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Sample records for atemoyas

  1. Drying kinetics of atemoya pulp

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    Plúvia O. Galdino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted in order to obtain drying curves of whole atemoya pulp through the foam-mat drying method. The suspension was prepared with whole atemoya pulp mixed with 2% of Emustab® and 2% of Super Liga Neutra® with mixing time of 20 min, and dried in a forced-air oven at different temperatures (60; 70 and 80 °C and thicknesses of the foam layer (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm. The drying rate curves were plotted against the water content ratio and the semi-theoretical models of Henderson & Pabis, Page and Midilli were used. All tested models showed coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.993, and the Midilli model showed the best fit for all conditions. Drying curves were affected by temperature and layer thickness.

  2. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for atemoya crops.

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    Blanche, Rosalind; Cunningham, Saul A

    2005-08-01

    Small beetles, usually species of Nitidulidae, are the natural pollinators of atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill. hybrids; custard apple) flowers but commercial atemoya growers often need to carry out labor-intensive hand pollination to produce enough high-quality fruit. Because Australian rain forest has plant species in the same family as atemoya (Annonaceae) and because many rain forest plants are beetle pollinated, we set out to discover whether tropical rain forest in far north Queensland harbors beetles that could provide this ecosystem service for atemoya crops. Orchards were chosen along a gradient of increasing distance from tropical rain forest (0.1-24 km). We sampled 100 flowers from each of nine atemoya orchards and determined the identity and abundance of insects within each flower. To assess the amount of pollination due to insects, we bagged six flowers per tree and left another six flowers per tree accessible to insects on 10 trees at an orchard near rain forest. Results indicated that atemoya orchards < or = 0.5 km from rain forest were predominantly visited by five previously unrecognized native beetle pollinators that are likely to originate in tropical rain forest. These native beetles occurred reliably enough in crops near rain forest to have a positive effect on the quantity of fruit produced but their contribution was not great enough to satisfy commercial production needs. Management changes, aimed at increasing native beetle abundance in crops, are required before these beetles could eliminate the need for growers to hand pollinate atemoya flowers. Appreciation of the value of this resource is necessary if we are to develop landscapes that both conserve native biodiversity and support agricultural production.

  3. Yield and fruit quality traits of atemoya hybrids grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    As consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products the demand for tropical fruits has increased significantly during the past 15 years. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) hybrids. Six a...

  4. Yield and Fruit Quality Traits of Atemoya Cultivars Grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for tropical fruits has increased more than 33% during the last decade as consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) cultivars. Six a...

  5. Tetrazolium test for assessment of seed viability of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.)

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    Gimenez,Juliana Iassia; Ferreira,Gisela; Cavariani,Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to adapt the tetrazolium test to assess the viability of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.) seeds. The experimental design was completely randomized in 3 x 3 factorial arrangement (tetrazolium salt concentrations x exposure times), totaling 9 treatments with four replicates of 25 seeds. After immersion in water for 24 hours, the seeds were longitudinally sectioned and exposed to three tetrazolium salt concentrations (0.05%, 0.5% and 1%) for three periods of time...

  6. Alkaloids isolated from the leaves of atemoya (Annona cherimola × Annona squamosa

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    Suzana V. Rabêlo

    Full Text Available AbstractAtemoya is an interspecific annonaceous hybrid between Annona cherimola Mill. and Annona squamosa L. Its phytochemical investigation led to seven alkaloids, including two aporphine (anonaine and asimilobine, three oxoaporphine (lanuginosine, liriodenine and lysicamine and two proaporphine (pronuciferine and stepharine. These alkaloids were identified by a series of spectrometric methods, mainly MS and NMR (1D and 2D, as well as by comparison with literature data. Our findings showed that this species is an important source of aporphine alkaloids and have high relationship with other Annona species.

  7. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) in Puerto Rico: a synergistic approach using multiple nitidulid lures.

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    Jenkins, David A; Cline, Andrew R; Irish, Brian; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    Atemoya, a hybrid between Annona squamosa (L.) and A. cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), has potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major setback to fruit production throughout the world is low fruit-set because of inadequate pollinator visits, typically Nitidulidae beetles. We identified beetle visitors to atemoya flowers in an orchard in Puerto Rico and used Universal moth traps to monitor the attractiveness of two commercially available Nitidulidae lures. The most common visitors to atemoya flowers were an unidentified Europs species (Coleoptera: Monotomidae), followed by Loberus testaceus (Coleoptera: Erotylidae), neither of which have been previously reported as visitors to Annona flowers. The commercial lures attracted few or no beetles when used separately, but attracted a large number of beetles, especially Carpophilus dimidiatus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Europs, when used in combination. This attraction is synergistic and increases with dose at the doses assayed (0-4 lures), and decreases over time with >50% of trap captures occurring in the first week and no beetles collected after 5 wk. This is the first report of aggregation pheromone lures in nitidulids acting synergistically to attract other species, including beetles not in the Nitidulidae. The results are discussed as they pertain to increasing fruit set, as well as the potential for altering fruit size and shape in atemoya.

  8. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) in Puerto Rico using commercial lures and food attractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atemoya is a hybrid between Annona squamosa and A. cherimola (Annonaceae) and has potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major impediment to fruit production is low fruit-set due to inadequate pollinator visits, typically Nitidulidae beetles. We used Universal moth t...

  9. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) in Puerto Rico: A synergetic approach using multiple nitidulid lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atemoya, a cross between Annona squamosa and A. cherimola (Annonaceae), has the potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major setback to production throughout the world is low fruit-set due to inadequate visits by pollinators, typically beetles in the family Nitidulid...

  10. DRIS standard and normal ranges of foliar nutrients for the culture of ‘Thompson’ atemoya

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    Eduardo Maciel Haitzmann dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Atemoya, an interspecific hybrid belonging to Annonaceae family, is the outcome of a cross between cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. and Custard apple (Annona squamosa L.. In light of the current shortage of scientific data on the nutritional management techniques for this fruit, the need to develop and apply a specific methodology becomes crucial. From the variety of plant diagnostic tools available, the DRIS method was selected, for use in the commercial cultivation of the ‘Thompson’ cultivar of atemoya located in the São Paulo State, municipalities of Itapetininga, Piedade, Pilar do Sul and Salto de Pirapora. Normal nutrient ranges were determined to interpret the levels of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in the culture through statistical regression analysis and samples of leaf dry matter, with their respective DRIS indices. Although the general index of the nutritional balance of DRIS disallowed establishing a link with productivity, this study achieved it based on the standard of determining normal ranges for cognate macronutrients to the ones cited in the literature.

  11. Mineral composition, nutritional properties, total phenolics and flavonoids compounds of the atemoya fruit (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill. and evaluation using multivariate analysis techniques

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    WALTER N.L. DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The atemoya is a hybrid fruit obtained by crossing of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. with sweet sop (Annona squamosa L.. The information about chemical composition of atemoya is scarce. The mineral composition was evaluated employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES and the centesimal composition and the physico-chemical parameters were assessed employing procedures described in the AOAC methods. The total phenolic compounds (TPC and total flavonoids (TF were determined using spectroanalytical methods. Considering the Reference Daily Intake (RDI, the concentrations of K, Cu and Vitamin C found in atemoya were the highest, representing about 32, 23 and 37% of the RDI, respectively. The total carbohydrates were 32 g 100g-1 and the soluble solids was equivalent to (32.50 ± 0.03 °Brix. The result for TPC was 540.47 ± 2.32 mgGAE 100 g-1 and the TF was 11.56 ± 1.36 mgQE 100 g-1. The exploratory evaluation of 42 atemoya samples was performed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA, which discriminated green and ripe fruits according to their mineral composition. The elements that contributed most for the variability between green and ripe fruits were: Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg and P.

