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Sample records for atarashii nisanka tanso

  1. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Survey of trends of new CO{sub 2} fixation technology using bacteria and algae (II); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Saikin sorui wo riyoshita atarashii nisanka tanso kotei gijutsu no doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trend of technology is surveyed from a standpoint that, in the process of CO2 fixation using microbes for the production of useful substances, it is essential, in view of income/outgo balance and economy, to utilize their catalytic function. The survey centers about the feasibility of the utilization of organic wastes, cellulose wastes in particular, as an energy source. Special attention is paid to the energy of artificial light and laser beams. From a point of view that it is important to suppress cell multiplication and to effectively utilize only catalytic activity for the production of useful substances, the cell division mechanism of the Corynebacterium is analyzed, and the findings are compiled to facilitate the study as to whether the division may be controlled. A report is also prepared on the metabolic mechanism of a photosynthesizing bacterium that is judged to be the most promising species. Reference is made to aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Shown are the organic compounds that are formed by CO2 gas fixation thanks to microbial or enzymatic reactions. To emphasize their importance as an energy source and to explain the conversion of biomass into useful substances, the technology and economy of conversion into fuel compounds are surveyed. The production of ethanol out of organic wastes is evaluated in the way of LCA (life cycle assessment). (NEDO)

  2. Survey report of FY 1997 on the trends of novel CO2 fixation technology using bacteria and microalgae; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (saikin sorui wo riyoshita atarashii nisanka tanso kotei gijutsu no doko chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For this survey, the latest technology trends relating to microbial functions are summarized to recover and effectively utilize CO2, typical greenhouse effect gas, using microbial functions. Systematic survey and analysis are conducted concerning the microorganisms useful for fixing CO2, CO2 uptake mechanism during the microbial reactions, utilization methods of solar light and useful energy sources except solar light, highly efficient production of useful materials, and usage of produced useful materials. Research has concentrated on use of biological activities for this purpose through design of bioreactors using microorganisms (bacteria and microalgae) for efficient CO2 fixation. For the process to have net CO2 fixation as assessed by its life cycle and to make the process economically feasible, it is essential not only to fix CO2 merely in the form of biomass but in addition to convert it to useful materials by the catalytic activities of the organisms. Three categories were set for the survey, i.e., microorganisms with CO2 fixation ability, available energy for CO2 fixation, and target CO2 fixation products. 169 refs., 49 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. High molecule compound synthesis from carbon dioxide; Nisanka tanso karano kobunshi gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, K. [Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-09-05

    Recently, synthesis of organic substances and high molecule compounds using carbon dioxide of liquid or supercritical state as raw material is paid attention so as the influential means to realize the green chemistry. A zinc based catalyst which could synthesize the activated copolymer from oxidized cyclohexane and carbon dioxide was developed by Coates, Beckman et al. The high-activated fluoridation zinc based catalyst which dissolved the high-pressure carbon dioxide was developed by Beckman, etc. The possibility of the manufacturing of the high molecule copolymer which is made from carbon dioxide and oxidized cyclohexane as a raw material was shown by an appearance of this catalyst. In addition, a synthesizing method of lactone from carbon dioxide and olefinic hydrocarbon is being examined by Beckman. If this method is used practically, the manufacturing of a gentle biodegradable polymer in the environment which is made from carbon dioxide as a raw material becomes also possible. However, adequate catalysts are necessary so that this reaction may progress. (NEDO)

  4. Survey of regulations accompanied with isolation technology of carbon dioxide; Nisanka tanso no kakuri gijutsu ni tomonau hokisei no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Regulations, conventions and agreements relating to the discharging liquefied carbon dioxide (CO2) into the bathypelagic zone from a cruising ships are investigated. The ocean storage of CO2 is not specifically prohibited by law, but must be regulated on a global scale because such treatment may impact the marine environment. In principle, treatment with impact on the nature is prohibited. Laws of environmental conservation are completed in European, Asian, and Pacific countries, which join international conventions and committees with high interests. It is suggested that the engineering technique of the storage should be improved to observe regulations and that an impact assessment for the ocean storage should be carefully conducted in full understanding of the basic premise of the regulatory systems or organizations. Furthermore, it is significant to study on the possible effect of the ocean storage of CO2 on global warming and life-cycle assessment inventory analysis, namely the balance of the energy budget between the separation and the ocean storage of CO2. 23 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Measurement and correlation of solubility of limonene and linalool in high pressure carbon dioxide; Limonene, linalool no koatsu nisanka tanso eno yokaido sokutei to sokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, J. [Japan Tabacco Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Nagahama, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-20

    In order to carry out the deterpenation of orange oil using carbon dioxide extraction under high pressure, the solubilities of constituents were examined experimentally. Limonene and linalool were selected as the major component and a flavor component, respectively. Solubilities of each component in high pressure carbon dioxide were measured by use of a high pressure cell with glass windows at 313K and 333K and from 1 MPa to the near critical point. All isothermal solubilities had minima against pressure and they increased along with temperature. Solubility data have been correlated based not only on the regular solution theory but the SRK equation of state. The solubilities of limonene have been correlated well by the regular solution theory, and those of linalool have been represented fairly accurately by the SRK equation. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Investigational research on CO2 isolation technology in fiscal 1995; 1995 nendo nisanka tanso no kakuri gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper studied present technical subjects and future study subjects of the CO2 isolation technology in order to clarify technical and social problems and the developmental subjects of the CO2 isolation technology and related technologies for separating/concentrating CO2 emitted in relation to quantity consumption of fossil fuel and storing it in ocean or underground. Main items for the study were: (1) investigational study of the technology of CO2 ocean storage, (2) investigational study of environmental effect assessment in storing CO2 in ocean, (3) investigational study of the technology of CO2 ocean storage, etc. Technologies required for the ocean isolation were arranged such as CO2 storage, injection, dispersion technique, CO2 behavior simulation, and the developmental subjects were extracted. Further, in the deep-sea bottom storage method, a simulation to calculate the range of PH effects was conducted presuming the specified amount of CO2 and applying known physical values, and evaluation of the CO2 ocean discharge/solution method was made. A method was also studied for experiments on water bacteria and benthos. 127 refs., 102 figs., 81 tabs.

  7. Investigations during fiscal 1995 on capability of oceans to absorb and fix carbon dioxide; 1995 nendo kaiyo no nisanka tanso kyushu kotei noryoku no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Investigations were given on capability of oceans to absorb and fix carbon dioxide as part of measures to prevent global warming. Carbon dioxide absorption and fixation in oceans relate to biological and chemical processes, whereas parameter dependence of each process was investigated. In relation to dissolution and dissociation of carbon dioxide into oceans, the parameter that governs exchange of carbon dioxide between atmosphere and ocean is partial pressure of carbon dioxide in surface sea water. This partial pressure is largely affected by water temperature, total carbonic acid and alkalinity. Particle-shaped organic carbon (detritus) is formed mainly by withering of photoplanktons. Formation of calcium carbonate due to activities of living organisms increases the carbon dioxide partial pressure. Fluxes of detritus are predominant among the whole precipitation flux in carbon circulation, which are more than two times the precipitation flux of photoplanktons. Particles are turned into inorganics by bacteria during the precipitation process. 29 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Level 1 algorithms for TANSO on GOSAT: processing and on-orbit calibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kuze

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT(nicknamed "Ibuki" has been providing global space-borne observations of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 since 2009. In this paper, first, the most recent operational Level 1 algorithms to produce the spectral radiance from the acquired interferogram are described. Second, we will describe the on-orbit characteristics and calibrations of TANSO-FTS. Overall functions and performances such as signal to noise ratio and spectral resolution are within design objectives. Correction methods of small on-orbit degradations and anomalies, which have been found since the launch are described. Lastly, calibrations of TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI are summarized. However, the Level 1B algorithms of TANSO-CAI are not mentioned, here in this paper.

  9. Level 1 algorithms for TANSO on GOSAT: processing and on-orbit calibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kuze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT (nicknamed "Ibuki" has been providing global space-borne observations of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 since 2009. In this paper, we first describe the version V150.151 operational Level 1 algorithms that produce radiance spectra from the acquired interferograms. Second, we will describe the on-orbit characteristics and calibration of TANSO-FTS. Overall function and performance such as signal to noise ratio and spectral resolution are within design objectives. Correction methods of small on-orbit degradations and anomalies, which have been found since launch, are described. Lastly, calibration of TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI are summarized.

  10. Recent trend of carbon fiber technology from mesophase pitch. Part 3. Development of applications of new high performance fiber to advanced composite materials; Mesofesu picchi kei tanso sen`i. 3. Senshin fukugo zairyo eno atarashii yoto tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. [Nippon Steel Technoresearch Corp., Kanagawa (Japan); Kubomura, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Materials and Technology Research Lab.; Sato, F. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-03-08

    Carbon fiber has the various kinds including pitch-based fiber, PAN fiber, nylon fiber, whisker fiber and so on. Further even in the pitch based fiber, optically anisotropic pitch being the general purpose carbon fiber and the mesophase pitch as the high performance carbon fiber are different from each other in the basic fiber properties, so the proper use of utilizing the respective fibers profitably is important in the development of the application thereof. In this paper, the focus is put on the new high performance pitch-based carbon fiber. The present status as well as the characteristics of the composite product revolving around the resin of this fiber, and the possibility of trying the development of the application thereof as the advanced composite materials in the future are described. The conventional application of high performance pitch-based carbon fiber is mainly in the brake lining of aircraft and warplane, but recently the application thereof is developed to be used widely as the industrial materials including the transport materials in railway, automobile, aerospace, ship, etc.; the construction materials as CFRC, the industrial long light roll, golf shaft, light frame of automobile and so on. 50 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Efficient oxidation of 2-mercaptopyridine catalyzed by heptylviologen and application to photosensitized carbon dioxide fixation; Pepuchirubioroben ni yoru 2-mercaptopyridine no koritsuteki sanka oyobi hikari zokan nisanka tanso kotei hanno eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odaka, M. [National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-10

