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Sample records for atcopia4 compromises resistance

  1. Compromises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizer, Theodore R.

    1984-01-01

    Taking as examples the issues of improving students'"high order thinking skills" and arriving at more equitable teacher salaries and school budgets, the author discusses the need for compromise solutions to widespread problems. (JBM)

  2. Immunomodulation and hormonal disruption without compromised disease resistance in perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposed Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Judit E.G.; Nain, Sukhbir

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of oral perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on Japanese quail at concentrations found in American and Belgian workers at PFOA manufacturing facilities. Three arms of the immune system were tested; T cell, B cell, and innate immunity. After 6 weeks exposure, quail were challenged with E. coli infection to test the ultimate measure of immunotoxicity, disease resistance. The T cell response was lower in the high exposure groups. Antibody mediated, and innate immune responses were not different. Growth rate was higher, whereas thyroid hormone levels were lower in PFOA-exposed birds. Morbidity/mortality from disease challenge was not different among the control and PFOA-exposed groups, and no overt PFOA toxicity was observed pre-disease challenge. Although PFOA at ‘worst case scenario’ levels caused T cell immunosuppression, this did not translate into increased disease susceptibility, demonstrating that immunotoxicity testing must be interpreted with caution since disease resistance is the ultimate concern. -- Highlights: •Birds orally exposed to high levels of PFOA for 8 wks showed no signs of toxicity. •PFOA exposure caused immunotoxicity by suppressing the T cell mediated response. •PFOA exposure did not affect antibody mediated, or innate immunity. •PFOA exposure did not cause increased morbidity/mortality after E. coli infection. •PFOA exposed birds showed endocrinological changes that may warrant further study. -- Oral exposure of quail to the pollutant, PFOA, resulted in hormonal and immunological changes, but did not compromise disease resistance after challenge by a common avian pathogen

  3. Fracture resistance of structurally compromised and normal endodontically treated teeth restored with different post systems: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihesadat Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the aim of developing methods that could increase the fracture resistance of structurally compromised endodontically treated teeth, this study was conducted to compare the effect of three esthetic post systems on the fracture resistance and failure modes of structurally compromised and normal roots. Materials and Methods: Forty five extracted and endodontically treated maxillary central teeth were assigned to 5 experimental groups (n=9. In two groups, the post spaces were prepared with the corresponding drills of the post systems to be restored with double taper light posts (DT.Light-Post (group DT.N and zirconia posts (Cosmopost (group Zr.N. In other 3 groups thin wall canals were simulated to be restored with Double taper Light posts (DT.W, double taper Light posts and Ribbond fibers (DT+R.W and Zirconia posts (Zr.W. After access cavity restoration and thermocycling, compressive load was applied and the fracture strength values and failure modes were evaluated. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, Tukey and Fisher exact tests (P<0.05. Results: The mean failure loads (N were 678.56, 638.22, 732.44, 603.44 and 573.67 for groups DT.N, Zr.N, DT.W, DT+R.W and Zr.w respectively. Group DT+R.W exhibited significantly higher resistance to fracture compared to groups Zr.N, DT.W and Zr.w (P<0.05. A significant difference was detected between groups DT.N and Zr.W (P=0.027. Zirconia posts showed significantly higher root fracture compared to fiber posts (P=0.004. Conclusion: The structurally compromised teeth restored with double taper light posts and Ribbond fibers showed the most fracture resistance and their strengths were comparable to those of normal roots restored with double taper light posts. More desirable fracture patterns were observed in teeth restored with fiber posts.

  4. Strained Compromises?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne

    The Danish version of flexicurity is not only about a balance between labour market flexibility and social security. Arguably, it is also series of more or less stable underlying compromises between social partners about the main mechanisms and aims of labour market regulation which – supposedly...... – should be focused on employment rather than jobs and competition on quality rather than on labour costs. However, most studies on Danish flexicurity have been carried out under favourable economic conditions with social partners almost naturally agreeing to the merits of the model – at least in principle...

  5. Compromised Photosynthetic Electron Flow And H2O2 Generation Correlate with Genotype-Specific Stomatal Dysfunctions During Resistance Against Powdery Mildew In Oats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Martín

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stomatal dysfunction known as locking has been linked to the elicitation of a hypersensitive response (HR following attack of fungal pathogens in cereals. We here assess how spatial and temporal patterns of different resistance mechanisms, such as HR and penetration resistance influence stomatal and photosynthetic parameters in oat (Avena sativa and the possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in the dysfunctions observed. Four oat cultivars with differential resistance responses (i.e. penetration resistance, early and late HR to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae, Bga were used. Results demonstrated that stomatal dysfunctions were genotype but not response-type dependent since genotypes with similar resistance responses when assessed histologically showed very different locking patterns. Maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm of photosystem II were compromised in most Bga–oat interactions and photoinhibition increased. However, the extent of the photosynthetic alterations was not directly related to the extent of HR. H2O2 generation is triggered during the execution of resistance responses and can influence stomatal function. Artificially increasing H2O2 by exposing plants to increased light intensity further reduced Fv/Fm ratios and augmented the patterns of stomatal dysfunctions previously observed. The latter results suggest that the observed dysfunctions and hence a cost of resistance may be linked with oxidative stress occurring during defence induced photosynthetic disruption.

  6. Transient heat stress compromises the resistance of wheat (Poales: Poaceae) seedlings to Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Yaleaka; Moch, John; Underwood, Joshua; Kharabsheh, Hamzah; Quesenberry, Amy; Miyagi, Risa; Thomas, Carolyn; Boney, Melanie; Woods, Samantha; Chen, Ming-Shun; Zhu, Lieceng

    2014-02-01

    Heat stress exerts a profound impact on the resistance of plants to parasites. In this research, we investigated the impact of an acute transient heat stress on the resistance of the wheat line 'Molly,' which contains the R gene H13, to an avirulent Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor (Say)) population. We found that a significant portion of Molly seedlings stressed at 40 degrees C for 6 h during or after the initial Hessian fly larval attack became susceptible to otherwise avirulent insects, whereas unstressed control plants remained 100% resistant. Specifically, 77.8, 73.3, 83.3, and 46.7% of plants heat stressed at 0, 6,12, and 24 h, respectively, after the initial larval attack became susceptible. Biochemical analysis revealed that heat stress caused a transient decrease in 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, but an increase in salicylic acid accumulation in Molly plants. The change in phytohormones after heat stress and Hessian fly infestation was not observed in 'Newton,' a near-isogenic but Hessian fly susceptible wheat line. Instead, heat stress caused a relatively prolonged reduction in palmitoleic acid. The role of phytohormones in heat-induced loss of wheat resistance was discussed.

  7. In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve

  8. Recombinations in staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements compromise the molecular detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant A Hill-Cawthorne

    Full Text Available Clinical laboratories are increasingly using molecular tests for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA screening. However, primers have to be targeted to a variable chromosomal region, the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec. We initially screened 726 MRSA isolates from a single UK hospital trust by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA, a novel, isothermal alternative to PCR. Undetected isolates were further characterised using multilocus sequence, spa typing and whole genome sequencing. 96% of our tested phenotypically MRSA isolates contained one of the six orfX-SCCmec junctions our RPA test and commercially available molecular tests target. However 30 isolates could not be detected. Sequencing of 24 of these isolates demonstrated recombinations within the SCCmec element with novel insertions that interfered with the RPA, preventing identification as MRSA. This result suggests that clinical laboratories cannot rely solely upon molecular assays to reliably detect all methicillin-resistance. The presence of significant recombinations in the SCCmec element, where the majority of assays target their primers, suggests that there will continue to be isolates that escape identification. We caution that dependence on amplification-based molecular assays will continue to result in failure to diagnose a small proportion (∼4% of MRSA isolates, unless the true level of SCCmec natural diversity is determined by whole genome sequencing of a large collection of MRSA isolates.

  9. Recombinations in staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements compromise the molecular detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    KAUST Repository

    Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.

    2014-06-27

    Clinical laboratories are increasingly using molecular tests for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening. However, primers have to be targeted to a variable chromosomal region, the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). We initially screened 726 MRSA isolates from a single UK hospital trust by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), a novel, isothermal alternative to PCR. Undetected isolates were further characterised using multilocus sequence, spa typing and whole genome sequencing. 96% of our tested phenotypically MRSA isolates contained one of the six orfX-SCCmec junctions our RPA test and commercially available molecular tests target. However 30 isolates could not be detected. Sequencing of 24 of these isolates demonstrated recombinations within the SCCmec element with novel insertions that interfered with the RPA, preventing identification as MRSA. This result suggests that clinical laboratories cannot rely solely upon molecular assays to reliably detect all methicillin-resistance. The presence of significant recombinations in the SCCmec element, where the majority of assays target their primers, suggests that there will continue to be isolates that escape identification. We caution that dependence on amplification-based molecular assays will continue to result in failure to diagnose a small proportion (?4%) of MRSA isolates, unless the true level of SCCmec natural diversity is determined by whole genome sequencing of a large collection of MRSA isolates. © 2014 Hill-Cawthorne et al.

  10. Recombinations in staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements compromise the molecular detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    KAUST Repository

    Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Hudson, Lyndsey O.; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Piepenburg, Olaf; Nair, Mridul; Dodgson, Andrew; Forrest, Matthew S.; Clark, Taane G.; Pain, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Clinical laboratories are increasingly using molecular tests for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening. However, primers have to be targeted to a variable chromosomal region, the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). We initially screened 726 MRSA isolates from a single UK hospital trust by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), a novel, isothermal alternative to PCR. Undetected isolates were further characterised using multilocus sequence, spa typing and whole genome sequencing. 96% of our tested phenotypically MRSA isolates contained one of the six orfX-SCCmec junctions our RPA test and commercially available molecular tests target. However 30 isolates could not be detected. Sequencing of 24 of these isolates demonstrated recombinations within the SCCmec element with novel insertions that interfered with the RPA, preventing identification as MRSA. This result suggests that clinical laboratories cannot rely solely upon molecular assays to reliably detect all methicillin-resistance. The presence of significant recombinations in the SCCmec element, where the majority of assays target their primers, suggests that there will continue to be isolates that escape identification. We caution that dependence on amplification-based molecular assays will continue to result in failure to diagnose a small proportion (?4%) of MRSA isolates, unless the true level of SCCmec natural diversity is determined by whole genome sequencing of a large collection of MRSA isolates. © 2014 Hill-Cawthorne et al.

  11. The WRKY57 Transcription Factor Affects the Expression of Jasmonate ZIM-Domain Genes Transcriptionally to Compromise Botrytis cinerea Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanjuan; Yu, Diqiu

    2016-08-01

    Although necrotrophic pathogens cause many devastating plant diseases, our understanding of the plant defense response to them is limited. Here, we found that loss of function of WRKY57 enhanced the resistance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) against Botrytis cinerea infection. Further investigation suggested that the negative regulation of WRKY57 against B cinerea depends on the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that WRKY57 directly binds to the promoters of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN1 (JAZ1) and JAZ5, encoding two important repressors of the JA signaling pathway, and activates their transcription. In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that WRKY57 interacts with nuclear-encoded SIGMA FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN1 (SIB1) and SIB2. Further experiments display that the same domain, the VQ motif, of SIB1 and SIB2 interact with WRKY33 and WRKY57. Moreover, transient transcriptional activity assays confirmed that WRKY57 and WRKY33 competitively regulate JAZ1 and JAZ5, SIB1 and SIB2 further enhance these competitions of WRKY57 to WRKY33. Therefore, coordinated regulation of Arabidopsis against B cinerea by transcription activators and repressors would benefit plants by allowing fine regulation of defense. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Metabolic engineering of geranic acid in maize to achieve fungal resistance is compromised by novel glycosylation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Stoopen, Geert; Yalpani, Nasser; Vervoort, Jacques; de Vos, Ric; Voster, Alessandra; Verstappen, Francel W A; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2011-07-01

    Many terpenoids are known to have antifungal properties and overexpression of these compounds in crops is a potential tool in disease control. In this study, 15 different mono- and sesquiterpenoids were tested in vitro against two major pathogenic fungi of maize (Zea mays), Colletotrichum graminicola and Fusarium graminearum. Among all tested terpenoids, geranic acid showed very strong inhibitory activity against both fungi (MICLippia dulcis under the control of a ubiquitin promoter. The volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of leaves from transgenic and control lines were compared. The headspaces collected from intact seedlings of transgenic and control plants were not significantly different, although detached leaves of transgenic plants emitted 5-fold more geranyl acetate compared to control plants. Non-targeted LC-MS profiling and LC-MS-MS identification of extracts from maize leaves revealed that the major significantly different non-volatile compounds were 2 geranic acid derivatives, a geraniol dihexose and 4 different types of hydroxyl-geranic acid-hexoses. A geranic acid glycoside was the most abundant, and identified by NMR as geranoyl-6-O-malonyl-β-d-glucopyranoside with an average concentration of 45μM. Fungal bioassays with C. graminicola and F. graminearum did not reveal an effect of these changes in secondary metabolite composition on plant resistance to either fungus. The results demonstrate that metabolic engineering of geraniol into geranic acid can rely on the existing default pathway, but branching glycosylation pathways must be controlled to achieve accumulation of the aglycones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Democratic Respect and Compromise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2017-01-01

    Compromise has attained renewed interest among political theorists writing on pluralism and disagreement. It is controversial, however, whether compromise is a mere pragmatic necessity or if it has non-instrumental value. This article argues that the reasons for compromise are inherent in the dem......Compromise has attained renewed interest among political theorists writing on pluralism and disagreement. It is controversial, however, whether compromise is a mere pragmatic necessity or if it has non-instrumental value. This article argues that the reasons for compromise are inherent...

  14. Compromise and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature, justifi...... in compromise are more stringent than those for being tolerated. Still, the limits of compromise cannot be drawn to narrowly if it is to remain its value as a form of agreement that respects and embodies the differences of opinion in society.......Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature......, justification, and limits of compromise if we see it merely as a matter of toleration. While toleration is mainly a matter of accepting citizens' equal right to co-existence as subjects to law, political compromise includes the parties in making law – it makes them co-authors of law. Toleration entails...

  15. The BCR-ABLT315I mutation compromises survival in chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia patients resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, in a matched pair analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolini, Franck E; Ibrahim, Amr R; Soverini, Simona

    2013-01-01

    The BCR-ABL T315I mutation confers resistance to currently licensed tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myelogenous leukemia. However, the impact of this mutation on survival in early stages of disease, in chronic phase, has never been detailed. Using matched pair analysis, a cohort of 64...... patients with chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia harboring a T315I mutation and resistant to imatinib mesylate was compared to a similar cohort of 53 chronic phase patients resistant to imatinib, but with no detectable T315I mutation, in the pre-ponatinib era. These patients were matched according...... to age at diagnosis, interval between disease diagnosis and start of imatinib treatment, and duration of imatinib therapy. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses demonstrated the significant negative impact of the presence of the T315I mutation on overall survival (since imatinib-resistance: 48.4 months for T315...

  16. Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) could compromise the sustainability of malaria vector control strategies in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnankiné, Olivier; Bassolé, Imael H N; Chandre, Fabrice; Glitho, Isabelle; Akogbeto, Martin; Dabiré, Roch K; Martin, Thibaud

    2013-10-01

    Insecticides from the organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PY) chemical families, have respectively, been in use for 50 and 30 years in West Africa, mainly against agricultural pests, but also against vectors of human disease. The selection pressure, with practically the same molecules year after year (mainly on cotton), has caused insecticide resistance in pest populations such as Bemisia tabaci, vector of harmful phytoviruses on vegetables. The evolution toward insecticide resistance in malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae sensus lato (s.l.) is probably related to the current use of these insecticides in agriculture. Thus, successful pest and vector control in West Africa requires an investigation of insect susceptibility, in relation to the identification of species and sub species, such as molecular forms or biotypes. Identification of knock down resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase gene (Ace1) mutations modifying insecticide targets in individual insects and measure of enzymes activity typically involved in insecticide metabolism (oxidase, esterase and glutathion-S-transferase) are indispensable in understanding the mechanisms of resistance. Insecticide resistance is a good example in which genotype-phenotype links have been made successfully. Insecticides used in agriculture continue to select new resistant populations of B. tabaci that could be from different biotype vectors of plant viruses. As well, the evolution of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae threatens the management of malaria vectors in West Africa. It raises the question of priority in the use of insecticides in health and/or agriculture, and more generally, the question of sustainability of crop protection and vector control strategies in the region. Here, we review the susceptibility tests, biochemical and molecular assays data for B. tabaci, a major pest in cotton and vegetable crops, and An. gambiae, main vector of malaria. The data reviewed was collected in Benin and Burkina

  17. [Tuberculosis in compromised hosts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Recent development of tuberculosis in Japan tends to converge on a specific high risk group. The proportion of tuberculosis developing particularly from the compromised hosts in the high risk group is especially high. At this symposium, therefore, we took up diabetes mellitus, gastrectomy, dialysis, AIDS and the elderly for discussion. Many new findings and useful reports for practical medical treatment are submitted; why these compromised hosts are predisposed to tuberculosis, tuberculosis diagnostic and remedial notes of those compromised hosts etc. It is an important question for the future to study how to prevent tuberculosis from these compromised hosts. 1. Tuberculosis in diabetes mellitus: aggravation and its immunological mechanism: Kazuyoshi KAWAKAMI (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus). It has been well documented that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major aggravating factor in tuberculosis. The onset of this disease is more frequent in DM patients than in individuals with any underlying diseases. However, the precise mechanism of this finding remains to be fully understood. Earlier studies reported that the migration, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of neutrophils are all impaired in DM patients, which is related to their reduced host defense to infection with extracellular bacteria, such as S. aureus and E. colli. Host defense to mycobacterial infection is largely mediated by cellular immunity, and Th1-related cytokines, such as IFN-gamma and IL-12, play a central role in this response. It is reported that serum level of these cytokines and their production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are reduced in tuberculosis patients with DM, and this is supposed to be involved in the high incidence of tuberculosis in DM. Our study observed similar findings and furthermore indicated that IFN-gamma and IL-12 production by BCG-stimulated PBMC was lower

  18. Energy policy - compromise or change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewitz, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Is there a contrast between compromise and change? In the author's opinion, there is not. Society changes. Sometimes, change is brought about more easily on the basis of a compromise. A pluralistic society needs compromises in order to participate in change with convictions of its own. To reach a compromise including a large part of one's conviction, the public must be convinced. This is achieved most easily by somebody who is well informed, educated, and trained. In this respect, not only specialized knowledge counts, but also the ability to handle the language and to know how to speak, and the behavior in public. Expert knowledge is acquired at the university, in the execution of one's profession, and in advanced training. Knowledge may be enhanced, for instance, by dealing with the arguments used by the other side. This will help in arguing one's own point more effectively. Individual talks, and events at which information and knowledge are disseminated, enable persons to assume an opinion based on their comprehension. Many uniform opinions create a majority opinion. (orig.) [de

  19. Flow-based Compromise Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Brute-force attacks are omnipresent and manyfold on the Internet, and aim at compromising user accounts by issuing large numbers of authentication attempts on applications and daemons. Widespread targets of such attacks are Secure SHell (SSH) and Web applications, for example. The impact of

  20. Compromise and Disagreement in Comtemporary Political Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.; Scavenius, Theresa

    Compromise and Disagreement in Contemporary Political Theory provides a critical discussion of when and to what extent compromise is the best response to pluralism and disagreement in democratic decision-making and beyond. Organized into four parts, the book begins by discussing the justification...... and limits of compromise. Part II discusses the practice of compromise and considers the ethics required for compromise as well as the institutions that facilitate compromise. Part III focuses on pluralism and connects the topic of compromise to current discussions in political theory on public reason...

  1. COMPROMISE EFFECT ON CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Surkamta Eric Santosa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The way consumers think about the products they will buy determines their buying behavior. The decision to buy a particular product is obviously in accordance with the buyer’s attitude. The buyers will also feel more comfortable if their behavior meets with the approval and expectations of the people close to them. While the development of a certain attitude has no effect on subjective judgment, the effect of compromise is likely to make a contribution to its development. Since it is still unclear, this study’s main purposed is to clarify this. In addition, while an attitude is theorized as being a predictor of behavior, through behavioral intention, the study’s secondary purpose is to boost the earlier findings. Likewise, in accordance with the theory of planned behavior, the study will also examine the other predictors of behavioral intention, in relation to the behavioral intention itself. A sample consisting of a 100 respondents was compiled by using the convenience and judgment technique. The data were analyzed using Amos 16.0 and SPSS 16.0. As expected, the compromise effect had a significant influence on whether the customers’ attitude or the subjective norm was the main determinant. Likewise, the customers’ attitude, the subjective norm and perceived behavioral control were confirmed as good predictors of customers’ behavioral intentions.

  2. Nanocomposites: The End of Compromise

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Damme, H.

    Increase the Young's modulus of a glassy resin by a factor of ten without making it heavier, for a new ski design, for example? Triple the rupture strength of an elastomer? Improve the thermal behaviour of an object made from a thermoplastic polymer by 100 degrees, to make a car dashboard, for example, or a part for the engine? Double the fire resistance time for the sheath around an electricity cable? Reduce the oxygen permeability of a film by a factor of ten, to make long conservation food packaging? All these things have been made possible by incorporating a few percent of inorganic nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. Figures 14.1 and 14.2 illustrate two such nanocomposites: the first was obtained by incorporating lamellar clay particles, and the second by incorporating fibrous nanoparticles, in fact, carbon nanotubes.

  3. Career Compromises: Framings and Their Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, Itamar; Houminer, Daphna; Aviram, Tamar

    1998-01-01

    Career compromise was investigated in three framings (alternatives, aspect importance, within-aspect preference). Young adults and school counselors rated hypothetical stories. Results of four studies with different designs (Average N=106) supported the hypothesis. The alternatives framing was associated with greater compromise and decision…

  4. Compromised Agency: The Case of BabyLegs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Liboiron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of agency is ubiquitous in STS, particularly regarding cases of alternative ways of knowing and doing science such as civic, citizen, and feminist sciences, among others. Yet the focus on agency often glosses over the constraints placed on agents, particularly within asymmetrical power relations. This article follows the case of BabyLegs, a do-it-yourself monitoring tool for marine microplastic pollution, and the attempt to keep the technology open source within an intellectual property (IP system set up to privatize it. The tactics used to design BabyLegs as a feminine, silly, doll-tool to discredit the device in the eyes of an IP system that valued traditional gender roles lead to the eventual success of keeping the device open source. Yet, those same tactics also reinforced and reproduced the structures of power and essentialism they were designed to resist. I characterize this technological ambivalence as compromise, and argue that all agency exercised within asymmetrical power relations is compromised. This is not to say resistance is futile, but that agency is never pure, and this recognition lets us be more intentional in how we might compromise as practitioners of diverse scientific knowledges.

  5. Impending Airway Compromise due to Cystic Hygroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Shavit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 3-month-old infant, who arrived in the pediatric emergency department (ED with a cervical cystic hygroma causing an impending compromise of the airway. We recognize that such a lesion can rapidly progress, and the judicious use of imaging in the ED may help to avoid airway compromise and possibly fatal complications. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:368–369.

  6. Dental management of medically compromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherly Horax

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available These days, treatment in dentistry is no longer for patient without complication, but also for patient with bad medical record. With correct treatment management in handling medical condition of patient, not only for dental treatment but also their systematic disease, all the dental staff also can improve for the better quality of life of the patient. Patient with medical compromised start to realize that  keeping good oral hygiene is so important for their lives, therefore dental staff need to improve their science and technology and also for facing patient with medical compromised. This article will discuss and suggest various treatment consideration and protocol for the patient of with medical compromised.

  7. Strained Compromises? Danish Flexicurity During Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne

    2011-01-01

    The Danish concept of flexicurity in a ‘Golden Triangle’ of low job protection, high income security and high employment security is not only about a balance between labor market flexibility and social security. Arguably, it is also a series of more or less stable underlying compromises between...

  8. Objections to the Libertarian Stem Cell Compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter E. Block

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Block (2010 I offered a compromise between the pro choice position that fervently supports stem cell research, and the pro life philosophy which bitterly opposes it. The compromise was a contest: allow would be researchers to create as many fertilized eggs as they wished. But, also, these should be offered up to would be parents to adopt all of these “children” as they wanted. If and only if there were any unadopted fetuses remaining in the laboratories of the nation would it be licit, on libertarian grounds, for research on them to take place. In the present paper I respond to several objections to this “modest proposal.”

  9. When data representation compromise data security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Eivind Ortind; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    WHEN DATA REPRESENTATION COMPROMISE DATA SECURITY The workflow of transforming data into informative representations makes extensive usage of computers and software. Scientists have a conventional tradition for producing publications that include tables and graphs as data representations....... These representations can be used for multiple purposes such as publications in journals, teaching and conference material. But when created, stored and distributed in a digital form there is a risk of compromising data security. Data beyond the once used specifically to create the representation can be included...... on the internet over many years? A new legislation proposed in 2012 by the European Commission on protection of personal data will be implemented from 2015. The new law will impose sanction options ranging from a warning to a fine up to 100.000.000 EUR. We argue that this new law will lead to especially...

  10. Strained Compromises? Danish Flexicurity During Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lyhne Ibsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Danish concept of flexicurity in a `Golden Triangle´ of low job protection, high income security and high employment security is not only about a balance between labor market flexibility and social security. Arguably, it is also a series of more or less stable underlying compromises between social partners about the main mechanisms and aims of labor market regulation which - supposedly - should be focused on employment rather than jobs, and competition on quality rather than on labor costs. However, the `Golden Triangle´ - this article argues - seems in need of complementary concepts. The article therefore introduces, `centralized decentralization´ - a concept that directs our attention to forms of flexibility and security primarily for people in work. Most studies on Danish flexicurity have been carried out under favorable economic conditions. In light of the economic slump hitting Denmark in 2008, this article investigates if and how the recession challenged these compromises by comparing two rounds of case-based interviews in three metalworking companies in 2007 and 2009. It is shown that practice has indeed changed - albeit modestly - due to worsened economic circumstances. For example the case studies show that the hypothesized preference for external numerical flexibility is perhaps too crude as employers use different ways to restructure employment. Especially the examples of de facto concessionary bargaining to save jobs are important here - although the extent of concessions is modest. The evidence thus suggests that the `Golden Triangle´ flexicurity compromises are indeed strained by the economic cycle and that responses to impetus for restructuring are far more nuanced than sometimes portrayed. It is argues that more company studies across national labor markets and industrial relations institutions will enhance our understanding of the dynamics during times of restructuring.

  11. How moral disagreement may ground principled moral compromise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Klemens

    2018-01-01

    In an influential article, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May, 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability, there a......In an influential article, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May, 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability......, there are properly speaking no principled reasons to compromise. My aim in the article is to show how principled moral compromise in the context of moral disagreements over policy options is possible. I argue that when we disagree, principled reasons favoring compromises or compromising can assume a more significant...... part of what makes a position all things considered best, and in this way disagreement can ground moral compromise....

  12. Identifying genetic relatives without compromising privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Joo, Jong Wha J; Wadia, Akshay; Ostrovsky, Rafail; Sahai, Amit; Eskin, Eleazar

    2014-04-01

    The development of high-throughput genomic technologies has impacted many areas of genetic research. While many applications of these technologies focus on the discovery of genes involved in disease from population samples, applications of genomic technologies to an individual's genome or personal genomics have recently gained much interest. One such application is the identification of relatives from genetic data. In this application, genetic information from a set of individuals is collected in a database, and each pair of individuals is compared in order to identify genetic relatives. An inherent issue that arises in the identification of relatives is privacy. In this article, we propose a method for identifying genetic relatives without compromising privacy by taking advantage of novel cryptographic techniques customized for secure and private comparison of genetic information. We demonstrate the utility of these techniques by allowing a pair of individuals to discover whether or not they are related without compromising their genetic information or revealing it to a third party. The idea is that individuals only share enough special-purpose cryptographically protected information with each other to identify whether or not they are relatives, but not enough to expose any information about their genomes. We show in HapMap and 1000 Genomes data that our method can recover first- and second-order genetic relationships and, through simulations, show that our method can identify relationships as distant as third cousins while preserving privacy.

  13. No-compromise reptation quantum Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, W K; Farrar, Thomas J; Rothstein, Stuart M

    2007-01-01

    Since its publication, the reptation quantum Monte Carlo algorithm of Baroni and Moroni (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4745) has been applied to several important problems in physics, but its mathematical foundations are not well understood. We show that their algorithm is not of typical Metropolis-Hastings type, and we specify conditions required for the generated Markov chain to be stationary and to converge to the intended distribution. The time-step bias may add up, and in many applications it is only the middle of a reptile that is the most important. Therefore, we propose an alternative, 'no-compromise reptation quantum Monte Carlo' to stabilize the middle of the reptile. (fast track communication)

  14. Morgellons: contested illness, diagnostic compromise and medicalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The case of Morgellons illustrates how the emergence of a new medically contested illness intersected with and impacted on the diagnostic processes of an existing uncontested psychiatric condition, Delusional Parasitosis (DP). More specifically, the sociopolitical processes at play in the contested illness, Morgellons, dubiously reflect patient empowerment, as well the resilience and power of medical jurisdiction. This research offers insights into the contested illness and medicalisation literatures, and aims to bridge these two approaches towards the relationship between patient empowerment and medical authority, which I do through the notion of doctor-patient compromise. The data for this research come from a comprehensive qualitative analysis of Morgellons discourse through four key sources: the pro-Morgellons website Morgellons.org; the anti-Morgellons website Morgellonswatch.com; the popular media's portrayal of Morgellons; and the DP and Morgellons articles published in peer-reviewed medical journals, as made available on PubMed.

  15. Iran. Nuclear crisis: the continuous compromise?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherief, Hamza

    2016-01-01

    The author comments and discusses the content and implications of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action which has been adopted in July 2015 by the Republic of Iran and the members of the E3/EU+3 group. According to this text, a flexible normative and institutional framework is defined, according to which negotiation must prevail on the reinstatement of economic sanctions. While significantly lowering objectives related to non proliferation, this plan aims (through various arrangements which are discussed by the author) at maintaining Iran under the threshold of nuclear power. The author also comments various aspects related to the implementation of this Plan of Action, and outlines that they rely on the search for a continuous compromise: negotiations and involvement of international bodies are foreseen before application of sanctions

  16. 6 CFR 13.46 - Compromise or settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compromise or settlement. 13.46 Section 13.46 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.46 Compromise or settlement. (a) Parties may Make offers of compromise or settlement at any time...

  17. Conflicting perspectives compromising discussions on cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, J

    2010-09-01

    Healthcare professionals, patients and their relatives are expected to discuss resuscitation together. This study aims to identify the differences in the knowledge base and understanding of these parties. Questionnaires examining knowledge and opinion on resuscitation matters were completed during interviews of randomly selected doctors, nurses and the general public. 70% doctors, 24% nurses and 0% of a public group correctly estimated survival to discharge following in-hospital resuscitation attempts. Deficiencies were identified in doctor and nurse knowledge of ethics governing resuscitation decisions. Public opinion often conflicts with ethical guidelines. Public understanding of the nature of cardiopulmonary arrests and resuscitation attempts; and of the implications of a \\'Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)\\' order is poor. Television medical dramas are the primary source of resuscitation knowledge. Deficiencies in healthcare professionals\\' knowledge of resuscitation ethics and outcomes may compromise resuscitation decisions. Educational initiatives to address deficiencies are necessary. Parties involved in discussion on resuscitation do not share the same knowledge base reducing the likelihood of meaningful discussion. Public misapprehensions surrounding resuscitation must be identified and corrected during discussion.

  18. Orthodontic management of a periodontally compromised dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant K Zaveri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malocclusion superimposed with severe periodontitis may present a great challenge to clinicians while providing orthodontic treatment due the episodic and site-specific nature of the disease with risk of rapid tissue breakdown. However, orthodontic treatment in such situation may contribute significantly to the overall rehabilitation both functionally and esthetically. In this article, a case report outlines a combined periodontic-orthodontic management of compromised dentition. A 37-year-old female patient with significant medical history was treated for Class II Division 1 type of malocclusion associated with spaced upper and lower anterior teeth, deep overbite, and increased overjet, superimposed with chronic generalized periodontitis and bone loss. Treatment was completed using temporary anchorage devices assisted strategically applied force and modified tandem retraction biomechanics amidst management of acute inflammatory episodes during and mucogingival complication after treatment. Affected areas healed very well after post-orthodontic periodontal treatment with minimal pocket depth, and bleeding on probing, and a healthy zone of attached gingiva at the follow up visits. The orthodontic results lead to improvement in patient's facial profile, lip posture, and correction of protrusion which addressed her main concern. One year follow-up shows good orthodontic and periodontic stability. The report highlights the importance of identifying “at risk” individuals and continuous monitoring of disease status during treatment. Despite all precautionary measures, a flare-up during the treatment can be anticipated.

  19. Compromise in cooperative game and the VIKOR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opricović Serafim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Five approaches in conflict resolution are distinguished, based on cooperativeness and aggressiveness in resolving conflict. Compromise based on cooperativeness is emphasized here as a solution in conflict resolution. Cooperative game theory oriented towards aiding the conflict resolution is considered and the compromise value for TU(transferable utility-game is presented. The method VIKOR could be applied to determine compromise solution of a multicriteria decision making problem with noncommensurable and conflicting criteria. Compromise is considered as an intermediate state between conflicting objectives or criteria reached by mutual concession. The applicability of the cooperative game theory and the VIKOR method for conflict resolution is illustrated.

  20. 41 CFR 105-55.019 - Compromise of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and a recommendation for the acceptance of the compromise offer. Justice Department approval is not... exercise the authorities in this section. (b) Unless otherwise provided by law, when the principal balance... Department of Justice. GSA will evaluate the compromise offer, using the factors set forth in § 105-55.020...

  1. 22 CFR 213.25 - Standards for compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... proceedings. In evaluating the acceptability of the offer, the CFO may consider, among other factors, the... applicable exemptions available to the debtor under State and Federal law in determining the Government's ability to enforce collection. (b) USAID may compromise a claim, or recommend acceptance of a compromise...

  2. 20 CFR 255.18 - Compromise of overpayments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compromise of overpayments. 255.18 Section 255.18 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT... standards which the Board applies in exercising its authority under 31 U.S.C. 3711 to compromise an...

  3. 32 CFR 310.50 - Lost, stolen, or compromised information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Official for Privacy within 24 hours of discovering that a breach of personally identifiable information... Privacy Office of the breach within 48 hours upon being notified that a loss, theft, or compromise has... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.50 Lost, stolen, or compromised...

  4. 16 CFR 1.96 - Compromise of penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compromise of penalty. 1.96 Section 1.96 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL... may compromise any penalty or proposed penalty at any time, with leave of court when necessary, taking...

  5. Compromised data from social media to big data

    CERN Document Server

    Redden, Joanna; Langlois, Ganaele

    2015-01-01

    There has been a data rush in the past decade brought about by online communication and, in particular, social media (Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, among others), which promises a new age of digital enlightenment. But social data is compromised: it is being seized by specific economic interests, it leads to a fundamental shift in the relationship between research and the public good, and it fosters new forms of control and surveillance. Compromised Data: From Social Media to Big Data explores how we perform critical research within a compromised social data framework. The expert, international l

  6. The role of postoperative hematoma on free flap compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faisal I; Gerecci, Deniz; Gonzalez, Javier D; Peck, Jessica J; Wax, Mark K

    2015-08-01

    Hematomas may develop in the postoperative setting after free tissue transfer. When hematomas occur, they can exert pressure on surrounding tissues. Their effect on the vascular pedicle of a free flap is unknown. We describe our incidence of hematoma in free flaps and outcomes when the flap is compromised. Retrospective chart review of 1,883 free flaps performed between July 1998 and June 2014 at a tertiary referral center. Patients with free flap compromise due to hematoma were identified. Etiology, demographic data, and outcomes were evaluated. Eighty-eight (4.7%) patients developed hematomas. Twenty (22.7%) of those had flap compromise. Twelve compromises (60%) showed evidence of pedicle thrombosis. The salvage rate was 75% versus 54% in 79 flaps with compromise from other causes (P = .12). Mean time to detection of the hematoma was 35.3 hours in salvaged flaps compared to 91.6 hours in unsalvageable flaps (P = .057). Time to operating room (OR) from detection was 2.8 hours in salvageable flaps compared to 12.4 hours in nonsalvageable flaps (P = .053). The salvage rate for flaps that returned to the OR in hematomas developed rarely. When they did, 23% went on to develop flap compromise. Prompt recognition and re-exploration allowed for a high salvage rate. Vessel thrombosis predicted inability to salvage the flap. 4 © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Kyphoplasty for osteoporotic fractures with spinal canal compromise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Minfeng; Yang Huilin; Zou Jun; Wang Genlin; Mei Xin; Zhou Feng; Chen Liang; Jiang Weimin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility and clinical outcome of kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic fractures with canal compromise. Methods: A total of 16 patients with osteoporotic fractures with canal compromise without neurological deficit were attempted to be treated by kyphoplasty. During kyphoplasty, modified techniques including staged bone cement injection and dynamic fluoroscopic monitoring were used. Pain was measured using the self-reporting Visual Analogue pain Scale (VAS) preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. Disability was measured using the Oswestry Disability questionnaire (ODI) preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. The height of the compromised vertebral body, the kyphotic angle and the spinal canal compromise were measured preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. Results: Operations were completed smoothly, with the exception of one patient with less cement leakage but without clinical symptom occurred. Relief of pain was achieved after kyphoplasty. The mean VAS score of these patients decreased from 8.1 ± 1.2 pre-operatively to 2.7 ± 0.6 post-operatively (P 0.05). In the final follow-up, the spinal canal compromise was (14.4 ± 3.1)%. Conclusion: Kyphoplasty is a relatively safe and effective method for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures with canal compromise without neurological deficit. (authors)

  8. Effect of reinforcement with resin composite on fracture strength of structurally compromised roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yuji; Komada, Wataru; Yoshida, Keiichi; Otake, Shiho; Okada, Daizo; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2009-09-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the fracture resistance of structurally compromised roots restored with four different post and core systems. Thirty-two bovine roots were uniformly shaped to simulate human mandibular premolar roots. The roots were divided into four groups based on the type of restoration: cemented cast post and core (Group MC), resin composite build-up (Group CR), resin composite and prefabricated glass fiber post build-up (Group FRC), and thick-layer dual-cured resin composite-reinforced small-diameter tapered cast post and core (Group CRM). After a static loading test, the failure mode and fracture resistance were recorded. Group CRM (719.38+/-196.73 N) exhibited a significantly high fracture resistance compared with the other groups (Group MC: 429.56+/-82.43 N; Group CR: 349.56+/-66.21 N; Group FRC: 398.94+/-112.71 N; pCRM exhibited better mechanical properties for structurally compromised roots with no ferrules, although all types of restorations showed non-restorable fracture modes.

  9. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  10. Compromise decision support problems for hierarchical design involving uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadde, S.; Allen, J. K.; Mistree, F.

    1994-08-01

    In this paper an extension to the traditional compromise Decision Support Problem (DSP) formulation is presented. Bayesian statistics is used in the formulation to model uncertainties associated with the information being used. In an earlier paper a compromise DSP that accounts for uncertainty using fuzzy set theory was introduced. The Bayesian Decision Support Problem is described in this paper. The method for hierarchical design is demonstrated by using this formulation to design a portal frame. The results are discussed and comparisons are made with those obtained using the fuzzy DSP. Finally, the efficacy of incorporating Bayesian statistics into the traditional compromise DSP formulation is discussed and some pending research issues are described. Our emphasis in this paper is on the method rather than the results per se.

  11. Physically Compromised and Physically Talented Children in Northeastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planinšec Jurij

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to determine the share of physically compromised and physically talented children in northeastern Slovenia. The sample comprised 621 children aged nine to eleven years, among which there were 316 girls (M=10; SD=0.8 and 305 boys (M=10; SD=0.81. In order to assess their motor skills, seven different tests were used, mostly from Eurofit test battery, which covered explosive power, repetitive power balance, eye–hand coordination, speed of simple movements, whole body coordination, and endurance. The assessment was made for each physical fitness test separately. The cut-off points for determination of physically compromised and physically talented children were set at -1SD and +1SD, respectively. The results of all physical fitness tests showed that the share of physically compromised children exceeded ten percent for both genders. The largest number of boys and girls were physically compromised with regard to endurance and balance, respectively. On the other hand, boys proved to be most physically talented with regard to endurance, and girls with regard to explosive power. Gender differences were most obvious with regard to general endurance, as 21 per cent of the boys were physically compromised as opposed to 13 per cent of the girls. As for physical talent, we observed less gender-related differences. The results indicate increasing differences in physical fitness among children from northeastern Slovenia. The implementation of curricular and extracurricular sports activities should aim at reducing the number of physically compromised children. On the other hand, it would make sense to encourage physically talented children to get involved in organized forms of exercise.

  12. Roles of Melatonin in Fetal Programming in Compromised Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chieh; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Li-Tung

    2013-01-01

    Compromised pregnancies such as those associated with gestational diabetes mellitus, intrauterine growth retardation, preeclampsia, maternal undernutrition, and maternal stress may negatively affect fetal development. Such pregnancies may induce oxidative stress to the fetus and alter fetal development through the epigenetic process that may affect development at a later stage. Melatonin is an oxidant scavenger that reverses oxidative stress during the prenatal period. Moreover, the role of melatonin in epigenetic modifications in the field of developmental programming has been studied extensively. Here, we describe the physiological function of melatonin in pregnancy and discuss the roles of melatonin in fetal programming in compromised pregnancies, focusing on its involvement in redox and epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:23466884

  13. Fuzzy compromise: An effective way to solve hierarchical design problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. K.; Krishnamachari, R. S.; Masetta, J.; Pearce, D.; Rigby, D.; Mistree, F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for modeling design problems using a compromise decision support problem (DSP) incorporating the principles embodied in fuzzy set theory. Specifically, the fuzzy compromise decision support problem is used to study hierarchical design problems. This approach has the advantage that although the system modeled has an element of uncertainty associated with it, the solution obtained is crisp and precise. The efficacy of incorporating fuzzy sets into the solution process is discussed in the context of results obtained for a portal frame.

  14. MUTUAL CONCESSIONS - SPECIFIC ELEMENT OF THE COMPROMISE/TRANSACTION CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta-Bianca Spîrchez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the usefulness and practical importance of the compromise contract conclusion and of the amicably dispute resolution, within the business world, we aim to analyze, in what follows, the concrete means by which these kind of settlement are achieved. Two questions become legitimate in the context of concerns about mutual concessions which the parties make in a compromise contract. These questions are the following: “What are the mutual concessions? Do mutual concessions mean equivalent concessions?” and “How mutual concessions are required to complete a valid settlement? Is the requirement of mutual concessions grounded?”

  15. Tax Administration: IRS Should Evaluate the Changes to Its Offer in Compromise Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...) Offer in Compromise (OIC) Program. An offer in compromise is an agreement between a taxpayer and the IRS to settle or compromise the taxpayer's tax liability for less than the full amount owed...

  16. 47 CFR 1.1915 - Exploration of compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... justification of the offer and addressing the bases for compromise at 31 CFR 902.2. Debtors will provide full.... Unless otherwise provided by law, when the principal balance of a debt, exclusive of interest, penalties... evaluate an offer, using the factors set forth in 31 CFR 902.2 and, as appropriate, refer the offer with...

  17. Pulmonary, neurological and hepatic compromise in paragonimiasis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uriza Carrasco, Alfonso Jose; Cuervo Valencia, Catalina; Valencia M, Andres Mauricio; Echeverri Toro, Lina Maria

    2011-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a parasitic infectious disease, frequently with pulmonary abnormalities, although erratic parasite migration can compromise other organs. this disease is endemic in areas of southeast Asia, but it has been described in other tropical and subtropical regions. In this article, we report a case of indigenous patient with pulmonary abnormalities by Paragonimiasis, neurologic and hepatic abnormalities too.

  18. Adolescent Health-Compromising Behaviors: Motivating School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Liza; Scherer, David G.; Lee, William

    2000-01-01

    Investigated middle and high school counselors' perceptions of adolescent health-compromising behaviors and motivations to intervene. Data from a survey based on protection motivation theory showed differences in counselors' perceptions of the severity of risk-taking behaviors. Perceptions were highly correlated with intentions to seek out…

  19. Secretion of salivary statherin is compromised in uncontrolled diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Izumi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and general significance: The results show that synthesis and secretion of statherin is reduced in diabetics and this reduction is salivary gland specific. As compromised salivary statherin secretion leads to increased oral health risk, this study indicates that routine oral health assessment of these patients is warranted.

  20. Whatever It Takes: Health Compromising Behaviors in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Jennifer J.; Krane, Vikki

    2005-01-01

    The power and performance model of sport stresses a sport ethic of doing "whatever it takes" to win (Coakley, 2004). Uncritical acceptance of this model may lead to various health-compromising behaviors. Employing achievement goal theory, we examine why female athletes may adopt the power and performance approach. An ego motivational climate and a…

  1. 14 CFR 1261.414 - Compromise of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... potential income; (3) Inheritance prospects; (4) The possibility that assets have been concealed or... compromised. The practical benefits of vigorous collection of a small claim may include a demonstration to... requiring a waiver of the tax-loss-carry-back rights of the debtor. (i) Joint and several liability. When...

  2. The medically compromised patient: Are dental implants a feasible option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; Spijkervet, Fkl; Raghoebar, G M

    2018-03-01

    In healthy subjects, dental implants have evolved to be a common therapy to solve problems related to stability and retention of dentures as well as to replace failing teeth. Although dental implants are applied in medically compromised patients, it is often not well known whether this therapy is also feasible in these patients, whether the risk of implant failure and developing peri-implantitis is increased, and what specific preventive measures, if any, have to be taken when applying dental implants in these patients. Generally speaking, as was the conclusion by the leading review of Diz, Scully, and Sanz on placement of dental implants in medically compromised patients (J Dent, 41, 2013, 195), in a few disorders implant survival may be lower, and the risk of a compromised peri-implant health and its related complications be greater, but the degree of systemic disease control outweighs the nature of the disorder rather than the risk accompanying dental implant treatment. So, as dental implant treatment is accompanied by significant functional benefits and improved oral health-related quality of life, dental implant therapy is a feasible treatment in almost any medically compromised patient when the required preventive measures are taken and follow-up care is at a high level. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 45 CFR 1177.12 - Compromise, suspension and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compromise, suspension and termination. 1177.12 Section 1177.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON...) debts arising from GAO audit exceptions. ...

  4. The compromised gut in the neonate : Diagnostic and clinical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease predominantly occurring in preterm infants, causing significant patient morbidity and mortality. It is characterized by loss of bowel wall integrity due to ischemia (lack of oxygen due to a compromised blood flow) and

  5. Integer goal programming approach for finding a compromise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In second model the cost and time spent on repairing the components are considered as two different objectives. Selective maintenance operation is used to select the repairable components and a multi-objective goal programming algorithm is proposed to obtain compromise selection of repairable components for the two ...

  6. 31 CFR 902.2 - Bases for compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bases for compromise. 902.2 Section 902.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FEDERAL CLAIMS... necessary to further an enforcement principle, such as the Government's willingness to pursue aggressively...

  7. Vatican is lone opponent of world conference's compromises on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-07

    Three years in the making, the draft program of action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development sets nonbinding policy guidelines to contain the world's population at 7.27 billion in 2015. Although the Vatican was pleased to see Pakistan put forward a compromise formula developed to appease Catholic and Muslim objectors of abortion, the Church was unprepared to accept the compromise immediately and requested further discussion. The Vatican's rejection drew a strong chorus of vocal disapproval from other conference delegates. Even Iran accepted the draft as a "perfect text," while Sweden grudgingly accepted it as a "rock-bottom compromise." With no Catholic countries objecting to the compromise, the Vatican stood alone in its refusal to compromise with the rest of the world's leaders and peoples. Germany, speaking for the European Union, warned that enough concessions had already been made. The rationale for Vatican opposition was unclear since the section explicitly rejects abortion as a means of family planning and urges countries to minimize both the incidence of unsafe abortion and abortion overall by improving family planning. Prevention of unwanted pregnancies must be given highest priority and women should have ready access to compassionate counselling, with abortion never promoted as a means of family planning. Moreover, there is no longer a reference to sexual health education, a plea to governments to review their laws and policies on abortion, and a call to consider women's health rather than relying upon criminal codes and punitive measures. Participants said the Vatican objected to a phrase stating that abortions, where legal, should be safe, while the Church representative argued that any suggestion that abortion is safe contradicts church doctrine on the sanctity of life.

  8. Securing Single Points of Compromise (SPoC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belangia, David Warren [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-25

    Securing the Single Points of Compromise that provide central services to the institution’s environment is paramount to success when trying to protect the business. (Fisk, 2014) Time Based Security mandates protection (erecting and ensuring effective controls) that last longer than the time to detect and react to a compromise. When enterprise protections fail, providing additional layered controls for these central services provides more time to detect and react. While guidance is readily available for securing the individual critical asset, protecting these assets as a group is not often discussed. Using best business practices to protect these resources as individual assets while leveraging holistic defenses for the group increases the opportunity to maximize protection time, allowing detection and reaction time for the SPoCs that is commensurate with the inherent risk of these centralized services.

  9. Roles of Melatonin in Fetal Programming in Compromised Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chieh Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Compromised pregnancies such as those associated with gestational diabetes mellitus, intrauterine growth retardation, preeclampsia, maternal undernutrition, and maternal stress may negatively affect fetal development. Such pregnancies may induce oxidative stress to the fetus and alter fetal development through the epigenetic process that may affect development at a later stage. Melatonin is an oxidant scavenger that reverses oxidative stress during the prenatal period. Moreover, the role of melatonin in epigenetic modifications in the field of developmental programming has been studied extensively. Here, we describe the physiological function of melatonin in pregnancy and discuss the roles of melatonin in fetal programming in compromised pregnancies, focusing on its involvement in redox and epigenetic mechanisms.

  10. Creating clones, kids & chimera: liberal democratic compromise at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nathan A

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this article is to find middle ground between the supporters and opponents of biotechnology by perpetuating the existing legal compromise pertaining to the complete range of health and welfare doctrines relevant to the biotechnological industry. The author aspires neither to add to nor detract from this liberal democratic consensus, but to preserve its constitutive balance between positivism and natural law and over-regulation and under-regulation in the hopes of stabilizing new political fault lines developing around the few biotechnological innovations already grabbing headlines. The most feasible solution is to extend the existing liberal democratic compromise with respect to equal protection, reproductive rights, the First Amendment, human subject experimentation, patent law, and parental rights. This includes banning or monopolizing certain biotechnologies and extending substantive special respect to the ex vivo living human embryo. Biotechnology must not be left to regulate itself.

  11. A Compromise Programming Model for Highway Maintenance Resources Allocation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a bilevel compromise programming model for allocating resources between pavement and bridge deck maintenances. The first level of the model aims to solve the resource allocation problems for pavement management and bridge deck maintenance, without considering resource sharing between them. At the second level, the model uses the results from the first step as an input and generates the final solution to the resource-sharing problem. To solve the model, the paper applies genetic algorithms to search for the optimal solution. We use a combination of two digits to represent different maintenance types. Results of numerical examples show that the conditions of both pavements and bridge decks are improved significantly by applying compromise programming, rather than conventional methods. Resources are also utilized more efficiently when the proposed method is applied.

  12. Would Enforcing Competition Law Compromise Industry Policy Objectives?

    OpenAIRE

    Evenett, Simon J.

    2005-01-01

    One recurring concern in the debate over the efficacy of enacting competition laws in developing countries is that its enforcement may compromise important industrial policy goals. This concern has been raised in regional fora and in multilateral organizations such as the World Trade Organization, where officials have considered the pros and cons of including competition provisions in international trade agreements. However, the concern is broader and often national debates over the merits of...

  13. Diagnosis of hemodynamic compromise in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Satoshi; Sakuragi, Mitsugi; Motomiya, Mineo; Nakagawa, Tango; Mitsumori, Kenji; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Takigawa, Shugo; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Abe, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of tests for selecting patients with hemodynamic compromise, measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with 99m Tc-RBC single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in thirteen patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease, and was compared with results obtained by 133 Xe SPECT and acetazolamide (Diamox) test. All patients in our study suffered TIA, RIND, or minor completed stroke. Cerebral angiography demonstrated severe stenosis or occlusion in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery, although plain CT scan or MRI revealed no or, if any, only localized infarcted lesions. Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) was measured with 99m Tc-RBC SPECT and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with 133 Xe SPECT before and after intravenous injection of 10 - 12 mg/kg acetazolamide (Diamox). Our results suggest that the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF (mean transit time) is a more sensitive index of the cerebral perfusion reserve than the use of only rCBV or rCBF of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Also, the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF is significantly correlated (r= -0.72) with the Diamox reactivity of rCBF, which is considered to represent the cerebral vasodilatory capacity in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. Postoperative SPECT study revealed remarkable improvement of ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF and Diamox reactivity in four patients who underwent EC/IC bypass surgery to improve the hemodynamic compromise. In conclusion, our results suggest that the measurement of rCBV/rCBF with 133 Xe SPECT and 99m Tc-RBC SPECT is useful for detecting the hemodynamic compromise in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. (author)

  14. Osseous pseudo-myelomatose compromise, in leukemia chronic lymphoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Betancur, Octavio; Lopez de Goenaga, Maria Ines

    2000-01-01

    It was described a case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a 75 year old man, with pseudomyelomatosis osteolytic lesions in the skull, excluding other potential causes of osteolytic lesions in the clinical context of malignant lymphoproliferative neoplasm. The real frequency of osseous compromise in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is 10%. Lesions are defined as generalized osteoporosis and osteolysis with lacunar aspect, similar to myeloma lesions. Because histopathology in lymphoproliferative neoplasms may be similar, it might be difficult to diagnose chronic lymphocytic leukemia certainly, if the clinical manifestations are not considered. Differential diagnosis with other lymphoproliferative neoplasm is based basically in absolute lymphocytosis greater than 10 X 109/L, with lymphocytes with mature appearance

  15. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  16. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  17. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.