  12. Mineral composition, nutritional properties, total phenolics and flavonoids compounds of the atemoya fruit (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill.) and evaluation using multivariate analysis techniques.

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    Santos, Walter N L Dos; Sauthier, Maria Celeste S; Cavalcante, Dannuza D; Benevides, Clícia M J; Dias, Fábio S; Santos, Daniele C M B

    2016-09-01

    The atemoya is a hybrid fruit obtained by crossing of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) with sweet sop (Annona squamosa L.). The information about chemical composition of atemoya is scarce. The mineral composition was evaluated employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) and the centesimal composition and the physico-chemical parameters were assessed employing procedures described in the AOAC methods. The total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total flavonoids (TF) were determined using spectroanalytical methods. Considering the Reference Daily Intake (RDI), the concentrations of K, Cu and Vitamin C found in atemoya were the highest, representing about 32, 23 and 37% of the RDI, respectively. The total carbohydrates were 32 g 100g-1 and the soluble solids was equivalent to (32.50 ± 0.03) °Brix. The result for TPC was 540.47 ± 2.32 mgGAE 100 g-1 and the TF was 11.56 ± 1.36 mgQE 100 g-1. The exploratory evaluation of 42 atemoya samples was performed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which discriminated green and ripe fruits according to their mineral composition. The elements that contributed most for the variability between green and ripe fruits were: Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg and P.

  13. EFFECTS OF HEAT TREATMENT AND CALCIUM ON POSTHARVEST STORAGE OF ATEMOYA FRUITS*

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    LIZ MARIA ABI RACHED TORRES

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of postharvest warm dipping with calcium chloride (CaCl2 on atemoya fruit (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L. storage. Fruits were immersed in 6% CaCl2 solution at 20 and 40°C for 20 min followed by storage at room temperature. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed in terms of its impact on peel and fl esh appearance, weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, pH, ascorbic acid content, total phenolics, and enzyme activities of polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD. Treatment at 40°C preserved eatable conditions up to 6 days, although calcium affected the appearance of the peel as soon as 4 days. Flesh browning was detected only on the 8th day in untreated fruits, after an increase in PPO and POD activities and total phenolics, and a decrease in ascorbic acid content. The weight loss was continuous throughout the storage period, with no signifi cant difference between treatments. TTA and TSS contents increased and pH decreased during the experiment. Results suggest that CaCl2 dipping had a positive effect on fl esh browning, which was reduced, while heat treatment showed a synergic effect, which could be related broadly with a fall in PPO activity. The variations in ascorbic acid content during storage suggest that the warm dipping combined with CaCl2, contributed to the antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  14. Propagação por enxertia de atemoia 'Thompson' sobre espécies de Rollinia 'Thompson' atemoya grafting onto Rollinia rootstocks

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    Luis Felipe Paes de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por finalidade avaliar o índice de sobrevivência do enxerto de atemoia 'Thompson' sobre dois porta-enxertos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2, dois porta-enxertos [araticum-de-terra-fria (Rollinia sp. e biribá (Rollinia mucosa] e dois métodos de enxertia (topo em fenda lateral e topo à inglesa simples, em 6 blocos, 4 tratamentos e 5 plantas por parcela, totalizando 120 plantas. Para as condições locais, verificou-se que a atemoia pode ser propagada com sucesso via enxertia, usando o porta-enxerto araticum-de-terra-fria, com diferença significativa em relação ao biribá. O melhor método de enxertia para araticum-de-terra-fria foi o inglês simples, com índice de sobrevivência do enxerto de 90%. Observou-se baixo índice de sobrevivência do enxerto, utilizando-se de ambos os métodos de enxertia para o porta-enxerto biribá.This study aimed to evaluate the survival rate of atemoya 'Thompson' on two rootstocks.The experimental design used was in randomized blocks with factorial scheme 2 x 2 consisting of 6 blocks, 4 treatments and 5 replicates per parcel totaling 120 plants. Two grafting methods (side cleft graft and whip graft and two rootstocks [araticum-de-terra-fria (Rollinia sp. and biriba (Rollinia mucosa] were evaluated for propagation of 'Thompson' atemoya. Scion survival rate was evaluated and analyzed by Tukey test, with 5% of significance level. Atemoya tree under local conditions can be propagated successfully by grafting using araticum-de-terra-fria rootstock. Whip graft was the best grafting method for araticum-de-terra-fria rootstock with 90% survival. Both grafting methods for biriba rootstock resulted in low scion survival rate.

  15. Effects of packaging and temperature on postharvest of atemoya Efeito do tipo de embalagem e da temperatura na conservação de atemóias

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    Fabio Yamashita

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of refrigerated storage and different packages on postharvest behaviour of fruits of atemoya (Annona cherimola x A. squamosa cv. PR3 were investigated. Fruits were individually sealed in copolymer (PD-955 and low-density polyethylene (LDPE bags and stored for 21 days at 15°C or 25°C. Then they were unwrapped and maintained at 25°C, for ripening. Weight loss and firmness of fruits were both affected by storage time, temperature and packaging. Weight loss in packaged atemoyas was lower than in the control, non-wrapped fruits. A non-trained panel scored the atemoyas for overall eating quality and appearance. Fruits sealed in LDPE did not ripen, probably due to an injurious atmosphere developed inside the package. Atemoyas packaged in PD-955 film had a shelf-life of 17 days against 13 days of the control ones, both stored at 15°C, an increase of 30% on shelf-life.Testou-se o comportamento da atemóia (Annona cherimola x A. squamosa cv. PR3 frente a armazenagem refrigerada e a utilização de diferentes embalagens. Os frutos foram embalados individualmente em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD ou em sacos feitos de um copolímero (PD-955, e armazenados por 21 dias, a 15ºC ou 25ºC, quando foram então desembalados e mantidos a 25ºC para amadurecerem. Tanto a perda de massa como a firmeza dos frutos foram afetadas pela embalagem, tempo e temperatura de armazenagem. A perda de massa pelas atemóias embaladas foi significativamente menor do que naquelas sem embalagem, que serviram de controle. Provadores não treinados ordenaram as atemóias em função do sabor e aparência. Frutos embalados com PEBD não amadureceram, provavelmente devido ao desenvolvimento de uma atmosfera tóxica ao fruto no interior da embalagem. As atemóias embaladas com PD-955 apresentaram vida de prateleira de 17 dias contra 13 dias dos frutos-controle, ambos a 15ºC, que representam um aumento de 30% na vida de prateleira.