    In acetonitrile solution, efficient oxidation of 2-mercaptopyridine (PySH) to disulfide was accomplished in the presence of catalytic amount of heptylviologen (HV{sup 2+}). The reaction gave the Michaelis-Menten type kinetics, which suggests that an electron is transferred from PyS{sup -} to HV{sup 2+} via the complex formation between these two species. This reaction was applied to the formation of 2-oxazolidinone derivative from carbon dioxide and L-phenylalaninol. Contrary to the expectation, however, the reaction scarcely proceeded. This may be due to the coordination of coexisting Ph3P to HV{sup 2+}, which prevents the complex formation between HV{sup 2+} and PyS{sup -}. When the above system was irradiated (>370 nm), however, the reaction was enhanced. The excited PyS{sup -}* with higher reducing power probably can give an electron to HV{sup 2+} even in the absence of HV{sup 2+}-PyS{sup -} complex. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Research and survey report of FY 1997 on the CO2 balance for high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the application condition and effectiveness of high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology. To evaluate the present process, it was compared with others, such as separation using a polymer membrane, physico-chemical absorption process, adsorption process, hydrogen contact reduction process, and biological fixation. The development trends of absorption, membrane, adsorption, and cryogenic separation were investigated. The questionnaire was carried out about the separation technologies which are in the stage of performance test using actual gas, to arrange and compare the data and information. The current trends of chemical and biological CO2 fixation and utilization technology were also investigated for arranging the subjects. High-temperature CO2 disposal by the carbonation in concrete waste has been studied, to clarify its application conditions and effectiveness. In order to compare the separation technologies, treatment processes of CO2 in the exhaust gas from boilers of LNG power generation and coal fired power generation were simulated. These processes were simulated by ASPEN PLUS for the modeling. Trends of application of ASPEN PLUS and collection of information were surveyed by participating in the ASPEN WORLD. 103 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  13. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industrial technology. Chikyu kankyo tekiogata sangyo gijutsu doko chosa. ; Chikyu kankyo kanren kenkyu doko no chosa (nisanka tanso no kankyo fuka teigensaku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The paper studies the measures for reduction of environmental load of CO2 from the standpoint of chemical technology. As for methanol synthesis from CO2, accelerating of the reaction using Cu base compound catalyst is reported. Also, CO2 is methanated at high speed by low temperature waste heat using Ni-La2O3-Ru catalyst. Discussions are given on the subject for development of catalyst reaction relating to hydrogen production technology by methane reforming reaction using steam or CO2. Synthesis of polymetric materials by use of CO2 is also described. The paper mentions that it is indispensable to design high-function electrode and elucidate the reaction mechanism of electrochemical CO2 reduction for electrochemical and photochemical CO2 reduction measures. Moreover, in case of using solar energy, it is required to study photovoltaic excitation process in semiconductor electrode/ electrolyte solution interface. For production of hydrogen from CO2 by photosynthetic organisms and solar energy, the problem is control of inhibiting effect of oxygen combinedly produced. Described are production of polyhydroxy butyric acid and biodegradable polymer from CO2 and hydrogen by bacteria, and CO2 fixation imitating the enzyme reaction. 267 refs., 79 figs., 32 tabs.

  14. Assimilation of atmospheric methane products in the MACC-II system: from SCIAMACHY to TANSO and IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Massart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate Interim Implementation (MACC-II delayed-mode (DM system has been producing an atmospheric methane (CH4 analysis 6 months behind real time since June 2009. This analysis used to rely on the assimilation of the CH4 product from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY instrument on board Envisat. Recently the \\textit{Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique} (LMD CH4 products from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI and the SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research CH4 products from the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO were added to the DM system. With the loss of Envisat in April 2012, the DM system has to now rely on the assimilation of methane data from TANSO and IASI. This paper documents the impact of this change in the observing system on the methane tropospheric analysis. It is based on four experiments: one free run and three analyses from respectively the assimilation of SCIAMACHY, TANSO and a combination of TANSO and IASI CH4 products in the MACC-II system. The period between December 2010 and April 2012 is studied. This corresponds to a period during which the performance of SCIAMACHY was deteriorating. The SCIAMACHY experiment globally underestimates the tropospheric methane by 35 part per billion (ppb compared to the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO data and the methane column by 23 ppb compared the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON data, when the global bias of the free run against the same HIPPO and TCCON data is respectively −5 ppb and 4 ppb. The assimilated TANSO product changed in October 2011 from version v.1 to version v.2.0. The analysis of version v.1 globally underestimates the tropospheric methane by 18 ppb compared to the HIPPO data and the column by 11 ppb compared to the TCCON data. In contrast, the analysis of version v.2.0 globally overestimates the

  15. Satellite observation of atmospheric methane: intercomparison between AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Mingmin; Xiong, Xiaozhen; Saitoh, Naoko; Warner, Juying; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Liangfu; Weng, Fuzhong; Fan, Meng

    2016-08-01

    Space-borne observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) have been made using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS/Aqua satellite since August 2002 and the Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) since April 2009. This study compared the GOSAT TANSO-FTS thermal infrared (TIR) version 1.0 CH4 product with the collocated AIRS version 6 CH4 product using data from 1 August 2010 to 30 June 2012, including the CH4 mixing ratios and the total column amounts. The results show that at 300-600 hPa, where both AIRS and GOSAT-TIR CH4 have peak sensitivities, they agree very well, but GOSAT-TIR retrievals tend to be higher than AIRS in layer 200-300 hPa. At 300 hPa the CH4 mixing ratio from GOSAT-TIR is, on average, 10.3 ± 31.8 ppbv higher than that from AIRS, and at 600 hPa GOSAT-TIR retrieved CH4 is -16.2 ± 25.7 ppbv lower than AIRS CH4. Comparison of the total column amount of CH4 shows that GOSAT-TIR agrees with AIRS to within 1 % in the mid-latitude regions of the Southern Hemisphere and in the tropics. In the mid to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, comparison shows that GOSAT-TIR is ˜ 1-2 % lower than AIRS, and in the high-latitude regions of the Southern Hemisphere the difference of GOSAT from AIRS varies from -3 % in October to +2 % in July. The difference between AIRS and GOSAT TANSO-FTS retrievals is mainly due to the difference in retrieval algorithms and instruments themselves, and the larger difference in the high-latitude regions is associated with the low information content and small degrees of freedom of the retrieval. The degrees of freedom of GOSAT-TIR retrievals are lower than that of AIRS, which also indicates that the constraint in GOSAT-TIR retrievals may be too strong. From the good correlation between AIRS and GOSAT-TIR retrievals and the seasonal variation they observed, we are confident that the thermal infrared

  16. Update on GOSAT TANSO-FTS performance, operations, and data products after more than 6 years in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuze, Akihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei; Kawakami, Shuji; Tanaka, Makoto; Ueda, Yoko; Deguchi, Akira; Yoshida, Jun; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Kataoka, Fumie; Taylor, Thomas E.; Buijs, Henry L.

    2016-06-01

    A data set containing more than 6 years (February 2009 to present) of radiance spectra for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) observations has been acquired by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, available at http://data.gosat.nies.go.jp/GosatUserInterfaceGateway/guig/GuigPage/open.do), nicknamed "Ibuki", Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS). This paper provides updates on the performance of the satellite and TANSO-FTS sensor and describes important changes to the data product, which has recently been made available to users. With these changes the typical accuracy of retrieved column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4, respectively) are 2 ppm or 0.5 % and 13 ppb or 0.7 %, respectively. Three major anomalies of the satellite system affecting TANSO-FTS are reported: a failure of one of the two solar paddles in May 2014, a switch to the secondary pointing system in January 2015, and most recently a cryocooler shutdown and restart in August 2015. The Level 1A (L1A) (raw interferogram) and the Level 1B (L1B) (radiance spectra) of version V201 described here have long-term uniform quality and provide consistent retrieval accuracy even after the satellite system anomalies. In addition, we discuss the unique observation abilities of GOSAT made possible by an agile pointing mechanism, which allows for optimization of global sampling patterns.

  17. Characterization and correction of non-linearity effect on oxygen spectra of TANSO-FTS onboard GOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, H.; Frankenberg, C.; Crisp, D.; kuze, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for carbon Observations Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) collects high spectral resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in the molecular oxygen (O2) A-band near 760 nm, the carbon dioxide (CO2) bands near 1600 and 2060 nm, and the methane (CH4) band near 1660 nm. The O2 measurements are used to estimate the surface pressure and the dry air column, which are used to define the column-averaged CO2 and CH4 dry air mole fractions, XCO2 and XCH4. O2 measurements are ideal for this application because the O2 dry air mole fraction is almost constant and well known. However, systematic errors in the O2 measurements can introduce biases in the XCO2 and XCH4 retrievals from TANSO-FTS. For example, 1% overestimate of the O2 column retrievals introduced a 10 hPa high bias in surface pressure and a 4 hPa low bias in XCO2 in early retrievals. This near-global bias has been traced to uncertainties in the O2 A-band absorption cross sections. Other spatially-varying O2 errors have been traced to uncertainties in the calibration of the TANSO-FTS A-band channel. For example, non-linearity in the A-band channel response introduces errors in the depths of both O2 lines and solar Fraunhofer lines. There are three possible sources of non-linearity: detector, analogue circuit (amplifier and electric filters), and analogue to digital converter (ADC). Observations acquired with the flight instrument and laboratory experiments with TANSO-FTS engineering model (EM) is being used to discriminate and correct these errors. The EM tests have largely vindicated the silicon photo-diode detector, but show that the non-linearity of the analogue circuit and ADC is almost identical to that seen in data acquired by the on-orbit flight model. We have developed and applied a correction to the measured interferograms from the flight instrument and confirmed it validity by showing that the Fraunhofer

  18. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier transform spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Gerrit; Walker, Kaley A.; Conway, Stephanie; Saitoh, Naoko; Boone, Chris D.; Strong, Kimberly; Drummond, James R.

    2016-05-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three data sets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Laboratory at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional collocation criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and

  19. GOSAT/TANSO-FTS Measurement of Volcanic and Geothermal CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Carn, Simon A.; Newhall, Christopher G.

    2010-05-01

    volcanic CO2 anomalies using GOSAT and correlation with Aura/OMI, AIRS, and ASTER determined SO2 fluxes and ground based monitoring of CO2 and other geophysical and geochemical parameters. This will provide the ground work for future higher spatial resolution satellite missions. This is a joint effort from two GOSAT-IBUKI data application projects: "Satellite-Borne Quantification of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Volcanoes and Geothermal Areas" (PI Schwandner), and "Application of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS to the Measurement of Volcanic CO2 Emissions" (PI Carn).

