear and integrated photonics enables Kerr frequency comb generation in stable chip-based microresonators. Such a comb system will revolutionize applications, including multi-wavelength lasers, metrology, and spectroscopy. Aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) exhibits very h...

  2. Influence of Superconductivity on Crystal Electric Field Transitions in La1-xTbxAl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feile, R.; Loewenhaupt, M.; Kjems, Jørgen;

    1981-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering from the crystal electric field transitions in La1-xTbxAl2 single crystals has revealed an abrupt increase in the lifetimes of these transitions when the system becomes superconducting. An increase in the integrated intensities is also observed. The lifetime effects...

  3. Groente- en fruitafvallen als veevoer : inventarisatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de A.

    1982-01-01

    Een onderzoek wat betreft hoeveelheden, bewaring, samenstelling, verteerbaarheid en eventueel aanwezige ongewenste stoffen van de bij- en afvalprodukten van groenten en fruit als veevoer voor herkauwers

  4. Genetics of Familial and Sporadic ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

  5. Growth of CdTe: Al films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdTe: AI films were grown by the close space vapor transport technique combined with free evaporation (CSVT-FE). The Aluminum (Al) evaporation was made by two kinds of sources: one made of graphite and the other of tantalum. The films were deposited on glass substrates. The Al source temperature was varied maintaining the CdTe source temperature fixed as well as the substrate temperature. The films were characterized by x-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), x-ray diffraction and optical transmission. The results showed for the films grown with the graphite source for Al evaporation, the Al did not incorporate in the CdTe matrix, at least to the level of EDAX sensitivity; they maintained the same crystal structure and band gap. For the samples grown with the tantalum source, we were able to incorporate the Al. The x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a crystal structure that depends on Al concentration. They were cubic up to 2.16 at. % Al concentration; for 19.65 at. % we found a mixed phase; for Al concentration higher than 21 at. % the films were amorphous. For samples with cubic structure it was found that the lattice parameter decreases and the band gap increases with Al concentration. (Author)

  6. Vulnerability of microRNA biogenesis in FTD-ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitan, Chen; Hornstein, Eran

    2016-09-15

    The genetics of the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) turn our attention to RNA metabolism, primarily because many of the identified diseases-associated genes encode for RNA-binding proteins. microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous noncoding RNAs that play critical roles in maintaining brain integrity. The current review sheds light on miRNA dysregulation in neurodegenerative diseases, focusing on FTD-ALS. We propose that miRNAs are susceptible to fail when protein factors that are critical for miRNA biogenesis malfunction. Accordingly, potential insufficiencies of the 'microprocessor' complex, the nucleo-cytoplasmic export of miRNA precursors or their processing by Dicer were recently reported. Furthermore, specific miRNAs are involved in the regulation of pathways that are essential for neuronal survival or function. Any change in the expression of these specific miRNAs or in their ability to recognize their target sequences will have negative consequences. Taken together, recent reports strengthens the hypothesis that dysregulation of miRNAs might play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, and highlights the miRNA biogenesis machinery as an interesting target for therapeutic interventions for ALS as well as FTD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:RNA Metabolism in Disease. PMID:26778173

  7. CEMS and DCEMS investigations of Al-implanted iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, H.; Nikolov, O.; Kruijer, S.; Brand, R. A.; Keune, W.; Liljequist, D.; Weber, S.; Scherrer, S.

    1994-12-01

    α-Fe surfaces were implanted with a nominal dose of 5×1017 Al ions/cm2 at 50 keV and a current density of about 3.7 μA/cm2. Samples of different shapes and thicknesses have been used in order to test the influence of heat flow from specimen to target holder during implantation. Integral and energy differential (“depth-selective”)57Fe conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS and DCEMS) were employed. The spectra indicated a magnetic phase characterised by a broad hyperfine field distribution P(B hf), a non-magnetic phase, and α-Fe. The relative intensity of the non-magnetic phase was enhanced if the thermal contact during implantation became worse. An energy dependence of DCEM spectra in the L-electron range was observed. Model calculations using L-electron weight functions and experimental concentration profiles obtained by secondary neutral mass spectroscopy (SNMS) yielded fair agreement between calculated and experimental phase signals. The results demonstrate that the non-magnetic Fe-Al alloy phase with high Al concentration is located closer to the surface than the magnetic alloy phase, which extends to much larger depth than expected.

  8. Integración Curricular: respuesta al reto de educar en y desde la diversidad Integração Curricular: resposta ao desafio de educar em e desde a diversidade Curricular Integration: responding to the challenge of educating in and through diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Illán Romeu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A través de este trabajo, presentamos nuestro modelo de diseño, desarrollo y evaluación de Unidades Didácticas Integradas (UDIs, describiendo todas y cada una de sus diferentes fases. Del mismo modo, exploramos sus potencialidades en la construcción de un currículo cimentado sobre los supuestos de la Integración Curricular. Se trata de un modelo que surge de un proceso de investigación llevado a cabo en diferentes centros educativos. Nuestro propósito último es, precisamente, tratar de llegar a un mayor número de profesores, maestros y educadores con el fin de que, tras su lectura, sean capaces de utilizarlo e implementarlo en diferentes escenarios.Com este trabalho, apresentamos o nosso modelo de desenho, desenvolvimento e avaliação de Unidades Didáticas Integradas (UDIs, descrevendo todas e cada uma das suas diferentes fases. Da mesma forma, exploramos as suas pontencialidades na construção de um currículo construído sobre os supostos teóricos da Integração Curricular. Trata-se de um modelo nascido de um processo de pesquisa desenvolvido em vários centros educacionais. O nosso propósito último é, justamente, tentar atingir o maior número possível de professores, mestres e educadores, com a finalidade de que, após sua leitura, sejam capazes de usá-lo e aplicá-lo em diferentes cenários.Through this work, we present our model of design, development and evaluation of Integrated Teaching Units (UDIs, describing each and every one of its different phases. Similarly, we explore their potential in building a curriculum founded on the assumptions of Curricular Integration. This is a model that emerges from a research conducted in different schools. Our ultimate purpose is, precisely, to try to reach a larger number of professors, teachers and educators so that, after reading, be able to use it and implement it in different contexts.

  9. Integración regional, necesidades de salud de la población y dotación de recursos humanos en sistemas y servicios de salud: aproximación al concepto de estimación de brecha Regional integration, population health needs, and human resources for health systems and services: an approach to the concept of health care gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Luis Francisco Schweiger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La existencia de brechas asistenciales entre las necesidades de salud de la población y los recursos humanos disponibles para responder a ellas, así como las limitaciones de los métodos que permitirían estimar dichas necesidades, constituyen un factor clave a trabajar para el desarrollo e integración de los sistemas de salud de los países de la región. El objetivo de este trabajo es iniciar un primer examen bibliográfico de las herramientas y procedimientos, presentes en la literatura, empleados para estimar y programar la dotación de recursos humanos en salud y, a partir de la revisión realizada, identificar las ventajas, limitaciones y complementariedades de dichas herramientas, planteando la necesidad de profundizar estudios referentes a su aplicabilidad en el diseño de políticas sanitarias regionales. Desde esa perspectiva se presenta el concepto de Bienes Públicos Globales en Salud, cuya generación y aprovechamiento resulta una alternativa estratégica para la mejora e integración de los sistemas de salud de la región y la población a la que asisten.The existence of gaps between the population's health needs and the human resources available for meeting them, as well as limitations in the methods to estimate such needs, constitute key factors to be tackled in the development and integration of health systems in Latin America. This aim of this study was to conduct an initial literature review on the tools and procedures used to estimate and plan human resources allocation in health and to use this review as the basis for identifying the advantages, limitations, and complementary characteristics of these tools, subsequently proposing the need for more in-depth studies on their applicability for designing regional health policies. The article then presents the concept of global public health goods, the generation and use of which results in a strategic alternative for improving both health systems integration in the region and

  10. Influence of Al Composition on the Microstructure of B Alloyed Ni3Al Synthesized under Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It was shown by TEM and X-ray analysis that Ni3Al is the mainphase of the intermetallic synthesized under compression from the powder mixture of Ni with Al alloyed by B. The Ni3B is a secondary phase. The value of the lattice parameter of the intermetallic Ni3Al with and without B increases when the concentration of Al increases. The increase in Al concentration from 23.5 to 25.0 in the initial powder mixture leads to decreasing the solubility of B in the Ni3Al phase.

  11. 关于w-al-CL空间%On w-al-CL Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽琼; 张云南

    2011-01-01

    给出w-al-CL空间的定义,比较几种CL性的关系,讨论w-al-CL空间的c0和与l1和的稳定性,并讨论C(K,X)空间的w-al-CL性.%Gives the definition of w-al-CL spaces, compare the relationship of some properties of CL, discusses the stability of c0 -sums and l1 -sums of w-al-CL spaces, and discusses the property of w-al-CL of C(K,X) spaces.

  12. Response to Signorovitch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flot, Jean-François; Debortoli, Nicolas; Hallet, Bernard; Van Doninck, Karine

    2016-08-22

    Signorovitch et al.[1] comment that an Oenothera-like meiosis [2] could produce a pattern similar to what we observed in our study of natural isolates of the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga, which we attributed to horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) [3]. Indeed, our HGT hypothesis appears at first sight difficult to conciliate with their observation of a congruent pattern of allele sharing at four large loci possibly located on different chromosomes [4]. However, one might imagine conditions under which massive horizontal gene transfer between bdelloid individuals could produce such a pattern, notably if the individuals involved had previously lost most of their heterozygosity because of their exposure to frequent desiccation (which produces DNA double-strand breaks [5]). In the published A. vaga genome the loss of heterozygosity due to large-scale gene conversion events or break-induced replication covers only about 10% of the genome [6], but this percentage may be much higher in environmental isolates that often experience dessication. Besides, if an Oenothera-like mode of meiosis occurs in bdelloids frequently enough to be detected in a single sampling of 29 individuals (as in [4]), one would expect males and meiosis to be observed at least occasionally, and instances of congruent allele sharing across loci should turn up frequently in genetic surveys. This was not the case in [3]: among the 82 A. vaga individuals sequenced for four nuclear markers, no trio of individuals presented congruent patterns of shared sequences at different loci. For these reasons, and in the absence of any direct evidence for an Oenothera-like meiosis in bdelloids, we still consider inter-bdelloid HGTs a more parsimonious explanation for our results. PMID:27554651

  13. Türkiye’nin Marshall-Lerner Koşuluna İlişkin Parçalı Eşbütünleşme Analizi(The Analysis of Fractional Co-Integration Related to Marshall-Lerner Condition of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Erdem HEPAKTAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Main reason of devaluation practises is to provide foreign trade balance by increasing official exchange rates.. As a result of devaluation when the import becomes expensive and the export cheap due to the fluctuating exchange rates, foreign trade balance is aimed with more exchange in and less exchange out for a country which has a trade deficit.But to fulfill this in the first place the total of foreign demand elasticity of export goods with domestic elasticity of import goods must be more than 1 which is known to be Marshall condition. The success of devaluation depends on altitude of supply elasticity of export goods.In terms of the success of devaluation another important topic is the absolute necessity of prevention of cost inflation which will probably become a reality in the increasing price of imported raw material,intermediate and capital goods after dealuation.In this study, pieced co-integration analyse tested between 1980-2008 period concerning whether Marshall-Lerner condition secured for Turkey. Marshall-Lerner condition doesn’t work properly for Turkey in the long term.

  14. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits. PMID:27403611

  15. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits.

  16. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    The Integrated Renovation Process (IRP) is a user customized methodology based on judiciously selected constructivist and interactive multi-criteria decision making methods (Galiotto, Heiselberg, & Knudstrup, 2014 (expected)). When applied for home renovation, the Integrated Renovation Process...

  17. Integrated resource planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2004-01-01

    The chapter describes two cases where the principles of Integrated Resouce Plannning (IRP) has been applied to simplified systems.......The chapter describes two cases where the principles of Integrated Resouce Plannning (IRP) has been applied to simplified systems....

  18. One loop integrals reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yi; CHANG Hao-Ran

    2012-01-01

    By further examining the symmetry of external momenta and masses in Feynman integrals,we fulfilled the method proposed by Battistel and Dallabona,and showed that recursion relations in this method can be applied to simplify Feynman integrals directly.

