WorldWideScience

Sample records for atarashii nisanka tanso

  1. Survey report of FY 1997 on the trends of novel CO2 fixation technology using bacteria and microalgae; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (saikin sorui wo riyoshita atarashii nisanka tanso kotei gijutsu no doko chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For this survey, the latest technology trends relating to microbial functions are summarized to recover and effectively utilize CO2, typical greenhouse effect gas, using microbial functions. Systematic survey and analysis are conducted concerning the microorganisms useful for fixing CO2, CO2 uptake mechanism during the microbial reactions, utilization methods of solar light and useful energy sources except solar light, highly efficient production of useful materials, and usage of produced useful materials. Research has concentrated on use of biological activities for this purpose through design of bioreactors using microorganisms (bacteria and microalgae) for efficient CO2 fixation. For the process to have net CO2 fixation as assessed by its life cycle and to make the process economically feasible, it is essential not only to fix CO2 merely in the form of biomass but in addition to convert it to useful materials by the catalytic activities of the organisms. Three categories were set for the survey, i.e., microorganisms with CO2 fixation ability, available energy for CO2 fixation, and target CO2 fixation products. 169 refs., 49 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Survey of trends of new CO{sub 2} fixation technology using bacteria and algae (II); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Saikin sorui wo riyoshita atarashii nisanka tanso kotei gijutsu no doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trend of technology is surveyed from a standpoint that, in the process of CO2 fixation using microbes for the production of useful substances, it is essential, in view of income/outgo balance and economy, to utilize their catalytic function. The survey centers about the feasibility of the utilization of organic wastes, cellulose wastes in particular, as an energy source. Special attention is paid to the energy of artificial light and laser beams. From a point of view that it is important to suppress cell multiplication and to effectively utilize only catalytic activity for the production of useful substances, the cell division mechanism of the Corynebacterium is analyzed, and the findings are compiled to facilitate the study as to whether the division may be controlled. A report is also prepared on the metabolic mechanism of a photosynthesizing bacterium that is judged to be the most promising species. Reference is made to aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Shown are the organic compounds that are formed by CO2 gas fixation thanks to microbial or enzymatic reactions. To emphasize their importance as an energy source and to explain the conversion of biomass into useful substances, the technology and economy of conversion into fuel compounds are surveyed. The production of ethanol out of organic wastes is evaluated in the way of LCA (life cycle assessment). (NEDO)

  3. Pysical fixation of carbon dioxide. Butsuritekina nisanka tanso no kotei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akai, M. (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japen))

    1991-10-20

    Together with the introduction of physical fixation technology of carbon dioxide, possibility and problem are to be explained of carbon dioxide fixation by utilizing the deep-sea water in the ocean. The physical fixation methods comprise, among others, the oceanic fixation method, high pressure storage method in the exhausted oil or gas field and high pressure storage method into the rock salt piles. The oceanic fixation method has recently come to be studied in Japan also as having utilizable environments therearound. The oceanographic fixation technology of carbon dioxide is of an engineeringwise developed method. Particularly among others, the fixation technology to utilize deep-sea water, deeper than several hundreds of meters, heightens the carbon dioxide in solubility by availing of a condition of low temperature by high pressure. The liquefaction pressure of carbon dioxide being approx. 70atm at ordinary temperature, the liquefied carbon dioxide is higher in density than the sea water under a higher pressure than about 3000m in head. Due to the existence of temperature lamination, the absorbed carbon dioxide hardly circulates into the atmosphere. Apart from the above two points of advantage, it is advantageous also in other points. However, there remain many problems, inclusive of those ot basic mechanism, to be elucidated. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Survey of regulations accompanied with isolation technology of carbon dioxide; Nisanka tanso no kakuri gijutsu ni tomonau hokisei no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Regulations, conventions and agreements relating to the discharging liquefied carbon dioxide (CO2) into the bathypelagic zone from a cruising ships are investigated. The ocean storage of CO2 is not specifically prohibited by law, but must be regulated on a global scale because such treatment may impact the marine environment. In principle, treatment with impact on the nature is prohibited. Laws of environmental conservation are completed in European, Asian, and Pacific countries, which join international conventions and committees with high interests. It is suggested that the engineering technique of the storage should be improved to observe regulations and that an impact assessment for the ocean storage should be carefully conducted in full understanding of the basic premise of the regulatory systems or organizations. Furthermore, it is significant to study on the possible effect of the ocean storage of CO2 on global warming and life-cycle assessment inventory analysis, namely the balance of the energy budget between the separation and the ocean storage of CO2. 23 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Fiscal 2000 report on result of R and D of underground storage technology for carbon dioxide; 2000 nendo nisanka tanso chichu choryu gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents the fiscal 2000 results of R and D of underground storage technology for carbon dioxide. As basic experiments, a measurement apparatus was manufactured for simulating the pressure and temperature conditions in aquifers to measure the rate at which CO{sub 2} is dissolved in water and the reactivity between CO{sub 2} and rocks, with the basic performance verified. Methods were investigated and classified that monitor environmental impact and safety. For the purpose of anticipating the long-term behaviors of CO{sub 2} sequestered underground, a simulator was developed, extracting, from investigation of the literature, natural phenomena required for the anticipation. As the system studies, examination was conducted for analysis of the energy balance of the underground storage technology, rational design (safety and economy) of an entire system ranging from source to storage point, investigation from social and economic perspectives, and estimation of the effect of suppressing global warming. In the injection experiment, Minami-Nagaoka natural gas field was selected as a prospective experiment site from the characteristics of the cap rock and aquifer. One injection well was drilled to a depth of 1,230 m, with investigations performed such as physical well-logging and core sampling. Existing data were utilized in the simulation study of CO{sub 2} behavior underground during the injection period. The information of the basic geophysical survey/exploratory well by the Japan National Oil Corporation was collected and compiled, with the preliminary geological study undertaken in the areas described. (NEDO)

  6. Studies on carbon dioxide emission control. With an emphasis placed on Korean industrial structure; Nisanka tanso haishutsu kisoku ni kansuru kenkyu. Kankoku no sangyo kozo wo chushin ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitani, H.; Matsuhashi, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Moriguchi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Shimizu, H. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    An examination was made on the structures of CO2 emission in the Korean manufacturing sector for the purpose of drafting measures for regulating and controlling CO2 emission. With the use of a list of interactive industries, the emission was determined on the assumption that CO2 was discharged by the consumption of fossil fuel. 1985 and 1990 were chosen as the years to be examined. The industries with a large quantity of emission were construction, transportation, storage, communication and metal products/machinery. The largest factor that influenced the increase in the emission was the growth of the ultimate domestic demand, and the next factor was export. On the other hand, a factor worked in the direction of reducing the emission was the change in the emission coefficient and technical changes. It would be important that measures for CO2 emission control be centered for a short term on regulating the industry that has a high induced coefficient (using products from other industries having a high CO2 emission coefficient as intermediate products), and for a long term on regulating the ultimate domestic demand and export. The changes in the emission coefficient and the changes in technology would also be important in reducing the emission as well as the reform of the industrial structure. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Investigational research on CO2 isolation technology in fiscal 1995; 1995 nendo nisanka tanso no kakuri gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper studied present technical subjects and future study subjects of the CO2 isolation technology in order to clarify technical and social problems and the developmental subjects of the CO2 isolation technology and related technologies for separating/concentrating CO2 emitted in relation to quantity consumption of fossil fuel and storing it in ocean or underground. Main items for the study were: (1) investigational study of the technology of CO2 ocean storage, (2) investigational study of environmental effect assessment in storing CO2 in ocean, (3) investigational study of the technology of CO2 ocean storage, etc. Technologies required for the ocean isolation were arranged such as CO2 storage, injection, dispersion technique, CO2 behavior simulation, and the developmental subjects were extracted. Further, in the deep-sea bottom storage method, a simulation to calculate the range of PH effects was conducted presuming the specified amount of CO2 and applying known physical values, and evaluation of the CO2 ocean discharge/solution method was made. A method was also studied for experiments on water bacteria and benthos. 127 refs., 102 figs., 81 tabs.

  8. Investigational study of the CO2 balance in high temperature CO2 separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of technologies of high temperature separation/recovery/reutilization of CO2. In the study, data collection, arrangement and comparison were made of various separation technologies such as the membrane method, absorption method, adsorption method, and cryogenic separation method. With the LNG-fired power generation as an example, the adaptable environment and effectivity were made clear by making models by a process simulator, ASPEN PLUS. Moreover, using this simulator, effects of replacing the conventional steam reforming of hydrocarbon with the CO2 reforming were made clear with the methanol synthesis as an example. As to the rock fixation treatment of high temperature CO2, collection/arrangement were made of the data on the fixation treatment of the CO2 separated at high temperature into basic rocks such as peridotite and serpentinite in order to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of the treatment. Besides, a potentiality of the fixation to concrete waste was made clear. 57 refs., 57 figs., 93 tabs.

  9. Confrontation with carbon dioxide problem in Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. Kogyo gijutsuin ni okeru nisanka tanso mondai eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, M. (Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-20

    Differently from the other global environment problems, the global warming must be confronted because the carbon dioxide exhausts mecessarily through the process of human activity and energy utilization. The status of such a confrontation is to be introduced together with that in research laboratories, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. The worldwidely total quantity of energy to be supplied being generated by about 90% from coal, oil, matural gas and other fossil fuel, it becomes the most important problem how the sound growth of economy must be harmonized with the environmental maintenance. In an interministerial conference in 1990, the government made the decision that the quantity of carbon dioxide to be exhausted per person be planned to be restrictively stabilized on the level of 1990 from 2000 on. New energy and other innovative technologies making much more progress than it is expected, it was also decided that the best effort be made to stabilize the total quantity to be exhausted on the level of 1990. In 1989, research was commenced on the fixation technology of carbon dioxide through the artificial photosynthesis by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, which proceeds with innovative and leading R and D. 3 figs.

  10. Research and survey report of FY 1997 on the CO2 balance for high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the application condition and effectiveness of high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology. To evaluate the present process, it was compared with others, such as separation using a polymer membrane, physico-chemical absorption process, adsorption process, hydrogen contact reduction process, and biological fixation. The development trends of absorption, membrane, adsorption, and cryogenic separation were investigated. The questionnaire was carried out about the separation technologies which are in the stage of performance test using actual gas, to arrange and compare the data and information. The current trends of chemical and biological CO2 fixation and utilization technology were also investigated for arranging the subjects. High-temperature CO2 disposal by the carbonation in concrete waste has been studied, to clarify its application conditions and effectiveness. In order to compare the separation technologies, treatment processes of CO2 in the exhaust gas from boilers of LNG power generation and coal fired power generation were simulated. These processes were simulated by ASPEN PLUS for the modeling. Trends of application of ASPEN PLUS and collection of information were surveyed by participating in the ASPEN WORLD. 103 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  11. FY1998 research report on the R and D on high- temperature CO{sub 2} separation, recovery and recycling technologies; 1998 nendo nisanka tanso koon bunri kaishu sairiyo gijutsu kekyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project aims to develop high-temperature (over 300 degrees C) CO{sub 2} separation, recovery and recycling technologies. For separation membranes, control technology of micro-pore structure using templates, and that of a permeation gas affinity by metal ion exchange and metallic element addition to separation membrane textures were developed. The result gave the guide to control, design and evaluation of permeation and separation properties. The prototype module was prepared, and improvement of joining technology and evaluation of material fatigue property were also carried out. As for optimization of the developed system and research on its marketability, study was mainly made on the ripple effect of inorganic membranes. The current state and trend of technologies were studied also for power plants. In the concept design of the module, further study was made on high-temperature sealing technology and inorganic membrane technology for H{sub 2} gas separation. Use of CO{sub 2} gas separation technology for steelmaking process was newly studied. The ripple effect was studied for future important fields. (NEDO)

  12. Investigations and researches on CO2 balance in a high-temperature carbon dioxide separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With an objective to select a promising process by comparing application environments and effectiveness of a high-temperature carbon dioxide separation, recovery and re-utilization technology with other methods, investigations were performed on reducible amount of carbon dioxide discharge by using material balance and system introduction. A large number of chemical and physical technologies are being developed for the separation and refining methods. This paper discusses the technologies for their application to iron and steel making, oil refining, and petrochemical industries, the so-called heavy and large product industries. As a possibility of utilizing the high-temperature separated CO2 in iron and steel making, an investigation was given on the direct iron ore smelting reduction process. It would be unreasonable to use CO2 in oil refining as a substitute to air to regenerate a catalytic decomposition and reformation catalyst because of decline in the catalytic activity. A discussion was given on a case to replace steam with CO2 in steam reformation and pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. The discussion requires the objective to be focused on such items as C/H ratio at a reformer outlet and relationship of balance in decomposition products. The C1 chemical and others were reviewed to search possibilities for their use as raw materials of chemicals used in chemical industries. Possibilities were discussed to fix high-temperature CO2 into peridotite and serpentine. 42 refs., 32 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Testing forward model against OCO-2 and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT observed spectra in near infrared range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadvornykh, Ilya V.; Gribanov, Konstantin G.

    2015-11-01

    An existing software package FIRE-ARMS (Fine InfraRed Explorer for Atmospheric Remote MeasurementS) was modified by embedding vector radiative transfer model VLIDORT. Thus the program tool includes both thermal (TIR) and near infrared (NIR) regions. We performed forward simulation of near infrared spectra on the top of the atmosphere for outgoing radiation accounting multiple scattering in cloudless atmosphere. Simulated spectra are compared with spectra measured by TANSO-FTS/GOSAT and OCO-2 in the condition of cloudless atmosphere over Western Siberia. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data were used to complete model atmosphere.

  14. Comparison of Retrieved L2 Products from Four Successive Versions of L1B Spectra in the Thermal Infrared Band of TANSO-FTS over the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Payan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the calibration/validation of the Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO–Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS spectra in the thermal infrared (TIR spectral region (B4 band over the Arctic Ocean. We have performed inter-comparisons of the retrieved L2 products from four successive versions of L1B products (V150, V160, V201, V203 to check the differences and the improvement in the spectral and radiometric calibration of TANSO-FTS spectra in the narrow spectral domain of 940–980 cm−1 covering CO2 lines of the so-called laser band in the rather clear 10.4 μm atmospheric window, allowing sounding down to the lowest atmospheric layers. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to retrieve XCO2 from this spectral region. The period covered is the summer months (July, August, September and the years from 2009 to 2015. Internal comparisons of L1B TANSO-FTS spectra, as well as comparisons of retrieved L2 products, i.e., Tsurf (sea surface temperature or SST and the retrieved column-averaged dry air volume mixing ratio XCO2 derived with the same algorithm are presented. The overall trend in the CO2 column-averaged VMR is well captured over the six year period for Green-house Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT, but calibration issues are still hindering the use of TANSO-FTS TIR spectra for accurate and stable XCO2 and Tsurf products. However, an internal comparison of the successive L1B versions is possible and helpful to make progress with respect to the radiometric and spectral calibration TIR spectra collected by TANSO-FTS on GOSAT.

  15. FY 1999 R and D project on the global environmental industry technology. Report on the results of the R and D on the catalytic hydrogenation use CO2 fixation/effective utilization technology; 1999 nendo sesshoku suisoka hanno riyo nisanka tanso seika hokokusho. Koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing CO2 emitting together with the consumption of fossil fuels, study was conducted on the use of CO2 by converting it to chemical substances such as methanol, etc., and the FY 1999 results were outlined. In the development of the CO2 separation membrane technology, data were obtained on effects of scaling-up by module with a membrane area of 4.9m{sup 2} and on design conditions. Further, in the experiment using mock exhaust gas, it was confirmed that the performance had been kept up for 3,000 hours or more. In the development of catalytic hydrogenation technology, the basic data for enlargement were accumulated. Moreover, the activity stabilized about 18,000 hours was confirmed, and the catalytic life was estimated at more than 3 years. In the development of large quantity hydrogen production/supply technology, assembly/operation of 7,500cm{sup 2} x 6 electrolytic cells were conducted, and it was confirmed that the hydrogen production capacity per cell was 3Nm{sup 3}/h. The final target for enlargement was achieved. In the study of the total system, the conceptual design was made for 'high concentration CO2 containing natural gas use CO2 recovery utilization system,' and 'biomass resource use methanol synthesis system.' (NEDO)

  16. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999. Technology for a closed type high-efficiency gas turbine handling recovery of carbon dioxide (Research and development in the first term); 1999 nendo nisanka tanso kaishu taio closed gata kokoritsu gas turbine gijutsu daiikki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been made on a gas turbine that can separate and recover carbon dioxide without discharging nitrogen oxides by means of oxygen combustion of natural gas (methane). This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The system discussions included those on accuracy of a performance analyzing program, sensitivity analysis, and a possibility of constructing a closed verification device in case of using the existing gas turbines. In developing the combustion control technology, design, trial fabrication, and combustion tests were carried out on combustion nozzles. As a result, it was discovered that achieving the combustion efficiency of 98% or higher is possible as the development target for the time being. In developing the turbine blade cooling technology, two-dimensional analysis was performed on heat fluidity between blades by using the low Reynolds k-{epsilon} method, wherein relatively good agreement with measurement results was obtained. In developing major auxiliary devices, a high-pressure compressor was designed, and candidate materials for a condenser and a heat exchanger were tested. In developing ultra high temperature materials, an oxidation test was performed on the undercoat for TBC, and a steam oxidation test on TMS-75. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1996 report on the results of the R and D under a consignment from NEDO of the technology to fix and effectively use carbon dioxide using bacteria and microalgae (for public); 1996 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku (saikin sorui nado riyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (kokaiyo))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the solution to the global environmental problem, a technology is developed in which by searching for/breeding/developing bacteria, etc. which conduct photosynthesis highly effectively, CO2 is fixed and recycled. The fiscal 1996 R and D is outlined as the utilization of bacteria, microalgae, etc. Obtained were microalgae exceeding the conventional strains in CO2 fixation ability, and bacteria/microalgae excellent in production of polysaccharides, hydrocarbon, lipid, biological active substances, etc. The fundamental study was continued of CO2 integrated enzyme function/reaction system as molecular biological breeding. In the cell fusion, a set-up of conditions for green algae was started. For the confirmation of performance of high dense/quantity culture technology using solar light, further improvement of performance and systematization, 200L scale testing equipment was manufactured. It is a collective reactor and enabled study of ventilation/agitation and control of light strength. A reactor analysis model was constructed. Also including the conversion into useful substances, energy/material balance was systematically studied. Collection of technical literature and information exchanges were made in Japan and overseas. 276 refs., 475 figs., 156 tabs.