  20. Validation of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS TIR UTLS CO2 data (Version 1.0 using CONTRAIL measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saitoh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal infrared (TIR band of the Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO–Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT has been observing carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations in several atmospheric layers since its launch. This study compared TANSO-FTS TIR V1.0 CO2 data and CO2 data obtained in the Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL project in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS, where the TIR band of TANSO-FTS is most sensitive to CO2 concentrations, to validate the quality of the TIR V1.0 UTLS CO2 data from 287 to 162 hPa. From a comparison made during flights between Tokyo and Sydney, the averages of the TIR upper atmospheric CO2 data agreed well with the averages of the data obtained by the CONTRAIL Continuous CO2 Measuring Experiment (CME within 0.1 % for all of the seasons in the Southern Hemisphere. The results of a comparison for all of the eight airline routes showed that the agreement between the TIR and CONTRAIL CO2 data was within 0.5 % on average in the Northern Hemisphere, which was better than the agreement between a priori and CONTRAIL CO2 data. The quality of TIR lower stratospheric CO2 data depends largely on the information content, and therefore has a seasonal dependence. In high latitudes, TIR V1.0 lower stratospheric CO2 data are only valid in the summer. The magnitude of bias in the TIR upper atmospheric CO2 data did not have a clear longitudinal dependence. The comparison results for flights in northern low and middle latitudes showed that the agreement between TIR and CONTRAIL CO2 data in the upper troposphere was worse in the spring and summer than in the fall and winter. This could be attributed to a larger negative bias in the upper atmospheric a priori CO2 data in the spring and summer and a seasonal dependence of spectral bias in TANSO-FTS TIR Level 1B (L1B radiance data. The negative bias

  1. Global Analysis of Carbon Sources and Sinks with a Comprehensive Model Optimized with GOSAT/Tanso Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, A.; Lokupitiya, R. S.; Zupanski, D.; Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Doney, S. C.; Gurney, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    We present a system to analyze GOSAT/Tanso data using a combination of existing models of CO2 exchanges due to hourly photosynthesis and respiration, daily air-sea gas exchange, biomass burning, Fossil Fuel Emissions, and atmospheric transport. This comprehensive system allows direct comparison to the observed record of both in-situ and remotely sensed atmospheric CO2 at hourly timescales. We have previously demonstrated that a lower-resolution version of the system has good skill at replicating diurnal, synoptic, and seasonal variations over vegetated land surfaces. The system is driven by meteorological output from the NASA Goddard EOS Data Assimilation System, version 5. Surface weather from the system drives calculations of terrestrial ecosystem metabolism (radiation, precipitation, humidity, temperature) and air-sea gas exchange (wind), with other input data coming from satellite data products (e.g., fPAR and LAI from MODIS, and ocean color from SeaWiFS and MODIS). The analysis system is evaluated using synthetic data on a 2 x 2.5 degree (lat x lon) global grid. Synthetic data are sampled in cloud-free columns along the GOSAT orbital ephemeris and used to estimate multiplicative biases to component fluxes by Ensemble Data Assimilation. The system is quite successful at retrieving mechanistic estimates of spatial patterns of surface carbon fluxes on monthly and annual timescales over land, but is less skillful over the oceans.

  2. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Survey of the current state and tasks of research and development of technologies for effectively utilizing CO{sub 2} fixation by higher vegetation; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Koto shokubutsu ni okeru nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu no genjo to kadai ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Investigations and studies are conducted seeking for a CO2 fixation method improved by utilizing the photosynthesizing function of higher vegetation. Details of higher vegetation genes are being disclosed thanks to the rapid progress of studies making use of molecular biological techniques, and the application of the genetic mechanism to scientific and technological fields is becoming increasingly feasible. In particular, the role of the CO2 fixation enzyme RuBisCO has been elucidated almost completely. It has been learned that, in terms of photosynthesizing capability, the C{sub 4} plants (corn etc.) are 2-3 times higher than the C{sub 3} plants (rice, wheat, etc.), and 5-10 times higher than the CAM plants (cactuses etc.). Studies are also under way about the rice genome so that a photosynthesizing capability so high as that of the C{sub 4} plants may be endowed the rice plant. The metabolism and control of useful substances produced in the CO2 fixation process etc. in the higher vegetation are being investigated, and it is now expected that some day such useful substances will be produced and utilized efficiently. Researches are under way into the relationship between the green leaf that is the organ that performs photosynthesis and the organ (sink) that stores and utilizes starch and sugar is in progress, and now a new field is going to open where vegetables will be fully utilized. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1996 report on the results of the R and D under a consignment from NEDO of the technology to fix and effectively use carbon dioxide using bacteria and microalgae (for public); 1996 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku (saikin sorui nado riyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (kokaiyo))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the solution to the global environmental problem, a technology is developed in which by searching for/breeding/developing bacteria, etc. which conduct photosynthesis highly effectively, CO2 is fixed and recycled. The fiscal 1996 R and D is outlined as the utilization of bacteria, microalgae, etc. Obtained were microalgae exceeding the conventional strains in CO2 fixation ability, and bacteria/microalgae excellent in production of polysaccharides, hydrocarbon, lipid, biological active substances, etc. The fundamental study was continued of CO2 integrated enzyme function/reaction system as molecular biological breeding. In the cell fusion, a set-up of conditions for green algae was started. For the confirmation of performance of high dense/quantity culture technology using solar light, further improvement of performance and systematization, 200L scale testing equipment was manufactured. It is a collective reactor and enabled study of ventilation/agitation and control of light strength. A reactor analysis model was constructed. Also including the conversion into useful substances, energy/material balance was systematically studied. Collection of technical literature and information exchanges were made in Japan and overseas. 276 refs., 475 figs., 156 tabs.

  4. Fiscal 1997 Project related to research and development of global environment industrial technologies. Report on the results of works commissioned for research and development of technology for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; 1997 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu kanren jigyo. Nisanka tanso nado haishutsu teigen gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu itaku gyomu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    With an objective of achieving reduction in emission of carbon dioxide and fluorocarbons, the `research and development on technologies to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and other substances` consisting of eight projects were conducted. In research and development of waste water treatment technologies using submerged combustion, studies were performed on removal by combustion of such pollutants as organic compounds, nitrogen compounds, and sulfur compounds. The development targets were achieved on each item. In research and development related with thermal electric power generation elements, semiconductor single crystals were fabricated in order to acquire technical knowledge on thermal power generation elements intended of utilizing industrial waste heat, whereas a simulation technology for designing was developed. In other projects, research and development works were carried out on high-performance heat insulating materials, and a movable methanol reformer for fuel cells. Developments were conducted on a large pressure reducing valve, and a cooling and heating turbo heat pump for regional air conditioning facilities. Research and development were made on Peltier elements, all efforts having achieved results respectively. 134 figs., 65 tabs.

  5. Industrial technology research and development project for global environment in fiscal 1998. Report on achievements in research and development of technologies for fixation and effective utilization of carbon dioxide by utilizing bacteria and algae; 1998 nendo saikin sorui nado riyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Microorganisms are cultivated industrially in a great quantity to fix CO2 at efficiency higher than that of photosynthesis in natural world to develop technologies to re-utilize them as resources. This paper describes achievements in fiscal 1998. Existing strain samples of photosynthesized bacteria and micro-algae were screened to continue discussions on optimal culture conditions, and evaluation on properties. Genes that provide Chlorella with antibiotic resistance were introduced to have performed evaluation on function manifestation, and acquired enzymatic genes of unsaturated {omega} 3. Using green algae as the object, reduction in the processing time has resulted in acquiring a large number of fused cell colonies. Discussions were given on conditions to breed photosynthesized bacteria and fix CO2. Structural analyses were performed on CA protein as an enzyme related to take CO2 into living organisms, and on genes. Developments were carried out on a photosynthesizing bio-reactor and useful substance producing technologies on a continual basis. A 200-liter scale light collection type bio-reactor improved the fixing capacity by 30% in Chlorellas by changing the culture medium. The direct light receiving panel type bio-reactor can utilize even scattered light, with its fixing capacity per installation area exceeding the target. Fundamental data were acquired with Chlorellas on utilizing feeds, fertilizers and building materials. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1996 global environmental industry technology research related project. Report on the results of the consignment project of research and development of technology for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; 1996 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu kanren jigyo. Nisanka tanso nado haishutsu teigen gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu itaku gyomu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing emissions of carbon dioxide, freon, etc., a research project was carried out of `Research and development of technology for reducing carbon dioxide emissions` which consists of 8 projects. The paper reported the results of the projects. The projects are: (1) Development of waste water treatment of submerged combustion system, (2) Development of thermoelectric generating devices, (3) Development of high performance heat insulation materials, (4) Development of methanol reformer for transportable fuel cell, (5) Development of large pressure reducing valves, (6) Development of large-scale turbo heat pump for district heating and cooling plants, (7) Development of heat pumps for transportation equipment, and (8) Development of thermoelectric cooling devices. In (1), the waste water treatment test was conducted and reached the target. In (2), the thermoelectric device using powder sintering element obtained performance twice the performance level of the existing device. In (3), (4), (5) and (6), the target was all reached. In (7), the results well agreed in a comparison between structural analysis and experiment. The cooling unit by the SPS sintering method using Bi-Te system sintered material element obtained the cooling efficiency almost the same as that by the freon compressor method. 8 refs., 161 figs., 63 tabs.

  7. Industrial science and technology research and development business for fiscal 1998. Research and development achievement report on glycoconjugate production and utilization technologies (Development of technologies of glycoconjugate-aided CO{sub 2} fixation and utilization); 1998 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Fukugo toshitsu seisan riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (fukugo toshitsu oyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Enzymatic and chemical methods were combined and methods were developed for synthesizing mucin type sugar chains and glycopeptides. The influence of sugar chain positions and structures on glycoconjugate stereo structures and physiological activities was analyzed, and glycopeptide structural activities and glycoconjugate remodelling were studied. To create an industrial advantage in a glycoprotein production system by use of zooblasts, sugar chain structure control through sugar transfase occurrence control was studied. For the production of man-adaptive sugar chains using yeast, new yeast variations were subjected to molecular breeding, and tested for the resultant improvement on productivity. Sugar chain marking and refining techniques and various responding mechanisms on the solid surface were elucidated, which enabled structure analyses using sugar chain recognition molecules such as lectins and antibodies. A database on interactions between sugar chains and sugar chain recognition molecules was constructed using the said findings. An analyzing program was also formulated tentatively. This paper also covers general surveys and studies on technologies of producing and utilizing glycoconjugates. (NEDO)

  8. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industrial technology. Trend survey of global environment related studies (researches on measureds for reduction of environmental load of CO2); Chikyu kankyo tekiogata sangyo gijutsu doko chosa. Chikyu kankyo kanren kenkyu doko no chosa (nisanka tanso no kankyo fuka teigensaku ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The paper studies the measures for reduction of environmental load of CO2 from the standpoint of chemical technology. As for methanol synthesis from CO2, accelerating of the reaction using Cu base compound catalyst is reported. Also, CO2 is methanated at high speed by low temperature waste heat using Ni-La2O3-Ru catalyst. Discussions are given on the subject for development of catalyst reaction relating to hydrogen production technology by methane reforming reaction using steam or CO2. Synthesis of polymetric materials by use of CO2 is also described. The paper mentions that it is indispensable to design high-function electrode and elucidate the reaction mechanism of electrochemical CO2 reduction for electrochemical and photochemical CO2 reduction measures. Moreover, in case of using solar energy, it is required to study photovoltaic excitation process in semiconductor electrode/ electrolyte solution interface. For production of hydrogen from CO2 by photosynthetic organisms and solar energy, the problem is control of inhibiting effect of oxygen combinedly produced. Described are production of polyhydroxy butyric acid and biodegradable polymer from CO2 and hydrogen by bacteria, and CO2 fixation imitating the enzyme reaction. 267 refs., 79 figs., 32 tabs.