  18. A novel lung slice system with compromised antioxidant defenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardwick, S.J.; Adam, A.; Cohen, G.M. (Univ. of London (England)); Smith, L.L. (Imperial Chemical Industries PLC, Cheshire (England))

    1990-04-01

    In order to facilitate the study of oxidative stress in lung tissue, rat lung slices with impaired antioxidant defenses were prepared and used. Incubation of lung slices with the antineoplastic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) (100 {mu}M) in an amino acid-rich medium for 45 min produced a near-maximal (approximately 85%), irreversible inhibition of glutathione reductase, accompanied by only a modest (approximately 15%) decrease in pulmonary nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and no alteration in intracellular ATP, NADP{sup +}, and NADPH levels. The amounts of NADP(H), ATP, and NPSH were stable over a 4-hr incubation period following the removal from BCNU. The viability of the system was further evaluated by measuring the rate of evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from D-({sup 14}C(U))-glucose. The rates of evolution were almost identical in the compromised system when compared with control slices over a 4-hr time period. By using slices with compromised oxidative defenses, preliminary results have been obtained with paraquat, nitrofurantoin, and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone.

  19. Anthropogenic noise compromises antipredator behaviour in European eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stephen D; Purser, Julia; Radford, Andrew N

    2015-02-01

    Increases in noise-generating human activities since the Industrial Revolution have changed the acoustic landscape of many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Anthropogenic noise is now recognized as a major pollutant of international concern, and recent studies have demonstrated impacts on, for instance, hearing thresholds, communication, movement and foraging in a range of species. However, consequences for survival and reproductive success are difficult to ascertain. Using a series of laboratory-based experiments and an open-water test with the same methodology, we show that acoustic disturbance can compromise antipredator behaviour--which directly affects survival likelihood--and explore potential underlying mechanisms. Juvenile European eels (Anguilla anguilla) exposed to additional noise (playback of recordings of ships passing through harbours), rather than control conditions (playback of recordings from the same harbours without ships), performed less well in two simulated predation paradigms. Eels were 50% less likely and 25% slower to startle to an 'ambush predator' and were caught more than twice as quickly by a 'pursuit predator'. Furthermore, eels experiencing additional noise had diminished spatial performance and elevated ventilation and metabolic rates (indicators of stress) compared with control individuals. Our results suggest that acoustic disturbance could have important physiological and behavioural impacts on animals, compromising life-or-death responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A novel lung slice system with compromised antioxidant defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, S.J.; Adam, A.; Cohen, G.M.; Smith, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    In order to facilitate the study of oxidative stress in lung tissue, rat lung slices with impaired antioxidant defenses were prepared and used. Incubation of lung slices with the antineoplastic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) (100 μM) in an amino acid-rich medium for 45 min produced a near-maximal (approximately 85%), irreversible inhibition of glutathione reductase, accompanied by only a modest (approximately 15%) decrease in pulmonary nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and no alteration in intracellular ATP, NADP + , and NADPH levels. The amounts of NADP(H), ATP, and NPSH were stable over a 4-hr incubation period following the removal from BCNU. The viability of the system was further evaluated by measuring the rate of evolution of 14 CO 2 from D-[ 14 C(U)]-glucose. The rates of evolution were almost identical in the compromised system when compared with control slices over a 4-hr time period. By using slices with compromised oxidative defenses, preliminary results have been obtained with paraquat, nitrofurantoin, and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone

  1. Differential diagnosis of the signal-compromised lunate in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Christopoulos, G.; Coblenz, G.; Froehner, S.; Brunner, H.; Kalb, K.; Krimmer, H.; Lanz, U.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To define both the underlying pathology and diagnostic criteria in lunates presenting with conspicuous signal pattern in MRI. Materials and Methods: The retrospective evaluation of 2940 MRI examinations revealed 203 patients with signal alterations of the lunate. All MRI examinations were performed on 1.5-Tesla platforms using dedicated surface coils and an intravenous contrast agent. To establish a definitive diagnosis, a total of 252 MRI examinations (49 follow-ups), 22 CT examinations and 4 arthroscopic studies were obtained in addition to the obligatory conventional radiographs. Results: Incorporating all clinical data, radiographs and MRI examinations succeeded in assigning a diagnosis in 136 signal-compromised lunates (67.0%), whereas additional diagnostic procedures or follow-up examinations were required for the definitive diagnosis in 57 cases (33.0%). The most frequent entities were 51 cases of Kienboeck's disease (25.1%), 47 cases of ulnolunate-(triquetral) impaction syndromes (23.2%) and 44 cases of intra-osseous ganglion cysts (21.7%). Other pathologies included 23 degenerative, 19 traumatic and 10 inflammatory changes as well as 9 congenital conditions. For MRI assessment of the altered lunate, the most important parameters were location and morphology as well as involvement of the articular and osseous structures of the carpus. Conclusion: The lunate may be affected by different pathological states of the wrist. In total, only one quarter of the signal-compromised lunate represented Kienboeck's disease. (orig.)

  2. Parental care compromises feeding in the pumpkinseed ( Lepomis gibbosus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zięba, G.; Dukowska, M.; Przybylski, M.; Fox, M. G.; Smith, C.

    2018-04-01

    Providing parental care is potentially costly. Costs can arise through elevated energy expenditure or from an increased risk of mortality. A cost of parental care can also occur because a parent is compromised in their ability to forage. We used pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, a fish with an alternative male mating strategy, to test whether parental males differed in their feeding in comparison with females and cuckolder males. To address this question, we examined the stomach contents of female, cuckolder male, and parental male pumpkinseed during the breeding season over an entire diel cycle. We showed that parental males had a lower total weight of food in their stomachs in comparison with females, while cuckolder males did not. Parental males also had a lower weight and number of chironomids in their stomachs. The temporal pattern of feeding of parental males diverged from that of females, and they had a lower probability of pupal chironomids in their stomachs, which implies spatial segregation in foraging. Parental males had a greater probability of conspecific eggs in their stomachs than females, while the probability of egg cannibalism did not differ between cuckolder males and females. Overall, these finding meet predictions in accordance with an assumption that parental care and territoriality can compromise feeding.

  3. Sarcoidosis with Major Airway, Vascular and Nerve Compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sekiguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a 60-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with progressive dyspnea, cough and wheeze. A computed tomography scan of the chest showed innumerable bilateral inflammatory pulmonary nodules with bronchovascular distribution and a mediastinal and hilar infiltrative process with calcified lymphadenopathy leading to narrowing of lobar bronchi and pulmonary arteries. An echocardiogram revealed pulmonary hypertension. Bronchoscopy showed left vocal cord paralysis and significant narrowing of the bilateral bronchi with mucosal thickening and multiple nodules. Transbronchial biopsy was compatible with sarcoidosis. Despite balloon angioplasty of the left lower lobe and pulmonary artery, and medical therapy with oral corticosteroids, her symptoms did not significantly improve. To the authors’ knowledge, the present report describes the first case of pulmonary sarcoidosis resulting in major airway, vascular and nerve compromise due to compressive lymphadenopathy and suspected concurrent granulomatous infiltration. Its presentation mimicked idiopathic mediastinal fibrosis.

  4. The European directive on renewable electricity: conflicts and compromises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-01-01

    As part of its efforts to increase the use of renewable energy in Europe, a Directive regarding renewable electricity was agreed by the European Union in 2001. The purpose of this article is to examine this Directive, examining how the discussions surrounding its content unfolded. The investigation focuses upon three contentious issues that were debated during the Directive's development: the definition of 'renewable', the national targets for renewable electricity (their levels, as well as whether they should be 'binding' or 'indicative') and the questions associated with harmonisation (whether one Union-wide 'support scheme' for renewable electricity should be in place, and, if so, what it should be). During the 5 years that the Directive was negotiated, many intra-Union conflicts were eventually resolved, at least temporarily, by compromises. Nevertheless, some difficult decisions regarding the promotion of renewable electricity in the European Union still have to be taken

  5. Protecting Privacy of Shared Epidemiologic Data without Compromising Analysis Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cologne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Ensuring privacy of research subjects when epidemiologic data are shared with outside collaborators involves masking (modifying the data, but overmasking can compromise utility (analysis potential. Methods of statistical disclosure control for protecting privacy may be impractical for individual researchers involved in small-scale collaborations. Methods. We investigated a simple approach based on measures of disclosure risk and analytical utility that are straightforward for epidemiologic researchers to derive. The method is illustrated using data from the Japanese Atomic-bomb Survivor population. Results. Masking by modest rounding did not adequately enhance security but rounding to remove several digits of relative accuracy effectively reduced the risk of identification without substantially reducing utility. Grouping or adding random noise led to noticeable bias. Conclusions. When sharing epidemiologic data, it is recommended that masking be performed using rounding. Specific treatment should be determined separately in individual situations after consideration of the disclosure risks and analysis needs.

  6. Managing Campus Energy: Compromising between Rapid Needs and Environmental Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambariyanto, Ambariyanto; Utama, Yos J.; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of energy, especially electricity at Diponegoro University campus continues to increase in line with the development of the university. This increase has a direct impact on the increased costs to be paid by the university. Some of the causes of increased utilization of electrical energy is the construction of new buildings to meet the needs, increased learning activities and education, research activities in the laboratory, and various other activities. On the other hand, the increase of energy utilization is considered not good from the environment point of view, especially the utilization of electrical energy coming from non sustainable resources. Efforts to compromise on both are to develop policies in developing environmentally friendly buildings, efficiency in utilization of electrical energy, and development of sustainable energy sources.

  7. Thiamine absorption is not compromised in folate-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzem, R.L.; Clifford, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Thiamine absorption and excretion were assessed in rats with severe folate deficiency (FD) by determining the fate of oral 3 H-labeled and intravenous 14 C-labeled thiamine over a 6-h test period. Thiamine status was evaluated in these same rats by measuring transketolase activity levels of blood before (TKA) and after (TPPE) addition of thiamine pyrophosphate to the incubation mixture of the assay procedure. Two additional experiments assessed active transport of thiamine and the effect of dietary succinylsulfathiazole (SST) on TKA and TPPE in rats with moderate FD. Intestinal absorption in general and thiamine absorption in particular and thiamine status were unaltered in rats with severe FD. Inanition associated with severe FD may impair thiamine status. Thiamine absorption by active transport was not compromised in FD, and dietary succinylsulfathiazole did not affect thiamine status

  8. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  9. Addressing diversity in schools through dialogue and compromise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2018-01-01

    This article evaluates a decentralized Danish model for dealing with cultural and religious diversity at individual schools. This evaluation is based upon normative theories of toleration, recognition and domination and examines whether the model implies compromise with the (liberal) educational...... values stipulated in the national legislation. The model, reconstructed from government publications, is based on reaching accommodation through dialogue between school staff and parents/students, with the pragmatic aim of facilitating the participation of students in everyday school activities....... The model is noteworthy because it appears to break with the widespread ‘retreat from multiculturalism’ predicated on the defence of liberal values, and because properly dealing with diversity at schools is important for ensuring students’ well-being and academic success....

  10. Enhanced susceptibility to predation in corals of compromised condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan J. Bright

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine gastropod, Coralliophila abbreviata, is an obligate corallivore that causes substantial mortality in Caribbean Acropora spp. Considering the imperiled status of Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, a better understanding of ecological interactions resulting in tissue loss may enable more effective conservation strategies. We examined differences in susceptibility of A. cervicornis to C. abbreviata predation based on coral tissue condition. Coral tissue condition was a strong determinant of snail prey choice, with snails preferring A. cervicornis fragments that were diseased or mechanically damaged over healthy fragments. In addition, snails always chose fragments undergoing active predation by another snail, while showing no preference for a non-feeding snail when compared with an undisturbed prey fragment. These results indicate that the condition of A. cervicornis prey influenced foraging behavior of C. abbreviata, creating a potential feedback that may exacerbate damage from predation in coral populations compromised by other types of disturbance.

  11. Enhanced susceptibility to predation in corals of compromised condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Allan J; Cameron, Caitlin M; Miller, Margaret W

    2015-01-01

    The marine gastropod, Coralliophila abbreviata, is an obligate corallivore that causes substantial mortality in Caribbean Acropora spp. Considering the imperiled status of Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, a better understanding of ecological interactions resulting in tissue loss may enable more effective conservation strategies. We examined differences in susceptibility of A. cervicornis to C. abbreviata predation based on coral tissue condition. Coral tissue condition was a strong determinant of snail prey choice, with snails preferring A. cervicornis fragments that were diseased or mechanically damaged over healthy fragments. In addition, snails always chose fragments undergoing active predation by another snail, while showing no preference for a non-feeding snail when compared with an undisturbed prey fragment. These results indicate that the condition of A. cervicornis prey influenced foraging behavior of C. abbreviata, creating a potential feedback that may exacerbate damage from predation in coral populations compromised by other types of disturbance.

  12. Protecting Privacy of Shared Epidemiologic Data without Compromising Analysis Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cologne, J.; Nakashima, E.; Funamoto, S.; Grant, E.J.; Chen, Y.; Hiroaki Katayama, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Ensuring privacy of research subjects when epidemiologic data are shared with outside collaborators involves masking (modifying) the data, but over masking can compromise utility (analysis potential). Methods of statistical disclosure control for protecting privacy may be impractical for individual researchers involved in small-scale collaborations. Methods. We investigated a simple approach based on measures of disclosure risk and analytical utility that are straightforward for epidemiologic researchers to derive. The method is illustrated using data from the Japanese Atomic-bomb Survivor population. Results. Masking by modest rounding did not adequately enhance security but rounding to remove several digits of relative accuracy effectively reduced the risk of identification without substantially reducing utility. Grouping or adding random noise led to noticeable bias. Conclusions. When sharing epidemiologic data, it is recommended that masking be performed using rounding. Specific treatment should be determined separately in individual situations after consideration of the disclosure risks and analysis needs

  13. Mitigating Reptile Road Mortality: Fence Failures Compromise Ecopassage Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Gilbert, James H.; Riley, Julia L.; Lesbarrères, David; Litzgus, Jacqueline D.

    2015-01-01

    Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to offset detrimental effects to one of the most imperial groups of vertebrates, reptiles. Taking a multispecies approach, we used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design to compare reptile abundance on the highway before and after mitigation at an Impact site and a Control site from 1 May to 31 August in 2012 and 2013. During this time, radio telemetry, wildlife cameras, and an automated PIT-tag reading system were used to monitor reptile movements and use of ecopassages. Additionally, a willingness to utilize experiment was conducted to quantify turtle behavioral responses to ecopassages. We found no difference in abundance of turtles on the road between the un-mitigated and mitigated highways, and an increase in the percentage of both snakes and turtles detected dead on the road post-mitigation, suggesting that the fencing was not effective. Although ecopassages were used by reptiles, the number of crossings through ecopassages was lower than road-surface crossings. Furthermore, turtle willingness to use ecopassages was lower than that reported in previous arena studies, suggesting that effectiveness of ecopassages may be compromised when alternative crossing options are available (e.g., through holes in exclusion structures). Our rigorous evaluation of reptile roadway mitigation demonstrated that when exclusion structures fail, the effectiveness of population connectivity structures is compromised. Our project emphasizes the need to design mitigation measures with the biology and behavior of the target species in mind, to implement mitigation designs in a rigorous fashion, and quantitatively evaluate road

  14. Methamphetamine compromises gap junctional communication in astrocytes and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Paul; Nwagbo, Chisom; Martinez, Luis R; Eugenin, Eliseo A

    2016-05-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that results in psychological and physical dependency. The long-term effects of meth within the CNS include neuronal plasticity changes, blood-brain barrier compromise, inflammation, electrical dysfunction, neuronal/glial toxicity, and an increased risk to infectious diseases including HIV. Most of the reported meth effects in the CNS are related to dysregulation of chemical synapses by altering the release and uptake of neurotransmitters, especially dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. However, little is known about the effects of meth on connexin (Cx) containing channels, such as gap junctions (GJ) and hemichannels (HC). We examined the effects of meth on Cx expression, function, and its role in NeuroAIDS. We found that meth altered Cx expression and localization, decreased GJ communication between neurons and astrocytes, and induced the opening of Cx43/Cx36 HC. Furthermore, we found that these changes in GJ and HC induced by meth treatment were mediated by activation of dopamine receptors, suggesting that dysregulation of dopamine signaling induced by meth is essential for GJ and HC compromise. Meth-induced changes in GJ and HC contributed to amplified CNS toxicity by dysregulating glutamate metabolism and increasing the susceptibility of neurons and astrocytes to bystander apoptosis induced by HIV. Together, our results indicate that connexin containing channels, GJ and HC, are essential in the pathogenesis of meth and increase the sensitivity of the CNS to HIV CNS disease. Methamphetamine (meth) is an extremely addictive central nervous system stimulant. Meth reduced gap junctional (GJ) communication by inducing internalization of connexin-43 (Cx43) in astrocytes and reducing expression of Cx36 in neurons by a mechanism involving activation of dopamine receptors (see cartoon). Meth-induced changes in Cx containing channels increased extracellular levels of glutamate and resulted in higher

  15. Mitigating reptile road mortality: fence failures compromise ecopassage effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Baxter-Gilbert

    Full Text Available Roadways pose serious threats to animal populations. The installation of roadway mitigation measures is becoming increasingly common, yet studies that rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of these conservation tools remain rare. A highway expansion project in Ontario, Canada included exclusion fencing and ecopassages as mitigation measures designed to offset detrimental effects to one of the most imperial groups of vertebrates, reptiles. Taking a multispecies approach, we used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design to compare reptile abundance on the highway before and after mitigation at an Impact site and a Control site from 1 May to 31 August in 2012 and 2013. During this time, radio telemetry, wildlife cameras, and an automated PIT-tag reading system were used to monitor reptile movements and use of ecopassages. Additionally, a willingness to utilize experiment was conducted to quantify turtle behavioral responses to ecopassages. We found no difference in abundance of turtles on the road between the un-mitigated and mitigated highways, and an increase in the percentage of both snakes and turtles detected dead on the road post-mitigation, suggesting that the fencing was not effective. Although ecopassages were used by reptiles, the number of crossings through ecopassages was lower than road-surface crossings. Furthermore, turtle willingness to use ecopassages was lower than that reported in previous arena studies, suggesting that effectiveness of ecopassages may be compromised when alternative crossing options are available (e.g., through holes in exclusion structures. Our rigorous evaluation of reptile roadway mitigation demonstrated that when exclusion structures fail, the effectiveness of population connectivity structures is compromised. Our project emphasizes the need to design mitigation measures with the biology and behavior of the target species in mind, to implement mitigation designs in a rigorous fashion, and quantitatively

  16. Respiratory Failure Associated with the Lipodystrophy Syndrome in an HIV-Positive Patient with Compromised Lung Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Press

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Protease inhibitors, used as treatment in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, are associated with a syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, central adiposity, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. An HIV-positive patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is presented who developed the lipodystrophy syndrome that is associated with the use of protease inhibitors. It is postulated that the lipodystrophy syndrome further compromised his lung function, leading to respiratory failure. Patients who have pulmonary disease and are taking protease inhibitors require monitoring of clinical status and pulmonary function tests.

  17. Sustainable Development Compromise[d] in the Planning of Metro Vancouver’s Agricultural Lands—the Jackson Farm Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Holden

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research provides analysis of the case of the Jackson Farm development application, embedded within the particular dynamics of the municipal, regional, and provincial sustainability land use policy culture of the Metro Vancouver region, in Canada. Within a culture of appreciation of the increasing need for sustainability in land use policy, including the protection of agricultural lands at the provincial level through the Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR, to urban intensification and protection of the green zone at the regional scale, lies a political conflict that comes into focus in individual land use decisions, within municipalities struggling for autonomy. This case is neither driven strictly by “the politics of the highest bidder” nor by policy failure; the case of the Jackson Farm is instead a case of the challenges of implementing inter-governmental coordination and collaborative governance in a context of both significant sustainability policy and urban growth. The process can be seen to follow an ecological modernization agenda, seeking “win–win” alternatives rather than recognizing that typical compromises, over time, may tip the direction of development away from sustainability policy goals. Understanding the twists, turns, and eventual compromise reached in the case of the Jackson Farm brings to light the implications of the shift in the regional planning culture which may necessitate a less flexible, more structured prioritization of competing goals within plans and policies in order to meet sustainability goals. We highlight this, and present an alternative implementation process within the existing policy regime with potential to aid the specific goal of agricultural land protection.

  18. β-Cell Ca(2+) dynamics and function are compromised in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Christopher J; Li, Luosheng; Köhler, Martin; Berggren, Per-Olof

    2015-01-01

    Defects in pancreatic β-cell function and survival are key components in type 2 diabetes (T2D). An age-dependent deterioration in β-cell function has also been observed, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon. Our previous studies indicate that the regulation of cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) may be critical and that this is dependent on the proper function of the mitochondria. The [Ca(2+)]i dynamics of the pancreatic β-cell are driven by an interplay between glucose-induced influx of extracellular Ca(2+) via voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3)-mediated liberation of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. Our previous work has indicated a direct relationship between disruption of Ins(1,4,5)P3-mediated Ca(2+) regulation and loss of β-cell function, including disturbed [Ca(2+)]i dynamics and compromised insulin secretion. To investigate these processes in aging we used three mouse models, a premature aging mitochondrial mutator mouse, a mature aging phenotype (C57BL/6) and an aging-resistant phenotype (129). Our data suggest that age-dependent impairment in mitochondrial function leads to modest changes in [Ca(2+)]i dynamics in mouse β-cells, particularly in the pattern of [Ca(2+)]i oscillations. These changes are driven by modifications in both PLC/Ins(1,4,5)P3-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores and decreased β-cell Ca(2+) influx over the plasma membrane. Our findings underscore an important concept, namely that even relatively small, time-dependent changes in β-cell signal-transduction result in compromised insulin release and in a diabetic phenotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Taking a Bad Turn: Compromised DNA Damage Response in Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Nilles

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Genomic integrity is of outmost importance for the survival at the cellular and the organismal level and key to human health. To ensure the integrity of their DNA, cells have evolved maintenance programs collectively known as the DNA damage response. Particularly challenging for genome integrity are DNA double-strand breaks (DSB and defects in their repair are often associated with human disease, including leukemia. Defective DSB repair may not only be disease-causing, but further contribute to poor treatment outcome and poor prognosis in leukemia. Here, we review current insight into altered DSB repair mechanisms identified in leukemia. While DSB repair is somewhat compromised in all leukemic subtypes, certain key players of DSB repair are particularly targeted: DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK and Ku70/80 in the non-homologous end-joining pathway, as well as Rad51 and breast cancer 1/2 (BRCA1/2, key players in homologous recombination. Defects in leukemia-related DSB repair may not only arise from dysfunctional repair components, but also indirectly from mutations in key regulators of gene expression and/or chromatin structure, such as p53, the Kirsten ras oncogene (K-RAS, and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2. A detailed understanding of the basis for defective DNA damage response (DDR mechanisms for each leukemia subtype may allow to further develop new treatment methods to improve treatment outcome and prognosis for patients.

  20. Tracheostomy in neurologically compromised paediatric patients: role of starplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Stokken, J; Krakovitz, P; Malhotra, P; Anne, S

    2015-10-01

    Starplasty tracheostomy is an alternative to traditional tracheostomy. This paper reviews neurologically compromised paediatric patients with tracheostomies and discusses the role of starplasty tracheostomy. A retrospective review was conducted of paediatric patients with a neurological disorder who underwent tracheostomy between 1997 and 2011. Forty-eight patients, with an average age of 7.3 years, were identified. The most common indications for tracheostomy were: ventilator dependence (39.6 per cent), an inability to tolerate secretions or recurrent aspiration pneumonia (33.3 per cent), and upper respiratory obstruction or hypotonia (12.5 per cent). The most common underlying neurological diagnosis was cerebral palsy. There were no early complications. Eighteen (43 per cent) of 42 patients with follow up experienced at least 1 delayed complication. Only 12 patients (28.6 per cent) were decannulated. Patients with primary neurological diagnoses have low rates of decannulation; starplasty tracheostomy should be considered for these patients. Patients with seizure disorder or acute neurological injury tended to have a higher short-term decannulation rate; traditional tracheostomy is recommended in these patients.

  1. Compromised careers: the occupational transition of immigration and resettlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Work is a significant occupational transition that occurs with immigration and resettlement. Problems finding work and regaining economic capital are multi-factorial, differentiated by gender and mediated by specific contexts. Surprisingly, past education and work experience are unreliable predictors of successful employment outcomes. Critical theory and ethnographic concepts informed the methodological approach. Data were generated primarily through in-depth interviews, conducted in English, with 14 well-educated women who immigrated to Canada as adults and sought employment in their professions. The thematic findings were analyzed using Bourdieu's [7] concepts of capital, field and habitus. The theme Compromised Careers describes the downward occupational (work) mobility that occurs despite expectations that education, credentials and work experience are transferable to desirable employment. A devaluation of foreign qualifications and no relevant Canadian work experience function with gendered responsibilities, less social support, and time spent in resettlement activities to create negative work trajectories. The role that federal policies and professional organizations play is examined to reveal the tension between individuals' efforts to find employment and institutional barriers that impede these actions. A critical inquiry approach examined the ruling relations to show how power and privilege function in relation to migrants' occupational transitions.

  2. Towards mesoscience the principle of compromise in competition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jinghai

    2014-01-01

    This brief is devoted to providing a complete outline of meso-science by briefing the relevant contents from the published book and by updating evidences and concepts of meso-science. The importance of meso-science in solving various problems in energy, resource, and the environment is introduced.  The whole evolutionary development of the EMMS principle is reviewed to show how a simple idea on the customized modeling of particle clustering in gas-solid systems was developed, verified, extended, and finally generalized into the common principle of compromise in competition between dominant mechanisms for all mesoscale phenomena in science and engineering, leading to the proposition of meso-science. More importantly, updates on the concept of meso-science and perspectives are presented, along with new insights and findings from after the publication of the original book. In this way, we hope to help readers more easily familiarize themselves with meso-science, and to trigger interest and attention to this int...

  3. Auditing Litigation and Claims: Conflicts and the Compromise of Privilege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harleen Kaur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Auditing standards require an auditor to make various enquiries about liabilities in general this may entail consideration of potential litigations and claims that the audited entity may be facing. To perform this part of audit, the auditors will generally seek representation letters from lawyers of the company detailing an estimate prepared by management, confirmed by their lawyers through a representation letter, and then sent directly to the auditors. This paper reviews the implications for the auditing profession of a case that involved auditors seeking such representation letters. The case involves litigation between theWestpac Banking Corporation and 789TEN Pty Ltd. While theWestpac case confirmed the legal position of the auditor in their task of collecting evidence in order to form an opinion in Australia, it highlights a significant anomaly under the law and should place the issue of solicitor’s representation letters as audit evidence firmly on the agenda of policymakers. This issue of the compromise of legal privilege during the conduct of an audit is also not confined to Australia: other common law jurisdictions, such as the UK and the US, have also sought to clarify the position of auditors when issues of the integrity of legal privacy privilege arise.

  4. Capacity for Preferences: Respecting Patients with Compromised Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Jason Adam; Navin, Mark Christopher

    2018-05-01

    When a patient lacks decision-making capacity, then according to standard clinical ethics practice in the United States, the health care team should seek guidance from a surrogate decision-maker, either previously selected by the patient or appointed by the courts. If there are no surrogates willing or able to exercise substituted judgment, then the team is to choose interventions that promote a patient's best interests. We argue that, even when there is input from a surrogate, patient preferences should be an additional source of guidance for decisions about patients who lack decision-making capacity. Our proposal builds on other efforts to help patients who lack decision-making capacity provide input into decisions about their care. For example, "supported," "assisted," or "guided" decision-making models reflect a commitment to humanistic patient engagement and create a more supportive process for patients, families, and health care teams. But often, they are supportive processes for guiding a patient toward a decision that the surrogate or team believes to be in the patient's medical best interests. Another approach holds that taking seriously the preferences of such a patient can help surrogates develop a better account of what the patient's treatment choices would have been if the patient had retained decision-making capacity; the surrogate then must try to integrate features of the patient's formerly rational self with the preferences of the patient's currently compromised self. Patients who lack decision-making capacity are well served by these efforts to solicit and use their preferences to promote best interests or to craft would-be autonomous patient images for use by surrogates. However, we go further: the moral reasons for valuing the preferences of patients without decision-making capacity are not reducible to either best-interests or (surrogate) autonomy considerations but can be grounded in the values of liberty and respect for persons. This has

  5. Gamma processing of Arabic bread for immune system-compromised cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecz, N.; Brannon, R.; Jaw, R.; Al-Harithy, R.; Hahn, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    Arabic bread prepared from local Saudi flour contained a total of up to 105 4 organisms per g. Most of these were bacterial spores that survived the baking process (1.3 x 10 2 to 3.5 x 10 3 ) and a small number of yeasts and molds (10 to 40 cells per g). The organisms in Arabic bread appear to be harmless to healthy individuals. However, for immune system-compromised cancer patients and bone marrow transplant recipients, it is prudent to irradiate the bread to reduce microbial contamination. The decimal reduction doses (10% survival) for the most radiation-resistant organisms (spore formers) in bread were 0.11 to 0.15 Mrad. Accordingly, 0.6 Mrad was sufficient to reduce the number of spores in Arabic bread by a factor of 10,000, i.e., to <1/g. This treatment constitutes radiation pasteurization (radicidation), and to this extent, provides a margin of microbiological safety. Sensory evaluation by the nine-point hedonic scale showed no detectable loss of organoleptic quality of bread up to 0.6 Mrad, while irradiation to 2.5 Mrad induced unacceptable organoleptic changes

  6. Silencing of the Rice Gene LRR1 Compromises Rice Xa21 Transcript Accumulation and XA21-Mediated Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddell, Daniel F; Park, Chang-Jin; Thomas, Nicholas C; Canlas, Patrick E; Ronald, Pamela C

    2017-12-01

    The rice immune receptor XA21 confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight. We previously demonstrated that an auxilin-like protein, XA21 BINDING PROTEIN 21 (XB21), positively regulates resistance to Xoo. To further investigate the function of XB21, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen. We identified 22 unique XB21 interacting proteins, including LEUCINE-RICH REPEAT PROTEIN 1 (LRR1), which we selected for further analysis. Silencing of LRR1 in the XA21 genetic background (XA21-LRR1Ri) compromises resistance to Xoo compared with control XA21 plants. XA21-LRR1Ri plants have reduced Xa21 transcript levels and reduced expression of genes that serve as markers of XA21-mediated activation. Overexpression of LRR1 is insufficient to alter resistance to Xoo in rice lines lacking XA21. Taken together, our results indicate that LRR1 is required for wild-type Xa21 transcript expression and XA21-mediated immunity.

  7. 10 CFR 15.41 - When a claim may be compromised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... it has not been referred to DOJ for litigation. (b) Unless otherwise provided by law, when the... with the DOJ. The NRC will evaluate the compromise offer, using the factors set forth in this part. If an offer to compromise any debt in excess of $100,000 is acceptable to the NRC, the NRC shall refer...

  8. 32 CFR 842.99 - Compromise, termination, and suspension of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compromise, termination, and suspension of collection. 842.99 Section 842.99 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR... States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.99 Compromise, termination, and suspension of collection. This...

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of vascular compromise in paediatric supracondylar fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowno, Justin J; De Lima, Jonathan; Quick, Tom J; Carpenter, Eleanor C; Gibbons, Paul J; Little, David G

    2014-01-01

    Children suffering supracondylar fractures of the humerus are at risk of vascular compromise, which is currently assessed clinically, although other modalities such as angiography, pulse oximetry, Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance angiography have been used. We sought to ascertain whether tissue haemoglobin oxygenation (StO 2 ) measurement could distinguish between patients with and without clinical vascular compromise following supracondylar fractures of the humerus. We prospectively observed StO 2  using near-infrared spectroscopy in 29 paediatric patients with supracondylar fractures requiring operative manipulation. The injured and uninjured volar forearm compartments were monitored immediately before and after fracture reduction. The relationship between StO 2  in the injured and uninjured limb, and the presence of pre-operative vascular compromise was assessed. Seven out of 29 children presented with vascular compromise. Patients with clinical vascular compromise had significantly lower pre-reduction StO 2  (63.5% ± 15%, mean ± standard deviation), compared to those without compromise (80.9% ± 10%). StO 2  normalized following surgery in all children with vascular compromise. These improvements in muscle StO 2  were associated, in all patients, with the clinical return of pulses and resolution of neurological symptoms if present. StO 2  monitoring can identify patients with clinical vascular compromise, can identify the return of adequate perfusion following operative correction of supracondylar fractures, and may be a useful adjunct to clinical assessment. (paper)

  10. 7 CFR 1956.68 - Compromise or adjustment without debtor's signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Compromise or adjustment without debtor's signature... Loan Programs and Multi-Family Housing § 1956.68 Compromise or adjustment without debtor's signature... made to obtain the debtor's signature and the date(s) of such effort. (c) The specific reasons why it...

  11. 36 CFR 1011.7 - When will the Presidio Trust compromise a debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When will the Presidio Trust... Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.7 When will the Presidio Trust compromise a debt? (a... debt owed to the Presidio Trust that is not recovered as the result of a compromise will be reported to...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6331-3 - Restrictions on levy while offers to compromise are pending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are pending. 301.6331-3 Section 301.6331-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... for Collection of Taxes § 301.6331-3 Restrictions on levy while offers to compromise are pending. Cross-reference. For provisions relating to the making of levies while an offer to compromise is pending...

  13. 15 CFR 19.7 - When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt? 19.7 Section 19.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.7 When will Commerce entities compromise...

  14. Widespread Mitochondrial Depletion via Mitophagy Does Not Compromise Necroptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W.G. Tait

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Programmed necrosis (or necroptosis is a form of cell death triggered by the activation of receptor interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3. Several reports have implicated mitochondria and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS generation as effectors of RIPK3-dependent cell death. Here, we directly test this idea by employing a method for the specific removal of mitochondria via mitophagy. Mitochondria-deficient cells were resistant to the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, but efficiently died via tumor necrosis factor (TNF-induced, RIPK3-dependent programmed necrosis or as a result of direct oligomerization of RIPK3. Although the ROS scavenger butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA delayed TNF-induced necroptosis, it had no effect on necroptosis induced by RIPK3 oligomerization. Furthermore, although TNF-induced ROS production was dependent on mitochondria, the inhibition of TNF-induced necroptosis by BHA was observed in mitochondria-depleted cells. Our data indicate that mitochondrial ROS production accompanies, but does not cause, RIPK3-dependent necroptotic cell death.

  15. Compromised Wound Healing in Ischemic Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilang Yang

    Full Text Available Ischemia is one of the main epidemic factors and characteristics of diabetic chronic wounds, and exerts a profound effect on wound healing. To explore the mechanism of and the cure for diabetic impaired wound healing, we established a type 2 diabetic rat model. We used an 8 weeks high fat diet (HFD feeding regimen followed by multiple injections of streptozotocin (STZ at a dose of 10mg/kg to induce Wister rat to develop type 2 diabetes. Metabolic characteristics were assessed at the 5th week after the STZ injections to confirm the establishment of diabetes mellitus on the rodent model. A bipedicle flap, with length to width ratio 1.5, was performed on the back of the rat to make the flap area ischemic. Closure of excisional wounds on this bipedicle flap and related physiological and pathological changes were studied using histological, immunohistochemical, real time PCR and protein immunoblot approaches. Our results demonstrated that a combination of HFD feeding and a low dose of STZ is capable of inducing the rats to develop type 2 diabetes with noticeable insulin resistance, persistent hyperglycemia, moderate degree of insulinemia, as well as high serum cholesterol and high triglyceride levels. The excision wounds on the ischemic double pedicle flap showed deteriorative healing features comparing with non-ischemic diabetic wounds, including: delayed healing, exorbitant wound inflammatory response, excessive and prolonged ROS production and excessive production of MMPs. Our study suggested that HFD feeding combined with STZ injection could induce type 2 diabetes in rat. Our ischemic diabetic wound model is suitable for the investigation of human diabetic related wound repair; especically for diabetic chronic wounds.

  16. Transient Social-Ecological Stability: the Effects of Invasive Species and Ecosystem Restoration on Nutrient Management Compromise in Lake Erie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Roy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Together, lake ecosystems and local human activity form complex social-ecological systems (SESs characterized by feedback loops and discontinuous change. Researchers in diverse fields have suggested that complex systems do not have single stable equilibria in the long term because of inevitable perturbation. During this study, we sought to address the general question of whether or not stable social-ecological equilibria exist in highly stressed and managed lacustrine systems. Using an integrated human-biophysical model, we investigated the impacts of a species invasion and ecosystem restoration on SES equilibrium, defined here as a compromise in phosphorus management among opposing stakeholders, in western Lake Erie. Our integrated model is composed of a calibrated ecological submodel representing Sandusky Bay, and a phosphorus management submodel that reflects the societal benefits and costs of phosphorus regulation. These two submodels together form a dynamic feedback loop that includes freshwater ecology, ecosystem services, and phosphorus management. We found that the invasion of dreissenid mussels decreased ecosystem resistance to eutrophication, necessitating increased phosphorus management to preserve ecosystem services and thus creating the potential for a shift in social-ecological equilibrium. Additionally, our results suggest that net benefits in the region following the invasion of dreissenids may never again reach the pre-invasion level if on-site phosphorus control is the sole management lever. Further demonstrating transient system stability, large-scale wetland restoration shifted points of management compromise to states characterized by less on-site phosphorus management and higher environmental quality, resulting in a significant increase in net benefits in the region. We conclude that lacustrine SESs are open and dynamic, and we recommend that future models of these systems emphasize site-specific perturbation over

  17. Resale Price Maintenance Under the Hong Kong Competition Ordinance—An Uneasy Compromise

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Jephcott; Adelaide Luke; Lisa Geary; Molly Herron

    2015-01-01

    However, the compromise position reached in the Guideline provides relatively little in terms of legal certainty as to the circumstances in which RPM may be acceptable. Mark Jephcott, Adelaide Luke, Lisa Geary, & Molly Herron (Herbert Smith Freehills)

  18. 48 CFR 239.7102-2 - Compromising emanations-TEMPEST or other standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Security and Privacy for Computer Systems 239.7102-2 Compromising emanations—TEMPEST or... requiring activity is responsible for providing to the contracting officer— (a) The required protections, i...

  19. Small intestine epithelial barrier function is compromised in pigs with low feed intake at weaning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwenberg, M.A.; Verdonk, J.M.; Gaskins, H.R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Compromising alterations in gastrointestinal architecture are common during the weaning transition of pigs. The relation between villous atrophy and epithelial barrier function at weaning is not well understood. This study evaluated in vitro transepithelial transport by Ussing metabolic chambers,

  20. Knowledge is power: averting safety-compromising events in the OR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Kathleen

    2008-12-01

    Surgical procedures can be unpredictable, and safety-compromising events can jeopardize patient safety. Perioperative nurses should be watchful for factors that can contribute to safety-compromising events, as well as the errors that can follow, and know how to avert them if possible. Knowledge is power and increased awareness of patient safety issues and the resources that are available to both health care practitioners and consumers can help perioperative nurses ward off patient safety problems before they occur.

  1. Cyber indicators of compromise: a domain ontology for security information and event management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    heuristics, mapping, and detection. CybOX is aimed at supporting a broad range of important cyber security domains to include [31]: • Digital...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CYBER INDICATORS OF COMPROMISE: A DOMAIN ONTOLOGY FOR SECURITY INFORMATION AND...Distribution is unlimited. CYBER INDICATORS OF COMPROMISE: A DOMAIN ONTOLOGY FOR SECURITY INFORMATION AND EVENT MANAGEMENT Marsha D. Rowell

  2. Combating QR-Code-Based Compromised Accounts in Mobile Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong; Cao, Jian; Wang, Xiaoqi; Fu, Qiang; Li, Qiang

    2016-09-20

    Cyber Physical Social Sensing makes mobile social networks (MSNs) popular with users. However, such attacks are rampant as malicious URLs are spread covertly through quick response (QR) codes to control compromised accounts in MSNs to propagate malicious messages. Currently, there are generally two types of methods to identify compromised accounts in MSNs: one type is to analyze the potential threats on wireless access points and the potential threats on handheld devices' operation systems so as to stop compromised accounts from spreading malicious messages; the other type is to apply the method of detecting compromised accounts in online social networks to MSNs. The above types of methods above focus neither on the problems of MSNs themselves nor on the interaction of sensors' messages, which leads to the restrictiveness of platforms and the simplification of methods. In order to stop the spreading of compromised accounts in MSNs effectively, the attacks have to be traced to their sources first. Through sensors, users exchange information in MSNs and acquire information by scanning QR codes. Therefore, analyzing the traces of sensor-related information helps to identify the compromised accounts in MSNs. This paper analyzes the diversity of information sending modes of compromised accounts and normal accounts, analyzes the regularity of GPS (Global Positioning System)-based location information, and introduces the concepts of entropy and conditional entropy so as to construct an entropy-based model based on machine learning strategies. To achieve the goal, about 500,000 accounts of Sina Weibo and about 100 million corresponding messages are collected. Through the validation, the accuracy rate of the model is proved to be as high as 87.6%, and the false positive rate is only 3.7%. Meanwhile, the comparative experiments of the feature sets prove that sensor-based location information can be applied to detect the compromised accounts in MSNs.

  3. Combating QR-Code-Based Compromised Accounts in Mobile Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyber Physical Social Sensing makes mobile social networks (MSNs popular with users. However, such attacks are rampant as malicious URLs are spread covertly through quick response (QR codes to control compromised accounts in MSNs to propagate malicious messages. Currently, there are generally two types of methods to identify compromised accounts in MSNs: one type is to analyze the potential threats on wireless access points and the potential threats on handheld devices’ operation systems so as to stop compromised accounts from spreading malicious messages; the other type is to apply the method of detecting compromised accounts in online social networks to MSNs. The above types of methods above focus neither on the problems of MSNs themselves nor on the interaction of sensors’ messages, which leads to the restrictiveness of platforms and the simplification of methods. In order to stop the spreading of compromised accounts in MSNs effectively, the attacks have to be traced to their sources first. Through sensors, users exchange information in MSNs and acquire information by scanning QR codes. Therefore, analyzing the traces of sensor-related information helps to identify the compromised accounts in MSNs. This paper analyzes the diversity of information sending modes of compromised accounts and normal accounts, analyzes the regularity of GPS (Global Positioning System-based location information, and introduces the concepts of entropy and conditional entropy so as to construct an entropy-based model based on machine learning strategies. To achieve the goal, about 500,000 accounts of Sina Weibo and about 100 million corresponding messages are collected. Through the validation, the accuracy rate of the model is proved to be as high as 87.6%, and the false positive rate is only 3.7%. Meanwhile, the comparative experiments of the feature sets prove that sensor-based location information can be applied to detect the compromised accounts in MSNs.

  4. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-01-24

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.  Created: 1/24/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/13/2007.

  5. The impact of purchase quantity on the compromise effect: The balance heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hui Cheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Most prior research on the compromise effect has focused on single rather than multiple choices. This research investigates the potential effects of purchase quantity on the compromise effect. We propose that the share of the middle option in a trinary choice set decreases as the purchase quantity increases, because people tend to employ a balance heuristic to distribute their multiple choices among the available options to achieve a balanced state and to satisfy their variety-seeking tendency. Furthermore, we propose that the need for justification and an optimal stimulation level moderate the relationship between the number of purchase items and the compromise effect. These proposed hypotheses are supported by results from three experiments.

  6. Robust Public Key Cryptography — A New Cryptosystem Surviving Private Key Compromise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Cheman

    A weakness of the present-day public key cryptosystems is that these cryptosystems do not survive private-key compromise attacks resulting from an internal breach of trust. In a competitive business environment, private key compromise is a common incident that voids the strength of public key cryptosystems such as RSA and ECC. Bribing corporate employees to disclose their secret keys and inadvertently disclosing secret information are among a plethora of practical attacks that occur at the implementation level. Once a breach of trust takes place and subsequently the private key is revealed, any public key cryptosystem fails to secure electronic data in Internet communications. The revealed key may be used by an attacker to decipher the intercepted data at an intermediary router. This weakness of public key cryptography calls for an additional security measure that enables encryptions to survive private key compromise attacks.

  7. Orthodontic space closure using simple mechanics in compromised first molar extraction spaces: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant M Dhole

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatments involving missing or compromised first permanent molars are often challenging cases to treat considering the loss of potential anchor tooth. The case series presents orthodontic treatment in three patients with mutilated/absent first permanent molars. The treatment goals were to be accomplished by extraction of compromised teeth and retention of healthy dentition. The diagnosis and problem list needed extractions to accomplish the treatment goals. The possibility of extracting compromised first permanent molars instead of other healthy teeth was considered. A setup was done to determine the final occlusion in asymmetric extraction cases. Fixed appliances were used with simple mechanics without any additional anchorage devices. Case-based retention protocols were followed. All the three patients achieved the predetermined treatment objectives of improved esthetics and healthy and stable functional occlusion. The simple and efficient mechanics and finishing techniques for comprehensive orthodontic treatment with first molar extractions presented in the report should help clinicians when treating similar patients.

  8. Does low self-esteem predict health compromising behaviours among adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgee, R; Williams, S

    2000-10-01

    It is often believed that low self-esteem is associated with such health-compromising behaviours in adolescence as substance use, early sexual activity, eating problems and suicidal ideation. Surprisingly, there is little longitudinal research addressing this issue. This longitudinal study examines the predictive association between both global and academic self-esteem from ages 9 to 13 years, and a variety of health compromising behaviours at age 15, in a large sample of young New Zealanders. Levels of global self-esteem significantly predicted adolescent report of problem eating, suicidal ideation, and multiple health compromising behaviours. Earlier levels of self-esteem were unrelated to later substance use and early sexual activity. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for efforts to raise self-esteem among young people. Copyright 2000 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  9. Insulin Resistance in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineley, Kelly T; Jahrling, Jordan B; Denner, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is a key hormone regulating metabolism. Insulin binding to cell surface insulin receptors engages many signaling intermediates operating in parallel and in series to control glucose, energy, and lipids while also regulating mitogenesis and development. Perturbations in the function of any of these intermediates, which occur in a variety of diseases, cause reduced sensitivity to insulin and insulin resistance with consequent metabolic dysfunction. Chronic inflammation ensues which exacerbates compromised metabolic homeostasis. Since insulin has a key role in learning and memory as well as directly regulating ERK, a kinase required for the type of learning and memory compromised in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), insulin resistance has been identified as a major risk factor for the onset of AD. Animal models of AD or insulin resistance or both demonstrate that AD pathology and impaired insulin signaling form a reciprocal relationship. Of note are human and animal model studies geared toward improving insulin resistance that have led to the identification of the nuclear receptor and transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) as an intervention tool for early AD. Strategic targeting of alternate nodes within the insulin signaling network has revealed disease-stage therapeutic windows in animal models that coalesce with previous and ongoing clinical trial approaches. Thus, exploiting the connection between insulin resistance and AD provides powerful opportunities to delineate therapeutic interventions that slow or block the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:25237037

  10. ASSESSMENT OF FOETAL COMPROMISE BY DOPPLER ULTRASOUND INVESTIGATION OF THE FOETAL CIRCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Philip

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The condition in which the foetus does not reach its growth potential is called Intrauterine Growth Restricted (IUGR. The mothers who are generally healthy and well nourished, the incidence of IUGR is 3-5%. The incidence of IUGR is 15-20% or higher in a women population with hypertension or previous growth restricted foetus. The aim of the study is to assess foetal compromise by Doppler ultrasound investigation of the foetal circulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study is a prospective study conducted between November 2013 to November 2016 in the Department of Radiodiagnosis and imaging of Mount Zion Medical College, Kerala. A total of 50 singleton pregnancies with suspected IUGR pregnancy attending the outpatient ward of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Inclusion Criteria- Pregnancies from 29 weeks to 42 weeks of gestation complicated by intrauterine growth restriction and who are ultrasound confirmed. In the first trimester, gestational age determination was estimated by history of menstruation or biometry of foetus. Exclusion Criteria- Patients who had multiple gestations, congenital anomalies and history of membranes rupture. All the patients in the study were subjected to clinical history in detail to assess the risk factors of IUGR pregnancy, biometry of ultrasound and amniotic fluid assessment followed by Doppler ultrasound evaluation of uterine arteries, umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, descending foetal thoracic aorta, ductus venous and umbilical vein. RESULTS Majority of the patients were in the age group of 21-24 years. All the patients were in the age group of 19-30 years. 45% of antenatal mothers examined were between 28-31 weeks of gestational age, 35% were between 32-36 weeks of gestation, 20% were between 37-42 weeks of gestation age. 15 antenatal mothers had elevated uterine artery resistance index (30%, 12 antenatal mothers had persistent early diagnostic notch (24%, 11 antenatal mothers had elevated systolic

  11. 76 FR 17843 - Intent To Compromise Claim Against the District of Columbia Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) now pending before the Office of Administrative Law Judges (OALJ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Intent To Compromise Claim Against the District of Columbia Public Schools... Application for Review of this PDL with the Office of Administrative Law Judges (OALJ) on September 10, 2007...

  12. Safety and Efficacy of Alginate Adhesion Barrier Gel in Compromised Intestinal Anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaturvedi, A.; Yauw, S.T.K.; Lomme, R.M.L.M.; Hendriks, T.; Goor, H. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For any anti-adhesive barrier developed for abdominal surgery, the use under conditions in which anastomotic healing is compromised needs to be investigated. The current study evaluates the effect of a new ultrapure alginate gel on early healing of high-risk anastomoses in the ileum and

  13. 32 CFR 310.14 - Notification when information is lost, stolen, or compromised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Systems of Records § 310.14... the individual of any loss, theft, or compromise (See also, § 310.50 for reporting of the breach to Senior Component Official for Privacy and the Defense Privacy Office). (1) The notification shall be made...

  14. Towards a legitimate compromise?: An exploration of Integrated Reporting in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the multiplicity of views on integrated reporting and to consider the possibility of, and impediments to, reconciling these multiple rationales (“orders of worth”) and thus gain legitimacy through a compromise. This sheds light on the understanding

  15. Using Emergence Theory-Based Curriculum to Teach Compromise Skills to Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Lance; Jones, Don

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the compromise skills that are taught to students diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and related social and communication deficits. A private school in the southeastern United States implemented an emergence theory-based curriculum to address these skills, yet no formal analysis was conducted to determine its…

  16. A method for identifying compromised clients based on DNS traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; D’Alconzo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    DNS is widely abused by Internet criminals in order to provide reliable communication within malicious network infrastructure as well as flexible and resilient hosting of malicious content. This paper presents a novel detection method that can be used for identifying potentially compromised clien...

  17. Understanding Youth's Health-Compromising Behaviors in Germany: An Application of the Risk-Behavior Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Barbara P.; Lee, Che-Fu

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed the health-compromising behaviors of German youth using responses of 2,330 seventh, eighth, and ninth graders from the German Youth Study. Smoking and drinking are not seen by these students as health-threatening behaviors, but as socially appealing behaviors. Discusses implications for health education. (SLD)

  18. Clustering of health-compromising behavior and delinquency in adolescents and adults in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Junger, Marianne; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Wiefferink, Karin H.; Paulussen, Theo W. G. M.; Hox, Joop; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Objective. This study investigates the clustering of a broad range of health-compromising and delinquent behaviors. We examine whether these behaviors belong to a single but broad cluster. 'risk-taking behavior', and whether the nature and degree of clustering in adolescents differs from that in

  19. Predicting intrapartum fetal compromise using the fetal cerebro-umbilical ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabdia, S; Greer, R M; Prior, T; Kumar, S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between the cerebro-umbilical ratio measured at 35-37 weeks and intrapartum fetal compromise. This retrospective cross sectional study was conducted at the Mater Mothers' Hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Maternal demographics and fetal Doppler indices at 35-37 weeks gestation for 1381 women were correlated with intrapartum and neonatal outcomes. Babies born by caesarean section or instrumental delivery for fetal compromise had the lowest median cerebro-umbilical ratio 1.60 (IQR 1.22-2.08) compared to all other delivery groups (vaginal delivery, emergency delivery for failure to progress, emergency caesarean section for other reasons or elective caesarean section). The percentage of infants with a cerebro-umbilical ratio cerebro-umbilical ratio between the 10th-90th centile and 9.6% of infants with a cerebro-umbilical ratio > 90th centile required delivery for the same indication (p cerebro-umbilical ratio was associated with an increased risk of emergency delivery for fetal compromise, OR 2.03 (95% CI 1.41-2.92), p cerebro-umbilical ratio measured at 35-37 weeks is associated with a greater risk of intrapartum compromise. This is a relatively simple technique which could be used to risk stratify women in diverse healthcare settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Is patient confidentiality compromised with the electronic health record?: a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ilse M

    2015-02-01

    In order for electronic health records to fulfill their expected benefits, protection of privacy of patient information is key. Lack of trust in confidentiality can lead to reluctance in disclosing all relevant information, which could have grave consequences. This position paper contemplates whether patient confidentiality is compromised by electronic health records. The position that confidentiality is compromised was supported by the four bioethical principles and argued that despite laws and various safeguards to protect patients' confidentiality, numerous data breaches have occurred. The position that confidentiality is not compromised was supported by virtue ethics and a utilitarian viewpoint and argued that safeguards keep information confidential and the public feels relatively safe with the electronic health record. The article concludes with an ethically superior position that confidentiality is compromised with the electronic health record. Although organizational and governmental ways of enhancing the confidentiality of patient information within the electronic health record facilitate confidentiality, the ultimate responsibility of maintaining confidentiality rests with the individual end-users and their ethical code of conduct. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for nurses calls for nurses to be watchful with data security in electronic communications.