  18. Fiscal 1997 Project related to research and development of global environment industrial technologies. Report on the results of works commissioned for research and development of technology for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; 1997 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu kanren jigyo. Nisanka tanso nado haishutsu teigen gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu itaku gyomu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    With an objective of achieving reduction in emission of carbon dioxide and fluorocarbons, the `research and development on technologies to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and other substances` consisting of eight projects were conducted. In research and development of waste water treatment technologies using submerged combustion, studies were performed on removal by combustion of such pollutants as organic compounds, nitrogen compounds, and sulfur compounds. The development targets were achieved on each item. In research and development related with thermal electric power generation elements, semiconductor single crystals were fabricated in order to acquire technical knowledge on thermal power generation elements intended of utilizing industrial waste heat, whereas a simulation technology for designing was developed. In other projects, research and development works were carried out on high-performance heat insulating materials, and a movable methanol reformer for fuel cells. Developments were conducted on a large pressure reducing valve, and a cooling and heating turbo heat pump for regional air conditioning facilities. Research and development were made on Peltier elements, all efforts having achieved results respectively. 134 figs., 65 tabs.

  19. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Survey of the current state and tasks of research and development of technologies for effectively utilizing CO{sub 2} fixation by higher vegetation; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Koto shokubutsu ni okeru nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu no genjo to kadai ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Investigations and studies are conducted seeking for a CO2 fixation method improved by utilizing the photosynthesizing function of higher vegetation. Details of higher vegetation genes are being disclosed thanks to the rapid progress of studies making use of molecular biological techniques, and the application of the genetic mechanism to scientific and technological fields is becoming increasingly feasible. In particular, the role of the CO2 fixation enzyme RuBisCO has been elucidated almost completely. It has been learned that, in terms of photosynthesizing capability, the C{sub 4} plants (corn etc.) are 2-3 times higher than the C{sub 3} plants (rice, wheat, etc.), and 5-10 times higher than the CAM plants (cactuses etc.). Studies are also under way about the rice genome so that a photosynthesizing capability so high as that of the C{sub 4} plants may be endowed the rice plant. The metabolism and control of useful substances produced in the CO2 fixation process etc. in the higher vegetation are being investigated, and it is now expected that some day such useful substances will be produced and utilized efficiently. Researches are under way into the relationship between the green leaf that is the organ that performs photosynthesis and the organ (sink) that stores and utilizes starch and sugar is in progress, and now a new field is going to open where vegetables will be fully utilized. (NEDO)

  20. Report on the research and development under a consignment from NEDO of high temperature carbon dioxide fixation and utilization technology for fiscal 1996; 1996 nendo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku gyomu seika hokokusho. Nisanka tanso koon bunri kaishu sairiyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the prevention of global warming, this R and D is aimed at separating/recovering high temperature CO2 from high temperature gas at 300degC or above and developing technology for effective use of the recovered CO2 as measures taken for reduction in CO2 emissions from the fixed emission sources. In this fiscal year, the following were proceeded with: heightening of separation performance evaluation technology, promotion of technical development of ceramic separation membranes and supports, and development of element technology of modular integration. In the examinational research on separation technology and system optimization, the following were conducted: survey of trends of the technical development, conceptual design of plant and prediction of process behavior, assessment of applicability of the process, and study of effects of utilization/spread of the developmental technology. In the former R and D, borosilicate glass powder rich in alkali is formed on the ring by joining the trially manufactured hollow fiber type membrane and the same form alumina cylinder, and sealing property and strength which stand measurement of permeability were confirmed. In the latter, an innovative process applied with CO2 high temperature separation technology was studied to examine effects of the spread of high temperature gas separation technology. 403 refs., 478 figs., 134 tabs.

  1. Fiscal 1996 global environmental industry technology research related project. Report on the results of the consignment project of research and development of technology for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; 1996 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu kanren jigyo. Nisanka tanso nado haishutsu teigen gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu itaku gyomu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing emissions of carbon dioxide, freon, etc., a research project was carried out of `Research and development of technology for reducing carbon dioxide emissions` which consists of 8 projects. The paper reported the results of the projects. The projects are: (1) Development of waste water treatment of submerged combustion system, (2) Development of thermoelectric generating devices, (3) Development of high performance heat insulation materials, (4) Development of methanol reformer for transportable fuel cell, (5) Development of large pressure reducing valves, (6) Development of large-scale turbo heat pump for district heating and cooling plants, (7) Development of heat pumps for transportation equipment, and (8) Development of thermoelectric cooling devices. In (1), the waste water treatment test was conducted and reached the target. In (2), the thermoelectric device using powder sintering element obtained performance twice the performance level of the existing device. In (3), (4), (5) and (6), the target was all reached. In (7), the results well agreed in a comparison between structural analysis and experiment. The cooling unit by the SPS sintering method using Bi-Te system sintered material element obtained the cooling efficiency almost the same as that by the freon compressor method. 8 refs., 161 figs., 63 tabs.

  2. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of the technology for rationalization of energy utilization and for CO2 fixation using recycled paper; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika koshi nado yuko riyo nisanka tanso koteika gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In this R and D, the recycled paper, etc. composed mainly of cellulose are degraded (saccharified) up to saccharides in a biological method. The saccharides and CO2 obtained are converted into useful substances such as organic acid using the bacterium function. The aim of the R and D is to develop this conversion (bioconversion) technology and to establish the technology to make an effective use of the recycled paper, etc. as useful chemical raw materials/substances and energy. In FY 2000, study was made mostly of the saccharification and bioconversion. As to the saccharification, conducted were the collection of the bacteria for cellulose degrading enzyme production which have been found so far and the evaluation of degradation of the recycled paper. And, as to the bioconversion, conducted were the survey and isolation of enzyme proteins and genes which are concerned in it in the process toward the formation to organic acid from saccharides and CO2, and the analysis of part of them. In this report, introductory remarks were described in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, the results were summarized of the study on saccharification of the recycled paper. In Chapter 3, the results were outlined of the study on the bioconversion technology. This technology development was aimed at establishing new high efficiency bio-processes. (NEDO)

  3. Industrial technology research and development project for global environment in fiscal 1998. Report on achievements in research and development of technologies for fixation and effective utilization of carbon dioxide by utilizing bacteria and algae; 1998 nendo saikin sorui nado riyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Microorganisms are cultivated industrially in a great quantity to fix CO2 at efficiency higher than that of photosynthesis in natural world to develop technologies to re-utilize them as resources. This paper describes achievements in fiscal 1998. Existing strain samples of photosynthesized bacteria and micro-algae were screened to continue discussions on optimal culture conditions, and evaluation on properties. Genes that provide Chlorella with antibiotic resistance were introduced to have performed evaluation on function manifestation, and acquired enzymatic genes of unsaturated {omega} 3. Using green algae as the object, reduction in the processing time has resulted in acquiring a large number of fused cell colonies. Discussions were given on conditions to breed photosynthesized bacteria and fix CO2. Structural analyses were performed on CA protein as an enzyme related to take CO2 into living organisms, and on genes. Developments were carried out on a photosynthesizing bio-reactor and useful substance producing technologies on a continual basis. A 200-liter scale light collection type bio-reactor improved the fixing capacity by 30% in Chlorellas by changing the culture medium. The direct light receiving panel type bio-reactor can utilize even scattered light, with its fixing capacity per installation area exceeding the target. Fundamental data were acquired with Chlorellas on utilizing feeds, fertilizers and building materials. (NEDO)

  4. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D of the global environmental industry technology. R and D of the CO2 fixation/effective use technology using bacteria/algae; 1999 nendo saikin sorui nado riyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of developing the technology to fix CO2 and recycle it as resource in higher efficiency than that in photosynthesis in the nature world, study of bacteria, etc. was made in terms of the search, breeding, and artificial realization of the growth environment, etc. The FY 1999 results were summed up. As to high efficiency photosynthetic bacteria/microalgae, conditions for sampling/breeding/optimum culture of bacteria were established and made database. From conditions for the optimum CO2 fixation by photosynthetic bacteria, oxygen injury prevention culture method, continuous culture experiment, etc., it was found out that the carbyne cycle was a main route of the carbon fixation also in photosynthetic bacteria. As to the cell fusion, established were the technology of electric fusion of interspecific fusion strains and the technology of evaluation of growth characteristics. Also studied was a method to transfect genes into Chlorella sp. which fixes CO2. Concerning the light collecting reactor of 200L scale, a high concentration culture experiment was carried out using Chlorella sp. UK001 as the strain tested, and the engineering data on the behavior in culture tank, multiplication speed, etc. were collected. (NEDO)

  5. Industrial science and technology research and development business for fiscal 1998. Research and development achievement report on glycoconjugate production and utilization technologies (Development of technologies of glycoconjugate-aided CO{sub 2} fixation and utilization); 1998 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Fukugo toshitsu seisan riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (fukugo toshitsu oyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Enzymatic and chemical methods were combined and methods were developed for synthesizing mucin type sugar chains and glycopeptides. The influence of sugar chain positions and structures on glycoconjugate stereo structures and physiological activities was analyzed, and glycopeptide structural activities and glycoconjugate remodelling were studied. To create an industrial advantage in a glycoprotein production system by use of zooblasts, sugar chain structure control through sugar transfase occurrence control was studied. For the production of man-adaptive sugar chains using yeast, new yeast variations were subjected to molecular breeding, and tested for the resultant improvement on productivity. Sugar chain marking and refining techniques and various responding mechanisms on the solid surface were elucidated, which enabled structure analyses using sugar chain recognition molecules such as lectins and antibodies. A database on interactions between sugar chains and sugar chain recognition molecules was constructed using the said findings. An analyzing program was also formulated tentatively. This paper also covers general surveys and studies on technologies of producing and utilizing glycoconjugates. (NEDO)

  6. Bias assessment of lower and middle tropospheric CO2 concentrations of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS TIR version 1 product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Naoko; Kimoto, Shuhei; Sugimura, Ryo; Imasu, Ryoichi; Shiomi, Kei; Kuze, Akihiko; Niwa, Yosuke; Machida, Toshinobu; Sawa, Yousuke; Matsueda, Hidekazu

    2017-10-01

    CO2 observations in the free troposphere can be useful for constraining CO2 source and sink estimates at the surface since they represent CO2 concentrations away from point source emissions. The thermal infrared (TIR) band of the Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) has been observing global CO2 concentrations in the free troposphere for about 8 years and thus could provide a dataset with which to evaluate the vertical transport of CO2 from the surface to the upper atmosphere. This study evaluated biases in the TIR version 1 (V1) CO2 product in the lower troposphere (LT) and the middle troposphere (MT) (736-287 hPa), on the basis of comparisons with CO2 profiles obtained over airports using Continuous CO2 Measuring Equipment (CME) in the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL) project. Bias-correction values are presented for TIR CO2 data for each pressure layer in the LT and MT regions during each season and in each latitude band: 40-20° S, 20° S-20° N, 20-40° N, and 40-60° N. TIR V1 CO2 data had consistent negative biases of 1-1.5 % compared with CME CO2 data in the LT and MT regions, with the largest negative biases at 541-398 hPa, partly due to the use of 10 µm CO2 absorption band in conjunction with 15 and 9 µm absorption bands in the V1 retrieval algorithm. Global comparisons between TIR CO2 data to which the bias-correction values were applied and CO2 data simulated by a transport model based on the Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM-TM) confirmed the validity of the bias-correction values evaluated over airports in limited areas. In low latitudes in the upper MT region (398-287 hPa), however, TIR CO2 data in northern summer were overcorrected by these bias-correction values; this is because the bias-correction values were determined using comparisons mainly over airports in

  7. Bias assessment of lower and middle tropospheric CO2 concentrations of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS TIR version 1 product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saitoh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available CO2 observations in the free troposphere can be useful for constraining CO2 source and sink estimates at the surface since they represent CO2 concentrations away from point source emissions. The thermal infrared (TIR band of the Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT has been observing global CO2 concentrations in the free troposphere for about 8 years and thus could provide a dataset with which to evaluate the vertical transport of CO2 from the surface to the upper atmosphere. This study evaluated biases in the TIR version 1 (V1 CO2 product in the lower troposphere (LT and the middle troposphere (MT (736–287 hPa, on the basis of comparisons with CO2 profiles obtained over airports using Continuous CO2 Measuring Equipment (CME in the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL project. Bias-correction values are presented for TIR CO2 data for each pressure layer in the LT and MT regions during each season and in each latitude band: 40–20° S, 20° S–20° N, 20–40° N, and 40–60° N. TIR V1 CO2 data had consistent negative biases of 1–1.5 % compared with CME CO2 data in the LT and MT regions, with the largest negative biases at 541–398 hPa, partly due to the use of 10 µm CO2 absorption band in conjunction with 15 and 9 µm absorption bands in the V1 retrieval algorithm. Global comparisons between TIR CO2 data to which the bias-correction values were applied and CO2 data simulated by a transport model based on the Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM-TM confirmed the validity of the bias-correction values evaluated over airports in limited areas. In low latitudes in the upper MT region (398–287 hPa, however, TIR CO2 data in northern summer were overcorrected by these bias-correction values; this is because the bias-correction values were determined

  8. Intercomparison of XH2O Data from the GOSAT TANSO-FTS (TIR and SWIR and Ground-Based FTS Measurements: Impact of the Spatial Variability of XH2O on the Intercomparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Ohyama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric water vapor (H2O is extremely high, and therefore it is difficult to accurately evaluate the measurement precision of H2O data by a simple comparison between the data derived from two different instruments. We determined the measurement precisions of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of H2O (XH2O retrieved independently from spectral radiances in the thermal infrared (TIR and the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR regions measured using a Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, by an intercomparison between the two TANSO-FTS XH2O data products and the ground-based FTS XH2O data. Furthermore, the spatial variability of XH2O was also estimated in the intercomparison process. Mutually coincident XH2O data above land for the period ranging from April 2009 to May 2014 were intercompared with different spatial coincidence criteria. We found that the precisions of the TANSO-FTS TIR and TANSO-FTS SWIR XH2O were 7.3%–7.7% and 3.5%–4.5%, respectively, and that the spatial variability of XH2O was 6.7% within a radius of 50 km and 18.5% within a radius of 200 km. These results demonstrate that, in order to accurately evaluate the measurement precision of XH2O, it is necessary to set more rigorous spatial coincidence criteria or to take into account the spatial variability of XH2O as derived in the present study.

  9. Comparison of the GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR CH volume mixing ratio vertical profiles with those measured by ACE-FTS, ESA MIPAS, IMK-IAA MIPAS, and 16 NDACC stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Olsen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary instrument on the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT is the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observations (TANSO Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS. TANSO-FTS uses three short-wave infrared (SWIR bands to retrieve total columns of CO2 and CH4 along its optical line of sight and one thermal infrared (TIR channel to retrieve vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 volume mixing ratios (VMRs in the troposphere. We examine version 1 of the TANSO-FTS TIR CH4 product by comparing co-located CH4 VMR vertical profiles from two other remote-sensing FTS systems: the Canadian Space Agency's Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment FTS (ACE-FTS on SCISAT (version 3.5 and the European Space Agency's Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat (ESA ML2PP version 6 and IMK-IAA reduced-resolution version V5R_CH4_224/225, as well as 16 ground stations with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. This work follows an initial inter-comparison study over the Arctic, which incorporated a ground-based FTS at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL at Eureka, Canada, and focuses on tropospheric and lower-stratospheric measurements made at middle and tropical latitudes between 2009 and 2013 (mid-2012 for MIPAS. For comparison, vertical profiles from all instruments are interpolated onto a common pressure grid, and smoothing is applied to ACE-FTS, MIPAS, and NDACC vertical profiles. Smoothing is needed to account for differences between the vertical resolution of each instrument and differences in the dependence on a priori profiles. The smoothing operators use the TANSO-FTS a priori and averaging kernels in all cases. We present zonally averaged mean CH4 differences between each instrument and TANSO-FTS with and without smoothing, and we examine their information content, their sensitive altitude range, their correlation, their a priori dependence, and the

  10. Comparison of the GOSAT TANSO-FTS TIR CH volume mixing ratio vertical profiles with those measured by ACE-FTS, ESA MIPAS, IMK-IAA MIPAS, and 16 NDACC stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kevin S.; Strong, Kimberly; Walker, Kaley A.; Boone, Chris D.; Raspollini, Piera; Plieninger, Johannes; Bader, Whitney; Conway, Stephanie; Grutter, Michel; Hannigan, James W.; Hase, Frank; Jones, Nicholas; de Mazière, Martine; Notholt, Justus; Schneider, Matthias; Smale, Dan; Sussmann, Ralf; Saitoh, Naoko