  9. Report on the research and development under a consignment from NEDO of high temperature carbon dioxide fixation and utilization technology for fiscal 1996; 1996 nendo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku gyomu seika hokokusho. Nisanka tanso koon bunri kaishu sairiyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the prevention of global warming, this R and D is aimed at separating/recovering high temperature CO2 from high temperature gas at 300degC or above and developing technology for effective use of the recovered CO2 as measures taken for reduction in CO2 emissions from the fixed emission sources. In this fiscal year, the following were proceeded with: heightening of separation performance evaluation technology, promotion of technical development of ceramic separation membranes and supports, and development of element technology of modular integration. In the examinational research on separation technology and system optimization, the following were conducted: survey of trends of the technical development, conceptual design of plant and prediction of process behavior, assessment of applicability of the process, and study of effects of utilization/spread of the developmental technology. In the former R and D, borosilicate glass powder rich in alkali is formed on the ring by joining the trially manufactured hollow fiber type membrane and the same form alumina cylinder, and sealing property and strength which stand measurement of permeability were confirmed. In the latter, an innovative process applied with CO2 high temperature separation technology was studied to examine effects of the spread of high temperature gas separation technology. 403 refs., 478 figs., 134 tabs.

  10. Algorithm improvement toward better retrieval of CO2 and CH4 profiles from GOSAT/TANSO-FTS thermal infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, N.; Imasu, R.; Sugita, T.; Hayashida, S.; Shiomi, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) simultaneously observes column abundances and profiles of CO2 and CH4 in the same field of view, from the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands, respectively. Combined use of the column abundances and profiles above the free troposphere is useful for deriving detailed information on concentrations in the boundary layer, and could provide a good constraint for inverse models. At this time, the version 00.01 (V00.01) data of the TIR L2 standard CO2 and CH4 products have been released to the public. The algorithm of the V00.01 TIR L2 products adopts a non-linear maximum a posteriori (MAP) method with linear mapping. In the V00.01 retrieval, our retrieval target was CO2 or CH4 profile only; temperature and water vapor profiles were taken from the Japan Meteorological Agency Grid Point Values (JMA-GPV) and treated as model parameters, and therefore, their uncertainties could affect the accuracy of the CO2 and CH4 retrieval. In this study, we used more accurate temperature and water vapor profiles observed with GPS radio occultation measurements to retrieve CO2 and CH4 profiles from TIR spectra, and assessed the impact of uncertainties in temperature and water vapor profiles on the TIR retrieval. We also tested simultaneous retrieval including a target gas (CO2 or CH4), contaminating gases such as H2O and N2O, and temperature information. Our preliminary retrieval results showed the simultaneous retrieval could produce better results than the single-target retrieval in some cases.

  11. Correction of Spectral Distortion on Oxygen a-Band Due to Non-Linear Phase Delay Onboard Tanso-FTS/Gosat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, H.; Butz, A.; Kuze, A.

    2014-12-01

    To observe the global column concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from space, the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched on January 23, 2009, and has started the operational observation. Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) has been continuously measuring CO2 and CH4 distributions globally, and the retrieved column CO2 and CH4 data have been distributed to the public. To make a successful retrieval of XCO2 and XCH4, the spectral quality of Oxygen A-band is the most importance. Over five years in-orbit operation of TANSO-FTS, the spectral distortion related with input radiance on Oxygen A-band have been observed and reduced the retrieval accuracy and precision of XCO2 and XCH4. It suggests that the Oxygen A-band signal chain has non-linear response against input radiance. To characterize the non-linear response of signal chain against input signal levels, the test procedure is newly developed coupled with the modulated laser light, simultaneous signal acquisition system and on-ground TANSO-FTS, which called engineering model. The results present clearly that the analogue signal chain of Oxygen A-band excites the non-linear response both of amplitude and phase delay against input signal levels. Also, the non-linear interferogram drives both of the artificial spectra on the out-band region and the spectral distortion linked with absorption spectral lines. To improve the spectral quality of Oxygen A-band, these artificial and distorted spectra have to correct with properly. The newly correction algorithm for level-1 processing was developed and the corrected spectra were retrieved and validated by applying RemoTeC algorithm. Comparing with the previous version of level-1 products, the agreement between observation and theoretical calculation is well improved and the biases of biases of XCO2 and XCH4 against ground validation site are reduced.

  12. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Supplementary survey on research and development of carbon dioxide fixation and effective utilization technologies utilizing bacteria and algae (the survey on feasibility of bio-technologies to create economic effects, such as the biological CO2 fixation technology); 1999 nendo saikin sorui nado riyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu futai chosa. Keizaiteki koka wo soshutsusuru seibutsuteki CO{sub 2} koteigijutsu nado no biotechnology no kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Bio-technologies including the biological CO2 fixation technology, or the green bio-technologies (GBT) are the technologies indispensable in realizing the change to a resource circulating and environment harmonizing society that accompanies economical growth, or in other words, the 'sustainable development'. In quantifying the feasibility of these technologies, the GBTs that contribute to creating Japan's international competitive power and employment were specified, and an approach to establish the realization target in 2010 was adopted, upon identifying the general condition of the related markets inside and outside the country. The GBT is the technology that makes the best use of Japan's independent strength created by combining the enzyme engineering and fermentation engineering with the 'genome science' (HEART). The targets are to substitute four million kiloliters of petroleum with a resource circulation type energy generated by the bio-technology; apply the bio-technology to about 30% of products and processes produced or used in Japan's chemical industries; and aim at creating markets by using environmental measurement and analysis, treatment of hard-to-decompose substances, and supports on tree planting as the three pillars. A simulation on return on investment in GBT business suggests the effect of promoting PFI. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1997 R and D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment from NEDO. R and D of the synthesis and processing of advanced biomaterials (fixation and effective utilization of carbon dioxide using peptides); 1997 nendo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Senshin bio zairyo no sosei kako gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (peptide oyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In fiscal 1997, study was made on formation of peptides with a biogenic function and molecular recognition function, and peptide materials. The existing automatic design technique of peptides including non-natural amino acids was applied to design of complementary peptides of proteins with known structures to optimize a development technique of ligand. Practical function of peptides as advanced receptor ligand was verified by applying the existing conformation control technique to stable holding of peptide active conformation. Creation of bio-materials, and development of preparation technology of bio-substrates and materializing technology of functional molecular materials were carried out. To construct an electron transfer system by self- organized body of peptides formed on a substrate, a peptide molecular device was prepared and verified using linkers. To use peptides as photoelectron functional molecule, metallized peptide with main helix structure was prepared. The possibility of molecular materials with a fixation function of CO2 was examined. A high-sensitivity bio-sensor was also mentioned. 75 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  14. Fiscal 1998 R and D project on global environmental industrial technology. Research result report on DNA analysis and information processing technology for photosynthesis microorganisms (Development of CO{sub 2} fixation and effective use technology by using bacteria and algae); 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Kogosei biseibutsu nado DNA kaiseki joho shori gijutsu no kenkyu (saikin sorui nado riyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1998 research result on DNA analysis and information processing technology for photosynthesis microorganisms. On the study on DNA analysis technology by triple-strand formation method, as the comparison study result of a READ method, stable triple- strand formation method and hairpin method, a READ method showed the highest triple-strand formation efficiency for target DNA. On the study on accurate separation technology of specific genes, establishment of protocols was promoted for solid-phase probe technology, subtract technology and leveling technology. On the study on DNA microarray analysis technology by high-efficiency hybridization method, the analysis technology of genes by hybridization method using DNA chips is under investigation. In addition, the high- efficiency analysis technology of specific DNA segments by using an affinity sensor, and the high-accuracy cloning technology for DNA with altered primary structure were also studied. (NEDO)

  15. Report on the results of research and development under a consignment from NEDO of glycoconjugate production utilizing technologies. Development of technologies to fix and effectively utilize carbon dioxide by applying glycoconjugates; 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Fukugo toshitsu seisan riyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (fukugo toshitsu oyo nisanka tanso koteika yuko riyo gijutsu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper reports research results in fiscal 1997 for the `research and development of glycoconjugate production utilizing technologies`. In synthesizing, utilizing and remodeling technologies for glycoconjugates by means of chemical synthesis, studies were performed on developing methods to synthesize Gal {beta}1-3Gal NA(c {alpha})1-0-Serine in preparative scale, synthesizing high mannose type sugars of natural type without protection groups, and linking GlcNA or GalNAc onto partial peptide of fibroblast growth factor (FGF). In synthesizing, utilizing and remodeling technologies for glycoconjugates by using biological methods, studies were carried out, with regard to glycoconjugate synthesizing, utilizing and remodeling technologies utilizing animal cells, on identifying sugar structures of IFN-{gamma} produced from CHO cell line, and isolating CHO cell lines introduced with genes of sugar transferred enzyme GnTIV and/or GnTV. Furthermore, studies were conducted on glycoconjugate synthesizing, utilizing and remodeling technologies utilizing microorganisms, and glycoconjugate structure analyzing technologies. In addition, overall investigation was made on glycoconjugate production utilizing technologies. 113 refs., 76 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Characteristics of Four-years of GOSAT/TANSO-FTS TIR V1.0 CO2 and CH4 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, N.; Kimoto, S.; Sugimura, R.; Imasu, R.; Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.; Kataoka, F.; Knuteson, R. O.; Machida, T.; Sawa, Y.; Matsuda, H.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) was launched on 23 January 2009, and has continued to make global observations, including both nadir and off-nadir measurements, for more than six years since its launch. The thermal infrared (TIR) band of Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) on board the GOSAT has observed CO2 and CH4 profiles. We have analyzed the four-year data from 2010 through 2013 of the latest released version of the TIR Level 2 (L2) CO2 and CH4 products (V1.0). Comparisons of the TIR upper atmospheric CO2 product with CO2 data from Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace Gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL) aircraft measurements show that the growth rate estimated from the TIR CO2 data is slightly lower than that from the CONTRAIL data. Overall, the TIR V1.0 CO2 product has better quality in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere than the a priori judging from comparisons with the collocated aircraft data. In spring and summer, however, the quality of the TIR L2 CO2 products became slightly worse than in the other seasons, especially in the low and northern-mid latitudes. This is because the corresponding a priori had a larger bias and the TIR Level 1B (L1B) radiance spectra might have a larger bias in the spring-summer seasons. Here, we have tested several types of correction methods to modify the L1B spectral bias, and then compared CO2 and CH4 concentrations retrieved after applying spectral bias correction factors with coincident CONTRAIL and HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observation (HIPPO) aircraft data. The comparison results suggest that the L1B spectral bias correction factor should be changed depending on wavelength. In addition, it should be expressed as a function of on-board internal calibration blackbody temperatures. This is because they are weak season-dependent parameters; they were clearly lower in spring and summer.