  16. Uso de embalagens e refrigeração na conservação de atemóia Packing and refrigeration for atemoya preservation

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    Ana Veruska Cruz Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O interesse comercial pela atemóia é crescente no Brasil. Sabe-se que é uma fruta com vida útil bastante limitada. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade pós-colheita de atemóias cv. Gefner submetidas a embalagens e armazenamento refrigerado. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 5 (três embalagens: controle (sem embalagem; embalados individualmente com filme de PVC; colocados em bandejas de poliestireno envolvidas com filme de PVC em cinco tempos de armazenamento, com três repetições. Avaliou-se a perda de massa fresca; coloração da casca e da polpa; Sólidos Solúveis (SS; Acidez Total Titulável (ATT; vitamina C; pH da polpa e atividade de água por ocasião da colheita, a cada três dias de armazenamento. O uso da atmosfera modificada não influenciou na coloração da casca, mas preservou a luminosidade da polpa e reduziu a perda de massa fresca dos frutos. Os teores de SS e ATT aumentaram durante o armazenamento, e foram maiores nos frutos sem embalagens, assim como o teor de vitamina C. O uso de refrigeração foi eficiente na conservação da atemóias 'Gefner', que, após 15 dias de armazenamento ainda apresentavam qualidade para serem comercializados.Despite the increasing commercial interest in atemoya in Brazil, this fruit has a very limited shelf-life. The present work intended to evaluate the storage of atemoya cv. Gefner under different packing systems and cold storage periods. A factorial of 3 x 5 completely randomized design was used (three packing systems: control (unpacked, individually packed with PVC films, and placed in polyester trays wrapped in PVC film for five different storage periods, with three replicates. Weight loss, skin and pulp color, Soluble Solids (SS, Total Tritable Acidity (TTA, vitamin C, pulp pH, and water activity at harvest were recorded every three days of storage. Modified atmosphere did not influence the skin color, but

  17. Attraction of Pollinators to Atemoya (Annona squamosa × Annona cherimola) in Puerto Rico Using Commercial Lures and Food Attractants.

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    Jenkins, David A; Millan-Hernandez, Christian; Cline, Andrew R; McElrath, Thomas C; Irish, Brian; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2015-08-01

    Atemoya is a hybrid between Annona squamosa L. and Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae) and has potential to be an important fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major impediment to fruit production is low fruit set due to inadequate pollinator visits, typically, by beetles in the family Nitidulidae. We used Universal moth traps to monitor the attractiveness of two commercially available Nitidulidae lures in combination with various food attractants, including raw bread dough, apple juice, and malta beverage, a soft drink by-product of the brewing process. The most commonly trapped beetles were, in order of decreasing frequency, Carpophilus dimidiatus (F.), Brachypeplus mutilatus Erichson, Urophorus humeralis (F.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), and Europs fervidus Blatchley (Coleoptera: Monotomidae). All traps, except the unbaited control traps, caught beetles. In a previous study, we found that combining two commercial lures had a synergistic effect on the attraction of these beetle species. In this study, the addition of food attractants increased the number of beetles trapped compared with traps baited with only the commercial lures. Also, food attractants appear to be key in attracting U. humeralis; only one U. humeralis individual of the 206 caught during the experiment was trapped without a food attractant. The variation between the number of beetles caught in traps containing the same treatments was high and may explain the erratic results reported in other studies of pollination in Annona spp. The results are discussed with respect to the use of nitidulid lures and food attractants to increase fruit set in atemoya and other Annonaceae. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira ‘Gefner’ tratadas com auxinas Rooting of atemoya ‘Gefner’ cuttings treated with auxins

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    Gisela Ferreira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A propagação da atemóia deve ser feita assexuadamente e, nesse contexto, a estaquia surge como alternativa. Dessa forma, objetivou-se determinar a parte do ramo de atemoieira (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L. cv. 'Gefner' mais apropriada para estaquia. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x3 (reguladores x tipos de estaca, com 5 repetições de 12 estacas. Os reguladores utilizados foram AIB 0,5% e ANA 0,5%, aplicados na forma de talco na base das estacas, além da testemunha. Os diferentes tipos de estacas foram retirados de 3 regiões do caule (apical, mediana e basal. As estacas tratadas foram colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de poliestireno contendo substrato comercial Plantmax® e levadas para câmara de nebulização intermitente, onde permaneceram durante 136 dias. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de estacas vivas, porcentagem de estacas vivas com enraizamento, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas com folhas remanescentes, com brotações e com folhas remanescentes + brotações, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas sem folhas, número, comprimento médio e massa da matéria seca de raízes por estaca enraizada, área foliar e massa da matéria seca de folhas remanescentes e brotações. A atemoieira apresenta maior potencial para formação de mudas por estaquia empregando-se estacas apicais sem tratamento e medianas tratadas com ANA (0,5%.Atemoya propagation must be done asexually; in this context, cutting represents an alternative. This work aimed to verify the most appropriate branch part of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L. cv. 'Gefner' for cutting. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3x3 factorial arrangement (plant growth regulators x cutting types, with 5 replicates of 12 cuttings. The plant growth regulators IBA 0.5% and NAA 0.5% were applied as talc in the base of cuttings, besides the control. The different cutting types were

  19. Potencial pedoclimático do Estado da Bahia para o cultivo da atemóia Pedoclimatic potential of the State of Bahia for atemoya cultivation

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    Thieres G. F. da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da atemóia tem despontado como opção de exploração comercial no Estado da Bahia, mas a expansão de áreas produtoras está sendo realizada sem prévio conhecimento das suas exigências climáticas e pedológicas. Em decorrência disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um zoneamento pedoclimático para o cultivo da atemóia no Estado da Bahia, com base em indicadores de clima e solo estabelecidos de acordo com as exigências da cultura. Constatou-se, a partir do cruzamento das informações entre os mapas temáticos climático e pedológico, que 19,3% do território baiano apresentam condições adequadas para o cultivo da atemóia. Áreas marginais e inaptas também foram identificadas cobrindo, respectivamente, 13,9 e 24,3% do estado. Verificou-se também que 42,5% das áreas do estado possuem restrições à exploração comercial desta espécie devido, principalmente, às limitações climáticas; entretanto, as áreas que apresentam apenas restrições quanto à deficiência hídrica do solo devem ter o cultivo incentivado pelo uso da irrigação uma vez que as condições ideais dos fatores pedológicos e demais fatores climáticos podem favorecer a obtenção de bons rendimentos.Atemoya crop has become an option for commercial purposes in the State of Bahia. However, the expansion of the cultivated area is being conducted without knowledge of the climatic and pedologic crop requirements. The objective of this work was to carry out a pedoclimatic zoning for atemoya cultivation in the State of Bahia based on established criteria of climate and soil according to crop requirements. By crossing the information between climatic and pedologic thematic maps, it was verified that 19.3% of the state territory exhibited appropriate conditions for crop production. Marginal and unsuitable areas were also identified, covering 13.9 and 24.3% respectively of the state area. Restrictions for atemoya cultivation were also observed in

  20. Polinização artificial da atemóia com diversas fontes de pólen comparada com a natural Natural and artificial pollination of Atemoya in Brazil