  19. Kritik al-Ghazali terhadap Kekekalan Alam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahidi Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the creation of universe offered by Neo-Platonism philosopher such as al-Kindi, al-Farabi, and Ibnu Sina are philosophical concept existed and came as an early moment of development of Islamic philosophy interrelated to God, ultimately about his Existence and Characteristics. One of the topics is how God created the universe. According to al-Farabi and Ibnu Sina, God created this universe by way of emanation in order to prevent Himself from the new attitudes. Consequently, universe has eternal feature (qadim as God as well, in the case of everything overflowed from qadim is also qadim. Al-Ghazali refuted this theory because it contradicted with al Qur’an’s thought which clearly explained that God created the entire universe. The universe should not qadim and it means that God existed in the first, and then created universe later as we know today. On the contrary, in the view of Muslim philosopher, the universe should be qadim because God created it from all eternity. For them, it is impossible that God existed by Himself without any creation before. God, according to them is impossible to be changed, so that is impossible as well if God changed from did not create yet before and then creates. Al-Ghazali persistently opposed the concept of eternity. Al Ghazali saw if this universe is qadim so it is impossible that universe created by God. The concept of qadim will led to the conclusion that universe born by itself, it was not created by God. This critique has been written by al-Ghazali in Tahafut al-Falasifah. This paper will present the concept of eternity which was discussed by al-Farabi and Ibn Sina and al Ghazali’s critique toward it as well.

  20. Untersuchung der Nitridierung V/Al-intermetallischer Phasen

    OpenAIRE

    Lewalter, Hartmut Berthold

    2004-01-01

    Schichten V/Al-Intermetallischer Phasen und Schichten aus V(Al) (Schichtdicken 150- 300 nm) wurden durch Interdiffusion von V/Al- und V5Al8/V-Mehrfachschichten bei 400-800°C im Vakuum bei 3 x 10-8 mbar hergestellt. Des Weiteren wurden V5Al8-Schichten durch Sputtern einer V5Al8-Legierung erzeugt. Die Gesamtstöchiometrie der Schichten lag zwischen Al0,86V0,14 und Al0,19V0,81. Als Substrat dienten einkristalline (012) Saphirwafer. Die V/Al-Intermetallischen Phasen und V(Al) wurden im RTP-System ...

  1. Influence of AlN thickness on AlGaN epilayer grown by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasakthi, M.; Juillaguet, S.; Peyre, H.; Konczewicz, L.; Baskar, K.; Contreras, S.

    2016-10-01

    AlGaN/AlN layers were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrates. The AlN buffer thickness was varied from 400 nm to 800 nm. The AlGaN layer thickness was 1000 nm. The crystalline quality, thickness and composition of AlGaN were determined using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The threading dislocation density (TDD) was found to decrease with increase of AlN layer thickness. Reciprocal space mapping (RSM) was used to estimate the strain and relaxation between AlGaN and AlN. The optical properties of AlGaN layers were investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL). PL intensities of AlGaN layers increases with increasing the AlN thickness. The surface morphology of AlGaN was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Root mean square (RMS) roughness values were found to be decreased while increase of AlN thickness.

  2. Boolean integral calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Tapia, Moiez A.; Bennett, A. Wayne

    1988-01-01

    The concept of Boolean integration is developed, and different Boolean integral operators are introduced. Given the changes in a desired function in terms of the changes in its arguments, the ways of 'integrating' (i.e. realizing) such a function, if it exists, are presented. The necessary and sufficient conditions for integrating, in different senses, the expression specifying the changes are obtained. Boolean calculus has applications in the design of logic circuits and in fault analysis.

  3. Integrated vs. Federated Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschall, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009.......Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009....

  4. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  5. How integrated are immigrants?

    OpenAIRE

    Rickard Sandell; Pierluigi Contucci

    2015-01-01

    Background: The successful integration of immigrants is seen as a principal means to secure economic growth and welfare in many countries. Success in this task depends on the capacity to formulate effective integration policies, which in turn is based on research capable of describing and explaining the integration process properly. Objective: Our objective is to define a conceptual and quantifiable measure of full immigrant integration.This enables a quantitative evaluation of how integra...

  6. Foundations for Psychotherapy Integration

    OpenAIRE

    António Branco Vasco

    2014-01-01

    The movement for integration in psychotheray is clearly one of the main trends that can be observed in the field. The author stresses three main reasons for this state of affairs and as a way of justifying the importance of integration: historical and psychosocial, empirical and philosophical. A specific way of thinking in integrative terms is also outlined - "paradigmatic complementarity."

  7. Path integration on manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These notes form a fairly standard introduction to Wiener integration on Rsup(n) and on Riemannian manifolds. Feynman path integrals for non-relativistic quantum mechanics are also considered and compared to Wiener integrals. The basic approach is via cylinder set measures, Gaussian measures, and abstract Wiener spaces. (Auth.)

  8. Ramjets: Airframe integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerel, J.L.; Halswijk, W.

    2010-01-01

    These notes deal with the integration of a (sc)ramjet engine in either an axisymmetric or a waverider type of cruise missile configuration. The integration aspects relate to the integration of the external and internal flow paths in geometrical configurations that are being considered worldwide. Int

  9. Optimizing Computer Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon-Marable, Elizabeth; Valentine, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand what optimal computer technology integration looks like in adult basic skills education (ABSE). One question guided the research: How is computer technology integration best conceptualized and measured? The study used the Delphi method to map the construct of computer technology integration and…

  10. Sesquilinear uniform vector integral

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ion Chiţescu; Loredana Ioana; Radu Miculescu; Lucian Niţă

    2015-05-01

    We introduce and study an integral of Hilbert valued functions with respect to Hilbert valued measures. The integral is sesquilinear (bilinear in the real case) and takes scalar values. Basic properties of this integral are studied and some examples are introduced.

  11. Foundations for Psychotherapy Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Branco Vasco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The movement for integration in psychotheray is clearly one of the main trends that can be observed in the field. The author stresses three main reasons for this state of affairs and as a way of justifying the importance of integration: historical and psychosocial, empirical and philosophical. A specific way of thinking in integrative terms is also outlined - "paradigmatic complementarity."

  12. Konsep Ma’rifatullah Menurut Al-Ghazali (Suatu Kajian Tentang Implementasi Nilai-Nilai Akhlak al-Karimah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murni Murni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine: (1 knowing Allah as the primary basis noble character education, (2 the method to integrate knowing Allah in nurturing students with noble character, (3 the function of knowing Allah in the formation of noble character, (4 the goal of developing knowing Allah in the improvement of noble character. This study takes the form of literature studies (library research, The findings of the study indicate: (1 knowing Allah as the primary basis of noble character education, to know Allah is the obligation of every human being, as mentioned in al-Qur’an and al-Sunnah, because by knowing Allah then people will know themselves. According to al-Ghazali, a person would not be able to achieve a degree of knowing Allah before he knows himself. Thus, the ability of human to achieve the degree of knowing Allah depends on his ability to know himself. (2 Methods for the integration of noble character in coaching students. First, the coaching. Through the coaching of this character it can be seen how the Islamic attention to the development of the soul should take precedence over physical development, because in this good soul will be born good deeds that in the next step will facilitate to produce goodness and happiness to all human life, both physically and spiritually. Second, the habituation. Al-Ghazali explains that habituation method is performed by repeating the experience in doing something that leaves good impressions in the soul. Third, exemplary. Exemplary method proposed by al-Ghazali is a series of conformity with the concept of educational methods applied by other experts, both in the past and present, and this exemplary method is always relevant and actual to date as well as highly relevant to the method of Islamic education. (3 the function of knowing God in the formation of a noble character. As the science of the most high and noble rank in comparison with the knowledge that exist in this world, then

  13. The theory of the moon in the al-Zij al-Kamil fi-l-taalim of Ibn al-Ha'im

    OpenAIRE

    Puig i Tàrrech, Roser

    2000-01-01

    Al the beginning of Ihe thirteenth cenrury (60tH I 1204-1205) Abli Muhammad Abd al-Haqq al-Ghafiqi al-lshbiIi known as Ibn al-Ha'im composed his work entitled al-Zi] al-Kamil fi-l-Taalim in honour of the Caliph Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Nasir (who reigned from 1199- 1213). All we know of lbn al-Ha'im's live is that he came from Seville and that he appears to have worked in North Africa.

  14. Geluk als onderwerp van wetenschappelijk onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1970-01-01

    textabstractAbstract in Dutch: Geluk wordt gedefinieerd als overwegende tevredenheid met het leven als geheel. Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van het onderzoek naar dat verschijnsel. Geluk blijkt deels afhankelijk van persoonlijke eigenschappen. Zo blijkt ondermeer dat gelukkige mensen over het alg

  15. 75 FR 62858 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and... been filed with the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York in United States..., 2010, the United States and seven States filed a Complaint alleging that certain rules, policies,...

  16. Als je vrienden hebt dan win je

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, R. (Robin); Huibers, T. (Theo); Krosse, de L. (Luc)

    2010-01-01

    Als je wint, heb je vrienden’ is een Nederlandse klassieker van Herman Brood en Henny Vrienten. Hiermee werd de gevoelige snaar bloot gelegd dat pas als je hebt gewonnen je vrienden hebt. Rijen dik, echte vrienden. In de politiek werkt het andersom; je moet vrienden (stemmen) hebben, ve

  17. Diana Al-Hadid: Identity and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Diana Al-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, Al-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…

  18. Kus on al-Zarqawi? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannia nädalalehe Sunday Times andmetel on Iraagi tagaotsituim mässaja, terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda liitlane Abu-Musab al-Zarqawi pärast USA raketirünnakus haavatasaamist riigist põgenenud

  19. Al-Farabi dan Filsafat Kenabian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qosim Nursheha Dzulhadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini mengulas pemikiran al-Farabi tentang konsep kenabian dalam Islam. Masalah berawal dari adanya pemikiran yang menolak konsep kenabian pada umumnya dan kenabian Nabi Muhammad SAW khususnya. Sebagaimana yang dilontarkan oleh Muhammad Ahmad ibn al-Ruwandi. Ia mengatakan bahwa nabi sebenarnya tidak diperlukan manusia karena Tuhan telah mengaruniakan akal kepada manusia tanpa terkecuali. Dengan akal ini, manusia dapat mengetahui Tuhan beserta segala nikmat Nya dan dapat pula mengetahui perbuatan baik dan buruk, menerima suruhan dan larangan-Nya. Dengan demikian, nabi dengan segala fungsinya tidak diperlukan lagi. Bahkan, kitab suci pun tidak berguna untuk dibaca. Lebih berguna membaca buku filsafat Epicurus, Plato, Aristoteles, dan buku astronomi, logika, serta obat-obatan. Hal ini tentunya bertolak belakang dengan yang diajarkan dalam Islam. Beriman kepada nabi nabi merupakan hal inti dalam ajaran agama ini. Atas dasar itu al-Farabi bereaksi keras. Baginya, pandangan Ibn al-Ruwandi di atas tidak dapat dibenarkan, khususnya dari sisi akidah Islam. Sebagai al-Mu‘allim al-Tsani (Guru Kedua, karena prestasinya dalam menjelaskan dan mengulas-ulang filsafat Aristoteles, al-Farabi mengkritik secara sistematik pandangan menyimpang al-Ruwandi di atas.

  20. The role of inclusions in ALS pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. van Dis (Vera)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that primarily afflicts motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within 3 to 5 years after diagnosis. Genetic studies have uncovered multiple genetic defects causing familial forms of ALS and mutations oc

  1. High precision Symplectic Integrators for the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Farrés, Ariadna; Blanes, Sergio; Casas, Fernando; Makazaga, Joseba; Murua, Ander

    2012-01-01

    Using a Newtonian model of the Solar System with all 8 planets, we perform extensive tests on various symplectic integrators of high orders, searching for the best splitting scheme for long term studies in the Solar System. These comparisons are made in Jacobi and Heliocentric coordinates and the implementation of the algorithms is fully detailed for practical use. We conclude that high order integrators should be privileged, with a preference for the new $(10,6,4)$ method of (Blanes et al., 2012)

  2. The concept of quasi-integrability: a concrete example

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, L.A.; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2010-01-01

    We use the deformed sine-Gordon models recently presented by Bazeia et al to discuss possible definitions of quasi-integrability. We present one such definition and use it to calculate an infinite number of quasi-conserved quantities through a modification of the usual techniques of integrable field theories. Performing an expansion around the sine-Gordon theory we are able to evaluate the charges and the anomalies of their conservation laws in a perturbative power series in a small parameter...