    2017-10-01

    The primary instrument on the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observations (TANSO) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). TANSO-FTS uses three short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands to retrieve total columns of CO2 and CH4 along its optical line of sight and one thermal infrared (TIR) channel to retrieve vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 volume mixing ratios (VMRs) in the troposphere. We examine version 1 of the TANSO-FTS TIR CH4 product by comparing co-located CH4 VMR vertical profiles from two other remote-sensing FTS systems: the Canadian Space Agency's Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment FTS (ACE-FTS) on SCISAT (version 3.5) and the European Space Agency's Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat (ESA ML2PP version 6 and IMK-IAA reduced-resolution version V5R_CH4_224/225), as well as 16 ground stations with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). This work follows an initial inter-comparison study over the Arctic, which incorporated a ground-based FTS at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Canada, and focuses on tropospheric and lower-stratospheric measurements made at middle and tropical latitudes between 2009 and 2013 (mid-2012 for MIPAS). For comparison, vertical profiles from all instruments are interpolated onto a common pressure grid, and smoothing is applied to ACE-FTS, MIPAS, and NDACC vertical profiles. Smoothing is needed to account for differences between the vertical resolution of each instrument and differences in the dependence on a priori profiles. The smoothing operators use the TANSO-FTS a priori and averaging kernels in all cases. We present zonally averaged mean CH4 differences between each instrument and TANSO-FTS with and without smoothing, and we examine their information content, their sensitive altitude range, their correlation, their a priori dependence, and the variability within

  11. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of the prediction technology for environmental effects of CO2 ocean sequestration. Ocean survey and development of the assessment technology for capacity of CO2 sequestration; 2000 nendo nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaiyo chosa oyobi CO2 kakuri noryoku hyoka gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Assuming the dissolution/sequestration of CO2 at the medium-depth sea area around Japan (depth: 1,000-2,000m), the development was being proceeded with of the assessment technology for capacity of CO2 ocean sequestration and the prediction technology of environmental effects at the point of CO2 discharge. In FY 2000, conducted were the ocean survey and the development of assessment technology for CO2 sequestration capacity. In the investigational study, the following three were carried out: 1) survey/observation of the flow field on the line of 165 degrees of east longitude, and acquisition of various data such as the distribution of carbonic acid base substances and the speed of carbon transport; 2) study of the amount of existence of organisms and kind/composition of the medium-depth plankton at the typical observation points; 3) test/experiment actually conducted in the sea area for the experimental equipment for CaCO3 dissolution experimental equipment for studying interactions between the CO2 and CaCO3 dissolved into the medium-depth sea. As to the development of the assessment technology, carried out were the heightening of accuracy of medium-depth ocean circulation models using the inverse method already developed and the estimation of the flow field using the observation data. At the same time, the estimation of the flow field, etc. were conducted using large circulation ocean models. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1998 R and D project on global environmental industrial technology. Research result report on DNA analysis and information processing technology for photosynthesis microorganisms (Development of CO{sub 2} fixation and effective use technology by using bacteria and algae); 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Kogosei biseibutsu nado DNA kaiseki joho shori gijutsu no kenkyu (saikin sorui nado riyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1998 research result on DNA analysis and information processing technology for photosynthesis microorganisms. On the study on DNA analysis technology by triple-strand formation method, as the comparison study result of a READ method, stable triple- strand formation method and hairpin method, a READ method showed the highest triple-strand formation efficiency for target DNA. On the study on accurate separation technology of specific genes, establishment of protocols was promoted for solid-phase probe technology, subtract technology and leveling technology. On the study on DNA microarray analysis technology by high-efficiency hybridization method, the analysis technology of genes by hybridization method using DNA chips is under investigation. In addition, the high- efficiency analysis technology of specific DNA segments by using an affinity sensor, and the high-accuracy cloning technology for DNA with altered primary structure were also studied. (NEDO)

  13. Report on the results of research and development under a consignment from NEDO of glycoconjugate production utilizing technologies. Development of technologies to fix and effectively utilize carbon dioxide by applying glycoconjugates; 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Fukugo toshitsu seisan riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (fukugo toshitsu oyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper reports research results in fiscal 1997 for the `research and development of glycoconjugate production utilizing technologies`. In synthesizing, utilizing and remodeling technologies for glycoconjugates by means of chemical synthesis, studies were performed on developing methods to synthesize Gal {beta}1-3Gal NA(c {alpha})1-0-Serine in preparative scale, synthesizing high mannose type sugars of natural type without protection groups, and linking GlcNA or GalNAc onto partial peptide of fibroblast growth factor (FGF). In synthesizing, utilizing and remodeling technologies for glycoconjugates by using biological methods, studies were carried out, with regard to glycoconjugate synthesizing, utilizing and remodeling technologies utilizing animal cells, on identifying sugar structures of IFN-{gamma} produced from CHO cell line, and isolating CHO cell lines introduced with genes of sugar transferred enzyme GnTIV and/or GnTV. Furthermore, studies were conducted on glycoconjugate synthesizing, utilizing and remodeling technologies utilizing microorganisms, and glycoconjugate structure analyzing technologies. In addition, overall investigation was made on glycoconjugate production utilizing technologies. 113 refs., 76 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Fiscal 1997 R and D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment from NEDO. R and D of the synthesis and processing of advanced biomaterials (fixation and effective utilization of carbon dioxide using peptides); 1997 nendo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Senshin bio zairyo no sosei kako gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (peptide oyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In fiscal 1997, study was made on formation of peptides with a biogenic function and molecular recognition function, and peptide materials. The existing automatic design technique of peptides including non-natural amino acids was applied to design of complementary peptides of proteins with known structures to optimize a development technique of ligand. Practical function of peptides as advanced receptor ligand was verified by applying the existing conformation control technique to stable holding of peptide active conformation. Creation of bio-materials, and development of preparation technology of bio-substrates and materializing technology of functional molecular materials were carried out. To construct an electron transfer system by self- organized body of peptides formed on a substrate, a peptide molecular device was prepared and verified using linkers. To use peptides as photoelectron functional molecule, metallized peptide with main helix structure was prepared. The possibility of molecular materials with a fixation function of CO2 was examined. A high-sensitivity bio-sensor was also mentioned. 75 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Discussion of vicarious calibration of GOSAT/TANSO-CAI UV-band (380nm) and aerosol retrieval in wildfire region in the OCO-2 and GOSAT observation campaign at Railroad Valley in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, M.; Kuze, A.; Bruegge, C. J.; Shiomi, K.; Kataoka, F.; Kikuchi, N.; Arai, T.; Kasai, K.; Nakajima, T.

    2016-12-01

    The GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) / TANSO-CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager, CAI) is an imaging sensor to measure cloud and aerosol properties and observes reflected sunlight from the atmosphere and surface of the ground. The sensor has four bands from near ultraviolet (near-UV) to shortwave infrared, 380, 674, 870 and 1600nm. The field of view size is 0.5 km for band-1 through band-3, and 1.5km for band-4. Band-1 (380nm) is one of unique function of the CAI. The near-UV observation offers several advantages for the remote sensing of aerosols over land: Low reflectance of most surfaces; Sensitivity to absorbing aerosols; Absorption of trace gases is weak (Höller et al., 2004). CAI UV-band is useful to distinguish absorbing aerosol (smoke) from cloud. GOSAT-2/TANSO-CAI-2 that will be launched in the future also has UV-bands, 340 and 380nm. We carried out an experiment to calibrate CAI UV-band radiance using data taken in a field campaign of OCO-2 and GOSAT at Railroad Valley in 2016. The campaign period is June 27 to July 3 in 2016. We measured surface reflectance by using USB4000 Spectrometer with 74-UV collimating lens (Ocean Optics) and Spectralon (Labsphere). USB4000 is a UV spectrometer, and its measurement range from 300 to 520nm. We simulated CAI UV-band radiance using a vector type of radiation transfer code, i.e. including polarization calculation, pstar3 (Ota et al., 2010) using measured surface reflectance and atmospheric data, pressure and relative humidity by radiosonde in the same campaign, and aerosol optical depth by AERONET, etc. Then, we evaluated measured UV radiances with the simulated data. We show the result of vicarious calibration of CAI UV-band in the campaign, and discuss about this method for future sensor, CAI-2. Around the campaign period, there was wildfire around Los Angeles, and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observed by AERONET at Rail Road valley and Caltech sites is also high. We tried to detect and retrieve aerosol

  16. The Greenhouse Gas Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI): comparative validation of GHG-CCI SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT CO2 and CH4 retrieval algorithm products with measurements from the TCCON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dils, B.; Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Parker, R.; Guerlet, S.; Aben, I.; Blumenstock, T.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Deutscher, N. M.; Frankenberg, C.; Hase, F.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Heymann, J.; De Mazière, M.; Notholt, J.; Sussmann, R.; Warneke, T.; Griffith, D.; Sherlock, V.; Wunch, D.

    2014-06-01

    Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane have been retrieved from spectra acquired by the TANSO-FTS (Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observations-Fourier Transform Spectrometer) and SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography) instruments on board GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) and ENVISAT (ENVIronmental SATellite), respectively, using a range of European retrieval algorithms. These retrievals have been compared with data from ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The participating algorithms are the weighting function modified differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm (WFMD, University of Bremen), the Bremen optimal estimation DOAS algorithm (BESD, University of Bremen), the iterative maximum a posteriori DOAS (IMAP, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Netherlands Institute for Space Research algorithm (SRON)), the proxy and full-physics versions of SRON's RemoTeC algorithm (SRPR and SRFP, respectively) and the proxy and full-physics versions of the University of Leicester's adaptation of the OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) algorithm (OCPR and OCFP, respectively). The goal of this algorithm inter-comparison was to identify strengths and weaknesses of the various so-called round- robin data sets generated with the various algorithms so as to determine which of the competing algorithms would proceed to the next round of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Greenhouse Gas Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI) project, which is the generation of the so-called Climate Research Data Package (CRDP), which is the first version of the Essential Climate Variable (ECV) "greenhouse gases" (GHGs). For XCO2, all algorithms reach the precision requirements for inverse modelling (< 8 ppm), with only WFMD having a lower precision (4.7 ppm) than the other algorithm products (2.4-2.5 ppm

  17. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Research and development of a technology to forecast environmental effect in association with isolation of carbon dioxide in oceans. (Surveys on development and research support on a technology to forecast environmental effect in areas in the vicinity of CO2 discharging points); 1998 nendo nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. CO{sub 2} horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Atmospheric concentration of CO2 is increasing, and discussions are urged on measures to suppress emission of CO2 into atmosphere. While different CO2 fixing technologies may be conceived, there is a technology to utilize CO2 absorbing capability of ocean by discharging and dissolving CO2 artificially into middle layer of the ocean to separate CO2 from atmosphere. This technology is one of the technologies which are promising in the aspects of technology, economic performance, and possible amount of CO2 reduction. However, it is difficult to say that scientific and technological discussions have been given sufficiently on behavior of CO2 discharged into the ocean, effect of the discharge on environments, and CO2 separation capability of the ocean. Therefore, in the present research and development, a 'technology to forecast environmental effect in areas in the vicinity of CO2 discharging points' is developed to serve for acquiring technological prospect on the feasibility to realize the CO2 ocean separation by discharging CO2 into the middle layer of the ocean. The present fiscal year has performed researches on the following research and development items: elucidation of behavior of liquefied CO2 when discharged into the ocean, CO2 feeding and diluting technologies, indoor experiments on the effects of CO2 on ocean living organisms, and development of a model to forecast environments in areas in the vicinity of CO2 discharging points. (NEDO)

  18. FY 2000 report on the results of the project on the R and D of the global environmental industry technology. R and D of the technology for predicting environmental effects associated with the CO2 ocean sequestration (Development of the technology for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point and survey for supporting study); 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (CO2 horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    To obtain the technical outlook for CO2 ocean sequestration by CO2 discharge into the intermediate layer, the R and D was conducted of the technology for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the elucidation study of the behavior at the time of discharging liquid CO2, the melting process of CO2 droplets discharged/dispersed into the seawater of the intermediate layer was observed, and the specific phenomenon of hydrate formation in the process of CO2 droplet formation was grasped. As to the technology for sending CO2 into the ocean and diluting it, experimental study was made of CO2 transportation technology from on the sea to the intermediate layer, technology for rapid dilution immediately after discharge, etc. About the indoor experiment on the CO2 influence on marine organisms, experiment on the CO2 influence was carried out using shells, sea urchin, red sea bream, etc. In the developmental study of models for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point, the 3D two-phase flow LES model was developed as a model for predicting the CO2 behavior, and the simulation of the liquid CO2 discharge was made at the planned experimental site. The model for evaluation of the biological influence was also made which can consider the interaction between two kinds of organisms. (NEDO)

  19. Synthesis of new erodable polymers response to environmental stimuli; Atarashii kankyo chowagata bunkaisei plastic no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Nagasaki, Y. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology

    1997-02-01

    This report relates to the designing of functional materials that decompose in response to various signals. A derivative of {alpha}-bromomethylstyrene is caused to act on the living anions of {alpha}-methylstyrene for the synthesis of a pyrolytic polymer having unsaturated groups at its terminals. The terminal double combinations of this polymer split under the influence of heat, acid, or base for depolymerization which is quantative, and the decomposition temperature may be controlled by replacing terminal phenylallylic groups with methyl groups or phloro-groups. Furthermore, a novel polythyramine polymer is synthesized with its principal chain constituted of NCH2CH2Si, the principal chain easy to disintegrate when exposed to an electron beam. The polymer is signal-responsive and may be patterned by use of an electron beam. As a temperature-responsive polymer with the hydrolytic feature controlled, poly(thyroxy ethylene glycol) is obtained from a derivative of diaminosiloxane and oligo-oxyethylene. This is a high-mobility, temperature-responsive material whose hydrolysis may be controlled. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  20. New concept of energy storage material. ; Disulfide polymer. Atarashii gainen no energy chozo zairyo. ; Disulfide polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, S.; Jonghe, L. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Cyclotron Road, CA, (United States)); Ue, M. (Mitsubishi Petrochemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-04-05

    This review article introduces new type cells, which are based on a new concept of electrochemical polymerization and depolymerization of disulfide polymer. For the disulfide polymer, chemical molecular designing can be conducted. Additionally, the disulfide polymer has low price and low toxicity. High theoretical electric capacity of the disulfide polymer is attractive from the viewpoint of the energy storage. It is illustrated that the middle temperature lithium solid polymer electrolyte cell and sodium solid polymer electrolyte cell, and the room temperature lithium gel electrolyte cell have high performances. Especially, it is shown that the lithium/polyethylene oxide/disulfide polymer cell has an excellent performance in the cycle characteristics and power density. It is also verified that the sodium/[beta][prime][prime]-alumina/disulfide polymer cell has a high reversibility in the oxidation-reduction polymerization and depolymerization reaction. 23 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. ACOS GOSAT/TANSO-FTS Level 2 Full Physics Standard Product V2.9

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Carbon Dioxide (CO2) column averaged dry air mole fraction for all soundings for which retrieval was attempted. These are the highest-level...

  2. Development of novel processes for Cu concentrates without producing sulfuric acid; Hiryusan hasseigata no atarashii doshigen shori gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, F.; Takasu, T.; Ito, H. [Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    In the refining process for the production of copper from pyrites, heat treatment is carried out in a neutral atmosphere so that part of the sulphur will be collected in the form of simple sulfur and that pyrites naturally low in reactivity will be made active. A basic study is also conducted of a very high speed electrolytic method. The chemical aspects of pyrites which are various in composition (mainly CuFeS2) are clarified by X-ray diffraction, and then is subjected to heat-treatment in a 773K-1073K argon atmosphere. There is a decrease in the amount of sulfur at a temperatures not lower than 973K. The X-ray main diffraction line splits for the emergence of some lower angle diffraction lines. The specimen is then subjected to a leach test in a copper chloride base liquor, to disclose that leachability grows remarkably higher in the presence of a great change in the X-ray diffraction lattice constant. An experiment follows in which an electrolyte is allowed to flow at a high speed for accelerating the rate of electrolytic refining in an effort to prevent the passivation of anode and deposition of dendrite on the cathode that is apt to occur when the current density is high. Passivation is prevented when the flow rate is 10m/min or higher in the vicinity of the anode surface for the formation of a smooth electrodeposited surface. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Development of novel processes for Cu concentrates without producing sulfuric acid; Hiryusan hasseigata no atarashii doshigen shori gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awakura, Y.; Hirato, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Studies are conducted to develop a new wet method for copper concentrates to replace the conventional dry smelting method for the settlement of problems involving the processing of impurities for environmental protection. A specimen of pyrites polycrystals is subjected to leaching at 80 {degree}C in a strongly acidic cupric solution. Findings are that the element sulfur generated in this process does not impede leaching and only approximately 4% of the sulfur is oxidized into sulfur ions; that the presence of more than 2g/liter of bromide ions produced during bromine-aid leaching of gold changes the structure of sulfur for the inhibition of leaching; that circulation of a bromine-containing leaching liquid is not desired since even a small amount of approximately 0.02mol/liter inhibits the leaching rate. Controlled potential electrolysis is performed for the anode in an acid solution containing CuCl, NaCl, and NaBr, for the observation of oxidation/reduction potentials predicted by Nernst`s equation. It is then disclosed that bromine is more effective than chlorine in gold leaching and that the solution potential during leaching agent regeneration enables the monitoring of solution constitution. 2 refs.