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    Marcelo Rosa Melo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar a polinização da atemóia (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola e determinar a técnica de polinização que produz frutos em maior quantidade e melhor qualidade, montou-se um experimento de polinização. O experimento foi realizado com a cultivar Gefner, no período de novembro de 2000 a março de 2001, em pomar comercial, localizado em Lins (SP, a 424 metros de altitude. As plantas apresentavam 13 anos de idade. Empregou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: 1 polinização manual (pólen de A. squamosa L.; 2 polinização manual (pólen da atemóia cultivar Gefner; 3 polinização manual (pólen da atemóia cultivar African Pride; 4 polinização manual (pólen da atemóia cultivar PR-3; 5 polinização natural ou aberta. A avaliação do vingamento dos frutos ocorreu dez dias após a polinização e da quantidade dos frutos com conformação perfeita ou defeituosa, aos 40 dias. Os frutos foram colhidos 120 dias após a polinização e pesados individualmente. Amostraram-se, também, três frutos para as seguintes determinações: massa de sementes e da polpa, número de sementes por 100 gramas de polpa, teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total e relação sólidos solúveis/acidez. Para a atemóia, a polinização com pólen de A. squamosa L. foi mais efetiva, aumentando o vingamento de frutos (80,5%, comparado com outros quatro tratamentos, que foi menos de 22%, a produção e a porcentagem de frutos perfeitos.An experiment was carried out to study atemoya pollination and to determine the pollination method that produces fruits in larger amount and quality. The experiment was accomplished with cultivar Gefner, in the period of November 2000 to March 2001, in a commercial orchard located in the county of Lins - SP, at an altitude of 424 meters. The plants were 13 years old. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with 5 treatments and

  1. Efeito do ensacamento na qualidade dos frutos e na incidência da broca-dos-frutos da atemoieira e da pinheira Bagging effect upon either quality of the fruits and incidence of the fruit borer in atemoya and sweetsop

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    Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o uso de diferentes invólucros nos frutos de atemoieira e pinheira na qualidade físico-química dos frutos e na incidência da broca-dos-frutos, Cerconota anonella. Os experimentos foram instalados em dois pomares comerciais: um de atemoieira no município de Matias Cardoso e outro de pinheira no município de Verdelândia, Norte de Minas Gerais. Os tratamentos para a atemoieira consistiram em: 1 Testemunha (sem ensacamento; 2 Saco plástico leitoso; 3 Saco de TNT (tecido-não-tecido branco sem fundo e 4 Saco de TNT branco com fundo. Para a pinheira foi modificado apenas o tratamento 2 para saco de papel pardo. Avaliaram-se número de dias da polinização à colheita, número de dias da colheita ao amadurecimento, ocorrência de injúrias e brocas e características físico-químicas dos frutos. Observam-se maior número de dias entre a colheita e o amadurecimento e mais firmeza nos frutos de pinheira não-ensacados. O uso do plástico leitoso controlou a broca em frutos de atemoieira. As características físico-químicas: massa, comprimento, diâmetro dos frutos e teor de sólidos solúveis totais da polpa não foram influenciados pelo uso dos invólucros.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect from using different involucres for fruits of the atemoya and sweetsop upon either physiochemical quality of the fruits and incidence of the fruit borer Cerconota anonella. The experiments were set up in two commercial orchards: one with atemoya at Matias Cardoso county and the other one with sweetsop at Verdelândia on northern Minas Gerais state. The treatments for atemoya consisted of: 1 Control (without bagging; 2 Milky plastic bag; 3 White, bottomless, tissue-non-tissue (TNT bag; and (4 With bottom TNT bag. For the sweetsop, only treatment 2 was modified to brown paper bag. The following evaluation were performed: the number of days from pollination to harvest, number of days from harvest to ripening

  2. Rootstocks and grafting methods for Atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimoya Mill. plantsPortaenxertos e métodos de enxertia na produção de mudas de Atemoieira (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazianny Andrade Leite

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to evaluate the production of atemoya nursery plants grafted on two rootstocks (Annona squamosa L. and Annona glabra L.. The experimental design was a 2 x 5 factorial being two rootstocks and five methods of grafting, with five randomized blocks and ten plants per plot, totaling 500 plants. The variables evaluated at 60 days after grafting were budding efficiency (%, shooting grafts (% dormant grafts (% and living grafts (%. It was also evaluated the shoot length (cm, stem diameter (mm, root system length (cm, number of leaves (unit /plant, dry root mass (g /plant, shoot dry mass (g /plant, total dry mass (g /plant, length seedling (cm and shoot: root system dry mass ratio. Data regarding diameter of the rootstock and means of graft characteristics were submitted to analysis of variance. For the characteristics of percentage of grafting effectiveness, living grafts, shooting and dormant grafts, data were transformed in for analysis of variance, all means compared by Scott-Knott test, at 5% probability. Atemoya ‘Gefner’ can be grafted on rootstocks Annona glabra L. and Annona squamosa L. by cleft grafting method. The grafting whip and double whip can be used to atemoya ‘Gefner’ if grafting onto rootstock Annona squamosa L. Budding grafting method is not efficient for the production of atemoya ‘Gefner’ plants. Este experimento teve por finalidade avaliar a propagação por enxertia de atemoieira sobre dois portaenxertos (Annona squamosa L. e Annona glabra L.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo dois portaenxertos e cinco métodos de enxertia em 5 blocos e 10 plantas por parcela, totalizando 500 plantas. Foram avaliadas aos 60 dias após a enxertia as variáveis pegamento dos enxertos (%, enxertos brotados (%, enxertos dormentes (% e enxertos vivos (%. Também foram avaliados comprimento da parte aérea (cm, diâmetro do colo (mm, comprimento do

  3. Superação da dormência em sementes de atemóia e fruta-do-conde Overcoming atemoya and custard apple seed dormancy

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    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As anonáceas cultivadas comercialmente têm sido propagadas através de enxertia, sendo o porta-enxerto obtido por sementes. Entretanto, as sementes dessas plantas apresentam substâncias inibidoras de germinação que, juntamente com um tegumento resistente e impermeável, dificultam a germinação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação de sementes de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa L. e dos cultivares de atemóia 'PR-1', 'PR-3' e 'Gefner' (Annona cherimola Mill. X Annona squamosa L., que foram escarificadas com lixa e submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos por 24 horas: ácido giberélico (GA3 a 50 ppm; GA3 a 100 ppm; água a 5ºC; água a 30ºC. A testemunha não recebeu nenhum tipo de tratamento. As sementes das cultivares de atemóia tratadas a 50 e 100 ppm de GA3 não apresentaram diferença entre si, proporcionando 55 a 67 % de germinação para 'Gefner' e 'PR-3', significativamente superiores aos demais tratamentos, que tiveram de 1 a 21 %. Para 'PR-1' esta diferença também foi verificada, com germinação de 35 a 36 % para os tratamentos com GA3 e 1,25 a 2,5 % para os demais. O tratamento de 50 ppm de GA3 foi significativamente superior aos demais tratamentos para a fruta-do-conde, com 75 % de germinação, enquanto que em 100 ppm de GA3 apresentou 44 % e os demais tiveram de 2,5 a 3,7 %. O índice de velocidade de germinação foi significativamente maior para sementes tratadas com GA3 a 50 e 100 ppm.Annonas are propagated mainly by grafting and rootstocks are obtained usually by seeds. Their seeds have substances that inhibit germination and the seed coat also difficults seedling emergence. This trial evaluated the germination of seeds of custard apple (Annona squamosa L. and of atemoya cultivars 'PR-1', 'PR-3', and 'Gefner' (Annona cherimola Mill. X Annona squamosa L. with treatments as follows (soaking during 24 hours: gibberellic acid (GA3 50 ppm; GA3 100 ppm; water 5ºC; water 30ºC; and control. All treatments

  4. Characteristics of fruits of atemoya cultivars produced in northern Paraná state / Caracterização dos frutos de cultivares de atemóia produzidos no norte do Paraná