  1. Advanced medical life support procedures in vitally compromised children by a helicopter emergency medical service.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, B.M.; Schalkwijk, A.; Pelzer, B.J.; Scheffer, G.J.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine the advanced life support procedures provided by an Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) for vitally compromised children. Incidence and success rate of several procedures were studied, with a distinction made between procedures

  2. Principles of treatment planning for compromised first permanent molars in mixed dentition period: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrad Tanbakuchi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The first permanent molar is susceptible to caries, endodontic complications and developmental anomalies. Compromised teeth with poor prognosis could cause the clinician to face dilemmas. The aim of this review article was to assess recent guidelines on the treatment planning of compromised first permanent molars in mixed dentition period. Materials and Methods: The design of the study was based on review of literature by searching the MEDLINE, Web of science and Google scholar. Key words (permanent first molar, extraction, treatment plan were used. This search was limited to the English articles published after the year 2000. Conclusion: A number of factors influenced decision-making process regarding compromised first permanent molars including the restorative status of the tooth, dental age of the patient, degree of crowding and occlusal relationships were assessed. The ideal time for removal of these teeth was 8-9 years of age. However, the current evidence for managing compromised first permanent molars demands clinical trials.

  3. Comment on "Compromised birth outcomes and infant mortality among racial and ethnic groups"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, WJ

    Frisbie, Forbes, and Pullum (1996) show that it is meaningful to account for low birth weight, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth-retardation when analyzing differences in compromised birth outcomes and infant mortality among racial and ethnic groups. I compare their findings for the 1987

  4. 7 CFR 4290.1710 - Secretary's authority to collect or compromise claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Miscellaneous § 4290.1710... consideration as he or she deems reasonable, collect or compromise all claims relating to obligations he or she...

  5. Factors influencing treatment decision-making for maintaining or extracting compromised teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang-Hua, Bich Hue; McGrath, Colman P J; Lo, Edward C M; Lang, Niklaus P

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate treatment decision-making with respect to maintaining periodontally compromised teeth among dentists with or without postgraduate qualifications in implant dentistry. A series of patient scenarios with varying degrees of periodontal disease levels was presented to dental practitioners. Practitioners' decision-making outcome was determined, and intention to retain the compromised teeth was analyzed in bivariate and regression analyses (accounting for postgraduate implant training, gender, years in dental practice, and implant placement experience). This study involved 30 dental practitioners with postgraduate implant qualifications (GDPP), 33 dental practitioners without postgraduate implant qualifications (GDP), and 27 practitioners undergoing training for postgraduate implant qualifications (GDPT). Variations in treatment decision-making were evident between the three groups. Differences in treatment approaches to retaining compromised teeth were apparent. Furthermore, variations in rehabilitation of extracted scenarios existed in terms of use of implant and number of implants need for rehabilitation. Accounting for dentist and practice factors in regression analyses, GDPP/GDPT were three times as likely to retain periodontally compromised upper molar, with or without pain, compared to GDP (without pain OR 3.10, 95%CI 1.04, 10.62 P = 0.04; with pain OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.09, 8.14 P = 0.03). Variations in treatment decision-making with respect to retaining periodontally compromised teeth exist between dental practitioners with and those without postgraduate training in implant dentistry. Furthermore differences in management approaches in how they would retain the teeth or rehabilitate the dental arch were apparent. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Influence of political opposition and compromise on conservation outcomes in the Tongass National Forest, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M

    2008-12-01

    To understand how a highly contentious policy process influenced a major conservation effort, I examined the origins, compromises, and outcomes of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (ANILCA) for the Tongass National Forest. Tongass wilderness designation was among the most controversial issues in the ANILCA debate, and it faced strong opposition from influential lawmakers, land managers, and Alaska residents. To investigate the influence of this opposition on Tongass conservation outcomes, I conducted a gap analysis of Tongass reserves and a policy analysis of the ANILCA debate and traced the influence of specific interests through the amendments, negotiations, and resulting compromises needed to enact ANILCA. Overall, I found that Tongass reserves comprise a broadly representative cross-section of ecosystems and species habitats in southeastern Alaska. Redrawn reserve boundaries, industry subsidies, and special access regulations reflected compromises to minimize the impact of wilderness conservation on mining, timber, and local stakeholder interests, respectively. Fragmentation of the Admiralty Island National Monument-the most ecologically valuable and politically controversial reserve-resulted from compromises with Alaskan Native (indigenous peoples of Alaska) corporations and timber interests. Despite language to accommodate "reasonable access" to wilderness reserves, ongoing access limitations highlight the concerns of Alaska residents that opposed ANILCA several decades ago. More broadly, the Tongass case suggests that early and ambitious conservation action may offset strong political opposition; compromises needed to establish key reserves often exacerbate development impacts in unprotected areas; and efforts to minimize social conflicts are needed to safeguard the long-term viability of conservation measures.

  7. The human gut microbiota as a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bülow, E.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, the emergence and spread of resistant opportunistic pathogens is compromising the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapies. Understanding the emergence and global spread of drug-resistant microorganisms is thus crucial to combat antimicrobial resistance. The human gut harbors a

  8. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Louis B

    2009-10-01

    The continued evolution of antimicrobial resistance in the hospital and more recently in the community threatens to seriously compromise our ability to treat serious infections. The major success of the seven-valent Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine at reducing both infection and resistance has been followed by the emergence of previously minor serotypes that express multiresistance. The almost universal activity of cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones against community Escherichia coli strains has been compromised by the spread of CTX-M beta-lactamase-producing, fluoroquinolone-resistant strains, and the emergence of community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, particularly in the United States, has forced us to re-think our empirical treatment guidelines for skin and soft-tissue infections. Finally, our most potent and reliable class of antibiotics, the carbapenems, is compromised by the growth, primarily in intensive care units, of multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanni, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The lack of a robust pipeline of new agents, particularly against resistant Gram-negative bacteria, emphasizes the importance of optimizing our use of current antimicrobials and promoting strict adherence to established infection control practices.

  9. Metabolic engineering of geranic acid in maize to achieve fungal resistance is compromised by novel glycosylation patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, T.; Stoopen, G.; Yalpani, N.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Vos, de R.; Voster, A.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Many terpenoids are known to have antifungal properties and overexpression of these compounds in crops is a potential tool in disease control. In this study, 15 different mono- and sesquiterpenoids were tested in vitro against two major pathogenic fungi of maize (Zea mays), Colletotrichum

  10. Dealing with antimicrobial resistance - the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Flemming; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2000-01-01

    (DANMAP), which monitors resistance among bacteria from food animals, food and humans. A programme to monitor all use of prescription medicine in food animals at the herd level is presently being implemented. Another initiative was the elaboration of a series of practical recommendations to veterinarians...... on the prudent use of antimicrobials in order to reduce the development of resistance without compromising therapeutic efficacy. Our experience with avoparcin shows that a restrictive policy on the use of antimicrobials can curb the development of resistance. However, the occurrence and persistence of specific...

  11. A libertarian perspective on the stem cell debate: compromising the uncompromisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Walter

    2010-08-01

    The present paper attempts to forge a compromise between those who maintain that stem cell research is out-and-out murder of young helpless human beings and those who favor this practice. The compromise is predicated upon the libertarian theory of private property rights. Starting out with the premise that not only the fetus but even the fertilized egg is a human being, with all rights thereto, it offers a competition between those who fertilize eggs for research and those who wish to adopt them. If and only if the former win this competition will they be allowed to use these very young human beings for the purposes they have constructed them. This is justified on grounds of avoiding child abuse.

  12. Orientation of handle for successful prosthetic treatment in patients with an anatomic compromise after a maxillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumita, Yuka I; Hattori, Mariko; Elbashti, Mahmoud E; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2017-05-01

    This clinical technique provides a key procedure for successful prosthetic treatment in patients with an anatomical compromise after a maxillectomy. When making a preliminary impression, the clinician must keep the handle of the stock tray parallel to the patient's interpupillary line extraorally to maintain the correct position of the tray and to make a record of the inclination of the occlusal plane. This simple consideration during this first step of making a preliminary impression can be an important guide for both dentists and dental technicians. Information about the correct positioning of the tray and the inclination of the occlusal plane obtained by using a stock tray handle will greatly reduce the stress experienced by dentists, dental technicians, and patients during the fabrication of the prosthesis and will ultimately lead to successful prosthetic treatment in patients with anatomic compromise resulting from a maxillectomy. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Happenstance and compromise: a gendered analysis of students' computing degree course selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Catherine

    2010-12-01

    The number of students choosing to study computing at university continues to decline this century, with an even sharper decline in female students. This article presents the results of a series of interviews with university students studying computing courses in Australia that uncovered the influence of happenstance and compromise on course choice. This investigation provides an insight into the contributing factors into the continued downturn of student diversity in computing bachelor degree courses. Many females interviewed made decisions based on happenstance, many males interviewed had chosen computing as a compromise course, and family helped in the decision-making to a large degree in both genders. The major implication from this investigation is the finding that students of both genders appear to be socialised away from this discipline, which is perceived as a support or insurance skill, not a career in itself, in all but the most technical-oriented (usually male) student.

  14. CLINICAL CASE OF TREATMENT WITH RIBOSOMAL COMPLEX IN CHILD WITH COMPROMISED IMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Alekseeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The leading pathology in children is acute respiratory infections (ARI according to the expert data of WHO. The incidence of prolonged and recurrent types of ARI increases during recent years. Patients with these diseases subsequently form the group of children with compromised immunity. Immunogens and immunomodulators are the drugs of nonspecific prophylaxis which are used for the prevention of ARI. The group of bacterial immunomodulators is big but most well-studied systemic drug from this group is Ribomunyl. Ribosomal complex is effective and safe in pediatric practice. The article presents the clinical case of treatment with ribosomal complex in immunocompronised child with allergic pathology.Key words: children with compromised immunity, allergy, acute respiratory infections, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (2: 211–215

  15. Autobiographical memory compromise in Alzheimer's disease: a cognitive and clinical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Roche, Jean; Gallouj, Karim; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte

    2017-12-01

    Autobiographical memory refers to memory for personal information. The compromise of autobiographical memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in a loss of knowledge about events and facts that defined the patients' life, and consequently, degradation of their self-knowledge and sense of identity. The compromise of autobiographical memory in AD can be attributed to a diminished subjective experience of memory and a diminished sense of the self. Our review provides a comprehensive overview of cognitive and clinical processes that may be involved in difficulties to retrieve autobiographical memories in Alzheimer's disease. Our review also proposes a theoretical model according to which, the diminished ability to retrieve contextual information and the overgenerality of recall result in a diminished subjective experience of past and future thinking. Besides its theoretical contribution, our review proposes clinical applicability for evaluation and rehabilitation of autobiographical memory in AD.

  16. Sterile diets for the immuno-compromised: Is there a need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterweck, Joseph S.

    1995-02-01

    There is a general misunderstanding in the radiation processing industry about the use of sterile diets in the medical profession. Sterile diets are used on a limited basis in hospitals that specialize in cancer treatment and organ transplants. These patients are severely immuno-compromised. There are many other patients that are immuno-compromised that do not require sterile diets. These patients may require a diet that is pathogen-free and are aslo "low-microbial diets". Nosocomial infections have become a major issue in US hospitals. The "infection control committee" is the focus group responsible to assure nosocomial infections incidence are below the hospital goals. Application of ionizing radiation to sterilize diets has not been chosen because the product is not available at a reasonable total cost. This paper will discuss the hospitals views.

  17. Esthetic management of compromised ridge in the anterior maxilla, a modified prosthetic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Lambodharan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacing a missing tooth with an implant, especially in the esthetic zone has been increasing demand for the patient. Placing dental implants in the esthetic zone, especially in the compromised ridge with thin gingival thin biotype is considered to be the ultimate challenge for many dentists. This case report illustrates the implant placement in the traumatic anterior maxilla with thin gingival biotype (Class IV and a modified approach in prosthetic placement.

  18. Salivary changes in medically compromised patients: A clinical and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehoshuva R Tummuru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medically compromised patients require special attention when dental procedures are performed on them. These individuals may require modified or slightly altered techniques. Aims and Objectives: The present study was taken up with two main objectives. The first one being examining and recording various oral manifestations in medically compromised patients, and the second objective was to collect samples of saliva from such patients and to analyze and establish any salivary changes in such medically compromised patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients were selected for the study. These patients were divided into four groups of 25 patients each: diabetes mellitus group, chronic renal failure group, liver cirrhosis group and control group. All the selected patients were subjected to a detailed general and intra oral examinations and the relevant data was recorded on a specially designed proforma; salivary analysis was done to know the flow rate, pH, total salivary proteins, sodium, potassium, and LDH levels. Results: From the findings, it can be inferred that salivary changes namely changes in salivary pH, salivary flow rates, salivary sodium, salivary potassium, salivary total proteins, and salivary lactate dehydrogenase are significant in medically compromised patients namely uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, cirrhosis of liver compared to the control group. Conclusion: pH of saliva was elevated in chronic renal failure patients. Salivary flow rates and sodium were decreased in diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and cirrhosis of liver patients. There was a significant elevation of salivary potassium in chronic renal failure patients. LDH elevation was significant in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.

  19. Striking a Balance between Program Requirements and GT Principles: Writing a compromised GT proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry L. Xie, Ph.D. Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Glaser’s term “compromised GT proposal” (2001, p.114 refers to the type of Grounded Theory (GT proposal that is written in order to conform to the requirements of a standardized qualitative research proposal. A GT proposal needs only to supply information on the area of interest, the data source and a statement of method to the effect that the researcher begin to collect, code and analyse the data and let the theory emerge. Thus, the proposal may only occupy “a page or two” (Glaser, 2001, p. 111. Whilst being consistent with the methodology, a GT proposal sometimes has to give way to the format specified by a PhD program or committee even though the format was not defined for a GT proposal and in some areas, conflicts with GT principles; for example, the format may require a literature review. This short paper reports on my experience of writing a compromised GT proposal as a first-time GT researcher. It describes how both Glaser’s advice on writing compromised GT research proposals and the characteristics of the substantive area of the proposed research were used to satisfy program requirements while still maintaining GT fundamentals.

  20. Live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccine with improved safety in immuno-compromised mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Periaswamy

    Full Text Available Live attenuated vaccines are of great value for preventing infectious diseases. They represent a delicate compromise between sufficient colonization-mediated adaptive immunity and minimizing the risk for infection by the vaccine strain itself. Immune defects can predispose to vaccine strain infections. It has remained unclear whether vaccine safety could be improved via mutations attenuating a vaccine in immune-deficient individuals without compromising the vaccine's performance in the normal host. We have addressed this hypothesis using a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea and a live attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain (ssaV. Vaccination with this strain elicited protective immunity in wild type mice, but a fatal systemic infection in immune-deficient cybb(-/-nos2(-/- animals lacking NADPH oxidase and inducible NO synthase. In cybb(-/-nos2(-/- mice, we analyzed the attenuation of 35 ssaV strains carrying one additional mutation each. One strain, Z234 (ssaV SL1344_3093, was >1000-fold attenuated in cybb(-/-nos2(-/- mice and ≈100 fold attenuated in tnfr1(-/- animals. However, in wt mice, Z234 was as efficient as ssaV with respect to host colonization and the elicitation of a protective, O-antigen specific mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA response. These data suggest that it is possible to engineer live attenuated vaccines which are specifically attenuated in immuno-compromised hosts. This might help to improve vaccine safety.

  1. Is ridge preservation/augmentation at periodontally compromised extraction sockets safe? A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ju; Ben Amara, Heithem; Schwarz, Frank; Kim, Hae-Young; Lee, Jung-Won; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Koo, Ki-Tae

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the safety of ridge preservation/augmentation procedures when performed at compromised extraction sockets. Patients subject to ridge preservation/augmentation at periodontally compromised sockets at Seoul National University Dental Hospital (SNUDH) were evaluated in a chart review. Tooth extractions due to acute infection were not included in our study as chronically formed lesions are the only lesions that can be detected from radiographic images. If inflammatory symptoms persisted following ridge preservation/augmentation and antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy, the patient was categorized as a re-infection case and implanted biomaterial removed. Of 10,060 patients subject to tooth extractions at SNUDH, 2011 through 2015, 297 cases meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed. The severity and type of lesions were not specific because extracting data was only done by radiographic images and chart records. The review identified eight patients exhibiting inflammatory symptoms that required additional antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy. Within this group, re-infection occurred in two patients requiring biomaterials removal. The final safety rate for the ridge preservation/augmentation was 99.3%. None of the demographic factors, systemic conditions or choice of biomaterial affected the safety of ridge preservation/augmentation. Alveolar ridge preservation/augmentation at periodontally compromised sockets appears safe following thorough removal of infectious source. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Outcomes of Soft Tissue Reconstruction for Traumatic Lower Extremity Fractures with Compromised Vascularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Ido; Burtt, Karen E; Leland, Hyuma A; Gould, Daniel J; Rounds, Alexis D; Azadgoli, Beina; Patel, Ketan M; Carey, Joseph N

    2017-10-01

    Traumatic lower extremity fractures with compromised arterial flow are limb-threatening injuries. A retrospective review of 158 lower extremities with traumatic fractures, including 26 extremities with arterial injuries, was performed to determine the effects of vascular compromise on flap survival, successful limb salvage and complication rates. Patients with arterial injuries had a larger average flap surface area (255.1 vs 144.6 cm2, P = 0.02) and a greater number of operations (4.7 vs 3.8, P = 0.01) than patients without vascular compromise. Patients presenting with vascular injury were also more likely to require fasciotomy [odds ratio (OR): 6.5, confidence interval (CI): 2.3-18.2] and to have a nerve deficit (OR: 16.6, CI: 3.9-70.0), fracture of the distal third of the leg (OR: 2.9, CI: 1.15-7.1) and intracranial hemorrhage (OR: 3.84, CI: 1.1-12.9). After soft tissue reconstruction, patients with arterial injuries had a higher rate of amputation (OR: 8.5, CI: 1.3-53.6) and flap failure requiring a return to the operating room (OR: 4.5, CI: 1.5-13.2). Arterial injury did not correlate with infection or overall complication rate. In conclusion, arterial injuries resulted in significant complications for patients with lower extremity fractures requiring flap coverage, although limb salvage was still effective in most cases.

  3. Acute gastrointestinal compromise in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia prior to repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Catherine; Stewart, Michael; King, Sebastian K; Patel, Neil

    2016-12-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) affects 1 in 3000 live births. Modern management strategies include delayed repair of the diaphragm to permit pre-operative optimization of cardiorespiratory status. We describe a cohort of neonates in whom early emergency operative intervention was required for potentially fatal intestinal compromise. A retrospective review was performed of all neonatal CDH patients managed at a tertiary center in an 8-year period (2005-2012). A total of 126 CDH patients were managed during the 8-year period. Five neonates (male - 1; gestation 37+4-39+7; birth weight 2.9-3.7kg; left CDH - 5) required emergency operative intervention for presumed gastrointestinal compromise. All five neonates demonstrated systemic hypotension despite inotropic support, raised serum lactate (>2mmol/L), and abnormal radiographic findings. Operative intervention occurred within 3days of birth (1-3days). Findings included gastric volvulus, jejunal volvulus, and perforated caecum. All patients underwent primary diaphragmatic repair without a patch. Temporary ileostomy was required in 1 patient. All patients remain alive. Gastrointestinal compromise is a rare, but potentially catastrophic, complication of CDH. Emergency operative intervention may be required in a select cohort of patients. Early deterioration following birth should alert clinicians to the possibility of significant intestinal pathology. Level IV case series with no comparison group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of dentists on medically compromised children’s oral and dental prophylaxis in Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosje Rosita Oewen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of dentist’s main roles is to coordinate the management of medically compromised children. The term of medically compromised refers to those children who have medical conditions which affect the dental treatment or manifest as a specific oral and dental problem. Patient’s visit to Special Care for Dentistry Clinic Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung showed a remarkable increase. From under 10 new visit in 2003, now July–December 2008 showed 81 new visit. Purpose: This paper discusses several medical problems (cardiovascular, hematology, respiratory system, and genetic disorder in children and the role of dentist in the treatment of those patients in the hospital. Review: The increase of attention by all level to these medically compromised children in the hospital also increases the dentist’s role in supporting the prognosis of the disease and patient’s quality of life. The most important effort is oral and dental prophylaxis to prevent oral pathology which is caused by the manifestation of disease as well as the side effects of treatment. Conclusion: It is, concluded that role of the dentist in managing these patients is giving preventive efforts and dental treatment that may be improve patient’s quality of life. The preventive effort and dental treatment is customize according to the patients condition. Nevertheless, cooperation from the dentist and other professional is needed in treating these patients.

  5. 17D yellow fever vaccine elicits comparable long-term immune responses in healthy individuals and immune-compromised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, R. W.; Goorhuis, A.; Jonker, E. F. F.; de Bree, G. J.; de Visser, A. W.; van Genderen, P. J. J.; Remmerswaal, E. B. M.; ten Berge, I. J. M.; Visser, L. G.; Grobusch, M. P.; van Leeuwen, E. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The 17D live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine is contra-indicated in immune-compromised individuals and may elicit a suboptimal immunologic response. The aim of this study is to assess whether long-term immune responses against the YF vaccine are impaired in immune-compromised patients. Fifteen

  6. Antibiotic resistance in Burkholderia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Katherine A; Schweizer, Herbert P

    2016-09-01

    The genus Burkholderia comprises metabolically diverse and adaptable Gram-negative bacteria, which thrive in often adversarial environments. A few members of the genus are prominent opportunistic pathogens. These include Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei of the B. pseudomallei complex, which cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia multivorans, and Burkholderia vietnamiensis belong to the Burkholderia cepacia complex and affect mostly cystic fibrosis patients. Infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat because of significant antibiotic resistance. The first line of defense against antimicrobials in Burkholderia species is the outer membrane penetration barrier. Most Burkholderia contain a modified lipopolysaccharide that causes intrinsic polymyxin resistance. Contributing to reduced drug penetration are restrictive porin proteins. Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division family are major players in Burkholderia multidrug resistance. Third and fourth generation β-lactam antibiotics are seminal for treatment of Burkholderia infections, but therapeutic efficacy is compromised by expression of several β-lactamases and ceftazidime target mutations. Altered DNA gyrase and dihydrofolate reductase targets cause fluoroquinolone and trimethoprim resistance, respectively. Although antibiotic resistance hampers therapy of Burkholderia infections, the characterization of resistance mechanisms lags behind other non-enteric Gram-negative pathogens, especially ESKAPE bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rme1 is necessary for Mi-1-mediated resistance and acts early in the resistance pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de Ilarduya, Oscar; Nombela, Gloria; Hwang, Chin-Feng; Williamson, Valerie M; Muñiz, Mariano; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2004-01-01

    The tomato gene Mi-1 confers resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), potato aphid, and whitefly. Using genetic screens, we have isolated a mutant, rme1 (resistance to Meloidogyne spp.), compromised in resistance to M. javanica and potato aphid. Here, we show that the rme1 mutant is also compromised in resistance to M. incognita, M. arenaria, and whitefly. In addition, using an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay in leaves to express constitutive gain-of-function mutant Pto(L205D), we demonstrated that the rme1 mutation is not compromised in Pto-mediated hypersensitive response. Moreover, the mutation in rme1 does not result in increased virulence of pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae or Mi-1-virulent M. incognita. Using a chimeric Mi-1 construct, Mi-DS4, which confers constitutive cell death phenotype and A. rhizogenes root transformation, we showed that the Mi-1-mediated cell death pathway is intact in this mutant. Our results indicate that Rme1 is required for Mi-1-mediated resistance and acts either at the same step in the signal transduction pathway as Mi-1 or upstream of Mi-1.

  8. Arsenic promotes centrosome abnormalities and cell colony formation in p53 compromised human lung cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Weiting; Lin Pinpin; Cheng, T.-S.; Yu, H.-S.; Chang, Louis W.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicated that residents, especially cigarette smokers, in arseniasis areas had significantly higher lung cancer risk than those living in non-arseniasis areas. Thus, an interaction between arsenic and cigarette smoking in lung carcinogenesis was suspected. p53 dysfunction or mutation in lung epithelial cells was frequently observed in cigarette smokers. Our present study was to explore the differential effects by arsenic on H1355 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with mutation in p53), BEAS-2B (immortalized lung epithelial cell with functional p53) and pifithrin-α-treated BEAS-2B cells (p53-inhibited cells). These cells were treated with different doses of sodium arsenite (0, 0.1, 1, 5 and 10 μM) for 48 h. A greater reduction in cell viability was observed in the BEAS-2B cells vs. p53 compromised cells (H1355 or p53-inhibited BEAS-2B). Similar observation was also made on 7-day cell survival (growth) study. TUNEL analysis confirmed that there was indeed a significantly reduced arsenite-induced apoptosis found in p53-compromised cells. Centrosomal abnormality has been attributed to eventual chromosomal missegregation, aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. In our present study, reduced p21 and Gadd45a expressions and increased centrosomal abnormality (atopic and multiple centrosomes) were observed in both arsenite-treated H1355 and p53-inhibited BEAS-2B cells as compared with similarly treated BEAS-2B cells. Increased anchorage-independent growth (colony formation) of BEAS-2B cells co-treated with pifithrin-α and 5 μM sodium arsenite was also observed in soft agar. Our present investigation demonstrated that arsenic would act specifically on p53 compromised cells (either with p53 dysfunction or inhibited) to induce centrosomal abnormality and colony formation. These findings provided strong evidence on the carcinogenic promotional role of arsenic, especially under the condition of p53 dysfunction

  9. Results of endoscopic surgery and intralesional steroid therapy for airway compromise due to tracheobronchial Wegener's granulomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. R. Nouraei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper airway compromise due to tracheobronchial stenosis commonly occurs in patients with Wegener's Granulomatosis (WG. There is at present no consensus on the optimal management of this life-threatening condition. Objective: To assess the results of laryngo-tracheo-bronchoscopy, intralesional steroid therapy, laser surgery, and dilatation in managing obstructive tracheobronchial WG. Methods: Records of eighteen previously-untreated stridulous patients with obstructive tracheobronchial WG, treated between 2004 and 2006 were prospectively recorded on an airway database and retrospectively reviewed. Information about patient and lesion characteristics and treatment details were recorded. Treatment progress was illustrated using a timeline plot, and intervention-free intervals were calculated with actuarial analysis. Results: There were nine males and the average age at presentation was 40 (16 years [range 13–74]. There were thirteen patients with tracheal, and five patients with tracheal and bronchial lesions. The average tracheal lesion height was 8 (3 mm, located 23 (9 mm below the glottis. There were 1, 10 and 7 Myer-Cotton grade I, II and III lesions respectively. Mean intervention-free interval following minimally-invasive treatment was 26 (2.8 months. Following endobronchial therapy the median intervention-free interval was 22 months (p>0.8 vs. tracheal lesions. No patient required a tracheostomy or endoluminal stenting. Conclusions: Intralesional steroid therapy and conservative endoluminal surgery is an effective strategy for treating airway compromise due to active tracheal and bronchial WG, obviating the need for airway bypass or stenting. We recommend the combination of endotracheal dilatation, conservative laser surgery and steroid therapy as the standard of care for treating airway compromise due to obstructive tracheobronchial WG.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed.

  11. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia as an Unusual Cause of Rapid Airway Compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian R. Bersabe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL is the most prevalent form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL in Western countries predominantly affecting adults over the age of 65. CLL is commonly indolent in nature but can present locally and aggressively at extranodal sites. Although CLL may commonly present with cervical lymphadenopathy, manifestation in nonlymphoid regions of the head and neck is not well described. CLL causing upper airway obstruction is even more uncommon. We describe a case of a patient with known history of CLL and stable lymphocytosis that developed an enlarging lymphoid base of tongue (BOT mass resulting in rapid airway compromise.

  12. Testing the effect of time pressure on asymmetric dominance and compromise decoys in choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pettibone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic, connectionist models of decision making, such as decision field theory (Roe, Busemeyer, and Townsend, 2001, propose that the effect of context on choice arises from a series of pairwise comparisons between attributes of alternatives across time. As such, they predict that limiting the amount of time to make a decision should decrease rather than increase the size of contextual effects. This prediction was tested across four levels of time pressure on both the asymmetric dominance (Huber, Payne, and Puto, 1982 and compromise (Simonson, 1989 decoy effects in choice. Overall, results supported this prediction, with both types of decoy effects found to be larger as time pressure decreased.

  13. Identifying compromised systems through correlation of suspicious traffic from malware behavioral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Ana E. F.; Grégio, André; Santos, Rafael D. C.

    2016-05-01

    Malware detection may be accomplished through the analysis of their infection behavior. To do so, dynamic analysis systems run malware samples and extract their operating system activities and network traffic. This traffic may represent malware accessing external systems, either to steal sensitive data from victims or to fetch other malicious artifacts (configuration files, additional modules, commands). In this work, we propose the use of visualization as a tool to identify compromised systems based on correlating malware communications in the form of graphs and finding isomorphisms between them. We produced graphs from over 6 thousand distinct network traffic files captured during malware execution and analyzed the existing relationships among malware samples and IP addresses.

  14. Management of periodontally compromised patient by orthodontic treatment: Does it help esthetically and biologically?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash C Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults are always keen to know whether they can still opt for orthodontic treatment and they often ask the same question to the orthodontist and the orthodontist replies, it primarily depends on the health of the bone supporting the teeth. Yes, it is the bone health which is of prime importance to undergo orthodontic treatment. Here is a case report of a patient who underwent orthodontic treatment because of lower midline spacing and protrusion of the upper anteriors. The bone health of the upper and lower anteriors was compromised. At the end of the treatment, there was marked improvement in the bone level and the profile of the patient.

  15. Compromises produced by the dialectic between self-verification and self-enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morling, B; Epstein, S

    1997-12-01

    Three studies of people's reactions to evaluative feedback demonstrated that the dialectic between self-enhancement and self-verification results in compromises between these 2 motives, as hypothesized in cognitive-experiential self-theory. The demonstration was facilitated by 2 procedural improvements: Enhancement and verification were established by calibrating evaluative feedback against self appraisals, and degree of enhancement and of verification were varied along a continuum, rather than categorically. There was also support for the hypotheses that processing in an intuitive-experiential mode favors enhancement and processing in an analytical-rational mode favors verification in the kinds of situations investigated.

  16. Macronutrient manipulations of cheese resulted in lower energy content without compromising its satiating capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thea Toft; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Ritz, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Manipulation of food’s macronutrient composition in order to reduce energy content without compromising satiating capacity may be helpful in body weight control. For cheeses, substituting fat with protein may provide such opportunity. We aimed at examining the acute effect of cheeses with different...... macronutrient compositions on accumulated energy intake and subjective appetite sensation. A total of thirty-nine normal-weight (average BMI 24·4 kg/m2) men and women completed the partly double-blind, randomised crossover study with high-protein/low-fat (HP/LF, 696 kJ), high-protein/high-fat (HP/HF, 976 k...

  17. Management of compromised anterior maxillary edentulous arch with symphyseal bone graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Mishra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving optimal aesthetics, function and phonetics with implant-supported restorations depends largely on the amount of bone present at the site where implant has to be placed. Sometimes, patient reports with compromised conditions which makes the implant placement difficult. Today, reconstruction procedures such as autogenous bone graft and guided bone regeneration make the implant placement possible in different ridge deficient cases. This case report describes step-by-step procedure of restoring the missing maxillary right central incisor with implant-supported prostheses. In missing left central incisor region, the alveolar bony defect was corrected by autogenous bone graft obtained from symphysis region, for restoration with implant prostheses.

  18. Compromised epidermal barrier stimulates Harderian gland activity and hypertrophy in ACBP-/- mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Signe Bek; Neess, Ditte; Dixen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    of the eye lid. We show that disruption of the Acbp gene leads to a significant enlargement of this gland with hypertrophy of the acinar cells and increased de novo synthesis of monoalkyl diacylglycerol, the main lipid species produced by the gland. Mice with conditional targeting of the Acbp gene......Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is a small, ubiquitously expressed intracellular protein that binds C14-C22 acyl-CoA esters with very high affinity and specificity. We have recently shown that targeted disruption of the Acbp gene leads to a compromised epidermal barrier and that this causes delayed...

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom ... plan Global report on surveillance Country situation analysis Policy to combat antimicrobial resistance More on antimicrobial resistance ...

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can prevent and manage antimicrobial resistance. It is collaborating with partners to strengthen the evidence base and ... on the global action plan. WHO has been leading multiple initiatives to address antimicrobial resistance: World Antibiotic ...

  1. Evaluation of instant cup noodle, irradiated for immuno-compromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jae-Nam; Yoon, Young-Min; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Seok; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, initial microbial load of instant cup noodle (ICN) was investigated and gamma irradiation applied to develop immuno-compromised patients food for their safe consumption. The initial microbial population of dried vegetable and meat, and noodle was below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g); however, that of seasoning powder was just above 4 log CFU/g. Moreover, rehydrated-ICN with water at 100 °C still show above 3 log CFU/g of microbial load, which indicates the need for an additional process to control microbial safety of the seasoning powder. The total aerobic bacteria in seasoning powder and rehydrated-ICN could be controlled with 17 kGy gamma irradiation. This result referred 17 kGy gamma irradiation could reach ‘practical sterility’ of ICN. The overall difference in sensory properties between the non-irradiated and irradiated ICN was insignificant. Thus, gamma irradiation could improve the microbial quality of ICN, and reduce the risk of infection posed by the seasoning powder, without any adverse effects on their sensory quality. These results suggest that gamma-irradiated ICN can be used as a snack food for immuno-compromised patients.

  2. 2-Sulfonylpyrimidines: Mild alkylating agents with anticancer activity toward p53-compromised cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Matthias R; Joerger, Andreas C; Fersht, Alan R

    2016-09-06

    The tumor suppressor p53 has the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. Many of p53's oncogenic mutants are just destabilized and rapidly aggregate, and are targets for stabilization by drugs. We found certain 2-sulfonylpyrimidines, including one named PK11007, to be mild thiol alkylators with anticancer activity in several cell lines, especially those with mutationally compromised p53. PK11007 acted by two routes: p53 dependent and p53 independent. PK11007 stabilized p53 in vitro via selective alkylation of two surface-exposed cysteines without compromising its DNA binding activity. Unstable p53 was reactivated by PK11007 in some cancer cell lines, leading to up-regulation of p53 target genes such as p21 and PUMA. More generally, there was cell death that was independent of p53 but dependent on glutathione depletion and associated with highly elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as also found for the anticancer agent PRIMA-1(MET)(APR-246). PK11007 may be a lead for anticancer drugs that target cells with nonfunctional p53 or impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification in a wide variety of mutant p53 cells.

  3. Study of flood defense structural measures priorities using Compromise Programming technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D.; Jeong, S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent climate change of global warming has led to the frequent occurrence of heavy regional rainfalls. As such, inundation vulnerability increases in urban areas with high population density due to the low runoff carrying capacity. This study selects a sample area (Janghang-eup, the Republic of Korea), which is one of the most vulnerable areas to flooding, analyzing the urban flood runoff model (XP-SWMM) and using the MCDM (Multi-Criteria Decision Making) technique to establish flood protection structural measures. To this end, we compare the alternatives and choose the optimal flood defense measure: our model is utilized with three flood prevention structural measures; (i) drainage pipe construction; (ii) water detention; and (iii) flood pumping station. Dividing the target area into three small basins, we propose flood evaluations for an inundation decrease by studying the flooded area, the maximum inundation depth, the damaged residential area, and the construction cost. In addition, Compromise Programming determines the priority of the alternatives. As a consequent, this study suggests flood pumping station for Zone 1 and drainage pipe construction for Zone 2 and Zone 3, respectively, as the optimal flood defense alternative. Keywords : MCDM; Compromise Programming; Urban Flood Prevention; This research was supported by a grant [MPSS-DP-2013-62] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  4. Corporate corruption of the environment: sustainability as a process of compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Daniel; Wright, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    A key response to environmental degradation, climate change and declining biodiversity has been the growing adoption of market principles in an effort to better value the social good of nature. Through concepts such as 'natural capitalism' and 'corporate environmentalism', nature is increasingly viewed as a domain of capitalist endeavour. In this article, we use convention theory and a pluralist understanding of social goods to investigate how the social good of the environment is usurped by the alternate social good of the market. Through analysis of interviews with sustainability managers and corporate documentation, we highlight how organizational actors employ compromise to temporally settle disputes between competing claims about environmental activities. Our findings contribute to an understanding of the processes of empirically grounded critique and the under-theorized concept of compromise between social goods. Rather than protecting the environment, the corporate promotion of sustainability facilitates the corruption of the social good of the environment and its conversion into a market commodity. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  5. Natural Tooth Pontic: An Instant Esthetic Option for Periodontally Compromised Teeth—A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Raj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden tooth loss in the esthetic zone of the maxillary or mandibular anterior region can be due to trauma, periodontal disease, or endodontic failure. The treatment options for replacing the missing tooth can vary between removable prosthesis, tooth-supported prosthesis, and implant-supported prosthesis. Irrespective of the final treatment, the first line of management would be to provisionally restore the patient’s esthetic appearance at the earliest, while functionally stabilizing the compromised arch. Using the patient’s own natural tooth as a pontic offers the benefits of being the right size, shape, and color and provides exact repositioning in its original intraoral three-dimensional position. Additionally, using the patient’s platelet concentrate (platelet rich fibrin facilitates early wound healing and preservation of alveolar ridge shape following tooth extraction. The abutment teeth can also be preserved with minimal or no preparation, thus keeping the technique reversible, and can be completed at the chair side thereby avoiding laboratory costs. This helps the patient better tolerate the effect of tooth loss psychologically. The article describes a successful, immediate, and viable technique for rehabilitation of three different patients requiring replacement of a single periodontally compromised tooth in an esthetic region.

  6. Commonly Employed African Neonatal Skin Care Products Compromise Epidermal Function in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Sun, Richard; Man, George; Lee, Dale; Hill, Zelee; Elias, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    Neonatal mortality is much higher in the developing world than in developed countries. Infections are a major cause of neonatal death, particularly in preterm infants, in whom defective epidermal permeability barrier function facilitates transcutaneous pathogen invasion. The objective was to determine whether neonatal skin care products commonly used in Africa benefit or compromise epidermal functions in murine skin. After twice-daily treatment of 6- to 8-week-old hairless mice with each skin care product for 3 days, epidermal permeability barrier function, skin surface pH, stratum corneum hydration, and barrier recovery were measured using a multiprobe adapter system physiology monitor. For products showing some benefits in these initial tests, the epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis was assessed 1 and 5 hours after a single application to acutely disrupted skin. All of the skin care products compromised basal permeability barrier function and barrier repair kinetics. Moreover, after 3 days of treatment, most of the products also reduced stratum corneum hydration while elevating skin surface pH to abnormal levels. Some neonatal skin care products that are widely used in Africa perturb important epidermal functions, including permeability barrier homeostasis in mice. Should these products have similar effects on newborn human skin, they could cause a defective epidermal permeability barrier, which can increase body fluid loss, impair thermoregulation, and contribute to the high rates of neonatal morbidity and mortality seen in Africa. Accordingly, alternative products that enhance permeability barrier function should be identified, particularly for use in preterm infants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Relationship between Lower Tendency to Deceive in Aging and Inhibitory Compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Deception can be associated with a heterogeneous network of concepts such as exaggeration, misleading, white lies, and faking. This paper assesses the tendency to deceive in aging. Our main aim was to assess whether older adults would demonstrate a low tendency to deceive. A total of 42 older adults (mean age 67.64 years, SD 7.87) and 45 younger adults (mean age 21.71 years, SD 2.66) were administered a deception scale including items such as "I sometimes tell lies if I have to" or "I never take things that don't belong to me." Participants were also administered an inhibition task. The results demonstrated a low tendency to deceive and low inhibition in older adults compared with younger ones. The low tendency to deceive in the older adults was significantly correlated with their diminished inhibitory ability. The low tendency to deceive in aging seems to be related to a difficulty in inhibiting an honest response. Since inhibitory compromise has been considered mainly to trigger negative consequences for cognition, the present paper illustrates how this age-related compromise can be associated with positive social outcomes, i.e., a low tendency to deceive. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Constraining the brachial plexus does not compromise regional control in oropharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Mutter W; Wolden, Suzanne L; Lee, Nancy Y; Lok, Benjamin H; Dutta, Pinaki R; Riaz, Nadeem; Setton, Jeremy; Berry, Sean L; Goenka, Anuj; Zhang, Zhigang; Rao, Shyam S

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that brachial plexopathy following head and neck cancer radiotherapy may be underreported and that this toxicity is associated with a dose–response. Our purpose was to determine whether the dose to the brachial plexus (BP) can be constrained, without compromising regional control. The radiation plans of 324 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were reviewed. We identified 42 patients (13%) with gross nodal disease <1 cm from the BP. Normal tissue constraints included a maximum dose of 66 Gy and a D 05 of 60 Gy for the BP. These criteria took precedence over planning target volume (PTV) coverage of nodal disease near the BP. There was only one regional failure in the vicinity of the BP, salvaged with neck dissection (ND) and regional re-irradiation. There have been no reported episodes of brachial plexopathy to date. In combined-modality therapy, including ND as salvage, regional control did not appear to be compromised by constraining the dose to the BP. This approach may improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing the long-term risk of brachial plexopathy

  9. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Geary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play and cognitive (e.g., language fluency traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.

  10. Hydro-environmental management of groundwater resources: A fuzzy-based multi-objective compromise approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Rakhshandehroo, Gholam Reza

    2017-08-01

    Sustainable management of water resources necessitates close attention to social, economic and environmental aspects such as water quality and quantity concerns and potential conflicts. This study presents a new fuzzy-based multi-objective compromise methodology to determine the socio-optimal and sustainable policies for hydro-environmental management of groundwater resources, which simultaneously considers the conflicts and negotiation of involved stakeholders, uncertainties in decision makers' preferences, existing uncertainties in the groundwater parameters and groundwater quality and quantity issues. The fuzzy multi-objective simulation-optimization model is developed based on qualitative and quantitative groundwater simulation model (MODFLOW and MT3D), multi-objective optimization model (NSGA-II), Monte Carlo analysis and Fuzzy Transformation Method (FTM). Best compromise solutions (best management policies) on trade-off curves are determined using four different Fuzzy Social Choice (FSC) methods. Finally, a unanimity fallback bargaining method is utilized to suggest the most preferred FSC method. Kavar-Maharloo aquifer system in Fars, Iran, as a typical multi-stakeholder multi-objective real-world problem is considered to verify the proposed methodology. Results showed an effective performance of the framework for determining the most sustainable allocation policy in groundwater resource management.

  11. Sterilization of freeze dried manila clam (Ruditapea philippinarum) porridge for immuno-compromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jae Nam

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and different conditions (vacuum packaging, antioxidant and freezing) on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of freeze dried Manila clam porridge (MCP) for immuno-compromised patient food. McP can be sterilized at 1 kGy to 10 kGy. the initial counts of total aerobic bacteria and yeast molds in the non-irradiated MCP were 2.4±0.5 and 1.2±0.3 log CFU g"-'1, respectively, but gamma irradiation significantly decreased the total aerobic bacteria to below the detection limit (1 log CFU g"-"1) (5 kGy). Moreover, gamma irradiation effectively eliminated yeasts/molds at dose below than 1 kGy. However, gamma irradiation accelerated the increase of lipid oxidation and therefore, decreased the sensory characteristics of MCP as irradiation dose increased. to improve the sensory qualities of gamma irradiated MCP, combination treatment (vacuum packaging, 0.1% vitamin c) were applied. there was no significant difference in the overall acceptance scores between the combined-treatment sample (5.6 points) and the non-irradiated samples (6.0). the results indicate that combination treatment (vacuum packaging, 0.1% vitamin c) may help to maintain the quality of MCP. therefore, it considered that irradiation of MCP with combined treatment and this is an effective method for the consumption as a special purpose food such as for space travel or immuno-compromised patients

  12. Cerebral hematocrit decreases with hemodynamic compromise in carotid artery occlusion: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, H; Fukuyama, H; Nagahama, Y; Katsumi, Y; Okazawa, H

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated whether in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion the regional cerebral hematocrit correlates with cerebral hemodynamics or metabolic state and, if so, how the regional cerebral hematocrit changes in the hemodynamically compromised region. We used positron emission tomography to study seven patients with unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and no cortical infarction in the chronic stage. The distributions of red blood cell and plasma volumes were assessed using oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide and copper-62-labeled human serum albumin-dithiosemicarbazone tracers, respectively. The calculated hematocrit value was compared with the hemodynamic and metabolic parameters measured with the oxygen-15 steady-state technique. In the cerebral cortex, the value of the cerebral hematocrit varied but was correlated with the hemodynamic and metabolic status. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the large vessel hematocrit, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, and the cerebral blood flow or the oxygen extraction fraction accounted for a significant proportion of variance of the cerebral hematocrit. The oxygen extraction fraction and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen negatively correlated with the cerebral hematocrit, whereas the cerebral blood flow correlated positively: patients with reduced blood supply relative to metabolic demand (decreased blood flow with increased oxygen extraction fraction) showed low hematocrit values. In carotid artery occlusion in the chronic stage, regional cerebral hematocrit may vary according to cerebral hemodynamics and metabolic status. Regional cerebral hematocrit may decrease with hemodynamic compromise unless oxygen metabolism concomitantly decreases.

  13. Evaluation of instant cup noodle, irradiated for immuno-compromised patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jae-Nam; Yoon, Young-Min; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Seok; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, initial microbial load of instant cup noodle (ICN) was investigated and gamma irradiation applied to develop immuno-compromised patients food for their safe consumption. The initial microbial population of dried vegetable and meat, and noodle was below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g); however, that of seasoning powder was just above 4 log CFU/g. Moreover, rehydrated-ICN with water at 100 °C still show above 3 log CFU/g of microbial load, which indicates the need for an additional process to control microbial safety of the seasoning powder. The total aerobic bacteria in seasoning powder and rehydrated-ICN could be controlled with 17 kGy gamma irradiation. This result referred 17 kGy gamma irradiation could reach 'practical sterility' of ICN. The overall difference in sensory properties between the non-irradiated and irradiated ICN was insignificant. Thus, gamma irradiation could improve the microbial quality of ICN, and reduce the risk of infection posed by the seasoning powder, without any adverse effects on their sensory quality. These results suggest that gamma-irradiated ICN can be used as a snack food for immuno-compromised patients.

  14. Fibre reinforcement in a structurally compromised endodontically treated molar: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renita Soares

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of structurally compromised posterior teeth is a rather challenging procedure. The tendency of endodontically treated teeth (ETT to fracture is considerably higher than vital teeth. Although posts and core build-ups followed by conventional crowns have been generally employed for the purpose of reconstruction, this procedure entails sacrificing a considerable amount of residual sound enamel and dentin. This has drawn the attention of researchers to fibre reinforcement. Fibre-reinforced composite (FRC, designed to replace dentin, enables the biomimetic restoration of teeth. Besides improving the strength of the restoration, the incorporation of glass fibres into composite resins leads to favorable fracture patterns because the fibre layer acts as a stress breaker and stops crack propagation. The following case report presents a technique for reinforcing a badly broken-down ETT with biomimetic materials and FRC. The proper utilization of FRC in structurally compromised teeth can be considered to be an economical and practical measure that may obviate the use of extensive prosthetic treatment.

  15. Life-threatening systemic toxicity and airway compromise from a common European adder bite to the tongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, L C G; Jessen, C L; Lambertsen, K

    2009-01-01

    , pharyngeal and facial oedema compromised the airway, leading to respiratory failure, concomitant with circulatory failure related to hypoxaemia and systemic toxic effects. Acute tracheotomy secured the airway, and two doses of antivenom successfully treated the systemic, toxic effects. The reaction...

  16. 28 CFR 0.163 - Approval by Solicitor General of action on compromise offers in certain cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... advice from the Solicitor General that the principles of law involved do not require appellate review in... JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Authority To Compromise and Close Civil Claims and...

  17. Antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Frieri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is a challenge that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Multidrug resistance patterns in Gram-positive and -negative bacteria are difficult to treat and may even be untreatable with conventional antibiotics. There is currently a shortage of effective therapies, lack of successful prevention measures, and only a few new antibiotics, which require development of novel treatment options and alternative antimicrobial therapies. Biofilms are involved in multidrug resistance and can present challenges for infection control. Virulence, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile infection, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and control in the Emergency Department are also discussed. Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Biofilms, Infections, Public health, Emergency Department

  18. A model of antibiotic-resistant bacterial epidemics in hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Glenn F.; D'Agata, Erika M. C.; Magal, Pierre; Ruan, Shigui

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant strains of bacteria is an increasing threat to society, especially in hospital settings. Many antibiotics that were formerly effective in combating bacterial infections in hospital patients are no longer effective because of the evolution of resistant strains, which compromises medical care worldwide. In this article, we formulate a two-level population model to quantify key elements in nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections. At the bacteria level, patients ...

  19. Functional characterization of the antibiotic resistance reservoir in the human microflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten; Church, George M; Dantas, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    The increasing levels of multi-drug resistance in human pathogenic bacteria are compromising our ability to treat infectious disease. Since antibiotic resistance determinants are readily exchanged between bacteria through lateral gene transfer, there is an increasing interest in investigating res...

  20. Natural physical and biological processes compromise the long-term performance of compacted soil caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Compacted soil barriers are components of essentially all caps placed on closed waste disposal sites. The intended functions of soil barriers in waste facility caps include restricting infiltration of water and release of gases and vapors, either independently or in combination with synthetic membrane barriers, and protecting other manmade or natural barrier components. Review of the performance of installed soil barriers and of natural processes affecting their performance indicates that compacted soil caps may function effectively for relatively short periods (years to decades), but natural physical and biological processes can be expected to cause them to fail in the long term (decades to centuries). This paper addresses natural physical and biological processes that compromise the performance of compacted soil caps and suggests measures that may reduce the adverse consequences of these natural failure mechanisms

  1. Signal Timing Optimization Based on Fuzzy Compromise Programming for Isolated Signalized Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexin Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the signal timing for isolated intersection, a new method based on fuzzy programming approach is proposed in this paper. Considering the whole operation efficiency of the intersection comprehensively, traffic capacity, vehicle cycle delay, cycle stops, and exhaust emission are chosen as optimization goals to establish a multiobjective function first. Then fuzzy compromise programming approach is employed to give different weight coefficients to various optimization objectives for different traffic flow ratios states. And then the multiobjective function is converted to a single objective function. By using genetic algorithm, the optimized signal cycle and effective green time can be obtained. Finally, the performance of the traditional method and new method proposed in this paper is compared and analyzed through VISSIM software. It can be concluded that the signal timing optimized in this paper can effectively reduce vehicle delays and stops, which can improve traffic capacity of the intersection as well.

  2. Controlling the fluoride dosage in a patient with compromised salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmiller, Frederick C; Eidelman, Naomi; Carey, Clifton M

    2005-01-01

    High-concentration topical fluorides are used commonly to with compromised salivary function due to irradiation and chemotherapy. The authors describe a 50-year-old man with previously treated cancer who was using tray-applied topical fluoride gel. He complained of gastric symptoms, difficulty in swallowing, leg muscle soreness and knee joint soreness. A computed tomographic scan revealed thickening of the esophageal walls. An upper endoscopy revealed abnormal motility. The motility test indicated high-amplitude peristalsis and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter, and urine testing indicated high levels of systemic fluoride. The patient's fluoride regimen was altered, and within a short period his urinary fluoride levels returned to normal and his symptoms resolved. Clinicians prescribing home-applied high-concentration fluorides need to be cognizant of the symptoms of fluoride toxicity, carefully monitor the patient's compliance with the treatment regimen, and adjust the dosage or mode of application to control the total ingested dose of fluoride.

  3. Subliminal food images compromise superior working memory performance in women with restricting anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha J; O'Daly, Owen G; Uher, Rudolf; Schiöth, Helgi B; Treasure, Janet; Campbell, Iain C

    2012-06-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) is dysregulated in women with restricting anorexia nervosa (RAN). It is not known whether appetitive non-conscious stimuli bias cognitive responses in those with RAN. Thirteen women with RAN and 20 healthy controls (HC) completed a dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) working memory task and an anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) conflict task, while masked subliminal food, aversive and neutral images were presented. During the DLPFC task, accuracy was higher in the RAN compared to the HC group, but superior performance was compromised when subliminal food stimuli were presented: errors positively correlated with self-reported trait anxiety in the RAN group. These effects were not observed in the ACC task. Appetitive activation is intact and anxiogenic in women with RAN, and non-consciously interacts with working memory processes associated with the DLPFC. This interaction mechanism may underlie cognitive inhibition of appetitive processes that are anxiety inducing, in people with AN. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Navigating safety necessary compromises and trade-offs : theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Amalberti, René

    2013-01-01

    Managing safety in a professional environment requires constant negotiation with other competitive dimensions of risk management (finances, market and political drivers, manpower and social crisis). This is obvious, although generally not said in safety manuals. The book provides a unique vision of how to best find these compromises, starting with lessons learnt from natural risk management by individuals, then applying them to the craftsman industry, complex industrial systems (civil aviation, nuclear energy) and public services (like transportation and medicine). It offers a unique, illustrated, easy to read and scientifically based set of original concepts and pragmatic methods to revisit safety management and adopt a successful system vision. As such, and with illustrations coming from many various fields (aviation, fishing, nuclear, oil, medicine), it potentially covers a broad readership.