  3. Data supporting Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016,

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data files representing each of the Figures and Tables published in Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016, 3, 593. The data file names identify the Figure or...

  4. Effect of Al coating conditions on laser weldability of Al coated steel sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung-Han LEE; Jong-Do KIM; Jin-Seok OH; Seo-Jeong PARK

    2009-01-01

    Al coated steel sheets with excellent heat resistance, thermal reflection, and corrosion resistance are widely used in various applications. The laser weldability of the Al coated steel sheet for full penetration welding was reported. The phenomenon caused by intermixed aluminum and behavior of aluminum in the weld were investigated. Al coated steel sheets that have various thickness and coating mass were prepared for laser welding. The effects of parameters such as welding conditions and Al coating conditions were investigated. Al content mixed in the weld after laser welding was evaluated, and then a correlation between the mixed Al and mechanical properties was investigated. The results show that the Al-rich zones which have Fe-Al intermetallic compounds are found in the weld. The intermetallic compounds cause the decreased strength of the weld.

  5. Kinetic Monte Carlo of transport processes in Al/AlOx/Au-layers: Impact of defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Weiler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin films of alumina were investigated by a compact kMC-model. Experimental jV-curves from Al/AlOx/Au-junctions with plasma- and thermal-grown AlOx were fitted by simulated ones. We found dominant defects at 2.3-2.5 eV below CBM for AlOx with an effective mass mox∗=0.35 m0 and a barrier EB,Al/AlOx≈2.8 eV in agreement with literature. The parameterization is extended to varying defect levels, defect densities, injection barriers, effective masses and the thickness of AlOx. Thus, dominant charge transport processes and implications on the relevance of defects are derived and AlOx parameters are specified which are detrimental for the operation of devices.

  6. Konsepsi Ibnu Jarir Al-Tabari Tentang Al-Qur’an, Tafsir Dan Ta’wil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Ismatulloh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to describe the concept of Ibnu Jarir al-Tabari about al-Qur’an, tafsir and ta’wil. Ibn Jarir al-Tabari is an outstanding expert in the classic Islamic tradition. His knowledge in hadits, fiqh, lughah, history, and tafseer is unquestionable. This study uses an analytical descriptive design. The findings show that: Firstly, in defining al-Qur’an, al-Tabari focused on the al-Qur’an as an Arabic language text, not in other language. Secondly, al-Qur’an is written in sab’ah ahruf. It means that there are 7 different kinds of language with the same meaning. Thirdly, al-Qur’an comes from seven heaven’s door. Fourthly, there is no different word between tafseer and ta’wil. They have same meaning. These concepts are different to other concepts proposed by other ulama.

  7. Integration of Heterogeneous Information Sources into a Knowledge Resource Management System for Lifelong Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demidova, Elena; Ternier, Stefaan; Olmedilla, Daniel; Duval, Erik; Dicerto, Michele; Stefanov, Krassen; Sacristán, Naiara

    2007-01-01

    Demidova, E., Ternier, S., Olmedilla, D., Duval, E., Dicerto, M., Stefanov, K., et al. (2007). Integration of Heterogeneous Information Sources into a Knowledge Resource Management System for Lifelong. TENCompetence Workshop on Service Oriented Approaches and Lifelong Competence Development Infrastr

  8. Thermoluminescence properties of AlN ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Christensen, P.; Agersnap Larsen, N.;

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes thermoluminescence (TL) properties of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics irradiated with ionising radiation. A high TL sensitivity of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics to radiation encouraged a study of the AlN ceramics for application as a dosimetric material. The paper presents experimental data on: glow...... curve, emission spectrum, dose response, energy dependence, influence of heating rate and fading rate. The measured TL characteristics were compared with those of well-known, widely used TLDs, i.e. LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and Al2O3:C. It is concluded that AlN:Y2O3 ceramics showing a radiation sensitivity...

  9. High temperature creep behaviour of Al-rich Ti-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, D; Heilmaier, M; Saage, H [Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Institute for Materials and Joining Technology, PO Box 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Aguilar, J; Schmitz, G J; Drevermann, A [ACCESS e.V., Intzestrasse 5, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Palm, M; Stein, F; Engberding, N [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Kelm, K; Irsen, S, E-mail: daniel.sturm@ovgu.d [Stiftung caesar, Electron Microscopy, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Compared to Ti-rich {gamma}-TiAl-based alloys Al-rich Ti-Al alloys offer an additional reduction of in density and a better oxidation resistance which are both due to the increased Al content. Polycrystalline material was manufactured by centrifugal casting. Microstructural characterization was carried out employing light-optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD analyses. The high temperature creep of two binary alloys, namely Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40} and Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} was comparatively assessed with compression tests at constant true stress in a temperature range between 1173 and 1323 K in air. The alloys were tested in the cast condition (containing various amounts of the metastable phases Al{sub 5}Ti{sub 3} and h-Al{sub 2}Ti) and after annealing at 1223 K for 200 h which produced (thermodynamically stable) lamellar {gamma}-TiAl + r-Al{sub 2}Ti microstructures. In general, already the as-cast alloys exhibit a reasonable creep resistance at 1173 K. Compared with Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40}, both, the as-cast and the annealed Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} alloy exhibit better creep resistance up to 1323 K which can be rationalized by the reduced lamella spacing. The assessment of creep tests conducted at identical stress levels and varying temperatures yielded apparent activation energies for creep of Q = 430 kJ/mol for the annealed Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40} alloy and of Q = 383 kJ/mol for the annealed Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} material. The latter coincides well with that of Al diffusion in {gamma}-TiAl, whereas the former can be rationalized by the instability of the microstructure containing metastable phases.

  10. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar)

    OpenAIRE

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which want...

  11. Corrosion Studies of 2195 Al-Li Alloy and 2219 Al Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion studies of 2195 Al-Li and 2219 Al alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of Al203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 Al were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.

  12. Specialization and Integral Closure

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, J.; Ulrich, B.

    2006-01-01

    We prove that the integral closedness of any ideal of height at least two is compatible with specialization by a generic element. This opens the possibility for proofs using induction on the height of an ideal. Also, with additional assumptions, we show that an element is integral over a module if it is integral modulo a generic element of the module. This turns questions about integral closures of modules into problems about integral closures of ideals, by means of a construction known as Bo...

  13. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Scott; Krainak, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  14. Integration of generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRC has recognized the need to integrate generic issues (GIs). The GI process includes a number of phases, all of which should recognize the potential for overlap and conflict among related issues. In addition to the issues themselves, other related NRC and industry programs and activities need to be factored into the GI process. Integration has taken place, or is taking place, for a number of GIs. Each case of integration involves a specific set of circumstances and, as a result, the way in which integration proceeds can vary. This paper discusses the integration of issues in the generic issue process and provides a number of examples

  15. Comment on "Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming" by Beenstock et al. (2012 – Some fallacies in econometric modelling of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Hendry

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate major flaws in the statistical analysis of Beenstock et al. (2012, discrediting their initial claims as to the different degrees of integrability of CO2 and temperature.

  16. Four integration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel; Munkvold, Bjørn Erik

    2010-01-01

    . Expanding the perspective of traditional project management research, we draw extensively on central insights from IS research. Building on socio-technical IS research and Software Engineering research we suggest four generic patterns of integration: Big Bang, Stakeholder Integration, Technical Integration......This paper aims to contribute to a theory of integration within the field of IS project management. Integration is a key IS project management issue when new systems are developed and implemented into an increasingly integrated information infrastructure in corporate and governmental organizations...... and Socio-Technical Integration. We analyze and describe the advantages and disadvantages of each pattern. The four patterns are ideal types. To explore the forces and challenges in these patterns three longitudinal case studies were conducted. In particular we investigate the management challenges for each...

  17. The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-containing 9Cr ODS ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a 9Cr oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy with additional corrosion resistant element Al was fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot pressing (HP) to explore the impact of Al on the microstructure and mechanical property of a 9Cr ODS alloy. It is found that the Al completely dissolved into the Fe–Cr matrix after milling for 30 h. The minor phases in the Al-containing 9Cr ODS ferritic alloy were investigated by a high-energy X-ray, and were identified to be orthorhombic-YAlO3 (YAP), bcc-Y3Al5O12 (YAG), monoclinic-Al2Y4O9 (YAM), and hexagonal-YAlO3 (YAH). These phases were further confirmed by selected area diffraction pattern (SADP), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In addition, their volume fractions were also calculated from the integrated intensities. According to the analysis of the particles and their formation sequences, the larger particles (greater than 100 nm) are identified as mainly YAG and Al2O3 particles, while the particles with small size (less than 30 nm) are likely primarily YAM, YAH, and YAP particles. The yielding strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) at RT are 563 MPa and 744 MPa, respectively, while the YS and UTS at 700 °C are 245 MPa and 276 MPa, respectively. Although the addition Al in ODS alloys decreases the strength at RT, the values at high temperature are similar to those obtained for 9Cr ODS alloys strengthened by fine Y–Ti–O particles. - Graphical abstract: Synchrotron X-ray diffraction line profile of the 9CrAl ODS alloy; (Ferrite matrix phases, along with minor phases, orthorhombic YAlO3 (yttrium aluminum perovskite, YAP), bcc Y3Al5O12 (yttrium aluminum garnet, YAG), monoclinic Al2Y4O9 (yttrium aluminum monoclinic, YAM), and hexagonal YAlO3 (yttium aluminum hexagonal, YAH) were recognized.). - Highlights: • The Al-containing 9Cr ODS ferritic alloy was firstly fabricated by MA and HP. • The precipitates were

  18. The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-containing 9Cr ODS ferritic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guangming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Zhou, Zhangjian, E-mail: zhouzhj@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Mo, Kun [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wang, Pinghuai [Fusion Reactor & Materials Division, Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Miao, Yinbin [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Li, Shaofu; Wang, Man [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Xiang [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Gong, Mengqiang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Almer, Jonathan [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Stubbins, James F. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States)

    2015-11-05

    In this study, a 9Cr oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy with additional corrosion resistant element Al was fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot pressing (HP) to explore the impact of Al on the microstructure and mechanical property of a 9Cr ODS alloy. It is found that the Al completely dissolved into the Fe–Cr matrix after milling for 30 h. The minor phases in the Al-containing 9Cr ODS ferritic alloy were investigated by a high-energy X-ray, and were identified to be orthorhombic-YAlO{sub 3} (YAP), bcc-Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG), monoclinic-Al{sub 2}Y{sub 4}O{sub 9} (YAM), and hexagonal-YAlO{sub 3} (YAH). These phases were further confirmed by selected area diffraction pattern (SADP), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In addition, their volume fractions were also calculated from the integrated intensities. According to the analysis of the particles and their formation sequences, the larger particles (greater than 100 nm) are identified as mainly YAG and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles, while the particles with small size (less than 30 nm) are likely primarily YAM, YAH, and YAP particles. The yielding strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) at RT are 563 MPa and 744 MPa, respectively, while the YS and UTS at 700 °C are 245 MPa and 276 MPa, respectively. Although the addition Al in ODS alloys decreases the strength at RT, the values at high temperature are similar to those obtained for 9Cr ODS alloys strengthened by fine Y–Ti–O particles. - Graphical abstract: Synchrotron X-ray diffraction line profile of the 9CrAl ODS alloy; (Ferrite matrix phases, along with minor phases, orthorhombic YAlO{sub 3} (yttrium aluminum perovskite, YAP), bcc Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (yttrium aluminum garnet, YAG), monoclinic Al{sub 2}Y{sub 4}O{sub 9} (yttrium aluminum monoclinic, YAM), and hexagonal YAlO{sub 3} (yttium aluminum hexagonal, YAH) were recognized.). - Highlights: • The

  19. New pattern Zn-Al-Mg-RE coating technics for steel structure sustainable design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; XU Bin-shi; ZHU Zi-xin; LI Zhuo-xin; MA Jie

    2005-01-01

    Based on the advanced integrated technology of materials preparation and formation, a new pattern ZnAl-Mg-RE anti-corrosion coating for steel structure sustainable design was manufactured by cored wires and high velocity arc spraying (HVAS) technologies. The developments of thermally sprayed coatings for steel structure protection were described. Based on Al, Zn, Zn-Al and Zn-Al-Mg coatings, the anti-corrosion properties of new-pattern Zn-Al-Mg-RE coating were evaluated through electrochemical methods including electrochemical polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with SEM and XRD. The models of Zn-Al-Mg-RE coating undergoing corrosion with the initial pinhole defect and the latter with accelerated products were also discussed. The results show that Zn-Al-Mg-RE coating exhibites excellent corrosion resistance for long-term immersion, which is helpful for the sustainable design of steel structure in aggressive corrosion conditions. And the corrosion products seem to possess certain self-sealing function.