  4. Suppression of numerical dispersion using FD modified operators; Atarashii sabunho no enzanshi wo mochiita suchi bunsan no yokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, N.; Geller, R. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-05-01

    The author, et al., have developed a formal evaluation theory for errors in numerical solutions and derived on the basis of this theory the conditions that a modified error minimizing operator should satisfy. A modified operator was derived for a calculus of finite difference in the time domain making use of this error evaluation theory. In this study, a modified operator was derived for O (2, 2) in the calculus of finite difference in time, and the operator was used in the calculation for the old and new methods about 1-dimension inhomogeneous media, and the two were quantitatively compared in CPU time and calculation accuracy. The calculation used 500 space grids and 5000 time grids. With the ratio of the time grid gap and space grid gap are kept constant, both CPU time and calculation accuracy were in proportion to the square of the number of grids. It was found in view of the result that the new method, as compared with the old method, needs only approximately 1/20 of CPU time in performing calculations of the same precision and that it maintains calculation accuracy that is approximately 20 times higher in the said CPU time. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. New-type spin polarized electron source and its applications; Atarashii spin henkyoku denshi sengen to sono oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, T.; Kato, T. [Daido Steel Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan); Nakanishi, T.; Okumi, S. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Horinaka, H. [Osaka Prefectural University, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering

    1998-08-20

    This paper reveals that using distorted thin GaAs film can realize high polarization in spin polarized electron ray, and introduces properties of the developed ray source. The paper also touches on the application thereof to property physics. Realization of the high spin polarization is based on use of the `optical polarization method`. With this method, electrons in specific spin state are excited into a conduction band by utilizing the selection law used when valency electrons of zincblende type crystal such as GaAs absorb circular polarization. These electrons are taken out into vacuum and used as polarized electron beams. In order to realize uniformly distorted GaAs film, a method was discussed, with which the thin GaAs films are grown on substrates with different lattice constants, and the films are distorted by means of lattice mismatch. GaAs(1-x)Px was used for the substrates. GaAs(1-x)Px has the lattice constant decrease as the P`s mixed crystal ratio `x` increases. If a thin GaAs film is grown on this substrate, it is possible to obtain GaAs which is subjected to compression stress in the direction parallel with the growing surface, and tensile stress in the vertical direction. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Development of porous carbon material `Woodceramics`. Electromagnetic shielding characteristics; Takoshitsu tanso zairyo/uddoseramikkusu no kaihatsu. Denji shirudo tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabe, T.; Saito, K. [Industrial Research Inst. of Aomori Prefecture, Aomori (Japan); Togawa, H. [Tokin Corp., Kawasaki (Japan); Kumagai, Y. [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1995-03-15

    As the countermeasure against electromagnetic noises caused by the progress and popularization of electric equipment, a method to reduce noises emitted from electronic equipment has been adopted. However, depending upon the circumstances, it is necessary to prevent noises coming from other than the equipment while the noises emitted from the equipment are being suppressed, and as one of the countermeasures for it, there is the use of electromagnetic shielding materials. In this report, with the objective of developing the electromagnetic shielding material which is light in weight and excellent at the shielding performance of electromagnetic waves, the feasibility of woodceramics, which is porous carbon material, to be used as electromagnetic shielding material has been examined. The results are roughly as follows; as the sintering temperature has been raised from 400{degree}C to 2800{degree}C, the volume resistivity has varied in a wide range from about 10{sup 10}{Omega}{center_dot}cm to about 10{sup -3}{Omega}{center_dot}cm. The electric field (magnetic field) shielding effects have started at the sintering temperature of 600{degree}C (700{degree}C) or more and the shielding effects have also increased as the sintering temperature has risen. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Validation of XCO2 derived from SWIR spectra of GOSAT TANSO-FTS with aircraft measurement data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Inoue

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Column-averaged dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (XCO2 retrieved from Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR observations were validated with aircraft measurements by the Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL project, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, the US Department of Energy (DOE, the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES, the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO program, and the GOSAT validation aircraft observation campaign over Japan. To calculate XCO2 based on aircraft measurements (aircraft-based XCO2, tower measurements and model outputs were used for additional information near the surface and above the tropopause, respectively. Before validation, we investigated the impacts of GOSAT SWIR column averaging kernels (CAKs and the shape of a priori profiles on the aircraft-based XCO2 calculation. The differences between aircraft-based XCO2 with and without the application of GOSAT CAK were evaluated to be less than ±0.4 ppm at most, and less than ±0.1 ppm on average. Therefore, we concluded that the GOSAT CAK produces only a minor effect on the aircraft-based XCO2 calculation in terms of the overall uncertainty of GOSAT XCO2. We compared GOSAT data retrieved within ±2 or ±5° latitude/longitude boxes centered at each aircraft measurement site to aircraft-based data measured on a GOSAT overpass day. The results indicated that GOSAT XCO2 over land regions agreed with aircraft-based XCO2, except that the former is biased by −0.68 ppm (−0.99 ppm with a standard deviation of 2.56 ppm (2.51 ppm, whereas the averages of the differences between the GOSAT XCO2 over ocean and the aircraft-based XCO2 were −1.82 ppm (−2.27 ppm with a standard deviation of 1.04 ppm (1.79 ppm for ±2° (±5° boxes.

  8. International Workshop on Carbon Cycling and Coral Reef Metabolism; Sangosho no tanso junkan ni kansuru kokusai workshop hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-16

    The paper described the International Workshop on Carbon Cycling and Coral Reef Metabolism which was held at Miyako-jima, Okinawa Pref. on October 17-24, 1995. In the workshop, researchers got together which are involved in marine chemistry, marine biology, coral ecology, and environmental science, and discussed the carbon cycling and metabolism of coral reef. Discussions were made on what the coral reef ecosystem is, and what the definition of a sink or a source for CO2 is. Also discussed were scales of how much time and space should be considered to make these issues clear. Further, it was proposed that it was necessary to investigate carbon balance of both the whole system and the components of the system and to keep track of mass transfer among neighboring components of the system. Seventeen presentations were given. The workshop obtained a definite consensus on carbon balance of the coral reef system. 123 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. A Modified Aerosol Free Vegetation Index Algorithm for Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval Using GOSAT TANSO-CAI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guosheng Zhong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduced a new algorithm for retrieving aerosol optical depth (AOD over land, from the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI, which is one of the instruments on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT for detecting and correcting cloud and aerosol interference. We used the GOSAT and AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET collocated data from different regions over the globe to analyze the relationship between the top-of-atmosphere (TOA reflectance in the shortwave infrared (1.6 μm band and the surface reflectance in the red (0.67 μm band. Our results confirmed that the relationships between the surface reflectance at 0.67 μm and TOA reflectance at 1.6 μm are not constant for different surface conditions. Under low AOD conditions (AOD at 0.55 μm < 0.1, a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI based regression function for estimating the surface reflectance of 0.67 μm band from the 1.6 μm band was summarized, and it achieved good performance, proving that the reflectance relations of the 0.67 μm and 1.6 μm bands are typically vegetation dependent. Since the NDVI itself is easily affected by aerosols, we combined the advantages of the Aerosol Free Vegetation Index (AFRI, which is aerosol resistant and highly correlated with regular NDVI, with our regression function, which can preserve the various correlations of 0.67 μm and 1.6 μm bands for different surface types, and developed a new surface reflectance and aerosol-free NDVI estimation algorithm, which we named the Modified AFRI1.6 algorithm. This algorithm was applied to AOD retrieval, and the validation results for our algorithm show that the retrieved AOD has a consistent relationship with AERONET measurements, with a correlation coefficient of 0.912, and approximately 67.7% of the AOD retrieved data were within the expected error range (± 0.1 ± 0.15AOD(AERONET.

  10. Development of new finite element by source method. 2nd Report. Plate bending element; Source wo mochiita atarashii yugen yoso no kaihatsu. 2. Itamage yoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neki, I.; Tada, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports a method to develop a new finite element by source (FES) for a two-dimensional plane problem and a three-dimensional solid problem as a method to analyze ship body structures. The paper describes development of a plate bending element by using a similar method, and the fundamental principle thereof. The present method can prepare a finite element of an arbitrary shape by simply providing a contact point only on a boundary. It can also derive good calculation accuracy with less number of contact points and elements. These facts are shown by examples of analyses on a square plate, a triangle plate and a semi-circular plate. Particularly, since a plate bending problem has a large order of differential calculus in a governing equation, this method being a semi-analytical method derives a result with very good accuracy even with less number of contact points. A hypothetical boundary method or a hypothetical electric charge method presents not a very high accuracy even if a large number of contact points are provided. This is because the method hypothesizes only a bending moment vertical to the boundary, but does not consider a source of the moment relative to the boundary. In contrast, the present method hypothesizes both of bending and twisting as the sources, hence its accuracy is better than with the above two methods. 5 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Proposal and study of a long-span composite cable-stayed bridge with new hybrid girder; Atarashii gosei kozo shuketa wo mochiita chodai fukugo shachokyo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Hishiki, Y.; Furuichi, K. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-30

    A hybrid or mixed structure (composite structures) are a matter of increasing concern which takes in each advantage of steel and concrete. A field of bridges is no exception, with the plan and construction carried out for the new type of composite bridge, such as a composite cable-stayed bridge and a composite extra dose bridge as a long span bridge, and a composite truss bridge and a corrugated steel plate web bridge as a medium-span bridge, with technological development becoming active in this field. In such a technological trend, a hybrid two-girder structure was devised, a structure consisting of a concrete filled steel pipe for a girder and a precast (PC) floor plate for a floor board, as the girder structure of a long-span cable-stayed bridge in the subject research; also, applicability was examined using, as an example, the composite cable-stayed bridge with hybrid girders employed for the span. This paper reports the result of the analysis of the entire system, the analysis made for the purpose of examining the characteristic and the feasibility of this hybrid girder. The analysis revealed the structural feasibility of the long-span composite cable-stayed bridge using two hybrid girders of concrete-filled steel pipes thus devised. (NEDO)

  12. Recent progress in exchange membranes. ; Present status of ion-exchange membrane technology. Ion kokanmaku no aratana tenkai. ; Ion kokanmaku no atarashii tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seno, M. (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology)

    1993-11-20

    A discrimination function of ion charge, the ion-exchange membrane shows, originates in the high fixed charge density, the ion-exchange membrane has. A progress of the membrane manufacturing technology is remarkable and therefore, while the membrane in an initial stage of development had in an order of a thickness of 0.25mm, and a resistance of 5-10S[sup -1]cm[sup 2] (25[degree]C, in 0.5M NaCl), the membrane currently with a thickness of 0.11-0.15mm, and a resistance of 1.2-2.0S[sup -1]cm[sup 2] occupies a main current. However, when it is thought that a proportion, the support part of membrane Vp occupies, reaches to 70%, and the liquid phase part Vs is less than 30%, and moreover in a degree of 30% of it is non effective part located outside the donnan membrane, a further progress from now on is still expected. The ion-exchange membranes are mainly used as a diaphragm for the electrodialysis and electrolytic process. An appearance of the chemically extremely stable perfluorocarbon system membrane makes the various new technological development possible in the salt electrolysis, solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis, piezodialysis through charge mosaic membrane, water splitting through bipolar membrane and so forth. 37 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Travel time and ray path computation in 2D-heterogeneous structures; Fukinshitsu kozo ni okeru jishinha soji oyobi hasen no atarashii keisan hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujie, G.; Kasahara, J.; Sato, T.; Mochizuki, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1996-05-01

    Methods were studied for determining the initial travel time and ray paths with stability when an non-linear travel time inversion is performed in an inhomogeneous structure. The travel time calculation was based on Faria and Stoffa`s method. First, the 2-dimension space was sectioned by grids, and `slowness` was assigned to all the lattice points. Starting from the vibration source, travel time at each lattice point is sequentially calculated. This method calculates travel time for any structure without breakup. In this study, an algorithm more sophisticated than the method of Faria, et al., was developed, and the improvement of travel time calculation accuracy led to the accurate determination of the direction of incidence into the lattice points during the initial motion. The calculation of ray paths was effected by tracing back from the receiving points the incidence into the lattice points or by following back the ray paths to the vibration source. This method performs stable calculation for a heavily inhomogeneous structure and, with the algorithm being simple, do the parallel programming as well. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. New, high-capacity alloys for hydrogen batteries. Vanadium alloys with microcurrent collecting function; Atarashii suiso denchiyo koyoryo gokin. Maikuro shuden kino wo sonaeta vanadium gokin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, T. [Osaka National Research Institute, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    In an attempt to provide vanadium-base alloys with microcurrent collecting functions and corrosion resistance, their compositions and metallic microstructures are controlled. This leads to development of a new alloy for batteries, which shows an electrical capacity at least 1.5 times higher than that of the conventional rare-earth alloys. A detailed phase diagram of the V-Ti-Ni systems is drawn for hydrogen occluding, to determine the optimum composition. For the electrode characteristics of V3TiNix, the discharge characteristics are notably improved as Ni content increases. For the microstructures, Ni is scarcely dissolved in the base phase of V, withdraws Ti from the base phase, and separates out in the grain boundaries as a TiNi phase dissolving part of V, to form micronetworks. These phenomena are considered to impart the internal microcurrent collecting function to the vanadium alloy. The composition of V3TiNi0.56 shows an initial capacity of 400Ah/g or higher. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Technical development of a new advanced COD treating system. ; Realization of chemical oxidation process. Atarashii COD kodo shori system no gijutsu kaihatsu. ; Kagaku sankaho no jitsuyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokomaku, T.; Aizawa, M.; Kanke, Y.; Komiya, N.; Sodeyama, S. (Kankyo Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-11

    An advanced treating technique of drainage containing organic compounds, that is, A-Hipo Process(acid aggregation and chemical oxidation process) which uses hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent was explained. The system has the following features: The first is that this system can decompose and remove simply and cheaply organic compounds which is difficult to treat by the biological process such as the activated sludge process. The second is that the applicable kinds and concentration range of drainage are very wide compared with the existing tertiary treating technique and other advanced treating techniques. This treating system removes BOD in sample drainage by the biological process, and then executes the aggregation and preciptaion at an acid range of pH 4-5 by adding a ferric salt in the acid aggregation treating process. In the following process using hydrogen peroxide and iron catalyst, the oxidizing decomposition is proceeded by adding hydrogen peroxide in the drainage and by using ferric sulfate as the catalyst. The iron catalyst is settled and separated after the neutralization and deposition to get the final treated water. The application to a supernatant after sewage sludge digestion, photoresist waste water and drainage from a food factory was explained as the examples of this system. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Current development in bioassay for evaluation of environmental pollution in water. Evaluation by the micronucleus assay; Bioassay no atarashii nagare. Shokaku shiken ni yoru hyokaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, M. [National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-10

    A method is introduced for observing micronuclei attributable to chromosomal aberration as an index of water contamination. A fragment not containing a kinetochore resulting from chromosomal aberration in structure is left behind after a division for the formation of a very small nucleus independent from the daughter nucleus. This is what is called the micronucleus, which reflects the chromosomal aberration. For monitoring environmental contamination through examining aquatic organisms and utilizing their genetic toxicity as the index, the practical method is to carry the water specimen into the laboratory for the evaluation of genetic toxicity. The tests that can be applied in this method include a chromosomal aberration test using a bitterling embryo at its beginning stage, a micronucleus test using the sea urchin at its morphogenetic stage, and a unicellular gel electrophoresis test using shells such as scallops. The micronucleus test using peripheral blood of fish is advantageous in that it evaluates water environments in situ, but its sensitivity in detection is not out of question. This may be solved by automating the monitoring processes and increasing a great deal the number of cells to be examined. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Biocatalysis in organic synthesis. Use op pyruvate decarboxylase; Seitai shokubai wo riyosuru yuki gosei. Furukute atarashii pirubin san dattansan-koso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugai, T. [Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1995-02-01

    For a purpose of elevating the enzyme activity to decompose a pyruvic acid, an investigation on 2 points was carried out as follows: Namely they were a concentration of the coenzyme, as well as, a forced ventilation to remove more efficiently the acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide generated. As a result, the enzyme activity per 1 kg of a dry bread enzyme fungus body on market could be raised up to about 30 units. By using this method an investigation on the enzyme synthesis of the sialic acid was actually executed, through the aldol reaction and the enzyme decomposition of an excessive pyruvic acid, the sialic acid could be obtained with a yield of 60%. In addition 2 stage improvement method that firstly by adding the pyruvic acid the carbon-carbon coupling formation was preferentially performed, and subsequently after the raw material, aldehyde disappeared a reduction of the ketol was done by adding a sugar, was tried. Furthermore at a stage of the decarbonization reaction the nitrogen ventilation has been performed, and by doing so the acetaldehyde was always removed to the outside of a system, and in consequence a formation of the acetoin was restrained. As a result, an isolation yield of the diol has become about 17%. 9 refs.