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    Edmar Nobuya Yuhara

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The atemoya, Annona squamosa Mill. x A. cherimola L., is a hybrid of the sugar apple and cherimoya. It has been of great interest in Brazil, but there is little information on fruit characteristics. The aim of this research work was to evaluate physical and chemical characteristics of fruits of four atemoya cultivars in the North of Paraná State conditions. Cultivars ‘PR-3’, ‘Gefner’, ‘Thompson’, and ‘African Pride’ presented fruit weight of 368, 275, 313 and 357 g and flesh percentage of 58, 63, 46 and 51 %, respectively. Seed number per fruit ranged from 23 to 38. Titratable acidity was 0,17 % (in ‘PR-3’ to 0,30 % (in ‘Thompson’ and total soluble solids were from 16,4 oBrix (in ‘African Pride’ to 26,1 oBrix (in ‘Thompson’.A atemóia é um híbrido resultante do cruzamento entre a cherimóia (Annona cherimola Mill. e a fruta do conde (A. squamosa L.. Sua produção tem tido interesse crescente no Brasil, mas existem poucos dados disponíveis sobre as características dos frutos produzidos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar características químicas e físicas dos frutos de quatro cultivares de atemóia para as condições do Norte do Paraná. As cultivares ‘PR-3’, ‘Gefner’, ‘Thompson’ e ‘African Pride’ apresentaram peso médio de 368, 275, 313 e 357 g e porcentagem de polpa de 58, 63, 46 e 51 %, respectivamente. O número médio de sementes por fruto variou de 23 a 38. A acidez titulável foi de 0,17 % (para ‘PR-3’ a 0,30 % (para ‘Thompson’ e o teor de sólidos solúveis foi de 16,4 oBrix (para ‘African Pride’ a 26,1 oBrix (para ‘Thompson’.

  5. Atraso no amadurecimento de atemoia cv. African Pride após tratamento pós-colheita com 1-metilciclopropeno Delay in ripening of African Pride atemoya fruits after postharvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de Lima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Atemoias cv. African Pride foram colhidas na maturidade fisiológica com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da aplicação de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP sobre a maturação pós-colheita. Foram testados: doses de 1-MCP (0, 100, 200 e 400 nL.L-1; e tempo de armazenamento (0, 8 e 15 dias sob refrigeração, a 14,5 ± 2,0 ºC e 60 ± 6% de UR, seguidos de 2, 4 e 5 dias a 23,8 ± 2,0 ºC e 65 ± 5% UR. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 4x 6 (dose de 1-MCPx tempo de armazenamento e quatro repetições. Apesar da interação estatisticamente significativa entre os fatores sobre a perda de massa, as diferenças entre tratamentos em cada avaliação não foram superiores a 1,3%. Os frutos tratados apresentaram-se mais firmes, com acidez titulável ligeiramente maior e atraso inicial no acúmulo de sólidos solúveis. A redução no conteúdo de pectina somente foi observada a partir do 15º dia, quando já havia ocorrido a maior taxa de amaciamento. A aparência também foi preservada pelo 1-MCP, verificando-se, nos frutos tratados, ausência de manchas e/ou microrganismos até o 17º dia. A dose de 200 nL.L-1 foi a mais eficiente, pois atrasou a perda de firmeza e manteve o teor de pectina ligeiramente maior.Atemoya fruits (cv. African Pride were harvested at physiological maturity stage with the objective of evaluating the influence of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP application on postharvest maturation. The following parameters were analyzed: 1-MCP doses (0, 100, 200 and 400 nL.L-1 and time of storage (0, 8 and 15 days under refrigeration, at 14.5 ± 2.0 ºC and 60 ± 6% RH, followed by 2, 4, and 5 days at 23.8 ± 2.0 ºC and 65 ± 5% RH. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 4x 5 (dose of 1-MCPx time of storage factorial with four replications. Besides the statistically significant interaction between the factors on weight loss, the differences among the treatments in each evaluation were not

  6. Germinação de sementes de atemoia (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' submetidas a tratamentos com ácido Giberélico (GA3 e ethephon Germination of atemoya seeds (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' subjected to treatments with Gibberellic acid (GA3 and ethephon

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    Marcos Campos de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos do ácido giberélico (GA3, do ethephon e da interação de ambos os reguladores vegetais no processo germinativo de sementes de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. , cultivar 'Gefner'. Empregou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5², com os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação de cinco concentrações de GA3 (ácido giberélico e cinco concentrações de ethephon, resultando em 25 tratamentos, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela. As concentrações de GA3 empregadas foram: 0; 250; 500; 750 e 1.000 mg L-1 i.a.e de ethephon: 0; 25; 50; 75 e 100 mg L-1 i.a.. Os tratamentos com os reguladores vegetais foram aplicados na semente por imersão das mesmas nas soluções de GA3 e ethephon por período de 36 horas. As sementes foram semeadas em rolo de papel germitest e levadas à câmara de germinação onde permaneceram no escuro, com temperatura alternada entre 20ºC por 8 horas e 30ºC por 16 horas. As variáveis avaliadas foram: percentagem, tempo e índice de velocidade de germinação, percentagem de plântulas normais e percentagem de sementes dormentes. Existe interação da ação dos reguladores vegetais estudados no processo germinativo de sementes de atemoia, o que permite concluir que a percentagem de germinação de sementes de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' é aumentada com o emprego de 778 mg L-1 de GA3, enquanto a associação entre elevadas concentrações de GA3 e 75 a 100 mg L-1 de ethephon incrementam o índice de velocidade de germinação e a percentagem de plântulas normais.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3 and ethephon, besides the interaction of both plant growth regulators, on the germinative process of atemoya seeds (Annona cherimola Mill. X A. squamosa L., cultivar 'Gefner'. Experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5

  7. Overcoming atemoya and custard apple seed dormancy

    OpenAIRE

    Stenzel, Neusa Maria Colauto; Murata, Ives Massanor; Neves, Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro

    2003-01-01

    As anonáceas cultivadas comercialmente têm sido propagadas através de enxertia, sendo o porta-enxerto obtido por sementes. Entretanto, as sementes dessas plantas apresentam substâncias inibidoras de germinação que, juntamente com um tegumento resistente e impermeável, dificultam a germinação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação de sementes de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa L.) e dos cultivares de atemóia 'PR-1', 'PR-3' e 'Gefner' (Annona cherimola Mill. X Annona squamosa L....