  5. A combination of additives can synergically decrease acrylamide content in gingerbread without compromising sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komprda, Tomáš; Pridal, Antonin; Mikulíková, Renata; Svoboda, Zdeněk; Cwiková, Olga; Nedomová, Šárka; Sýkora, Vladimír

    2017-02-01

    The present study tested whether replacement of the leavening agent ammonium carbonate by sodium hydrogen carbonate in combination with calcium cation and acidifying agent will synergically decrease acrylamide (AA) content in gingerbread. The type of leavening agent and the presence of Ca 2+ and citric acid accounted for 33.6%, 13.2% and 53.2% of the explained variability of the AA content, respectively (P sensory analysis did not indicate any significant deterioration (P > 0.05) in the organoleptic quality of gingerbread produced using calcium cation and citric acid. The present study demonstrates that the combination of additives NaHCO 3 /Ca 2+ /citric acid synergically decreases AA content in gingerbread without compromising the sensory quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Risk-Controlled Multiobjective Portfolio Selection Problem Using a Principle of Compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hasuike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multiobjective portfolio selection problem with most probable random distribution derived from current market data and other random distributions of boom and recession under the risk-controlled parameters determined by an investor. The current market data and information include not only historical data but also interpretations of economists’ oral and linguistic information, and hence, the boom and recession are often caused by these nonnumeric data. Therefore, investors need to consider several situations from most probable condition to boom and recession and to avoid the risk less than the target return in each situation. Furthermore, it is generally difficult to set random distributions of these cases exactly. Therefore, a robust-based approach for portfolio selection problems using the only mean values and variances of securities is proposed as a multiobjective programming problem. In addition, an exact algorithm is developed to obtain an explicit optimal portfolio using a principle of compromise.

  7. An extension of compromise ranking method with interval numbers for the evaluation of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mousavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating and prioritizing appropriate renewable energy sources is inevitably a complex decision process. Various information and conflicting attributes should be taken into account. For this purpose, multi-attribute decision making (MADM methods can assist managers or decision makers in formulating renewable energy sources priorities by considering important objective and attributes. In this paper, a new extension of compromise ranking method with interval numbers is presented for the prioritization of renewable energy sources that is based on the performance similarity of alternatives to ideal solutions. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed decision method, an application example is provided and the computational results are analyzed. Results illustrate that the presented method is viable in solving the evaluation and prioritization problem of renewable energy sources.

  8. ACCOUNTING – THE REZULT OF A COMPROMISE BETWEEN EXPECTATIONS AND EXIGENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TULVINSCHI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Current concerns in the field of accounting are circumscribed to the need to perfect a unanimously accepted accounting language to be included in the application, as uniformly as possible, of the principles and accounting treatments as a basis in making financial statements. This approach is complicated and implies an extraordinary dynamics. The objective of the article is to investigate whether, in the current economic environment, accounting is able to issue an objective message to meet the expectations and exigencies of all users of financial information. Accounting can provide only a single representation of reality, and the information produced by accounting can only be a compromise between the respect for accounting principles and the care for reflecting economic reality. Accounting is an information system that quantifies, processes and transmits financial information about an economic entity. It establishes the link between economic activities and decision-makers.

  9. On-farm conditions that compromise animal welfare that can be monitored at the slaughter plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Temple

    2017-10-01

    Handling and stunning at slaughter plants has greatly improved through the use of numerical scoring. The purpose of this paper is to encourage the use of numerical scoring systems at the slaughter plants to assess conditions that compromise welfare that occurred either during transport or on the farm. Some of the transport problems that can be assessed are bruises, death losses, and injured animals. Welfare issues that occurred on the farm that can be assessed at the abattoir are body condition, lameness, lesions, injuries, animal cleanliness and internal pathology. There are important welfare issues that cannot be assessed at slaughter. They are on-farm euthanasia methods, use of analgesics during surgeries, and the type of animal housing systems. Welfare evaluations at slaughter have the potential to greatly improve welfare. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The Hopelessly Compromised: Independent Games as a Movement against Mainstream AAA Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The last 10-15 years have seen the rise of a loosely defined independent games movement, often promoted as a more authentic type of video game than mainstream big budget video games (Juul 2014). For example, developer Dan Cook claims that “Indie games let me be a fan who is cheering on someone...... of the design and values of mainstream video games. As such, mainstream video games play the role of the morally and aesthetically compromised other, an other from which video games must be saved; an other that independent games are assumed to be rebelling against. In this paper I will analyze independent games...... as a number of specific (and sometimes contradictory) rejections of particular aspects of mainstream video game design. I am examining the game design of selected high-profile independent games, as well as game reviews and developer statement about their games. Here I am presenting general results...

  11. CT-morphological characterization of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia in immune-compromised adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, J.L.; Kauczor, H.U.; Lehners, N.; Egerer, G.; Heussel, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    Characterization and follow-up evaluation of chest CT of RSV pneumonia in immune-compromised adults during a seasonal epidemic. Retrospective analysis of 132 chest CT examinations of 51 adult immune-compromised patients (29 m/22f, diameter 58 years) with clinical signs of pneumonia and positive RSV test in winter 2011/2012. Two experienced chest radiologists evaluated the morphology (bronchial wall thickening, tree-in-bud, nodules, halo, ground-glass opacities, consolidations, pleural fluid) of the CT scans by consensus. Pathological findings were in 86 % of the chest CT scans: Areas of ground-glass attenuation in 64 %, consolidations in 56 %, nodules in 55 % (diameter 8 mm in maximal diameter, with halo in 71 %), pleural fluid in 44 % (diameter 2 cm), tree-in-bud in 36 %, bronchial wall thickening in 27 % and more than one morphological finding in 72 %. There were no pathological CT findings in 14 % of patients with clinical symptoms of pneumonia because these patients did not undergo follow-up. Radiological progression was found in 45 % of patients and regression in 33 % in follow-up examinations. In 37 % an additional examination of the paranasal sinuses was performed and showed sinusitis in 63 % of cases. 90 % of the patients had sinusitis as well as pneumonia. In addition to RSV, a further pathogenic agent was found in bronchoalveolar lavage of five patients (Aspergillus spec., herpes simplex virus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The most characteristic signs in chest CT scans were at the beginning of pneumonia with nodules and tree-in-bud often combined with bronchial wall thickening. The following CT scans showed characteristic but not pathognomonic chest CT findings of RSV pneumonia. These morphological findings should be recognized seasonally (winter) especially at the beginning of the case of pneumonia. RSV-associated additional sinusitis is probably common and should be noticed.

  12. Autophagy Deficiency Compromises Alternative Pathways of Respiration following Energy Deprivation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Jessica A S; Cavalcanti, João Henrique F; Medeiros, David B; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Avin-Wittenberg, Tamar; Fernie, Alisdair R; Araújo, Wagner L

    2017-09-01

    Under heterotrophic conditions, carbohydrate oxidation inside the mitochondrion is the primary energy source for cellular metabolism. However, during energy-limited conditions, alternative substrates are required to support respiration. Amino acid oxidation in plant cells plays a key role in this by generating electrons that can be transferred to the mitochondrial electron transport chain via the electron transfer flavoprotein/ubiquinone oxidoreductase system. Autophagy, a catabolic mechanism for macromolecule and protein recycling, allows the maintenance of amino acid pools and nutrient remobilization. Although the association between autophagy and alternative respiratory substrates has been suggested, the extent to which autophagy and primary metabolism interact to support plant respiration remains unclear. To investigate the metabolic importance of autophagy during development and under extended darkness, Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) mutants with disruption of autophagy ( atg mutants) were used. Under normal growth conditions, atg mutants showed lower growth and seed production with no impact on photosynthesis. Following extended darkness, atg mutants were characterized by signatures of early senescence, including decreased chlorophyll content and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II coupled with increases in dark respiration. Transcript levels of genes involved in alternative pathways of respiration and amino acid catabolism were up-regulated in atg mutants. The metabolite profiles of dark-treated leaves revealed an extensive metabolic reprogramming in which increases in amino acid levels were partially compromised in atg mutants. Although an enhanced respiration in atg mutants was observed during extended darkness, autophagy deficiency compromises protein degradation and the generation of amino acids used as alternative substrates to the respiration. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. CO2-driven compromises to marine life along the Chilean coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayol, E.; Ruiz-Halpern, S.; Duarte, C. M.; Castilla, J. C.; Pelegrí, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    CO2-driven compromises to marine life were examined along the Chilean sector of the Humboldt Current System, a particularly vulnerable hypoxic and upwelling area, applying the Respiration index (RI = log10 pO2) and the pH-dependent aragonite saturation (Ω) to delineate the water masses where aerobic and calcifying organisms are stressed. There was a remarkable negative relationship between oxygen concentration and pH or pCO2 in the studied area, with the subsurface hypoxic Equatorial Subsurface Waters extending from 100 m to about 300 m depth and supporting elevated pCO2 values. The RI reached a minimum at about 200 m depth and decreased towards the Equator. Increased pCO2 in the hypoxic water layer reduced the RI values by as much as 0.59 RI units, with the upper water layer that presents conditions suitable for aerobic life (RI>0.7) declining by half between 42° S and 28° S. The intermediate waters hardly reached those stations closer to the equator so that the increased pCO2 lowered pH and the saturation of aragonite. A significant fraction of the water column along the Chilean sector of the Humboldt Current System suffers from CO2-driven compromises to biota, including waters corrosive to calcifying organisms, stress to aerobic organisms or both. The habitat free of CO2-driven stresses was restricted to the upper mixed layer and to small water parcels at about 1000 m depth. pCO2 acts as a hinge connecting respiratory and calcification challenges expected to increase in the future, resulting in a spread of the challenges to aerobic organisms.

  14. Compromised Global and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Congestive Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. J.; Im, K. C.; Moon, D. H. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    It has been known that cerebral perfusion is maintained in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) by a complex series of compensatory mechanisms. However cognitive impairment is a common problem experienced by patients with CHF and may result from deranged cerebral perfusion. We prospectively investigated the global and regional CBF of patients with CHF and compared the results with that of normal controls. Thirty two patients (M/F: 22/10, 4211 yr) with CHF (LVEF=218.1%) and 10 healthy controls (M/F: 6/4, 398 yr) were prospectively studied. No patients had cerebrovascular disease or other disease affecting cognitive function. All patients and normal controls underwent radionuclide angiography including cerebral hemispheres and aortic arch, and brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD. Global CBF was measured non-invasively by the application of Patlak plot graphical analysis. Quantitative rCBF images were obtained from SPECT image using global CBF values, regional/global count ratios, and Lassen's linearization correction algorithm. Difference of regional CBF between CHF and normal control were assessed using a SPM99 without global count normalization (uncorrected p<0.0001, extent threshold>100 voxels). Global CBF (41.54.7 ml/min/100g) of the patients with CHF were significantly lower than those (49.15.7 ml/min/100g) of controls (p<0.001). Regional CBF was significantly decreased in frontal, temporal and parietal neocortex of both cerebral hemispheres compared to normal controls. Regional rCBF of basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem were preserved, even though global CBF was variably compromised. Our study show that global CBF is significantly decreased in CHF and regional CBF of frontal, parietal and temporal neocortex is compromised preferentially. Further studies would be needed to investigate the relationship of rCBF change and cognitive impairment in patients with CHF.

  15. Sterilization of freeze dried manila clam (Ruditapea philippinarum) porridge for immuno-compromised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jae Nam [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of gamma irradiation and different conditions (vacuum packaging, antioxidant and freezing) on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of freeze dried Manila clam porridge (MCP) for immuno-compromised patient food. McP can be sterilized at 1 kGy to 10 kGy. the initial counts of total aerobic bacteria and yeast molds in the non-irradiated MCP were 2.4±0.5 and 1.2±0.3 log CFU g{sup -}'1, respectively, but gamma irradiation significantly decreased the total aerobic bacteria to below the detection limit (1 log CFU g{sup -1}) (5 kGy). Moreover, gamma irradiation effectively eliminated yeasts/molds at dose below than 1 kGy. However, gamma irradiation accelerated the increase of lipid oxidation and therefore, decreased the sensory characteristics of MCP as irradiation dose increased. to improve the sensory qualities of gamma irradiated MCP, combination treatment (vacuum packaging, 0.1% vitamin c) were applied. there was no significant difference in the overall acceptance scores between the combined-treatment sample (5.6 points) and the non-irradiated samples (6.0). the results indicate that combination treatment (vacuum packaging, 0.1% vitamin c) may help to maintain the quality of MCP. therefore, it considered that irradiation of MCP with combined treatment and this is an effective method for the consumption as a special purpose food such as for space travel or immuno-compromised patients.

  16. Protein catabolism in pregnant snakes (Epicrates cenchria maurus Boidae) compromises musculature and performance after reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdais, O; Brischoux, F; DeNardo, D; Shine, R

    2004-07-01

    In many species the high energetic demands of reproduction induce a negative energy balance, and thus females must rely on tissue catabolism to complete the reproductive process. Previous works have shown that both fat and protein are energy resources during prolonged fasting in vertebrates. While many ecological studies on energy costs of reproduction have focused on variations in fat stores, the impact of protein investment on the female has not been thoroughly investigated. Notably, as there is no specialized storage form for proteins, intense catabolism is likely to entail structural (musculature) loss that may compromise maternal physical performance after reproduction. Measurements on captive rainbow boas ( Epicrates cenchria maurus) confirm that reproducing females undergo significant protein catabolism (as indicated by elevated plasma uric acid levels) and show considerable musculature loss during gestation (as detected by reduced width of the epaxial muscles). Protein mobilization entailed a significant functional loss that was illustrated by decrements in tests of strength and constriction after parturition. In wild situations, such effects are likely to decrease the snakes' ability to forage and apprehend prey. Hence, the time period needed to recover from reproduction can be extended not only because the female must compensate losses of both fat stores and functional muscle, but also because the ability to do so may be compromised. Performance alteration is likely to be of equal or greater importance than reduced energy stores in the physiological mediation of elevated post-reproduction mortality rates and infrequent reproductive bouts (e.g. biannual or triannual), two common ecological traits of female snakes.

  17. Consequences of early extraction of compromised first permanent molar: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Afnan M; Altoukhi, Doua H; Horaib, Mariam F; El-Housseiny, Azza A; Alamoudi, Najlaa M; Sabbagh, Heba J

    2018-04-05

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to determine the sequelae of early extraction of compromised first permanent molars (FPMs) with regard to the skeletal and dental development of 5- to 15-year-old children. Meta-analysis was conducted when applicable. Our research protocol included a search strategy, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and a data extraction plan. The search engines used were PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct. Study selection was performed independently by three reviewers. Articles published from 1960 to 2017 were reviewed based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was performed to compare space closure between upper and lower arches. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The consequences were decrease in post extraction space, accelerated development and eruption of second permanents molars (SPMs) and third molars, a decrease in caries and/or fillings on the proximal surfaces of adjacent teeth, lingual tipping and retrusion of incisors, and counter clockwise rotation of the occlusal plane. There were several consequences of early extraction of FPMs, which were related to skeletal and dental development. Our systematic review suggests that comprehensive evaluation of the compromised FPMs should be performed before planning an extraction. The ideal time for FPM extraction is when the SPM is at the early bifurcation stage in order to achieve complete closure of the extraction space by the SPM. Benefits should be weighed over the risks to decrease the risk of unfavorable outcomes as much as possible. However, due to the limited evidence on the outcomes and variables that influence them, high-quality prospective studies are needed.

  18. Staurosporine induces necroptotic cell death under caspase-compromised conditions in U937 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna A Dunai

    Full Text Available For a long time necrosis was thought to be an uncontrolled process but evidences recently have revealed that necrosis can also occur in a regulated manner. Necroptosis, a type of programmed necrosis is defined as a death receptor-initiated process under caspase-compromised conditions. The process requires the kinase activity of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL, as a substrate of RIPK3. The further downstream events remain elusive. We applied known inhibitors to characterize the contributing enzymes in necroptosis and their effect on cell viability and different cellular functions were detected mainly by flow cytometry. Here we report that staurosporine, the classical inducer of intrinsic apoptotic pathway can induce necroptosis under caspase-compromised conditions in U937 cell line. This process could be hampered at least partially by the RIPK1 inhibitor necrotstin-1 and by the heat shock protein 90 kDa inhibitor geldanamycin. Moreover both the staurosporine-triggered and the classical death ligand-induced necroptotic pathway can be effectively arrested by a lysosomal enzyme inhibitor CA-074-OMe and the recently discovered MLKL inhibitor necrosulfonamide. We also confirmed that the enzymatic role of poly(ADP-ribosepolymerase (PARP is dispensable in necroptosis but it contributes to membrane disruption in secondary necrosis. In conclusion, we identified a novel way of necroptosis induction that can facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of necroptosis. Our results shed light on alternative application of staurosporine, as a possible anticancer therapeutic agent. Furthermore, we showed that the CA-074-OMe has a target in the signaling pathway leading to necroptosis. Finally, we could differentiate necroptotic and secondary necrotic processes based on participation of PARP enzyme.

  19. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots compromised by disk herniation: sagittal shoulder sign for the preoperative diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chang Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hee Kyung; Ryu, Jeong Ah [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Choon-Sung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kangwon (Korea)

    2008-03-15

    The objective was to determine the importance of the ''sagittal shoulder sign'' on magnetic resonance (MR) images for the diagnosis of conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots (CLNR) that are compromised by herniated disks. Magnetic resonance images of 11 patients (6 men and 5 women; age range, 25-71 years; average age, 48.7 years) with surgically proven CLNR, which was compromised by herniated disks, were retrospectively evaluated by two musculoskeletal radiologists. MR images were evaluated for the presence or absence of the sagittal shoulder sign - a vertical structure connecting two consecutive nerve roots and overlying disk on the sagittal MR images. The radiologists noted the type of accompanying disk herniation and bony spinal canal changes, as well as other characteristic MR features of CLNR, the common passage of two consecutive nerve roots through the neural foramen on axial MR images. The sagittal shoulder sign was identified with a mean frequency of 90.9% by the two observers (in 10 of 11 patients). The common passage of two consecutive nerve roots through the neural foramen on axial MR images was identified with a mean frequency of 59.1% (in 7 and 6 out of 11 patients, by observers 1 and 2, respectively). Good interobserver agreement for the sagittal shoulder sign was present (k = 0.621, p < 0.05). Observation of the sagittal shoulder sign may prove helpful for diagnosing CLNR in patients with disk herniation. In particular, this sign appears to be useful when there is no evidence of CLNR on axial MR images. (orig.)

  20. The diagnostic role of abdominal CT imaging findings in adults intussusception: Focused on the vascular compromise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Bin; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Ah Young; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hye Jin; Park, Beom Jin; Jin, Yong Hyun; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Kyoung Won

    2007-01-01

    Intussusception is defined as telescoping of one segment of the gastrointestinal tract into an adjacent one. Unlike that in children, adult intussusception is a relatively rare condition. More than 90% of patients with adult intussusception have been reported to have an organic cause, with benign or malignant tumors for accounting for approximately 65% of the cases. In general, the diagnosis is easily made by means of computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The imaging appearance of a bowel-within-bowel configuration with or without contained fat and mesenteric vessels, is pathognomonic. As the intussusceptum enters into the intussuscipiens, the mesentery is carried forward and trapped between the overlapping layers of bowel. The twisting or severe constriction of the mesenteric vessels may result in vascular compromise with subsequent edematous thickening of the involved bowel. In these circumstances, ischemic necrosis may develop if timely intervention is not undertaken. Therefore, determination of the presence or absence of intestinal necrosis in intussusception is important in patient management. On CT, the presence of well-known diagnostic CT criteria for strangulated obstruction (especially severe engorgement or twisting of the mesenteric vessels) as well as evidence of loss of the layered pattern, accumulation of extraluminal fluid collection, and bowel perforation, may suggest the diagnosis of intestinal necrosis. CT and MR imaging are limited in determining the primary disease causing intussusception. However, CT and MR provide excellent pre-operative evaluation, including the possible extension and/or dissemination of a malignant tumor. CT and MR imaging may also be useful in suggesting the presence of vascular compromise

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Alginate Adhesion Barrier Gel in Compromised Intestinal Anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ankit A; Yauw, Simon T K; Lomme, Roger M L M; Hendriks, Thijs; van Goor, Harry

    For any anti-adhesive barrier developed for abdominal surgery, the use under conditions in which anastomotic healing is compromised needs to be investigated. The current study evaluates the effect of a new ultrapure alginate gel on early healing of high-risk anastomoses in the ileum and compares this with the gold standard used in clinical practice. In 75 adult male Wistar rats, a 5 mm ileal segment was resected and continuity was restored by construction of an inverted anastomosis. Rats were divided randomly into a control group and groups receiving either alginate gel or a sodium hyaluronate carboxymethylcellulose (HA/CMC) film around the anastomosis (n = 25 each). Carprofen, given in a daily dose of 1.25 mg/kg, was used to compromise anastomotic healing. At day three, animals were killed and scored for signs of anastomotic leakage and the presence of adhesions. The incidence of adhesion formation was 95% in the HA/CMC film group, which was significantly higher than in the controls (64%, p = 0.010) and the alginate gel group (52%, p = 0.004). The adhesion score was nearly 40% lower in the alginate gel group compared with the HA/CMC film group. The incidence of ileal leakage in the HA/CMC film group (92%) was significantly higher than in the controls (68%, p = 0.016). Leakage rate did not differ between the alginate gel and control groups. There was no significant difference between groups in either incision bursting pressure or incision breaking strength. Ultrapure alginate gel does not interfere with repair of ileal anastomoses constructed under conditions in which chances of anastomotic dehiscence are high. The alginate gel performs better than the HA/CMC film.

  2. Jaw-muscle fiber architecture in tufted capuchins favors generating relatively large muscle forces without compromising jaw gape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea B.; Vinyard, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Cebus apella is renowned for its dietary flexibility and capacity to exploit hard and tough objects. Cebus apella differs from other capuchins in displaying a suite of craniodental features that have been functionally and adaptively linked to their feeding behavior, particularly the generation and dissipation of relatively large jaw forces. We compared fiber architecture of the masseter and temporalis muscles between the tufted capuchin (C. apella; n = 12 ) and two “untufted” capuchins (C. capuchinus, n = 3; C. albifrons, n = 5). These three species share broadly similar diets, but tufted capuchins occasionally exploit mechanically challenging tissues. We tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits architectural properties of their jaw muscles that facilitate relatively large forces, including relatively greater physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSA), more pinnate fibers, and lower ratios of mass to tetanic tension (Mass/P0). Results show some evidence supporting these predictions, as C. apella has relatively greater superficial masseter, whole masseter, and temporalis PCSAs, significantly so only for the temporalis following Bonferroni adjustment. Capuchins did not differ in pinnation angle or Mass/P0. As an architectural trade-off between maximizing muscle force and muscle excursion/contraction velocity, we also tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits relatively shorter muscle fibers. Contrary to our prediction, there are no significant differences in relative fiber lengths between tufted and untufted capuchins. Therefore, we attribute the relatively greater PCSAs in C. apella primarily to their larger muscle masses. These findings suggest that relatively large jaw-muscle PCSAs can be added to the suite of masticatory features that have been functionally linked to the exploitation of a more resistant diet by C. apella. By enlarging jaw-muscle mass to increase PCSA, rather than reducing fiber lengths and increasing pinnation, tufted capuchins appear

  3. Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.

  4. Camptothecin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brangi, M; Litman, Thomas; Ciotti, M

    1999-01-01

    . Glucuronides were found at equal levels in both parental and resistant colon cancer cell lines for epirubicin and to a lesser extent for SN-38 and mitoxantrone. Low levels of glucuronidation could also be detected in the resistant breast cancer cells. These results were confirmed by analysis of the UGT1A...

  5. Nutritional Modulation of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O. Weickert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance has been proposed as the strongest single predictor for the development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM. Chronic oversupply of energy from food, together with inadequate physical activity, have been recognized as the most relevant factors leading to overweight, abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and finally T2DM. Conversely, energy reduced diets almost invariably to facilitate weight loss and reduce abdominal fat mass and insulin resistance. However, sustained weight loss is generally difficult to achieve, and distinct metabolic characteristics in patients with T2DM further compromise success. Therefore, investigating the effects of modulating the macronutrient composition of isoenergetic diets is an interesting concept that may lead to additional important insights. Metabolic effects of various different dietary concepts and strategies have been claimed, but results from randomized controlled studies and particularly from longer-term-controlled interventions in humans are often lacking. However, some of these concepts are supported by recent research, at least in animal models and short-term studies in humans. This paper provides an update of the current literature regarding the role of nutrition in the modulation of insulin resistance, which includes the discussion of weight-loss-independent metabolic effects of commonly used dietary concepts.

  6. Transient inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruoxing [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 118 College Drive 5018, Hattiesburg, MS 39406 (United States); Guo, Yan-Lin, E-mail: yanlin.guo@usm.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 118 College Drive 5018, Hattiesburg, MS 39406 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have unlimited capacity for self-renewal and can differentiate into various cell types when induced. They also have an unusual cell cycle control mechanism driven by constitutively active cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks). In mouse ESCs (mESCs). It is proposed that the rapid cell proliferation could be a necessary part of mechanisms that maintain mESC self-renewal and pluripotency, but this hypothesis is not in line with the finding in human ESCs (hESCs) that the length of the cell cycle is similar to differentiated cells. Therefore, whether rapid cell proliferation is essential for the maintenance of mESC state remains unclear. We provide insight into this uncertainty through chemical intervention of mESC cell cycle. We report here that inhibition of Cdks with olomoucine II can dramatically slow down cell proliferation of mESCs with concurrent down-regulation of cyclin A, B and E, and the activation of the Rb pathway. However, mESCs display can recover upon the removal of olomoucine II and are able to resume normal cell proliferation without losing self-renewal and pluripotency, as demonstrated by the expression of ESC markers, colony formation, embryoid body formation, and induced differentiation. We provide a mechanistic explanation for these observations by demonstrating that Oct4 and Nanog, two major transcription factors that play critical roles in the maintenance of ESC properties, are up-regulated via de novo protein synthesis when the cells are exposed to olomoucine II. Together, our data suggest that short-term inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise the basic properties of mESCs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Cdks slows down mESCs proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mESCs display remarkable recovery capacity from short-term cell cycle interruption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Short-term cell cycle interruption does not compromise mESC self-renewal. Black

  7. Propagation of aortic dissection and visceral artery compromise. Three-dimensional analysis on CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamiguchi, Hiroki

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the patterns of the propagation of aortic dissection with quantitative data from CT angiography and to verify the relationship between the propagation of aortic dissection and visceral artery compromise. The subjects were 67 cases (48 men, 19 women) with acute and subacute aortic dissection extending from the descending thoracic aorta to the aortic bifurcation. The mean age is 56.5±12.3 years old (range 34 to 80 years). Eight axial levels of the trunk of right pulmonary artery, left inferior pulmonary vein, coronary sinus, celiac axis, the orifice of superior mesenteric artery (SMA), the orifice of right real artery, the orifice of left renal artery and the orifice of inferior mesenteric artery were submitted to investigate the propagation of aortic dissection. The true lumen central angle was calculated in each level. The axial distance, branch angle difference and true distance between SMA and bilateral renal arteries were calculated. The trajectory of aortic dissection propagation from descending thoracic aorta to aortic bifurcation could be divided into two types of linear dissection type (n=41) and spiral dissection type (n=26). The latter were further subdivided into clockwise rotation type (n=14) and counter-clockwise rotation type (n=12). Younger age was significantly associated with the spiral dissection type as compared to older age (p=0.030). The spiral dissection type propagation pattern was found predominantly from the descending thoracic aorta to celiac axis, while at more distal levels linear type dissection was more common. The blood flow of SMA and celiac axis came from the true lumen or both lumens in all cases but single case from false lumen. The incidence (19.4%) of the right renal blood flow supplied from false lumen was lower than that (37.3%) of the left one supplied from false lumen. The shorter distance and the less angle difference between SMA and right renal artery than between SMA and left renal

  8. Transient inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruoxing; Guo, Yan-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have unlimited capacity for self-renewal and can differentiate into various cell types when induced. They also have an unusual cell cycle control mechanism driven by constitutively active cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks). In mouse ESCs (mESCs). It is proposed that the rapid cell proliferation could be a necessary part of mechanisms that maintain mESC self-renewal and pluripotency, but this hypothesis is not in line with the finding in human ESCs (hESCs) that the length of the cell cycle is similar to differentiated cells. Therefore, whether rapid cell proliferation is essential for the maintenance of mESC state remains unclear. We provide insight into this uncertainty through chemical intervention of mESC cell cycle. We report here that inhibition of Cdks with olomoucine II can dramatically slow down cell proliferation of mESCs with concurrent down-regulation of cyclin A, B and E, and the activation of the Rb pathway. However, mESCs display can recover upon the removal of olomoucine II and are able to resume normal cell proliferation without losing self-renewal and pluripotency, as demonstrated by the expression of ESC markers, colony formation, embryoid body formation, and induced differentiation. We provide a mechanistic explanation for these observations by demonstrating that Oct4 and Nanog, two major transcription factors that play critical roles in the maintenance of ESC properties, are up-regulated via de novo protein synthesis when the cells are exposed to olomoucine II. Together, our data suggest that short-term inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise the basic properties of mESCs. -- Highlights: ► Inhibition of Cdks slows down mESCs proliferation. ► mESCs display remarkable recovery capacity from short-term cell cycle interruption. ► Short-term cell cycle interruption does not compromise mESC self-renewal. ► Oct4 and Nanog are up-regulated via de novo synthesis by cell cycle interruption.

  9. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources...... of antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I...... to rationally design drug combinations that limit the evolution of antibiotic resistance due to counteracting evolutionary trajectories. My results highlight that an in-depth knowledge about the genetic responses to the individual antimicrobial compounds enables the prediction of responses to drug combinations...

  10. Insulin resistance and neurodegeneration: Roles of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    de la Monte, Suzanne M; Longato, Lisa; Tong, Ming; Wands, Jack R

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have linked obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to insulin resistance in the brain, cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. Insulin resistance compromises cell survival, metabolism and neuronal plasticity, and increases oxidative stress, cytokine activation and apoptosis. T2DM/NASH has been demonstrated to be associated with increased ceramide generation, suggesting a mechanistic link between peripheral insulin resistance and neu...

  11. Political crisіs and compromise as the casual determinants in the process of political decisions making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkuro Anton Sergiyovich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a risk of certain ineffective results in the system of political decisions making. That’s why we should pay a special attention to the criteria of political crisis evaluation. Today the problem of national politics lies only in an adequate raising of questions about the way out of the political crisis using the mechanism of compromise achieving. The article is about the fundamental role of the crisis and the compromise and about their influence on the formation of the strategic development of policy.

  12. Abnormal splicing switch of DMD's penultimate exon compromises muscle fibre maintenance in myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Frédérique; Lainé, Jeanne; Ramanoudjame, Laetitita; Ferry, Arnaud; Arandel, Ludovic; Delalande, Olivier; Jollet, Arnaud; Dingli, Florent; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Peccate, Cécile; Lorain, Stéphanie; Kabashi, Edor; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Koo, Taeyoung; Loew, Damarys; Swanson, Maurice S; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Dickson, George; Allamand, Valérie; Marie, Joëlle; Furling, Denis

    2015-05-28

    Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a dominant neuromuscular disease caused by nuclear-retained RNAs containing expanded CUG repeats. These toxic RNAs alter the activities of RNA splicing factors resulting in alternative splicing misregulation and muscular dysfunction. Here we show that the abnormal splicing of DMD exon 78 found in dystrophic muscles of DM1 patients is due to the functional loss of MBNL1 and leads to the re-expression of an embryonic dystrophin in place of the adult isoform. Forced expression of embryonic dystrophin in zebrafish using an exon-skipping approach severely impairs the mobility and muscle architecture. Moreover, reproducing Dmd exon 78 missplicing switch in mice induces muscle fibre remodelling and ultrastructural abnormalities including ringed fibres, sarcoplasmic masses or Z-band disorganization, which are characteristic features of dystrophic DM1 skeletal muscles. Thus, we propose that splicing misregulation of DMD exon 78 compromises muscle fibre maintenance and contributes to the progressive dystrophic process in DM1.

  13. Supplier evaluation in manufacturing environment using compromise ranking method with grey interval numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit Chatterjee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of proper supplier for manufacturing organizations is one of the most challenging problems in real time manufacturing environment due to a wide variety of customer demands. It has become more and more complicated to meet the challenges of international competitiveness and as the decision makers need to assess a wide range of alternative suppliers based on a set of conflicting criteria. Thus, the main objective of supplier selection is to select highly potential supplier through which all the set goals regarding the purchasing and manufacturing activity can be achieved. Because of these reasons, supplier selection has got considerable attention by the academicians and researchers. This paper presents a combined multi-criteria decision making methodology for supplier evaluation for given industrial applications. The proposed methodology is based on a compromise ranking method combined with Grey Interval Numbers considering different cardinal and ordinal criteria and their relative importance. A ‘supplier selection index’ is also proposed to help evaluation and ranking the alternative suppliers. Two examples are illustrated to demonstrate the potentiality and applicability of the proposed method.

  14. 3-bromopyruvate inhibits glycolysis, depletes cellular glutathione, and compromises the viability of cultured primary rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, Eric; Arend, Christian; Dringen, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an electrophilic alkylator that is considered a promising anticancer drug because it has been shown to kill cancer cells efficiently while having little toxic effect on nontumor cells. To test for potential adverse effects of 3-BP on brain cells, we exposed cultured primary rat astrocytes to 3-BP and investigated the effects of this compound on cell viability, glucose metabolism, and glutathione (GSH) content. The presence of 3-BP severely compromised cell viability and slowed cellular glucose consumption and lactate production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal effects observed at about 100 µM 3-BP after 4 hr of incubation. The cellular hexokinase activity was not affected in 3-BP-treated astrocytes, whereas within 30 min after application of 3-BP the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was inhibited, and cellular GSH content was depleted in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal effects observed at about 30 µM 3-BP. The depletion of cellular GSH after exposure to 100 µM 3-BP was not prevented by the presence of 10 mM of the monocarboxylates lactate or pyruvate, suggesting that 3-BP is not taken up into astrocytes predominantly by monocarboxylate transporters. The data suggest that inhibition of glycolysis by inactivation of GAPDH and GSH depletion contributes to the toxicity that was observed for 3-BP-treated cultured astrocytes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Dealing with surplus emissions in the climate negotiations after Copenhagen: What are the options for compromise?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, Michel den; Roelfsema, Mark; Slingerland, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the environmental and financial consequences of various strategies of dealing with surplus emission allowances in the aftermath of the Copenhagen Accord. This topic remains relevant, in particular, with respect to the Russian negotiation position, as this country is the largest holder of surplus emissions. It is concluded that not addressing the surplus problem is not a feasible negotiation option, as the sheer size of the surpluses would jeopardise the environmental integrity of any future agreement. Cancelling surpluses against Russia's will, though viable, is not desirable, as it might well lead to this country opting out of this climate treaty. Three options for compromise have been selected and analysed here: (1) stricter targets for Annex I countries; (2) strategic reserve for Russia; (3) institutionalising optimal banking. It is concluded that, whereas option 1 is environmentally the best, in the present political context it is probably less feasible. The other two options, although environmentally suboptimal, seem politically more favourable. Our analysis suggests that maximal revenues for surplus-holding countries arise by releasing only a limited amount of surplus credits to the market. The institutionalisation of this effect could be a key lever to a politically feasible agreement on surplus emissions.

  16. Developing an aquaponics system to learn sustainability and social compromise skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel José Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project, one of the proposals of the EPS@ISEP Spring 2014, was to develop an Aquaponics System. Over recent years Aquaponics systems have received increased attention since they contribute to reduce the strain on resources within 1st and 3rd world countries. Aquaponics is the combination of Hydroponics and Aquaculture and mimics a natural environment in order to successfully apply and enhance the understanding of natural cycles within an indoor process. Using this knowledge of natural cycles, it was possible to create a system with capabilities similar to that of a natural environment with the support of electronics, enhancing the overall efficiency of the system. The multinational team involved in the development of this system was composed of five students from five countries and fields of study. This paper describes their solution, involving the overall design, the technology involved and the benefits it can bring to the current market. The team was able to design and render the Computer Aided Design (CAD drawings of the prototype, assemble all components, successfully test the electronics and comply with the budget. Furthermore, the designed solution was supported by a product sustainability study and included a specific marketing plan. Last but not least, the students involved in this project obtained new multidisciplinary knowledge and improved their sustainable development, social compromise, team work and cross-cultural communication skills.

  17. Umami Increases Consumer Acceptability, and Perception of Sensory and Emotional Benefits without Compromising Health Benefit Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Takashi; Retiveau-Krogmann, Annlyse; Byrnes, Erin; Takehana, Shunji

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to understand how consumers in the United States perceive umami-rich products, specifically low sodium chicken noodle soup. Results suggest that the addition of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) at a concentration of 0.1% to 0.5%, alone or in synergy with 5'-ribonucleotides of inosine monophosphate (IMP) at 0.1% not only increases consumer acceptance but also positively impacts other aspects of consumer perception. Regardless of concentration of MSG and IMP, samples enhanced in umami compounds were perceived as more savory, flavorful, and less bland while providing a more homemade, fresh, and healthy wholesome taste than a control sample. From a functional and emotional benefit standpoint, when consuming umami-rich samples, consumers reported feeling significantly higher general satisfaction (they felt more content, relaxed, satisfied, less disappointed, dissatisfied…) and heightened positive emotions (happy, excited, indulgent…) than under the control condition. The feeling of being healthy while consuming the dish was not compromised. Last, when asked how they would feel if serving the soup sample to their family or friends, consumers projected feeling more positively under the umami-rich conditions (more happy, competent, loving, less dissatisfied or disappointed) compared to the control condition. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. A fuzzy compromise programming approach for the Black-Litterman portfolio selection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Gharakhani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine advanced optimization approach for portfolio problem introduced by Black and Litterman to consider the shortcomings of Markowitz standard Mean-Variance optimization. Black and Litterman propose a new approach to estimate asset return. They present a way to incorporate the investor’s views into asset pricing process. Since the investor’s view about future asset return is always subjective and imprecise, we can represent it by using fuzzy numbers and the resulting model is multi-objective linear programming. Therefore, the proposed model is analyzed through fuzzy compromise programming approach using appropriate membership function. For this purpose, we introduce the fuzzy ideal solution concept based on investor preference and indifference relationships using canonical representation of proposed fuzzy numbers by means of their correspondingα-cuts. A real world numerical example is presented in which MSCI (Morgan Stanley Capital International Index is chosen as the target index. The results are reported for a portfolio consisting of the six national indices. The performance of the proposed models is compared using several financial criteria.

  19. Surgical manipulation compromises leukocyte mobilisation responses and inflammation after experimental cerebral ischaemia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eDenes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute brain injury results in peripheral inflammatory changes, although the impact of these processes on neuronal death and neuroinflammation is currently unclear. To facilitate the translation of experimental studies to clinical benefit, it is vital to characterize the mechanisms by which acute brain injury induces peripheral inflammatory changes, and how these are affected by surgical manipulation in experimental models. Here we show that in mice, even mild surgical manipulation of extracranial tissues induced marked granulocyte mobilisation (300% and systemic induction of cytokines. However, intracranial changes induced by craniotomy, or subsequent induction of focal cerebral ischaemia were required to induce egress of CXCR2-positive granulocytes from the bone marrow. CXCR2 blockade resulted in reduced mobilisation of granulocytes from the bone marrow, caused an unexpected increase in circulating granulocytes, but failed to effect brain injury induced by cerebral ischaemia. We also demonstrate that isoflurane anaesthesia interferes with circulating leukocyte responses, which could contribute to the reported vascular and neuroprotective effects of isoflurane. In addition, no immunosuppression develops in the bone marrow after experimental stroke. Thus, experimental models of cerebral ischaemia are compromised by surgery and anaesthesia in proportion to the severity of surgical stress and overall tissue injury. Understanding the inherent confounding effects of surgical manipulation and development of new models of cerebral ischaemia with minimal surgical intervention could facilitate better understanding of interactions between inflammation and brain injury.

  20. Contralateral Abdominal Pocketing in Salvation of Replanted Fingertips with Compromised Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sup Shim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal pocketing is one of the most useful methods in salvation of compromised replanted fingertips. Abdominal pocketing has generally been performed in the ipsilateral lower abdominal quadrant, but we have also performed contralateral pocketing at our institute. To determine which approach is more beneficial, a total of 40 patients underwent an abdominal pocketing procedure in either the ipsilateral or contralateral lower abdominal quadrant after fingertip replantation. Dates of abdominal pocketing after initial replantation, detachment after abdominal pocketing, range of motion (ROM before abdominal pocketing, and sequential ROM after the detachment operation and date of full ROM recovery and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH score were recorded through medical chart review. Mean detachment date, mean abduction of shoulder after the detachment operation, and mean days to return to full ROM were not significantly different between the ipsilateral and contralateral pocketing groups. However, the mean DASH score was significantly lower in the contralateral group than the ipsilateral group. There were also fewer postoperative wound complications in the contralateral group than in the ipsilateral group. We, therefore, recommend contralateral abdominal pocketing rather than ipsilateral abdominal pocketing to increase patient comfort and reduce pain and complications.

  1. Contralateral Abdominal Pocketing in Salvation of Replanted Fingertips with Compromised Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyung-Sup; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pocketing is one of the most useful methods in salvation of compromised replanted fingertips. Abdominal pocketing has generally been performed in the ipsilateral lower abdominal quadrant, but we have also performed contralateral pocketing at our institute. To determine which approach is more beneficial, a total of 40 patients underwent an abdominal pocketing procedure in either the ipsilateral or contralateral lower abdominal quadrant after fingertip replantation. Dates of abdominal pocketing after initial replantation, detachment after abdominal pocketing, range of motion (ROM) before abdominal pocketing, and sequential ROM after the detachment operation and date of full ROM recovery and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) score were recorded through medical chart review. Mean detachment date, mean abduction of shoulder after the detachment operation, and mean days to return to full ROM were not significantly different between the ipsilateral and contralateral pocketing groups. However, the mean DASH score was significantly lower in the contralateral group than the ipsilateral group. There were also fewer postoperative wound complications in the contralateral group than in the ipsilateral group. We, therefore, recommend contralateral abdominal pocketing rather than ipsilateral abdominal pocketing to increase patient comfort and reduce pain and complications. PMID:25379539

  2. Compromised Rivers: Understanding Historical Human Impacts on Rivers in the Context of Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wohl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A river that preserves a simplified and attractive form may nevertheless have lost function. Loss of function in these rivers can occur because hydrologic and geomorphic processes no longer create and maintain the habitat and natural disturbance regimes necessary for ecosystem integrity. Recognition of compromised river function is particularly important in the context of river restoration, in which the public perception of a river's condition often drives the decision to undertake restoration as well as the decision about what type of restoration should be attempted. Determining the degree to which a river has been altered from its reference condition requires a knowledge of historical land use and the associated effects on rivers. Rivers of the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains in the United States are used to illustrate how historical land uses such as beaver trapping, placer mining, tie drives, flow regulation, and the construction of transportation corridors continue to affect contemporary river characteristics. Ignorance of regional land use and river history can lead to restoration that sets unrealistic goals because it is based on incorrect assumptions about a river's reference condition or about the influence of persistent land-use effects.

  3. Obesity and stress urinary incontinence in women: compromised continence mechanism or excess bladder pressure during cough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carolyn W; Kolenic, Giselle E; Trowbridge, Elisa R; Berger, Mitchell B; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Margulies, Rebecca U; Morgan, Daniel M; Fenner, Dee E; DeLancey, John O

    2017-09-01

    We compared two hypotheses as to why obesity is associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI): (1) obesity increases demand on the continence system (e.g. higher cough pressure) and (2) obesity compromises urethral function and urethrovaginal support. A secondary analysis was performed using data from a case-control study of SUI in women. Measurements of urethrovaginal support (POP-Q point Aa, urethral axis), urethral function (maximal urethral closure pressure, MUCP), and measures of continence system demand (intravesical pressures at rest and during maximal cough) were analyzed. Cases and controls were divided into three body mass index (BMI) groups: normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ); overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 ); and obese (≥30 kg/m 2 ). Logistic regression models where created to investigate variables related to SUI for each BMI group. Structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect relationships among BMI, SUI, maximal cough pressure, MUCP, and POP-Q point Aa. The study included 108 continent controls and 103 women with SUI. MUCP was the factor most strongly associated with SUI in all BMI groups. Maximal cough pressure was significantly associated with SUI in obese women (OR 3.191, 95% CI 1.326, 7.683; p continence mechanism.

  4. Just-in-Time Compound Pooling Increases Primary Screening Capacity without Compromising Screening Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, L L; Harden, D G; Saldanha, S; Ferguson, H; Cheney, D L; Pieniazek, S N; Maloney, D P; Zewinski, J; O'Connell, J; Banks, M

    2015-06-01

    Compound pooling, or multiplexing more than one compound per well during primary high-throughput screening (HTS), is a controversial approach with a long history of limited success. Many issues with this approach likely arise from long-term storage of library plates containing complex mixtures of compounds at high concentrations. Due to the historical difficulties with using multiplexed library plates, primary HTS often uses a one-compound-one-well approach. However, as compound collections grow, innovative strategies are required to increase the capacity of primary screening campaigns. Toward this goal, we have developed a novel compound pooling method that increases screening capacity without compromising data quality. This method circumvents issues related to the long-term storage of complex compound mixtures by using acoustic dispensing to enable "just-in-time" compound pooling directly in the assay well immediately prior to assay. Using this method, we can pool two compounds per well, effectively doubling the capacity of a primary screen. Here, we present data from pilot studies using just-in-time pooling, as well as data from a large >2-million-compound screen using this approach. These data suggest that, for many targets, this method can be used to vastly increase screening capacity without significant reduction in the ability to detect screening hits. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  5. Optimizing Maxillary Aesthetics of a Severe Compromised Tooth through Orthodontic Movement and Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Scaf de Molon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of severe compromised tooth in the maxillary anterior area still poses great challenge to the clinicians. Several treatment modalities have been proposed to restore the function and aesthetics in teeth with advanced periodontal disease. The present study aims to report a case of traumatic injury of a left-maxillary central incisor with ridge preservation, orthodontic movement, and implant therapy. A 45-year-old woman underwent the proposed treatment for her left central incisor: basic periodontal therapy, xenogenous bone graft, and guided bone regeneration (GBR. Six months after the graft procedure, orthodontic movement by means of alignment and leveling was made and a coronal displacement of the gingival margin and vertical bone apposition could be observed after 13 months of active movement. Afterwards, a dental implant was placed followed by a connective tissue graft and immediate provisionalization of the crown. In conclusion, orthodontic movement was effective to improve the gingival tissue and alveolar bone prior to implant placement favoring the aesthetic results. Six years postoperatively, the results revealed height and width alveolar bone gain indicating that the treatment proposed was able to restore all the functional and aesthetic parameters.

  6. The Munsell Color System: a scientific compromise from the world of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Sally

    2014-09-01

    Color systems make accurate color specification and matching possible in science, art, and industry by defining a coordinate system for all possible color perceptions. The Munsell Color System, developed by the artist Albert Henry Munsell in the early twentieth century, has influenced color science to this day. I trace the development of the Munsell Color System from its origins in the art world to its acceptance in the scientific community. Munsell's system was the first to accurately and quantitatively describe the psychological experience of color. By considering the problems that color posed for Munsell's art community and examining his diaries and published material, I conclude that Munsell arrived at his results by remaining agnostic as to the scientific definition of color, while retaining faith that color perceptions could be objectively quantified. I argue that Munsell was able to interest the scientific community in his work because color had become a controversial topic between physicists and psychologists. Parts of Munsell's system appealed to each field, making it a workable compromise. For contrast, I suggest that three contemporary scientists with whom Munsell had contact--Wilhelm Ostwald, Ogden Rood, and Edward Titchener--did not reach the same conclusions in their color systems because they started from scientific assumptions about the nature of color.

  7. Respect in forensic psychiatric nurse-patient relationships: a practical compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Donald N; Peter, Elizabeth; Gallop, Ruth; Angus, Jan E; Liaschenko, Joan

    2011-03-01

    The context of forensic psychiatric nursing is distinct from other psychiatric settings as, it involves placement of patients in secure environments with restrictions determined by the courts. Previous literature has identified that nurses morally struggle with respecting patients who have committed heinous offences, which can lead to the patient being depersonalized and dehumanized. Although respect is fundamental to ethical nursing practice, it has not been adequately explored conceptually or empirically. As a result, little knowledge exists that identifies how nurses develop, maintain, and express respect for patients. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concept of respect systematically, from a forensic psychiatric nurse's perspective using the qualitative methodology of focused ethnography. Forensic psychiatric nurses were recruited from two medium secure forensic rehabilitation units. In the first interview, 13 registered nurses (RNs) and two registered practical nurses (RPNs) participated, and although all informants were invited to the second interview, six RNs were lost to follow-up. Despite this loss, saturation was achieved and the data were interpreted through a feminist philosophical lens. Respect was influenced by factors categorized into four themes: (1) emotive-cognitive reactions, (2) nonjudgmental approach, (3) social identity and power, and (4) context. The data from the themes indicate that forensic psychiatric nurses strike a practical compromise, in their understanding and enactment of respect in therapeutic relationships with forensic psychiatric patients. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  8. Heavy Cigarette Smokers in a Chinese Population Display a Compromised Permeability Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shujun; Ye, Li; Lv, Chengzhi; Elias, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with various cutaneous disorders with defective permeability. Yet, whether cigarette smoking influences epidermal permeability barrier function is largely unknown. Here, we measured skin biophysical properties, including permeability barrier homeostasis, stratum corneum (SC) integrity, SC hydration, skin surface pH, and skin melanin/erythema index, in cigarette smokers. A total of 99 male volunteers were enrolled in this study. Smokers were categorized as light-to-moderate (hydration and skin melanin/erythema index on the dorsal hand, forehead, and cheek. Basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and barrier recovery rates were assessed on the forearm. A Skin-pH-Meter pH900 was used to measure skin surface pH. Our results showed that heavy cigarette smokers exhibited delayed barrier recovery after acute abrogation (1.02% ± 13.06 versus 16.48% ± 6.07), and barrier recovery rates correlated negatively with the number of daily cigarettes consumption (p = 0.0087). Changes in biophysical parameters in cigarette smokers varied with body sites. In conclusion, heavy cigarette smokers display compromised permeability barrier homeostasis, which could contribute, in part, to the increased prevalence of certain cutaneous disorders characterized by defective permeability. Thus, improving epidermal permeability barrier should be considered for heavy cigarette smokers. PMID:27437403

  9. Protozoan predation in soil slurries compromises determination of contaminant mineralization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R.; Brandt, Kristian K.; Sørensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Soil suspensions (slurries) are commonly used to estimate the potential of soil microbial communities to mineralize organic contaminants. The preparation of soil slurries disrupts soil structure, however, potentially affecting both the bacterial populations and their protozoan predators. We studied the importance of this “slurry effect” on mineralization of the herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, 14 C-labelled), focussing on the effects of protozoan predation. Mineralization of MCPA was studied in “intact” soil and soil slurries differing in soil:water ratio, both in the presence and absence of the protozoan activity inhibitor cycloheximide. Protozoan predation inhibited mineralization in dense slurry of subsoil (soil:water ratio 1:3), but only in the most dilute slurry of topsoil (soil:water ratio 1:100). Our results demonstrate that protozoan predation in soil slurries may compromise quantification of contaminant mineralization potential, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low and their growth is controlled by predation during the incubation period. - Highlights: ► We studied the protozoan impact on MCPA mineralization in soil slurries. ► Cycloheximide was used as protozoan inhibitor. ► Protozoa inhibited MCPA mineralization in dilute topsoil slurry and subsoil slurry. ► Mineralization potentials may be underestimated when using soil slurries. - Protozoan predation may strongly bias the quantification of mineralization potential when performed in soil slurries, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low such as in subsoil or very dilute topsoil slurries.

  10. Compromised mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis in transgenic mice results in defective protein lipoylation and energy disequilibrium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Smith

    Full Text Available A mouse model with compromised mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis has been engineered in order to assess the role of this pathway in mitochondrial function and overall health. Reduction in the expression of mitochondrial malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, a key enzyme in the pathway encoded by the nuclear Mcat gene, was achieved to varying extents in all examined tissues employing tamoxifen-inducible Cre-lox technology. Although affected mice consumed more food than control animals, they failed to gain weight, were less physically active, suffered from loss of white adipose tissue, reduced muscle strength, kyphosis, alopecia, hypothermia and shortened lifespan. The Mcat-deficient phenotype is attributed primarily to reduced synthesis, in several tissues, of the octanoyl precursors required for the posttranslational lipoylation of pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes, resulting in diminished capacity of the citric acid cycle and disruption of energy metabolism. The presence of an alternative lipoylation pathway that utilizes exogenous free lipoate appears restricted to liver and alone is insufficient for preservation of normal energy metabolism. Thus, de novo synthesis of precursors for the protein lipoylation pathway plays a vital role in maintenance of mitochondrial function and overall vigor.