  20. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of dispersion strengthened Al-C system nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al and different amounts of C and C-Cu mixtures were used to produce Al-C and Al-C-Cu powder samples by mechanical milling. Microhardness tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites in the as-milled condition. In general, the measured values were considerably higher than pure Al. In order to determine the causes of this hardening, the crystallite size and dislocation density were measured by means of X-ray analyses coupled with a convolutional multiple whole profile (CMWP) fitting program and a comparison with atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations. In Al-C samples, the hardening is mainly due to the decrease of the crystallite size, however for the Al-C-Cu, an additional strengthening mechanism appears and it seems that it is due by a dispersion of graphite nanoparticles in the Al matrix. The strengthening contributions of dislocation density, crystallite size and particle dispersion were modeled by superposing of every single contribution to strengthening (via hardness analyses). We found a direct relationship between the mechanical properties and the nominal amount of C-Cu, where Cu apparently acts as C nanoparticles integration and dispersion agent.

  1. PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo

    2010-10-01

    one can generalize or adapt this construction to different settings like the integro-differential, discrete or super-symmetric ones. The emphasis is usually to find auxiliary linear systems defining an infinite set of linear commuting flows whose solutions, if some asymptotic conditions are imposed, are named wave or Baker-Akhiezer functions. These linear flows determine the so called Lax equations, another infinite set of commuting equations whose compatibility leads to the so called Zakharov-Shabat system. An alternative description of the hierarchies is achieved with the use of the bilinear equations directly linked with the tau-function description of the hierarchy. There are two paradigmatic integrable hierarchies, namely the KP and 2-dimensional Toda lattice (2DTL). These hierarchies are treated within this volume in three contributions. In particular, Takasaki [5] reconsiders the extended Toda hierarchy of Carlet, Dubrovin and Zhang in the light of Ogawa's 2 + 1D extension of the 1D Toda hierarchy. It turns out that the former may be thought of as some sort of dimensional reduction of the latter. This explains the structure of the bilinear formalism proposed by Milanov. Carlet and Manas [6] study the 2-component KP and 2D Toda hierarchies and solve explicitly several implicit constraints present in the usual Lax formulation of the hierarchy, thus identifying a set of free dependent variables for such hierarchies. Finally, the KP hierarchy is considered in the paper by Lin et al [7], which explores the extended flows of a q-deformed modified KP hierarchy leading to the introduction of self-consistent sources. By a combination of the dressing method and the method of variation of constants, the authors are able through a dressing approach to find a scheme for the construction of solutions of the corresponding integrable equations with self-consistent sources. The study of dispersionless integrable hierarchies is an active field of research, and this special issue

  2. Japanese version of the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q-J).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Beeldman, Emma; Raaphorst, Joost; Izumi, Yuishin; Yoshino, Hiide; Masuda, Michihito; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Satoru; Adachi, Tadashi; Adachi, Yoshiki; Yokota, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Hanashima, Ritsuko; Ogino, Mieko; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Kimura, Hideki; Shimizu, Toshio; Aiba, Ikuko; Yabe, Hayato; Kanba, Makoto; Kusumi, Kimiyoshi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Hiroe, Yu; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Kenji

    2016-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) share common clinical, genetic and neuropathological features. Some ALS patients have behavioral/personality changes, which could result in significant obstacles in the care provided by family members and caregivers. An easy screening tool would contribute greatly to the evaluation of these symptoms. We translated the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire, developed in the Netherlands, into Japanese (ALS-FTD-Q-J) and examined the clinimetric properties (internal consistency, construct and clinical validity). Patients with ALS and/or behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) were evaluated alongside healthy controls in this multicenter study. All ALS patients, regardless of bvFTD status, were further evaluated by the frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) and for frontal/executive function, cognition, anxiety/depression, and motor functions. Data from 146 subjects were analyzed: ALS (92), ALS-bvFTD (6), bvFTD (16), and healthy controls (32). The internal consistency of the ALS-FTD-Q-J was good (Cronbach α=0.92). The ALS-FTD-Q-J showed construct validity as it exhibited a high correlation with the FBI (r=0.79). However, correlations were moderate with anxiety/depression and low with cognitive scales, in contrast to the original report, i.e. a moderate correlation with cognition and a low correlation with anxiety/depression. The ALS-FTD-Q-J discriminated ALS patients from (ALS-)bvFTD patients and controls. Thus, the ALS-FTD-Q-J is useful for evaluating Japanese ALS/FTD patients. PMID:27423564

  3. Japanese version of the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q-J).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Beeldman, Emma; Raaphorst, Joost; Izumi, Yuishin; Yoshino, Hiide; Masuda, Michihito; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Satoru; Adachi, Tadashi; Adachi, Yoshiki; Yokota, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Hanashima, Ritsuko; Ogino, Mieko; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Kimura, Hideki; Shimizu, Toshio; Aiba, Ikuko; Yabe, Hayato; Kanba, Makoto; Kusumi, Kimiyoshi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Hiroe, Yu; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Kenji

    2016-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) share common clinical, genetic and neuropathological features. Some ALS patients have behavioral/personality changes, which could result in significant obstacles in the care provided by family members and caregivers. An easy screening tool would contribute greatly to the evaluation of these symptoms. We translated the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire, developed in the Netherlands, into Japanese (ALS-FTD-Q-J) and examined the clinimetric properties (internal consistency, construct and clinical validity). Patients with ALS and/or behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) were evaluated alongside healthy controls in this multicenter study. All ALS patients, regardless of bvFTD status, were further evaluated by the frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) and for frontal/executive function, cognition, anxiety/depression, and motor functions. Data from 146 subjects were analyzed: ALS (92), ALS-bvFTD (6), bvFTD (16), and healthy controls (32). The internal consistency of the ALS-FTD-Q-J was good (Cronbach α=0.92). The ALS-FTD-Q-J showed construct validity as it exhibited a high correlation with the FBI (r=0.79). However, correlations were moderate with anxiety/depression and low with cognitive scales, in contrast to the original report, i.e. a moderate correlation with cognition and a low correlation with anxiety/depression. The ALS-FTD-Q-J discriminated ALS patients from (ALS-)bvFTD patients and controls. Thus, the ALS-FTD-Q-J is useful for evaluating Japanese ALS/FTD patients.

  4. Selective layer disordering in intersubband Al0.028Ga0.972N/AlN superlattices with silicon nitride capping layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierer, Jonathan J., Jr.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Skogen, Erik J.; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Vawter, Gregory A.; Montaño, Ines

    2015-06-01

    Selective layer disordering in an intersubband Al0.028Ga0.972N/AlN superlattice using a silicon nitride (SiNx) capping layer is demonstrated. The SiNx capped superlattice exhibits suppressed layer disordering under high-temperature annealing. Additionally, the rate of layer disordering is reduced with increased SiNx thickness. The layer disordering is caused by Si diffusion, and the SiNx layer inhibits vacancy formation at the crystal surface and ultimately, the movement of Al and Ga atoms across the heterointerfaces. Patterning of the SiNx layer results in selective layer disordering, an attractive method to integrate active and passive III-nitride-based intersubband devices.

  5. Thin film Ag superlens towards lab-on-a-chip integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Boltasseva, Alexandra;

    2009-01-01

    A thin metal film near-field superlens, as originally suggested by Pendry and realized by Fang et al. and Melville et al., is investigated with emphasis on materials suitable for integration on a lab-on-a-chip platform. A chemically resistant cyclo-olefin copolymer (COC), mr-I-T85 from microresist...

  6. Comment on "Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming" by Beenstock et al. (2012) – some hazards in econometric modelling of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    F. Pretis; Hendry, D. F.

    2013-01-01

    We outline six important hazards that can be encountered in econometric modelling of time-series data, and apply that analysis to demonstrate errors in the empirical modelling of climate data in Beenstock et al. (2012). We show that the claim made in Beenstock et al. (2012) as to the different degrees of integrability of CO2 and temperature is incorrect. In particular, the level of integration is not constant and not intrinsic to the process. Further, we illustrate that the ...

  7. Interfacial reactions in Al/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, F.; Greer, A.L. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

    1998-08-01

    In thin-film multilayers, the reactions at the interfaces can proceed quite differently from those in bulk samples because of the short diffusion distances involved. In the present work Al/Ni multilayers have been made by DC magnetron sputtering. The initial Ni and Al layers have strong (111) texture. The reactions taking place have been studied in relation to the layer thickness and film structure (grain size and texture). Also multilayers have been made with alloy layers Al/Ni(Al). Typically, differential scanning calorimetry shows a sequence of reactions on heating. X-ray diffraction, including texture goniometry, has been used to identify the compounds produced. In common with earlier work, it is found that Al{sub 3}Ni is the first phase to form, but the present results differ from those reported previously in that the Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} phase is not formed in the course of phase evolution. The difference from the earlier results is attributed to the sharper texture in the films in the present work. Thus it is concluded that for Al/Ni multilayers, reaction sequences can be affected by crystallographic orientation, as well as other factors. (orig.) 13 refs.

  8. Magnetism in bcc Fe-Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzain, M.E. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Al-Khod (Oman). Dept. of Phys.; Yousif, A.A. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Al-Khod (Oman). Dept. of Phys.

    1994-11-01

    The magnetic moment {mu}, hyperfine field B{sub hf} and isomer shift IS at the Fe site in bcc Fe-Al alloys were calculated from first principle. Contrary to the belief that Al atoms reside in the iron lattice as magnetic holes, it was found that the local magnetic moment of Fe is decreased when Al is at a nearest neighbour site (NN), while it increases if Al is at a next-nearest neighbour site (NNN). Consequently, the average {mu} per Fe atom was found to be, initially, independent of Al content. Assuming a linear dependence of {mu}{sub Fe} on the number of Al atoms at NN and NNN sites, we calculated the average {mu}, which was found to agree with experimental results of cold worked alloys for disordered Fe-Al alloy. On the other hand, antiferromagnetic coupling appears in the CsCl ordered structures. The average B{sub hf} was also calculated and compared to experimental data and the trends in the IS are considered. (orig.)

  9. WAHDAT AL WUJUD DALAM PEMIKIRAN IBNU ARABI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Halim Rofi'ie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ibnu Arabi, the Grand Master of Islam, is a great thinker whose controversial thought, wahdat al-wujud, has significantly influenced the mystiques of Islam. The meaning of wahdat al-wujud is basically two folds, i.e. that Being is the only One which exists and that the universe is merely a manifestation of the One. The One Being here refers to Allah SWT. The One covers up all the existing phenomena and functions as a resource which emanates the entire universe. In this context, He is referred to as al-Haqiqat al-Muhammadiyah. He might also be viewed as both the Universal Soul for His being the source of cosmos that governs the universe and the Universal Body for His reflecting any actions on every single micro existence that forms the universe. Furthermore, when His existence is deemed as a jauhar (jewel that face-up any occurrences, He is typically known as al-haba’. The concept of wahdat al-wujud can actually be simplified into the principle of laa maujuda illa wujud al-wahid (no existence except the Existing One, the Being. The One might reveal His own existence into different martabat or levels: Martabat Ahadiyah, Martabat Wahidiyah, and Martabat Tajalli Syuhudi. Those standing points trigger Ibnu Arabi to believe that any kinds of realities or existences are nothing but a true reflection of the One.