  8. Enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner submetidas a tratamento lento e rápido com auxinas Rooting of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner cuttings subjected to slow and fast treatment with auxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de concentrações de diferentes auxinas no enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner, empregando-se tratamento lento e rápido. O delineamento experimental empregado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x7 (auxinas x concentrações, com 5 repetições de 12 estacas por parcela, para cada método de aplicação de auxina (lento e rápido. As estacas foram tratadas com os reguladores vegetais, por meio da imersão da base em soluções, contendo IBA, NAA e 2,4-D, durante 24 horas (tratamento lento nas concentrações 0 (testemunha, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 mg L-1 de cada regulador e 5 segundos (tratamento rápido nas concentrações 0 (testemunha, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 e 5000 mg L-1 de cada regulador. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de estacas sobreviventes, enraizadas, sobreviventes com calos, comprimento de raiz por estaca, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas com folhas remanescentes, com brotação e com folhas remanescentes e brotação. Para o enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira cv. 'Gefner' conclui-se que, o tratamento lento, com 200 mg L-1 de NAA, proporcionou incremento ao processo, da mesma forma que o tratamento rápido com IBA, independente da concentração.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different auxin concentrations in the rooting of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner stacks, employing slow and fast treatments. The experimental design used was completely randomized, in 3x7 factorial arrangement (auxins x concentrations, with 5 replicates of 12 stacks per plot, for each auxin application method (slow and fast. Stacks were treated with plant growth regulators by bottom immersion in a solution containing IBA, NAA and 2,4-D for 24 hours (slow treatment at the following concentrations: 0 (control, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg L-1 of each growth regulator

  9. Curva de absorção de água em sementes de atemóia (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L. cv. Gefner Water absorption curve in seeds of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L. cv. Gefner

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    Gisela Ferreira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de caracterizar a curva de absorção de água em sementes de atemóia (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L. cv. Gefner, submetidas a três métodos de embebição: sementes submersas em água destilada (MSSA, sementes entre papel de filtro embebido em água destilada acondicionada em caixa tipo gerbox (MPEA e teste-padrão (MTP, com sementes mantidas em rolo de papel de filtro umedecido em água destilada. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 6 tratamentos e 4 repetições de 25 sementes por parcela, constituídos por três métodos de embebição, empregando-se sementes vivas e mortas. O tempo de embebição entre 27; 34 e 47 horas, nos métodos MTP, MPEA e MSSA, representam indicativo para tratamento de sementes, podendo funcionar como tempo mínimo necessário para embebição em solução com reguladores vegetais. Conclui-se que os métodos que caracterizaram as três fases de absorção de água em sementes de atemóia foram o MTP e MPEA com mudança entre as fases I e II após 27 e 34 horas, respectivamente, atingindo a fase III com 234 horas, o que permite determinar o tempo de imersão para tratamentos pré-germinativos.The present study aimed to characterize the water absorption curve in atemoya seeds (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L. cv. Gefner, submitted to three imbibitions methods: seeds submerged in distilled water (MSSA, seed placed betwen paper filter imbibed with distilled water inside a gerbox box (MPEA and standard test, with seeds kept in roll of filter paper moistened with water (MTP. The experimental delineation was entirely randomized, with 6 treatments and 4 repetitions of 25 seeds per parcel. The treatments were submitted to three imbibitions methods, with live and deth seeds. The imbibition time among 27, 34 and 47 hours, in the MTP, MPEA and MSSA methods represented an indicative for seeds treatment, which could possibly function as a

  10. Water absorption curve in seeds of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L.) cv. Gefner

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Gisela [UNESP; Guimarães, Vandeir Francisco; Pinho, Sheila Zambello de [UNESP; Oliveira, Marcos Campos de; Richart, Alfredo; Braga, João Filgueiras [UNESP; Dias, Gláucia Bravo

    2006-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de caracterizar a curva de absorção de água em sementes de atemóia (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L.) cv. Gefner, submetidas a três métodos de embebição: sementes submersas em água destilada (MSSA), sementes entre papel de filtro embebido em água destilada acondicionada em caixa tipo gerbox (MPEA) e teste-padrão (MTP), com sementes mantidas em rolo de papel de filtro umedecido em água destilada. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casua...

  11. Germination of atemoya seeds (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.) cv 'Gefner' subjected to treatments with Gibberellic acid (GA3) and ethephon

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Marcos Campos de; Ferreira, Gisela [UNESP; Guimarães, Vandeir Francisco; Dias, Gláucia Bravo

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos do ácido giberélico (GA3), do ethephon e da interação de ambos os reguladores vegetais no processo germinativo de sementes de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. ), cultivar 'Gefner'. Empregou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5², com os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação de cinco concentrações de GA3 (ácido giberélico) e cinco concentrações de ethephon, resultando em 25 tratamentos, c...

  12. Avaliação e caracterização dos compostos bioativos da atemóia (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L.) : Atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L.) : evaluation and characterization of bioactive compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rosa de Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: A atemóia (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L.) vem despertando interesse por ser uma fruta com características organolépticas e nutricionais atrativas, além de alto potencial de mercado, embora pouco se conheça sobre os compostos bioativos desse híbrido. Desta forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar os compostos fenólicos (CF), capacidade antioxidante e a atividade antimicrobiana da casca, polpa e semente de atemóia (safras 2012 e 2013) e avaliar o teor de tocoferóis e ...

  13. Germinação de sementes de atemoia (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.) cv 'Gefner' submetidas a tratamentos com ácido Giberélico (GA3) e ethephon Germination of atemoya seeds (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.) cv 'Gefner' subjected to treatments with Gibberellic acid (GA3) and ethephon

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Campos de Oliveira; Gisela Ferreira; Vandeir Francisco Guimarães; Gláucia Bravo Dias

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos do ácido giberélico (GA3), do ethephon e da interação de ambos os reguladores vegetais no processo germinativo de sementes de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. ), cultivar 'Gefner'. Empregou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5², com os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação de cinco concentrações de GA3 (ácido giberélico) e cinco concentrações de ethephon, resultando em 25 tratamentos, c...

  14. Chemical and physicochemical characterization of the seed oil from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a hybrid fruit derived from the crossing of sugar-apple (Annona squamosa L.), with cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.). The objective of this study was to compare two extraction methodologies for the seed oil from 'Gefner' atemoya, for yield, chemical and physicochemical characteristics, in order to use the oil as biofuel.

  15. 78 FR 9389 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... opportunity for a 30-day public comment period on the proposed decision. Please see the Agency's public... 8-10, pome fruit group 11-10, berry subgroups 13-07 A, F & G, sugar apple, cherimoya, atemoya, custard apple, llama, soursop, and biriba. Contact: Olga Odiott, RD, (703) 308-9369, email address: odiott...

  16. Gas exchanges in annonaceae species under different crop protections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Baron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the gas exchanges of different species of Annonaceae due to environmental variations provided by different types of crop protection. 'Araticum-de-terra-fria', 'araticum-mirim', 'biribá' and atemoya seedlings were cultived in three different crop protections: nursery, greenhouse and warm house. Gas exchanges were obtained in six plants, from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, with IRGA, LI-6400, at 180 Days After Transplanting. The different types of crop protection had a direct influence on gas exchanges of these species. Thus, nursery provided suitable conditions for 'araticum-de-terra-fria', 'araticum-mirim' and 'biribá', increasing their gas exchanges. To atemoya the best crop protection was the greenhouse.

  17. Teste de tetrazólio para a avaliação da viabilidade de sementes de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gimenez, Juliana Iassia; Ferreira, Gisela; Cavariani, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to adapt the tetrazolium test to assess the viability of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.) seeds. The experimental design was completely randomized in 3 x 3 factorial arrangement (tetrazolium salt concentrations x exposure times), totaling 9 treatments with four replicates of 25 seeds. After immersion in water for 24 hours, the seeds were longitudinally sectioned and exposed to three tetrazolium salt concentrations (0.05%, 0.5% and 1%) for three periods of time...