  11. Compromises in energy policy-Using fuzzy optimization in an energy systems model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsen, Dag; Krey, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Over the last year in Germany a great many political discussions have centered around the future direction of energy and climate policy. Due to a number of events related to energy prices, security of supply and climate change, it has been necessary to develop cornerstones for a new integrated energy and climate policy. To supplement this decision process, model-based scenarios were used. In this paper we introduce fuzzy constraints to obtain a better representation of political decision processes, in particular, to find compromises between often contradictory targets (e.g. economic, environmentally friendly and secure energy supply). A number of policy aims derived from a review of the ongoing political discussions were formulated as fuzzy constraints to explicitly include trade-offs between various targets. The result is an overall satisfaction level of about 60% contingent upon the following restrictions: share of energy imports, share of biofuels, share of CHP electricity, CO 2 reduction target and use of domestic hard coal. The restrictions for the share of renewable electricity, share of renewable heat, energy efficiency and postponement of nuclear phase out have higher membership function values, i.e. they are not binding and therefore get done on the side

  12. 2016 Rio Olympic Games: Can the schedule of events compromise athletes' performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, João Paulo P; Rodrigues, Dayane F; Silva, Andressa; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Costa, Varley T; Noce, Franco; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The organizing committee of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games recently announced that some of the preliminary and final competitions will be held at night. The present article discusses the potential harmful effects of these late-night competitions on sleep, circadian rhythms and athletic performance during the Olympic Games. Specifically, night-time competition could lead to injury and may compromise an athlete's decision-making, attentional, physiological and other processes. Consequently, these impacts could negatively affect the performance of athletes and their teams. Thus, it is suggested that technical commissions take special care when creating strategies to minimize harm to the athletes by considering factors such as light exposure, melatonin intake, sleep hygiene and scheduled naps, and training at local competition time. Furthermore, it is necessary for specialists in chronobiology and sleep to engage with members of the national teams to develop an activity schedule for physical, technical, tactical and psychological preparation that accounts for circadian rhythms, thereby creating the best possible environment for the athletes to achieve their ideal performance.

  13. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin in Spanish field populations of Ceratitis capitata and metabolic resistance mediated by P450 in a resistant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arouri, Rabeh; Le Goff, Gaelle; Hemden, Hiethem; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; M'saad, Mariem; Castañera, Pedro; Feyereisen, René; Hernández-Crespo, Pedro; Ortego, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The withdrawal of malathion in the European Union in 2009 resulted in a large increase in lambda-cyhalothrin applications for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, in Spanish citrus crops. Spanish field populations of C. capitata have developed resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin (6-14-fold), achieving LC50 values (129-287 ppm) higher than the recommended concentration for field treatments (125 ppm). These results contrast with the high susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin found in three Tunisian field populations. We have studied the mechanism of resistance in the laboratory-selected resistant strain W-1Kλ (205-fold resistance). Bioassays with synergists showed that resistance was almost completely suppressed by the P450 inhibitor PBO. The study of the expression of 53 P450 genes belonging to the CYP4, CYP6, CYP9 and CYP12 families in C. capitata revealed that CYP6A51 was overexpressed (13-18-fold) in the resistant strain. The W-1Kλ strain also showed high levels of cross-resistance to etofenprox (240-fold) and deltamethrin (150-fold). Field-evolved resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin has been found in C. capitata. Metabolic resistance mediated by P450 appears to be the main resistance mechanism in the resistant strain W-1Kλ. The levels of cross-resistance found may compromise the effectiveness of other pyrethroids for the control of this species. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... past two decades due to the increase in immunocompromised and elderly patients, increasing use of invasive indwelling ... aureus developing resistance to vancomycin, a very powerful antibiotic prescribed for the most intractable bacterial infections. In ...

  15. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug-resistance testing is also recommended for all pregnant women with HIV before starting HIV medicines and also in some pregnant women already taking HIV medicines. Pregnant women will work with their health ...

  16. Antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Overprescribing of antibiotics......-the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid...

  17. Accomplishments and Compromises in Prediction Research for World Records and Best Performances in Track and Field and Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanlong; Paul, Stanley; Fu, Frank H.

    2012-01-01

    The conductors of this study reviewed prediction research and studied the accomplishments and compromises in predicting world records and best performances in track and field and swimming. The results of the study showed that prediction research only promises to describe the historical trends in track and field and swimming performances, to study…

  18. Phenotypic compromises in a long-distance migrant during the transition from migration to reproduction in the High Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vezina, Francois; Williams, Tony D.; Piersma, Theunis; Morrison, R. I. Guy; Dawson, Alistair

    1. Seasonal carry-over effects may be important structuring components of avian life-history cycles. However, little is known on physiological transitions between stages and on phenotypic compromises that may be made at such time to improve fitness. 2. We studied postmigratory body remodelling in

  19. Phenotypic compromises in a long-distance migrant during the transition from migration to reproduction in the High Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vézina, F.; Williams, T.D.; Piersma, T.; Morrison, R.I.G.

    2012-01-01

    1. Seasonal carry-over effects may be important structuring components of avian life-history cycles. However, little is known on physiological transitions between stages and on phenotypic compromises that may be made at such time to improve fitness.
    2. We studied postmigratory body remodelling in

  20. Tract-Specific Analyses of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Show Widespread White Matter Compromise in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dinesh K.; Keehn, Brandon; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have shown white matter compromise in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which may relate to reduced connectivity and impaired function of distributed networks. However, tract-specific evidence remains limited in ASD. We applied tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS)…

  1. Left Ventricular Gene Expression Profile of Healthy and Cardiovascular Compromised Rat Models Used in Air Pollution Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The link between pollutant exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has prompted mechanistic research with animal models of CVD. We hypothesized that the cardiac gene expression patterns of healthy and genetically compromised, CVD-prone rat models, with or without metabolic impa...

  2. 20 CFR 408.950 - Will we accept a compromise settlement of an overpayment debt or suspend or terminate collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Underpayments... (31 CFR 900.3 and parts 902 and 903). (c) Effect of compromise, suspension or termination. When we... accordance with provisions of the Social Security Act, other laws, and the standards set forth in 31 CFR...

  3. Managing forest and marginal agricultural land for multiple tradeoffs : compromising on economic, carbon and structural biodiversity objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krcmar, E.; Kooten, van G.C.; Vertinsky, I.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we use compromise programming to solve a multiple-objective land use and forest management planning model. Long- and short- (`fast¿) term carbon uptake, maintenance of structural diversity, and economic (net returns to forestry and agriculture) objectives are simultaneously achieved

  4. The role of milrinone in children with cardiovascular compromise: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sascha; Gortner, Ludwig; Brown, Kate; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim

    2011-04-01

    Cardiovascular instability is a common complication in children after cardiac surgery and in various forms of shock. Systematic literature review. Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in this systematic literature review. In children after corrective surgery for congenital heart disease milrinone significantly reduced the risk of development of LCOS compared with placebo. In another study in children with high pulmonary vascular resistance and impaired oxygenation after Fontan operation, inhalation of NO with milrinone led to the most significant reduction of pulmonary vascular resistance and improvement of oxygenation. When only milrinone was given these changes were less pronounced. In non-hyperdynamic septic shock, CI, SVI, and DO₂ significantly increased while SVRI significantly decreased after milrinone when compared to placebo. There are a limited number of RCTs in children that suggest a beneficial effect of milrinone in the optimization of cardiovascular function after cardiac surgery and in septic shock.

  5. Erythropoietin treatment does not compromise cardiovascular function in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Mehlsen, J; Stenver, Doris Irene

    1994-01-01

    The anemia in patients with chronic renal failure can be corrected through treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin treatment. This correction is associated with changes in the rheologic variables, which could explain the changes in hemodynamics found by many investigators. The authors have...... followed up 11 patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis before and during six months of therapy with erythropoietin. The measurements were made before treatment, after four months of therapy, and after six months of therapy. The measurements included hematocrit, osmotic resistance of the red...... were unchanged. The conclude that, in spite of changes in rheologic variables, increasing viscosity of the blood and thus possibly increasing the peripheral resistance, these had no effect on the cardiovascular state. Erythropoietin treatment improves the subjective well-being in patients on chronic...

  6. Establishment of normal gut microbiota is compromised under excessive hygiene conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Schmidt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early gut colonization events are purported to have a major impact on the incidence of infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in later life. Hence, factors which influence this process may have important implications for both human and animal health. Previously, we demonstrated strong influences of early-life environment on gut microbiota composition in adult pigs. Here, we sought to further investigate the impact of limiting microbial exposure during early life on the development of the pig gut microbiota. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Outdoor- and indoor-reared animals, exposed to the microbiota in their natural rearing environment for the first two days of life, were transferred to an isolator facility and adult gut microbial diversity was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From a total of 2,196 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences, 440 phylotypes were identified in the outdoor group and 431 phylotypes in the indoor group. The majority of clones were assigned to the four phyla Firmicutes (67.5% of all sequences, Proteobacteria (17.7%, Bacteroidetes (13.5% and to a lesser extent, Actinobacteria (0.1%. Although the initial maternal and environmental microbial inoculum of isolator-reared animals was identical to that of their naturally-reared littermates, the microbial succession and stabilization events reported previously in naturally-reared outdoor animals did not occur. In contrast, the gut microbiota of isolator-reared animals remained highly diverse containing a large number of distinct phylotypes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results documented here indicate that establishment and development of the normal gut microbiota requires continuous microbial exposure during the early stages of life and this process is compromised under conditions of excessive hygiene.

  7. Does a Consumer-Targeted Deprescribing Intervention Compromise Patient-Healthcare Provider Trust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi Zhi; Turner, Justin P; Martin, Philippe; Tannenbaum, Cara

    2018-04-16

    One in four community-dwelling older adults is prescribed an inappropriate medication. Educational interventions aimed at patients to reduce inappropriate medications may cause patients to question their prescriber’s judgment. The objective of this study was to determine whether a patient-focused deprescribing intervention compromised trust between older adults and their healthcare providers. An educational brochure was distributed to community-dwelling older adults by community pharmacists in order to trigger deprescribing conversations. At baseline and 6-months post-intervention, participants completed the Primary Care Assessment Survey, which measures patient trust in doctors and pharmacists. Changes in trust were ascertained post-intervention. Proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and logistic regression were used to determine a shift in trust and associated predictors. 352 participants responded to the questionnaire at both time points. The majority of participants had no change or gained trust in their doctors for items related to the choice of medical care (78.5%, 95% CI = 74.2–82.8), communication transparency (75.4%, 95% CI = 70.7–79.8), and overall trust (81.9%, 95% CI = 77.9–86.0). Similar results were obtained for participants’ perceptions of their pharmacists, with trust remaining intact for items related to the choice of medical care (79.4%, 95% CI = 75.3–83.9), transparency in communicating (82.0%, 95% CI = 78.0–86.1), and overall trust (81.6%, 95% CI = 77.5–85.7). Neither age, sex nor the medication class targeted for deprescribing was associated with a loss of trust. Overall, the results indicate that patient-focused deprescribing interventions do not shift patients’ trust in their healthcare providers in a negative direction.

  8. Compromised JMJD6 histone demethylase activity impacts on VHL gene repression in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahari, Sruthi; Post, Martin; Rolfo, Alessandro; Weksberg, Rosanna; Caniggia, Isabella

    2018-01-24

    The von Hippel Lindau (VHL) protein is a key executor of the cellular hypoxic response that is compromised in preeclampsia, a serious disorder complicating 5-7% of pregnancies. To date, the mechanisms controlling VHL gene expression in the human placenta remain elusive. We examined VHL epigenetic regulation in normal pregnancy and in preeclampsia, a pathology characterized by placental hypoxia. Placentae were obtained from early-onset (E-PE: n=56; <34 weeks of gestation) and late onset preeclampsia (L-PE: n=19; ≥ 34 weeks of gestation). Placentae from healthy normotensive age-matched preterm and term pregnancies (PTC: n=43; TC: n=23) were included as controls. We measured the activity of Jumonji domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6), a Fe2+ and oxygen-dependent histone demethylase, and examined its function in the epigenetic control of VHL. JMJD6 regulates VHL gene expression in the human placenta. VHL downregulation in preeclampsia is dependent on decreased JMJD6 demethylase activity due to hypoxia and reduced Fe2+ bioavailability. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed decreased association of JMJD6 and its histone targets with the VHL promoter. Findings in preeclampsia were corroborated in a murine model of pharmacological hypoxia using FG-4592. Placentae from FG-4592 treated mice exhibited reduced VHL levels, accompanied by placental morphological alterations and reduced pup weights. Notably, Fe2+ supplementation rescued JMJD6 histone demethylase activity in histone from E-PE and FG-4592-treated mice. Our study uncovers novel epigenetic regulation of VHL and its functional consequences for altered oxygen and iron homeostasis in preeclampsia. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society

  9. Does a Consumer-Targeted Deprescribing Intervention Compromise Patient-Healthcare Provider Trust?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhi Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One in four community-dwelling older adults is prescribed an inappropriate medication. Educational interventions aimed at patients to reduce inappropriate medications may cause patients to question their prescriber’s judgment. The objective of this study was to determine whether a patient-focused deprescribing intervention compromised trust between older adults and their healthcare providers. An educational brochure was distributed to community-dwelling older adults by community pharmacists in order to trigger deprescribing conversations. At baseline and 6-months post-intervention, participants completed the Primary Care Assessment Survey, which measures patient trust in doctors and pharmacists. Changes in trust were ascertained post-intervention. Proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI, and logistic regression were used to determine a shift in trust and associated predictors. 352 participants responded to the questionnaire at both time points. The majority of participants had no change or gained trust in their doctors for items related to the choice of medical care (78.5%, 95% CI = 74.2–82.8, communication transparency (75.4%, 95% CI = 70.7–79.8, and overall trust (81.9%, 95% CI = 77.9–86.0. Similar results were obtained for participants’ perceptions of their pharmacists, with trust remaining intact for items related to the choice of medical care (79.4%, 95% CI = 75.3–83.9, transparency in communicating (82.0%, 95% CI = 78.0–86.1, and overall trust (81.6%, 95% CI = 77.5–85.7. Neither age, sex nor the medication class targeted for deprescribing was associated with a loss of trust. Overall, the results indicate that patient-focused deprescribing interventions do not shift patients’ trust in their healthcare providers in a negative direction.

  10. Single-Isocenter Multiple-Target Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Risk of Compromised Coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roper, Justin; Chanyavanich, Vorakarn; Betzel, Gregory; Switchenko, Jeffrey; Dhabaan, Anees

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the dosimetric effects of rotational errors on target coverage using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for multitarget stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included 50 SRS cases, each with 2 intracranial planning target volumes (PTVs). Both PTVs were planned for simultaneous treatment to 21 Gy using a single-isocenter, noncoplanar VMAT SRS technique. Rotational errors of 0.5°, 1.0°, and 2.0° were simulated about all axes. The dose to 95% of the PTV (D95) and the volume covered by 95% of the prescribed dose (V95) were evaluated using multivariate analysis to determine how PTV coverage was related to PTV volume, PTV separation, and rotational error. Results: At 0.5° rotational error, D95 values and V95 coverage rates were ≥95% in all cases. For rotational errors of 1.0°, 7% of targets had D95 and V95 values 95% for only 63% of the targets. Multivariate analysis showed that PTV volume and distance to isocenter were strong predictors of target coverage. Conclusions: The effects of rotational errors on target coverage were studied across a broad range of SRS cases. In general, the risk of compromised coverage increased with decreasing target volume, increasing rotational error and increasing distance between targets. Multivariate regression models from this study may be used to quantify the dosimetric effects of rotational errors on target coverage given patient-specific input parameters of PTV volume and distance to isocenter.

  11. Biofouling of inlet pipes affects water quality in running seawater aquaria and compromises sponge cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E. Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine organism are often kept, cultured, and experimented on in running seawater aquaria. However, surprisingly little attention is given to the nutrient composition of the water flowing through these systems, which is generally assumed to equal in situ conditions, but may change due to the presence of biofouling organisms. Significantly lower bacterial abundances and higher inorganic nitrogen species (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium were measured in aquarium water when biofouling organisms were present within a 7-year old inlet pipe feeding a tropical reef running seawater aquaria system, compared with aquarium water fed by a new, biofouling-free inlet pipe. These water quality changes are indicative of the feeding activity and waste production of the suspension- and filter-feeding communities found in the old pipe, which included sponges, bivalves, barnacles, and ascidians. To illustrate the physiological consequences of these water quality changes on a model organism kept in the aquaria system, we investigated the influence of the presence and absence of the biofouling community on the functioning of the filter-feeding sponge Halisarca caerulea, by determining its choanocyte (filter cell proliferation rates. We found a 34% increase in choanocyte proliferation rates following the replacement of the inlet pipe (i.e., removal of the biofouling community. This indicates that the physiological functioning of the sponge was compromised due to suboptimal food conditions within the aquarium resulting from the presence of the biofouling organisms in the inlet pipe. This study has implications for the husbandry and performance of experiments with marine organisms in running seawater aquaria systems. Inlet pipes should be checked regularly, and replaced if necessary, in order to avoid excessive biofouling and to approach in situ water quality.

  12. Single blastocyst transfer: The key to reduce multiple pregnancy rates without compromising the live birth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma M Sundhararaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically, to achieve higher pregnancy rates, multiple embryos were transferred after an in-vitro fertilisation (IVF. However, this practice is being reassessed, because it leads to multiple pregnancies that is known to cause adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Aim: To compare the pregnancy outcomes in fresh IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles among women undergoing elective single blastocyst transfer (eSBT vs. those undergoing double blastocyst transfer (DBT. Settings and Design: It is a retrospective data analysis of 582 patients undergoing fresh IVF/ICSI cycles performed from January 2012 to June 2015. Materials and Methods: Patients, who underwent IVF/ICSI and developed more than one blastocyst, were included in the study. Donor cycles were excluded from the study. All the embryos were cultured to blastocyst stage in sequential media followed by transfer of two blastocysts (DBT or eSBT and cryopreservation of the remaining. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using chi square test. Results: Out of 582 patients, in 149 patients one blastocyst was transferred and in 433 patients two blastocysts were transferred. There was no statistical difference in the biochemical pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in both the groups. Statistics demonstrated a significant drop in miscarriage rate in eSBT group. There was no incidence of twins in eSBT group, whereas twin birth rate per clinical pregnancy was 29.02% in DBT group. Conclusion: Single blastocyst transfer is an effective method to reduce the risk of multiple births without compromising the pregnancy outcomes. Given the promising potential of vitrification; the remaining blastocyst can be cryopreserved.

  13. Intraoperative costs of video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy can be dramatically reduced without compromising outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Michael T; Backhus, Leah M; Berry, Mark F; Vail, Daniel G; Ayers, Kelsey C; Benson, Jalen A; Bhandari, Prasha; Teymourtash, Mehran; Shrager, Joseph B

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether surgeon selection of instrumentation and other supplies during video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy (VATSL) can safely reduce intraoperative costs. In this retrospective, cost-focused review of all video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery anatomic lung resections performed by 2 surgeons at a single institution between 2010 and 2014, we compared VATSL hospital costs and perioperative outcomes between the surgeons, as well as costs of VATSL compared with thoracotomy lobectomy (THORL). A total of 100 VATSLs were performed by surgeon A, and 70 were performed by surgeon B. The preoperative risk factors did not differ significantly between the 2 groups of surgeries. Mean VATSL total hospital costs per case were 24% percent greater for surgeon A compared with surgeon B (P = .0026). Intraoperative supply costs accounted for most of this cost difference and were 85% greater for surgeon A compared with surgeon B (P costs, accounting for 55% of the difference in intraoperative supply costs between the surgeons. Operative time was 25% longer for surgeon A compared with surgeon B (P accounted for only 11% of the difference in total cost. Surgeon A's overall VATSL costs per case were similar to those of THORLs (n = 100) performed over the same time period, whereas surgeon B's VATSL costs per case were 24% less than those of THORLs. On adjusted analysis, there was no difference in VATSL perioperative outcomes between the 2 surgeons. The costs of VATSL differ substantially among surgeons and are heavily influenced by the use of disposable equipment/devices. Surgeons can substantially reduce the costs of VATSL to far lower than those of THORL without compromising surgical outcomes through prudent use of costly instruments and technologies. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Ocean acidification compromises recruitment success of the threatened Caribbean coral Acropora palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Mason, Benjamin; Miller, Margaret; Langdon, Chris

    2010-11-23

    Ocean acidification (OA) refers to the ongoing decline in oceanic pH resulting from the uptake of atmospheric CO(2). Mounting experimental evidence suggests that OA will have negative consequences for a variety of marine organisms. Whereas the effect of OA on the calcification of adult reef corals is increasingly well documented, effects on early life history stages are largely unknown. Coral recruitment, which necessitates successful fertilization, larval settlement, and postsettlement growth and survivorship, is critical to the persistence and resilience of coral reefs. To determine whether OA threatens successful sexual recruitment of reef-building corals, we tested fertilization, settlement, and postsettlement growth of Acropora palmata at pCO(2) levels that represent average ambient conditions during coral spawning (∼400 μatm) and the range of pCO(2) increases that are expected to occur in this century [∼560 μatm (mid-CO(2)) and ∼800 μatm (high-CO(2))]. Fertilization, settlement, and growth were all negatively impacted by increasing pCO(2), and impairment of fertilization was exacerbated at lower sperm concentrations. The cumulative impact of OA on fertilization and settlement success is an estimated 52% and 73% reduction in the number of larval settlers on the reef under pCO(2) conditions projected for the middle and the end of this century, respectively. Additional declines of 39% (mid-CO(2)) and 50% (high-CO(2)) were observed in postsettlement linear extension rates relative to controls. These results suggest that OA has the potential to impact multiple, sequential early life history stages, thereby severely compromising sexual recruitment and the ability of coral reefs to recover from disturbance.

  15. Biofouling of inlet pipes affects water quality in running seawater aquaria and compromises sponge cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Brittany E; Mueller, Benjamin; Vermeij, Mark J A; van der Geest, Harm H G; de Goeij, Jasper M

    2015-01-01

    Marine organism are often kept, cultured, and experimented on in running seawater aquaria. However, surprisingly little attention is given to the nutrient composition of the water flowing through these systems, which is generally assumed to equal in situ conditions, but may change due to the presence of biofouling organisms. Significantly lower bacterial abundances and higher inorganic nitrogen species (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium) were measured in aquarium water when biofouling organisms were present within a 7-year old inlet pipe feeding a tropical reef running seawater aquaria system, compared with aquarium water fed by a new, biofouling-free inlet pipe. These water quality changes are indicative of the feeding activity and waste production of the suspension- and filter-feeding communities found in the old pipe, which included sponges, bivalves, barnacles, and ascidians. To illustrate the physiological consequences of these water quality changes on a model organism kept in the aquaria system, we investigated the influence of the presence and absence of the biofouling community on the functioning of the filter-feeding sponge Halisarca caerulea, by determining its choanocyte (filter cell) proliferation rates. We found a 34% increase in choanocyte proliferation rates following the replacement of the inlet pipe (i.e., removal of the biofouling community). This indicates that the physiological functioning of the sponge was compromised due to suboptimal food conditions within the aquarium resulting from the presence of the biofouling organisms in the inlet pipe. This study has implications for the husbandry and performance of experiments with marine organisms in running seawater aquaria systems. Inlet pipes should be checked regularly, and replaced if necessary, in order to avoid excessive biofouling and to approach in situ water quality.

  16. Advanced medical life support procedures in vitally compromised children by a helicopter emergency medical service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffer Gert J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the advanced life support procedures provided by an Emergency Medical Service (EMS and a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS for vitally compromised children. Incidence and success rate of several procedures were studied, with a distinction made between procedures restricted to the HEMS-physician and procedures for which the HEMS is more experienced than the EMS. Methods Prospective study of a consecutive group of children examined and treated by the HEMS of the eastern region of the Netherlands. Data regarding type of emergency, physiological parameters, NACA scores, treatment, and 24-hour survival were collected and subsequently analysed. Results Of the 558 children examined and treated by the HEMS on scene, 79% had a NACA score of IV-VII. 65% of the children had one or more advanced life support procedures restricted to the HEMS and 78% of the children had one or more procedures for which the HEMS is more experienced than the EMS. The HEMS intubated 38% of all children, and 23% of the children intubated and ventilated by the EMS needed emergency correction because of potentially lethal complications. The HEMS provided the greater part of intraosseous access, as the EMS paramedics almost exclusively reserved this procedure for children in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The EMS provided pain management only to children older than four years of age, but a larger group was in need of analgesia upon arrival of the HEMS, and was subsequently treated by the HEMS. Conclusions The Helicopter Emergency Medical Service of the eastern region of the Netherlands brings essential medical expertise in the field not provided by the emergency medical service. The Emergency Medical Service does not provide a significant quantity of procedures obviously needed by the paediatric patient.

  17. Compromised quality of life in patients with both Type 1 diabetes mellitus and coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, S F; Pouwer, F; Tushuizen, M E; Hoogma, R P; Mulder, C J; Simsek, S

    2013-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus and coeliac disease are two chronic illnesses associated with each other. Both diseases and their treatments can seriously impair quality of life. The objective of the present study was to investigate health-related quality of life in adult patients diagnosed with both Type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease and compare this with healthy control subjects and control subjects who have Type 1 diabetes only. A generic measure of health-related quality of life (RAND-36) and a measure of diabetes-specific quality of life (DQOL) questionnaires were sent to patients diagnosed with both Type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease. The control group consisted of patients with Type 1 diabetes without coeliac disease matched for age, gender and socio-economic status. Generic quality of life scores were compared with data from healthy Dutch control subjects. Fifty-seven patients with Type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease were included and no associations between clinical characteristics and quality of life were observed. Women reported a lower quality of life in social functioning, vitality and mental health than men (all P coeliac disease compared with patients with Type 1 diabetes. Compared with healthy control subjects, quality of life in patients with Type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease was significantly lower, particularly social functioning (Cohen's d = 0.76) and general health perception (Cohen's d = 0.86). The additional diagnosis of coeliac disease and treatment by gluten-free diet in adult patients with Type 1 diabetes has a considerable, negative impact on quality of life and diabetes-specific quality of life. Women are particularly affected and social functioning and general health perception is compromised. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  18. Aquatic therapies in patients with compromised left ventricular function and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katharina; Leblanc, Marie-Claude

    2008-01-01

    With water immersion, gravity is partly eliminated, and the water exerts a pressure on the body surface. Consequently there is a blood volume shift from the periphery to the central circulation, resulting in marked volume loading of the thorax and heart. This paper presents a selection of published literature on water immersion, balneotherapy, aqua exercises, and swimming, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) and/or stable chronic heart failure (CHF). Based on exploratory studies, central hemodynamic and neurohumoral responses of aquatic therapies will be illustrated. Major findings are: 1. In LVD and CHF, a positive effect of therapeutic warm-water tub bathing has been observed, which is assumed to be from afterload reduction due to peripheral vasodilatation caused by the warm water. 2. In coronary patients with LVD, at low-level water cycling the heart is working more efficiently than at lowlevel cycling outside of water. 3. In patients with previous extensive myocardial infarction, upright immersion to the neck resulted in temporary pathological increases in mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and mean pulmonary capillary pressures (mPCP). 4. Additionally, during slow swimming (20-25m/min) the mPAP and/or PCP were higher than during supine cycling outside water at a 100W load. 5. In CHF patients, neck- deep immersion resulted in a decrease or no change in stroke volume. 6. Although patients are hemodynamically compromised, they usually maintain a feeling of well-being during aquatic therapy. Based on these findings, clinical indications for aquatic therapies are proposed and ideas are presented to provoke further research.

  19. Transient inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoxing; Guo, Yan-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have unlimited capacity for self-renewal and can differentiate into various cell types when induced. They also have an unusual cell cycle control mechanism driven by constitutively active cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks). In mouse ESCs (mESCs). It is proposed that the rapid cell proliferation could be a necessary part of mechanisms that maintain mESC self-renewal and pluripotency, but this hypothesis is not in line with the finding in human ESCs (hESCs) that the length of the cell cycle is similar to differentiated cells. Therefore, whether rapid cell proliferation is essential for the maintenance of mESC state remains unclear. We provide insight into this uncertainty through chemical intervention of mESC cell cycle. We report here that inhibition of Cdks with olomoucine II can dramatically slow down cell proliferation of mESCs with concurrent down-regulation of cyclin A, B and E, and the activation of the Rb pathway. However, mESCs display can recover upon the removal of olomoucine II and are able to resume normal cell proliferation without losing self-renewal and pluripotency, as demonstrated by the expression of ESC markers, colony formation, embryoid body formation, and induced differentiation. We provide a mechanistic explanation for these observations by demonstrating that Oct4 and Nanog, two major transcription factors that play critical roles in the maintenance of ESC properties, are up-regulated via de novo protein synthesis when the cells are exposed to olomoucine II. Together, our data suggest that short-term inhibition of cell proliferation does not compromise the basic properties of mESCs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Host lung immunity is severely compromised during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia: role of lung eosinophils and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Aditi; Vishwakarma, Achchhe Lal; Agnihotri, Promod Kumar; Sharma, Sharad; Srivastava, Mrigank

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophils play a central role in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, a rare, but fatal, manifestation of filariasis. However, no exhaustive study has been done to identify the genes and proteins of eosinophils involved in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. In the present study, we established a mouse model of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia that mimicked filarial manifestations of human tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis and used flow cytometry-assisted cell sorting and real-time RT-PCR to study the gene expression profile of flow-sorted, lung eosinophils and lung macrophages during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis. Our results show that tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice exhibited increased levels of IL-4, IL-5, CCL5, and CCL11 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung parenchyma along with elevated titers of IgE and IgG subtypes in the serum. Alveolar macrophages from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice displayed decreased phagocytosis, attenuated nitric oxide production, and reduced T-cell proliferation capacity, and FACS-sorted lung eosinophils from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice upregulated transcript levels of ficolin A and anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2,but proapoptotic genes Bim and Bax were downregulated. Similarly, flow-sorted lung macrophages upregulated transcript levels of TLR-2, TLR-6, arginase-1, Ym-1, and FIZZ-1 but downregulated nitric oxide synthase-2 levels, signifying their alternative activation. Taken together, we show that the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia is marked by functional impairment of alveolar macrophages, alternative activation of lung macrophages, and upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes by eosinophils. These events combine together to cause severe lung inflammation and compromised lung immunity. Therapeutic interventions that can boost host immune response in the lungs might thus provide relief to patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia.

  1. The global status of insect resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Chris; Denholm, Ian; Williamson, Martin S; Nauen, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    The first neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, was launched in 1991. Today this class of insecticides comprises at least seven major compounds with a market share of more than 25% of total global insecticide sales. Neonicotinoid insecticides are highly selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and provide farmers with invaluable, highly effective tools against some of the world's most destructive crop pests. These include sucking pests such as aphids, whiteflies, and planthoppers, and also some coleopteran, dipteran and lepidopteran species. Although many insect species are still successfully controlled by neonicotinoids, their popularity has imposed a mounting selection pressure for resistance, and in several species resistance has now reached levels that compromise the efficacy of these insecticides. Research to understand the molecular basis of neonicotinoid resistance has revealed both target-site and metabolic mechanisms conferring resistance. For target-site resistance, field-evolved mutations have only been characterized in two aphid species. Metabolic resistance appears much more common, with the enhanced expression of one or more cytochrome P450s frequently reported in resistant strains. Despite the current scale of resistance, neonicotinoids remain a major component of many pest control programmes, and resistance management strategies, based on mode of action rotation, are of crucial importance in preventing resistance becoming more widespread. In this review we summarize the current status of neonicotinoid resistance, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved, and the implications for resistance management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Huang, Qi-Fang; Yang, Wen-Yi; Staessen, Jan A

    2018-06-15

    The publication of the first non-randomised proof-of-concept trial of renal denervation as a treatment modality in treatment-resistant hypertension set the stage for a search for novel devices with the expectation that technology would reduce the burden of hypertension by reducing or eliminating the costly and lifelong use of blood pressure lowering medications. As we demonstrate in this review, this idea so attractive to manufacturers and invasive cardiologists and radiologists overlooked decades of careful pathophysiological research in a disease, which still remains enigmatic but remains the major cause of cardiovascular mortality worldwide. To make our point, we first reviewed the prevalence and risks associated with treatment-resistant hypertension. Next, we highlighted the key points required for the diagnosis of treatment-resistant hypertension, including the recording of the ambulatory blood pressure and the assessment of adherence to medication. Finally, we summarised new insights in the management of treatment-resistant hypertension by medication and devices and in the future research. Throughout our review, we focused on new evidence became available since 2013. Our conclusion is that optimising medical treatment based on simple algorithms remains the state of the art in treatment-resistant hypertension.

  3. Absence of YbeY RNase compromises the growth and enhances the virulence plasmid gene expression of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskinen, Katarzyna; Varjosalo, Markku; Skurnik, Mikael

    2015-02-01

    YbeY was recently recognized as an endoribonuclease playing a role in ribosome biosynthesis. In Escherichia coli it functions as a single-strand-specific RNase that processes the 3' end of the 16S rRNA and is crucial for the late-stage 70S ribosome quality control system. Here we report that YbeY is not essential in Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3, yet its absence strongly compromised the bacterium. The lack of YbeY resulted in misprocessing of 16S rRNA and a severe decrease of growth rate with complete growth arrest observed at elevated temperatures. Moreover, a ybeY mutation severely disturbed regulation of the Yersinia virulence plasmid (pYV) genes and affected the expression of regulatory small RNA species. Transcription of the pYV genes was upregulated in the ybeY mutant at 22 °C; the same genes were repressed in the wild-type bacterium. Furthermore, ybeY inactivation impaired many virulence-related features, such as resistance to elevated temperature and acid, and hindered utilization of different carbohydrates. In addition, the ybeY mutant strain showed decreased infectivity in a tissue culture infection model, especially at the stage of cell adhesion. Taken together, this study demonstrates the crucial role of YbeY in Y. enterocolitica O:3 physiology and pathogenicity. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. Using Longitudinal Assessment on Extensively Managed Ewes to Quantify Welfare Compromise and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Stuart; Hemsworth, Paul; Doyle, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Sheep managed extensively can be exposed to several welfare challenges during the year, and the risk of some diseases can increase in warmer and wetter seasons. In this study, the welfare of Merino ewes was examined over a calendar year. The welfare of these animals, kept on a single farm with consistent management, varied substantially. Overall, the largest number of ewes experienced compromise and risk to welfare at weaning, indicating that this was the most vulnerable time. The main welfare issues identified were under and over feeding, ewe mortality, lameness, ecto-parasites (flystrike) and mastitis, all of which could be improved by modifying management practices, such as improved nutritional management and monitoring and better tail docking procedures. Future research must consider that significant variation in the on-farm welfare of ewes occurs during a calendar year, which needs to be accounted for when conducting on-farm assessments. Abstract This study examined variation in the welfare of extensively managed ewes and potential welfare risks. A total of 100 Merino ewes (aged 2–4 years) were individually identified and examined at three key stages: pregnancy, lactation and weaning. Eight animal-based welfare measures were used to assess welfare: flight distance, body condition score (BCS), fleece condition, skin lesions, tail length, dag score, lameness and mastitis. Data were analysed by ANOVA and McNemar’s statistics. Overall, the average BCS of the group was in agreement with industry recommendations. However, a number of animals were classified with inadequate condition (either too thin or too fat) across the three observation periods. The presence of heavy dags was greatest at mid-lactation (87%, P welfare issues identified were under and over feeding, ewe mortality, lameness, ecto-parasites (flystrike) and mastitis, all of which have the potential to be reduced with improved management practices. Future welfare assessment programs

  5. Extrathyroidal Extension Is Associated with Compromised Survival in Patients with Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngwirth, Linda M; Adam, Mohamed A; Scheri, Randall P; Roman, Sanziana A; Sosa, Julie A

    2017-05-01

    Patients with thyroid cancer who have extrathyroidal extension (ETE) are considered to have more advanced tumors. However, data on the impact of ETE on patient outcomes remain limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between ETE and survival in patients with thyroid cancer. The National Cancer Database (1998-2012) was queried for all adult patients with differentiated thyroid cancer and medullary thyroid cancer. Patients were divided into three groups: no ETE (T1 and T2 tumors), minimal ETE (T3 tumors thyroid cancer met the inclusion criteria; 86.9% had no ETE, 9.1% minimal ETE, and 4.0% extensive ETE. Compared with patients with no ETE, patients with minimal and extensive ETE were more likely to have larger tumors (1.4 cm vs. 1.8 cm and 2.0 cm, respectively), lymphovascular invasion (8.6% vs. 28.0% and 35.1%, respectively), positive margins after thyroidectomy (6.1% vs. 35.2% and 45.9%, respectively), and regional lymph node metastases (32.5% vs. 67.0% and 74.6%, respectively; all p thyroid cancer. In total, 3415 patients with medullary thyroid cancer met the inclusion criteria; 87.9% had no ETE, 7.1% minimal ETE, and 5.0% extensive ETE. Compared with patients with no ETE, patients with minimal and extensive ETE were more likely to have larger tumors (1.7 cm vs. 2.2 cm and 2.2 cm, respectively), lymphovascular invasion (19.2% vs. 68.9% and 79.3%, respectively), positive margins after thyroidectomy (5.8% vs. 44.1% and 51.9%, respectively), and regional lymph node metastases (39.0% vs. 90.5% and 94.4%, respectively; all p thyroid cancer. In patients with differentiated and medullary thyroid cancers, ETE is associated with compromised survival. Given these findings, ETE should be included in the thyroid cancer treatment guidelines.

  6. Erythropoietin treatment does not compromise cardiovascular function in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Mehlsen, J; Stenver, Doris Irene

    1994-01-01

    The anemia in patients with chronic renal failure can be corrected through treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin treatment. This correction is associated with changes in the rheologic variables, which could explain the changes in hemodynamics found by many investigators. The authors have...... followed up 11 patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis before and during six months of therapy with erythropoietin. The measurements were made before treatment, after four months of therapy, and after six months of therapy. The measurements included hematocrit, osmotic resistance of the red...

  7. Anticoagulant Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    Although sewer rat control is carried out in more than 80 % of all Danish municipalities, with usage of large amounts of anticoagulant rodenticides, knowledge on anticoagulant resistance among rats living in the sewers is limited. As rat problems in urban areas are believed to be related to sewer...... problems (70-90 % in UK and DK) unawareness of resistance amongst these populations of Brown rats may constitute a future control problem and knowledge on this issue has become crucial. Rats were captured in sewers from seven different locations in the suburban area of Copenhagen. Locations was chosen...... to represent different sewer rat management strategies i) no anticoagulants for approx. 20 years ii) no anticoagulants for the last 5 years and iii) continuous control for many years. Animals were tested for resistance to bromadiolone by Blood-Clotting Response test, as bromadiolone is the most frequently used...

  8. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  9. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure

  10. Efflux pumps as antimicrobial resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to hamper antimicrobial chemotherapy of infectious disease, and while biocide resistance outside of the laboratory is as yet unrealized, in vitro and in vivo episodes of reduced biocide susceptibility are not uncommon. Efflux mechanisms, both drug-specific and multidrug, are important determinants of intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to these antimicrobials in important human pathogens. Multidrug efflux mechanisms are generally chromosome-encoded, with their expression typically resultant from mutations in regulatory genes, while drug-specific efflux mechanisms are encoded by mobile genetic elements whose acquisition is sufficient for resistance. While it has been suggested that drug-specific efflux systems originated from efflux determinants of self-protection in antibiotic-producing Actinomycetes, chromosomal multidrug efflux determinants, at least in Gram-negative bacteria, are appreciated as having an intended housekeeping function unrelated to drug export and resistance. Thus, it will be important to elucidate the intended natural function of these efflux mechanisms in order, for example, to anticipate environmental conditions or circumstances that might promote their expression and, so, compromise antimicrobial chemotherapy. Given the clinical significance of antimicrobial exporters, it is clear that efflux must be considered in formulating strategies for treatment of drug-resistant infections, both in the development of new agents, for example, less impacted by efflux or in targeting efflux directly with efflux inhibitors.

  11. National Report presented by the Mexican United States to satisfy the compromises of the Nuclear Safety Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In order to satisfy to the compromises derived of the ratification by part of the Mexican Government for the Nuclear Safety Convention it is presented this National Report which is based on the directives proposed as a result of the preparatory meetings held in the IAEA Headquarters in the city of Vienna, Austria. This National Report represents a document summary and activities realized at present in relation with the only nuclear facility in Mexico: the Nuclear Power Plant in Laguna Verde, Veracruz. This report consists of two parts: In the first one it is described how have been satisfied each one of the compromises. The second one talks about the Laws and Regulations on nuclear activities in the country. (Author)

  12. Which Statistic Should Be Used to Detect Item Preknowledge When the Set of Compromised Items Is Known?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2017-09-01

    Benefiting from item preknowledge is a major type of fraudulent behavior during educational assessments. Belov suggested the posterior shift statistic for detection of item preknowledge and showed its performance to be better on average than that of seven other statistics for detection of item preknowledge for a known set of compromised items. Sinharay suggested a statistic based on the likelihood ratio test for detection of item preknowledge; the advantage of the statistic is that its null distribution is known. Results from simulated and real data and adaptive and nonadaptive tests are used to demonstrate that the Type I error rate and power of the statistic based on the likelihood ratio test are very similar to those of the posterior shift statistic. Thus, the statistic based on the likelihood ratio test appears promising in detecting item preknowledge when the set of compromised items is known.

  13. Identifying and Embedding Common Indicators of Compromise in Virtual Machines for Lab-Based Incident Response Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    as an ever more popular method of exploiting hosts. Because the Internet is used for things like ecommerce , trading, voting, government, services...HTTP hypertext transfer protocol IE Internet Explorer IMAP Internet message access protocol IOC indicators of compromise IP Internet protocol MD5...notification of detection. These questions not only deal with how an incident is detected, but with the detection system itself. Things like whether

  14. Reduction of Cone-Beam CT scan time without compromising the accuracy of the image registration in IGRT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westberg, Jonas; Jensen, Henrik R; Bertelsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    In modern radiotherapy accelerators are equipped with 3D cone-beam CT (CBCT) which is used to verify patient position before treatment. The verification is based on an image registration between the CBCT acquired just before treatment and the CT scan made for the treatment planning. The purpose...... of this study is to minimise the scan time of the CBCT without compromising the accuracy of the image registration in IGRT....

  15. Dopamine D2 receptor function is compromised in the brain of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Oien, Derek B.; Ortiz, Andrea N.; Rittel, Alexander G.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Johnson, Michael A.; Levant, Beth; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that brain oxidative stress and altered rodent locomotor behavior are linked. We observed bio-behavioral changes in methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mice associated with abnormal dopamine signaling. Compromised ability of these knockout mice to reduce methionine sulfoxide enhances accumulation of sulfoxides in proteins. We examined the dopamine D2-receptor function and expression, which has an atypical arrangement and quantity of methionine residues. Indeed...

  16. A Pirate too Needs to be Heard: Procedural Compromises in Online Copyright Infringement Cases in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorna Mysoor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Online copyright infringement is one of the toughest challenges the content industry has faced in the twenty first century. Article 8(3 of the Information Society Directive, implemented under section 97A of the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, provides an injunctive remedy in response to such online infringement. Given the elusive nature of the website operators and the sheer number of their users, rights owners have turned to the Internet Service Providers (ISPs to implement the injunctions granted under section 97A to block websites with infringing content. In their battle to keep pace with online infringers, the UK courts have permitted significant compromises to the procedures while granting these injunctive blocking orders. One of the pioneers in this line of cases in the UK is the Pirate Bay case (TPB case, which ruled as a matter of law that the procedure under Section 97A does not require the alleged infringers to be made parties to those proceedings. TPB case also marks the trend of the ISPs consenting to an order of injunction, and not defending the proceedings. This has resulted in the absence of any adverse party in the proceedings under section 97A. This threatens the basic tenets of procedural fairness and propriety, having adverse consequences on both the substantive and procedural aspects, evident in the cases that followed TPB case. This article examines the aspects of the judgment in TPB case that led to these procedural compromises, whether it had any basis in the pre-existing case law, what the nature of an injunction under section 97A is and how the subsequent line of cases have followed TPB case as a precedent. It further explores the adverse consequences of the procedural compromises and whether any safeguards are available against such compromises.

  17. Palaeo-adaptive properties of the xylem of Metasequoia: mechanical/hydraulic compromises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagels, Richard; Visscher, George E; Lucas, John; Goodell, Barry

    2003-07-01

    The xylem of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is characterized by very low density (average specific gravity = 0.27) and tracheids with relatively large dimensions (length and diameter). The microfibril angle in the S2 layer of tracheid walls is large, even in outer rings, suggesting a cambial response to compressive rather than tensile stresses. In some cases, this compressive stress is converted to irreversible strain (plastic deformation), as evidenced by cell wall corrugations. The heartwood is moderately decay resistant, helping to prevent Brazier buckling. These xylem properties are referenced to the measured bending properties of modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, and compared with other low-to-moderate density conifers. The design strategy for Metasequoia is to produce a mechanically weak but hydraulically efficient xylem that permits rapid height growth and crown development to capture and dominate a wet site environment. The adaptability of these features to a high-latitude Eocene palaeoenvironment is discussed.

  18. Palaeo‐adaptive Properties of the Xylem of Metasequoia: Mechanical/Hydraulic Compromises

    Science.gov (United States)

    JAGELS, RICHARD; VISSCHER, GEORGE E.; LUCAS, JOHN; GOODELL, BARRY

    2003-01-01

    The xylem of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is characterized by very low density (average specific gravity = 0·27) and tracheids with relatively large dimensions (length and diameter). The microfibril angle in the S2 layer of tracheid walls is large, even in outer rings, suggesting a cambial response to compressive rather than tensile stresses. In some cases, this compressive stress is converted to irreversible strain (plastic deformation), as evidenced by cell wall corrugations. The heartwood is moderately decay resistant, helping to prevent Brazier buckling. These xylem properties are referenced to the measured bending properties of modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, and compared with other low‐to‐moderate density conifers. The design strategy for Metasequoia is to produce a mechanically weak but hydraulically efficient xylem that permits rapid height growth and crown development to capture and dominate a wet site environment. The adaptability of these features to a high‐latitude Eocene palaeoenvironment is discussed. PMID:12763758

  19. Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 compromise the sinonasal epithelial barrier and perturb intercellular junction protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sarah K; Laury, Adrienne M; Katz, Elizabeth H; Den Beste, Kyle A; Parkos, Charles A; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-05-01

    Altered expression of epithelial intercellular junction proteins has been observed in sinonasal biopsies from nasal polyps and epithelial layers cultured from nasal polyp patients. These alterations comprise a "leaky" epithelial barrier phenotype. We hypothesize that T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 modulate epithelial junction proteins, thereby contributing to the leaky epithelial barrier. Differentiated primary sinonasal epithelial layers cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed to IL-4, IL-13, and controls for 24 hours at 37°C. Epithelial resistance measurements were taken every 4 hours during cytokine exposure. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining/confocal microscopy were used to assess changes in a panel of tight and adherens junction proteins. Western blot densitometry was quantified with image analysis. IL-4 and IL-13 exposure resulted in a mean decrease in transepithelial resistance at 24 hours to 51.6% (n = 6) and 68.6% (n = 8) of baseline, respectively. Tight junction protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) expression decreased 42.2% with IL-4 exposure (n = 9) and 37.5% with IL-13 exposure (n = 9). Adherens junction protein E-cadherin expression decreased 35.3% with IL-4 exposure (n = 9) and 32.9% with IL-13 exposure (n = 9). Tight junction protein claudin-2 showed more variability but had a trend toward higher expression with Th2 cytokine exposure. There were no appreciable changes in claudin-1, occludin, or zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) with IL-4 or IL-13 exposure. Sinonasal epithelial exposure to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 results in alterations in intercellular junction proteins, reflecting increased epithelial permeability. Such changes may explain some of the phenotypic manifestations of Th2-mediated sinonasal disease, such as edema, nasal discharge, and environmental reactivity. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  20. IL-4 and IL-13 Compromise the Sinonasal Epithelial Barrier and Perturb Intercellular Junction Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sarah K.; Laury, Adrienne M.; Katz, Elizabeth H.; Den Beste, Kyle A.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Altered expression of epithelial intercellular junction proteins has been observed in sinonasal biopsies from nasal polyps and epithelial layers cultured from nasal polyp patients. These alterations comprise a “leaky” epithelial barrier phenotype. We hypothesize that Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 modulate epithelial junction proteins thereby contributing to the leaky epithelial barrier. Methods Differentiated primary sinonasal epithelial layers cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed to IL-4, IL-13, and controls for 24 hours at 37°C. Epithelial resistance measurements were taken every 4 hours during cytokine exposure. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining/confocal microscopy were used to assess changes in a panel of tight and adherens junction proteins. Western blot densitometry was quantified with image analysis. Results IL-4 and IL-13 exposure resulted in a mean decrease in transepithelial resistance at 24 hours to 51.6% (n=6) and 68.6% (n=8) of baseline, respectively. Tight junction protein JAM-A expression decreased 42.2% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 37.5% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Adherens junction protein E-cadherin expression decreased 35.3% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 32.9% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Tight junction protein claudin-2 showed more variability but had a trend toward higher expression with Th2 cytokine exposure. There were no appreciable changes in claudin-1, occludin, or ZO-1 with IL-4 or IL-13 exposure. Conclusion Sinonasal epithelial exposure to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 results in alterations in intercellular junction proteins, reflecting increased epithelial permeability. Such changes may explain some of the phenotypic manifestations of Th2-mediated sinonasal disease, such as edema, nasal discharge, and environmental reactivity. PMID:24510479

  1. Management and design of hospital pens relative to behavior of the compromised dairy cow: A questionnaire survey of Iowa dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Herskin, Mette S.; Gorden, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    on best prac-tices for housing and management of compromised cows. The purpose of this study was to providedescriptive information about management and husbandry practices of compromised cows on dairyfarms in Iowa. A questionnaire-based survey was designed to examine demographic information, designand...

  2. Compromised Co-management, Compromised Outcomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-08-25

    Aug 25, 2006 ... new tracts of land as fertility declines in older fields (makura) (Manyame .... discern that there was more tree cover in the gazetted forests than the ..... He had had the opportunity to visit Sweden as part of a group of farmers to.

  3. Compromised Co-management, Compromised Outcomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-08-25

    Aug 25, 2006 ... 'Please' said one chief with a sad twisted smile. 'your hacking is ..... its financial position in the face of declining central government revenue. 6.mapedza.p65 .... fires within the forest reserve, and have also assumed roles of enforcement. .... At the beginning of the project's implementation, the first field officer.

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury Increases Cortical Glutamate Network Activity by Compromising GABAergic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, David; Walker, Kendall; Andresen, Lauren; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Hampton, David; Tesco, Giuseppina; Dulla, Chris G

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for developing pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Although disruptions in brain circuitry are associated with TBI, the precise mechanisms by which brain injury leads to epileptiform network activity is unknown. Using controlled cortical impact (CCI) as a model of TBI, we examined how cortical excitability and glutamatergic signaling was altered following injury. We optically mapped cortical glutamate signaling using FRET-based glutamate biosensors, while simultaneously recording cortical field potentials in acute brain slices 2-4 weeks following CCI. Cortical electrical stimulation evoked polyphasic, epileptiform field potentials and disrupted the input-output relationship in deep layers of CCI-injured cortex. High-speed glutamate biosensor imaging showed that glutamate signaling was significantly increased in the injured cortex. Elevated glutamate responses correlated with epileptiform activity, were highest directly adjacent to the injury, and spread via deep cortical layers. Immunoreactivity for markers of GABAergic interneurons were significantly decreased throughout CCI cortex. Lastly, spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current frequency decreased and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current increased after CCI injury. Our results suggest that specific cortical neuronal microcircuits may initiate and facilitate the spread of epileptiform activity following TBI. Increased glutamatergic signaling due to loss of GABAergic control may provide a mechanism by which TBI can give rise to post-traumatic epilepsy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Chemical suppressors of mlo-mediated powdery mildew resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongpo; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Strugala, Roxana; Schaffrath, Ulrich; Bednarek, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Loss-of-function of barley mildew locus o (Mlo) confers durable broad-spectrum penetration resistance to the barley powdery mildew pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). Given the importance of mlo mutants in agriculture, surprisingly few molecular components have been identified to be required for this type of resistance in barley. With the aim to identify novel cellular factors contributing to mlo-based resistance, we devised a pharmacological inhibitor screen. Of the 41 rationally chosen compounds tested, five caused a partial suppression of mlo resistance in barley, indicated by increased levels of Bgh host cell entry. These chemicals comprise brefeldin A (BFA), 2′,3′-dideoxyadenosine (DDA), 2-deoxy-d-glucose, spermidine, and 1-aminobenzotriazole. Further inhibitor analysis corroborated a key role for both anterograde and retrograde endomembrane trafficking in mlo resistance. In addition, all four ribonucleosides, some ribonucleoside derivatives, two of the five nucleobases (guanine and uracil), some guanine derivatives as well as various polyamines partially suppress mlo resistance in barley via yet unknown mechanisms. Most of the chemicals identified to be effective in partially relieving mlo resistance in barley also to some extent compromised powdery mildew resistance in an Arabidopsis mlo2 mlo6 double mutant. In summary, our study identified novel suppressors of mlo resistance that may serve as valuable probes to unravel further the molecular processes underlying this unusual type of disease resistance. PMID:29127104

  7. Macrolide resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae: Focus on azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Cláudia; Martínez-Puchol, Sandra; Palma, Noemí; Horna, Gertrudis; Ruiz-Roldán, Lidia; Pons, Maria J; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2017-02-01

    From its introduction in 1952 onwards, the clinical use of macrolides has been steadily increasing, both in human and veterinary medicine. Although initially designed to the treatment of Gram-positive microorganisms, this antimicrobial family has also been used to treat specific Gram-negative bacteria. Some of them, as azithromycin, are considered in the armamentarium against Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, the facility that this bacterial genus has to gain or develop mechanisms of antibiotic resistance may compromise the future usefulness of these antibiotics to fight against Enterobacteriaceae infections. The present review is focused on the mechanisms of macrolide resistance, currently described in Enterobacteriaceae.