  10. Exame físico e sua integralização ao processo de enfermagem na perspectiva da complexidade Examen físico y su integralización al proceso de enfermería en la perspectiva de la complejidad Physical examination and its integralization in the nursing process in the light of complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Magno Carvalho da Silva

    2011-12-01

    ón del Proceso de Enfermería para la atención efectiva.This study discusses the physical examination and the Nursing Process from Morin's perspective of Complexity. Its objectives are: to describe the complexity of the physical examination and discuss its interaction with the Nursing Process. Using the descriptive and exploratory method, this research was based on data collection aimed at 10 nurses, who were interviewed and followed by participant observation. The analysis was made through the Collective Subject Discourse. As a result, the "dialogic/recursive" axes as well as "the hologram and the reintroduction of knowledge" were discussed. Physical examination used as a component of the nursing process involves the complexity of care and the management of order and disorder in everyday life. Under a dialogical approach, contextualized technical human interventions are observed. The improvement of clinical assessment, broadened by the complexity of physical examination, enables the integration of the Nursing Process for the effectiveness of care.

  11. Escalas para medida de comportamento preventivo em meninas adolescentes frente às DST/HIV: revisão integrativa Escalas de medida de la conducta preventiva en niñas adolescentes frente al ETS/VIH: revisión integradora Scales to preventive measure of behavior in adolescent girls to front STD/HIV: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane do Amaral Gubert

    2010-12-01

    enfermería en la prevención de estas enfermedades.Since the dawn of the AIDS epidemic in the international epidemiological scenario, prevention of transmission of HIV among women and adolescents has been one of the biggest challenges in controlling the disease. Through integrative review, this study aims to describe the studies that used validated scales in order to access behaviors of female adolescents facing the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. For selection of articles used two databases: PubMed, digital file produced by the National Library of Medicine and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; the sample consisted of seven items. The scales indicate that health professionals must recognize the interactions among peers, partners and parents to assess the vulnerability of adolescents and encourage the use of reliable tools for nursing practice in the prevention of these diseases.

  12. Transdisciplinary knowledge integration : cases from integrated assessment and vulnerability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinkel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: climate change, integrated assessment, knowledge integration, transdisciplinary research, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment. This thesis explores how transdisciplinary knowledge integration can be facilitated in the context of integrated assessments and vulnerability assessments of

  13. Arsenate uptake by Al nanoclusters and other Al-based sorbents during water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Jasmin; Rose, Jérôme; Wehrli, Bernhard; Furrer, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the world, arsenic from geogenic and anthropogenic sources deteriorates the quality of drinking water resources. Effective methods of arsenic removal include adsorption and coagulation with iron- and aluminum-based materials, of which polyaluminum chloride is widely employed as coagulant in water treatment due to its low cost and high efficiency. We compared the arsenic uptake capacity and the arsenic bonding sites of different Al-based sorbents, including Al nanoclusters, polyaluminum chloride, polyaluminum granulate, and gibbsite. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy revealed that As(V) forms bidentate-binuclear complexes in interaction with all Al-based removal agents. The octahedral configuration of nanoclusters and the distribution of sorption sites remain the same in all types of removal agents consisting of nano-scale Al oxyhydroxide particles. The obtained distances for As(V)-O and As(V)-Al agreed with previously published data and were found to be 1.69 ± 0.02 Å and 3.17-3.21 Å, respectively. Our study suggests that As(V) binds to Al nanoclusters as strongly as to Al oxide surfaces. The As sorption capacity of Al nanoclusters was found to be very similar to that of Al clusters in a polyaluminum chloride. The most efficient Al-based sorbents for arsenic removal were Al nanoclusters, followed by polyaluminum granulate. PMID:26613179

  14. Tracing Al Shabaab’s Decision to Cooperate with Al Qaeda in Somalia (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlini Ilma Ghaisany Sjah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Al Shabaab, a Somali insurgent with predominantly nationalistic causes (alongside transnational [global Jihad] and Islamic goals made the choice to fight on behalf of Al Qaeda in 2008. The decision to do so contrasted with Al Shabaab’s previous behaviour of actively denying cooperation and distancing itself from Al Qaeda. This study aims to uncover factors that contributed to Al Shabaab’s decision through the use of process-tracing. The results show that Al Shabaab’s declaration of cooperation with Al Qaeda in August 2008 was brought about by a series of events that traced back to four factors: public reactions to the implementation of a Salafi ideology, the shift to a radical leadership, Al Shabaab’s inability to maintain stability in areas under its control and its increasing attacks by Al Shabaab on the Somali public. Al Shabaab pursued cooperation with Al Qaeda after realizing that their nationalistic preference was no longer achievable in the near future.' ' '

  15. Electrical investigations of AlGaN/AlN structures for LEDs on Si(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H.; Rohrbeck, A.; Guenther, K.M.; Saengkaew, P.; Blaesing, J.; Dadgar, A.; Krost, A. [Department of Semiconductor Epitaxy, Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Magdeburg, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The carrier transport in AlGaN light emission diode (LED) structures on Si-substrates including an AlN multilayer (ML) buffer for reduction of defects was investigated using I-V-characteristics and admittance spectroscopy. Additionally, AlN on Si ML and AlN/AlGaN:Si on Si structures were grown and analyzed separately. The AlN-ML/AlGaN:Si heterojunction, and the pn-junction including the AlGaN/GaN multi quantum well (MQW)-structure were identified. As the main space charge regions (SCRs) controlling the carrier transport through the ultraviolet-light emission diode (UV-LED) structure the Si-substrate/AlN-ML heterojunctions pointed out. The I-V-characteristic of the LED structure is described by the series resistance of the AlN-ML and a parallel resistance with respect to the pn-junction. Interface defect states and/or deep defects impact the series resistance. The carrier transport through the LED structure is controlled by a tunnel process described by a Fowler-Nordheim (FN)-emission mainly through the AlN-ML buffer forming the series resistance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Kritik al-Ghazali terhadap Kekekalan Alam

    OpenAIRE

    Sahidi Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The concept of the creation of universe offered by Neo-Platonism philosopher such as al-Kindi, al-Farabi, and Ibnu Sina are philosophical concept existed and came as an early moment of development of Islamic philosophy interrelated to God, ultimately about his Existence and Characteristics. One of the topics is how God created the universe. According to al-Farabi and Ibnu Sina, God created this universe by way of emanation in order to prevent Himself from the new attitudes. Consequently, univ...

  17. Amyotrofinen lateraaliskleroosi (ALS) ja potilaan ohjaus

    OpenAIRE

    Korkeaniemi, Lotta; Kaakinen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Saimme opinnäytetyömme toimeksiantona Hyvinkään sairaalan sisätautien vuodeosastolta. Tavoitteena oli luoda ALS potilaille potilasopas trakeostomiasta ja sen kanssa elämisestä. Oppaan tarkoituksena on auttaa ALS potilaita päättämään, kuinka pitkälle he haluavat viedä heidän hengitystukihoitonsa. Samalla hoitajat saavat tuki materiaalia, jonka avulla he voivat käydä läpi hengitystukihoitoja ja erityisesti trakeostomiaan liittyviä asioita. ALS eli amyotrofinen lateraaliskleroosi on tahdona...

  18. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...... similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now, 57 years after the first report on the wobbler mouse we summarize the progress made in understanding...

  19. Thermal diffusion in Ni/Al multilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Singh, S.; Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gupta, M. [UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

    2013-02-05

    Two Ni/Al multilayers deposited by ion beam sputtering of nominal design [Ni(200A)/Al(100A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 and [Ni(50A)/Al(227A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 on Si substrates were annealed at 200 Degree-Sign C. As-deposited and annealed samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray reflectometry (XRR). The effort was to study the path of alloying in the above two multilayers of same elements but of opposite stoichiometric ratio. We find distinct differences in alloying of these samples.

  20. Linija za transport Al-polizdelkov

    OpenAIRE

    Capl, Žiga

    2012-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi je predstavljena linija za transport Al-polizdelkov, ki je sestavljena iz dveh verižnih transporterjev in dveh manipulatorjev. Omenjeni transporterji morajo transportirati Al-polizdelke od sprejemnega mesta do poti v stiskalnico. V okviru diplomskega dela smo opravili analizo obstoječega ogrodja z naklonom, linije za transport Al-polizdelkov in podali možne rešitve za novo učinkovitejšo izvedbo. Na podlagi tehnično-tehnoloških zahtev smo izbrali najprimernejšo rešitev i...

  1. Die Poetik als Teil des aristotelischen Organon

    OpenAIRE

    Wels, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Der Aufsatz umreißt die Wirkung von Averroes’ Bearbeitung der aristotelischen ‚Poetik‘ als argumentativer Disziplin. Beginnend mit Al-Farabi und Al-Gazali im zehnten Jahrhundert wird die ‚Poetik‘ den logischen Disziplinen des ‚Organon‘ zugerechnet. Während die Theorie eines ‚poetischen Syllogismus‘ nicht rezipiert worden ist, wurde der argumentative Status der Dichtung vom zwölften Jahrhundert an auch im lateinischen Westen bekannt. Mit unterschiedlichen Begründungen übernahmen Dominicus Gund...

  2. TAFSIR SEMANTIK TERHADAP SURAT AL-KAFIRUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Muslimin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems about the reading of al-Qur’an is always interesting to be discussed, in which the use of Arabic includes sound or ‘nash’ is acrucial factor to understand the implicit meaning of the Arabic-written texts. Al-Qur’an discusses problem based on the society’s culture. Al-Kafirun discusses not only about the normative theology but more about sociological contexts in which it tends to show transparency, fight against fanaticism and regionalism. And all of the will bring to the first process of the making of the text meaning to the situational context that creates them.

  3. InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures for high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, S. O.; Sakharov, A. V.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.; Lundin, V. W.; Zavarin, E. E.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Zemlyakov, V. E.; Egorkin, V. I.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The results of development of InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures, grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition, and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on them are presented. The dependencies of the InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure properties on epitaxial growth conditions were investigated. The optimal indium content and InAlN barrier layer thicknesses of the heterostructures for HEMT s were determined. The possibility to improve the characteristics of HEMTs by in-situ passivation by Si3N4 thin protective layer deposited in the same epitaxial process was demonstrated. The InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure grown on sapphire substrate with diameter of 100 mm were obtained with sufficiently uniform distribution of sheet resistance. The HEMTs with saturation current of 1600 mA/mm and transconductance of 230 mS/mm are demonstrated.

  4. Oxidation of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doychak, J.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    The 1200 C and 1300 C isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites were studied. Oxidation resulted in formation of Al2O3 external scales in a similar manner as scales formed on monolithic NiAl. The isothermal oxidation of an Al2O3/NiAl composite resulted in oxidation of the matrix along the fiber/matrix interface near the fiber ends. This oxide acted as a wedge between the fiber and the matrix, and, under cyclic oxidation conditions, led to further oxidation along the fiber lengths and eventual cracking of the composite. The oxidation behavior of composites in which the Al2O3 fibers were sputter coated with nickel prior to processing was much more severe. This was attributed to open channels around the fibers which formed during processing, most likely as a result of the diffusion of the nickel coating into the matrix.

  5. AlON粉体的合成%Synthesis of AlON Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小军; 茹红强; 张宁; 孙有政

    2009-01-01

    以α-Al_2O_3和AlN为原料,利用高温固相反应在氮气气氛下常压合成了AlON粉体.研究了成分配比、合成温度、保温时间对合成AlON粉体含量的影响,并通过热分析测试了合成过程热流和质量的变化.结果表明,当原料Al_2O_3和AlN的质量比为81:18、合成工艺为1750 ℃, 2 h时,得到AlON相的含量达到95%以上.