  17. The Greenhouse Gas Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI): comparative validation of GHG-CCI SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT CO2 and CH4 retrieval algorithm products with measurements from the TCCON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dils, B.; Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Parker, R.; Guerlet, S.; Aben, I.; Blumenstock, T.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Deutscher, N. M.; Frankenberg, C.; Hase, F.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Heymann, J.; De Mazière, M.; Notholt, J.; Sussmann, R.; Warneke, T.; Griffith, D.; Sherlock, V.; Wunch, D.

    2014-06-01

    Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane have been retrieved from spectra acquired by the TANSO-FTS (Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observations-Fourier Transform Spectrometer) and SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography) instruments on board GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) and ENVISAT (ENVIronmental SATellite), respectively, using a range of European retrieval algorithms. These retrievals have been compared with data from ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The participating algorithms are the weighting function modified differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm (WFMD, University of Bremen), the Bremen optimal estimation DOAS algorithm (BESD, University of Bremen), the iterative maximum a posteriori DOAS (IMAP, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Netherlands Institute for Space Research algorithm (SRON)), the proxy and full-physics versions of SRON's RemoTeC algorithm (SRPR and SRFP, respectively) and the proxy and full-physics versions of the University of Leicester's adaptation of the OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) algorithm (OCPR and OCFP, respectively). The goal of this algorithm inter-comparison was to identify strengths and weaknesses of the various so-called round- robin data sets generated with the various algorithms so as to determine which of the competing algorithms would proceed to the next round of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Greenhouse Gas Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI) project, which is the generation of the so-called Climate Research Data Package (CRDP), which is the first version of the Essential Climate Variable (ECV) "greenhouse gases" (GHGs). For XCO2, all algorithms reach the precision requirements for inverse modelling (< 8 ppm), with only WFMD having a lower precision (4.7 ppm) than the other algorithm products (2.4-2.5 ppm

  18. New trends in biotechnology. Biotechnology no atarashii choryu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karube, I. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology)

    1993-11-30

    This paper focuses on application of the recent biotechnology and introduces its new trends. What has triggered the boom in the application is when the technology has been applied to medicines in the 1970's. Beginning with insulin and interferon, various fibrinolytic agents including tPA and monoclonals have been put on markets one after another in 1991. Progress in humangenomic analysis has led to implementation of gene therapies and diagnoses using genes on gene diseases. Sweeteners used in a large quantity in the foodstuff field are fructoses made by isomerizing glucose produced by using enzymatic bioreactors. Needless to say about production of amino acid, organic acids, saccharides, antibiotics, steroids, and nucleic acid-based compounds by using enzymatic bioreactors, chemicals including acrylic amide from acrylonitrile, enzyme detergents, and bio-herbicides are available commercially. Progress in the technology is seen in all of the fields, including electronics industry and environmental preservation. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  19. 戦後美術教育論の検討 : イメージと感情の発達研究へ

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 康彦

    1981-01-01

    This papey aims to point out the new direction needed in the study of art education through reviewing the arguments presented by "Sozobiiku-Kyokai," "Atarashiie-no-kai" and "Bijutsu-kyoiku-o-susumerukai." The point in the controversy between "Sozbbiiku-kyokai" and "Atarashiie-no-kai" was, after all, how to comprehend the relation between cognition and feelings. "Bijutsukyoiku-o-susumerukai" lays stress on the developmental study of images and imagination. Sakae Ikeda of "Atarashiie-no-kai" at...

  20. Micro-chemistry. New current in chemistry; Maikuro kagaku. Kagaku no atarashii choryu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuhara, H. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-06-01

    In achieving artificial reaction in micrometer orders as in reactions in cells of living organisms, several results have been obtained in its specific methods. These results lead to an expectation on search and elucidation of new chemical phenomena, and development to structuring micro-chemical systems. This paper illustrates the basic conception thereof, and a large number of examples of the methods. Researches on the methods may be represented by a large number of results as follows: a position with as high reactivity as 3 {mu} meters in resolution has been utilized by utilizing the fact that such reaction intermediates as radicals and ions are produced with long life during laser explosion and erosion of polymers, for example; micro selective growth of CVD thin films was realized by using a lithographic method; developing an electrochemical reaction only beneath a chip under an scanning electrochemical microscope has produced successfully a space distribution of 0.5 {mu} meter in a reaction product; and optic-chemical processing of microfine particles and micro time analysis were performed successfully. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  1. Synthesis of new erodable polymers response to environmental stimuli; Atarashii kankyo chowagata bunkaisei plastic no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Nagasaki, Y. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology

    1997-02-01

    This report relates to the designing of functional materials that decompose in response to various signals. A derivative of {alpha}-bromomethylstyrene is caused to act on the living anions of {alpha}-methylstyrene for the synthesis of a pyrolytic polymer having unsaturated groups at its terminals. The terminal double combinations of this polymer split under the influence of heat, acid, or base for depolymerization which is quantative, and the decomposition temperature may be controlled by replacing terminal phenylallylic groups with methyl groups or phloro-groups. Furthermore, a novel polythyramine polymer is synthesized with its principal chain constituted of NCH2CH2Si, the principal chain easy to disintegrate when exposed to an electron beam. The polymer is signal-responsive and may be patterned by use of an electron beam. As a temperature-responsive polymer with the hydrolytic feature controlled, poly(thyroxy ethylene glycol) is obtained from a derivative of diaminosiloxane and oligo-oxyethylene. This is a high-mobility, temperature-responsive material whose hydrolysis may be controlled. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Suppression of numerical dispersion using FD modified operators; Atarashii sabunho no enzanshi wo mochiita suchi bunsan no yokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, N.; Geller, R. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-05-01

    The author, et al., have developed a formal evaluation theory for errors in numerical solutions and derived on the basis of this theory the conditions that a modified error minimizing operator should satisfy. A modified operator was derived for a calculus of finite difference in the time domain making use of this error evaluation theory. In this study, a modified operator was derived for O (2, 2) in the calculus of finite difference in time, and the operator was used in the calculation for the old and new methods about 1-dimension inhomogeneous media, and the two were quantitatively compared in CPU time and calculation accuracy. The calculation used 500 space grids and 5000 time grids. With the ratio of the time grid gap and space grid gap are kept constant, both CPU time and calculation accuracy were in proportion to the square of the number of grids. It was found in view of the result that the new method, as compared with the old method, needs only approximately 1/20 of CPU time in performing calculations of the same precision and that it maintains calculation accuracy that is approximately 20 times higher in the said CPU time. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Development of novel processes for Cu concentrates without producing sulfuric acid; Hiryusan hasseigata no atarashii doshigen shori gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awakura, Y.; Hirato, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Studies are conducted to develop a new wet method for copper concentrates to replace the conventional dry smelting method for the settlement of problems involving the processing of impurities for environmental protection. A specimen of pyrites polycrystals is subjected to leaching at 80 {degree}C in a strongly acidic cupric solution. Findings are that the element sulfur generated in this process does not impede leaching and only approximately 4% of the sulfur is oxidized into sulfur ions; that the presence of more than 2g/liter of bromide ions produced during bromine-aid leaching of gold changes the structure of sulfur for the inhibition of leaching; that circulation of a bromine-containing leaching liquid is not desired since even a small amount of approximately 0.02mol/liter inhibits the leaching rate. Controlled potential electrolysis is performed for the anode in an acid solution containing CuCl, NaCl, and NaBr, for the observation of oxidation/reduction potentials predicted by Nernst`s equation. It is then disclosed that bromine is more effective than chlorine in gold leaching and that the solution potential during leaching agent regeneration enables the monitoring of solution constitution. 2 refs.

  4. Development of novel processes for Cu concentrates without producing sulfuric acid; Hiryusan hasseigata no atarashii doshigen shori gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, F.; Takasu, T.; Ito, H. [Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    In the refining process for the production of copper from pyrites, heat treatment is carried out in a neutral atmosphere so that part of the sulphur will be collected in the form of simple sulfur and that pyrites naturally low in reactivity will be made active. A basic study is also conducted of a very high speed electrolytic method. The chemical aspects of pyrites which are various in composition (mainly CuFeS2) are clarified by X-ray diffraction, and then is subjected to heat-treatment in a 773K-1073K argon atmosphere. There is a decrease in the amount of sulfur at a temperatures not lower than 973K. The X-ray main diffraction line splits for the emergence of some lower angle diffraction lines. The specimen is then subjected to a leach test in a copper chloride base liquor, to disclose that leachability grows remarkably higher in the presence of a great change in the X-ray diffraction lattice constant. An experiment follows in which an electrolyte is allowed to flow at a high speed for accelerating the rate of electrolytic refining in an effort to prevent the passivation of anode and deposition of dendrite on the cathode that is apt to occur when the current density is high. Passivation is prevented when the flow rate is 10m/min or higher in the vicinity of the anode surface for the formation of a smooth electrodeposited surface. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Temperature monitoring of retained coal pillar. Tanso nai ondo no Shuchu kanshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagisaka, M.; Noda, K.; Nabeya, H. (National Research Inst. for Polution and Resources, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1990-09-25