  18. Development of the hull inspection robot (RTV-SHIP); Sentai kensayo suichu robot (RTV-SHIP) no kaihatsu (atarashii sentai kensaho no ichiteian)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Y.; Otsuka, M.; Ozawa, H.; Konosu, M. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    A compact and lightweight underwater RTV robot (RTV-SHIP) that enables the remote sensing in the double-shell structure of a tanker and the six-freedom motion control was developed based on the technology of the conventional portable underwater robot. The motion performance test in a water tank showed that the RTV-SHIP can freely access the manhole in the double-shell structure of a tanker and completely satisfies the thrust and swing force required for movement and measurement in a tank. The in-tank function confirmation test also shows that the main measurement items such as positioning in the tank, large deflection of panels, and plate thickness have a satisfactory measurement accuracy and that the RTV-SHIP has the same tone discrimination function as for a visual check. The method of inputting the tank shape during measurement and miniaturizing the recording unit should be improved until the RTV-SHIP is put to practical use. This system can be widely used by improving the above points according to the result of a future measurement test for the actual ships. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  19. Development of newly engineering technology based on computer analysis for dust diffusion; Funjin kakusan kaiseki gijutsu wo kihon to shita atarashii engineering gijutsu no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K.; Murahashi, Y.; Kawakami, H.; Tanaka, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-30

    Nippon Steel has made a comprehensive survey of the space environment designing technology that can precisely cope with the needs required for a space in a plant in a very wide range from the ventilation problem in steel mill to the turbulence problem in semiconductor plant, through accomplishing the development of computer analysis technology for dust diffusion that can estimate and control `air flow` and `dust movement` in an electric angstrom [furnace plant]. This paper describes the basic concept for establishing the computer analysis technology for dust diffusion and the concrete measures to solve accompanying problems, and further enters into details how the new engineering technology has innovated technical measures to solve problems, the new engineering technology which introduces a concept of both estimation and control to attain objects such as to curtail the equipment cost and so by estimating the `air flow` and `dust movement` to create both a new flow and movement depending on needs. 3 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Development of new type of nonlinear optical materials with a function of ultrafast optical modulation; Chokosoku hikari reiki hencho kino wo motsu atarashii hisenkei kogaku zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, H. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Research Institute of Electronics

    1995-12-15

    Ultrafast modulation of second harmonies from a Langmuir-Blodgett film consisting of a ruthenium complex was demonstrated for the first time. The mechanism of the modulator of SHG intensity on laser irradiation was ascribed to the change of molecular hyperpolarizability of the ruthenium complex on going from the ground state to the excited state. 9 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Air pollution and allergy. ; Focusing on the relationship between nitrogen dioxide and bronchial asthma. Taiki osen to allergy. ; Tokuni nisanka chisso to kikanshi zensoku no kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagawa, J. (Tokyo Women' s Medical College, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-01-10

    Recently NO2 is drawing wide attention as a factor developing or worsening bronichial asthma. This paper describes the results of a study concerning this problem based on many survey data and statistics. There have been reported cases such as Tokyo-Yokohama asthma, Yokkaichi asthma, New Orleans asthma and a number of epidemiological investigations, but no sufficient clarification has not been given on the mechanism and the causal relation with respect to this problem. In animal experiments using NO2, naturally symptom-developing prompt type allergy is clearly recognized in dogs. Strong or weak infection resistance due to exposure to NO2 is confirmed in cavies. However, there is an example where the increase of disease rate is inversely correlated with the concentration of air pollutant and there are also some facts suggesting participation of factors other than air pollutant like ticks, mold and food. In order to obtain correct evaluation on the participation of NO2, it is indispensable to carry out investigations or experiments which can detect the effects due to NO2 by appropriately controlling these other factors. It can be said that there is small possibility of developing the symptom by being exposed to NO2 alone in the present level of atmospheric NO2 concentration. 68 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Preparation and applications of carbon film obtained by pulse-laser irradiation to polyimide; Polyimide eno pulse laser shosha ni yotte erareru tanso film to sono oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, M.; Naito, K.; Ishibe, S.; Ueda, M.; Kasai, T. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan); Oshida, K. [Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    Described in this report is a novel effort for forming conductive paths by directly carbonizing a high-polymer film by laser beam irradiation. In the experiment, a polymer film is attached onto a movable X-Y stage, accommodated in a chamber, and then exposed to 10Hz pulsed YAG laser irradiation. A polyimide film is chosen for the experiment because it is easily cabonized in an ordinary pyrolytic process for the realization of high crystallinity. The carbon is then subjected to microscopic scrutiny for its structural details under the FE-SEM and TEM. It is found as the result that possibilities are high that the thus-obtained carbon may be used for the construction of practical circuits. It is found also that carbonization advances with the passage of irradiation time in a nitrogen atmosphere and that the carbon layer does not grow in thickness in the ordinary atmosphere where oxidation occurs simultaneously with carbonization. It is expected that this technique will be applied to the formation of highly conductive paths because it allows the easy and proper deposition of nickel onto the carbonized paths. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  3. ACOS GOSAT/TANSO-FTS Level 2 Full Physics Standard Product V7.3 (ACOS_L2S) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Version 7.3 is the current version of the data set. Version 3.5 is no longer available and has been superseded by Version 7.3. This data set is currently provided by...

  4. Friction and wear properties of carbon/silicon carbide composites; Tanso/tanka keiso fukugo zairyo no masatsu{center_dot}mamou tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokao, M.; Sasaki, H.; Hironaka, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Inorganic Materials

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes the friction and wear properties of carbon/silicon carbide composites in comparison with that of porous silicon carbide and dense silicon carbide. Tests were conducted in ambient air, using a pin-on-disk friction test apparatus. The friction and wear properties of these materials varied according to the combination of pin and disk materials. The carbon/silicon carbide composite containing the largest carbon volume (about 40 vol %) showed the lowest values of friction coefficient and specific wear among all the investigated materials. In addition, it also showed a stable behavior with respect to sliding velocity. The friction and wear mechanisms of these materials were discussed according to the morphology of the worn surfaces observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (author)

  5. Special issue on frontiers of chemistry related to electrical and electronic engineering. Part 4.; Artificial photosynthesis and photoelectrochemistry; Denki/denshi kogaku ga hiraku atarashii kagaku no sekai. 4.; Jinko hikari gosei to hikari denki kagaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, T. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1993-09-20

    Since light can be transformed into electricity, electrolysis of water using light is possible naturally, and photosynthesis in the nature is based on this principle. The reaction field in which electrochemical energy necessary for decomposition of water is generated using light at the first process of photosynthesis is a biofilm less than 10nm thick which is called thylakoid film. In this article, the effects are roughly explained which have been made for constructing an artificial system corresponding to the thylakoid film. Accumulation of knowledge of the molecular level is necessary for the construction of the artificial system and the three dimensional structure concerning the reaction center of photosynthetic bacteria has been determined. At the reaction center, oxidation species of electron donor and reduction species of electron acceptor are generated by charge separation which succeeds electron excitation by light energy. In order to lead the above process to materialistic production, efforts are being made for construction of a reaction center model compound for artificial photosynthesis from both physical chemistry and organic chemistry and the positive results have steadily been obtained in the development of photocatalysis of a semiconductor. 9 figs.

  6. Transformation hardening by linear-polarized laser beam. Report 2. Development of novel laser beam shaping optics and its applications to materials processing; Chokusen henko reza wo mochiiru hentai koka. 2. Atarashii reza shaping kogakukei no kaihatsu to sono oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, I.; Maruo, H. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-08-05

    Shape variable laser beam shaping optics for which linear polarized beam is utilized is applied to the hardening of carbon steel by CO2 laser beam to analyze the absorptivity. In addition, linear polarized beam is irradiated to inclined materials for laser hardening to analyze the depth of hardening and the distribution of temperature. The absorptivity of random polarized beam by the bare specimens is as low as 20%. It is as high as above 40% with the graphite coated specimen, but is nearly constant with no dependence on the angle of incidence. The absorptivity in p-polarization increases with the increase in the angle of incidence. When linear polarized beam is used, the total efficiency of the bare specimen becomes high by about 1.5 times that of the graphite coated specimen subjected to random polarized beam. Hardening of bear material by laser beam is quite possible when p-polarization is employed. An approximation equation is derived with which the temperature distribution and hardened depth can be obtained easily if beam distribution and absorptivity are given, and it is applied to the evaluation of laser hardening of inclined specimens using linear polarized beam. 22 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Application of new analytical techniques to the order-disorder transformation in Ni-Mo alloys; Ni-Mo gokin no kisoku-fukisoku hentai ni okeru atarashii kozo kaiseki no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, K.; Hata, S.; Kuwano, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-09-20

    This paper presents the analytical example of the ordering process of order-disorder transformation in Ni-Mo alloy using recent experimental techniques. Monte Carlo simulation clarified the fact that the ordering process in Ni4-Mo alloy is largely affected by short range interaction in the early stage of ordering, and forms D1a, D022 and Pt2Mo structure units with a similar atomic pair correlation. The ordering process is largely affected by long range interaction with an advance of ordering, and develops only D1a structure most stable in energy. In order to check the existence of SRO (short range order) structure obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, the analysis of high-resolution TEM images under SRO condition was carried out using the imaging plate recently developed for TEM. The analytical result showed that the observed N2M3 pattern is derived from not always the existence of N2M3 structure but superimposition of D1a, D022 and Pt2Mo structure units. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Proposal of new wood processing industry system. Part 2. ; Project to develop compound system for high grade utilization of wood. Atarashii mokuzai kako kogyo system no teian. 2. ; Mokuzai kodo riyo fukugoka system kaihatsu jigyo yori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Already acknowledged to be important with a nationwide commonness, the wood drying is judged to be effective as a method for preventing the product from causing trouble and heightening its value. Such being the background, the present report introduces an automated water content control system, developed through testing a continuous type automatic water content measurement plant, high in usability for the general purpose as a water content checking mechanism for the dried wooden material. The sawed and screened lumber is conveyed to the machining, storage/curing/redrying or other treatment process as judged by the personnel in charge. Giving heed to the standardization of wooden material for the housing, application of FA into the work process and further rationalization in the construction process of wooden house, the Forestry and Forest Product Research Institute proceeds with research to aim at developing a wooden house construction method to take the local characteristics into consideration against the snowfall and extreme coldness in Hokkaido. An Obihiro City-based cooperative research group, having been proceeding with R and D on/of the improvement in work process with the above Institute, individually develops an FA material production control system, freely using a CAD/CAM system, for the housing members. 9 figs.

  9. Tensile properties and cyto-toxicity of new biomedical {beta}-type titanium alloys; Atarashii seitaiyo {beta}gata chitan gokin no sekkei to sono kikaiteki tokusei oyobi saibo dokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, D.; Niinomi, M. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Fukui, H. [Aichi Gakuin University, Aichi (Japan). School of Dentistry; Morinaga, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Suzuki, A. [Daido Steel Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Co-Cr alloy, SUS 316L stainless steel, pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V ELI have been used as implant materials. Ti-6Al-4V ELI has been most widely used as an implant material to date because of its excellent combination of biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. Since toxicity of V etc., and high moduli of elasticity have been pointed out, {beta}-type biomedical titanium alloys are recently getting much attentions, New {beta}-type biomedical titanium alloys composed of non-toxic elements such as Nb, Ta, Mo, Zr and Sn with lower moduli of elasticity and greater strength were, therefore, designed using alloy design method based on the d-electron theory in this study. Tensile test, measurement of modulus of elasticity and evaluation of biocompatibility were conducted in order to investigate the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the designed alloy. Tensile strength and elongation of Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr are, in particular, equivalent to those of conventional biomedical titanium alloy such as Ti-6Al-4V ELI, and modulus of elasticity of Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr is lower than that of Ti-6Al-4V ELI. The moduli of elasticity of the designed alloys are equivalent or lower comparing with those of conventional biomedical titanium alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V ELI and Ti-13Nb--13Zr. The biocomparibility of Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr is equivalent to pure-Ti, and biocompatibility of Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr is much greater than that of Ti-6Al-4V. The new {beta}-type titanium alloy, Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr, designed in this study is expected to have greater performance for implant materials. (author)

  10. Design of environment-friendly and next generation-type conversion system for unused carbon resources by developing highly functional materials; Kokino zairyo kaihatsu ni yoru kankyo chowagata jisedai miriyo tanso shigen tenkan system no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, K.; Morooka, S.; Arai, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sakanishi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1997-02-01

    Studies are conducted for the development of now-unused kinds of fossil carbon resources, such as low rank coal and heavy gravity crude oil, into higher-value liquid fuel. In the preliminary treatment process, the fossil carbon resources are dried by use of supercritical carbon dioxide, when it is found that the resources are disintegrated and water is desorbed. In a low rank coal liquefaction process using the NiMo/KB (Kefjen Black) catalyst, more than 60% is converted into oil, which rate is improved by use of the dual-temperature liquefaction process. This catalyst may be recovered by separation utilizing specific gravity difference. As a low temperature gasification catalyst, the alkaline carbonate-carried carbon catalyst is very quick at the initial stage of reaction. The perovskite-carried alkaline carbonate catalyst is high in carbon oxidizing/activating efficiency at low temperatures. The silica film deposited on an alumina-coated support tube is excellent in selectivity and speed as a hydrogen separating film, and a carbonized polyimide film as a carbon dioxide separating film. For the supercritical phase adsorption/separation of chemicals not to be distilled easily, the NaY-type zeolite functions effectively. Pd/ZrO2 serving as a carbon monoxide conversion catalyst enables the recovery of more MeOH when Pd grains are smaller in diameter.

  11. Internal friction and microplasticity of carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics; Tanso sen`i kyoka SiC ceramics no hakai zenku katei ni okeru naibu masatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, H.; Nishino, Y.; Asano, S. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1995-08-20

    Mechanical responses of carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics before fracture were measured in the strain range below 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} by two experimental methods: mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Load-deflection curves were obtained by the three-point bending deformation in loading-unloading cycles. A little permanent strain was found after the first cycle even in the range where fracture never occurred. A closed hysteresis loop was observed after several cycles and stabilized with a symmetrical shape after more than twenty cycles. Such a stabilized hysteresis loop is attributed to the steady-state microplastic deformation and may cause the amplitude-dependent internal friction. Internal friction was measured in the fundamental mode of free-free resonant vibration as a function of strain amplitude. With increasing the amount of prestrain in the bending deformation, internal friction increased and became sensitive to the strain amplitude. The amplitude-dependent internal friction in the composites is considered to originate from fiber pull-out or microcrack propagation. The internal friction data were analyzed on the basis of the microplasticity theory and converted into the plastic strain expressed as a function of stress. Therefore, it becomes possible to non-destructively study the forerunning process of fracture of the fiber-reinforced ceramics. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Influences of species of metals and supports on the hydrogenation activity of carbon-supported metal sulfides catalysts; Tanso biryushi tanji shokubai no suisoka kassei ni taisuru kassei kinzoku oyobi tantaishu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakanishi, K.; Hasuo, H.; Taniguchi, H.; Nagamatsu, T.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    In order to design catalysts suitable for primary liquefaction stage and secondary upgrading stage respectively in the multi-stage liquefaction process, various carbon-supported catalysts were prepared. Catalytic activities of them were investigated for the hydrogenation of 1-methylnaphthalene, to discuss the influences of metals and carbon species on the catalytic activity. Various water soluble and oil soluble Mo and Ni salts were used for NiMo supported catalysts. Among various carbon supports, Ketjen Black (KB) was effective for preparing the catalyst showing the most excellent hydrogenation activity. The KB and Black Pearl 2000 (BP2000) showing high hydrogenation activity were fine particles having high specific surface area more than 1000 m{sup 2}/g and primary particle diameter around 30 nm. This was inferred to contribute to the high dispersion support of active metals. Since such fine particles of carbon exhibited hydrophobic surface, they were suitable for preparing catalysts from the methanol-soluble metals. Although Ni and Mo added iron-based catalysts provided lower aromatic hydrogenation activity, they exhibited liquefaction activity competing with the NiMo/KB catalyst. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium field / Development of technology to treat aquatic environment by using microorganisms fixed on carbon fabrics (abbreviation: carbon/aquatic environment project) (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium bun`ya / tanso sen`i nansoshiki eno biseibutsu kochaku gensho wo riyoshita mizukankyo seibi gijutsu no kaihatsu (ryakusho: tanso mizu kankyo project) daiichi nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Out of the development of technology to arrange the aquatic environment using phenomena of microorganism fixation on carbon fiber soft textures, the paper stated the fiscal 1997 result. On carbon fibers in a state of swaying in water, microorganisms in water fix in an amazingly large quantity. A catalog was compiled of 58 kinds of carbon fabrics trially woven and knitted. When carbon fiber is used as activated sludge carrier, activity of microorganism lasts more than one year. Only a little amount of surplus sludge is generated. The fixed microorganisms are more active in case of carbon fiber than in case of nylon and polyester fibers. Fiber texture models of carbon fiber fixing activated sludge groups were proposed. By pump operation, the water flow inside/outside microorganism groups is being accelerated. Several new strains of bacillus carboniphilus were isolated/identified from soil and marsh. To grasp relationships of characteristics among three elements such as the state of aquatic environment, fiber, and microorganism group, the experiment was prepared. Preliminary work is conducted to derive a simple equation for facility design, and experimental directions to obtain design conditions were proposed. 6 refs., 166 figs., 47 tabs.