  18. Application of dietary fiber method AOAC 2011.25 in fruit and comparison with AOAC 991.43 method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaruela, Eric de C; Santos, Aline de O; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B de; Araujo, Elias da S; Lajolo, Franco M; Menezes, Elizabete W

    2018-01-01

    AOAC 2011.25 method enables the quantification of most of the dietary fiber (DF) components according to the definition proposed by Codex Alimentarius. This study aimed to compare the DF content in fruits analyzed by the AOAC 2011.25 and AOAC 991.43 methods. Plums (Prunus salicina), atemoyas (Annona x atemoya), jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus), and mature coconuts (Cocos nucifera) from different Brazilian regions (3 lots/fruit) were analyzed for DF, resistant starch, and fructans contents. The AOAC 2011.25 method was evaluated for precision, accuracy, and linearity in different food matrices and carbohydrate standards. The DF contents of plums, atemoyas, and jackfruits obtained by AOAC 2011.25 was higher than those obtained by AOAC 991.43 due to the presence of fructans. The DF content of mature coconuts obtained by the same methods did not present a significant difference. The AOAC 2011.25 method is recommended for fruits with considerable fructans content because it achieves more accurate values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Armazenamento de atemoias (Annona squamosa x Annona cherimola recobertas com filme PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A atemoia, assim como todos os frutos climatéricos, apresenta uma elevada perecibilidade, tornando-se importante a adoção de técnicas pós-colheita. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o armazenamento de atemoias recobertas com filme PVC. Os frutos utilizados foram da variedade ‘Gefner’ apresentando-se em estado de maturação verde-maduro. Estes foram transferidos para o laboratório de Química de Alimentos do IFCE, submetidos à higienização e divididos nos devidos tratamentos. O primeiro tratamento constou no armazenamento de cinco frutos em bandejas de isopor recobertos com filme PVC. O segundo, do recobrimento individual dos frutos em filme PVC, sendo estes acondicionados em bandejas de isopor e os frutos do controle. Estes foram armazenados durante 8 dias. O delineamento utilizado foi o DIC em esquema fatorial 3x4 com quatro repetições de cinco frutos por parcela. A cada tempo de armazenamento foram avaliadas: perda de massa, sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, Ratio, pH e índice de rachaduras. O uso de filme plástico reduz a perda de massa, porém retarda o amadurecimento de frutos de atemoia. As rachaduras estão diretamente associadas ao amadurecimento dos frutos, ao aumento dos teores de sólidos solúveis e possivelmente a cultivar avaliada. Storage of atemoyas (Annona squamosa x Annona cherimola covered with PVC filmAbstract: The atemoya, as well as all climacteric fruits, is highly perishable, becoming important to adopt post-harvest techniques. This work aimed to evaluate the atemoyas storage covered with plastic wrap. The fruits used were of the variety 'Gefner' presenting itself in a state of green-mature aging. These were transferred to the Food Chemistry Lab IFCE submitted to cleaning and divided in appropriate treatments. The first treatment consisted in five fruit storage in styrofoam trays covered with plastic wrap. The second, the individual coating of the fruits in PVC film, which are packed in

  20. Identification of hybrids of intra and interspecific crosses in Annonaceae by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuza Araújo de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to identify hybrids in intraspecific crosses between sugar apple accessions and interspecific crosses between sugar apple and atemoya accessions by using RAPD markers. Four sugar apple accessions were selected: Seedless P1, P2, P3 and P4 and the atemoya cultivar Gefner (G1. In the pre-female phase the flowers were adequately protected and reciprocal crosses were performed. In crosses where the sugar apple accession Seedless P1 was used as the male parent, the fruits contained seeds, indicating that the pollen grains of Seedless P1 are viable. The fruits of reciprocal crosses where Seedless P1 was used as a female parent contained no seeds. The percentage of true hybrids in the crosses P4 x Seedless P1, P3 x Seedless P1, P2 x Seedless P1, and G1 x Seedless P1 were, respectively, 100%, 95.55%, 82.86%, and 44.44%. Primer OPF10 was efficient in obtaining polymorphic bands in all Annonaceae hybrid populations.

  1. ANALYSIS OF GENOTYPIC DIFFERENCES IN DEVELOPMENTAL STABILITY IN ANNONA CHERIMOLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfectti, Francisco; Camacho, Juan Pedro M

    1999-10-01

    The genetic basis of developmental stability, measured as asymmetry (fluctuating asymmetry in leaves), was analyzed in leaves and flowers of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill) and atemoya (A. cherimola × A. squamosa). The individuals analyzed belonged to a controlled collection of cultivars (clones) that had previously been characterized by means of isozymes. We used a nested design to analyze the differences in asymmetry at several sampling levels: individual leaves and flowers, individual trees, and genotypes. The clonal repeatability of developmental stability was not significantly different from zero, thus suggesting the absence of heritability of the asymmetry for leaves and flowers under these environmental conditions. No relationship between asymmetry and individual heterozygosity was found, but leaf fluctuating asymmetry was significantly related to particular isozymic genes. Petal and leaf size showed a phenotypically plastic response to the exposure zone of the tree (mainly due to light). Leaf fluctuating asymmetry also showed such a plastic response. No significant correlation was found between asymmetry and any pomological characters (some of these being fitness related). Finally, the hybrid species (atemoya) did not show larger developmental instability than did the parental species (cherimoya). All these data show that cherimoya asymmetry reveals the random nature of developmental noise, with developmental stability for leaves being possibly related to specific chromosome regions, but with weak evidence for genotypic differences in developmental stability. © 1999 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Type designations and taxonomic remarks for Nearctic sap beetles in the subfamily Carpophilinae Erichson (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Gareth S; Cline, Andrew R

    2017-05-16

    The subfamily Carpophilinae, in particular the genus Carpophilus Stephens, represents one of the most speciose lineages within Nitidulidae. The subfamily is comprised of more than 250 described species that are found worldwide in every habitable region, and have been transported by man in stored products to remote islands and archipelagos (Ewing & Cline 2005; Parsons 1943). The ubiquitous Carpophilus dimidiatus (L.) is an example of a cosmopolitan species that has been reported from every continent except Antarctica, but likely has been transported there as well. Members of Carpophilinae are well recognized by their abbreviated elytra, compact bodies, and distinct three-segmented antennal club. Many taxa are present in fermenting food products and dried goods. Some members are also commonly found in flowering plants such as cacti, cycads, and agricultural plants such as atemoya (a hybrid of sugar-apple and cherimoya) (Nagel et al. 1989).

  3. A new species of Heilipus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae) associated with commercial species of Annonaceae in Brazil, and comments on other species of the genus causing damage to avocado trees in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, Sergio Antonio; Bená, Daniela De Cassia

    2015-01-14

    Heilipus gibbus sp. nov. (type locality: Brazil, state of São Paulo, Angatuba) is described from 73 specimens. The holotype and three paratypes from the same locality were reared from larvae collected in the basis region, near the ground, of an atemoya tree (a hybrid of the sugar-apple, "pinha" or fruta-do-conde"-Annona squamosa L., and the cherymoya, A. cherimoya (Mill.), Annonaceae). Heilipus gibbus sp. nov. can cause severe injury to commercial Annonaceae, and has been misidentified in the collections and the literature as Heilipus catagraphus Germar, 1834. The new species and H. catagraphus have a very similar color pattern, but can be easily distinguished by the rostrum shape in lateral view, being humped in H. gibbus sp. nov. but evenly arcuate in H. catagraphus. Illustrations of habitus and of male and female genitalia are provided to the new species and for avocado stem boring species of Heilipus which occur in Brazil (H. catagraphus and H. rufipes). Comments are made for H. elegans Guérin, 1844, which record to Brazil is probably based on a misidentification. 