    With the objective to accumulate software like technologies concerning measurement of temperature in a coal seam, a retained coal pillar, which is deemed to be combustible spontaneously due to the growth of cracks caused by the rock pressure, was selected as the site of the experiment, a temperature sensor of high relative accuracy was introduced into there and centralized monitoring was conducted outside the pit using a transmission system matching its detecting accuracy. Information was obtained on temperature measuring techniques and the ways to treat its measured data by sampling and analyzing gases at the same places periodically at the same time of the above monitoring. This article is a report thereon. In other words, it was found that among the index gas ratios obtained by gas analyses for early detection of spontaneous combustion currently used at many coal mines, there was a correlation between CO {sub 2}/(BD+C),(BD: black dump, C: conbustible gas), which was suitable to this site, and the temperature inside the coal seam. From these matters, hindering of the oxidation progress in a low temperature range could be guessed by continued precision measuring of specified locations and the basic data was obtained on technologies of temperature monitoring in a coal seam. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Kyowa corporation: With high temperature carbon, waste disposal; Kyowa kopo: koon tanso de haikibutsu shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-30

    The Kyowa corporation of the environment machine developed the device 'Cosmorobo' which vaporized which made waste harmless under oxygen-less condition in the super-high temperature of 3000 degrees C. The super-high temperature management to put the spark of the luminous body made of carbon to practical use for the first time was made possible. Dioxin is a poisonous compound. Inside air after the cessation of business thing injection is absorbed with a pump, and a device is almost kept in the vacuum condition of 1% and under of oxygen containing rates. The luminous body made of carbon of a diameter 2-3cm, which carbon was condensed to be spread inside the device, and a spark phenomenon is caused in a few gaps between each luminous body by energizing. Waste is pressed against the spread luminous body made of carbon from the top, and it vaporizes waste even in the harmless molecule level from the viewpoint of moment. Because it is oxygen-less, heat conduction isn't given. Unless it touches a luminous body made of carbon directly, heat isn't conveyed, and a thermostability structure like a usual burning device is unnecessary for the device itself. A device could be miniaturized drastically, the simplification, and a price could be reduced, too. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Development of the hull inspection robot (RTV-SHIP); Sentai kensayo suichu robot (RTV-SHIP) no kaihatsu (atarashii sentai kensaho no ichiteian)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Y.; Otsuka, M.; Ozawa, H.; Konosu, M. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    A compact and lightweight underwater RTV robot (RTV-SHIP) that enables the remote sensing in the double-shell structure of a tanker and the six-freedom motion control was developed based on the technology of the conventional portable underwater robot. The motion performance test in a water tank showed that the RTV-SHIP can freely access the manhole in the double-shell structure of a tanker and completely satisfies the thrust and swing force required for movement and measurement in a tank. The in-tank function confirmation test also shows that the main measurement items such as positioning in the tank, large deflection of panels, and plate thickness have a satisfactory measurement accuracy and that the RTV-SHIP has the same tone discrimination function as for a visual check. The method of inputting the tank shape during measurement and miniaturizing the recording unit should be improved until the RTV-SHIP is put to practical use. This system can be widely used by improving the above points according to the result of a future measurement test for the actual ships. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  8. Development of new type of nonlinear optical materials with a function of ultrafast optical modulation; Chokosoku hikari reiki hencho kino wo motsu atarashii hisenkei kogaku zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, H. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Research Institute of Electronics

    1995-12-15

    Ultrafast modulation of second harmonies from a Langmuir-Blodgett film consisting of a ruthenium complex was demonstrated for the first time. The mechanism of the modulator of SHG intensity on laser irradiation was ascribed to the change of molecular hyperpolarizability of the ruthenium complex on going from the ground state to the excited state. 9 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Travel time and ray path computation in 2D-heterogeneous structures; Fukinshitsu kozo ni okeru jishinha soji oyobi hasen no atarashii keisan hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujie, G.; Kasahara, J.; Sato, T.; Mochizuki, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1996-05-01

    Methods were studied for determining the initial travel time and ray paths with stability when an non-linear travel time inversion is performed in an inhomogeneous structure. The travel time calculation was based on Faria and Stoffa`s method. First, the 2-dimension space was sectioned by grids, and `slowness` was assigned to all the lattice points. Starting from the vibration source, travel time at each lattice point is sequentially calculated. This method calculates travel time for any structure without breakup. In this study, an algorithm more sophisticated than the method of Faria, et al., was developed, and the improvement of travel time calculation accuracy led to the accurate determination of the direction of incidence into the lattice points during the initial motion. The calculation of ray paths was effected by tracing back from the receiving points the incidence into the lattice points or by following back the ray paths to the vibration source. This method performs stable calculation for a heavily inhomogeneous structure and, with the algorithm being simple, do the parallel programming as well. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. New style of system business and reengineering of software engineering process; Atarashii system jigyo style to software sekkei no gyomu kakushin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, A.; Muto, K.; Dotemoto, A. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Toshiba is promoting a new style of system business by business process reengineering (BPR), with the sales, engineering, and software development divisions acting in concert. Virtual task force teams are changing the styles of sales and engineering. They are supported by an intranet-based system for information management and C Solution, a new system architecture. (author)

  11. Development of new finite element by source method. 2nd Report. Plate bending element; Source wo mochiita atarashii yugen yoso no kaihatsu. 2. Itamage yoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neki, I.; Tada, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports a method to develop a new finite element by source (FES) for a two-dimensional plane problem and a three-dimensional solid problem as a method to analyze ship body structures. The paper describes development of a plate bending element by using a similar method, and the fundamental principle thereof. The present method can prepare a finite element of an arbitrary shape by simply providing a contact point only on a boundary. It can also derive good calculation accuracy with less number of contact points and elements. These facts are shown by examples of analyses on a square plate, a triangle plate and a semi-circular plate. Particularly, since a plate bending problem has a large order of differential calculus in a governing equation, this method being a semi-analytical method derives a result with very good accuracy even with less number of contact points. A hypothetical boundary method or a hypothetical electric charge method presents not a very high accuracy even if a large number of contact points are provided. This is because the method hypothesizes only a bending moment vertical to the boundary, but does not consider a source of the moment relative to the boundary. In contrast, the present method hypothesizes both of bending and twisting as the sources, hence its accuracy is better than with the above two methods. 5 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Electric discharge performance of electrolytic manganese dioxide relating to key factors in production process. Denkai nisanka mangan no denchi seino ni oyobosu juyo seizo yoin no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, K.; Kumamoto, S.; Hieda, M. (Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    Small scale experiment on production of EMD (electrolytic manganese dioxide) and evaluation on performance of batteries using the EMD were conducted to single out some of the state-of-the-art problems for research subjects in the future. In the experiment, three kinds of anodes were compared, such as graphite, titanium, and a new type of titanium anode having a number of platinum pock-marks mounted on the surface. In the evaluation, electric discharge curves in wet batteries were investigated. The result obtained was as follows: the paraffin layer floated on the high temperature electrolysis bath for preventing the electrolyte vaporization little affects the performance of the EMD obtained with the ordinary titanium anode, but adversely affects the performance in the case of the EMD produced with the graphite anode or the new type titanium anode. Whereas the ordinary titanium anode is passivated under the conditions examined, there is a possibility to lessen the passivation with the new type titanium anode. The neutralization of the EMD deposits is important to control the open-circuit voltage of the battery, but it may be unnecessary in the future. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  13. International Workshop on Carbon Cycling and Coral Reef Metabolism; Sangosho no tanso junkan ni kansuru kokusai workshop hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-16

    The paper described the International Workshop on Carbon Cycling and Coral Reef Metabolism which was held at Miyako-jima, Okinawa Pref. on October 17-24, 1995. In the workshop, researchers got together which are involved in marine chemistry, marine biology, coral ecology, and environmental science, and discussed the carbon cycling and metabolism of coral reef. Discussions were made on what the coral reef ecosystem is, and what the definition of a sink or a source for CO2 is. Also discussed were scales of how much time and space should be considered to make these issues clear. Further, it was proposed that it was necessary to investigate carbon balance of both the whole system and the components of the system and to keep track of mass transfer among neighboring components of the system. Seventeen presentations were given. The workshop obtained a definite consensus on carbon balance of the coral reef system. 123 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. New ion generation method with SF{sub 6} plasma. Direct ionization of refractory materials; SF{sub 6} purazuma wo mochiita atarashii ion seiseiho. koyuten busshitsu wo chokusetsu ion ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoshi, K.; Saito, Y.; Tajima, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    For many refractory materials, vapor pressures rise due to fluoridation. For example, a vapor pressure of B is almost zero at room temperature, whereas a vapor pressure of BF{sub 3} is 10{sup 5}Pa or greater. A SF{sub 6} plasma method is capable of directly generating a solid fluoride in an ion source and obtaining its plasma. In order to ionize refractory materials such as niobium, boron, silicon and the like, the present authors have developed a new ion generation method using a stable solid sample and SF{sub 6} gas. Further, the present method was employed to successfully and greatly extending the filament life of the ion source. The plasma method can be used widely not only for a Freeman ion source but also for an ion source using plasma such as electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. Since the refractory material ions can be stably supplied at a great intensity for a long time, they are expected to be used in corrosion-resistant materials or materials having new functions such as optical switching materials. (NEDO)

  15. Nippon Steel Corp.: Carbon fiber seat business of Tonen Corp., formal bribery Nippon Steel Corp; Tonen no tanso seni shito jigyo. Shinnittetsu ga seishiki baishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-28

    Nippon Steel Corp. and Tonen Corp. announced that it signed the transfer contract of carbon fiber seat business on December 1, 1998. (Nittetsu composite) is established as a business company of carbon fiber compound material fitted to the existent business, and it makes use of the multiplier effect of the business integration, and the new day iron which purchased a business from Tonen Corp. works for the scale expansion. (translated by NEDO)

  16. Influences of species of metals and supports on the hydrogenation activity of carbon-supported metal sulfides catalysts; Tanso biryushi tanji shokubai no suisoka kassei ni taisuru kassei kinzoku oyobi tantaishu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakanishi, K.; Hasuo, H.; Taniguchi, H.; Nagamatsu, T.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    In order to design catalysts suitable for primary liquefaction stage and secondary upgrading stage respectively in the multi-stage liquefaction process, various carbon-supported catalysts were prepared. Catalytic activities of them were investigated for the hydrogenation of 1-methylnaphthalene, to discuss the influences of metals and carbon species on the catalytic activity. Various water soluble and oil soluble Mo and Ni salts were used for NiMo supported catalysts. Among various carbon supports, Ketjen Black (KB) was effective for preparing the catalyst showing the most excellent hydrogenation activity. The KB and Black Pearl 2000 (BP2000) showing high hydrogenation activity were fine particles having high specific surface area more than 1000 m{sup 2}/g and primary particle diameter around 30 nm. This was inferred to contribute to the high dispersion support of active metals. Since such fine particles of carbon exhibited hydrophobic surface, they were suitable for preparing catalysts from the methanol-soluble metals. Although Ni and Mo added iron-based catalysts provided lower aromatic hydrogenation activity, they exhibited liquefaction activity competing with the NiMo/KB catalyst. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Design of environment-friendly and next generation-type conversion system for unused carbon resources by developing highly functional materials; Kokino zairyo kaihatsu ni yoru kankyo chowagata jisedai miriyo tanso shigen tenkan system no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, K.; Morooka, S.; Arai, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sakanishi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1997-02-01