  6. A Rechargeable Al/S Battery with an Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tao; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiwen; Hu, Junkai; Han, Fudong; Fan, Xiulin; Suo, Liumin; Pearse, Alex J; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W; Gaskell, Karen J; Noked, Malachi; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-08-16

    Aluminum metal is a promising anode material for next generation rechargeable batteries owing to its abundance, potentially dendrite-free deposition, and high capacity. The rechargeable aluminum/sulfur (Al/S) battery is of great interest owing to its high energy density (1340 Wh kg(-1) ) and low cost. However, Al/S chemistry suffers poor reversibility owing to the difficulty of oxidizing AlSx . Herein, we demonstrate the first reversible Al/S battery in ionic-liquid electrolyte with an activated carbon cloth/sulfur composite cathode. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and microscopic results suggest that sulfur undergoes a solid-state conversion reaction in the electrolyte. Kinetics analysis identifies that the slow solid-state sulfur conversion reaction causes large voltage hysteresis and limits the energy efficiency of the system. PMID:27417442

  7. Data Integration for Integrated Research and Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Alfred; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Hofestädt, Ralf; Knaup-Gregori, Petra; Ose, Claudia; Timmer, Antje

    2016-08-01

    A national German funding initiative for Medical Informatics focusing at data integration for medicine gives an opportunity to reopen a window to Germany. In the open window appears a best paper selection of the 2015 annual conference of the German Society of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology and papers of the German journal GMS Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (MIBE). The publications in focus deal with data integration by transferring clinical routine data into an electronic data capture (EDC) system, using natural language processing to make unstructured date processable, measuring quality of record linkage, and by using a unified metadata scheme for integrated documentation in laboratories. Two additional papers present methods for data analysis especially for change point detection in binary sequences and for analyzing categorial data. PMID:27406981

  8. Characterization of AlInN/AlN/GaN Heterostructures with Different AlN Buffer Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çörekçi, S.; Dugan, S.; Öztürk, M. K.; Çetin, S. Ş.; Çakmak, M.; Özçelik, S.; Özbay, E.

    2016-07-01

    Two AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures with 280-nm- and 400-nm-thick AlN buffer grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL) and Hall-effect measurements. The symmetric (0002) plane with respect to the asymmetric (10bar{1}2) plane in the 280-nm-thick AlN buffer has a higher crystal quality, as opposed to the 400-nm-thick buffer. The thinner buffer improves the crystallinity of both (0002) and (10bar{1}2) planes in the GaN layers, it also provides a sizeable reduction in dislocation density of GaN. Furthermore, the lower buffer thickness leads to a good quality surface with an rms roughness of 0.30 nm and a dark spot density of 4.0 × 108 cm-2. The optical and transport properties of the AlInN/AlN/GaN structure with the relatively thin buffer are compatible with the enhancement in its structural quality, as verified by XRD and AFM results.

  9. Protecting Financial Market Integrity: Roles and Responsibilities of Auditors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.M. Diekman (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWaarom heeft u nog vertrouwen in een bank? En waarom vertrouwt u uw geld nog toe aan banken? Deze vragen staan centraal in de oratie ‘Protecting Financial Market Integrity. Roles and Responsibilities of Auditors' van prof.dr. Peter A.M. Diekman RA. Hij stelt dat zowel de intern als de op

  10. On the Integrality of Characteristic Elements in Nonabelian Iwasawa Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Quan KONG

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a conjecture formulated by Coates et al in [4] which describes the relation between the integrality of the characteristic elements and their evaluations in the noncommutative Iwasawa theory. We give an almost equivalent description of the conjecture and prove a certain part of it.

  11. Towards an Integrated Geomagnetic Polarity Reversal Timescale for the Pleistocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Kuiper, Klaudia;

    The development of the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS) in the mid 20th century led to the greater understanding of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics (Heirtzler et al., 1968). Over 40 years later, the GPTS continues to be refined, particularly in terms of integrating multiple dating...

  12. Testing the Box-Cox Parameter for an Integrated Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Huang (Jian); M. Kobayashi (Masahito); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses the constant elasticity of volatility (CEV) model suggested by Chan et al. (1992). The CEV model without mean reversion is shown to be the inverse Box-Cox transformation of integrated processes asymptotically. It is demonstrated that the maximum likelihood estimator o

  13. Evolution of ConAl clusters and chemisorption of hydrogen on ConAl clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth behavior of ConAl (n = 1–15) and the chemisorptions of hydrogen on the ground state geometries have been studied using the density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The growth pattern for ConAl is Al-substituted Con+1 clusters, and it keeps the similar frameworks of the most stable Con+1 clusters except for n = 2, 3, and 6. The Al atom substitutes the surface atom of the Con+1 clusters for n ≤ 13. Starting from n = 14, the Al atom completely falls into the center of the Co-frame. The dissociation energy, the second-order energy differences, and the HOMO–LUMO gaps indicate that the magic numbers of the calculated ConAl clusters are 7, 9, and 13, corresponding to the high symmetrical structures. To my knowledge, this is the first time that a systematic study of chemisorption of hydrogen on cobalt aluminum clusters. The twofold bridge site is identified to be the most favorable chemisorptions site for one hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 1–6, 8, 10), and two hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 1–7), while threefold hollow site is preferred for one hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 7, 9, 11–15) and two hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 8–10, 12–15) clusters. The ground state structure of two hydrogen adsorption on Co11Al is exceptional. In general, the binding energy of both H and 2H of ConAl (n = 1–12) is found to increase with the cluster size. And the result shows that large binding energies of the hydrogen atoms and large fragmentation energies for Co11AlH and Co12AlH make these species behaving like magic clusters.

  14. Wali Allah menurut al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi dan Ibnu Taimiyyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Mursito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion about wali presented in the early time on the hand of al-Hakim al Tirmidzi, which reaps number of responses from Muslim scholar because of his misleading. One of them is Ibn Taimiyyah. Al-Hakim and Ibn Taymiyyah have their own view about wali with several distinctions. In the definition of wali, al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi used more general language than Ibn Taimiyyah, as well as characteristics, how to be wali, the classification, concept of karamah, and the concept of khatm al-awliya’. According to writer, al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi’s view about wali able to deepen our understanding about Sufism, meanwhile Ibn Taimiyyah’s view will led us to comprehend Sufism from modernist point of view. This paper conclude that: both of figures seen that wali of Allah are the servants submissive and obedient in running His command; according to al-Hakim al Tirmidzi, degree of wali can be reached purely from Allah’s bounty and the effort of servants themselves, while Ibn Taimiyyah seen that the degree could be reached in the way of faith and piety of the servant; al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi seen that karamah is the most urgent for wali, while Ibn Taimiyyah did not; al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi utilized the quality of deeds to measure the best people and purity of heart to measure the best wali, while Ibn Taymiyyah utilized the quality of deeds as the assessment standard to measure best people and wali.

  15. Immigrant Integration: Acculturation and Social Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid HAMBERGER

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article tackles the concept of “immigrant integration” as it is analyzed by different authors in the international migration field. In this article, I will use the terms “refugee” and “immigrant” as equivalent to each other due to the interchangeable character of these concepts throughout the integration literature. First, the article brings into discussion the definitional and conceptual battle around the concept of immigrant “integration”, and second, it will describe and analyze cultural and social integration with their presupposing processes.

  16. New integral equation for simple fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong Seok; Ree, Francis H.

    1995-09-01

    We present a new integral equation for the radial distribution function of classical fluids. It employs the bridge function for a short-range repulsive reference system which was used earlier in our dense fluid perturbation theory. The bridge function is evaluated using Ballone et al.'s closure relation. Applications of the integral equation to the Lennard-Jones and inverse nth-power (n=12, 9, 6, and 4) repulsive systems show that it can predict thermodynamic and structural properties in close agreement with results from computer simulations and the reference-hypernetted-chain equation. We also discuss thermodynamic consistency tests on the new equation and comparisons with the integral equations of Rogers and Young and of Zerah and Hansen. The present equation has no parameter to adjust. This unique feature offers a significant advantage as it eliminates a time-consuming search to optimize such parameters appearing in other theories. It permits practical applications needing complex intermolecular potentials and for multicomponent systems.

  17. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  18. Integrated management systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bugdol, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Examining the challenges of integrated management, this book explores the importance and potential benefits of using an integrated approach as a cross-functional concept of management. It covers not only standardized management systems (e.g. International Organization for Standardization), but also models of self-assessment, as well as different types of integration. Furthermore, it demonstrates how processes and systems can be integrated, and how management efficiency can be increased. The major part of this book focuses on management concepts which use integration as a key tool of management processes (e.g. the systematic approach, supply chain management, virtual and network organizations, processes management and total quality management). Case studies, illustrations, and tables are also provided to exemplify and illuminate the content, as well as examples of successful and failed integrations. Providing a particularly useful resource to managers and specialists involved in the improvement of organization...

  19. Integration of reusable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Software reuse and integration has been described as the process of creating software systems from existing software rather than building software systems from scratch. Whereas reuse solely deals with the artifacts creation, integration focuses on how reusable artifacts interact with the already existing parts of the specified transformation. Currently, most reuse research focuses on creating and integrating adaptable components at development or at compile time. However, with the emergence of ubiquitous computing, reuse technologies that can support adaptation and reconfiguration of architectures and components at runtime are in demand. This edited book includes 15 high quality research papers written by experts in information reuse and integration to cover the most recent advances in the field. These papers are extended versions of the best papers which were presented at IEEE International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration and IEEE International Workshop on Formal Methods Integration, which wa...

  20. The investigate of ultrasonography integration into anatomical curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenyuan; Wang Ying; Liu Xing; Liu Yaoguang; Teng Chenyi; Ma Yanwen; Wang Yu

    2015-01-01

    As a complementary teaching way, ultrasonography is considered an important teaching tools and methods to improving medical students’ skills and understanding the real time human anatomy . We success-fully integrated ultrasound into anatomy teaching by using portable ultrasound and interactive panel discussion ses-sions. The integrated curriculum not only allows medical students to see the complexity real-time three-dimension-al human anatomy, but also can improve medical students’ interest in anatomy teaching. Integrated ultrasound into anatomy teaching established close ties between basic medical science and its clinical application, and overcome the phase difficulties of anatomical knowledge application from preclinical to clinical.

  1. MEASURING INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Jerman, Damjana; ZAVRŠNIK Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The concept of integrated marketing communications continues to gain widespread attention and interest among academics and practitioners around the world. Among the objectives of our paper may be considered dealing with changes in the conceptualization of integrated marketing communication and measuring the dimensions of this conceptual area. Two priorities guide our paper: 1) a more complete view for the conceptualization of integrated marketing communication; and 2) an empirical analysis fo...

  2. What constitutes information integrity?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Flowerday; R. von Solms

    2008-01-01

    This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information securit...

  3. What constitutes information integrity?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Flowerday; R. von Solms

    2007-01-01

    This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information securit...

  4. Fractional Derivative and Integral

    OpenAIRE

    Aygören, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this thesis we studied fractional order derivative and integral. In Chapter1, a brief history on the foundation of fractional derivative and integration has been given. In the second chapter, some definitions and theorems have been provided. Also some needed special functions such as Gamma, Beta, Mittag-Leffler and Wright function have taken place in this chapter. Properties of fractional derivative and integral are discussed in Chapter 3. We started to this chapter by the dis...

  5. A general integral identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, M L, E-mail: laryg@clarkson.edu [Department of Physics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5820 (United States); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 470071 (Spain)

    2011-06-03

    The identity {integral}{sub 0}{sup {pi}/2}d{Phi}{integral}{sub 0}{sup {pi}/2}d{Theta} sin{Phi} F(x sn{Phi} sin{Phi})={pi}/2 {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1}F(xt)dt, where F is any function, is derived. Several extensions are given and a few examples of physical interest are described.

  6. Classical Mechanics and Symplectic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Content: Classical mechanics: Calculus of variations, Lagrange’s equations, Symmetries and Noether’s theorem, Hamilton’s equations, cannonical transformations, integrable systems, pertubation theory. Symplectic integration: Numerical integrators, symplectic integrators, main theorem on symplectic...

  7. EDB Eurasian Integration Yearbook 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Vinokurov, Evgeny

    2009-01-01

    The EDB Eurasian Integration Yearbook publishes papers, reports, and information materials addressing wide spectrum of pertinent issues of regional integration, in particular its economic and institutional aspects, the theories of regional integration, and relevant integrational experience.

  8. In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shahien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv. The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN, c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N, cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c-Al

  9. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  10. Data used in Xu et al., 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Mercury emissions data from anthropogenic sources as described in Xu et al., 2016. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Xu, X., N. Liu, M....

  11. Smoking Tied to Shorter Survival with ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161094.html Smoking Tied to Shorter Survival With ALS Tobacco use ... 22, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Sept. 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may speed progression of Lou Gehrig's disease and ...