  14. Attempts for development of new processing techniques and products by Nippon Arm aiming at creation and diversification. Development of new processing techniques and products by drawing machines aided by induction heating. Sozo to tayo wo mezasu Nippon Arm no 'atarashii kako gijutsu to shohin kaihatsu' eno torikumi. Yudo kanetsu shibori kakoki ni yoru kako gijutsu oyobi shinshohin no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, K.; Kurihara, T. (Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan))

    1999-05-10

    Described herein are new processing techniques and products of good designs Nippon Arm has developed by introducing drawing machines aided by induction heating. The machine draws a rotating tube heated by high-frequency induction heating while pressing its outer surface by 3 rolls. It works under programmed conditions (e.g., heating temperature, speed of rotation, feed rate and drawing depth) to give an optional shape, without needing a mold. The basic modes of drawing include straight tube drawing, tapered drawing, R-drawing and convexo-concave drawing, and a combination thereof is also possible to form more complex shapes. The first product produced by the machine is N type arms for overhead cables, and has been followed by various products, e.g., illumination poles and garden illuminators of unique designs for common markets. (NEDO)

  15. Attempts for development of new processing techniques and products by Nippon Arm aiming at creation and diversification. Development of new processing techniques and products by drawing machines aided by induction heating; Sozo to tayo wo mezasu Nippon Arm no `atarashii kako gijutsu to shohin kaihatsu` eno torikumi. Yudo kanetsu shibori kakoki ni yoru kako gijutsu oyobi shinshohin no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, K.; Kurihara, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-05-10

    Described herein are new processing techniques and products of good designs Nippon Arm has developed by introducing drawing machines aided by induction heating. The machine draws a rotating tube heated by high-frequency induction heating while pressing its outer surface by 3 rolls. It works under programmed conditions (e.g., heating temperature, speed of rotation, feed rate and drawing depth) to give an optional shape, without needing a mold. The basic modes of drawing include straight tube drawing, tapered drawing, R-drawing and convexo-concave drawing, and a combination thereof is also possible to form more complex shapes. The first product produced by the machine is N type arms for overhead cables, and has been followed by various products, e.g., illumination poles and garden illuminators of unique designs for common markets. (NEDO)

  16. Applying computers to construction planning and management. Proposal of Hi-CIC (Human Intercommunicated Computer Integrated Construction) concept; Seko keikaku / seko kanri eno computer riyo hoho ni kansuru kenkyu. Atarashii seisan keitai de aru Hi-CIC (haishikku) koso no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, I.; Masamura, Y.; Oyamoto, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-31

    Arranged reports of recent computer aided research and development in the field of building, they are divided substantially four types: all construction support, information integration, construction technique selection, and CAD/OA as the types of utilization. These types fall within a region of saving of business management and speeding-up of the same, and hence it is difficult to break through the limit in present framework. This paper investigates and proposes a new mechanism which can exceed the limits of productivity growth. For this, there is required a mechanism of production where it is planned and managed in a production unit greater than that of the present situation. The new mechanism which employs communication network/computer as a premise will herein be named as a Hi-CIC. The Hi-CIC is not a stratified organization and not centralized management where the scales of the units of building production are simply expanded, but is a global concept where an individual Hi-CIC center and a group of business Hi-CIC centers complements each other by the use of computers adhering to users. 2 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Preparation and oxidation resistance of carbon/ceramic composites prepared from phenolic resin, B(OH)3 and Si(OC2H5)4; Phenol jushi, B(OH){sub 3} oyobi Si(OC{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4} wo mochiiru tanso/ceramics fukugo zairyo no chosei taisankasei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, S. [Industrial Tech. Center of Okayama Prefecture, Okayama (Japan); Kameda, K. [Nakamura Refactories Co. Ltd., Okayama (Japan); Yu, J.; Hiragushi, K. [Okayama Ceramics Research Foundation, Okayama (Japan); Miura, Y. [Okayama Univ. (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    For a binding agent of the carbon containing refractories, phenolic resin and pitch are widely used. Carbon forming by heat treatment of these binding agents has different crystallization and oxidation resistance due to kinds and additives of raw materials. In general, carbon obtained by thermal decomposition of phenolic resin has inferior crystallization and worse oxidation resistance to that from pitch. Conventionally, in order to provide oxidation resistance to carbon material, for example, a method to increase crystallization of the carbon material by adding B4C, a method of coating the carbon material with oxide system coating film and so on are investigated. In this study, for raw materials of carbon materials and coating film forming materials phenolic rein and B(OH)3 and Si(OC2H5)4 were used respectively to make organic/inorganic composites, to conduct their heat treatments at 1300-1900degC and to prepare carbon/ceramic composites. As a result of investigation on oxidation resistance and so forth of these composites, the composite was thought to be more effective than a method to graphitize carbon. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  18. FY1995 design of environment-friendly and generation-type conversion title of system for unused carbon resources by developing highly functional materials; 1995 nendo kokino zakryo kaihatsu ni yoru kankyo chowagata jisedai miriyo tanso shigen tenkan system no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Carbon resources such as coal, heavy oil, bitumen and so on are not suitable for the utilization as energy resources from the view-point of the global environment because those contain a great deal of heteroatoms, minerals and water. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to establish the environment-friendly and next generation-type conversion system for unused carbon resources by developing highly functional materials. This project aims at the following researches necessary to establish the conversion system for the unused carbon resources. (1) Development of technologies for pre-treating carbon resources (2) Development of recoverable hydrogenation catalysts capable of repeated use (3) Development of gasification catalysts active at low temperatures (4) Development of inorganic membranes for H{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} separation (5) Development of adsorption separation technologies in the supercritical phase (6) Development of highly active catalysts for CO hydrogenation Each development has been successfully completed and we have much prospect of establishing the conversion system for unused carbon resources. (NEDO)

  19. Fluctuation of the accumulation rate of aerosol in the Hess rise, North pacific, during the last 200 kyr: estimation of aerosol effect to carbon cycle; Kitataiheiyo chu ido iki no Hesu kaibo ni okeru kako 20mannen no fusojin no chinseki hendo to tanso junkan ni ataeta eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahata, h. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Matsumoto, E. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Water Research Inst., Nagoya; Ito, Y. [Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan). Lab. of Oceanography

    1997-05-15

    A sedimentary core recovered from the Hess Rise underlying directly below the westerly wind system in the mid-latitude of the North Pacific provides a detailed record of terrestrial and marine environments during the last 20kyr. Most of the aluminosilicate in the sediments are considered to have been transported through the atmosphere by wind. The mass accumulation rates (MARs) of aerosol quarts increased during stage 2 and middle stage 6, and showed maximal during stage 4. A little terrestrial organic substances must have been transported accompanying aerosol quarts, but most of the organic substances seem to be mostly of marine origin because Corg/N ratio of the organic substances contained in the sediments is 7.4. The phosphorus supply to the sea surface transported by aerosol quarts can be presumed to have a large latent potential to the accumulation of organic carbon. The effect of calcium carbonate supply into the sea surface by aerosol quartz on diminishing CO2 partial pressure in the surface water is found to be only less than 1{mu}atom/year. 55 refs., 6 figs.

  20. International seminar in fiscal 1998 on the development and promotion of global environment-related industrial technologies. Report on International Workshops on CO{sub 2} Cycling and Metabolism in Coral Reef; 1998 nendo chikyu sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. 'Sangosho ni okeru busshitsu ido to tanso junkan' kokusai workshop hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the study of CO{sub 2} absorption and fixation in the marine ecosystem, studies of coral reefs by RITE (Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth) were subjected to discussion at the above-named workshops. It is after the elapse of a long geological time on the earth that CO2 in the atmosphere has arrived at the current level of concentration thanks to fixation and calcification by living organisms and to dissolution into the seawater. In the formation of CaCO{sub 3} that constitutes the coral skeleton, 1 mol Ca combines with 2 mol bicarbonates for the production of 1 mol CaCO{sub 3} and 1 mol CO{sub 2}. The reaction may suggests a consequential increase of CO2 in the atmosphere but such CO{sub 2} is in reality consumed by being converted into organic substances in a photosynthetic process performed by symbiotic algae. Calculation was made for the whole of Bora Bay, Miyakojima Island, and the result was that 700kg-C/day comes to be stored in the form of organic matters in the community of coral reef organisms. In a coral reef, even when it emits CO2 into the atmosphere, there is organic matter production which exceeds the lost CO{sub 2}. Coral reefs fix carbon out of the seawater at the rate of 0.42Gt-C/year, which is the aggregate of 0.3Gt organic matters and 0.12Gt CaCO{sub 3}. (NEDO)

  1. ACOS GOSAT/TANSO-FTS ACOS Level 2 bias-corrected XCO2 and other select fields from the full-physics retrieval aggregated as daily files V7.3 (ACOS_L2_Lite_FP) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ACOS Lite files contain bias-corrected XCO2 along with other select fields aggregated as daily files. Orbital granules of the ACOS Level 2 standard product...

  2. Effect of massive transformation on formation of acicular structure in austenitic stainless steel weld metal solidified as ferritic single phase. Report 5. Study on solidification and subsequent transformation of Cr-Ni stainless steel weld metals; Feraito tanso de gyokosuru osutenaito kei sutenresu ko yosetsu kinzoku ni okeru ashikyura jo soshiki no keisei ni oyobosu masshibu hentai no eikyo.5. Cr-Ni kei sutenresu ko yosetsu kinzoku no gyoko/hentai ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, H.; Koseki, T.; Okita, S.; Fuji, M. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-05

    The authors clarified that massive transformation occurs at two phase region under To temperature and there is K-S relation between the massive formation phase and base phase using {gamma} stainless steel that solidifies at F mode and forms acicular structure at room temperature structure. There is a possibility of massive transformation in weld metals because the cooling rate below the high temperature To was high even for normal welding process. Thereupon, in this report, whether the massive transformation effects the formation of acicular structure or not was studied as for {gamma} stainless steel weld metal that solidifies at F mode and room temperature structure becomes acicular form of two {delta} and {gamma} phase. As a result, it was clarified that massive transformation occurs at two phase region with temperature below To, and the room temperature structure was acicular form structure irrespective to massive transformation in case of composition with small Cr/Ni ratio even in case of stainless steel that solidifies at F mode. 20 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Solidification and transformation behavior of Cr-Ni stainless steel weld metals with ferritic single phase solidification mode. Report 4. Study on solidification and subsequent transformation of Cr-Ni stainless steel weld metals; Feraito tanso de gyokosuru Cr-Ni kei sutenresu ko yosetsu kinzoku no gyoko/hendo kyodo. 4. Cr-Ni kei sutenresu ko yosetsu kinzoku no gyoko/hentai ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, H.; Koseki, T.; Okita, S.; Fuji, M. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-05

    The solidification modes of {gamma} stainless steel that solidifies at initial crystal {delta} are classified into FA mode where solidification at two phase of {delta}+{gamma} takes place after crystallization at {gamma} phase during solidification and F mode where solidification is completed at {delta} single phase, and solidification transformation behaviors of weld metal of FA mode are reported in the previous paper. Hereupon, in this report, solidification and transformation behaviors of stainless steel weld metal of F mode are studied. Cr-Ni stainless steel of F mode consists of two phase stainless steel with two phase base metal structure of {delta}+{gamma} besides {gamma} stainless steel. Further, two phase stainless steel with higher alloy compared to conventional one has been developed. In this report, not only the {gamma} stainless steel but also two phase stainless weld metals with varied amount of alloying metal are studied. The welding method and welding conditions are same as that of previous paper. Observation of structure was carried out by optical microscope, and crystal orientation and element distribution were measured by EBSP and CMA respectively. 11 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  4. A study on the irradiated strength and stress evaluation of nuclear graphite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.M. [Mechanical Design Lab, Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, 79 Daehangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y.S., E-mail: leeys@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, 79 Daehangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H.; Lee, S.J. [Mechanical Design Lab, Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, 79 Daehangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Y.H.; Choo, K.N.; Cho, M.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    In the investigative study of the Isotropic Graphite IG-110 of Toyo Tanso, the shore hardness test, compressive test, bending test and fracture toughness test were conducted. The compressive test, the bending test and the fracture toughness test were performed by MTS-810. Test velocity of the compressive and the bending test were 0.5 mm/min and the fracture toughness test were 0.1 mm/min. The results were compared with manufacturer data of Toyo Tanso. Through irradiation test using HANARO research reactor, hardness and strength of nuclear graphite IG-110 was examined. Strength and hardness of irradiated steel is higher than non-irradiated, but nuclear graphite IG-110 declined unlike steel. To search for characteristic change of nuclear graphite IG-110 under the amounts of neutron, a repeat of the experiment was conducted.

  5. Comparison of XH2O Retrieved from GOSAT Short-Wavelength Infrared Spectra with Observations from the TCCON Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dupuy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the atmospheric distribution of water (H 2 O is crucial for global warming studies and climate change mitigation. In this context, reliable satellite data are extremely valuable for their global and continuous coverage, once their quality has been assessed. Short-wavelength infrared spectra are acquired by the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS aboard the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT. From these, column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor (XH 2 O have been retrieved at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES, Japan and are available as a Level 2 research product. We compare the NIES XH 2 O data, Version 02.21, with retrievals from the ground-based Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON, Version GGG2014. The datasets are in good overall agreement, with GOSAT data showing a slight global low bias of −3.1% ± 24.0%, good consistency over different locations (station bias of −1.53% ± 10.35% and reasonable correlation with TCCON (R = 0.89. We identified two potential sources of discrepancy between the NIES and TCCON retrievals over land. While the TCCON XH 2 O amounts can reach 6000–7000 ppm when the atmospheric water content is high, the correlated NIES values do not exceed 5500 ppm. This could be due to a dry bias of TANSO-FTS in situations of high humidity and aerosol content. We also determined that the GOSAT-TCCON differences directly depend on the altitude difference between the TANSO-FTS footprint and the TCCON site. Further analysis will account for these biases, but the NIES V02.21 XH 2 O product, after public release, can already be useful for water cycle studies.

  6. Detection of Absorbing Aerosol Using Single Near-UV Radiance Measurements from a Cloud and Aerosol Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujung Go

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ultra-Violet Aerosol Index (UVAI is a practical parameter for detecting aerosols that absorb UV radiation, especially where other aerosol retrievals fail, such as over bright surfaces (e.g., deserts and clouds. However, typical UVAI retrieval requires at least two UV channels, while several satellite instruments, such as the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI instrument onboard a Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, provide single channel UV radiances. In this study, a new UVAI retrieval method was developed which uses a single UV channel. A single channel aerosol index (SAI is defined to measure the extent to which an absorbing aerosol state differs from its state with minimized absorption by aerosol. The SAI qualitatively represents absorbing aerosols by considering a 30-day minimum composite and the variability in aerosol absorption. This study examines the feasibility of detecting absorbing aerosols using a UV-constrained satellite, focusing on those which have a single UV channel. The Vector LInearized pseudo-spherical Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (VLIDORT was used to test the sensitivity of the SAI and UVAI to aerosol optical properties. The theoretical calculations showed that highly absorbing aerosols have a meaningful correlation with SAI. The retrieved SAI from OMI and operational OMI UVAI were also in good agreement when UVAI values were greater than 0.7 (the absorption criteria of UVAI. The retrieved SAI from the TANSO-CAI data was compared with operational OMI UVAI data, demonstrating a reasonable agreement and low rate of false detection for cases of absorbing aerosols in East Asia. The SAI retrieved from TANSO-CAI was in better agreement with OMI UVAI, particularly for the values greater than the absorbing threshold value of 0.7.

  7. Retrieval of atmospheric CO2 from satellite near-infrared nadir spectra in the frame of ESA's climate change initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, Maximilian; Buchwitz, Michael; Schneising, Oliver; Heymann, Jens; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John [Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    ESA's climate change initiative (CCI) aims at global satellite measurements of essential climate variables (ECV). One of these variables is X{sub CO{sub 2}} (the column-average dry-air mole fraction of atmospheric CO{sub 2}) which is retrieved from the satellite instruments SCIAMACHY aboard ENVISAT and TANSO aboard GOSAT. Results of the SCIAMACHY retrieval algorithms WFM-DOAS and BESD are the focus of the presentation. This includes a comparison against ground based FTS measurements, GOSAT retrievals, and model results.

  8. Proton irradiated graphite grades for a long baseline neutrino facility experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Simos, N; Nocera, P.; Z. Zhong; Zwaska, R.; Mokhov, N.; Misek, J.; Ammigan, K.; Hurh, P.; Z. Kotsina

    2017-01-01

    In search of a low-Z pion production target for the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) four graphite grades were irradiated with protons in the energy range of 140–180 MeV, to peak fluence of ∼6.1×10^{20}  p/cm^{2} and irradiation temperatures between 120–200 °C. The test array included POCO ZXF-5Q, Toyo-Tanso IG 430, Carbone-Lorraine 2020 and SGL R7650 grades of graphite. Irradiation was performed at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Produce...

  9. Investigation of photon path length distributions in cloudy atmospheres using GOSAT satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremmling, Beke; Beirle, Steffen; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Photon path length distributions in the atmosphere are significantly affected by multiple scattering events by the presence of clouds. Our study investigates photon path length distributions for different cloud situations by combining high-resolution space-based measurements of the oxygen A-band with radiative transfer simulations. The measured spectra originate from the GOSAT TANSO-FTS instrument whose high spectral resolution allows to almost resolve individual absorption lines, which is a prerequisite to our study. The spectra are compared to radiance simulations from the Monte Carlo Model McArtim, which also provides detailed information on the simulated scattering events. Apart from radiance spectra, the simulation output contains information on each simulated scattering event. This can be used to infer photon path length distributions. In addition, also the photon penetration depth and altitude-resolved photon path length distributions for individual altitude layers are derived. To verify the retrieval method, the TANSO-FTS dataset has been screened for collocations with measurements from CALIOP (CALIPSO) and CPR (CloudSat). Well-characterized cloud scenes have been selected for further analysis. The spectral agreement is discussed and cloud characteristics, such as the cloud altitude, thickness and optical depth, are compared to the values measured by CALIOP and CPR.

  10. GOSAT TIR radiometric validation toward simultaneous GHG column and profile observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, F.; Knuteson, R. O.; Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Saitoh, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched on January 2009 and continues its operation for more than six years. The thermal and near infrared sensor for carbon observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard GOSAT measures greenhouse gases (GHG), such as CO2 and CH4, with wide and high resolution spectra from shortwave infrared (SWIR) to thermal infrared (TIR). This instrument has the advantage of being able to measure simultaneously the same field of view in different spectral ranges. The combination of column-GHG form SWIR band and vertical profile-GHG from TIR band provide better understanding and distribution of GHG, especially in troposphere. This work describes the radiometric validation and sensitivity analysis of TANSO-FTS TIR spectra, especially CO2, atmospheric window and CH4 channels with forward calculation. In this evaluation, we used accurate in-situ dataset of the HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observation) airplane observation data and GOSAT vicarious calibration and validation campaign data in Railroad Valley, NV. The HIPPO aircraft campaign had taken accurate atmospheric vertical profile dataset (T, RH, O3, CO2, CH4, N2O, CO) approximately pole-to-pole from the surface to the tropopause over the ocean. We implemented these dataset for forward calculation and made the spectral correction model with respect to wavenumber and internal calibration blackbody temperature The GOSAT vicarious calibration campaign have conducted every year since 2009 near summer solstice in Railroad Valley, where high-temperature desert site. In this campaign, we have measured temperature and humidity by a radiosonde and CO2, CH4 and O3 profile by the AJAX airplane at the time of the GOSAT overpass. Sometimes, the GHG profiles over the Railroad Valley show the air mass advection in mid-troposphere depending on upper wind. These advections bring the different concentration of GHG in lower and upper troposphere. Using these cases, we made

  11. The role of Japan's industry in the HTTR design and its construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minatsuki, I. [Nuclear Systems engineering Department, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Minatomirai 3-Chome, Nishi-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 220-8401 (Japan)]. E-mail: isao_minatsuki@mhi.co.jp; Tanihira, M. [Nuclear Systems engineering Department, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Minatomirai 3-Chome, Nishi-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 220-8401 (Japan); Mizokami, Y. [Nagasaki Shipyard and Machinery Works, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Akunoura-machi, Nagasaki 850-8610 (Japan); Miyoshi, Y. [Nagasaki Shipyard and Machinery Works, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Akunoura-machi, Nagasaki 850-8610 (Japan); Hayakawa, H. [Nuclear Power Division, Fuji Electric Systems Co. Ltd., Tanabeshinden, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 210-8530 (Japan); Okamoto, F. [Nuclear Power Division, Fuji Electric Systems Co. Ltd., Tanabeshinden, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 210-8530 (Japan); Maekawa, I. [Nuclear Plant Department, Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Minamisuna, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-8588 (Japan); Takeuchi, K. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Project Department, Hitachi Ltd, Shinko-cho, Hitachinaka-shi, Ibaraki 312-0005 (Japan); Kodama, H. [Nuclear Power Design Department, Babcock-Hitachi K.K Kure Division, Takara machi, Kure-shi, Hiroshima 737-8508 (Japan); Fukuie, M. [Advanced Systems Design and Engineering Department, Toshiba Corporation, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan); Kan, N. [Power Plant Engineering Department, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Shin-Nakahara-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan); Kato, S. [Advanced Reactor Fuels Department, Nuclear Fuel Industries Ltd., Tokaimura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1196 (Japan); Nishimura, K. [Advanced Reactor Fuels Department, Nuclear Fuel Industries Ltd., Tokaimura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1196 (Japan); Konishi, T. [Department of New Application Development, Toyo Tanso Co. Ltd., Nakahime, Ohnohara-cho, Mitoyo-gun, Kagawa 769-1612 (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    The research and development (R and D) of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) has been carried out by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since the 1960s. The construction of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) started in March 1991 for the purpose of the establishment and advancement of basic HTGR technology, as well as the application of advanced research. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Fuji Electric, Toshiba, Hitachi, Nuclear Fuel Industries and Toyo Tanso have participated in this project since the R and D stage of HTTR in the area of high temperature equipment design, system design and safety design. The installation was completed in November 1996, and was then handed over to JAERI in September 1997. This paper summarizes the roles of each industrial organization in the HTTR design and construction.