    Studies are conducted for the development of now-unused kinds of fossil carbon resources, such as low rank coal and heavy gravity crude oil, into higher-value liquid fuel. In the preliminary treatment process, the fossil carbon resources are dried by use of supercritical carbon dioxide, when it is found that the resources are disintegrated and water is desorbed. In a low rank coal liquefaction process using the NiMo/KB (Kefjen Black) catalyst, more than 60% is converted into oil, which rate is improved by use of the dual-temperature liquefaction process. This catalyst may be recovered by separation utilizing specific gravity difference. As a low temperature gasification catalyst, the alkaline carbonate-carried carbon catalyst is very quick at the initial stage of reaction. The perovskite-carried alkaline carbonate catalyst is high in carbon oxidizing/activating efficiency at low temperatures. The silica film deposited on an alumina-coated support tube is excellent in selectivity and speed as a hydrogen separating film, and a carbonized polyimide film as a carbon dioxide separating film. For the supercritical phase adsorption/separation of chemicals not to be distilled easily, the NaY-type zeolite functions effectively. Pd/ZrO2 serving as a carbon monoxide conversion catalyst enables the recovery of more MeOH when Pd grains are smaller in diameter.

  18. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium field / Development of technology to treat aquatic environment by using microorganisms fixed on carbon fabrics (abbreviation: carbon/aquatic environment project) (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium bun`ya / tanso sen`i nansoshiki eno biseibutsu kochaku gensho wo riyoshita mizukankyo seibi gijutsu no kaihatsu (ryakusho: tanso mizu kankyo project) daiichi nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Out of the development of technology to arrange the aquatic environment using phenomena of microorganism fixation on carbon fiber soft textures, the paper stated the fiscal 1997 result. On carbon fibers in a state of swaying in water, microorganisms in water fix in an amazingly large quantity. A catalog was compiled of 58 kinds of carbon fabrics trially woven and knitted. When carbon fiber is used as activated sludge carrier, activity of microorganism lasts more than one year. Only a little amount of surplus sludge is generated. The fixed microorganisms are more active in case of carbon fiber than in case of nylon and polyester fibers. Fiber texture models of carbon fiber fixing activated sludge groups were proposed. By pump operation, the water flow inside/outside microorganism groups is being accelerated. Several new strains of bacillus carboniphilus were isolated/identified from soil and marsh. To grasp relationships of characteristics among three elements such as the state of aquatic environment, fiber, and microorganism group, the experiment was prepared. Preliminary work is conducted to derive a simple equation for facility design, and experimental directions to obtain design conditions were proposed. 6 refs., 166 figs., 47 tabs.

  19. Investigation of the creation of functional surfaces and the recent development in related researches. 2. Investigation of the development of new isolation/refining systems in water system; Kokino hyomen no sosei to shintenkai no kenkyu doko chosa. 2. Suikei ni okeru atarashii bunri seisei system no kaihatsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Propositions were made concerning new chromatography and membrane separation techniques wherein a command control material is used, the mobile phase is fixed upon water, and the fixed phase is caused to vary by external commands, and how to develop the said techniques into a project was discussed. New methods were also introduced, capable of separating water systems and, particularly, capable of separating and refining, without damaging their functions, bionic elements such as proteins, genes, and cells, which encouraged discussion on the future of the said project. As for command controlled materials, detailed investigations were conducted into materials responsive to physical stimulation such as light, electric field, magnetic field, or heat and materials responsive to PH and chemical or biochemical substances, and discussion was made on the structures and characters of the said materials. Concerning the manufacture of a command controlled surface, consideration centered particularly about the density and thickness of command controlled molecules to be introduced onto the surface. Furthermore, the current state and problems were discussed regarding chromatographic separation and refining of optical isomers, nucleic acids, physiologically active substances, peptides, cells, etc. 252 refs., 75 figs., 31 tabs.

  20. International seminar in fiscal 1998 on the development and promotion of global environment-related industrial technologies. Report on International Workshops on CO{sub 2} Cycling and Metabolism in Coral Reef; 1998 nendo chikyu sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. 'Sangosho ni okeru busshitsu ido to tanso junkan' kokusai workshop hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the study of CO{sub 2} absorption and fixation in the marine ecosystem, studies of coral reefs by RITE (Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth) were subjected to discussion at the above-named workshops. It is after the elapse of a long geological time on the earth that CO2 in the atmosphere has arrived at the current level of concentration thanks to fixation and calcification by living organisms and to dissolution into the seawater. In the formation of CaCO{sub 3} that constitutes the coral skeleton, 1 mol Ca combines with 2 mol bicarbonates for the production of 1 mol CaCO{sub 3} and 1 mol CO{sub 2}. The reaction may suggests a consequential increase of CO2 in the atmosphere but such CO{sub 2} is in reality consumed by being converted into organic substances in a photosynthetic process performed by symbiotic algae. Calculation was made for the whole of Bora Bay, Miyakojima Island, and the result was that 700kg-C/day comes to be stored in the form of organic matters in the community of coral reef organisms. In a coral reef, even when it emits CO2 into the atmosphere, there is organic matter production which exceeds the lost CO{sub 2}. Coral reefs fix carbon out of the seawater at the rate of 0.42Gt-C/year, which is the aggregate of 0.3Gt organic matters and 0.12Gt CaCO{sub 3}. (NEDO)

  1. Effect of massive transformation on formation of acicular structure in austenitic stainless steel weld metal solidified as ferritic single phase. Report 5. Study on solidification and subsequent transformation of Cr-Ni stainless steel weld metals; Feraito tanso de gyokosuru osutenaito kei sutenresu ko yosetsu kinzoku ni okeru ashikyura jo soshiki no keisei ni oyobosu masshibu hentai no eikyo.5. Cr-Ni kei sutenresu ko yosetsu kinzoku no gyoko/hentai ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, H.; Koseki, T.; Okita, S.; Fuji, M. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-05

    The authors clarified that massive transformation occurs at two phase region under To temperature and there is K-S relation between the massive formation phase and base phase using {gamma} stainless steel that solidifies at F mode and forms acicular structure at room temperature structure. There is a possibility of massive transformation in weld metals because the cooling rate below the high temperature To was high even for normal welding process. Thereupon, in this report, whether the massive transformation effects the formation of acicular structure or not was studied as for {gamma} stainless steel weld metal that solidifies at F mode and room temperature structure becomes acicular form of two {delta} and {gamma} phase. As a result, it was clarified that massive transformation occurs at two phase region with temperature below To, and the room temperature structure was acicular form structure irrespective to massive transformation in case of composition with small Cr/Ni ratio even in case of stainless steel that solidifies at F mode. 20 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Long-term analysis of carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged mole fractions retrieved from SCIAMACHY

    OpenAIRE

    Schneising, O.; M. Buchwitz; Reuter, M.; J. Heymann; H. Bovensmann; Burrows, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launch 2002) was the first and is now with TANSO onboard GOSAT (launch 2009) one of only two satellite instruments currently in space whose measurements are sensitive to CO2 and CH4 concentration changes in the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability due to sources and sinks is largest. We present...

  3. The total column of CO2 and CH4 measured with a compact Fourier transform spectrometer at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center and Railroad Valley, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, S.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Kuze, A.; Hillyard, P. W.; Tanaka, T.; Podolske, J. R.; Iraci, L. T.; Albertson, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    The total columns of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) were measured with a compact Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) and Railroad Valley, Nevada, USA (RRV) during a vicarious calibration campaign in June 2014. The campaign was performed to estimate changes in the radiometric response of the Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for carbon Observations Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) aboard Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). TANSO-FTS measures spectra of radiance scattered by the Earth surface with high- and medium-gain depending on the surface reflectance. At high reflectance areas, such as deserts over north Africa and Australia, TANSO-FTS collects spectra with medium-gain. There was differences on atmospheric pressure and XCO2 retrieved from spectra obtained between high-gain and medium-gain. Because the retrieved products are useful for evaluating the difference of spectral qualities between high- and medium-gain, this work is an attempt to collect validation data for spectra with medium-gain of TANSO-FTS at remote and desert area with a compact and medium-spectral resolution instrument. As a compact FTS, EM27/SUN was used. It was manufactured and newly released on April 1, 2014 by Bruker. It is robust and operable in a high temperature environment. It was housed in a steel box to protect from dust and rain and powered by Solar panels. It can be operated by such a remote and desert area, like a RRV. Over AFRC and RRV, vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 were measured using the Alpha Jet research aircraft as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) of ARC, NASA. The values were calibrated to standard gases. To make the results comparable to WMO (World Meteorological Organization) standards, the retrieved XCO2 and XCH4 values are divided by a calibration factor. This values were determined by comparisons with in situ profiles measured by

  4. Comparison of XH2O Retrieved from GOSAT Short-Wavelength Infrared Spectra with Observations from the TCCON Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dupuy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the atmospheric distribution of water (H 2 O is crucial for global warming studies and climate change mitigation. In this context, reliable satellite data are extremely valuable for their global and continuous coverage, once their quality has been assessed. Short-wavelength infrared spectra are acquired by the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS aboard the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT. From these, column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor (XH 2 O have been retrieved at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES, Japan and are available as a Level 2 research product. We compare the NIES XH 2 O data, Version 02.21, with retrievals from the ground-based Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON, Version GGG2014. The datasets are in good overall agreement, with GOSAT data showing a slight global low bias of −3.1% ± 24.0%, good consistency over different locations (station bias of −1.53% ± 10.35% and reasonable correlation with TCCON (R = 0.89. We identified two potential sources of discrepancy between the NIES and TCCON retrievals over land. While the TCCON XH 2 O amounts can reach 6000–7000 ppm when the atmospheric water content is high, the correlated NIES values do not exceed 5500 ppm. This could be due to a dry bias of TANSO-FTS in situations of high humidity and aerosol content. We also determined that the GOSAT-TCCON differences directly depend on the altitude difference between the TANSO-FTS footprint and the TCCON site. Further analysis will account for these biases, but the NIES V02.21 XH 2 O product, after public release, can already be useful for water cycle studies.