  12. Het Nederlandse bos als vorm van bodemgebruik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Boven, van B.

    1983-01-01

    Behandeling van de oppervlakte en verdeling van het bos en de veranderingen die hierin zijn opgetreden, met de bedrijfsgrootte-struktuur als belangrijke invalshoek daarbij; de rol van de overheid: doeleinden, instrumenten en effekten van het beleid

  13. Thermal Conductivity of Al-Salt Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Lijun; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2015-11-01

    With a view to examine the possibility of estimating the content of entrapped metallic aluminium in the salt cake from aluminium remelting, the thermal diffusivity of reference composites of KCl-NaCl-Al was measured as a function of aluminium metal content at room temperature. The thermal conductivity of the reference composites was found to increase with the metallic Al content. The lumped parameter model approach was carried out to discuss the influence of different geometry arrangements of each phase, viz. air, salts and metallic aluminium on the thermal conductivity. Application of the present results to industrial samples indicates that factors such as the interfacial condition of metallic Al particles have to be considered in order to estimate the amount of entrapped Al in the salt cake.

  14. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  15. Calcium platinum aluminium, CaPtAl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fon Abi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary X-ray study of CaPtAl has been reported previously by Hulliger [J. Alloys Compd (1993, 196, 225–228] based on X-ray powder diffraction data without structure refinement. With the present single-crystal X-ray study, we confirm the assignment of the TiNiSi type for CaPtAl, in a fully ordered inverse structure. All three atoms of the asymmetric unit have .m. site symmetry. The structure features a ∞3[AlPt] open framework with a fourfold coordination of Pt by Al atoms and vice versa. The Ca atoms are located in the large channels of the structure.

  16. Stem Cells Deemed Safe for ALS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159627.html Stem Cells Deemed Safe for ALS Patients But further research needed to see if injections into spine would provide any benefit, researchers say To use the sharing features on ...

  17. Towards THz integrated photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The demonstration of an integrated terahertz transceiver featuring a quantum cascade laser and a Schottky diode mixer promises new applications for compact and convenient terahertz photonic instrumentation.

  18. Multiloop string vertices from the path integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, M.; Lerda, A.

    1989-02-01

    We derive the multiloop vertices for the bosonic string using path integral methods and establish a precise equivalence between the functional approach to string perturbation theory and the operator formalism on Riemann surfaces recently developed by various authors. One of us (A.L.) would like to thank P. Di Vecchia and S. Sciuto for helpful discussions and INFN, Sezione di Torino, for the kind hospitality extended to him during the completion of this work. The work of M.B. was partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant NSF-PHY85-07627. The work of A.L. was partially supported by the US Department of Energy under grant DE-AC02-76ER03069.

  19. Nanosynthesis routes to new tetrahedral crystalline solids: silicon-like Si3AlP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Tylan; Chizmeshya, Andrew V G; Jiang, Liying; Smith, David J; Beeler, Richard T; Grzybowski, Gordon; Poweleit, Christian D; Menéndez, José; Kouvetakis, John

    2011-10-12

    We introduce a synthetic strategy to access functional semiconductors with general formula A(3)XY (A = IV, X-Y = III-V) representing a new class within the long-sought family of group IV/III-V hybrid compounds. The method is based on molecular precursors that combine purposely designed polar/nonpolar bonding at the nanoscale, potentially allowing precise engineering of structural and optical properties, including lattice dimensions and band structure. In this Article, we demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed strategy by growing a new monocrystalline AlPSi(3) phase on Si substrates via tailored interactions of P(SiH(3))(3) and Al atoms using gas source (GS) MBE. In this case, the high affinity of Al for the P ligands leads to Si(3)AlP bonding arrangements, which then confer their structure and composition to form the corresponding Si(3)AlP target solid via complete elimination of H(2) at ∼500 °C. First principle simulations at the molecular and solid-state level confirm that the Si(3)AlP building blocks can readily interlink with minimal distortion to produce diamond-like structures in which the P atoms are arranged on a common sublattice as third-nearest neighbors in a manner that excludes the formation of unfavorable Al-Al bonds. High-resolution XRD, XTEM, and RBS indicate that all films grown on Si(100) are tetragonally strained and fully coherent with the substrate and possess near-cubic symmetry. The Raman spectra are consistent with a growth mechanism that proceeds via full incorporation of preformed Si(3)AlP tetrahedra with residual orientational disorder. Collectively, the characterization data show that the structuro-chemical compatibility between the epilayer and substrate leads to flawless integration, as expected for pseudohomoepitaxy of an Si-like material grown on a bulk Si platform. PMID:21877711

  20. Electronic Structure of EuAl4 Studied by Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobata, Masaaki; Fujimori, Shin-ichi; Takeda, Yukiharu; Okane, Tetsuo; Saitoh, Yuji; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Ai; Hedo, Masato; Nakama, Takao; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2016-09-01

    The electronic structure of the divalent Eu compound EuAl4, which shows a charge density wave transition at TCDW = 140 K, was studied by hard X-ray angle-integrated photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) and soft X-ray angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The valence band and core-level spectra obtained by HAXPES are consistent with the divalent nature of Eu atoms in EuAl4. From the ARPES results, the Fermi surface as well as band structure in the vicinity of the Fermi energy (EF) of EuAl4 are very similar to those of its isostructural divalent Sr compound SrAl4, which has no 4f electrons. This suggests that the Eu atoms are divalent in EuAl4, and the 4f electrons are localized below 1.8 eV with the Eu 4f7 electronic configuration in the ground state. The ARPES spectra measured along the Γ-(Σ)-Z high-symmetry line did not show significant temperature dependences above and below TCDW within the energy resolution of 80-90 meV. Moreover, the Fermi surface mapping along the kz direction showed that both EuAl4 and SrAl4 have mostly three-dimensional electronic structures, suggesting that the nesting of the Fermi surface is not simple. The Fermi surface and the band structure of EuAl4 were well explained by the band-structure calculation of SrAl4 based on the local density approximation.

  1. Eu{sup 3+} luminescence properties of Eu- and Mg-codoped AlGaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, Masayoshi [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Sekiguchi, Hiroto, E-mail: sekiguchi@ee.tut.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Yamane, Keisuke [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Okada, Hiroshi [Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Wakahara, Akihiro [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    We investigated the effect of Mg codoping on luminescence properties of AlGaN:Eu to improve emission through synergy effect between an increase in bandgap by AlGaN and the Mg codoping technique. The luminescence properties of AlGaN:(Eu, Mg) are strongly influenced by the Mg concentration and Al composition. Mg codoping in AlGaN was observed to contribute to increasing photoluminescence (PL) integrated intensity and to improve thermal quenching from 7.3% to 60% while the dominant optical site remained site B (622.3-nm peak) with low excitation cross section. The total concentration of optically activated Eu at 25 K was a constant at for either optical site, indicating that Mg codoping did not affect the formation of optical sites. The PL decay times at room temperature (RT) increased with Mg concentration because of suppression of the back-transfer process. For optimized Mg concentration, an increase in the Al composition contributed to the total activated Eu concentration and changed the dominant optical site from A (620.3-nm peak) to B. The activation energy E{sub a}, which is the difference in energy between the {sup 5}D{sub 0} energy level and the trap level in the host material, was estimated from temperature dependence of PL decay time. The E{sub a} for site A was larger than that for site B, suggesting that the back-transfer rate for site A was less than that for site B. - Highlights: • Eu and Mg codoped AlGaN was grown on GaN template by NH{sub 3}-MBE. • The effect of Mg codoping on optical properties of Eu doped AlGaN was investigated. • Mg codoping contributed to increase PL intensity at RT and improve thermal quenching. • An increase in the Al content affected total activated N{sub Eu} and dominant optical site.

  2. Preparation of TiAl/Ti2AlC Composites with Ti/Al/C Powders by In-situ Hot Pressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Bingchu; YAN Ming; ZHU Jiaoqun; ZHOU Weibing

    2006-01-01

    TiAl/Ti2AlC composites were prepared by in-situ hot pressing of Ti/Al/C powders mixtures and sintered at different temperatures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) of samples. The reaction procedure of Ti-Al-C system could be divided into three stages. Below 900 ℃, Ti reacts with Al to form TiAl intermetallics; above 900 ℃, C reacts with remain Ti to form TiC triggered by the exothermal reaction of Ti and Al; TiAl reacts with TiC to produce dense TiAl/Ti2AlC composites. In the holding stage, ternary Ti2AlC develops to layered polycrystal and composites pyknosis in the meanwhile. The mechanism of synthesis and microstructure was especially discussed.

  3. Del latín al rumano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Giraldo José Joaquín

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Marius Sala, Del latín al rumano. Versión española de Valeria Neagu, París, Unión Latina - Bucarest, Univers enciclopedic, 2002. El texto se dirige al lector corriente, no especialista, y por eso el aparato técnico-bibliográfico no se presenta en el curso de la exposición.

  4. Effects of Al substitution on goethite formation

    OpenAIRE

    Premoli, Alessandra Maria; Melis, Pietro; Gessa, Carlo Emanuele; Deiana, Salvatore Andrea

    1984-01-01

    Goethites containing up to 32.7 mole % Al were synthesized and characterized through diffractometry, spectrometry, DSC and chemical techniques. Results indicate that crystal growth was favoured or hindered depending on the percentage of aluminum incorporated into the structure. Goethites to which 5-10 mole % Al were initially added crystallized best, as shown by the highest crystallite dimensions calculated from X-ray and Mössbauer analyses, and by the lowest surface areas values. Over suc...

  5. Information als Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz. Eine Begriffsanalyse

    OpenAIRE

    Ingold, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Der Informationsbegriff als zentraler Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz wird in der bibliothekarischen Diskussion in der Regel nicht explizit thematisiert, sondern lässt sich aus Fachliteratur und Bibliothekspraxis nur implizit erschließen. Eine theoretische Beschäftigung mit dem Informationsbegriff ist jedoch unabdingbar, soll das Konzept "Informationskompetenz" auch außerhalb des bibliothekarischen Kontextes verständlich und nutzbar gemacht werden. Im vorliegenden Text, der sich als B...

  6. Anerkennung als Voraussetzung gesellschaftlicher und unternehmerischer Teilhabe

    OpenAIRE

    Eurich, Johannes; Brink, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Angesichts des neuen Phänomens der sozialen Exklusion wird soziale Gerechtigkeit nicht mehr nur über die Verteilung von Gütern hergestellt, vielmehr spielt auch die Ebene der Partizipation eine Rolle. Anerkennung ist eine Grundvoraussetzung für Partizipation. Die Verfasser diskutieren Fragen der Unternehmensethik auf der Dimension der Anerkennung. Sie votieren für ein normatives Stakeholder-Management als freiwillige Verpflichtung, das auch strategischen Anforderungen gerecht werden kann. Als...

  7. Communication Support for People with ALS

    OpenAIRE

    David Beukelman; Susan Fager; Amy Nordness

    2011-01-01

    Almost all people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) experience a motor speech disorder, such as dysarthria, as the disease progresses. At some point, 80 to 9 5 % of people with ALS are unable to meet their daily communication needs using natural speech. Unfortunately, once intelligibility begins to decrease, speech performance often deteriorates so rapidly that there is little time to implement an appropriate augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention; therefore, app...

  8. An InGaAlAs-InGaAs two-color photodetector for ratio thermometry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, X; Hobbs, M. J.; White, B.S.; David, J P R; Willmott, J.R.; Tan, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    We report the evaluation of a molecular-beam epitaxy grown two-color photodetector for radiation thermometry. This two-color photodetector consists of two p+in+ diodes, an In0.53Ga0.25Al0.22As (hereafter InGaAlAs) p+in+ diode, which has a cutoff wavelength of 1180 nm, and an In0.53Ga0.47As (hereafter InGaAs) p+in+ diode with a cutoff wavelength of 1700 nm. Our simple monolithic integrated two-color photodetector achieved comparable output signal and signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio to that of a co...