  12. An update on GOSAT standard products at five-and-a-half years after the launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiro, Masataka; Kawazoe, Fumie; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2014-11-01

    GOSAT has been operated more than 5.5 years after its launch on January 23, 2009. Receiving TANSO-FTS Level 1A/1B data and TANSO-CAI Level 1A data from JAXA (FTS: Fourier Transform Spectrometer; CAI: Cloud and Aerosol Imager, JAXA: Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency), National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has provided various kinds of Standard data products such as FTS SWIR Level 2 (XCO2 and XCH4: column concentrations of CO2 and CH4), FTS TIR Level 2 (vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 concentration), FTS Level 4A (global CO2 flux), FTS Level 4B (global CO2 distribution), CAI Level 1B/1B+, and CAI Level 2 (cloud flag). After the latest updates of FTS Level 1 products to V161.160 (Version 161.160) by JAXA in 2013, now FTS SWIR Level 2 products are available as V02.21 (Version 02.21) for the entire period from April 2009 to May 2014. In March 2014, FTS Level 4 products of CO2 (V02.02) were processed with FTS Level 2 (V02.21) for the period of June 2009 to October 2011. FTS Level 4 products of CH4 (V01.01) were newly added to the Standard products and are available for 2 years from June 2009. FTS TIR Level 2 products (V01.0x) were updated in August 2014 and delivered to general users for 2.5 years from January 2010. There were some minor changes in their data format. After improving product search functions with an interactive map operation in GUIG (GUIG: GOSAT User Interface Gateway), general users are able to find and download these Standard products for their concerning area much easily.

  13. Assessment of Global Carbon Dioxide Concentration Using MODIS and GOSAT Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas (GHG in the atmosphere and is the greatest contributor to global warming. CO2 concentration data are usually obtained from ground observation stations or from a small number of satellites. Because of the limited number of observations and the short time series of satellite data, it is difficult to monitor CO2 concentrations on regional or global scales for a long time. The use of the remote sensing data such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data can overcome these problems, particularly in areas with low densities of CO2 concentration watch stations. A model based on temperature (MOD11C3, vegetation cover (MOD13C2 and MOD15A2 and productivity (MOD17A2 of MODIS (which we have named the TVP model was developed in the current study to assess CO2 concentrations on a global scale. We assumed that CO2 concentration from the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO aboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT are the true values and we used these values to check the TVP model accuracy. The results indicate that the accuracy of the TVP model is different in different continents: the greatest Pearson’s correlation coefficient (R2 was 0.75 in Eurasia (RMSE = 1.16 and South America (RMSE = 1.17; the lowest R2 was 0.57 in Australia (RMSE = 0.73. Compared with the TANSO-observed CO2 concentration (XCO2, we found that the accuracy throughout the World is between −2.56~3.14 ppm. Potential sources of TVP model uncertainties were also analyzed and identified.

  14. Assessment of global carbon dioxide concentration using MODIS and GOSAT data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Wang, Xiufeng; Li, Jing; Yi, Kunpeng; Zhong, Guosheng; Tani, Hiroshi

    2012-11-26

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is the most important greenhouse gas (GHG) in the atmosphere and is the greatest contributor to global warming. CO(2) concentration data are usually obtained from ground observation stations or from a small number of satellites. Because of the limited number of observations and the short time series of satellite data, it is difficult to monitor CO(2) concentrations on regional or global scales for a long time. The use of the remote sensing data such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data can overcome these problems, particularly in areas with low densities of CO(2) concentration watch stations. A model based on temperature (MOD11C3), vegetation cover (MOD13C2 and MOD15A2) and productivity (MOD17A2) of MODIS (which we have named the TVP model) was developed in the current study to assess CO(2) concentrations on a global scale. We assumed that CO(2) concentration from the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) aboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) are the true values and we used these values to check the TVP model accuracy. The results indicate that the accuracy of the TVP model is different in different continents: the greatest Pearson's correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.75 in Eurasia (RMSE = 1.16) and South America (RMSE = 1.17); the lowest R2 was 0.57 in Australia (RMSE = 0.73). Compared with the TANSO-observed CO(2) concentration (XCO(2)), we found that the accuracy throughout the World is between -2.56~3.14 ppm. Potential sources of TVP model uncertainties were also analyzed and identified.

  15. The Impact of Different Support Vectors on GOSAT-2 CAI-2 L2 Cloud Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Oishi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite-2 (GOSAT-2 will be launched in fiscal year 2018. GOSAT-2 will be equipped with two sensors: the Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO-Fourier Transform Spectrometer 2 (FTS-2 and the TANSO-Cloud and Aerosol Imager 2 (CAI-2. CAI-2 is a push-broom imaging sensor that has forward- and backward-looking bands to observe the optical properties of aerosols and clouds and to monitor the status of urban air pollution and transboundary air pollution over oceans, such as PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter. CAI-2 has important applications for cloud discrimination in each direction. The Cloud and Aerosol Unbiased Decision Intellectual Algorithm (CLAUDIA1, which applies sequential threshold tests to features is used for GOSAT CAI L2 cloud flag processing. If CLAUDIA1 is used with CAI-2, it is necessary to optimize the thresholds in accordance with CAI-2. However, CLAUDIA3 with support vector machines (SVM, a supervised pattern recognition method, was developed, and then we applied CLAUDIA3 for GOSAT-2 CAI-2 L2 cloud discrimination processing. Thus, CLAUDIA3 can automatically find the optimized boundary between clear and cloudy areas. Improvements in CLAUDIA3 using CAI (CLAUDIA3-CAI continue to be made. In this study, we examined the impact of various support vectors (SV on GOSAT-2 CAI-2 L2 cloud discrimination by analyzing (1 the impact of the choice of different time periods for the training data and (2 the impact of different generation procedures for SV on the cloud discrimination efficiency. To generate SV for CLAUDIA3-CAI from MODIS data, there are two times at which features are extracted, corresponding to CAI bands. One procedure is equivalent to generating SV using CAI data. Another procedure generates SV for MODIS cloud discrimination at the beginning, and then extracts decision function, thresholds, and SV corresponding to CAI bands. Our results indicated the following

  16. Overview of Japanese Earth observation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Haruhisa

    2016-10-01

    Five programs, i.e. ASTER, GOSAT, GCOM-W1, GPM and ALOS-2 are going on in Japanese Earth Observation programs. ASTER has lost its short wave infrared channels. AMSR-E stopped its operation, but it started its operation from Sep. 2012 with slow rotation speed. It finally stopped on December 2015. GCOM-W1 was launched on 18, May, 2012 and is operating well as well as GOSAT. ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) was successfully launched on 24th Jan. 2006. ALOS carries three instruments, i.e., PRISM (Panchromatic Remote Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping), AVNIR-2 (Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer), and PALSAR (Phased Array L band Synthetic Aperture Radar). Unfortunately, ALOS has stopped its operation on 22nd, April, 2011 by power loss. GOSAT (Greenhouse Gas Observation Satellite) was successfully launched on 29, January, 2009. GOSAT carries 2 instruments, i.e. a green house gas sensor (TANSO-FTS) and a cloud/aerosol imager (TANSO-CAI). The main sensor is a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and covers 0.76 to 15 μm region with 0.2 to 0.5 cm-1 resolution. SMILES (Superconducting Millimeter wave Emission Spectrometer) was launched on September 2009 to ISS and started the observation, but stopped its operation on April 2010. GPM (Global Precipitation Mission) core satellite was launched on Feb. 2014. GPM is a joint project with NASA and carries two instruments. JAXA has developed DPR (Dual frequency Precipitation Radar) which is a follow on of PR on TRMM. ALOS F/O satellites are divided into two satellites, i.e. SAR and optical satellites. The first one of ALOS F/O is called ALOS 2 and carries L-band SAR. It was launched on May 2014. JAXA is planning to launch follow on of optical sensors. It is now called Advanced Optical Satellite and the planned launch date is fiscal 2019. Other future satellites are GCOM-C1 (ADEOS-2 follow on), GOSAT-2 and EarthCare. GCOM-C1 will be launched on fiscal 2016 and GOSAT-2 will be launched on fiscal 2017. Another

  17. Overview of Japanese Earth observation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Haruhisa; Honda, Yoshiaki

    2017-09-01

    Five programs, i.e. ASTER, GOSAT, GCOM-W1, GPM and ALOS-2 are going on in Japanese Earth Observation programs. ASTER has lost its short wave infrared channels. AMSR-E stopped its operation, but it started its operation from Sep. 2012 with slow rotation speed. It finally stopped on December 2015. GCOM-W1 was launched on 18, May, 2012 and is operating well as well as GOSAT. ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) was successfully launched on 24th Jan. 2006. ALOS carries three instruments, i.e., PRISM (Panchromatic Remote Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping), AVNIR-2 (Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer), and PALSAR (Phased Array L band Synthetic Aperture Radar). Unfortunately, ALOS has stopped its operation on 22nd, April, 2011 by power loss. GOSAT (Greenhouse Gas Observation Satellite) was successfully launched on 29, January, 2009. GOSAT carries 2 instruments, i.e. a green house gas sensor (TANSO-FTS) and a cloud/aerosol imager (TANSO-CAI). The main sensor is a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and covers 0.76 to 15 μm region with 0.2 to 0.5 cm-1 resolution. SMILES (Superconducting Millimeter wave Emission Spectrometer) was launched on September 2009 to ISS and started the observation, but stopped its operation on April 2010. GPM (Global Precipitation Mission) core satellite was launched on Feb. 2014. GPM is a joint project with NASA and carries two instruments. JAXA has developed DPR (Dual frequency Precipitation Radar) which is a follow on of PR on TRMM. ALOS F/O satellites are divided into two satellites, i.e. SAR and optical satellites. The first one of ALOS F/O is called ALOS 2 and carries L-band SAR. It was launched on May 2014. JAXA is planning to launch follow on of optical sensors. It is now called Advanced Optical Satellite and the planned launch date is fiscal 2019. Other future satellites are GCOM-C1 (ADEOS-2 follow on), GOSAT-2 and EarthCare. GCOM-C1 will be launched on 2017 and GOSAT-2 will be launched on fiscal 2018. Another project

  18. Spatial and temporal distribution of carbon dioxide gas using GOSAT data over IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahatkar, Samereh; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen; Farajzadeh, Manochehr

    2017-11-09

    CO2 concentration (XCO2) shows the spatial and temporal variation in Iran. The major purpose of this investigation is the assessment of the spatial distribution of carbon dioxide concentration in the different seasons of 2013 based on the Thermal And Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) level 2 GOSAT data by implementing the ordinary kriging (OK) method. In this study, the Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and metrological parameters (temperature and precipitation) were used for the analysis of the spatial distribution of CO2 over Iran in 2013. The spatial distribution maps of XCO2 show the highest concentration of this gas in the south and south-east and the lowest concentration in the north and north-west. These results indicate that the concentration of carbon dioxide decreased with the increase of LST and temperature and a decrease of NDVI and humidity in the study area. Therefore, the existence of vegetation has an effective role in capturing carbon from the atmosphere by photosynthesis phenomena, and sustainable land management can be effective for carbon absorption from the atmosphere and mitigation of climate change in arid and semi-arid regions.

  19. CARBONGASES: Retrieval and Analysis of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Greenhouse Gases from SCIAMACHY on Envisat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneising, O.; Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Despite their importance our knowledge about their variable natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks has significant gaps. Satellite observations can add important global scale information on greenhouse gas sources and sinks provided the data are accurate and precise enough and are sensitive to the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability due to regional greenhouse gas sources and sinks are largest. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT was the first and is now besides TANSO onboard GOSAT the only satellite instrument which covers important absorption bands of both gases in the near-infrared/shortwave- infrared (NIR/SWIR) spectral region. In nadir mode SCIAMACHY observes reflected and backscattered solar radiation. The daytime measurements are therefore very sensitive to near-surface greenhouse gas concentration changes except in case of significant cloud cover. The atmospheric greenhouse gas information is extracted from the SCIAMACHY spectra using the Weighting Function Modified Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (WFM-DOAS or WFMD) algorithm developed at the Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP) of the University of Bremen, Germany. In the framework of the CARBONGASES project, which is part of the Changing Earth Science Network, the afore existing data set focussing on the first three full years of the ENVISAT mission (2003-2005) is improved and extended up to end of 2009 constituting seven years of greenhouse gas information derived from European Earth observation data and closing the gap to GOSAT. The status of this retrieval activity and first results are presented.

  20. Analysis of GOSAT XCO2 in explosive volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Christoph; Andrews, Benjamin J.; Carn, Simon A.; Chance, Kelly; Cottrell, Elizabeth; Schwandner, Florian M.

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we analyze columnar averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) in volcanic gas plumes after major eruptions using space-borne near-infrared measurements from the Japanese Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Volcanic emissions are assumed to dominate the flux from the deep Earth to the surface but those global emissions as well as the partitioning between eruptive and non-eruptive emissions are to date highly uncertain. Satellite measurements are an indispensable complement to ground-based measurements of volcanic CO2 emissions because they are performed globally and regularly and they therefore have the potential to significantly broaden our knowledge of volcanic CO2 releases. However, the remote sensing of volcanic CO2 is challenging for various reasons, including the increasingly high atmospheric background, relatively coarse spatial resolution and/or sampling, and scattering effects of aerosols and clouds. We mined existing standard product level 2 GOSAT XCO2 data sets for a volcanic CO2 signal in the gas plumes of the largest volcanic eruptions since GOSAT's launch in 2009. These eruptions include the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 4 events of Sarychev Peak (Kuril Islands, Russia) in June 2009, Nabro (Ethiopia) in June 2011, and Puyehue-Cordon Caulle (Chile) in June 2011. GOSAT background and plume soundings are distinguished using corresponding Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) SO2 retrievals taking advantage of the usually low atmospheric SO2 background abundance. A volcanic CO2 signal in the GOSAT products can subsequently be found by comparing GOSAT XCO2 for the plume and background soundings. Possible XCO2 enhancements in the volcanic plumes are converted to an estimated CO2 release of the investigated eruptions. Based on this analysis, the current capabilities and added value of GOSAT TANSO-FTS to detect and quantify CO2 emissions from explosive volcanism are outlined.

  1. Using ocean-glint scattered sunlight as a diagnostic tool for satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic measurements of sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface is a technique widely used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituent concentrations from space. Thereby, remote sensing of greenhouse gases poses particularly challenging accuracy requirements for instrumentation and retrieval algorithms which, in general, suffer from various error sources. Here, we investigate a method that helps disentangle sources of error for observations of sunlight backscattered from the glint spot on the ocean surface. The method exploits the backscattering characteristics of the ocean surface, which is bright for glint geometry but dark for off-glint angles. This property allows for identifying a set of clean scenes where light scattering due to particles in the atmosphere is negligible such that uncertain knowledge of the lightpath can be excluded as a source of error. We apply the method to more than 3 yr of ocean-glint measurements by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT, which aims at measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 concentrations. The proposed method is able to clearly monitor recent improvements in the instrument calibration of the oxygen (O2 A-band channel and suggests some residual uncertainty in our knowledge about the instrument. We further assess the consistency of CO2 retrievals from several absorption bands between 6400 cm−1 (1565 nm and 4800 cm−1 (2100 nm and find that the absorption bands commonly used for monitoring of CO2 dry air mole fractions from GOSAT allow for consistency better than 1.5 ppm. Usage of other bands reveals significant inconsistency among retrieved CO2 concentrations pointing at inconsistency of spectroscopic parameters.