  8. Multi drug resistant tuberculosis presenting as anterior mediastinal mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmarth Chandane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the mediastinal lymphatic glands is a common presentation of intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB in children. However, usually, the mediastinal TB nodes enlarge to 2.8 ± 1.0 cm. In this report, we describe a case of anterior mediastinal lymphnode TB seen as huge mass (7 cm on computed tomography (CT thorax without respiratory or food pipe compromise despite anterior mediastinum being an enclosed space. CT guided biopsy of the mass cultured Mycobacterium TB complex which was resistant to isoniazide, rifampicin, streptomycin ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and pyrazinamide. Hence, we report primary multi drug resistant TB presenting as anterior mediastinal mass as a rare case report.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Shen, Zhaojun; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer have poor prognosis, and their 1-year survival is only 10%-20%. Chemotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, and cisplatin appears to treat the disease effectively. However, resistance to cisplatin may develop, thus substantially compromising the efficacy of cisplatin to treat advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. In this article, we systematically review the recent literature and summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer.

  10. Arsenic compromises conducting airway epithelial barrier properties in primary mouse and immortalized human cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L Sherwood

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a lung toxicant that can lead to respiratory illness through inhalation and ingestion, although the most common exposure is through contaminated drinking water. Lung effects reported from arsenic exposure include lung cancer and obstructive lung disease, as well as reductions in lung function and immune response. As part of their role in innate immune function, airway epithelial cells provide a barrier that protects underlying tissue from inhaled particulates, pathogens, and toxicants frequently found in inspired air. We evaluated the effects of a five-day exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic {<4μM [~300 μg/L (ppb] as NaAsO2} on airway epithelial barrier function and structure. In a primary mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE cell model we found that both micromolar (3.9 μM and submicromolar (0.8 μM arsenic concentrations reduced transepithelial resistance, a measure of barrier function. Immunofluorescent staining of arsenic-treated MTE cells showed altered patterns of localization of the transmembrane tight junction proteins claudin (Cl Cl-1, Cl-4, Cl-7 and occludin at cell-cell contacts when compared with untreated controls. To better quantify arsenic-induced changes in tight junction transmembrane proteins we conducted arsenic exposure experiments with an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-. We found that arsenic exposure significantly increased the protein expression of Cl-4 and occludin as well as the mRNA levels of Cl-4 and Cl-7 in these cells. Additionally, arsenic exposure resulted in altered phosphorylation of occludin. In summary, exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can alter both the function and structure of airway epithelial barrier constituents. These changes likely contribute to the observed arsenic-induced loss in basic innate immune defense and increased infection in the airway.

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  12. Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech

    Insulin resistance (IR) is escalating with alarming pace and is no longer restricted to westernized countries. As a forerunner for some of the most serious threats to human health including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2-diabetes, the need for new treatment modalities...... interventions. We further show that improving the inflammatory toning, using fish oil as fat source, protects mice against diet induced obesity and -inflammation while preserving insulin sensitivity, even in the absence of free fatty acid receptor 4. Conversely, HFD-induced intestinal dysbiosis is associated...

  13. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Navdeep; McGeer, James C.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  14. Regenerative Needs Following Alveolar Ridge Preservation Procedures in Compromised and Noncompromised Extraction Sockets: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutouzis, Theofilos; Lipton, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the necessity for additional regenerative procedures following healing of compromised and noncompromised extraction sockets with alveolar ridge preservation procedures through the use of virtual implant imaging software. The cohort was comprised of 87 consecutive patients subjected to a single maxillary tooth extraction with an alveolar ridge preservation procedure for subsequent implant placement. Patients were divided into two main groups based on the integrity of the buccal bone plate following teeth extraction. Patients in the compromised socket (CS) group (n = 52) had partial or complete buccal bone plate loss, and patients in the noncompromised socket (NCS) group (n = 35) exhibited no bone loss of their socket walls following tooth extraction. Following 4 to 6 months of healing, all patients had a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) study. Root-formed implants were placed virtually in an ideal prosthetic position. The number of implants per group and location (anterior, premolar, molar) exhibiting exposed buccal implant surface was calculated. In the CS group, 5 out of 19 anterior implants (26.3%), 4 out of 14 premolar implants (28.5%), and 7 out of 19 molar implants (36.8%) had exposed buccal surfaces. In the NCS group, 4 out of 9 anterior implants (44.4%), 2 out of 9 premolar implants (22.2%), and 4 out of 17 molar implants (23.5%) had exposed buccal surfaces. There were no statistically significant differences for intragroup and intergroup comparisons (χ² test, P > .05). This study failed to find statistically significant differences in the frequency of implants with exposed buccal surfaces placed virtually, following treatment of compromised and noncompromised sockets. A high proportion (22% to 44%) of sites had implants that potentially needed additional regenerative procedures.

  15. Prosthodontic decision-making relating to dentitions with compromised molars: the perspective of Swedish General Dental Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korduner, E-K; Collin Bagewitz, I; Vult von Steyern, P; Wolf, E

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the clinical prosthodontic decision-making process relating to dentitions with compromised molars among Swedish general dental practitioners (GDPs). Eleven Swedish GDPs were purposively selected, and all agreed to participate. Then, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted and covered treatment considerations concerning two authentic patient cases, initially with complete dental arches, and later, a final treatment based on a shortened dental arch (SDA) was discussed. The cases involved patients with compromised teeth situated mainly in the molar regions. One patient suffered from extensive caries and the other from severe periodontal disease. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. In the systematic analysis, two main categories were identified: holistic and functional approach. Among the interviewed GDPs, focus was put on patients' needs, background history and motivation for treatment as well as the preservation of molar support. Within the limitations of this study, the following can be concluded: keeping a dental arch with molars seems to be important to Swedish general dental practitioners. The SDA concept does not seem to have a substantial impact on the prosthodontic decision-making relating to dentitions with compromised molars. The dentist's experiences, as well as colleagues' or consulting specialist advice together with aetiological factors and the patient's individual situation, influence the decision-making more than the SDA concept. The conflicting results in the prosthetic decision-making process concerning the relevance of age and the need for molar support need further investigation, for example based on decisions made in the dentist's own clinical practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); McGeer, James C. [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: matt.vijayan@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  17. Video-Assisted versus Open Lobectomy in Patients with Compromised Lung Function: A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoyu Zhang

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that video-assisted (VATS lobectomy is safer than open lobectomy in patients with compromised lung function, but data regarding this are limited. We assessed acute outcomes of VATS compared to open lobectomy in these high-risk patients using a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of data.The databases PubMed and Scopus were searched for studies published between 2000 and 2013 that reported mortality and morbidity of VATS in high-risk lung cancer patients defined as having compromised pulmonary or cardiopulmonary function. Study selection, data collection and critical assessment of the included studies were performed according to the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration.Three case-control studies and three case series that included 330 VATS and 257 open patients were identified for inclusion. Operative mortality, overall morbidity and pulmonary morbidity were 2.5%, 39.3%, 26.2% in VATS patients and 7.8%, 57.5%, 45.5% in open lobectomy group, respectively. VATS lobectomy patients experienced significantly lower pulmonary morbidity (RR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.67; p = 0.0001, somewhat reduced operative mortality (RR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.24 to 1.06; p = 0.07, but no significant difference in overall morbidity (RR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.14; p = 0.14.The existing data suggest that VATS lobectomy is associated with lower risk for pulmonary morbidity compared with open lobectomy in lung cancer patients with compromised lung function.

  18. Cross-talk between branched-chain amino acids and hepatic mitochondria is compromised in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sunny, Nishanth E.; Kalavalapalli, Srilaxmi; Bril, Fernando; Garrett, Timothy J.; Nautiyal, Manisha; Mathew, Justin T.; Williams, Caroline M.; Cusi, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in the setting of insulin resistance have been relevant in predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) onset, but their role in the etiology of hepatic insulin resistance remains uncertain. We determined the link between BCAA and dysfunctional hepatic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which is a central feature of hepatic insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Plasma metabolites under basal fasting and euglycemic hyperin...

  19. HIV treatment as prevention: debate and commentary--will early infection compromise treatment-as-prevention strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myron S Cohen

    Full Text Available Universal HIV testing and immediate antiretroviral therapy for infected individuals has been proposed as a way of reducing the transmission of HIV and thereby bringing the HIV epidemic under control. It is unclear whether transmission during early HIV infection--before individuals are likely to have been diagnosed with HIV and started on antiretroviral therapy--will compromise the effectiveness of treatment as prevention. This article presents two opposing viewpoints by Powers, Miller, and Cohen, and Williams and Dye, followed by a commentary by Fraser.

  20. Crisis, Compromise and Institutional Leadership in Global Trade: Unfair Trade, Sustainable Trade, and Durability of the Liberal Trading Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens L.

    2017-01-01

    The transformations of the current liberal order is fiercely order debate among liberals and realists in International Relations (IR). The article examines how the liberal claim of institutional leadership, even in complex networked orders, is challenged by realists and the reality of forum......-shifting and institutionalized hegemonic power. Yet, the article advances the constructivists argument that order and leadership rests on the compromise of social purpose and power, even if much IR tends to prioritize the domestic sources of leadership at the expense of international sources of institutional leadership......, and in light of recent modernization debate in Europe on the desirability of US-style enforcement provisions in future EU trade agreements....

  1. AMPK-mediated up-regulation of mTORC2 and MCL-1 compromises the anti-cancer effects of aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hui; Yin, Yancun; Wang, Jiao; Luo, Ting; Jiang, Yangfu

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important energy sensor that may inhibit cell proliferation or promote cell survival during stresses. Besides cyclooxygenase, AMPK is another target of the nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agent aspirin. Preclinical and clinical investigations demonstrate that aspirin can inhibit several types of cancer such as colorectal adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, little is known about the cellular response to aspirin that may lead to aspirin resistance. Here, we show that aspirin induces the expression of MCL-1 in HepG2 and SW480 cells through AMPK-mTOR-Akt/ERK axis. Treatment of HepG2 and SW480 cells with aspirin leads to increased MCL-1 expression, Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Inhibition of Akt/MEK abrogates the induction of MCL-1 by aspirin. Aspirin activates AMPK, which in turn up-regulates mTORC2 activity, Akt, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and MCL-1 expression. MCL-1 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to aspirin-induced apoptosis. Combination of aspirin and AMPK, Akt or MEK inhibitor results in more significant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis than single agent. Moreover, sorafenib blocks aspirin-induced MCL-1 up-regulation. Combination of aspirin and sorafenib leads to much more cell death and less cell proliferation than each drug alone. Treatment of HCC and colon cancer xenografts with both aspirin and sorafenib results in more significant tumor suppression than single agent. These data demonstrate that AMPK-mediated up-regulation of mTORC2 and MCL-1 may compromise the anticancer effects of aspirin. Combination of aspirin and sorafenib may be an effective regimen to treat HCC and colon cancer. PMID:26918349

  2. Aggressive chemotherapy and the selection of drug resistant pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Huijben

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistant pathogens are one of the key public health challenges of the 21st century. There is a widespread belief that resistance is best managed by using drugs to rapidly eliminate target pathogens from patients so as to minimize the probability that pathogens acquire resistance de novo. Yet strong drug pressure imposes intense selection in favor of resistance through alleviation of competition with wild-type populations. Aggressive chemotherapy thus generates opposing evolutionary forces which together determine the rate of drug resistance emergence. Identifying treatment regimens which best retard resistance evolution while maximizing health gains and minimizing disease transmission requires empirical analysis of resistance evolution in vivo in conjunction with measures of clinical outcomes and infectiousness. Using rodent malaria in laboratory mice, we found that less aggressive chemotherapeutic regimens substantially reduced the probability of onward transmission of resistance (by >150-fold, without compromising health outcomes. Our experiments suggest that there may be cases where resistance evolution can be managed more effectively with treatment regimens other than those which reduce pathogen burdens as fast as possible.

  3. Suboptimal T-cell receptor signaling compromises protein translation, ribosome biogenesis, and proliferation of mouse CD8 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thomas C J; Knight, John; Sbarrato, Thomas; Dudek, Kate; Willis, Anne E; Zamoyska, Rose

    2017-07-25

    Global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of T cells have been rich sources of unbiased data for understanding T-cell activation. Lack of full concordance of these datasets has illustrated that important facets of T-cell activation are controlled at the level of translation. We undertook translatome analysis of CD8 T-cell activation, combining polysome profiling and microarray analysis. We revealed that altering T-cell receptor stimulation influenced recruitment of mRNAs to heavy polysomes and translation of subsets of genes. A major pathway that was compromised, when TCR signaling was suboptimal, was linked to ribosome biogenesis, a rate-limiting factor in both cell growth and proliferation. Defective TCR signaling affected transcription and processing of ribosomal RNA precursors, as well as the translation of specific ribosomal proteins and translation factors. Mechanistically, IL-2 production was compromised in weakly stimulated T cells, affecting the abundance of Myc protein, a known regulator of ribosome biogenesis. Consequently, weakly activated T cells showed impaired production of ribosomes and a failure to maintain proliferative capacity after stimulation. We demonstrate that primary T cells respond to various environmental cues by regulating ribosome biogenesis and mRNA translation at multiple levels to sustain proliferation and differentiation.

  4. [A multi-measure analysis of the similarity, attraction, and compromise effects in multi-attribute decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Takashi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Manabu

    2012-12-01

    In multi-attribute decision making, the similarity, attraction, and compromise effects warrant specific investigation as they cause violations of principles in rational choice. In order to investigate these three effects simultaneously, we assigned 145 undergraduates to three context effect conditions. We requested them to solve the same 20 hypothetical purchase problems, each of which had three alternatives described along two attributes. We measured their choices, confidence ratings, and response times. We found that manipulating the third alternative had significant context effects for choice proportions and confidence ratings in all three conditions. Furthermore, the attraction effect was the most prominent with regard to choice proportions. In the compromise effect condition, although the choice proportion of the third alternative was high, the confidence rating was low and the response time was long. These results indicate that the relationship between choice proportions and confidence ratings requires further theoretical investigation. They also suggest that a combination of experimental and modeling studies is imperative to reveal the mechanisms underlying the context effects in multi-attribute, multi-alternative decision making.

  5. Doppler changes as the earliest parameter in fetal surveillance to detect fetal compromise in intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Saloni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is estimated that 3-10% of infants are growth restricted. Growth disturbances may have long-term issues. Doppler allows insight into the fetal response to intrauterine stress. Objective. The aim of this study was to detect fetal compromise in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR fetuses by means of biophysical profile (BPP vis-а-vis Doppler velocimetry studies of the fetal umbilical artery, and to find out which of the two is a better and earlier predictor of fetal compromise. Methods. A prospective study was conducted on a total of 50 singleton pregnancies with IUGR between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation. Study patients were managed expectantly with nonstress testing and amniotic fluid assessment, BPP and Doppler velocimetry studies of the fetal umbilical artery. Results. Fetal outcome was poor in 5/50 (10% of the fetuses, defined as presence of all of the following: poor Apgar test score, neonatal intensive care unit stay, necrotizing enterocolitis, and low birth weight. Of the four with abnormal BPP, 50% had poor fetal outcomes. Out of 46 with normal BPP, 6.5% had poor fetal outcomes. Conclusion. Inference drawn from the study is that the Doppler technology provides us the opportunity for repetitive noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring in IUGR pregnancies.

  6. A Novel Approach to the Identification of Compromised Pulmonary Systems in Smokers by Exploiting Tidal Breathing Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Rakshit

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoking causes unalterable physiological abnormalities in the pulmonary system. This is emerging as a serious threat worldwide. Unlike spirometry, tidal breathing does not require subjects to undergo forceful breathing maneuvers and is progressing as a new direction towards pulmonary health assessment. The aim of the paper is to evaluate whether tidal breathing signatures can indicate deteriorating adult lung condition in an otherwise healthy person. If successful, such a system can be used as a pre-screening tool for all people before some of them need to undergo a thorough clinical checkup. This work presents a novel systematic approach to identify compromised pulmonary systems in smokers from acquired tidal breathing patterns. Tidal breathing patterns are acquired during restful breathing of adult participants. Thereafter, physiological attributes are extracted from the acquired tidal breathing signals. Finally, a unique classification approach of locally weighted learning with ridge regression (LWL-ridge is implemented, which handles the subjective variations in tidal breathing data without performing feature normalization. The LWL-ridge classifier recognized compromised pulmonary systems in smokers with an average classification accuracy of 86.17% along with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 92%. The implemented approach outperformed other variants of LWL as well as other standard classifiers and generated comparable results when applied on an external cohort. This end-to-end automated system is suitable for pre-screening people routinely for early detection of lung ailments as a preventive measure in an infrastructure-agnostic way.

  7. Compromises Between Quality of Service Metrics and Energy Consumption of Hierarchical and Flat Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensors Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbari BEN YAGOUTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is wireless network composed of spatially distributed and tiny autonomous nodes, which cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions. Among the concerns of these networks is prolonging the lifetime by saving nodes energy. There are several protocols specially designed for WSNs based on energy conservation. However, many WSNs applications require QoS (Quality of Service criteria, such as latency, reliability and throughput. In this paper, we will compare three routing protocols for wireless sensors network LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy, AODV (Ad hoc on demand Distance Vector and LABILE (Link Quality-Based Lexical Routing using Castalia simulator in terms of energy consumption, throughput, reliability and latency time of packets received by sink under different conditions to determinate the best configurations that offers the most suitable compromises between energy conservation and all QoS metrics for each routing protocols. The results show that, the best configurations that offer the suitable compromises between energy conservation and all QoS metrics is a large number of deployed nodes with low packet rate for LEACH (300 nodes and 1 packet/s, a medium number of deployed nodes with low packet rate For AODV (100 nodes and 1 packet/s and a very low nodes density with low packet rate for LABILE (50 nodes and 1 packet/s.

  8. Sustained NMDA receptor hypofunction induces compromised neural systems integration and schizophrenia-like alterations in functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Neil; Xiao, Xiaolin; McDonald, Martin; Higham, Desmond J; Morris, Brian J; Pratt, Judith A

    2014-02-01

    Compromised functional integration between cerebral subsystems and dysfunctional brain network organization may underlie the neurocognitive deficits seen in psychiatric disorders. Applying topological measures from network science to brain imaging data allows the quantification of complex brain network connectivity. While this approach has recently been used to further elucidate the nature of brain dysfunction in schizophrenia, the value of applying this approach in preclinical models of psychiatric disease has not been recognized. For the first time, we apply both established and recently derived algorithms from network science (graph theory) to functional brain imaging data from rats treated subchronically with the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP). We show that subchronic PCP treatment induces alterations in the global properties of functional brain networks akin to those reported in schizophrenia. Furthermore, we show that subchronic PCP treatment induces compromised functional integration between distributed neural systems, including between the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, that have established roles in cognition through, in part, the promotion of thalamic dysconnectivity. We also show that subchronic PCP treatment promotes the functional disintegration of discrete cerebral subsystems and also alters the connectivity of neurotransmitter systems strongly implicated in schizophrenia. Therefore, we propose that sustained NMDA receptor hypofunction contributes to the pathophysiology of dysfunctional brain network organization in schizophrenia.

  9. [Relearning vocabulary. A comparative analysis between a case of dementia and Alzheimer's disease with predominant compromise of language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagut, Núria; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Castellví, Magdalena; Rami, Lorena; Molinuevo, José Luis

    Semantic dementia is characterised by a progressive loss of semantic content that initially affects the capacity to name things, and is associated with asymmetric atrophy of the anterior temporal lobes. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) with predominant compromise of language, anomia is also the main symptom. The study examined the capacity to relearn vocabulary of two patients, each exhibiting one of these two forms of degenerative anomia. The two cases presented similar ages, gender, levels of schooling and degree of compromise. Their capacity to name a list of 40 pictures was evaluated at baseline, following 20 sessions of relearning, at one month and at six months. The patient with semantic dementia named 25/40 objects at baseline, 40/40 after relearning, 35/40 at one month and 27/40 at six months. The patient with AD named 29/40 at baseline, 30/40 after relearning, 29/40 at one month and 32/40 at six months. No intrusions were observed following relearning. The patient with semantic dementia was able to relearn all the vocabulary she was shown, even though she lost everything she had acquired after treatment was interrupted. The AD patient did not improve her naming capacity with therapy. These differences suggest that the learning and consolidation circuits are affected in different ways. Subjects with semantic dementia, but not those with AD, could benefit from word relearning strategies with this method.

  10. A Novel Approach to the Identification of Compromised Pulmonary Systems in Smokers by Exploiting Tidal Breathing Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Raj; Khasnobish, Anwesha; Chowdhury, Arijit; Sinharay, Arijit; Pal, Arpan; Chakravarty, Tapas

    2018-04-25

    Smoking causes unalterable physiological abnormalities in the pulmonary system. This is emerging as a serious threat worldwide. Unlike spirometry, tidal breathing does not require subjects to undergo forceful breathing maneuvers and is progressing as a new direction towards pulmonary health assessment. The aim of the paper is to evaluate whether tidal breathing signatures can indicate deteriorating adult lung condition in an otherwise healthy person. If successful, such a system can be used as a pre-screening tool for all people before some of them need to undergo a thorough clinical checkup. This work presents a novel systematic approach to identify compromised pulmonary systems in smokers from acquired tidal breathing patterns. Tidal breathing patterns are acquired during restful breathing of adult participants. Thereafter, physiological attributes are extracted from the acquired tidal breathing signals. Finally, a unique classification approach of locally weighted learning with ridge regression (LWL-ridge) is implemented, which handles the subjective variations in tidal breathing data without performing feature normalization. The LWL-ridge classifier recognized compromised pulmonary systems in smokers with an average classification accuracy of 86.17% along with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 92%. The implemented approach outperformed other variants of LWL as well as other standard classifiers and generated comparable results when applied on an external cohort. This end-to-end automated system is suitable for pre-screening people routinely for early detection of lung ailments as a preventive measure in an infrastructure-agnostic way.

  11. Depressive symptoms and compromised parenting in low-income mothers of infants and toddlers: distal and proximal risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeber, Linda S; Schwartz, Todd A; Martinez, Maria I; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Bledsoe, Sarah E; Canuso, Regina; Lewis, Virginia S

    2014-08-01

    Low-income mothers develop depressive symptoms at higher rates than the general population, adding to the existing risk that economic hardship places on their infants and toddlers. Emphasizing a few key intervention targets, an approach that is especially relevant to mothers when depressive symptoms compromise their energy and concentration, can improve interventions with populations facing adversity. The goal of this study was to identify contextual risk factors that significantly contributed to depressive symptoms and that, in combination with depressive symptoms, were associated with compromised parenting. Using baseline data from 251 ethnically diverse mothers from six Early Head Start programs in the Northeastern and Southeastern US, who were recruited for a clinical trial of an in-home intervention, Belsky's ecological framework of distal to proximal levels of influence was used to organize risk factors for depressive symptoms in hierarchical regression models. Under stress, mothers of toddlers reported more severe depressive symptoms than mothers of infants, supporting the need for depressive symptom screening and monitoring past the immediate postpartum period. Multivariate models revealed intervention targets that can focus depression prevention and intervention efforts, including helping mothers reduce chronic day-to-day stressors and conflicts with significant others, and to effectively handle challenging toddler behaviors, especially in the face of regional disciplinary norms. Presence of a live-in partner was linked to more effective parenting, regardless of participants' depressive symptom severity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. So Many Brands and Varieties to Choose from: Does This Compromise the Control of Food Intake in Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Hardman

    Full Text Available The recent rise in obesity is widely attributed to changes in the dietary environment (e.g., increased availability of energy-dense foods and larger portion sizes. However, a critical feature of our "obesogenic environment" may have been overlooked - the dramatic increase in "dietary variability" (the tendency for specific mass-produced foods to be available in numerous varieties that differ in energy content. In this study we tested the hypothesis that dietary variability compromises the control of food intake in humans. Specifically, we examined the effects of dietary variability in pepperoni pizza on two key outcome variables; i compensation for calories in pepperoni pizza and ii expectations about the satiating properties of pepperoni pizza (expected satiation. We reasoned that dietary variability might generate uncertainty about the postingestive effects of a food. An internet-based questionnaire was completed by 199 adults. This revealed substantial variation in exposure to different varieties of pepperoni pizza. In a follow-up study (n= 66; 65% female, high pizza variability was associated with i poorer compensation for calories in pepperoni pizza and ii lower expected satiation for pepperoni pizza. Furthermore, the effect of uncertainty on caloric compensation was moderated by individual differences in decision making (loss aversion. For the first time, these findings highlight a process by which dietary variability may compromise food-intake control in humans. This is important because it exposes a new feature of Western diets (processed foods in particular that might contribute to overeating and obesity.

  13. Synergistic effects of sodium 
ascorbate and acetone to restore compromised bond strength 
after enamel bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruziniat, Alireza; Manafi, Safa; Cehreli, Zafer C

    To evaluate the effect of a new experimental solution containing sodium ascorbate (SA) and acetone on reversing compromised bonding to enamel immediately after bleaching. The buccal surface of intact, extracted human premolars (n = 60) was bleached. The teeth were then randomly assigned to 6  groups according to the type of pretreatment applied prior to adhesive procedures: 10% SA in acetone-water solution applied for 1 and 5 min (groups 1 and 2, respectively); aqueous solution of 10% SA applied for 10 min (group 3); 100% acetone applied for 10 min (group 4); no pretreatment (negative control; group 5). An additional group (positive control; group 6) comprised unbleached teeth (n = 12). Two composite microcylinders were bonded on each specimen for evaluation of microshear bond strength (MBS) and failure modes. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc and chi-square tests at P = 0.05. Groups 1 and 2 yielded similar MBS values to groups 4 and 6 (positive control). The mean MBS of groups 3 and 5 (negative control) were similar, and significantly lower than that of the positive control group. The application of 10% SA in an acetone-water solution prior to bonding procedures can restore compromised enamel bond strength to its unbleached state within a clinically acceptable time of 1 min.

  14. So Many Brands and Varieties to Choose from: Does This Compromise the Control of Food Intake in Humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Ferriday, Danielle; Kyle, Lesley; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    The recent rise in obesity is widely attributed to changes in the dietary environment (e.g., increased availability of energy-dense foods and larger portion sizes). However, a critical feature of our "obesogenic environment" may have been overlooked - the dramatic increase in "dietary variability" (the tendency for specific mass-produced foods to be available in numerous varieties that differ in energy content). In this study we tested the hypothesis that dietary variability compromises the control of food intake in humans. Specifically, we examined the effects of dietary variability in pepperoni pizza on two key outcome variables; i) compensation for calories in pepperoni pizza and ii) expectations about the satiating properties of pepperoni pizza (expected satiation). We reasoned that dietary variability might generate uncertainty about the postingestive effects of a food. An internet-based questionnaire was completed by 199 adults. This revealed substantial variation in exposure to different varieties of pepperoni pizza. In a follow-up study (n= 66; 65% female), high pizza variability was associated with i) poorer compensation for calories in pepperoni pizza and ii) lower expected satiation for pepperoni pizza. Furthermore, the effect of uncertainty on caloric compensation was moderated by individual differences in decision making (loss aversion). For the first time, these findings highlight a process by which dietary variability may compromise food-intake control in humans. This is important because it exposes a new feature of Western diets (processed foods in particular) that might contribute to overeating and obesity.

  15. Hsp90 governs echinocandin resistance in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans via calcineurin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena D Singh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the leading fungal pathogen of humans, causing life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. Treatment of candidiasis is hampered by the limited number of antifungal drugs whose efficacy is compromised by host toxicity, fungistatic activity, and the emergence of drug resistance. We previously established that the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which regulates the form and function of diverse client proteins, potentiates resistance to the azoles in C. albicans and in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetic studies in S. cerevisiae revealed that Hsp90's role in azole resistance is to enable crucial cellular responses to the membrane stress exerted by azoles via the client protein calcineurin. Here, we demonstrate that Hsp90 governs cellular circuitry required for resistance to the only new class of antifungals to reach the clinic in decades, the echinocandins, which inhibit biosynthesis of a critical component of the fungal cell wall. Pharmacological or genetic impairment of Hsp90 function reduced tolerance of C. albicans laboratory strains and resistance of clinical isolates to the echinocandins and created a fungicidal combination. Compromising calcineurin function phenocopied compromising Hsp90 function. We established that calcineurin is an Hsp90 client protein in C. albicans: reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation validated physical interaction; Hsp90 inhibition blocked calcineurin activation; and calcineurin levels were depleted upon genetic reduction of Hsp90. The downstream effector of calcineurin, Crz1, played a partial role in mediating calcineurin-dependent stress responses activated by echinocandins. Hsp90's role in echinocandin resistance has therapeutic potential given that genetic compromise of C. albicans HSP90 expression enhanced the efficacy of an echinocandin in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis. Our results identify the first Hsp90 client protein in C. albicans, establish an entirely

  16. Resistance welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi; Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance welding comprises not only the well known spot welding process but also more complex projection welding operations, where excessive plastic deformation of the weld point may occur. This enables the production of complex geometries and material combinations, which are often not possible...... to weld by traditional spot welding operations. Such joining processes are, however, not simple to develop due to the large number of parameters involved. Development has traditionally been carried out by large experimental investigations, but the development of a numerical programme system has changed...... this enabling prediction of the welding performance in details. The paper describes the programme in short and gives examples on industrial applications. Finally investigations of causes for failure in a complex industrial joint of two dissimilar metals are carried out combining numerical modelling...

  17. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Hoffmann, Tammy C; McCullough, Amanda R

    2015-01-01

    hygiene, and possibly vaccination and exercise, may be effective. Also, a large range of complementary and alternative medicines (e.g. zinc, vitamin C and probiotics) are proposed for preventing and treating ARIs, but evidence for efficacy is scarce. General practitioners' (GPs) attitudes towards...... wrong. Shared decision making might be a solution, as it enables clinician and patient to participate jointly in making a health decision, having discussed the options together with the evidence for their harms as well as benefits. Furthermore, GPs' diagnostic uncertainty - often leading...... will greatly improve the use of antibiotics for ARIs. However, used in concert, combinations are likely to enable clinicians and health care systems to implement the strategies that will reduce antimicrobial resistance in the future....

  18. Resisting dehumanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger Marie

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the influx of asylum-seekers in Scandinavia, and in Denmark this has led to ever-tighter immigration control. This article discusses emerging practices of refugee solidarity and resistance to hegemonic migration policy in Danish civil society in the wake...... of what has been referred to as the European refugee crisis. It further reflects upon what it means to be a Danish citizen facing the dilemma of law-abiding conduct versus human decency, in line with what Foucault (1983) referred to as ‘ethical self-formation’. This is illustrated through a case study...... of an incident from September 2015, when a member of a Danish City Council offered private shelter to immigrants who were on their way to Norway. The incident led to legal proceedings in August 2016 for what the defendant referred to as ‘the offense of helping fellow human beings in need’. The study is informed...

  19. Dietary nitrate restores compensatory vasodilation and exercise capacity in response to a compromise in oxygen delivery in the noncompensator phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Robert F; Walsh, Jeremy J; Drouin, Patrick J; Velickovic, Aleksandra; Kitner, Sarah J; Fenuta, Alyssa M; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2017-09-01

    Recently, dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise capacity in healthy individuals through a potential nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. Nitric oxide has been shown to play an important role in compensatory vasodilation during exercise under hypoperfusion. Previously, we established that certain individuals lack a vasodilation response when perfusion pressure reductions compromise exercising muscle blood flow. Whether this lack of compensatory vasodilation in healthy, young individuals can be restored with dietary nitrate supplementation is unknown. Six healthy (21 ± 2 yr), recreationally active men completed a rhythmic forearm exercise. During steady-state exercise, the exercising arm was rapidly transitioned from an uncompromised (below heart) to a compromised (above heart) position, resulting in a reduction in local pressure of -31 ± 1 mmHg. Exercise was completed following 5 days of nitrate-rich (70 ml, 0.4 g nitrate) and nitrate-depleted (70 ml, ~0 g nitrate) beetroot juice consumption. Forearm blood flow (in milliliters per minute; brachial artery Doppler and echo ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure (in millimeters of mercury; finger photoplethysmography), exercising forearm venous effluent (ante-cubital vein catheter), and plasma nitrite concentrations (chemiluminescence) revealed two distinct vasodilatory responses: nitrate supplementation increased (plasma nitrite) compared with placebo (245 ± 60 vs. 39 ± 9 nmol/l; P nitrate supplementation (568 ± 117 vs. 714 ± 139 ml ⋅ min -1 ⋅ 100 mmHg -1 ; P = 0.005) but not in placebo (687 ± 166 vs. 697 ± 171 min -1 ⋅ 100 mmHg -1 ; P = 0.42). As such, peak exercise capacity was reduced to a lesser degree (-4 ± 39 vs. -39 ± 27 N; P = 0.01). In conclusion, dietary nitrate supplementation during a perfusion pressure challenge is an effective means of restoring exercise capacity and enabling compensatory vasodilation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Previously, we

  20. Gut-targeted immunonutrition boosting natural killer cell activity using Saccharomyces boulardii lysates in immuno-compromised healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yasuhiro; Marotta, Francesco; Kantah, Makoto K; Zerbinati, Nicola; Kushugulova, Almagul; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Illuzzi, Nicola; Sapienza, Chiara; Takadanohara, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Riyichi; Catanzaro, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory effect of KC-1317 (a symbiotic mixture containing Saccharomyces boulardii lysate in a cranberry, colostrum-derived lactoferrin, fragaria, and lactose mixture) supplementation in immune-compromised but otherwise healthy elderly subjects. A liquid formulation of KC-1317 was administered in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) fashion to healthy volunteers (65-79 years) previously selected for low natural killer (NK) cell activity, and this parameter was checked at the completion of the study. A significant improvement in NK cell activity of KC-1317 consumers was observed as compared to placebo at the end of 2 months. Although preliminary, these beneficial immune-modulatory effects of KC-1317 in aged individuals might indicate its employment within a wider age-management strategy.

  1. Compromise solution in the problem of change state control for the material body exposed to the external medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafeyev, O. A.; Redinskikh, N. D.

    2018-05-01

    The problem of finding optimal temperature control of the material body state under the unknown in advance parameters of the external medium is formalized and studied in this paper. The problems of this type arise frequently in the real life. An optimal thermal regime is necessary to apply at the soil thawing or freezing, drying the building materials, heating the concrete to obtain the required strength, and so on. Problems of such type one can analyze making use the apparatus and methods of game theory. For describing the influence of external medium on the characteristics of different materials we make use the many-step two person zero-sum game in this paper. The compromise solution is taken as the optimality principle. The numerical example is given.

  2. Design and evaluation of three-level composite filters obtained by optimizing a compromise average performance measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Charles D.; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

    1994-06-01

    Correlation filters with three transmittance levels (+1, 0, and -1) are of interest in optical pattern recognition because they can be implemented on available spatial light modulators and because the zero level allows us to include a region of support (ROS). The ROS can provide additional control over the filter's noise tolerance and peak sharpness. A new algorithm based on optimizing a compromise average performance measure (CAPM) is proposed for designing three-level composite filters. The performance of this algorithm is compared to other three-level composite filter designs using a common image database and using figures of merit such as the Fisher ratio, error rate, and light efficiency. It is shown that the CAPM algorithm yields better results.

  3. Comprehensive dental services for an underserved and medically compromised population provided through a community partnership and service learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Elisa M; LaBarre, Eugene; Fredekind, Richard; Isakson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in San Francisco established a comprehensive dental care program at Laguna Honda Hospital, a public, skilled nursing facility. The program had three goals: (1) to provide dental students and residents an opportunity to provide oral health care for adults who were frail and medically compromised who could not come into the clinics, (2) to increase students' access to patients who needed removable prosthodontics, and (3) to fulfill Pacific's commitment to public service. Laguna Honda and Pacific pooled their resources to bring comprehensive dental care to patients who were not able to access the dental school clinics. The long-term goals are to restore and maintain the oral health of those who reside in the facility, and to educate future dentists to provide oral health care for similar populations.

  4. Simple PCR assays improve the sensitivity of HIV-1 subtype B drug resistance testing and allow linking of resistance mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy is known to be compromised by drug-resistant HIV-1 at frequencies detectable by conventional bulk sequencing. Currently, there is a need to assess the clinical consequences of low-frequency drug resistant variants occurring below the detection limit of conventional genotyping. Sensitive detection of drug-resistant subpopulations, however, requires simple and practical methods for routine testing. METHODOLOGY: We developed highly-sensitive and simple real-time PCR assays for nine key drug resistance mutations and show that these tests overcome substantial sequence heterogeneity in HIV-1 clinical specimens. We specifically used early wildtype virus samples from the pre-antiretroviral drug era to measure background reactivity and were able to define highly-specific screening cut-offs that are up to 67-fold more sensitive than conventional genotyping. We also demonstrate that sequencing the mutation-specific PCR products provided a direct and novel strategy to further detect and link associated resistance mutations, allowing easy identification of multi-drug-resistant variants. Resistance mutation associations revealed in mutation-specific amplicon sequences were verified by clonal sequencing. SIGNIFICANCE: Combined, sensitive real-time PCR testing and mutation-specific amplicon sequencing provides a powerful and simple approach that allows for improved detection and evaluation of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations.

  5. Food insecure student clients of a university-based food bank have compromised health, dietary intake and academic quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahbakhsh, Jasmine; Hanbazaza, Mahitab; Ball, Geoff D C; Farmer, Anna P; Maximova, Katerina; Willows, Noreen D

    2017-02-01

    University and college students in wealthy countries may be vulnerable to financial food insecurity. If food insecure students have suboptimal health, their ability to learn and excel in their education could be compromised. This Canadian study examined the relationship of food security status to diet and self-perceived health and academic quality among students receiving emergency food hampers from the Campus Food Bank at University of Alberta. A convenience sample of 58 students completed a survey. Of participating students, 10.3% were food secure, 44.8% were moderately food insecure and 44.8% were severely food insecure. Overall, 32.8% rated their general health as fair/poor, 27.6% rated their mental health as fair/poor and 60.3% indicated at least one adverse academic outcome of not having enough money for food. Compared to other participating students, students with severe food insecurity had a greater likelihood of fair/poor general health (odds ratios (OR) 4.03, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.10-14.78); fair/poor mental health (OR 4.96, 95% CI 1.28-19.19); being unable to concentrate in class or during an exam (73.1% vs 40.6%, χ 2 = 6.12, P = 0.013); relying on food hampers (34.6% vs 9.7%, χ 2 = 5.57, P = 0.018); and, consuming fewer daily fruits, vegetables and legumes (2.12 vs 2.97 cup equivalents, P = 0.009). Food insecurity compromises students' health, diet and academic quality. Campus food banks are not the solution to student hunger. Governmental and university-based programmes and policies are needed to improve the food security situation of university students. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  6. 17D yellow fever vaccine elicits comparable long-term immune responses in healthy individuals and immune-compromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieten, R W; Goorhuis, A; Jonker, E F F; de Bree, G J; de Visser, A W; van Genderen, P J J; Remmerswaal, E B M; Ten Berge, I J M; Visser, L G; Grobusch, M P; van Leeuwen, E M M

    2016-06-01

    The 17D live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine is contra-indicated in immune-compromised individuals and may elicit a suboptimal immunologic response. The aim of this study is to assess whether long-term immune responses against the YF vaccine are impaired in immune-compromised patients. Fifteen patients using different immunosuppressive drugs and 30 healthy individuals vaccinated 0-22 years ago were included. The serological response was measured using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses were measured following proliferation and re-stimulation with YFV peptide pools. Phenotypic characteristics and cytokine responses of CD8(+) T-cells were determined using class I tetramers. The geometric mean titre of neutralizing antibodies was not different between the groups (p = 0.77). The presence of YFV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell did not differ between patients and healthy individuals (15/15, 100.0% vs. 29/30, 96.7%, p = 0.475). Time since vaccination correlated negatively with the number of YFV-specific CD8(+) T-cells (r = -0.66, p = 0.0045). Percentages of early-differentiated memory cells increased (r = 0.67, p = 0.017) over time. These results imply that YF vaccination is effective despite certain immunosuppressive drug regimens. An early-differentiated memory-like phenotype persisted, which is associated with effective expansion upon re-encounter with antigen, suggesting a potent memory T-cell pool remains. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surgical extrusion: A reliable technique for saving compromised teeth. A 5-years follow-up case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenner Argueta

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To present a long term follow up clinical case in which a compromised anterior tooth was saved by a surgical extrusion procedure. Summary: Although different techniques have been suggested for clinical crown lengthening in the anterior zone, some of them have limitations in terms of aesthetics and procedural requirements. The current case report demonstrates how a simplified surgical extrusion procedure was successfully performed for saving a severely damaged anterior tooth; furthermore, it is possible to apply the technique described in this case using minimum and simple armamentarium like a scalpel, elevators, forceps and splinting flexible cord. Key-learning points: Saving severely compromised anterior teeth is possible by applying surgical extrusion techniques when crown-root ratio allows it. Risk of root resorption or ankylosis is minimum. Riassunto: Obiettivo: Presentare un caso clinico con controllo a 5 anni in cui un dente anteriore compromesso è stato recuperato con una procedura di estrusione chirurgica. Riassunto: Sebbene siano state suggerite diverse tecniche per l’allungamento della corona clinica nella zona anteriore, alcune di esse presentano limitazioni in termini di estetica e competenza nelle procedure. Il presente case report dimostra come una procedura di estrusione chirurgica semplificata sia stata eseguita con successo per salvare un dente anteriore gravemente danneggiato. Va sottolineato che la tecnica descritta in questo caso può essere portata a termine utilizzando un armamentario minimo e molto semplice come un bisturi, leve, pinze e uno splintaggio flessibile. Key learning points: E’ possibile salvare elementi dentari gravemente compromessi applicando tecniche di estrusione chirurgica quando il rapporto corona-radice lo consente. Il rischio di riassorbimento della radice o anchilosi è minimo. Keywords: Crown fracture, Crown lengthening, Surgical extrusion, Surgical repositioning, Biologic width, Parole

  8. Low plasma cortisol and fecal cortisol metabolite measures as indicators of compromised welfare in domestic horses (Equus caballus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Pawluski

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response to chronic stress is far from straight forward, particularly with regards to animal welfare. There are reports of no effect as well as both decreases and increases in cortisol after chronic stressors. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to determine how measures of compromised welfare, such as chronic pain and haematological anomalies, related to cortisol levels in domestic horses (Equus caballus. Domestic horses are an informative model to investigate the impact of chronic stress (due to environment, pain, work, housing conditions… on the HPA axis. The second aim was to determine whether levels of fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM may be used as an indicator of welfare measures. The present study used fifty-nine horses (44 geldings and 15 mares, from three riding centres in Brittany, France. The primary findings show that horses whose welfare was clearly compromised (as indicated by an unusual ears backward position, presence of vertebral problems or haematological anomalies, e.g. anaemia also had lower levels of both FCM and plasma cortisol. This work extends our previous findings showing that withdrawn postures, indicators of depressive-like behavior in horses, are associated with lower plasma cortisol levels. We also found that evening plasma cortisol levels positively correlated with FCM levels in horses. Future research aims to determine the extent to which factors of influence on welfare, such as living conditions (e.g. single stalls versus group housing in pasture or paddocks, early life factors, and human interaction, act as mediators of cortisol levels in horses.

  9. A fair compromise to break the climate impasse. A major economies forum approach to emissions reductions budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, Marco [Univ. of Milan-Bicocca (Italy). International Environmental Policy; J. Roberts, Timmons [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Environmental Studies and Sociology; The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Key messages of the study are: Given the stalemate in U.N. climate negotiations, the best arena to strike a workable deal is among the members the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate (MEF); The 13 MEF members—including the EU-27 (but not double-counting the four EU countries that are also individual members of the MEF)—account for 81.3 percent of all global emissions; This proposal devises a fair compromise to break the impasse to develop a science-based approach for fairly sharing the carbon budget in order to have a 75 percent chance of avoiding dangerous climate change; To increase the likelihood of a future climate agreement, carbon accounting must shift from production-based inventories to consumption-based ones; The shares of a carbon budget to stay below 2 deg C through 2050 are calculated by cumulative emissions since 1990, i.e. according to a short-horizon polluter pays principle, and national capability (income), and allocated to MEF members through emission rights. This proposed fair compromise addresses key concerns of major emitters; According to this accounting, no countries have negative carbon budgets, there is substantial time for greening major developing economies, and some developed countries need to institute very rapid reductions in emissions; and, To provide a 'green ladder' to developing countries and to ensure a fair global deal, it will be crucial to agree how to extend sufficient and predictable financial support and the rapid transfer of technology.

  10. Evidence of compromised blood-spinal cord barrier in early and late symptomatic SOD1 mice modeling ALS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB, blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB, and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB control cerebral/spinal cord homeostasis by selective transport of molecules and cells from the systemic compartment. In the spinal cord and brain of both ALS patients and animal models, infiltration of T-cell lymphocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells, and IgG deposits have been observed that may have a critical role in motor neuron damage. Additionally, increased levels of albumin and IgG have been found in the cerebrospinal fluid in ALS patients. These findings suggest altered barrier permeability in ALS. Recently, we showed disruption of the BBB and BSCB in areas of motor neuron degeneration in the brain and spinal cord in G93A SOD1 mice modeling ALS at both early and late stages of disease using electron microscopy. Examination of capillary ultrastructure revealed endothelial cell degeneration, which, along with astrocyte alteration, compromised the BBB and BSCB. However, the effect of these alterations upon barrier function in ALS is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the functional competence of the BSCB in G93A mice at different stages of disease.Evans Blue (EB dye was intravenously injected into ALS mice at early or late stage disease. Vascular leakage and the condition of basement membranes, endothelial cells, and astrocytes were investigated in cervical and lumbar spinal cords using immunohistochemistry. Results showed EB leakage in spinal cord microvessels from all G93A mice, indicating dysfunction in endothelia and basement membranes and confirming our previous ultrastructural findings on BSCB disruption. Additionally, downregulation of Glut-1 and CD146 expressions in the endothelial cells of the BSCB were found which may relate to vascular leakage.Results suggest that the BSCB is compromised in areas of motor neuron degeneration in ALS mice at both early and late stages of the disease.

  11. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the lifestyle Interventions and Independence for elders (LIFE) study physical activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeski, W Jack; Axtell, Robert; Fielding, Roger; Katula, Jeffrey; King, Abby C; Manini, Todd M; Marsh, Anthony P; Pahor, Marco; Rego, Alvito; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Newman, Mark; Walkup, Michael P; Miller, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500) that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA) on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old) who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants’ motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of participants noted slight conflict with being able to meet the demands of the program and 6.4% indicated that the degree of conflict would be moderate. Accelerometry data collected during PA training revealed that the average intensity – 1,555 counts/minute for men and 1,237 counts/minute for women – was well below the cutoff point used to classify exercise as being of moderate intensity or higher for adults. Also, a sizable subgroup required one or more rest stops. These data illustrate that it is not feasible to have a single exercise prescription for older adults with compromised function. Moreover, the concept of what constitutes “moderate” exercise or an appropriate volume of work is dictated by the physical capacities of each individual and the level of comfort/stability in actually executing a specific prescription. PMID:24049442

  12. Visual stimulus parameters seriously compromise the measurement of approximate number system acuity and comparative effects between adults and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denes eSzucs

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that a simple non-symbolic magnitude comparison task is sufficient to measure the acuity of a putative Approximate Number System (ANS. A proposed measure of the ANS, the so-called 'internal Weber fraction' (w, would provide a clear measure of ANS acuity. However, ANS studies have never presented adequate evidence that the visual stimulus parameters did not compromise measurements of w to such extent that w is actually driven by visual instead of numerical processes. We therefore investigated this question by testing non-symbolic magnitude discrimination in seven-year-old children and adults. We controlled for visual parameters in a more stringent manner than usual. As a consequence of these controls, in some trials numerical cues correlated positively with number while in others they correlated negatively with number. This congruency effect strongly correlated with w, which means that congruency effects were probably driving effects in w. Consequently, in both adults and children congruency had a major impact on the fit of the model underlying the computation of w. Furthermore, children showed larger congruency effects than adults. This suggests that ANS tasks are seriously compromised by the visual stimulus parameters, which cannot be controlled. Hence, they are not pure measures of the ANS and some putative w or ratio effect differences between children and adults in previous ANS studies may be due to the differential influence of the visual stimulus parameters in children and adults. In addition, because the resolution of congruency effects relies on inhibitory (interference suppression function, some previous ANS findings were probably influenced by the developmental state of inhibitory processes especially when comparing children with developmental dyscalculia and typically developing children.

  13. Only low frequency event-related EEG activity is compromised in multiple sclerosis: insights from an independent component clustering analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni Kiiski

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment (CI, often examined with neuropsychological tests such as the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT, affects approximately 65% of multiple sclerosis (MS patients. The P3b event-related potential (ERP, evoked when an infrequent target stimulus is presented, indexes cognitive function and is typically compared across subjects' scalp electroencephalography (EEG data. However, the clustering of independent components (ICs is superior to scalp-based EEG methods because it can accommodate the spatiotemporal overlap inherent in scalp EEG data. Event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs; event-related mean power spectral changes and inter-trial coherence (ITCs; event-related consistency of spectral phase reveal a more comprehensive overview of EEG activity. Ninety-five subjects (56 MS patients, 39 controls completed visual and auditory two-stimulus P3b event-related potential tasks and the PASAT. MS patients were also divided into CI and non-CI groups (n = 18 in each based on PASAT scores. Data were recorded from 128-scalp EEG channels and 4 IC clusters in the visual, and 5 IC clusters in the auditory, modality were identified. In general, MS patients had significantly reduced ERSP theta power versus controls, and a similar pattern was observed for CI vs. non-CI MS patients. The ITC measures were also significantly different in the theta band for some clusters. The finding that MS patients had reduced P3b task-related theta power in both modalities is a reflection of compromised connectivity, likely due to demyelination, that may have disrupted early processes essential to P3b generation, such as orientating and signal detection. However, for posterior sources, MS patients had a greater decrease in alpha power, normally associated with enhanced cognitive function, which may reflect a compensatory mechanism in response to the compromised early cognitive processing.

  14. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 31; Issue 2. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of rock aggregates ... It was seen that correlation coefficients were increased for the rock classes. In addition ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  16. Combating Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bacteria Phasing Out Certain Antibiotic Use in Farm Animals FDA: Cutting-Edge Technology Sheds Light on Antibiotic Resistance For More Information Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial Resistance Information for Consumers and Health Professionals CDC: ...

  17. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, Astrid H.; Zwijnenburg, Arie; Kruithof, Joop C.; Flemming, Hans Curt

    2013-01-01

    resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  19. HIV Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 14, 2016 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 126 HIV Resistance Testing WHAT IS RESISTANCE? HOW DOES RESISTANCE ... ARVs. If you miss doses of your medications, HIV will multiply more easily. More mutations will occur. ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over ...

  1. Infective endocarditis caused by multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mitis in a combined immunocompromised patient: an autopsy case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Natsuko; Ito, Makoto; Kuramae, Hitoshi; Inukai, Tomomi; Sakai, Akiyoshi; Okugawa, Masaru

    2013-04-01

    An autopsy case of infective endocarditis caused by multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mitis was described in a patient with a combination of factors that compromised immune status, including autoimmune hemolytic anemia, post-splenectomy state, prolonged steroid treatment, and IgA deficiency. The isolated S. mitis strain from blood culture was broadly resistant to penicillin, cephalosporins, carbapenem, macrolides, and fluoroquinolone. Recurrent episodes of bacterial infections and therapeutic use of several antibiotics may underlie the development of multidrug resistance for S. mitis. Because clinically isolated S. mitis strains from chronically immunocompromised patients have become resistant to a wide spectrum of antibiotics, appropriate antibiotic regimens should be selected when treating invasive S. mitis infections in these compromised patients.

  2. Induced resistance: an enhancement of basal resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Upon primary pathogen attack, plants activate resistance mechanisms at the site of infection. Besides this so-called basal resistance, plants have also the ability to enhance their defensive capacity against future pathogen attack. There are at least two types of biologically induced resistance.

  3. Altered cultivar resistance of kimchi cabbage seedlings mediated by salicylic Acid, jasmonic Acid and ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  4. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  5. First report of the infection of insecticide-resistant malaria vector mosquitoes with an entomopathogenic fungus under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, Annabel F. V.; N'Guessan, Raphael; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Asidi, Alex; Farenhorst, Marit; Akogbéto, Martin; Knols, Bart G. J.; Takken, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Insecticide-resistant mosquitoes are compromising the ability of current mosquito control tools to control malaria vectors. A proposed new approach for mosquito control is to use entomopathogenic fungi. These fungi have been shown to be lethal to both insecticide-susceptible and

  6. First report of the infection of insecticide-resistant malaria vector mosquitoes with an entomopathogenic fungus under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; N'Guessan, R.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Asidi, A.; Farenhorst, M.; Akogbeto, M.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Insecticide-resistant mosquitoes are compromising the ability of current mosquito control tools to control malaria vectors. A proposed new approach for mosquito control is to use entomopathogenic fungi. These fungi have been shown to be lethal to both insecticide-susceptible and

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ... If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  10. HIV multi-drug resistance at first-line antiretroviral failure and subsequent virological response in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiamsakul, Awachana; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Law, Matthew; Kantor, Rami; Praparattanapan, Jutarat; Li, Patrick CK; Phanuphak, Praphan; Merati, Tuti; Ratanasuwan, Winai; Lee, Christopher KC; Ditangco, Rossana; Mustafa, Mahiran; Singtoroj, Thida; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: First-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure often results from the development of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs). Three patterns, including thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs), 69 Insertion (69Ins) and the Q151M complex, are associated with resistance to multiple-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and may compromise treatment options for second-line ART. Methods: We investigated patterns and factors associated with multi-NRTI RAMs at first-line failu...