  4. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment and the status in the United States and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, J.H. [Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Finding an efficient and effective method to control fruit flies and other insect pests on tropical fruits is the prerequisite to sending fruits to international markets where fruit flies are unwanted. After ethylene dibromide was banned as a fumigant in the U.S. in 1984, papaya exports in Hawaii have been using two similar thermal treatments, either the vapor heat, or the high-temperature forced-air, as the disinfestation method. Time required for these thermal treatments is 5 to 6 hours and fruit quality problems are sometimes encountered. Other fruits would require different time-temperature regimes; yet not many fruits can tolerate the heat treatment. Irradiation, emerging as an alternative, efficacious disinfestation method, requires 15-20 min. in a commercial irradiator, and the quality of irradiated fruits is well preserved. Since April, 1995, more than 100,000 kg of untreated tropical fruits, mainly papaya, litchi, and starfruit, have been sent from Hawaii to the U.S. continent with a special permit by the Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and irradiated at an irradiator near Chicago with a generic dose of 0.25 kGy. These fruits were test marketed with proper labeling in various supermarkets in the Midwest and other cities. Consumer acceptance of irradiated tropical fruits has been very favorable. In May, 1996, APHIS published a document describing policies, procedures, and regulations specifically related to irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment. In early July, 1998, USDA proposed a rule to allow more types of Hawaii-grown fruits to be shipped to the U.S. continent for radiation treatment. These include abiu, atemoya, longan, rambutan, sapodilla, green banana, and durian. To improve the export market potential, the Country of Hawaii is planning to build a small commercial irradiator in 1999 to treat various tropical fruits and possibly other products. (author)

  5. Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L. dunal, introduced as an ornamental plant in Baia Mare (Maramureş county, Romania

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    Beatrice SZILAGYI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, is native to North America. In the area of origin is cultivated, both as food species because the edible fruit, and as ornamental species. Ornamental value derives both from decorative flowers, that open in early spring, and because habitus species. The species is demanding from slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.0 and well drained. Seedlings are susceptible to heatstroke and need areas of the sun, but since the second year, vegetate well in bright light conditions [27]. Optimum climate is temperate to subtropical one. The species exhibits unique quality traits for a temperate fruit that are similar to other fruit in the Annonaceae family, including cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., sugar apple or sweetsop, (A. squamosa L., soursop (A. muricata L., custard apple (A. reticulata L., and atemoya (A. squamosa X A. cherimola, all of which are tropical [2].This study follows the behavior of the species, in particular conditions of the Baia Mare and its surroundings. In this area a fewindividuals were introduced, in order to diversigy the range of species of ornamental plants. In Baia Mare, topoclimate is specifically depression, sheltered by mountains, more atenuated as temperature and winds, than in surrounding areas. As a result ofclimatic conditions, chestnut Castanea sativa, grows in good conditions in Baia Mare. Instead, the area is heavily polluted,especially at ground level. Pollution by heavy metals is a historical being generated by the mining industry.The introduction and use of a new plant species into a new area involves: 1. easy to obtain seed; 2.- maintaining the crown shape habitus and and leaf shape and size, respectively; 3 – determination of optimal physiological parameters. Therefore have been performed, the following experimental determinations: 1. - germination of seed obtained in the particular conditions of the Baia Mare; 2. - some morphomtric characteristics of leaves, in the juveniles

  6. The impact of breeding on fruit production in warm climates of Brazil O impacto do melhoramento genético na produção de frutas em climas quentes do Brasil

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    Celso Valdevino Pommer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a very large country with a diverse climate. This fact allows a diversity of plants to grow ranging from tropical rainforest in the Amazon, passing through Atlantic Forest along the coast, the cerrados (Brazilian savannah in the Central West region, and semi-arid area in the Northeast. Latitude ranges from 5º N to 33º S, with most of this territory in the tropical region. There are enough reasons to plant breeders devoting great amount of their effort to improve plants suitable for warm climates, though. Among fruit crops, results of breeder's work have been noticed in several species, especially on peaches, grapes, citrus, apples, persimmons, figs, pears and others not so common, such as acerola, guava, annonas (sour sop, sugar apple, atemoya, cherimoya and passion fruit. Peach tree introduced at low latitude (22 ± 2ºS requires climatic adaptation to subtropical conditions of low chilling. In Brazil, the first peach breeding program aiming adaptation of cultivars to different habitats was developed by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC beginning in the end of the 40's. Apple low chill requirement cultivars obtained in a South state, Paraná, are now been planted at low latitudes. Banana and pineapple breeding programs from Embrapa units along the country are successfully facing new sanitary problems. Petrolina/Juazeiro, in the Northeastern region (9ºS, is the main grape exporting region with more than 6,000 ha. Grape growing in the region is based in the so called "tropical" rootstocks released by IAC, namely: IAC 313 'Tropical', IAC 572 'Jales'. Recently, Embrapa Grape and Wine released tropical grape seedless cultivars that are changing table grape scenario in the country.O Brasil, com suas dimensões continentais, apresenta grande diversidade de climas. Este fato permite o crescimento de grande diversidade de plantas desde a floresta tropical úmida do Amazonas, passando pela Mata Atlântica ao longo da costa, os cerrados

  7. Viabilidade e conservação de pólen de três anonas comerciais Viability and conservation of pollen from tree commercial annonas

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    José Emilio Bettiol Neto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O pólen das anonas comerciais, cherimóia (Annona cherimola Mill., fruta-do-conde, pinha ou ata (Annona squamosa L. e atemóia (Annona cherimola X Annona squamosa têm período de viabilidade reduzido. Este fato, aliado à ocorrência de dicogamia protogínica nessas plantas, demanda metodologias de conservação que promovam maior longevidade ao pólen. Objetivou-se neste estudo a aplicação de técnicas de conservação do pólen dessas fruteiras. O pólen foi coletado de flores em estádio macho e conservado em nitrogênio líquido (-196 °C e geladeira (4-5 °C. Utilizaram-se amostras de pólen dessecadas e não dessecadas, coletadas em período seco e úmido do ano. Pólen recém-coletado e não submetido à conservação, pólen fresco (PF, foi considerado padrão. O pólen amanhecido (PA foi utilizado após 12 horas da coleta. A viabilidade polínica foi avaliada através de testes de coloração com o corante Alexander, germinação in vitro e polinização em campo. Para a germinação, utilizaram-se dois meios de cultura, o meio A e o BK e a viabilidade foi avaliada pela taxa de emissão de tubo polínico. O PF coletado em período úmido revelou maior viabilidade em relação ao do período seco. Nos testes de germinação in vitro ocorreu emissão de tubos polínicos para as amostras de PF e PA nas primeiras 12 horas. A emissão de tubos polínicos decaiu com o tempo de conservação. Nos testes de germinação in vitro e polinização em campo, o pólen das três fruteiras, conservado em geladeira, proporcionou maior viabilidade que o conservado em nitrogênio. Nas polinizações obtiveram-se frutificações com PF e PA coletados em período úmido e em período seco e ausência de frutificações nas polinizações com pólen conservado além de três dias, tanto em nitrogênio como na geladeira.Pollen of commercial anonas, cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., curstad apple (Annona squamosa L. and atemoya (Annona cherimola X Annona