  2. Initial Comparison of Baseline Physical and Mechanical Properties for the VHTR Candidate Graphite Grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Mark C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). VHTR Program

    2014-09-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design, a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled configuration capable of producing thermal energy for power generation as well as process heat for industrial applications that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is establishing accurate as-manufactured mechanical and physical property distributions in nuclear-grade graphites by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a thorough comparison between these values in different graphite grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons both in specific properties and in the associated variability between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between each of the grades of graphite that are considered “candidate” grades from four major international graphite producers. These particular grades (NBG-18, NBG-17, PCEA, IG-110, and 2114) are the major focus of the evaluations presently underway on irradiated graphite properties through the series of Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiments. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL from which billets are formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration. NBG-17 graphite from SGL is essentially NBG-18 with the grain size reduced by a factor of two. PCEA, petroleum coke graphite from GrafTech with a similar grain size to NBG-17, is formed via an extrusion process and was initially considered the favored grade for the prismatic layout. IG-110 and 2114, from Toyo Tanso and Mersen (formerly Carbone Lorraine), respectively, are fine-grain grades produced via an isomolding

  3. Consistent satellite XCO2 retrievals from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT using the BESD algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, J.; Reuter, M.; Hilker, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Schneising, O.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Deutscher, N. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Hase, F.; Kawakami, S.; Kivi, R.; Morino, I.; Petri, C.; Roehl, C.; Schneider, M.; Sherlock, V.; Sussmann, R.; Velazco, V. A.; Warneke, T.; Wunch, D.

    2015-07-01

    Consistent and accurate long-term data sets of global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) are required for carbon cycle and climate-related research. However, global data sets based on satellite observations may suffer from inconsistencies originating from the use of products derived from different satellites as needed to cover a long enough time period. One reason for inconsistencies can be the use of different retrieval algorithms. We address this potential issue by applying the same algorithm, the Bremen Optimal Estimation DOAS (BESD) algorithm, to different satellite instruments, SCIAMACHY on-board ENVISAT (March 2002-April 2012) and TANSO-FTS on-board GOSAT (launched in January 2009), to retrieve XCO2, the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of CO2. BESD has been initially developed for SCIAMACHY XCO2 retrievals. Here, we present the first detailed assessment of the new GOSAT BESD XCO2 product. GOSAT BESD XCO2 is a product generated and delivered to the MACC project for assimilation into ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System. We describe the modifications of the BESD algorithm needed in order to retrieve XCO2 from GOSAT and present detailed comparisons with ground-based observations of XCO2 from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). We discuss detailed comparison results between all three XCO2 data sets (SCIAMACHY, GOSAT and TCCON). The comparison results demonstrate the good consistency between SCIAMACHY and GOSAT XCO2. For example, we found a mean difference for daily averages of -0.60 ± 1.56 ppm (mean difference ± standard deviation) for GOSAT-SCIAMACHY (linear correlation coefficient r=0.82), -0.34 ± 1.37 ppm (r = 0.86) for GOSAT-TCCON and 0.10 ± 1.79 ppm (r = 0.75) for SCIAMACHY-TCCON. The remaining differences between GOSAT and SCIAMACHY are likely due to non-perfect collocation (± 2 h, 10° x 10° around TCCON sites), i.e. the observed air masses are not exactly identical but likely also due to a still non-perfect BESD

  4. Satellite-derived methane hotspot emission estimates using a fast data-driven method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, Michael; Schneising, Oliver; Reuter, Maximilian; Heymann, Jens; Krautwurst, Sven; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.; Boesch, Hartmut; Parker, Robert J.; Somkuti, Peter; Detmers, Rob G.; Hasekamp, Otto P.; Aben, Ilse; Butz, André; Frankenberg, Christian; Turner, Alexander J.

    2017-05-01

    Methane is an important atmospheric greenhouse gas and an adequate understanding of its emission sources is needed for climate change assessments, predictions, and the development and verification of emission mitigation strategies. Satellite retrievals of near-surface-sensitive column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of atmospheric methane, i.e. XCH4, can be used to quantify methane emissions. Maps of time-averaged satellite-derived XCH4 show regionally elevated methane over several methane source regions. In order to obtain methane emissions of these source regions we use a simple and fast data-driven method to estimate annual methane emissions and corresponding 1σ uncertainties directly from maps of annually averaged satellite XCH4. From theoretical considerations we expect that our method tends to underestimate emissions. When applying our method to high-resolution atmospheric methane simulations, we typically find agreement within the uncertainty range of our method (often 100 %) but also find that our method tends to underestimate emissions by typically about 40 %. To what extent these findings are model dependent needs to be assessed. We apply our method to an ensemble of satellite XCH4 data products consisting of two products from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and two products from TANSO-FTS/GOSAT covering the time period 2003-2014. We obtain annual emissions of four source areas: Four Corners in the south-western USA, the southern part of Central Valley, California, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan. We find that our estimated emissions are in good agreement with independently derived estimates for Four Corners and Azerbaijan. For the Central Valley and Turkmenistan our estimated annual emissions are higher compared to the EDGAR v4.2 anthropogenic emission inventory. For Turkmenistan we find on average about 50 % higher emissions with our annual emission uncertainty estimates overlapping with the EDGAR emissions. For the region around Bakersfield in the Central Valley we

  5. The Canadian Arctic ACE/OSIRIS Validation Project at PEARL: Validating Satellite Observations Over the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kaley A.; Strong, Kimberly; Fogal, Pierre F.; Drummond, James R.

    2016-04-01

    , the CANDAC Bruker 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer, a Systeme d'Analyse par Observations Zenithales (SAOZ) instrument, and several Brewer spectrophotometers. In the past several years, these results have been used to validate the measurements by the ACE-FTS, ACE-MAESTRO, and OSIRIS instruments as well as the TANSO-FTS instrument on the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). This presentation will focus on an overview of the measurements made by the ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite-borne instruments during the recent ACE/OSIRIS Arctic Validation campaigns and highlight how these have been used for satellite validation.

  6. Small Specimen Data from a High Temperature HFIR Irradiation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel Lee [ORNL; Thoms, Kenneth R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The HTV capsule is a High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) target-rod capsule designed to operate at very high temperatures. The graphite containing section of the capsule (in core) is approximately 18 inches (457.2 mm) long and is separated into eight temperature zones. The specimen diameters within each zone are set to achieve the desired gas gap and hence design temperature (900 C, 1200 C or 1500 C). The capsule has five zones containing 0.400 inch (10.16 mm) diameter specimens, two zones containing 0.350 inch (8.89 mm) diameter specimens and one zone containing 0.300 inch (7.62 mm) diameter specimens. The zones have been distributed within the experiment to optimize the gamma heating from the HFIR core as well as minimize the axial heat flow in the capsule. Consequently, there are two 900 C zones, three 1200 C zones, and three 1500 C zones within the HTV capsule. Each zone contains nine specimens 0.210 0.002 inches (5.334 mm) in length. The capsule will be irradiated to a peak dose of 3.17 displacements per atom. The HTV specimens include samples of the following graphite grades: SGL Carbon s NBG-17 and NBG-18, GrafTech s PCEA, Toyo Tanso s IG-110, Mersen s 2114 and the reference grade H-451 (SGL Carbon). As part of the pre-irradiation program the specimens were characterized using ASTM Standards C559 for bulk density, and ASTM C769 for approximate Young s modulus from the sonic velocity. The probe frequency used for the determination of time of flight of the ultrasonic signal was 2.25 MHz. Marked volume (specimen diameter) effects were noted for both bulk density (increased with increasing specimen volume or diameter) and Dynamic Young s modulus (decreased with increasing specimen volume or diameter). These trends are extended by adding the property vs. diameter data for unirradiated AGC-1 creep specimens (nominally 12.5 mm-diameter x 25.4 mm-length). The relatively large reduction in Dynamic Young s Modulus was surprising given the trend for increasing density

  7. The Potential for Methane Isotopologue Channels in GOSAT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Edward; Yoshida, Yukio; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2017-04-01

    Of the major Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) currently considered as having a major impact on atmospheric chemistry, Methane is amongst the most important (IPCC, 2014). Methane concentration in the atmosphere has been documented to be rising steadily over the past century, aside from an unexplained short period in the middle of the last decade (Heimann., 2011), leading to renewed efforts to understand global atmospheric Methane. Atmospheric Methane is primarily composed of two key isotopologues, 12CH4 and 13CH4, which have a natural abundance of about 98% and 1.1% respectively. It is a well-established fact that different sources of Methane (i.e. biogenic sources such as methanogens, or non-biogenic such as industrial hydrocarbon burning) vary in the abundance of these isotopologues (Etiope, 2009). The global identification of the ratios of these isotopologues could vastly increase knowledge of global Methane sources, and shed some light on global Methane growth. GOSAT-2 due to be launched in 2018 is a follow on from the original GOSAT mission launched in 2009. GOSAT-2 aims to continue the legacy of GOSAT by providing global measurements of Methane and Carbon Dioxide on a global basis in order to monitor GHG emissions. GOSAT-2 in the context of this study has a significant advantage over GOSAT, which is the extension of the sensitivity of band 3 to 2330nm from 2080nm where significant numbers of Methane spectral lines are located. In this study we apply the well-established Information Content (IC) analysis techniques originally proposed by Rodgers (2000) to determine the potential benefit of retrieving total column Methane isotopologue concentrations assuming bands 2 and 3 of the GOSAT-2/TANSO-FTS-2 instrument. The value of such studies has been proven on multiple occasions and can provide guidance on appropriate potential retrieval setups. Due to the fact that there has been limited research in this area, no 'a priori' state vectors or Variance Covariance Matrices (VCMs

  8. Long-term analysis of carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged mole fractions retrieved from SCIAMACHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schneising

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launch 2002 was the first and is now with TANSO onboard GOSAT (launch 2009 one of only two satellite instruments currently in space whose measurements are sensitive to CO2 and CH4 concentration changes in the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability due to sources and sinks is largest.

    We present long-term SCIAMACHY retrievals (2003–2009 of column-averaged dry air mole fractions of both gases (denoted XCO2 and XCH4 derived from absorption bands in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared (NIR/SWIR spectral region focusing on large-scale features. The results are obtained using an upgraded version (v2 of the retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS including several improvements, while simultaneously maintaining its high processing speed. The retrieved mole fractions are compared to global model simulations (CarbonTracker XCO2 and TM5 XCH4 being optimised by assimilating highly accurate surface measurements from the NOAA/ESRL network and taking the SCIAMACHY averaging kernels into account. The comparisons address seasonal variations and long-term characteristics.

    The steady increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide primarily caused by the burning of fossil fuels can be clearly observed with SCIAMACHY globally. The retrieved global annual mean XCO2 increase agrees with CarbonTracker within the error bars (1.80±0.13 ppm yr−1 compared to 1.81±0.09 ppm yr−1. The amplitude of the XCO2 seasonal cycle as retrieved by SCIAMACHY, which is 4.3±0.2 ppm for the Northern Hemisphere and 1.4±0.2 ppm for the Southern Hemisphere, is on average about 1 ppm larger than for CarbonTracker.

    An investigation of the boreal forest carbon uptake during the

  9. Proton irradiated graphite grades for a long baseline neutrino facility experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Simos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In search of a low-Z pion production target for the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE four graphite grades were irradiated with protons in the energy range of 140–180 MeV, to peak fluence of ∼6.1×10^{20}  p/cm^{2} and irradiation temperatures between 120–200 °C. The test array included POCO ZXF-5Q, Toyo-Tanso IG 430, Carbone-Lorraine 2020 and SGL R7650 grades of graphite. Irradiation was performed at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer. Postirradiation analyses were performed with the objective of (a comparing their response under the postulated irradiation conditions to guide a graphite grade selection for use as a pion target and (b understanding changes in physical and mechanical properties as well as microstructure that occurred as a result of the achieved fluence and in particular at this low-temperature regime where pion graphite targets are expected to operate. A further goal of the postirradiation evaluation was to establish a proton-neutron correlation damage on graphite that will allow for the use of a wealth of available neutron-based damage data in proton-based studies and applications. Macroscopic postirradiation analyses as well as energy dispersive x-ray diffraction of 200 KeV x rays at the NSLS synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory were employed. The macroscopic analyses revealed differences in the physical and strength properties of the four grades with behavior however under proton irradiation that qualitatively agrees with that reported for graphite under neutrons for the same low temperature regime and in particular the increase of thermal expansion, strength and Young’s modulus. The proton fluence level of ∼10^{20}  cm^{−2} where strength reaches a maximum before it begins to decrease at higher fluences has been identified and it agrees with neutron-induced changes. X-ray diffraction analyses of the proton irradiated graphite

  10. Retrieving CO2 from Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, David

    2014-06-01

    reflected sunlight in near infrared CO2 and O2 bands. However, this is among the most challenging space-based remote sensing applications because even the largest CO2 sources and sinks produce changes in the background XCO2 distribution no larger than 1%, and most are smaller 0.25% (˜1 ppm). This approach was pioneered by the European Space Agency's EnviSat SCIAMACHY and Japanese GOSAT TANSO-FTS instruments. These sensors have provided valuable insights into space based XCO2 measurement techniques, but still do not have the sensitivity, resolution, and coverage needed to quantify CO2 sources and sinks on regional scales. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) is the first NASA spacecraft designed to exploit this measurement approach. This spacecraft carries and points a 3channel, imaging, grating spectrometer that collects high resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in the 765 nm O2 A-band and in the 1610 and 2060 nm CO2 bands. Coincident O2 and CO2 spectra are combined into "soundings" that are analyzed with a full-physics retrieval algorithm to yield estimates of XCO2. Each spectrometer channel will collect 24 spectra per second, yielding up to a million soundings per day over the sunlit hemisphere. Between 10 and 30% of these soundings are expected to be sufficiently cloud free to yield full-column estimates of XCO2. OCO-2 is currently scheduled for launch from Space Launch Complex 2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on a United Launch Alliance Delta-II 7320-10 Launch Vehicle at 02:56:44 AM PDT (12:56:44 GMT) on 1 July 2014. The nominal spacecraft checkout and orbit raising plan will take about 37 days to insert the observatory into the 705-km Afternoon Constellation (A-Train). This 98.8-minute, sun-synchronous orbit has a 98.2-degree inclination, a 1:36:30 PM mean ascending equator crossing time time, and a 16-day (233 orbit) ground track repeat cycle. Once in the A-Train, the instrument's optical bench and detectors will be cooled to their operating

  11. Atmospheric CH4 and CO2 enhancements and biomass burning emission ratios derived from satellite observations of the 2015 Indonesian fire plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert J.; Boesch, Hartmut; Wooster, Martin J.; Moore, David P.; Webb, Alex J.; Gaveau, David; Murdiyarso, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    increases in regional greenhouse gas concentrations. CH4 is particularly enhanced, due to the dominance of smouldering combustion in peatland fires, with CH4 total column values typically exceeding 35 ppb above those of background "clean air" soundings. By examining the CH4 and CO2 excess concentrations in the fire-affected GOSAT observations, we determine the CH4 to CO2 (CH4 / CO2) fire emission ratio for the entire 2-month period of the most extreme burning (September-October 2015), and also for individual shorter periods where the fire activity temporarily peaks. We demonstrate that the overall CH4 to CO2 emission ratio (ER) for fires occurring in Indonesia over this time is 6.2 ppb ppm-1. This is higher than that found over both the Amazon (5.1 ppb ppm-1) and southern Africa (4.4 ppb ppm-1), consistent with the Indonesian fires being characterised by an increased amount of smouldering combustion due to the large amount of organic soil (peat) burning involved. We find the range of our satellite-derived Indonesian ERs (6.18-13.6 ppb ppm-1) to be relatively closely matched to that of a series of close-to-source, ground-based sampling measurements made on Kalimantan at the height of the fire event (7.53-19.67 ppb ppm-1), although typically the satellite-derived quantities are slightly lower on average. This seems likely because our field sampling mostly intersected smaller-scale peat-burning plumes, whereas the large-scale plumes intersected by the GOSAT Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) footprints would very likely come from burning that was occurring in a mixture of fuels that included peat, tropical forest and already-cleared areas of forest characterised by more fire-prone vegetation types than the natural rainforest biome (e.g. post-fire areas of ferns and scrubland, along with agricultural vegetation).The ability to determine large-scale ERs from satellite data allows the combustion behaviour of very

  12. Atmospheric CH4 and CO2 enhancements and biomass burning emission ratios derived from satellite observations of the 2015 Indonesian fire plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Parker

    2016-08-01

    subsequent large increases in regional greenhouse gas concentrations. CH4 is particularly enhanced, due to the dominance of smouldering combustion in peatland fires, with CH4 total column values typically exceeding 35 ppb above those of background “clean air” soundings. By examining the CH4 and CO2 excess concentrations in the fire-affected GOSAT observations, we determine the CH4 to CO2 (CH4 ∕ CO2 fire emission ratio for the entire 2-month period of the most extreme burning (September–October 2015, and also for individual shorter periods where the fire activity temporarily peaks. We demonstrate that the overall CH4 to CO2 emission ratio (ER for fires occurring in Indonesia over this time is 6.2 ppb ppm−1. This is higher than that found over both the Amazon (5.1 ppb ppm−1 and southern Africa (4.4 ppb ppm−1, consistent with the Indonesian fires being characterised by an increased amount of smouldering combustion due to the large amount of organic soil (peat burning involved. We find the range of our satellite-derived Indonesian ERs (6.18–13.6 ppb ppm−1 to be relatively closely matched to that of a series of close-to-source, ground-based sampling measurements made on Kalimantan at the height of the fire event (7.53–19.67 ppb ppm−1, although typically the satellite-derived quantities are slightly lower on average. This seems likely because our field sampling mostly intersected smaller-scale peat-burning plumes, whereas the large-scale plumes intersected by the GOSAT Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation – Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS footprints would very likely come from burning that was occurring in a mixture of fuels that included peat, tropical forest and already-cleared areas of forest characterised by more fire-prone vegetation types than the natural rainforest biome (e.g. post-fire areas of ferns and scrubland, along with agricultural vegetation.The ability to determine large-scale ERs from