  11. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Haiyan Zhu, Hui Luo, Wenwen Zhang, Zhaojun Shen, Xiaoli Hu, Xueqiong Zhu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer have poor prognosis, and their 1-year survival is only 10%–20%. Chemotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, and cisplatin appears to treat the disease effectively. However, resistance to cisplatin may develop, thus substantially compromising the efficacy of cisplatin to treat advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. In this article, we systematically review the recent literature and summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer. Keywords: cisplatin, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, microRNA, molecular mechanism, resistance

  12. Compromising on official values?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    Accommodation of cultural and religious diversity in schools is an important issue. At stake are often the ability to express religious affiliation and identity on the one hand, and the freedom not to be exposed to religion in educational institutions on the other. Clear national rules have...

  13. That compromising nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mink, E.

    1981-01-01

    This book discusses a wide range of aspects of nuclear energy and its problems. Social and ideological as well as more technical sides of the nuclear controversy are dealt with. The author argues that just more information on the subject cannot solve the problem anyhow, as technologists naively hold. Being a christian, the author believes that the Bible can show us a way out, even as to these energy problems. (G.J.P.)

  14. Too Many Compromises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    ‘Red Scare’ tactics influenced social researchers and marketing scientists are brought together and updated with evidence from original archival research. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on the existing secondary literature on how social research practitioners and social scientists reacted......, evidence is presented in this article which shows American social scientists who researched market-related phenomena, like media, voters’ choices, and consumer behaviour, in a different light. Most importantly, this article for the first time presents archival evidence on the scale of Paul F. Lazarsfeld......Purpose: This paper charts the influence of McCarthyism and of FBI surveillance practices on a number of prominent American social scientists, market researchers, opinion pollsters and survey research practitioners during the post-war years. Hitherto disparate sets of historical evidence on how...

  15. Cross-talk between branched-chain amino acids and hepatic mitochondria is compromised in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Nishanth E; Kalavalapalli, Srilaxmi; Bril, Fernando; Garrett, Timothy J; Nautiyal, Manisha; Mathew, Justin T; Williams, Caroline M; Cusi, Kenneth

    2015-08-15

    Elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in the setting of insulin resistance have been relevant in predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) onset, but their role in the etiology of hepatic insulin resistance remains uncertain. We determined the link between BCAA and dysfunctional hepatic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which is a central feature of hepatic insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Plasma metabolites under basal fasting and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps (insulin stimulation) were measured in 94 human subjects with varying degrees of insulin sensitivity to identify their relationships with insulin resistance. Furthermore, the impact of elevated BCAA on hepatic TCA cycle was determined in a diet-induced mouse model of NAFLD, utilizing targeted metabolomics and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic flux analysis. Insulin stimulation revealed robust relationships between human plasma BCAA and indices of insulin resistance, indicating chronic metabolic overload from BCAA. Human plasma BCAA and long-chain acylcarnitines also showed a positive correlation, suggesting modulation of mitochondrial metabolism by BCAA. Concurrently, mice with NAFLD failed to optimally induce hepatic mTORC1, plasma ketones, and hepatic long-chain acylcarnitines, following acute elevation of plasma BCAA. Furthermore, elevated BCAA failed to induce multiple fluxes through hepatic TCA cycle in mice with NAFLD. Our data suggest that BCAA are essential to mediate efficient channeling of carbon substrates for oxidation through mitochondrial TCA cycle. Impairment of BCAA-mediated upregulation of the TCA cycle could be a significant contributor to mitochondrial dysfunction in NAFLD.

  16. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE Study physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejeski WJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available W Jack Rejeski,1 Robert Axtell,2 Roger Fielding,3 Jeffrey Katula,1 Abby C King,4 Todd M Manini,5 Anthony P Marsh,1 Marco Pahor,5 Alvito Rego,6 Catrine Tudor-Locke,7 Mark Newman,8 Michael P Walkup,9 Michael E Miller9  On behalf of the LIFE Study Investigator Group 1Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, 2Exercise Science Department, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT, 3Nutrtion, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, 4Department of Health Research and Policy and Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, 5Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Northwestern School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 7Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 8Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 9Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500 that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants' motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of

  17. In vitro resistance profile of the candidate HIV-1 microbicide drug dapivirine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schader, Susan M; Oliveira, Maureen; Ibanescu, Ruxandra-Ilinca; Moisi, Daniela; Colby-Germinario, Susan P; Wainberg, Mark A

    2012-02-01

    Antiretroviral-based microbicides may offer a means to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV-1. Suboptimal use of a microbicide may, however, lead to the development of drug resistance in users that are already, or become, infected with HIV-1. In such cases, the efficacy of treatments may be compromised since the same (or similar) antiretrovirals used in treatments are being developed as microbicides. To help predict which drug resistance mutations may develop in the context of suboptimal use, HIV-1 primary isolates of different subtypes and different baseline resistance profiles were used to infect primary cells in vitro in the presence of increasing suboptimal concentrations of the two candidate microbicide antiretrovirals dapivirine (DAP) and tenofovir (TFV) alone or in combination. Infections were ongoing for 25 weeks, after which reverse transcriptase genotypes were determined and scrutinized for the presence of any clinically recognized reverse transcriptase drug resistance mutations. Results indicated that suboptimal concentrations of DAP alone facilitated the emergence of common nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations, while suboptimal concentrations of DAP plus TFV gave rise to fewer mutations. Suboptimal concentrations of TFV alone did not frequently result in the development of resistance mutations. Sensitivity evaluations for stavudine (d4T), nevirapine (NVP), and lamivudine (3TC) revealed that the selection of resistance as a consequence of suboptimal concentrations of DAP may compromise the potential for NVP to be used in treatment, a finding of potential relevance in developing countries.

  18. The waaL gene mutation compromised the inhabitation of Enterobacter sp. Ag1 in the mosquito gut environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Dong; Jiang, Jinjin; Yu, Wanqin; Kukutla, Phanidhar; Uentillie, Alejandro; Xu, Jiannong

    2015-08-27

    The mosquito gut harbors a variety of bacteria that are dynamically associated with mosquitoes in various contexts. However, little is known about bacterial factors that affect bacterial inhabitation in the gut microbial community. Enterobacter sp. Ag1 is a predominant Gram negative bacterium in the mosquito midgut. In a mutant library that was generated using transposon Tn5-mediated mutagenesis, a mutant was identified, in which the gene waaL was disrupted by the Tn5 insertion. The waaL encodes O antigen ligase, which is required for the attachment of O antigen to the outer core oligosaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The waaL(-) mutation caused the O antigen repeat missing in the LPS. The normal LPS structure was restored when the mutant was complemented with a plasmid containing waaL gene. The waaL(-) mutation did not affect bacterial proliferation in LB culture, the mutant cells grew at a rate the same as the wildtype (wt) cells. However, when waaL(-) strain were co-cultured with the wt strain or complemented strain, the mutant cells proliferated with a slower rate, indicating that the mutants were less competitive than wt cells in a community setting. Similarly, in a co-feeding assay, when fluorescently tagged wt strain and waaL(-) strain were orally co-introduced into the gut of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, the mutant cells were less prevalent in both sugar-fed and blood-fed guts. The data suggest that the mutation compromised the bacterial inhabitation in the gut community. Besides, the mutant was more sensitive to oxidative stress, demonstrated by lower survival rate upon exposure to 20 mM H₂O₂. Lack of the O antigen structure in LPS of Enterobacter compromised the effective growth in co-culture and co-feeding assays. In addition, O-antigen was involved in protection against oxidative stress. The findings suggest that intact LPS is crucial for the bacteria to steadily stay in the gut microbial community.

  19. Coping and compromise: a qualitative study of how primary health care providers respond to health reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingji; Wang, Wei; Millar, Ross; Li, Guohong; Yan, Fei

    2017-08-04

    Health reform in China since 2009 has emphasized basic public health services to enhance the function of Community Health Services as a primary health care facility. A variety of studies have documented these efforts, and the challenges these have faced, yet up to now the experience of primary health care (PHC) providers in terms of how they have coped with these changes remains underdeveloped. Despite the abundant literature on psychological coping processes and mechanisms, the application of coping research within the context of human resources for health remains yet to be explored. This research aims to understand how PHC providers coped with the new primary health care model and the job characteristics brought about by these changes. Semi-structured interviews with primary health care workers were conducted in Jinan city of Shandong province in China. A maximum variation sampling method selected 30 PHC providers from different specialties. Thematic analysis was used drawing on a synthesis of theories related to the Job Demands-Resources model, work adjustment, and the model of exit, voice, loyalty and neglect to understand PHC providers' coping strategies. Our interviews identified that the new model of primary health care significantly affected the nature of primary health work and triggered a range of PHC providers' coping processes. The results found that health workers perceived their job as less intensive than hospital medical work but often more trivial, characterized by heavy workload, blurred job description, unsatisfactory income, and a lack of professional development. However, close relationship with community and low work pressure were satisfactory. PHC providers' processing of job demands and resources displayed two ways of interaction: aggravation and alleviation. Processing of job demands and resources led to three coping strategies: exit, passive loyalty, and compromise with new roles and functions. Primary health care providers employed coping

  20. Non-host Plant Resistance against Phytophthora capsici Is Mediated in Part by Members of the I2 R Gene Family in Nicotiana spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Arreguín, Julio C; Shimada-Beltrán, Harumi; Sevillano-Serrano, Jacobo; Moffett, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The identification of host genes associated with resistance to Phytophthora capsici is crucial to developing strategies of control against this oomycete pathogen. Since there are few sources of resistance to P. capsici in crop plants, non-host plants represent a promising source of resistance genes as well as excellent models to study P. capsici - plant interactions. We have previously shown that non-host resistance to P. capsici in Nicotiana spp. is mediated by the recognition of a specific P. capsici effector protein, PcAvr3a1 in a manner that suggests the involvement of a cognate disease resistance (R) genes. Here, we have used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA in Nicotiana spp. to identify candidate R genes that mediate non-host resistance to P. capsici . Silencing of members of the I2 multigene family in the partially resistant plant N. edwardsonii and in the resistant N. tabacum resulted in compromised resistance to P. capsici . VIGS of two other components required for R gene-mediated resistance, EDS1 and SGT1 , also enhanced susceptibility to P. capsici in N. edwardsonii , as well as in the susceptible plants N. benthamiana and N. clevelandii . The silencing of I2 family members in N. tabacum also compromised the recognition of PcAvr3a1. These results indicate that in this case, non-host resistance is mediated by the same components normally associated with race-specific resistance.

  1. Tolerance to early human milk feeding is not compromised by indomethacin in preterm infants with persistent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellander, M; Ley, D; Polberger, S; Hellström-Westas, L

    2003-09-01

    Early human milk feeding is beneficial for gut and brain development. Persistent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and indomethacin may compromise enteral function in preterm infants. For many years enteral milk feedings have continued in preterm infants receiving indomethacin for PDA. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this strategy is efficient in terms of risks and tolerance to early enteral feeding. This retrospective study included 64 inborn infants of respiratory morbidity; 90.6% versus 50% of controls needed mechanical ventilation (p = 0.000). Case infants received human milk from a median (range) age of 4.0 h (1.5-27.5), and controls from 5.3 h (2.0-38.0) (p = 0.092). The first dose of indomethacin was given at a mean age of 1.7 d (1.0). There were no differences between the two groups in feeding volumes or gastric residuals on days 1 to 7. Mean (SD) feeding volume on day 7 was 64 ml/kg (31) in case infants and 76 ml/kg (30) in controls (p = 0.23). Four infants developed necrotizing enterocolitis: two case infants and two controls (p = 1.00). Early enteral feeding with human milk, starting within the first hours of life, seems to be as well tolerated in preterm infants treated with indomethacin for PDA as in their matched controls.

  2. Neurological disease mutations of α3 Na+,K+-ATPase: Structural and functional perspectives and rescue of compromised function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Rikke; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S; Einholm, Anja P; Schack, Vivien R; Andersen, Jens P; Vilsen, Bente

    2016-11-01

    Na + ,K + -ATPase creates transmembrane ion gradients crucial to the function of the central nervous system. The α-subunit of Na + ,K + -ATPase exists as four isoforms (α1-α4). Several neurological phenotypes derive from α3 mutations. The effects of some of these mutations on Na + ,K + -ATPase function have been studied in vitro. Here we discuss the α3 disease mutations as well as information derived from studies of corresponding mutations of α1 in the light of the high-resolution crystal structures of the Na + ,K + -ATPase. A high proportion of the α3 disease mutations occur in the transmembrane sector and nearby regions essential to Na + and K + binding. In several cases the compromised function can be traced to disturbance of the Na + specific binding site III. Recently, a secondary mutation was found to rescue the defective Na + binding caused by a disease mutation. A perspective is that it may be possible to develop an efficient pharmaceutical mimicking the rescuing effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rejection with hemodynamic compromise in the current era of pediatric heart transplantation: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Melanie D; Pahl, Elfriede; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Zheng, Jie; Ringewald, Jeremy M; L'ecuyer, Thomas; Naftel, David C; Kirklin, James K; Blume, Elizabeth D; Bullock, Emily A; Canter, Charles E

    2011-03-01

    Survival after pediatric heart transplant has improved over time, as has the incidence of overall rejection. We studied the effect of era on the occurrence and outcome of rejection with hemodynamic compromise (HC). Data from 2227 patients who received allografts between 1993 and 2006 at 36 centers in the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study were analyzed to determine incidence, outcome, and risk factors for rejection with HC in early (1993-1999) and recent (2000-2006) eras. Rejection with HC was classified as severe (RSHC) when inotropes were used for circulatory support and mild (RMHC) when inotropes were not used. Of 1217 patients with any episode of rejection, 541 had rejection with HC. Freedom from RMHC improved at 1 year (81% vs 90%, p RMHC (87% at 1 year and 72% at 5 years, p RMHC was earlier era of transplant (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.56-2.41; p RMHC has declined over time but the same era effect has not occurred with RSHC. Close follow-up after RSHC is crucial because mortality is so high. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduction of Cone-Beam CT scan time without compromising the accuracy of the image registration in IGRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westberg, Jonas; Jensen, Henrik R.; Bertelsen, Anders; Brink, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Background. In modern radiotherapy accelerators are equipped with 3D cone-beam CT (CBCT) which is used to verify patient position before treatment. The verification is based on an image registration between the CBCT acquired just before treatment and the CT scan made for the treatment planning. The purpose of this study is to minimise the scan time of the CBCT without compromising the accuracy of the image registration in IGRT. Material and methods. Fast scans were simulated by reducing the number of acquired projection images, i.e. new reconstructions based on a subset of the original projections were made. The deviation between the registrations of these new reconstructions and the original registration was measured as function of the amount of reduction. Results and Discussion. Twenty nine head and neck (HandN) and 11 stereotactic lung patients were included in the study. The mean of the registration deviation did not differ significantly from zero independently of the number of projections included in the reconstruction. Except for the smallest subset of reconstructions (10% and 25% of the original projection for the lung and HandN patients, respectively) the standard deviation of the registration differences was constant. The standard deviations were approximately 0.1 mm and 0.2 mm for the HandN and lung group, respectively. Based on these results an in-house developed solution, able to reduce the Cone-Beam CT scan time, has been implemented clinically

  5. Compromise between Short- and Long-Term Financial Sustainability: A Hybrid Model for Supporting R&D Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao-Yi Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The debate of “short-termism” has gained increasing interests from various fields, ranging from management to economics; it mainly concerns the decisions or actions taken by businesses that might yield short-term returns at the cost of long-term value or sustainability. Previous studies have highlighted this dilemma faced by managers, mainly from the pressure of capital markets or short-sighted shareholders who crave for immediate financial outcomes; intelligent decision aids that can compromise between the short- and long-term financial sustainability, based on a company’s policy, are highly needed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a multiple-rule-based hybrid decision model to support management teams on prioritizing new R&D projects, considering the financial prospects in dual timeframes (i.e., short- and long-term for sustainability. Furthermore, in the presence of business uncertainty and the limited knowledge of managers on new projects, the intuitionistic fuzzy technique is incorporated. A case of selecting new R&D projects for an IC design company is illustrated using the proposed approach, and the financial data from a group of public-listed IC stocks from Taiwan are inducted to form the decision model. The findings not only support the IC design company to select new projects but also provide business insights to facilitate the understandings of this controversial issue in managerial practice.

  6. Diagnosis and prediction of periodontally compromised teeth using a deep learning-based convolutional neural network algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hong; Kim, Do-Hyung; Jeong, Seong-Nyum; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop a computer-assisted detection system based on a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm and to evaluate the potential usefulness and accuracy of this system for the diagnosis and prediction of periodontally compromised teeth (PCT). Combining pretrained deep CNN architecture and a self-trained network, periapical radiographic images were used to determine the optimal CNN algorithm and weights. The diagnostic and predictive accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, area under the ROC curve, confusion matrix, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using our deep CNN algorithm, based on a Keras framework in Python. The periapical radiographic dataset was split into training (n=1,044), validation (n=348), and test (n=348) datasets. With the deep learning algorithm, the diagnostic accuracy for PCT was 81.0% for premolars and 76.7% for molars. Using 64 premolars and 64 molars that were clinically diagnosed as severe PCT, the accuracy of predicting extraction was 82.8% (95% CI, 70.1%-91.2%) for premolars and 73.4% (95% CI, 59.9%-84.0%) for molars. We demonstrated that the deep CNN algorithm was useful for assessing the diagnosis and predictability of PCT. Therefore, with further optimization of the PCT dataset and improvements in the algorithm, a computer-aided detection system can be expected to become an effective and efficient method of diagnosing and predicting PCT.

  7. A single cysteine post-translational oxidation suffices to compromise globular proteins kinetic stability and promote amyloid formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Marinelli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidatively modified forms of proteins accumulate during aging. Oxidized protein conformers might act as intermediates in the formation of amyloids in age-related disorders. However, it is not known whether this amyloidogenic conversion requires an extensive protein oxidative damage or it can be promoted just by a discrete, localized post-translational modification of certain residues. Here, we demonstrate that the irreversible oxidation of a single free Cys suffices to severely perturb the folding energy landscape of a stable globular protein, compromise its kinetic stability, and lead to the formation of amyloids under physiological conditions. Experiments and simulations converge to indicate that this specific oxidation-promoted protein aggregation requires only local unfolding. Indeed, a large scale analysis indicates that many cellular proteins are at risk of undergoing this kind of deleterious transition; explaining how oxidative stress can impact cell proteostasis and subsequently lead to the onset of pathological states. Keywords: Protein oxidation, Protein misfolding, Protein aggregation, Oxidative stress, Post-translational modification

  8. Expansion on stromal cells preserves the undifferentiated state of human hematopoietic stem cells despite compromised reconstitution ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Mattias; Sierra, Maria I; Sasidharan, Rajkumar; Prashad, Sacha L; Romero, Melissa; Saarikoski, Pamela; Van Handel, Ben; Huang, Andy; Li, Xinmin; Mikkola, Hanna K A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) limits the number of patients with life-threatening blood disorders that can be treated by HSC transplantation. So far, insufficient understanding of the regulatory mechanisms governing human HSC has precluded the development of effective protocols for culturing HSC for therapeutic use and molecular studies. We defined a culture system using OP9M2 mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) stroma that protects human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) from differentiation and apoptosis. In addition, it facilitates a dramatic expansion of multipotent progenitors that retain the immunophenotype (CD34+CD38-CD90+) characteristic of human HSPC and proliferative potential over several weeks in culture. In contrast, transplantable HSC could be maintained, but not significantly expanded, during 2-week culture. Temporal analysis of the transcriptome of the ex vivo expanded CD34+CD38-CD90+ cells documented remarkable stability of most transcriptional regulators known to govern the undifferentiated HSC state. Nevertheless, it revealed dynamic fluctuations in transcriptional programs that associate with HSC behavior and may compromise HSC function, such as dysregulation of PBX1 regulated genetic networks. This culture system serves now as a platform for modeling human multilineage hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell hierarchy and studying the complex regulation of HSC identity and function required for successful ex vivo expansion of transplantable HSC.

  9. Expansion on stromal cells preserves the undifferentiated state of human hematopoietic stem cells despite compromised reconstitution ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Magnusson

    Full Text Available Lack of HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cells (HSC limits the number of patients with life-threatening blood disorders that can be treated by HSC transplantation. So far, insufficient understanding of the regulatory mechanisms governing human HSC has precluded the development of effective protocols for culturing HSC for therapeutic use and molecular studies. We defined a culture system using OP9M2 mesenchymal stem cell (MSC stroma that protects human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC from differentiation and apoptosis. In addition, it facilitates a dramatic expansion of multipotent progenitors that retain the immunophenotype (CD34+CD38-CD90+ characteristic of human HSPC and proliferative potential over several weeks in culture. In contrast, transplantable HSC could be maintained, but not significantly expanded, during 2-week culture. Temporal analysis of the transcriptome of the ex vivo expanded CD34+CD38-CD90+ cells documented remarkable stability of most transcriptional regulators known to govern the undifferentiated HSC state. Nevertheless, it revealed dynamic fluctuations in transcriptional programs that associate with HSC behavior and may compromise HSC function, such as dysregulation of PBX1 regulated genetic networks. This culture system serves now as a platform for modeling human multilineage hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell hierarchy and studying the complex regulation of HSC identity and function required for successful ex vivo expansion of transplantable HSC.

  10. Reducing radiation dose without compromising image quality in preoperative perforator flap imaging with CTA using ASIR technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Debrotwir, Andrew N; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has become a mainstay in preoperative perforator flap planning in the modern era of reconstructive surgery. However, the increased use of CTA does raise the concern of radiation exposure to patients. Several techniques have been developed to decrease radiation dosage without compromising image quality, with varying results. The most recent advance is in the improvement of image reconstruction using an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm. We sought to evaluate the image quality of ASIR in preoperative deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap surgery, through a direct comparison with conventional filtered back projection (FBP) images. A prospective review of 60 consecutive ASIR and 60 consecutive FBP CTA images using similar protocol (except for radiation dosage) was undertaken, analyzed by 2 independent reviewers. In both groups, we were able to accurately identify axial arteries and their perforators. Subjective analysis of image quality demonstrated no statistically significant difference between techniques. ASIR can thus be used for preoperative imaging with similar image quality to FBP, but with a 60% reduction in radiation delivery to patients.

  11. EMERGING ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN HOSPITAL A THREAT TO PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vichal Rastogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance(AMR threatens the health of many throughout the world, since both old and new infectious diseases remain a formidable public health threat. When pathogenic microorganisms can multiply beyond some critical mass in the face of invading antimicrobials, treatment outcome is compromised. This phenomenon is referred as antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Objective: This retrospective study was conducted to assess the overall antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates from tertiary care hospitals as majority of patients here receive empirical antibiotics therapy. Method: This retrospective study was carried out in teaching hospital, Greater Noida to determine prevalence of multidrug resistance in patients in relation to empirical antibiotic therapy in hospital. Various samples (pus,urine,blood were collected for bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity. Results: Total 500 bacterial strains isolated from ICU, surgery, obstetrics & gynaecology and orthopaedics and their sensitivity pattern was compared in this study. The highest number of resistant bacterias were of pseudomonas sp. i.e. 21(33.87% followed by 16(25.80% of staphylococcus aureus, 12(19.35% of Escherichia coli, Klebseilla sp & Proteus vulgaris were 05(8.06% each & Citrobacter sp. 03(4.83%. Total 62(12.4% bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to multiple drugs. The 31 (50% of these resistant bacteria were prevalent in ICU, 12(19.35% in Surgery, 11(17.74% in Gynaecology, 08(12.90% in Orthopaedics.. All the bacterial strains were resistant to common antibiotics like Penicillin, Amoxicillin, Doxycycline & Cotrimoxazole and some were even resistant to Imipenem. Conclusion: Therefore we have outlined the nature of the antimicrobial resistance problem as an important health issue for national and international community. It is advised to avoid use of empirical antibiotics therapy.

  12. Resistance to Powdery Mildews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwoszek, Agnieszka Izabela

    in majority of them. Resistance to barley powdery mildew in the field is controlled by use of resistant varieties in a combination with fungicides. Early disease management is crucial for effective control. Yet, the pathogen commonly develops fungicide resistance due to simple point mutations. Several studies...... protection. In the present study, I provide an overview of the current knowledge about plant pathogens and plant disease resistance. I use Arabidopsis as a model to investigate the mechanism of non-host resistance, presumed to be the most durable and broad-spectrum form of resistance. I attempt to determine...

  13. Intensity of Mobile Phone Use and Health Compromising Behaviours--How Is Information and Communication Technology Connected to Health-Related Lifestyle in Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leena, Koivusilta; Tomi, Lintonen; Arja, Rimpela

    2005-01-01

    The association of mobile phone use with health compromising behaviours (smoking, snuffing, alcohol) was studied in a survey comprising a representative sample of 14-16-year-olds (N=3485) in 2001. Mobile phone was used by 89% of respondents and by 13% for at least 1 h daily. The intensity of use was positively associated with health compromising…

  14. Losing the Warning Signal: Drought Compromises the Cross-Talk of Signaling Molecules in Quercus ilex Exposed to Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cotrozzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interactions between drought and acute ozone (O3 stress in terms of signaling molecules and cell death would improve the predictions of plant responses to climate change. The aim was to investigate whether drought stress influences the responses of plants to acute episodes of O3 exposure. In this study, the behavior of 84 Mediterranean evergreen Quercus ilex plants was evaluated in terms of cross-talk responses among signaling molecules. Half of the sample was subjected to drought (20% of the effective daily evapotranspiration, for 15 days and was later exposed to an acute O3 exposure (200 nL L-1 for 5 h. First, our results indicate that in well-water conditions, O3 induced a signaling pathway specific to O3-sensitive behavior. Second, different trends and consequently different roles of phytohormones and signaling molecules (ethylene, ET; abscisic acid, ABA; salycilic acid, SA and jasmonic acid, JA were observed in relation to water stress and O3. A spatial and functional correlation between these signaling molecules was observed in modulating O3-induced responses in well-watered plants. In contrast, in drought-stressed plants, these compounds were not involved either in O3-induced signaling mechanisms or in leaf senescence (a response observed in water-stressed plants before the O3-exposure. Third, these differences were ascribable to the fact that in drought conditions, most defense processes induced by O3 were compromised and/or altered. Our results highlight how Q. ilex plants suffering from water deprivation respond differently to an acute O3 episode compared to well-watered plants, and suggest new effect to be considered in plant responses to environmental changes. This poses the serious question as to whether or not multiple high-magnitude O3 events (as predicted can change these cross-talk responses, thus opening it up possible further investigations.

  15. CD133+ cells derived from skeletal muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients have a compromised myogenic and muscle regenerative capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jinhong; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer

    2018-05-12

    Cell-mediated gene therapy is a possible means to treat muscular dystrophies like Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Autologous patient stem cells can be genetically-corrected and transplanted back into the patient, without causing immunorejection problems. Regenerated muscle fibres derived from these cells will express the missing dystrophin protein, thus improving muscle function. CD133+ cells derived from normal human skeletal muscle contribute to regenerated muscle fibres and form muscle stem cells after their intra-muscular transplantation into an immunodeficient mouse model. But it is not known whether CD133+ cells derived from DMD patient muscles have compromised muscle regenerative function. To test this, we compared CD133+ cells derived from DMD and normal human muscles. DMD CD133+ cells had a reduced capacity to undergo myogenic differentiation in vitro compared with CD133+ cells derived from normal muscle. In contrast to CD133+ cells derived from normal human muscle, those derived from DMD muscle formed no satellite cells and gave rise to significantly fewer muscle fibres of donor origin, after their intra-muscular transplantation into an immunodeficient, non-dystrophic, mouse muscle. DMD CD133+ cells gave rise to more clones of smaller size and more clones that were less myogenic than did CD133+ cells derived from normal muscle. The heterogeneity of the progeny of CD133+ cells, combined with the reduced proliferation and myogenicity of DMD compared to normal CD133+ cells, may explain the reduced regenerative capacity of DMD CD133+ cells. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Wind Integration into Energy Systems with a High Share of Nuclear Power—What Are the Compromises?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Zakeri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Towards low-carbon energy systems, there are countries with ongoing plans for expanding their nuclear power capacity, and simultaneously advancing the role of variable renewable energy sources (RES, namely wind and solar energy. This crossroads of capital-intensive, baseload power production and uncontrollable, intermittent RES may entail new challenges in the optimal and economic operation of power systems. This study examines this case by hourly analysis of a national-level energy system with the EnergyPLAN modeling tool, coupled with wind integration simulations (including uncertainty implemented using MATLAB. We evaluate the maximum feasible wind integration under different scenarios for nuclear power plants, energy demand, and the flexibility of energy infrastructure for a real case study (Finland. We propose wind-nuclear compromise charts to envision the impact of any mix of these two technologies on four parameters: total costs, power exchange, carbon emissions, and renewable energy integration. The results suggest that nuclear power constrains the room for maximum uptake of wind energy by a descending parabolic relationship. If nuclear power production exceeds 50% of the total power demand, wind will be unlikely to penetrate in shares over 15% of the respective demand. Moreover, we investigate the role of four flexibility options: demand side management, electrical energy storage, smart electric heating, and large-scale heat pumps (backed with thermal energy storage. Heat pumps (which are in connection with combined heat and power (CHP and district heating systems offer the highest efficiency in balancing excess power from variable RES. However, power-to-heat options offer a limited capability for absorbing excess power, as oversupply arises mainly in the periods with relatively low demand for heat. This calls for longer-term energy storage and/or other flexibility options to achieve the planned targets in wind-nuclear scenarios.

  17. Contraction-evoked vasodilation and functional hyperaemia are compromised in branching skeletal muscle arterioles of young pre-diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novielli, N M; Jackson, D N

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the effects of pre-diabetes on microvascular network function in contracting skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that pre-diabetes compromises contraction-evoked vasodilation of branching second-order (2A), third-order (3A) and fourth-order (4A) arterioles, where distal arterioles would be affected the greatest. Intravital video microscopy was used to measure arteriolar diameter (in 2A, 3A and 4A) and blood flow (in 2A and 3A) changes to electrical field stimulation of the gluteus maximus muscle in pre-diabetic (The Pound Mouse, PD) and control (c57bl6, CTRL) mice. Baseline diameter and blood flow were similar between groups (2A: ~20 μm, 3A: ~14 μm and 4A: ~8 μm; 2A: ~1 nL s(-1) and 3A: ~0.5 nL s(-1) ). Single tetanic contraction (100 Hz; 200, 400, 800 ms duration) evoked rapid-onset vasodilation (ROV) and blood flow responses that were blunted by ~50% and up to 81%, respectively, in PD vs. CTRL (P contraction (2 and 8 Hz, 30 s) evoked vasodilatory and blood flow responses that were also attenuated by ~50% and up to 71%, respectively, in PD vs. CTRL (P contraction was also up to 2.5-fold greater at 4A vs. 2A in CTRL; however spatial differences in vasodilation across arteriolar branch orders was disrupted in PD. Arteriolar dysregulation in pre-diabetes causes deficits in contraction-evoked dilation and blood flow, where greatest deficits occur at distal arterioles. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Differentially Severe Cognitive Effects of Compromised Cerebral Blood Flow in Aged Mice: Association with Myelin Degradation and Microglia Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly Wolf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS models the effects of compromised cerebral blood flow on brain structure and function in mice. We compared the effects of BCAS in aged (21 month and young adult (3 month female mice, anticipating a differentially more severe effect in the older mice. Four weeks after surgery there was a significant age by time by treatment interaction on the radial-arm water maze (RAWM; p = 0.014: on the first day of the test, latencies of old mice were longer compared to the latencies of young adult mice, independent of BCAS. However, on the second day of the test, latencies of old BCAS mice were significantly longer than old control mice (p = 0.049, while latencies of old controls were similar to those of the young adult mice, indicating more severe impairment of hippocampal dependent learning and working memory by BCAS in the older mice. Fluorescence staining of myelin basic protein (MBP showed that old age and BCAS both induced a significant decrease in fluorescence intensity. Evaluation of the number oligodendrocyte precursor cells demonstrated augmented myelin replacement in old BCAS mice (p < 0.05 compared with young adult BCAS and old control mice. While microglia morphology was assessed as normal in young adult control and young adult BCAS mice, microglia of old BCAS mice exhibited striking activation in the area of degraded myelin compared to young adult BCAS (p < 0.01 and old control mice (p < 0.05. These findings show a differentially more severe effect of cerebral hypoperfusion on cognitive function, myelin integrity and inflammatory processes in aged mice. Hypoperfusion may exacerbate degradation initiated by aging, which may induce more severe neuronal and cognitive phenotypes.

  19. Radiation dose reduction without compromise to image quality by alterations of filtration and focal spot size in cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Joon; Park, Min Keun; Jung, Da Eun; Kang, Jung Han; Kim, Byung Moon [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    Different angiographic protocols may influence the radiation dose and image quality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of filtration and focal spot size on radiation dose and image quality for diagnostic cerebral angiography using an in-vitro model and in-vivo patient groups. Radiation dose and image quality were analyzed by varying the filtration and focal spot size on digital subtraction angiography exposure protocols (1, inherent filtration + large focus; 2, inherent + small; 3, copper + large; 4, copper + small). For the in-vitro analysis, a phantom was used for comparison of radiation dose. For the in-vivo analysis, bilateral paired injections, and patient cohort groups were compared for radiation dose and image quality. Image quality analysis was performed in terms of contrast, sharpness, noise, and overall quality. In the in-vitro analysis, the mean air kerma (AK) and dose area product (DAP)/frame were significantly lower with added copper filtration (protocols 3 and 4). In the in-vivo bilateral paired injections, AK and DAP/frame were significantly lower with filtration, without significant difference in image quality. The patient cohort groups with added filtration (protocols 3 and 4) showed significant reduction of total AK and DAP/patient without compromise to the image quality. Variations in focal spot size showed no significant differences in radiation dose and image quality. Addition of filtration for angiographic exposure studies can result in significant total radiation dose reduction without loss of image quality. Focal spot size does not influence radiation dose and image quality. The routine angiographic protocol should be judiciously investigated and implemented.

  20. Local vibration inhibits H-reflex but does not compromise manual dexterity and does not increase tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Francesco; Laudani, Luca; Bernardini, Sergio; Macaluso, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    The present work aimed at investigating the effects of local vibration on upper limb postural and kinetic tremor, on manual dexterity and on spinal reflex excitability. Previous studies have demonstrated a decrease in spinal reflex excitability and in force fluctuations in the lower limb but an increase in force fluctuation in the upper limbs. As hand steadiness is of vital importance in many daily-based tasks, and local vibration may also be applied in movement disorders, we decided to further explore this phenomenon. Ten healthy volunteers (26±3years) were tested for H reflex, postural and kinetic tremor and manual dexterity through a Purdue test. EMG was recorded from flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC). Measurements were repeated at baseline, after a control period during which no vibration was delivered and after vibration. Intervention consisted in holding for two minutes a vibrating handle (frequency 75Hz, displacement∼7mm), control consisted in holding for two minutes the same handle powered off. Reflex excitability decreased after vibration whilst postural tremor and manual dexterity were not affected. Peak kinetic tremor frequency increased from baseline to control measurements (P=0.002). Co-activation EDC/FCR increased from control to vibration (P=0.021). These results show that two minutes local vibration lead to a decrease in spinal excitability, did not compromise manual dexterity and did not increase tremor; however, in contrast with expectations, tremor did not decrease. It is suggested that vibration activated several mechanisms with opposite effects, which resulted in a neutral outcome on postural and kinetic tremor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hair sparing does not compromise real-time magnetic resonance imaging guided stereotactic laser fiber placement for temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shikha; Kumar, Kevin K; Rabon, Matthew J; Dolce, Dana; Halpern, Casey H

    2018-06-01

    Pre-operative scalp shaving is conventionally thought to simplify postoperative cranial wound care, lower the rate of wound infections, and ease optimal incision localization. Over the past few decades, some neurosurgeons have refrained from scalp shaving in order to improve patient satisfaction with brain surgery. However, this hair-sparing approach has not yet been explored in the growing field of magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT). This study investigated the initial impact of a no-shave technique on post-operative wound infection rate as well as on entry and target accuracy in MRgLITT for mesial temporal epilepsy. Eighteen patients selected by the Stanford Comprehensive Epilepsy Program between November 2015 and August 2017 were included in the study. All patients underwent functional selective amygdalohippocampotomies using MRgLITT entirely within a diagnostic MRI suite. No hair was removed and no additional precautions were taken for hair or scalp care. Otherwise, routine protocols for surgical preparations and wound closure were followed. The study was performed under approval from Stanford University's Internal Review Board (IRB-37830). No post-operative wound infections or erosions occurred for any patient. The mean entry point error was 2.87 ± 1.3 mm and the mean target error was 1.0 ± 0.9 mm. There have been no other complications associated with this hair-sparing approach. The study's results suggest that hair sparing in MRgLITT surgery for temporal epilepsy does not increase the risk of wound complications or compromise accuracy. This preferred cosmetic approach may thus appeal to epilepsy patients considering such interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Apoptotic function of human PMS2 compromised by the nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphic variant R20Q

    OpenAIRE

    Marinovic-Terzic, Ivana; Yoshioka-Yamashita, Atsuko; Shimodaira, Hideki; Avdievich, Elena; Hunton, Irina C.; Kolodner, Richard D.; Edelmann, Winfried; Wang, Jean Y. J.

    2008-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) corrects replication errors during DNA synthesis. The mammalian MMR proteins also activate cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis in response to persistent DNA damage. MMR-deficient cells are resistant to cisplatin, a DNA cross-linking agent used in chemotherapy, because of impaired activation of apoptotic pathways. It is shown that postmeiotic segregation 2 (PMS2), an MMR protein, is required for cisplatin-induced activation of p73, a member of the p53 family of transcrip...

  3. ACVIM Consensus Statement on Therapeutic Antimicrobial Use in Animals and Antimicrobial Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Weese, J.S.; Gigu?re, S.; Guardabassi, L.; Morley, P.S.; Papich, M.; Ricciuto, D.R.; Sykes, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    The epidemic of antimicrobial resistant infections continues to challenge, compromising animal care, complicating food animal production and posing zoonotic disease risks. While the overall role of therapeutic antimicrobial use in animals in the development AMR in animal and human pathogens is poorly defined, veterinarians must consider the impacts of antimicrobial use in animal and take steps to optimize antimicrobial use, so as to maximize the health benefits to animals while minimizing the...

  4. 'Compromise position' image alignment to accommodate independent motion of multiple clinical target volumes during radiotherapy: A high risk prostate cancer example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosewall, Tara; Alasti, Hamideh; Bayley, Andrew; Yan, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Inclusion of multiple independently moving clinical target volumes (CTVs) in the irradiated volume causes an image guidance conundrum. The purpose of this research was to use high risk prostate cancer as a clinical example to evaluate a 'compromise' image alignment strategy. The daily pre-treatment orthogonal EPI for 14 consecutive patients were included in this analysis. Image matching was performed by aligning to the prostate only, the bony pelvis only and using the 'compromise' strategy. Residual CTV surrogate displacements were quantified for each of the alignment strategies. Analysis of the 388 daily fractions indicated surrogate displacements were well-correlated in all directions (r 2 = 0.95 (LR), 0.67 (AP) and 0.59 (SI). Differences between the surrogates displacements (95% range) were −0.4 to 1.8 mm (LR), −1.2 to 5.2 mm (SI) and −1.2 to 5.2 mm (AP). The distribution of the residual displacements was significantly smaller using the 'compromise' strategy, compared to the other strategies (p 0.005). The 'compromise' strategy ensured the CTV was encompassed by the PTV in all fractions, compared to 47 PTV violations when aligned to prostate only. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a compromise position image guidance strategy to accommodate simultaneous displacements of two independently moving CTVs. Application of this strategy was facilitated by correlation between the CTV displacements and resulted in no geometric excursions of the CTVs beyond standard sized PTVs. This simple image guidance strategy may also be applicable to other disease sites that concurrently irradiate multiple CTVs, such as head and neck, lung and cervix cancer.

  5. 'Compromise position' image alignment to accommodate independent motion of multiple clinical target volumes during radiotherapy: A high risk prostate cancer example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewall, Tara; Yan, Jing; Alasti, Hamideh; Cerase, Carla; Bayley, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Inclusion of multiple independently moving clinical target volumes (CTVs) in the irradiated volume causes an image guidance conundrum. The purpose of this research was to use high risk prostate cancer as a clinical example to evaluate a 'compromise' image alignment strategy. The daily pre-treatment orthogonal EPI for 14 consecutive patients were included in this analysis. Image matching was performed by aligning to the prostate only, the bony pelvis only and using the 'compromise' strategy. Residual CTV surrogate displacements were quantified for each of the alignment strategies. Analysis of the 388 daily fractions indicated surrogate displacements were well-correlated in all directions (r 2  = 0.95 (LR), 0.67 (AP) and 0.59 (SI). Differences between the surrogates displacements (95% range) were -0.4 to 1.8 mm (LR), -1.2 to 5.2 mm (SI) and -1.2 to 5.2 mm (AP). The distribution of the residual displacements was significantly smaller using the 'compromise' strategy, compared to the other strategies (p 0.005). The 'compromise' strategy ensured the CTV was encompassed by the PTV in all fractions, compared to 47 PTV violations when aligned to prostate only. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a compromise position image guidance strategy to accommodate simultaneous displacements of two independently moving CTVs. Application of this strategy was facilitated by correlation between the CTV displacements and resulted in no geometric excursions of the CTVs beyond standard sized PTVs. This simple image guidance strategy may also be applicable to other disease sites that concurrently irradiate multiple CTVs, such as head and neck, lung and cervix cancer. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  6. Public health risk of antimicrobial resistance transfer from companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomba, Constança; Rantala, Merja; Greko, Christina; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Mateus, Ana; Moreno, Miguel A; Pyörälä, Satu; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Teale, Christopher; Threlfall, E John; Kunsagi, Zoltan; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Jukes, Helen; Törneke, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobials are important tools for the therapy of infectious bacterial diseases in companion animals. Loss of efficacy of antimicrobial substances can seriously compromise animal health and welfare. A need for the development of new antimicrobials for the therapy of multiresistant infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria, has been acknowledged in human medicine and a future corresponding need in veterinary medicine is expected. A unique aspect related to antimicrobial resistance and risk of resistance transfer in companion animals is their close contact with humans. This creates opportunities for interspecies transmission of resistant bacteria. Yet, the current knowledge of this field is limited and no risk assessment is performed when approving new veterinary antimicrobials. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the use and indications for antimicrobials in companion animals, drug-resistant bacteria of concern among companion animals, risk factors for colonization of companion animals with resistant bacteria and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (bacteria and/or resistance determinants) between animals and humans. The major antimicrobial resistance microbiological hazards originating from companion animals that directly or indirectly may cause adverse health effects in humans are MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, VRE, ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacteria. In the face of the previously recognized microbiological hazards, a risk assessment tool could be applied in applications for marketing authorization for medicinal products for companion animals. This would allow the approval of new veterinary medicinal antimicrobials for which risk levels are estimated as acceptable for public health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  7. Oxidation-resistant cermet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    Chromium metal alloys and chromium oxide ceramic are combined to produce cermets with oxidation-resistant properties. Application of cermets includes use in hot corrosive environments requiring strong resistive materials.

  8. Resistance seam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the resistance seam welding process are presented. Types of seam welds, types of seam welding machines, seam welding power supplies, resistance seam welding parameters and seam welding characteristics of various metals

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  10. Electrical Methods: Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface electrical resistivity surveying is based on the principle that the distribution of electrical potential in the ground around a current-carrying electrode depends on the electrical resistivities and distribution of the surrounding soils and rocks.

  11. Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Baby is Born Monogenic Diabetes Insulin Resistance & Prediabetes Insulin resistance and prediabetes occur when your body ... will stay in the healthy range. What is prediabetes? Prediabetes means your blood glucose levels are higher ...

  12. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Go to Information for Researchers ► Credit: ... and infectious diseases. Why Is the Study of Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance a Priority for NIAID? Over time, ...

  13. CONFERENCE REPORT ANTIRETROVIRAL RESISTANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-02

    Aug 2, 2004 ... development of new agents with potential clinical utility for treating resistant ... data on the emergence of resistance among Thai women given zidovudine ... had achieved full virological suppression (viral load. < 50 copies/ml).

  14. Resistance to Linezolid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Ntokou, Eleni

    2017-01-01

    Linezolid is an antimicrobial agent that binds to the bacterial ribosome and thereby inhibits protein synthesis. Soon after its release as a clinical drug, it became clear that bacteria could become resistant to linezolid. The resistance mechanisms are mainly causing alteration of the drug target...... site, but probably efflux might also play a role. The resistance is still rare in surveillance studies, but outbreaks of resistant clones from hospitals have been observed. So far the main mechanisms of resistance are occurrence of mutations in ribosomal genes or obtaining plasmids with a gene coding...... for a methyltransferase providing resistance. The most obvious way to avoid resistance may be development of derivatives of linezolid overcoming the known resistance mechanisms....

  15. Resisting Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously reminded of how change induces controversy and resistance, regardless of support. We repeatedly experience resistance in difficulties of implementation, little progress, and poor results, rather than increased productivity as anticipated. In a detailed account of how change plays out, a mosaic of what resistance looks like emerges. The picture is both familiar and absolutely concrete, and challenges the structural assumptions and dichotomies on support and resistance in an...

  16. Antibiotic resistance reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the major threats to human health in the 21st century is the emergence of pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, thereby limiting treatment options. An important route through which pathogens become resistant is via acquisition of resistance genes from

  17. Resisting Mind Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides conceptual analyses of mind control techniques along with practical advice on how to resist these techniques. The authors stress that effective mind control stems more from everyday social relations than from exotic technological gimmicks. Suggestions are given for resisting persuasion, resisting systems, and challenging the system.…

  18. Mapping insecticide resistance and characterization of resistance mechanisms in Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Eba; Asale, Abebe; Eba, Kasahun; Getahun, Kefelegn; Tushune, Kora; Bryon, Astrid; Morou, Evangelia; Vontas, John; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Duchateau, Luc; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2017-09-02

    The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in the major African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis may compromise the current vector control interventions and threatens the global malaria control and elimination efforts. Insecticide resistance was monitored in several study sites in Ethiopia from 2013 to 2015 using papers impregnated with discriminating concentrations of DDT, deltamethrin, bendiocarb, propoxur, malathion, fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl, following the WHO insecticide susceptibility test procedure. Mosquitoes sampled from different localities for WHO bioassay were morphologically identified as An. gambiae (s.l.) using standard taxonomic keys. Samples were identified to species using species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and screened for the presence of target site mutations L1014F, L1014S and N1575Y in the voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene and G119S in the acethylcholinesterase (AChE) gene using allele-specific PCR. Biochemical assays were performed to assess elevated levels of acetylcholinesterases, carboxylcholinesterases, glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450s monooxygenases in wild populations of An. arabiensis, compared to the fully susceptible Sekoru An. arabiensis laboratory strain. Populations of An. arabiensis were resistant to DDT and deltamethrin but were susceptible to fenitrothion in all the study sites. Reduced susceptibility to malathion, pirimiphos-methyl, propoxur and bendiocarb was observed in some of the study sites. Knockdown resistance (kdr L1014F) was detected in all mosquito populations with allele frequency ranging from 42 to 91%. Elevated levels of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) were detected in some of the mosquito populations. However, no elevated levels of monooxygenases and esterases were detected in any of the populations assessed. Anopheles arabiensis populations from all surveyed sites in Ethiopia exhibited resistance against DDT and pyrethroids

  19. Occurrence of health-compromising protozoan and helminth infections in tortoises kept as pet animals in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinger, Malek J; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Mutschmann, Frank

    2018-06-18

    Exotic reptiles such as tortoises, have become increasingly common domestic pets worldwide and are known to host different gastrointestinal parasites. Some of these parasites bear zoonotic potential. In the present survey, we parasitologically examined tortoise faecal samples (n = 1005) from 19 different species held as pets in private German households and German zoological gardens. Saline faecal smears were used to generate prevalence data for potentially health-compromising gastrointestinal parasites. In addition, we performed complete parasitological dissections of dead tortoises (n = 49) to estimate endoparasite burdens precisely. Analysed tortoise faecal samples contained a broad spectrum of endoparasites. We detected ten taxa of endoparasites; oxyurid nematodes (e.g. Tachygonetria spp.) were the most prevalent parasites in faecal samples (43.18%), followed by ascarids (Angusticaecum spp.) (0.01%), Hexamita spp. (0.007%), Balantidium spp. (0.007%), trichomonads (0.004%), Strongyloides spp. (0.003%), Entamoeba spp. (0.005%), Hartmanella spp. (0.001%), Blastocystis spp. (0.002%), heterakids (0.001%) and Trimitus spp. (0.001%). Additionally, we investigated dead tortoise individuals (n = 49; of 10 different species) for aetiological diagnosis and estimation of endoparasite burden. Of these individuals, 38 (77.6%) were infected with parasites and 14 (28.6%) of them died most probably due to severe parasitic infection. Oxyurid infections correlated positively with calcium deficiency and metabolic bone disease (MBD) as well as nephrosis/nephritis, mainly occurring in juvenile tortoises (< 5 years of age). The saline faecal smear technique proved to be efficient in detecting different metazoan and protozoan parasite stages in tortoise faeces. The prevalence of oxyurid infections was particularly high. In combination with pathological findings in clinical oxyuridosis obtained from necropsied animals, our findings call for further, detailed investigations on

  20. Hepatic S1P deficiency lowers plasma cholesterol levels in apoB-containing lipoproteins when LDLR function is compromised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debapriya; Huq, Afroza; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, M Mahmood; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Jin, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    expression through activation of the SREBPs. In the LDLR(-/-) background, hepatic S1P KD significantly reduced Blp-c levels. Hepatic S1P is a physiological modulator of plasma Blp metabolism through its regulation of LDLR and PCSK9. Hepatic S1P is a valid target for lowering plasma Blp-c levels in the situation where LDLR function is compromised.

  1. Antibacterial Efficacy of Polysaccharide Capped Silver Nanoparticles Is Not Compromised by AcrAB-TolC Efflux Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Mishra

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial therapy is of paramount importance in treatment of several acute and chronic infectious diseases caused by pathogens. Over the years extensive use and misuse of antimicrobial agents has led to emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR and extensive drug resistant (XDR pathogens. This drastic escalation in resistant phenotype has limited the efficacy of available therapeutic options. Thus, the need of the hour is to look for alternative therapeutic approaches to mitigate healthcare concerns caused due to MDR bacterial infections. Nanoparticles have gathered much attention as potential candidates for antibacterial therapy. Equipped with advantages of, wide spectrum bactericidal activity at very low dosage, inhibitor of biofilm formation and ease of permeability, nanoparticles have been considered as leading therapeutic candidates to curtail infections resulting from MDR bacteria. However, substrate non-specificity of efflux pumps, particularly those belonging to resistance nodulation division super family, have been reported to reduce efficacy of many potent antibacterial therapeutic drugs. Previously, we had reported antibacterial activity of polysaccharide-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs toward MDR bacteria. We showed that AgNPs inhibits biofilm formation and alters expression of cytoskeletal proteins FtsZ and FtsA, with minimal cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. In the present study, we report no reduction in antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles in presence of AcrAB-TolC efflux pump proteins. Antibacterial tests were performed according to CLSI macrobroth dilution method, which revealed that both silver nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity at very low concentrations. Further, immunoblotting results indicated that both the nanoparticles modulate the transporter AcrB protein expression. However, expression of the membrane fusion protein AcrA did show a significant increase after exposure to AgNPs. Our results

  2. Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle strength, lean mass, and function in mobility-limited older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to functionally compromised older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concent...

  3. Food supply confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Ramajo, Laura; Pé rez-Leó n, Elia; Hendriks, Iris E.; Marbà , Nú ria; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Sejr, Mikael K.; Blicher, Martin E.; Lagos, Nelson A.; Olsen, Ylva S.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Invasion of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is expected to reduce surface seawater pH to 7.8 by the end of this century compromising marine calcifiers. A broad range of biological and mineralogical mechanisms allow marine calcifiers to cope with ocean acidification, however these mechanisms are energetically demanding which affect other biological processes (trade-offs) with important implications for the resilience of the organisms against stressful conditions. Hence, food availability may play a critical role in determining the resistance of calcifiers to OA. Here we show, based on a meta-analysis of existing experimental results assessing the role of food supply in the response of organisms to OA, that food supply consistently confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification.

  4. Using Resurrected Ancestral Proviral Proteins to Engineer Virus Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Delgado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proviral factors are host proteins hijacked by viruses for processes essential for virus propagation such as cellular entry and replication. Pathogens and their hosts co-evolve. It follows that replacing a proviral factor with a functional ancestral form of the same protein could prevent viral propagation without fatally compromising organismal fitness. Here, we provide proof of concept of this notion. Thioredoxins serve as general oxidoreductases in all known cells. We report that several laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins display substantial levels of functionality within Escherichia coli. Unlike E. coli thioredoxin, however, these ancestral thioredoxins are not efficiently recruited by the bacteriophage T7 for its replisome and therefore prevent phage propagation in E. coli. These results suggest an approach to the engineering of virus resistance. Diseases caused by viruses may have a devastating effect in agriculture. We discuss how the suggested approach could be applied to the engineering of plant virus resistance.