  9. QTAIM studies of [Li(DMSO)n]+ and [Al(DMSO)n]3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geometry optimization of [Li(DMSO)n]+ and [Al(DMSO)n]3+ complexes with n = 1 - 6 in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide, (CH3)2SO) solutions is performed using DFT treatment with B3LYP hybrid functional and cc-pVDZ basis sets. Solvent effects are approximated within Integral Equation Formalism Polarisable Continuum Model. Electron structure of individual model systems is investigated in terms of Quantum Theory of Atoms-in-Molecule topological analysis of electron density. Metal-DMSO bonding through oxygen atom is preferred. The most probable coordination numbers n = 4 for Li+ and n = 6 for Al3+ complexes with DMSO are concluded

  10. Qtaim studies of [Li(DMSO)n]+ and [Al(DMSO)n]3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breza, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Geometry optimization of [Li(DMSO)n]+ and [Al(DMSO)n]3+ complexes with n = 1 - 6 in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide, (CH3)2SO) solutions is performed using DFT treatment with B3LYP hybrid functional and cc-pVDZ basis sets. Solvent effects are approximated within Integral Equation Formalism Polarisable Continuum Model. Electron structure of individual model systems is investigated in terms of Quantum Theory of Atoms-in-Molecule topological analysis of electron density. Metal-DMSO bonding through oxygen atom is preferred. The most probable coordination numbers n = 4 for Li+ and n = 6 for Al3+ complexes with DMSO are concluded.

  11. Building integrated photovoltaic; Photovaltaique integre aux batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Durable, modular and flexible in use, as demonstrated by the different case studies in this publication, photovoltaic can replace diverse building elements, from glass facades to weather proof roofs. This leaflet towards architects describes aesthetic, technical, economic and environmental interest of building integrated photovoltaic. (author)

  12. Chemical ordering of Co and Ni in a W-(AlCoNi) crystalline approximant related to Al-Co-Ni decagonal quasicrystals studied by atomic resolution energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Akira; Hiraga, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    A W-(AlCoNi) crystalline approximant, which is closely related to Al-Co-Ni decagonal quasicrystals, in an Al72.5Co20Ni7.5 alloy has been studied by atomic resolution energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), in an instrument attached to a spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. On high-resolution EDS maps of Co and Ni elements, obtained by integrating many sets of EDS data taken from undamaged areas, chemical ordering of Co and Ni is clearly detected. In the structure of the W-(AlCoNi) phase, consisting of arrangements of transition-metal (TM) atoms located at vertices of pentagonal tilings and pentagonal arrangements of mixed sites (MSs) of TM and Al atoms, Co atoms occupy the TM atom positions with the pentagonal tiling and Ni is enriched in part of the pentagonal arrangements of MSs.

  13. In situ (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composite with novel reinforcement distributions fabricated by reaction hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •(Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al MMC with a novel network distribution was tailored. •Al3Zr and Al2O3np were in situ synthesized at 740 °C using the 2024Al–ZrO2 system. •The effect of sintering parameters on Al3Zr morphology was investigated. •Influence of Al3Zr morphology on tensile properties of the composite was studied. -- Abstract: In situ hybrid (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composites with unique controlled reinforcement distributions were fabricated using low energy ball milling and reactive hot pressing. The reaction system between 2024Al and ZrO2 was studied using differential thermal analysis (DTA). In situ formed aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and zirconium tri-aluminide (Al3Zr) with varying morphology and sizes were produced under different fabricating conditions. Al3Zr with varying morphologies such as particle, plate and flakes were observed. With a total 10 vol.% of reinforcements, the composite containing a three-dimensional network of closely spaced in situ synthesized Al3Zr and Al2O3 particles had a YS of 175 MPa and a UTS of 261 MPa, effectively strengthening the 2024Al matrix. The effect of different sintering conditions on the microstructure and tensile properties of the composite was systematically investigated

  14. Thermodynamics and surface properties of liquid Al-Ga and Al-Ge alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anusionwu, B.C. [Abdus Salam Int. Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Federal University of Technology, Department of Physics, Owerri (Nigeria); Adebayo, G.A. [Abdus Salam Int. Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); University of Agriculture, Department of Physics, Abeokuta (Nigeria); Madu, C.A. [Federal University of Technology, Department of Physics, Owerri (Nigeria)

    2009-11-15

    The surface properties of Al-Ga and Al-Ge liquid alloys have been theoretically investigated at a temperature of 1100 K and 1220 K respectively. For the Al-Ga system, the quasi chemical model for regular alloy and a model for phase segregating alloy systems were applied, while for the Al-Ge system the quasi chemical model for regular and compound forming binary alloys were applied. In the case of Al-Ga, the models for the regular alloys and that for the phase segregating alloys produced the same value of order energy and same values of thermodynamic and surface properties, while for the Al-Ge system, the model for the regular alloy reproduced better the thermodynamic properties of the alloy. The model for the compound forming systems showed a qualitative trend with the measured values of the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Ge alloy and suggests the presence of a weak complex of the form Al{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}. The surface concentrations for the alloys show that Ga manifests some level of surface segregation in Al-Ga liquid alloy while the surface concentration of Ge in Al-Ge liquid alloy showed a near Roultian behavior below 0.8 atomic fraction of Ge. (orig.)

  15. Thermodynamics and surface properties of liquid Al-Ga and Al-Ge alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusionwu, B. C.; Adebayo, G. A.; Madu, C. A.

    2009-11-01

    The surface properties of Al-Ga and Al-Ge liquid alloys have been theoretically investigated at a temperature of 1100 K and 1220 K respectively. For the Al-Ga system, the quasi chemical model for regular alloy and a model for phase segregating alloy systems were applied, while for the Al-Ge system the quasi chemical model for regular and compound forming binary alloys were applied. In the case of Al-Ga, the models for the regular alloys and that for the phase segregating alloys produced the same value of order energy and same values of thermodynamic and surface properties, while for the Al-Ge system, the model for the regular alloy reproduced better the thermodynamic properties of the alloy. The model for the compound forming systems showed a qualitative trend with the measured values of the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Ge alloy and suggests the presence of a weak complex of the form Al2Ge3. The surface concentrations for the alloys show that Ga manifests some level of surface segregation in Al-Ga liquid alloy while the surface concentration of Ge in Al-Ge liquid alloy showed a near Roultian behavior below 0.8 atomic fraction of Ge.

  16. Heterogeneous nucleation of solid Al from the melt by Al 3 Ti : Molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Junsheng

    2010-10-27

    It has been known experimentally for some time that Al3 Ti is a powerful nucleant for the solidification of aluminum from the melt; however, a full microscopic understanding is still lacking. To develop this understanding, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation and early stages of growth using published embedded atom method potentials for Al-Ti, but modified by us to stabilize the D 022 structure. We discover that Al3 Ti can indeed be very effective in promoting the growth of solid Al but the manner in which growth takes place depends sensitively on the surface on which the Al nucleates. In particular, complete growth of solid Al from the liquid on the (001) and (110) surfaces of Al3 Ti occurs at a lower temperature than on the (112) surface. This anisotropy agrees with observations in previous experiments. We explain this observation in terms of interfacial energies. On the preferential (111) surface of Al the solid-liquid interfacial energy is highest while the solid-vacuum energy is lowest. Our simulations also show that the extent of ordering taking place in liquid Al close to the Al 3 Ti substrate above the melting point correlates well with the effectiveness of the substrate as a nucleant below the melting temperature: this could provide a computationally efficient scheme to identify good nucleants. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  17. Corrosion behavior of solid solution (Ti,Al)N as a function of Al concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larijani, M.M.; Seyedi, H. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P. O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Manouchehrian, M. [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yari, M. [Engineering Department Materials, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, a series of (Ti, Al) N coatings with different Al contents were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrates by Hollow Cathode Discharge (HCD) method. The coatings were grown on 304 stainless steel substrates at 400 C. The coatings were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and microhardness test. The XRD confirmed the transition from TiN phase to (Ti, Al) N phase and then to AlN phase with increasing Al concentration in the solid solution. It was found that with increasing Al concentration the hardness of the coatings initially increased up to a maximum value of about 30 GPa at around 32 at.% of Al and then the coating hardness decreased rapidly with further increase of Al content (Al > 32 at.%). The potentiodynamic polarization analysis was carried out in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions to study the corrosion resistance of the coatings. From the corrosion test it can be inferred that the amount of Al atoms in the coatings plays an important role for reducing the corrosion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Clinical trials for neuroprotection in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, G; Carlesi, C; Pasquali, L; Piazza, S; Pietracupa, S; Fornai, F; Ruggieri, S; Murri, L

    2010-07-01

    Owing to uncertainty on the pathogenic mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) riluzole remains the only available therapy, with only marginal effects on disease survival. Here we review some of the recent advances in the search for disease-modifying drugs for ALS based on their putative neuroprotective effetcs. A number of more or less established agents have recently been investigated also in ALS for their potential role in neuroprotection and relying on antiglutamatergic, antioxidant or antiapoptotic strategies. Among them Talampanel, beta-lactam antibiotics, Coenzyme Q10, and minocycline have been investigated. Progress has also been made in exploiting growth factors for the treatment of ALS, partly due to advances in developing effective delivery systems to the central nervous system. A number of new therapies have also been identified, including a novel class of compounds, such as heat-shock protein co-inducers, which upregulate cell stress responses, and agents promoting autophagy and mitochondriogenesis, such as lithium and rapamycin. More recently, alterations of mRNA processing were described as a pathogenic mechanism in genetically defined forms of ALS, as those related to TDP-43 and FUS-TLS gene mutations. This knowledge is expected to improve our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanism in ALS and developing more effective therapies. PMID:20406180

  19. DISTINGSI DAN DIASPORA TASAWUF ABÛ AL-HASAN AL-SHÂDHILÎ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifulah Saifulah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Shâdhilîyah, one of the most recognized sufi orders, which possesses quite distinct aspects in the conception of its mystical teachings. This sufi order was founded by Abû al-H}asan al-Shâdhilî, a sufi who has moderate and open view of the worldly life. Al-Shâdhilî explained about how a sufi should behave towards and deal with worldly matters. Although al-Shâdhilî asserted that a person who practice tasawwuf should not pay more adoration on the worldly matters (hubb al-dunyâ, the person does not have to abhor and leave such lively aspects as wealth and position behind. The most important thing to a sufi, according to al-Shadhili, is how he obeys the requirements of shar‘ by avoiding away from immoral deeds and at the same time recognizing God in his heart (ma‘rifat Allâh. Al-Shâdhilî initiated tasawuf ‘amalî which is affiliated to the Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jamâ‘ah school, an Islamic mystical thought that adheres to the principles of sharî‘ah based on the foundation of al-Qur’ân dan H}adîth. The concept of al-Shâdhilî’s tasawuf has been subsequently revealed into the great sufi order spectrum, namely al-Shâdhilîyah, where during its historical development this sufi order has led to the emergence of many branches with different names.Keywords: Shâdhilîyah, open view, hubb al-dunyâ, ma‘rifat Allâh.

  20. Al4C3 Hydration Thermochemical Analysis for Burned Carbon-containing Refractories with Al

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ding'ao; YU Zhiming; FAN Liuwu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, X-ray diffractogram analysis and SEM observation of Al4 C3 formed at high temperature from carbon-containing refractories with Al have been carried out.Aluminum added to carbon-containing refractories reacts with C(s)to form Al4 C3(s) gradually during heating from 600 ℃ to 1200℃.It is considered that the interlocked structure of Al4 C3 plate crystals promotes the outstanding increase of hot modulus of rupture of carbon-containing refractories with Al. The HMOR of carbon-containing refractories added with Al additive from 0 to 5wt% increases by 2.8 times being from 6.5MPa to 18.2MPa.After a thermochemical calculation for hydration reaction processes of Al4 C3 and H2O(g), the equilibrium partial pressure chart of H2O(g)in H2O-Al4C3-Al(OH)3 system vs various temperatures has been attained . The H2O (g) partial pressure in the air needed for the Al4 C3 hydration reaction is no more than 10~18 atm at the temperature below 120℃.It is considered that the burned carbon-containing refractories with Al is extremely easy to hydrate and the cracking of burned carbon-containing refractories is generated because that the hydration expansion is 2.11 times during transforming from Al4 C3 to Al(OH)3.The fundamental measure against hydration of the refractories is to insulate the refractories from H2O(g)by various means such as pitch impregnation or other sealing materials.