  5. Involvement of steatosis-induced glucagon resistance in hyperglucagonaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Malte P; Lund, Asger; Bagger, Jonatan I

    2016-01-01

    diabetes per se - is the main driver behind fasting hyperglucagonaemia. We hypothesise that in the majority of type 2 diabetic individuals hepatic sensitivity to glucagon is compromised due to hepatic steatosis, and that this provides a feedback mechanism acting at the level of pancreatic alpha cells...... recognised to play a significant role in type 2 diabetic pathophysiology. However, the mechanisms underlying disturbances in the regulation of glucagon remain unclear. Glucagon constitutes the primary stimulus for hepatic glucose production and, thus, upholds adequate blood glucose levels during fasting......, leading to elevated levels of glucagon. Here we present our hypothesis and propose a way to test it. If our hypothesis holds true, hepatic glucagon resistance would constitute a parallel to the obesity-induced insulin resistance in muscle and liver tissue, and underpin a central role for glucagon...

  6. Food supply confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Ramajo, Laura

    2016-01-18

    Invasion of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is expected to reduce surface seawater pH to 7.8 by the end of this century compromising marine calcifiers. A broad range of biological and mineralogical mechanisms allow marine calcifiers to cope with ocean acidification, however these mechanisms are energetically demanding which affect other biological processes (trade-offs) with important implications for the resilience of the organisms against stressful conditions. Hence, food availability may play a critical role in determining the resistance of calcifiers to OA. Here we show, based on a meta-analysis of existing experimental results assessing the role of food supply in the response of organisms to OA, that food supply consistently confers calcifiers resistance to ocean acidification.

  7. In Vitro Cross-Resistance Profiles of Rilpivirine, Dapivirine, and MIV-150, Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Microbicides in Clinical Development for the Prevention of HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbi, Nicholas S; Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas

    2017-07-01

    Rilpivirine (RPV), dapivirine (DPV), and MIV-150 are in development as microbicides. It is not known whether they will block infection of circulating nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants. Here, we demonstrate that the activity of DPV and MIV-150 is compromised by many resistant viruses containing single or double substitutions. High DPV genital tract concentrations from DPV ring use may block replication of resistant viruses. However, MIV-150 genital tract concentrations may be insufficient to inhibit many resistant viruses, including those harboring K103N or Y181C. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Brief Report: HIV Drug Resistance in Adults Failing Early Antiretroviral Treatment: Results From the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Jessica M; Hudelson, Sarah E; Ou, San-San; Hart, Stephen; Wallis, Carole; Morgado, Mariza G; Saravanan, Shanmugam; Tripathy, Srikanth; Hovind, Laura; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Sabin, Devin; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Zhang, Xinyi C; Eron, Joseph J; Gallant, Joel E; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Makhema, Joseph; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Hakim, James; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Akelo, Victor; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Santos, Breno R; Godbole, Sheela V; Pilotto, Jose H; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Panchia, Ravindre; Mayer, Kenneth H; Chen, Ying Q; Cohen, Myron S; Eshleman, Susan H

    2016-07-01

    Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces HIV transmission and has health benefits. HIV drug resistance can limit treatment options and compromise use of ART for HIV prevention. We evaluated drug resistance in 85 participants in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial who started ART at CD4 counts of 350-550 cells per cubic millimeter and failed ART by May 2011; 8.2% had baseline resistance and 35.3% had resistance at ART failure. High baseline viral load and less education were associated with emergence of resistance at ART failure. Resistance at ART failure was observed in 7 of 8 (87.5%) participants who started ART at lower CD4 cell counts.

  9. Exosomal DNMT1 mediates cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya-Lei; Zhuang, Ting; Xing, Bao-Heng; Li, Na; Li, Qin

    2017-08-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Owing to late syndromic presentation and lack of efficient early detection, most cases are diagnosed at advanced stages. Surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy are still the standard care currently. However, resistance invoked often compromises the clinical value of the latter. Expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) was analysed by gene array. Protein was determined by immunoblotting. Exosome was isolated with commercial kit. Cell proliferation was measured by CCK8 method. Annexin V-PI double staining was performed for apoptosis evaluation. Xenograft model was established and administrated with exosome. Tumour growth and overall survival were monitored. We demonstrated the upregulation of DNMT1 in both tumour and derived cell line. DNMT1 transcripts were highly enriched in exosomes from conditioned medium of ovarian cells. Co-incubation with exosomes stimulated endogenous expression and rendered host cell the resistance to cytotoxicity of cisplatin. In vivo administration of DNMT1-containing exosomes exacerbated xenograft progression and reduced overall survival significantly. Moreover, treatment with exosome inhibitor GW4869 almost completely restored sensitivity in resistant cells. Our data elucidated an unappreciated mechanism of exosomal DNMT1 in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer, also indicating the potential of the combination of exosome inhibitor with cisplatin in resistant patients. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Treatment of chest burn contracture causing respiratory compromise with island release and grafting using cross-link collagen and Integra™ bilayer dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Doctor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-burn skin contractures of the anterior and lateral abdomen and chest may result in respiratory compromise due to limitation of rib excursion. This case report describes a young man with respiratory compromise limiting his daily activity and function, as a result of a 90% burn sustained 6 years previously. Release of his chest and upper abdomen was achieved using “island” scar releases and a cross-linked bovine tendon collagen and glycosaminoglycan and a semi-permeable polysiloxane bilayer matrix dressing (Integra™ followed by subsequent split thickness skin graft. An immediate increase in maximal inspiratory volume was obtained intra-operatively and in the im­mediate post-operative period, and this improvement was sustained after healing of all wounds with subjective relief of the patient’s symptoms.

  11. Rapid Increase in Prevalence of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and Emergence of Colistin Resistance Gene mcr-1 in CRE in a Hospital in Henan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Sun, Qiao-Ling; Shen, Yingbo; Zhang, Yangjunna; Yang, Jun-Wen; Shu, Ling-Bin; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Shaolin; Shen, Zhangqi

    2018-04-01

    The global spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is one of the most severe threats to human health in a clinical setting. The recent emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 among CRE strains greatly compromises the use of colistin as a last resort for the treatment of infections caused by CRE. This study aimed to understand the current epidemiological trends and characteristics of CRE from a large hospital in Henan, the most populous province in China. From 2014 to 2016, a total of 7,249 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from clinical samples, among which 18.1% (1,311/7,249) were carbapenem resistant. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli were the two most common CRE species, with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases (NDM), respectively, responsible for the carbapenem resistance of the two species. Notably, >57.0% ( n = 589) of the K. pneumoniae isolates from the intensive care unit were carbapenem resistant. Furthermore, bla NDM-5 and mcr-1 were found to coexist in one E. coli isolate, which exhibited resistance to almost all tested antibiotics. Overall, we observed a significant increase in the prevalence of CRE isolates during the study period and suggest that carbapenems may no longer be considered to be an effective treatment for infections caused by K. pneumoniae in the studied hospital. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. The value of predicting restriction of fetal growth and compromise of its wellbeing: Systematic quantitative overviews (meta-analysis) of test accuracy literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rachel K; Khan, Khalid S; Coomarasamy, Aravinthan; Robson, Stephen C; Kleijnen, Jos

    2007-03-08

    Restriction of fetal growth and compromise of fetal wellbeing remain significant causes of perinatal death and childhood disability. At present, there is a lack of scientific consensus about the best strategies for predicting these conditions before birth. Therefore, there is uncertainty about the best management of pregnant women who might have a growth restricted baby. This is likely to be due to a dearth of clear collated information from individual research studies drawn from different sources on this subject. A series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses will be undertaken to determine, among pregnant women, the accuracy of various tests to predict and/or diagnose fetal growth restriction and compromise of fetal wellbeing. We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, MEDION, citation lists of review articles and eligible primary articles and will contact experts in the field. Independent reviewers will select studies, extract data and assess study quality according to established criteria. Language restrictions will not be applied. Data synthesis will involve meta-analysis (where appropriate), exploration of heterogeneity and publication bias. The project will collate and synthesise the available evidence regarding the value of the tests for predicting restriction of fetal growth and compromise of fetal wellbeing. The systematic overviews will assess the quality of the available evidence, estimate the magnitude of potential benefits, identify those tests with good predictive value and help formulate practice recommendations.

  13. The value of predicting restriction of fetal growth and compromise of its wellbeing: Systematic quantitative overviews (meta-analysis of test accuracy literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Stephen C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction of fetal growth and compromise of fetal wellbeing remain significant causes of perinatal death and childhood disability. At present, there is a lack of scientific consensus about the best strategies for predicting these conditions before birth. Therefore, there is uncertainty about the best management of pregnant women who might have a growth restricted baby. This is likely to be due to a dearth of clear collated information from individual research studies drawn from different sources on this subject. Methods/Design A series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses will be undertaken to determine, among pregnant women, the accuracy of various tests to predict and/or diagnose fetal growth restriction and compromise of fetal wellbeing. We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, MEDION, citation lists of review articles and eligible primary articles and will contact experts in the field. Independent reviewers will select studies, extract data and assess study quality according to established criteria. Language restrictions will not be applied. Data synthesis will involve meta-analysis (where appropriate, exploration of heterogeneity and publication bias. Discussion The project will collate and synthesise the available evidence regarding the value of the tests for predicting restriction of fetal growth and compromise of fetal wellbeing. The systematic overviews will assess the quality of the available evidence, estimate the magnitude of potential benefits, identify those tests with good predictive value and help formulate practice recommendations.

  14. Challenges to Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    This report originates from the compulsory defense during my Ph.D. study at the Technical University of Denmark. Resistance welding is an old and well-proven technology. Yet the emergence of more and more new materials, new designs, invention off new joining techniques, and more stringent...... requirement in quality have imposed challenges to the resistance welding. More some research and development have to be done to adapt the old technology to the manufacturing industry of the 21st century. In the 1st part of the report, the challenging factors to the resistance welding are reviewed. Numerical...... simulation of resistance welding has been under development for many years. Yet it is no easy to make simulation results reliable and accurate because of the complexity of resistance welding process. In the 2nd part of the report numerical modeling of resistance welding is reviewed, some critical factors...

  15. Multidrug-Resistant Candida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Patterson, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance...... can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients....... Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites...

  16. Resistance in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is about resistance in everyday life, illustrated through empirical contexts from different parts of the world. Resistance is a widespread phenomenon in biological, social and psychological domains of human cultural development. Yet, it is not well articulated in the academic literature....... The contributors deal with strategies for handling dissent by individuals or groups, specifically dissent through resistance. Resistance can be a location of intense personal, interpersonal and cultural negotiation, and that is the primary reason for interest in this phenomenon. Ordinary life events contain...

  17. Resistent tuberkulose i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, V O; Johansen, I S; Bauer, J O

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increased rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been reported from countries close to Denmark. We evaluated the incidence of drug resistance in Denmark in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Susceptibility testing was performed......-cluster. Among all patients with isoniazid- and streptomycin-resistance, 77.0% had clustered strains. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, although drug resistance among untreated Danes was close to the rate estimated in good national programmes, close monitoring is needed in future years, as active transmission...

  18. Antipastorialism : Resistant Georgic Mode

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Abolitionists, women, Afro-British slaves, and those who protested land enclosure developed a multivalent, resistant mode of writing, which I name 'antipastoralism', that countered orthodox, poetical...

  19. Impact of Resistance Training on Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Content, and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groennebaek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle metabolic and contractile properties are reliant on muscle mitochondrial and myofibrillar protein turnover. The turnover of these specific protein pools is compromised during disease, aging, and inactivity. Oppositely, exercise can accentuate muscle protein turnover, thereby counteracting decay in muscle function. According to a traditional consensus, endurance exercise is required to drive mitochondrial adaptations, while resistance exercise is required to drive myofibrillar adaptations. However, concurrent practice of traditional endurance exercise and resistance exercise regimens to achieve both types of muscle adaptations is time-consuming, motivationally demanding, and contended to entail practice at intensity levels, that may not comply with clinical settings. It is therefore of principle interest to identify effective, yet feasible, exercise strategies that may positively affect both mitochondrial and myofibrillar protein turnover. Recently, reports indicate that traditional high-load resistance exercise can stimulate muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial respiratory function. Moreover, fatiguing low-load resistance exercise has been shown capable of promoting muscle hypertrophy and expectedly entails greater metabolic stress to potentially enhance mitochondrial adaptations. Consequently, fatiguing low-load resistance exercise regimens may possess the ability to stimulate muscle mitochondrial adaptations without compromising muscle myofibrillar accretion. However, the exact ability of resistance exercise to drive mitochondrial adaptations is debatable, not least due to some methodological challenges. The current review therefore aims to address the evidence on the effects of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, content and function. In prolongation, a perspective is taken on the specific potential of low-load resistance exercise on promoting mitochondrial adaptations.

  20. Apoptotic function of human PMS2 compromised by the nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphic variant R20Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinovic-Terzic, Ivana; Yoshioka-Yamashita, Atsuko; Shimodaira, Hideki; Avdievich, Elena; Hunton, Irina C; Kolodner, Richard D; Edelmann, Winfried; Wang, Jean Y J

    2008-09-16

    Mismatch repair (MMR) corrects replication errors during DNA synthesis. The mammalian MMR proteins also activate cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis in response to persistent DNA damage. MMR-deficient cells are resistant to cisplatin, a DNA cross-linking agent used in chemotherapy, because of impaired activation of apoptotic pathways. It is shown that postmeiotic segregation 2 (PMS2), an MMR protein, is required for cisplatin-induced activation of p73, a member of the p53 family of transcription factors with proapoptotic activity. The human PMS2 is highly polymorphic, with at least 12 known nonsynonymous codon changes identified. We show here that the PMS2(R20Q) variant is defective in activating p73-dependent apoptotic response to cisplatin. When expressed in Pms2-deficient mouse fibroblasts, human PMS2(R20Q) but not PMS2 interfered with the apoptotic response to cisplatin. Correspondingly, PMS2 but not PMS2(R20Q) enhanced the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin measured by clonogenic survival. Because PMS2(R20Q) lacks proapoptotic activity, this polymorphic allele may modulate tumor responses to cisplatin among cancer patients.

  1. Antibiotic resistance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Mary D; Pratt, Rachael; Hart, Wendy S

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal Health Committee coordinated a survey of resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs and poultry and in bovine Staphylococcus aureus. Some additional information is available from published case reports. In samples collected prior to the withdrawal of avoparcin from the market, no vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis were detected in samples collected from pigs, whereas some vanA enterococci, including E. faecium and E. faecalis, were found in chickens. No vanB enterococci were detected in either species. Virginiamycin resistance was common in both pig and poultry isolates. Multiple resistance was common in E. coli and salmonellae isolates. No fluoroquinolone resistance was found in salmonellae, E. coli or Campylobacter. Beta-lactamase production is common in isolates from bovine mastitis, but no methicillin resistance has been detected. However, methicillin resistance has been reported in canine isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli has been found in dogs.

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search ... & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  3. Resistance and conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, S.R.; Bokhorst, C.L.; Westenberg, P.M.; Levesque, R.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to peer influence, or the ability to resist making choices or adopting views under the implicit or explicit influence of your peers, is expected to undergo changes during adolescence. Two developmental trajectories have emerged from the field. On the one hand, adolescents show a temporary

  4. Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munita, Jose M.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    Emergence of resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens is recognized as a major public health threat affecting humans worldwide. Multidrug-resistant organisms have emerged not only in the hospital environment but are now often identified in community settings, suggesting that reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present outside the hospital. The bacterial response to the antibiotic “attack” is the prime example of bacterial adaptation and the pinnacle of evolution. “Survival of the fittest” is a consequence of an immense genetic plasticity of bacterial pathogens that trigger specific responses that result in mutational adaptations, acquisition of genetic material or alteration of gene expression producing resistance to virtually all antibiotics currently available in clinical practice. Therefore, understanding the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance is of paramount importance to design strategies to curtail the emergence and spread of resistance and devise innovative therapeutic approaches against multidrug-resistant organisms. In this chapter, we will describe in detail the major mechanisms of antibiotic resistance encountered in clinical practice providing specific examples in relevant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27227291

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  7. Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of antibiotic resistance is usually associated with genetic changes, either to the acquisition of resistance genes, or to mutations in elements relevant for the activity of the antibiotic. However, in some situations resistance can be achieved without any genetic alteration; this is called phenotypic resistance. Non-inherited resistance is associated to specific processes such as growth in biofilms, a stationary growth phase or persistence. These situations might occur during infection but they are not usually considered in classical susceptibility tests at the clinical microbiology laboratories. Recent work has also shown that the susceptibility to antibiotics is highly dependent on the bacterial metabolism and that global metabolic regulators can modulate this phenotype. This modulation includes situations in which bacteria can be more resistant or more susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding these processes will thus help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches based on the actual susceptibility shown by bacteria during infection, which might differ from that determined in the laboratory. In this review, we discuss different examples of phenotypic resistance and the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk between bacterial metabolism and the susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, information on strategies currently under development for diminishing the phenotypic resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens is presented.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings ... Deutsch | 日本語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR ...

  9. Resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, J.; Perotti, E.

    2009-01-01

    Established firms often fail to maintain leadership following disruptive market shifts. We argue that such firms are more prone to internal resistance. A radical adjustment of assets affects the distribution of employee rents, creating winners and losers. Losers resist large changes when strong

  10. Resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, J.; Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    Established firms often fail to maintain leadership following disrup tive market shifts. We argue that such firms are more prone to internal resistance. A radical adjustment of assets affects the distribution of employee rents, creating winners and losers. Losers resist large changes when strong

  11. Glycosphingolipids and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, Mirjam; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance, a state characterized by impaired responsiveness of liver, muscle and adipose tissue to insulin. One class of lipids involved in the development of insulin resistance are the (glyco)sphingolipids. Ceramide, the most simple

  12. A multiple genome analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals specific novel genes and mutations associated with pyrazinamide resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Sheen, Patricia

    2017-10-11

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and drug resistance compromises the efforts to control this disease. Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important drug used in both first and second line treatment regimes. However, its complete mechanism of action and resistance remains unclear.We genotyped and sequenced the complete genomes of 68 M. tuberculosis strains isolated from unrelated TB patients in Peru. No clustering pattern of the strains was verified based on spoligotyping. We analyzed the association between PZA resistance with non-synonymous mutations and specific genes. We found mutations in pncA and novel genes significantly associated with PZA resistance in strains without pncA mutations. These included genes related to transportation of metal ions, pH regulation and immune system evasion.These results suggest potential alternate mechanisms of PZA resistance that have not been found in other populations, supporting that the antibacterial activity of PZA may hit multiple targets.

  13. Molecular Phylogenetics of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed HIV Type 1 Individuals in Denmark, a Nation-Wide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, Anne Margrethe; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Highly active antiretroviral treatment is compromised by viral resistance mutations. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is therefore monitored closely, but follow-up studies of these patients are limited. Virus from 1405 individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 in Denmark between 2001 and 2009...... without resistance mutations. We observed no difference in progression of the infection between individuals infected with TDR and individuals infected with wild-type HIV-1. The prevalence of TDR is low in Denmark and transmission of dual-drug-resistant HIV-1 is infrequent. The TDR isolates were shown...... resulting in a prevalence of 6.1%, with no changes over time. The main resistance mutations were nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation 215 revertants, as well as nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation 103N/S and protease inhibitor (PI) mutations 90M and 85V...

  14. Molecular phylogenetics of transmitted drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV Type 1 individuals in Denmark: a nation-wide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, Anne Margrethe; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Highly active antiretroviral treatment is compromised by viral resistance mutations. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is therefore monitored closely, but follow-up studies of these patients are limited. Virus from 1405 individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 in Denmark between 2001 and 2009...... without resistance mutations. We observed no difference in progression of the infection between individuals infected with TDR and individuals infected with wild-type HIV-1. The prevalence of TDR is low in Denmark and transmission of dual-drug-resistant HIV-1 is infrequent. The TDR isolates were shown...... resulting in a prevalence of 6.1%, with no changes over time. The main resistance mutations were nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation 215 revertants, as well as nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation 103N/S and protease inhibitor (PI) mutations 90M and 85V...

  15. A multiple genome analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals specific novel genes and mutations associated with pyrazinamide resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Sheen, Patricia; Requena, David; Gushiken, Eduardo; Gilman, Robert H.; Antiparra, Ricardo; Lucero, Bryan; Lizá rraga, Pilar; Cieza, Basilio; Roncal, Elisa; Grandjean, Louis; Pain, Arnab; McNerney, Ruth; Clark, Taane G.; Moore, David; Zimic, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and drug resistance compromises the efforts to control this disease. Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important drug used in both first and second line treatment regimes. However, its complete mechanism of action and resistance remains unclear.We genotyped and sequenced the complete genomes of 68 M. tuberculosis strains isolated from unrelated TB patients in Peru. No clustering pattern of the strains was verified based on spoligotyping. We analyzed the association between PZA resistance with non-synonymous mutations and specific genes. We found mutations in pncA and novel genes significantly associated with PZA resistance in strains without pncA mutations. These included genes related to transportation of metal ions, pH regulation and immune system evasion.These results suggest potential alternate mechanisms of PZA resistance that have not been found in other populations, supporting that the antibacterial activity of PZA may hit multiple targets.

  16. Genome Comparison of Erythromycin Resistant Campylobacter from Turkeys Identifies Hosts and Pathways for Horizontal Spread of erm(B Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Florez-Cuadrado

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens in the genus Campylobacter are the most common cause of food-borne bacterial gastro-enteritis. Campylobacteriosis, caused principally by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is transmitted to humans by food of animal origin, especially poultry. As for many pathogens, antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter is increasing at an alarming rate. Erythromycin prescription is the treatment of choice for clinical cases requiring antimicrobial therapy but this is compromised by mobility of the erythromycin resistance gene erm(B between strains. Here, we evaluate resistance to six antimicrobials in 170 Campylobacter isolates (133 C. coli and 37 C. jejuni from turkeys. Erythromycin resistant isolates (n = 85; 81 C. coli and 4 C. jejuni were screened for the presence of the erm(B gene, that has not previously been identified in isolates from turkeys. The genomes of two positive C. coli isolates were sequenced and in both isolates the erm(B gene clustered with resistance determinants against aminoglycosides plus tetracycline, including aad9, aadE, aph(2″-IIIa, aph(3′-IIIa, and tet(O genes. Comparative genomic analysis identified identical erm(B sequences among Campylobacter from turkeys, Streptococcus suis from pigs and Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium difficile from humans. This is consistent with multiple horizontal transfer events among different bacterial species colonizing turkeys. This example highlights the potential for dissemination of antimicrobial resistance across bacterial species boundaries which may compromise their effectiveness in antimicrobial therapy.

  17. A compromised yeast RNA polymerase II enhances UV sensitivity in the absence of global genome nucleotide excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J M; Ingles, C J

    2001-02-01

    Nucleotide excision repair is the major pathway responsible for removing UV-induced DNA damage, and is therefore essential for cell survival following exposure to UV radiation. In this report, we have assessed the contributions of some components of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription machinery to UV resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of the gene encoding the Pol II elongation factor TFIIS (SII) resulted in enhanced UV sensitivity, but only in the absence of global genome repair dependent on the RAD7 and RAD16 genes, a result seen previously with deletions of RAD26 and RAD28, yeast homologs of the human Cockayne syndrome genes CSB and CSA, respectively. A RAD7/16-dependent reduction in survival after UV irradiation was also seen in the presence of mutations in RNA Pol II that confer a defect in its response to SII, as well as with other mutations which reside in regions of the largest subunit of Pol II not involved in SII interactions. Indeed, an increase in UV sensitivity was achieved by simply decreasing the steadystate level of RNA Pol II. Truncation of the C-terminal domain and other RNA Pol II mutations conferred sensitivity to the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor hydroxyurea and induction of RNR1 and RNR2 mRNAs after UV irradiation was attenuated in these mutant cells. That UV sensitivity can be a consequence of mutations in the RNA Pol II machinery in yeast cells suggests that alterations in transcriptional programs could underlie some of the pathophysiological defects seen in the human disease Cockayne syndrome.

  18. Spatial and temporal country-wide survey of temephos resistance in Brazilian populations of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Chediak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The organophosphate temephos has been the main insecticide used against larvae of the dengue and yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti in Brazil since the mid-1980s. Reports of resistance date back to 1995; however, no systematic reports of widespread temephos resistance have occurred to date. As resistance investigation is paramount for strategic decision-making by health officials, our objective here was to investigate the spatial and temporal spread of temephos resistance in Ae. aegypti in Brazil for the last 12 years using discriminating temephos concentrations and the bioassay protocols of the World Health Organization. The mortality results obtained were subjected to spatial analysis for distance interpolation using semi-variance models to generate maps that depict the spread of temephos resistance in Brazil since 1999. The problem has been expanding. Since 2002-2003, approximately half the country has exhibited mosquito populations resistant to temephos. The frequency of temephos resistance and, likely, control failures, which start when the insecticide mortality level drops below 80%, has increased even further since 2004. Few parts of Brazil are able to achieve the target 80% efficacy threshold by 2010/2011, resulting in a significant risk of control failure by temephos in most of the country. The widespread resistance to temephos in Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations greatly compromise effective mosquito control efforts using this insecticide and indicates the urgent need to identify alternative insecticides aided by the preventive elimination of potential mosquito breeding sites.

  19. Nanoparticle mechanics: deformation detection via nanopore resistive pulse sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish, Armin; Goyal, Gaurav; Aneja, Rachna; Sundaram, Ramalingam V. K.; Lee, Kidan; Ahn, Chi Won; Kim, Ki-Bum; Vlahovska, Petia M.; Kim, Min Jun

    2016-07-01

    Solid-state nanopores have been widely used in the past for single-particle analysis of nanoparticles, liposomes, exosomes and viruses. The shape of soft particles, particularly liposomes with a bilayer membrane, can greatly differ inside the nanopore compared to bulk solution as the electric field inside the nanopores can cause liposome electrodeformation. Such deformations can compromise size measurement and characterization of particles, but are often neglected in nanopore resistive pulse sensing. In this paper, we investigated the deformation of various liposomes inside nanopores. We observed a significant difference in resistive pulse characteristics between soft liposomes and rigid polystyrene nanoparticles especially at higher applied voltages. We used theoretical simulations to demonstrate that the difference can be explained by shape deformation of liposomes as they translocate through the nanopores. Comparing our results with the findings from electrodeformation experiments, we demonstrated that the rigidity of liposomes can be qualitatively compared using resistive pulse characteristics. This application of nanopores can provide new opportunities to study the mechanics at the nanoscale, to investigate properties of great value in fundamental biophysics and cellular mechanobiology, such as virus deformability and fusogenicity, and in applied sciences for designing novel drug/gene delivery systems.Solid-state nanopores have been widely used in the past for single-particle analysis of nanoparticles, liposomes, exosomes and viruses. The shape of soft particles, particularly liposomes with a bilayer membrane, can greatly differ inside the nanopore compared to bulk solution as the electric field inside the nanopores can cause liposome electrodeformation. Such deformations can compromise size measurement and characterization of particles, but are often neglected in nanopore resistive pulse sensing. In this paper, we investigated the deformation of various

  20. Chronic implantation of cuff electrodes on the pelvic nerve in rats is well tolerated and does not compromise afferent or efferent fibre functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, J. J.; Brouillard, C. B. J.; Irazoqui, P. P.; Lovick, T. A.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Neuromodulation of autonomic nerve activity to regulate physiological processes is an emerging field. Vagal stimulation has received most attention whereas the potential of modulate visceral function by targeting autonomic nerves within the abdominal cavity remains under-exploited. Surgery to locate intra-abdominal targets is inherently more stressful than for peripheral nerves. Electrode leads risk becoming entrapped by intestines and loss of functionality in the nerve-target organ connection could result from electrode migration or twisting. Since nociceptor afferents are intermingled with similar-sized visceral autonomic fibres, stimulation may induce pain. In anaesthetised rats high frequency stimulation of the pelvic nerve can suppress urinary voiding but it is not known how conscious animals would react to this procedure. Our objective therefore was to determine how rats tolerated chronic implantation of cuff electrodes on the pelvic nerve, whether nerve stimulation would be aversive and whether nerve-bladder functionality would be compromised. Approach. We carried out a preliminary de-risking study to investigate how conscious rats tolerated chronic implantation of electrodes on the pelvic nerve, their responsiveness to intermittent high frequency stimulation and whether functionality of the nerve-bladder connection became compromised. Main results. Implantation of cuff electrodes was well-tolerated. The normal diurnal pattern of urinary voiding was not disrupted. Pelvic nerve stimulation (up to 4 mA, 3 kHz) for 30 min periods evoked mild alerting at stimulus onset but no signs of pain. Stimulation evoked a modest (nerve temperature but the functional integrity of the nerve-bladder connection, reflected by contraction of the detrusor muscle in response to 10 Hz nerve stimulation, was not compromised. Significance. Chronic implantation of cuff electrodes on the pelvic nerve was found to be a well-tolerated procedure in rats and high frequency

  1. Compromised Cerebral Blood Flow(CBF) in Congestive Heart Failure (CHB): non-invasive quantification with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD radionuclide angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Kim, Jae Joong; Lim, Ki Chun; Lee, Hee Kyung; Moon, Dae Hyuk [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Recent reports revealed that cerebral metabolism in CHF was abnormally deranged and proposed as a potential marker of disease severity. Since deranged cerebral metabolism in CHF may result from compromised cerebral perfusion, quantification of CHF may be useful for accurate risk stratification of CHF. Therefore, we investigated whether CHF in patients with CHF is compromised and correlated with clinical parameters. Fifteen patients (M/F:11/5, 45{+-}9yr) with CHF (LVEF<40%) and 7 healthy controls (M/F:5/2, 41{+-}8yr) were prospectively studied. All patients underwent radionuclide angiography including cerebral hemispheres and aortic arch using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD. Global CBF was measured non-invasively by the application of Patlak graphical plot analysis. All patients were also evaluated using a standardized protocol that included echocardiography and clinical evaluation. Global CBF (40.3{+-}5.2 ml/min/100g) of the patients with CHF were significantly lower than those (49.7{+-}2.4 ml/min/100g) of controls (p<0.01). Global CBF were correlated with NYHA functional class (r=-0.617, p=0.43), but not correlated with other clinical parameters such as age (r=-0.463, p=0.082), duration (r=0.237, p>0.1), systolic BP (r=-0.063, p>0.5), LVEF (r=-0.13, p>0.1), LV dimension(r=0.139, p>0.5), and PV pressure gradients (r=0.072, p>0.5). Cerebral perfusion of the patients with CHF was compromised and not correlated with cardiopulmonary hemodynamic parameters.

  2. Diagnosis of hemodynamic compromise in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia; Measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with sup 99m Tc-RBC SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Satoshi; Sakuragi, Mitsugi; Motomiya, Mineo; Nakagawa, Tango; Mitsumori, Kenji; Tsuru, Mitsuo (Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan)); Takigawa, Shugo; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Abe, Hiroshi

    1990-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of tests for selecting patients with hemodynamic compromise, measurement of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with {sup 99m}Tc-RBC single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in thirteen patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease, and was compared with results obtained by {sup 133}Xe SPECT and acetazolamide (Diamox) test. All patients in our study suffered TIA, RIND, or minor completed stroke. Cerebral angiography demonstrated severe stenosis or occlusion in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery, although plain CT scan or MRI revealed no or, if any, only localized infarcted lesions. Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) was measured with {sup 99m}Tc-RBC SPECT and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with {sup 133}Xe SPECT before and after intravenous injection of 10 - 12 mg/kg acetazolamide (Diamox). Our results suggest that the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF (mean transit time) is a more sensitive index of the cerebral perfusion reserve than the use of only rCBV or rCBF of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Also, the ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF is significantly correlated (r= -0.72) with the Diamox reactivity of rCBF, which is considered to represent the cerebral vasodilatory capacity in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. Postoperative SPECT study revealed remarkable improvement of ipsilateral rCBV/rCBF and Diamox reactivity in four patients who underwent EC/IC bypass surgery to improve the hemodynamic compromise. In conclusion, our results suggest that the measurement of rCBV/rCBF with {sup 133}Xe SPECT and {sup 99m}Tc-RBC SPECT is useful for detecting the hemodynamic compromise in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. (author).

  3. A study on heat resistance of high temperature resistant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xueying; Zhang, Qibin; Qin, Yanlong; Lin, Zhu [Research Institute of Engineering Technology of CNPC, Tianjin (China)

    2005-04-15

    A high temperature resistant coating has been developed, which is mainly for heavy oil production pipes deserved the serious corrosion. The coating has excellent physical and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance at room and high temperature. In order to simulate the underground working condition of heavy oil pipes,the heat resistance of the high temperature resistant coating has been studied. The development and a study on the heat resistance of the DHT high temperature resistance coating have been introduced in this paper

  4. A study on heat resistance of high temperature resistant coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xueying; Zhang, Qibin; Qin, Yanlong; Lin, Zhu

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature resistant coating has been developed, which is mainly for heavy oil production pipes deserved the serious corrosion. The coating has excellent physical and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance at room and high temperature. In order to simulate the underground working condition of heavy oil pipes,the heat resistance of the high temperature resistant coating has been studied. The development and a study on the heat resistance of the DHT high temperature resistance coating have been introduced in this paper

  5. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNerney Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With almost 9 million new cases each year, tuberculosis remains one of the most feared diseases on the planet. Led by the STOP-TB Partnership and WHO, recent efforts to combat the disease have made considerable progress in a number of countries. However, the emergence of mutated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs poses a deadly threat to control efforts. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB has been reported in all regions of the world. More recently, extensively drug resistant-tuberculosis (XDR-TB that is also resistant to second line drugs has emerged in a number of countries. To ensure that adequate resources are allocated to prevent the emergence and spread of drug resistance it is important to understand the scale of the problem. In this article we propose that current methods of describing the epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis are not adequate for this purpose and argue for the inclusion of population based statistics in global surveillance data. Discussion Whereas the prevalence of tuberculosis is presented as the proportion of individuals within a defined population having disease, the prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis is usually presented as the proportion of tuberculosis cases exhibiting resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Global surveillance activities have identified countries in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and regions of China as having a high proportion of MDR-TB cases and international commentary has focused primarily on the urgent need to improve control in these settings. Other regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa have been observed as having a low proportion of drug resistant cases. However, if one considers the incidence of new tuberculosis cases with drug resistant disease in terms of the population then countries of sub-Saharan Africa have amongst the highest rates of transmitted MDR-TB in the world. We propose

  6. Genetics Home Reference: clopidogrel resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Clopidogrel resistance Clopidogrel resistance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Clopidogrel resistance is a condition in which the drug clopidogrel ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: warfarin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Warfarin resistance Warfarin resistance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Warfarin resistance is a condition in which individuals have ...

  8. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  9. Reef corals bleach to resist stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, David O

    2009-02-01

    A rationale is presented here for a primary role of bleaching in regulation of the coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis under conditions of stress. Corals and zooxanthellae have fundamentally different metabolic rates, requiring active homeostasis to limit zooxanthellae production and manage translocated products to maintain the symbiosis. The control processes for homeostasis are compromised by environmental stress, resulting in metabolic imbalance between the symbionts. For the coral-zooxanthella symbiosis the most direct way to minimize metabolic imbalance under stress is to reduce photosynthetic production by zooxanthellae. Two mechanisms have been demonstrated that do this: reduction of the chlorophyll concentration in individual zooxanthellae and reduction of the relative biomass of zooxanthellae. Both mechanisms result in visual whitening of the coral, termed bleaching. Arguments are presented here that bleaching provides the final control to minimize physiological damage from stress as an adversity response to metabolic imbalance. As such, bleaching meets the requirements of a stress response syndrome/general adaptive mechanism that is sensitive to internal states rather than external parameters. Variation in bleaching responses among holobionts reflects genotypic and phenotypic differentiation, allowing evolutionary change by natural selection. Thus, reef corals bleach to resist stress, and thereby have some capacity to adapt to and survive change. The extreme thermal anomalies causing mass coral bleaching worldwide lie outside the reaction norms for most coral-zooxanthellae holobionts, revealing the limitations of bleaching as a control mechanism.

  10. Antibiotic Resistance in Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Ciara; Duffy, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Wide-spread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is now a serious public health issue and multi-antibiotic resistance has been reported in many foodborne pathogens including Salmonella and E. coli. A study to determine antibiotic resistance profiles of a range of Salmonella and Verocytotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC) isolated from Irish foods revealed significant levels of antibiotic resistance in the strains. S. typhimurium DT104 were multiantibiotic resistant with 97% resistant to 7 anti...

  11. Risk Factors for Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopas Martin Rumende

    2018-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a well-known risk factor for TB in the past. The global convergence of the accelerating type 2 DM pandemic, high TB prevalence and drug-resistant TB during the past couple of decades has become a serious challenge to clinicians worldwide. Over the past few years, some studies have shown that the treatment failure rate is higher in TB patients with DM as comorbidity. Moreover, there is significant association between DM an MDR-TB. There is higher chance of TB bacilli persistence to be present in sputum of pulmonary TB patient with DM than TB-only patient after 5 months treatment, and this persistence made it necessary for more longer treatment. Presence of DM in TB patients cause a longer period for sputum conversion, therefore it may become a major cause of poor treatment outcome in TB patients. Previous studies showed that a major mechanism for the emergence of drugs resistance in TB bacilli is random mutation in the bacterial genome and the pressure of selection by anti-TB drugs. Pulmonary TB in diabetic patients usually show higher mycobacterial loads at the initiation of treatment, hence they may have higher chance of bacillary mutation and the emergence of MDR-TB with the presenting of higher bacterial loads, longer treatment is needed to clear the bacteria. Therefore, it is not suprising that a higher chance of MDR-TB patients could be find in those patients. A pharmacokinetic study noted that plasma levels of rifampicin were 53% lower in TB patients with diabetes, which might affect treatment outcomes. Inadequate immune respons of the host may also be important in this negative effect of diabetes. Depressed production of IFN-γ in diabetic patients is related to decreasing immune response to TB infection. Reduction of IL-12 response to mycobacterial stimulation in leukocytes from TB with diabetic patients suggest a compromise of innate immune response.

  12. Global trends in antiretroviral resistance in treatment-naive individuals with HIV after rollout of antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited settings: a global collaborative study and meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Ravindra K.; Jordan, Michael R.; Sultan, Binta J.; Hill, Andrew; Davis, Daniel H. J.; Gregson, John; Sawyer, Anthony W.; Hamers, Raph L.; Ndembi, Nicaise; Pillay, Deenan; Bertagnolio, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Background The emergence and spread of high levels of HIV-1 drug resistance in resource-limited settings where combination antiretroviral treatment has been scaled up could compromise the effectiveness of national HIV treatment programmes. We aimed to estimate changes in the prevalence of HIV-1 drug

  13. HIV-1 drug resistance before initiation or re-initiation of first-line antiretroviral therapy in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Ravindra K.; Gregson, John; Parkin, Neil; Haile-Selassie, Hiwot; Tanuri, Amilcar; Andrade Forero, Liliana; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Watera, Christine; Aghokeng, Avelin; Mutenda, Nicholus; Dzangare, Janet; Hone, San; Hang, Zaw Zaw; Garcia, Judith; Garcia, Zully; Marchorro, Paola; Beteta, Enrique; Giron, Amalia; Hamers, Raph; Inzaule, Seth; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Chung, Michael H.; de Oliveira, Tulio; Pillay, Deenan; Naidoo, Kogie; Kharsany, Ayesha; Kugathasan, Ruthiran; Cutino, Teresa; Hunt, Gillian; Avila Rios, Santiago; Doherty, Meg; Jordan, Michael R.; Bertagnolio, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Pretreatment drug resistance in people initiating or re-initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) might compromise HIV control in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to assess the scale of this problem and whether

  14. FRC collisionless resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Horton, W.

    1990-01-01

    Ions in the field reversed configuration (FRC) exhibit stochastic orbits due to the field null and the curvature of poloidal field lines. Velocity correlations of these particles decay in a power law fashion t -m where 1 ≤ m ≤ 2. This decay of the single particle correlation function is characteristic of the long tail correlations of strongly chaotic or nonlinear systems found in other problems of statistical physics. This decay of correlations gives rise to a collisionless resistivity that can far exceed the collisional resistivity in an FRC plasma. The finite correlation τ c of a single particle limits the acceleration in the electric field producing the finite resistivity. Maxwellian test particle distributions are integrated to find the measure of the set of stochastic ions that contribute to the collisionless resistivity. The computed conductivity is proportional to the square root of the characteristic ion gyroradius in both simulation and theory

  15. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... June 6, 2018 HIV Vaccine Elicits Antibodies in Animals that Neutralize Dozens of HIV Strains , June 4, 2018 ... Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance > Understanding share with facebook share with twitter share ...

  16. Antibiotics and Resistance: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chromosomes and plasmids. Transposons often carry genes specifying antimicrobial resistance. Virus An extremely small infective agent, visible only with an electron microscope. Viruses can cause disease in humans, animals and plants. Viruses consist of a protein coat ...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will ...

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of ... and other key audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists ...

  19. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomize...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for ... issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material appears abstract and is complex. This video was ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance ( ...

  2. Piggyback resistive Micromegas

    CERN Document Server

    Attié, D; Durand, D; Desforge, D; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; Giomataris, Y; Gongadze, A; Iguaz, F J; Jeanneau, F; de Oliveira, R; Papaevangelou, T; Peyaud, A; Teixeira, A

    2013-01-01

    Piggyback Micromegas consists in a novel readout architecture where the anode element is made of a resistive layer on a ceramic substrate. The resistive layer is deposited on the thin ceramic substrate by an industrial process which provides large dynamic range of resistivity (10$^6$ to 10$^{10}$\\,M$\\Omega$/square). The particularity of this new structure is that the active part is entirely dissociated from the read-out element. This gives a large flexibility on the design of the anode structure and the readout scheme. Without significant loss, signals are transmitted by capacitive coupling to the read-out pads. The detector provides high gas gain, good energy resolution and the resistive layer assures spark protection for the electronics. This assembly could be combined with modern pixel array electronic ASICs. First tests with different Piggyback detectors and configurations will be presented. This structure is adequate for cost effective fabrication and low outgassing detectors. It was designed to perform ...

  3. Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Gonorrhea Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Low Resolution ...

  4. Cotrimoxazole Resistant Chancroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlender Singh

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Four male young adults, after contact with prostitutes, developed clinically typical chancroid which was resistant to cotrimoxazole alone and also in combination with tetracycline. With chloramphenicol, the response was quick and complete with no untoward side effects.

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of ... back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases ...

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complex. This video was designed to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to ... audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how ...

  7. MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    health, with the focus of DOTS programmes on cure of infectious TB patients and prevention of drug resistance. ... Despite highly effective drugs and disease control strategies, morbidity and mortality .... notification and registration system.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One of the major obstacles to understanding the issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material ... Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888- ...

  9. Adiabatic and isothermal resistivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The force-balance method is used to calculate the isothermal resistivity to first order in the electric field. To lowest order in the impurity potential, the isothermal resistivity disagrees with the adiabatic results of the Kubo formula and the Boltzmann equation. However, an expansion of the isothermal resistivity in powers of the impurity potential is divergent, with two sets of divergent terms. The first set arises from the density matrix of the relative electron-phonon system. The second set arises from the explicit dependence of the density matrix on the electric field, which was ignored by force-balance calculations. These divergent contributions are calculated inductively, by applying a recursion relation for the Green's functions. Using the λ 2 t→∞ limit of van Hove, I show that the resummation of these divergent terms yields the same result for the resistivity as the adiabatic calculations, in direct analogy with the work of Argyres and Sigel, and Huberman and Chester

  10. Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all that ails you. Antibiotics, also known as antimicrobial drugs, are drugs that fight infections caused by bacteria. ... Information for Consumers and Health Professionals Information by drug class Antimicrobial Resistance Animal and Veterinary Related Resources Further information ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains ... bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate ... and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular ...

  13. Regicide and Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of resistance in Michel Foucault’s political thought. The article recovers this otherwise obscured aspect of Foucault’s thought through a systematic analysis of his theoretical regicide and consequent reconceptualization of power, agency and resistance. It is argued...... that Foucault developed a highly original account of resistance, which was, and should continue to be considered, central to his thought and its critical potential. It is shown how Foucault’s concept of resistance overcomes the limitation of voluntarism and determinism, which continue to mare contemporary...... political theory, providing a passage from the critique of contemporary configurations of power to the irrepressible possibility that they may be contested and changed....

  14. Effect of a dedicated oral care program on periodontal status of medically compromised patients at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute Dental Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Robert; Hebbes, Trudy

    2016-01-01

    Medically compromised patients attending the dental clinic at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute have considerable gingival inflammation and breath odor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of toothbrushing on the periodontal status of these patients and to determine if there were any additional benefit in combining brushing with an application of an antibiotic rinse. During the first 7 days of the study, the teeth of 11 participants were brushed twice a day by a dental hygienist using a soft-bristle suction toothbrush without toothpaste. Soft interproximal brushes were used to clean interproximal surfaces from the facial aspect. During the second week, facial and interproximal cleaning were repeated in the same patients, but the toothbrush and interproximal brush were dipped in 10-mL of a solution consisting of water and 40 mg/mL of metronidazole with nystatin. Each patient underwent an oral examination and biofilm sampling at baseline, after brushing without toothpaste (week 1), and after brushing with antibiotic solution (week 2). After week 1, tissues improved substantially, and there was a notable change in the biofilm on the teeth. The addition of an antibiotic solution increased healing and resulted in a further decrease in oral biofilm. Medically compromised patients would benefit considerably from a treatment regimen of antibiotic solution to decrease oral infection followed by a daily oral care program of brushing and interdental cleaning to maintain healthy oral tissues.

  15. Arsenite promotes centrosome abnormalities under a p53 compromised status induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, W.-T.; Yu, H.-S.; Lin Pinpin; Chang, Louis W.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicated that residents, especially cigarette smokers, in arseniasis areas had significantly higher lung cancer risk than those living in non-arseniasis areas. Thus an interaction between arsenite and cigarette smoking in lung carcinogenesis was suspected. In the present study, we investigated the interactions of a tobacco-specific carcinogen 4- (methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone, NNK) and arsenite on lung cell transformation. BEAS-2B, an immortalized human lung epithelial cell line, was selected to test the centrosomal abnormalities and colony formation by NNK and arsenite. We found that NNK, alone, could enhance BEAS-2B cell growth at 1-5 μM. Under NNK exposure, arsenite was able to increase centrosomal abnormality as compared with NNK or arsenite treatment alone. NNK treatment could also reduce arsenite-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, these cellular effects were found to be correlated with p53 dysfunction. Increased anchorage-independent growth (colony formation) of BEAS-2B cells cotreated with NNK and arsenite was also observed in soft agar. Our present investigation demonstrated that NNK could provide a p53 compromised status. Arsenite would act specifically on this p53 compromised status to induce centrosomal abnormality and colony formation. These findings provided strong evidence on the carcinogenic promotional role of arsenite under tobacco-specific carcinogen co-exposure.

  16. Acidic nanoparticles are trafficked to lysosomes and restore an acidic lysosomal pH and degradative function to compromised ARPE-19 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel C Baltazar

    Full Text Available Lysosomal enzymes function optimally in acidic environments, and elevation of lysosomal pH can impede their ability to degrade material delivered to lysosomes through autophagy or phagocytosis. We hypothesize that abnormal lysosomal pH is a key aspect in diseases of accumulation and that restoring lysosomal pH will improve cell function. The propensity of nanoparticles to end up in the lysosome makes them an ideal method of delivering drugs to lysosomes. This study asked whether acidic nanoparticles could traffic to lysosomes, lower lysosomal pH and enhance lysosomal degradation by the cultured human retinal pigmented epithelial cell line ARPE-19. Acidic nanoparticles composed of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA 502 H, PLGA 503 H and poly (DL-lactide (PLA colocalized to lysosomes of ARPE-19 cells within 60 min. PLGA 503 H and PLA lowered lysosomal pH in cells compromised by the alkalinizing agent chloroquine when measured 1 hr. after treatment, with acidification still observed 12 days later. PLA enhanced binding of Bodipy-pepstatin-A to the active site of cathepsin D in compromised cells. PLA also reduced the cellular levels of opsin and the lipofuscin-like autofluorescence associated with photoreceptor outer segments. These observations suggest the acidification produced by the nanoparticles was functionally effective. In summary, acid nanoparticles lead to a rapid and sustained lowering of lysosomal pH and improved degradative activity.

  17. Molecular dissection of the mechanism by which EWS/FLI expression compromises actin cytoskeletal integrity and cell adhesion in Ewing sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Aashi; Hoffman, Laura M.; Jensen, Christopher C.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Grossmann, Allie H.; Randall, R. Lor; Lessnick, Stephen L.; Welm, Alana L.; Beckerle, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second-most-common bone cancer in children. Driven by an oncogenic chromosomal translocation that results in the expression of an aberrant transcription factor, EWS/FLI, the disease is typically aggressive and micrometastatic upon presentation. Silencing of EWS/FLI in patient-derived tumor cells results in the altered expression of hundreds to thousands of genes and is accompanied by dramatic morphological changes in cytoarchitecture and adhesion. Genes encoding focal adhesion, extracellular matrix, and actin regulatory proteins are dominant targets of EWS/FLI-mediated transcriptional repression. Reexpression of genes encoding just two of these proteins, zyxin and α5 integrin, is sufficient to restore cell adhesion and actin cytoskeletal integrity comparable to what is observed when the EWS/FLI oncogene expression is compromised. Using an orthotopic xenograft model, we show that EWS/FLI-induced repression of α5 integrin and zyxin expression promotes tumor progression by supporting anchorage-independent cell growth. This selective advantage is paired with a tradeoff in which metastatic lung colonization is compromised. PMID:25057021

  18. Protein-energy malnutrition during early gestation in sheep blunts fetal renal vascular and nephron development and compromises adult renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Louise J; Foster, Thomas; Rhodes, Phillip; Rhind, Stewart M; Gardner, David S

    2012-01-15

    A nutritionally poor maternal diet can reduce nephron endowment and pre-empt premature expression of markers for chronic renal disease in the offspring. A mechanistic pathway from variation in maternal diet through altered fetal renal development to compromised adult kidney structure and function with adult-onset obesity has not been described. We show that maternal protein-energy malnutrition in sheep blunts nephrogenic potential in the 0.44 gestation (65 days gestation, term ∼147 days) fetus by increasing apoptosis and decreasing angiogenesis in the nephrogenic zone, effects that were more marked in male fetuses. As adults, the low-protein-exposed sheep had reduced glomerular number and microvascular rarefaction in their kidneys compensated for, respectively, by glomerular hypertrophy and increased angiogenic support. In this study, the long-term mild anatomical deficits in the kidney would have remained asymptomatic in the lean state, but when superimposed on the broad metabolic challenge that obesity represents then microalbuminuria and blunted bilateral renal function revealed a long-term physiological compromise, that is only predicted to worsen with age. In conclusion, maternal protein-energy malnutrition specifically impacts fetal kidney vascular development and prevents full functionality of the adult kidney being achieved; these residual deficits are predicted to significantly increase the expected incidence of chronic kidney disease in prenatally undernourished individuals especially when coupled with a Western obesogenic environment.

  19. White Matter Microstructural Compromise Is Associated With Cognition But Not Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Military Veterans With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Scott F; Schiehser, Dawn M; Bondi, Mark W; Luc, Norman; Clark, Alexandra L; Jacobson, Mark W; Frank, Lawrence R; Delano-Wood, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    To investigate white matter microstructure compromise in Veterans with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its possible contribution to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and neuropsychological functioning via diffusion tensor imaging. Thirty-eight Veterans with mild (n = 33) and moderate (n = 5) TBI and 17 military control participants without TBI completed neuropsychological testing and psychiatric screening and underwent magnetic resonance imaging an average of 4 years following their TBI event(s). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity measures were extracted from 9 white matter tracts. Compared with military control participants, TBI participants reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms and performed worse on measures of memory and psychomotor-processing speed. Traumatic brain injury was associated with lower FA in the genu of the corpus callosum and left cingulum bundle. Fractional anisotropy negatively correlated with processing speed and/or executive functions in 7 of the 8 tracts. Regional FA did not correlate with memory or PTSD symptom ratings. Results suggest that current PTSD symptoms are independent of TBI-related white matter alterations, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging. In addition, white matter microstructural compromise may contribute to reduced processing speed in our sample of participants with history of neurotrauma. Findings of the current study add insight into the factors associated with complicated recovery from mild to moderate TBI.

  20. Aberrant functioning of the putamen links delusions, antipsychotic drug dose, and compromised connectivity in first episode psychosis--Preliminary fMRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, Tuukka T; Mäntylä, Teemu; Kieseppä, Tuula; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2015-08-30

    The dopamine theory proposes the relationship of delusions to aberrant signaling in striatal circuitries that can be normalized with dopamine D2 receptor-blocking drugs. Localization of such circuitries, as well as their upstream and downstream signaling, remains poorly known. We collected functional magnetic resonance images from first-episode psychosis patients and controls during an audiovisual movie. Final analyses included 20 patients and 20 controls; another sample of 10 patients and 10 controls was used to calculate a comparison signal-time course. We identified putamen circuitry in which the signal aberrance (poor correlation with the comparison signal time course) was predicted by the dopamine theory, being greater in patients than controls; correlating positively with delusion scores; and correlating negatively with antipsychotic-equivalent dosage. In Granger causality analysis, patients showed a compromised contribution of the cortical salience network to the putamen and compromised contribution of the putamen to the default mode network. Results were corrected for multiple comparisons at the cluster level with primary voxel-wise threshold p < 0.005 for the salience network contribution, but liberal primary threshold p < 0.05 was used in other group comparisons. If replicated in larger studies, these findings may help unify and extend current hypotheses on dopaminergic dysfunction, salience processing and pathogenesis of delusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.