  5. Retrieval of atmospheric CO2 from satellite near-infrared nadir spectra in the frame of ESA's climate change initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, Maximilian; Buchwitz, Michael; Schneising, Oliver; Heymann, Jens; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John [Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    ESA's climate change initiative (CCI) aims at global satellite measurements of essential climate variables (ECV). One of these variables is X{sub CO{sub 2}} (the column-average dry-air mole fraction of atmospheric CO{sub 2}) which is retrieved from the satellite instruments SCIAMACHY aboard ENVISAT and TANSO aboard GOSAT. Results of the SCIAMACHY retrieval algorithms WFM-DOAS and BESD are the focus of the presentation. This includes a comparison against ground based FTS measurements, GOSAT retrievals, and model results.

  6. GOSAT-2:Development Status of the mission instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masakatsu; Suto, Hiroshi; Yotsumoto, Kazuhiko; Miyakawa, Takehiro; Shiomi, Kei

    2015-04-01

    Over five years operational periods of GOSAT, the useful scientific data sets and interesting articles for carbon source/sink evaluation were produced and published. On the other hand, although the geenhouse gases measuremetn data are expected to contribute to the efforts to address global warming, the accurasy of GOSAT data is not enough for the political use. Through the GOSAT operation, we had learned a lot of things on the instrument, software, processing algorithm and operation; what should be improved in the following mission. To elucidate the carbon cycle more precisely, our experiences regarding observation performances as well as hardware design were summarized and reflected on the mission requirements on GOSAT-2 which is for a good understanding of CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks and the underlying carbon cycle was defined. Based on the mission requirements, the hardware system requirements were defined and the design was started. Recently we had completed the preliminary design and shifted to the critical design phase, that is the phase C. In the preliminary design phase, the design of the TANSO-FTS-2 which is the primary mission instrument had been almost fixed as well as the one of the TANSO-CAI-2 which is the secondary mission instrument. The results of the preliminary design of GOSAT-2 meet all of the requirements set by the mission requirements. To improve the measurement accuracy, the signal to noise ration will be increased by the extention of the aperture size from 64mm to 73mm and cooling the after optics as well as the thermal detectors. And to increase the number of the useful data, GOSAT-2 will equip the function to avoid the clouds during the observation using the images obtained by the monitor camera in FTS. To observe the carbon monoxide, the 2.3m observation channel will be added. This function will be realized by the extention of the 2.0m observation band to 2.3m. The pointing angle in the along track direction will be extend from

  7. GOSAT TIR radiometric validation toward simultaneous GHG column and profile observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, F.; Knuteson, R. O.; Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Saitoh, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched on January 2009 and continues its operation for more than six years. The thermal and near infrared sensor for carbon observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard GOSAT measures greenhouse gases (GHG), such as CO2 and CH4, with wide and high resolution spectra from shortwave infrared (SWIR) to thermal infrared (TIR). This instrument has the advantage of being able to measure simultaneously the same field of view in different spectral ranges. The combination of column-GHG form SWIR band and vertical profile-GHG from TIR band provide better understanding and distribution of GHG, especially in troposphere. This work describes the radiometric validation and sensitivity analysis of TANSO-FTS TIR spectra, especially CO2, atmospheric window and CH4 channels with forward calculation. In this evaluation, we used accurate in-situ dataset of the HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observation) airplane observation data and GOSAT vicarious calibration and validation campaign data in Railroad Valley, NV. The HIPPO aircraft campaign had taken accurate atmospheric vertical profile dataset (T, RH, O3, CO2, CH4, N2O, CO) approximately pole-to-pole from the surface to the tropopause over the ocean. We implemented these dataset for forward calculation and made the spectral correction model with respect to wavenumber and internal calibration blackbody temperature The GOSAT vicarious calibration campaign have conducted every year since 2009 near summer solstice in Railroad Valley, where high-temperature desert site. In this campaign, we have measured temperature and humidity by a radiosonde and CO2, CH4 and O3 profile by the AJAX airplane at the time of the GOSAT overpass. Sometimes, the GHG profiles over the Railroad Valley show the air mass advection in mid-troposphere depending on upper wind. These advections bring the different concentration of GHG in lower and upper troposphere. Using these cases, we made

  8. Characterization and correction of spectral distortions induced by microvibrations onboard the GOSAT Fourier transform spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Jun; Desbiens, Raphael; Kawashima, Takahiro; Kuze, Akihiko

    2013-07-10

    Microvibrations onboard greenhouse gases observing satellite (GOSAT) cause scan speed variations in the TANSO Fourier transform spectrometer. The associated periodic sampling errors generate ghost features in O2 A-band spectra, where surface pressure and aerosol properties are retrieved to determine the optical path through the atmosphere. A correction algorithm has been developed to re-compute the interferograms at equally spaced sampling intervals. The key is to determine iteratively the amplitude and phase of sinusoidal perturbations with predetermined frequencies to minimize the magnitude of the out-of-band ghosts artifacts after correction of the sampling grid. This correction algorithm drastically reduces errors in retrieved surface pressure and improves agreement with ground-based observations.

  9. A General Introduction to Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and Its Products%温室气体观测卫星GOSAT及产品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯姗姗; 雷莉萍; 关贤华

    2013-01-01

    为了深入了解国际上新一代温室气体观测卫星及其产品,详细介绍了GOSAT卫星发射背景、卫星平台、传感器设置、地面系统及数据产品特点.GOSAT卫星采用干涉分光技术,结合多种观测方式,可以获得高精度、高时空分辨率的温室气体浓度及廓线资料,其卫星设计及数据应用思路,为我国发展温室气体探测卫星提供了重要参考价值.%Remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring greenhouse gases emissions and the source and sink of greenhouse gases at regional and global scales. GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) is the first satellite for space borne measurement of the main greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4. An Introduction is made about the emission background, satellite platform, instrument characteristics, and the ground systems of GOSAT,in order to thoroughly understand the advances of satellite greenhouse gases observation in the world. This paper also presents an overview of GOS-AT data products,calibration and validation strategies. Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) is based on the Michelson interferometer, and combine with several observation modes which provides atmospheric greenhouse gases concentration and profile data with high precision. While TANSO-CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) is a radiometer with Ultra Violet (UV), visible, and short wave infrared (SWIR) bands to reduce the interference of cloud and aerosol on greenhouse gases measurements. The satellite design and data applications of GOSAT provide important references for developing greenhouse gas monitor satellites in China.

  10. Overview of Japanese Earth observation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Haruhisa

    2015-10-01

    Six programs, i.e. AMSR-E, ASTER, GOSAT, GCOM-W1, GPM and ALOS-2 are going on in Japanese Earth Observation programs. ASTER has lost its short wave infrared channels. AMSR-E stopped its operation, but it started its operation from Sep. 2012. GCOM-W1 was launched on 18, May, 2012 and is operating well as well as GOSAT. ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) was successfully launched on 24th Jan. 2006. ALOS carries three instruments, i.e., PRISM (Panchromatic Remote Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping), AVNIR-2 (Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer), and PALSAR (Phased Array L band Synthetic Aperture Radar). Unfortunately, ALOS has stopped its operation on 22nd, April, 2011 by power loss. GOSAT (Greenhouse Gas Observation Satellite) was successfully launched on 29, January, 2009. GOSAT carries 2 instruments, i.e. a green house gas sensor (TANSO-FTS) and a cloud/aerosol imager (TANSO-CAI). The main sensor is a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and covers 0.76 to 15 μm region with 0.2 to 0.5 cm-1 resolution. SMILES (Super-conducting Millimeter wave Emission Spectrometer) was launched on September 2009 to ISS and started the observation, but stopped its operation on April 2010. GPM (Global Precipitation Mission) core satellite was launched on Feb. 2014. GPM is a joint project with NASA and carries two instruments. JAXA has developed DPR (Dual frequency Precipitation Radar) which is a follow on of PR on TRMM. ALOS F/O satellites are divided into two satellites, i.e. SAR and optical satellites. The first one of ALOS F/O is called ALOS 2 and carries L-band SAR. It was launched on May 2014. JAXA is planning to launch follow on of optical sensors. It is now called Advanced Optical Satellite and the planned launch date is fiscal 2019. Other future satellites are GCOM-C1 (ADEOS-2 follow on), GOSAT-2 and EarthCare. GCOM-C1 will be launched on 2016 and GOSAT-2 will be launched on 2017. Another project is EarthCare. It is a joint project with ESA and JAXA is

  11. Filling-in of Far-Red and Near-Infrared Solar Lines by Terrestrial and Atmospheric Effects: Simulations and Space-Based Observations from SCHIAMACHY and GOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Kuze, A.; Corp, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    spectral resolution of 0.54 nm. GOSAT has two instrument packages: the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI). We use TANSO-FTS band 1, which extends from approximately 758 to 775 mn and we use cloud fraction derived from the CAL We compare satellite-derived fluorescence with the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), an Aqua/MODIS-derived vegetation reflectance-based index that indicates relative greenness and is used to infer photosynthetic function.

  12. Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morino

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT was launched on 23 January 2009 to monitor the global distributions of carbon dioxide and methane from space. It has operated continuously since then. Here we describe a retrieval algorithm for column abundances of these gases from the short-wavelength infrared spectra obtained by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS. The algorithm consists of three steps. First, cloud-free observational scenes are selected by several cloud-detection methods. Then, column abundances of carbon dioxide and methane are retrieved based on the optimal estimation method. Finally, the retrieval quality is examined to exclude low-quality and/or aerosol-contaminated results. Most of the retrieval random errors come from the instrumental noise. The interferences by auxiliary parameters retrieved simultaneously with gas abundances are small. The evaluated precisions of the retrieved column abundances for single observations are less than 1% in most cases. The interhemispherical differences and the temporal variation patterns of the retrieved column abundances agree well with the current state of knowledge.

  13. Long-term analysis of carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged mole fractions retrieved from SCIAMACHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneising, Oliver; Buchwitz, Michael; Reuter, Maximilian; Heymann, Jens; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to climate change. Despite their importance our knowledge about their variable natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks has significant gaps. Satellite observations can add important global scale information on greenhouse gas sources and sinks provided the data are accurate and precise enough and are sensitive to the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability is largest. High sensitivity to near-surface greenhouse gas concentration changes can be achieved using reflected solar radiation in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared (NIR/SWIR) spectral region. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launch 2002) was the first and is now besides TANSO onboard GOSAT (launch 2009) the only satellite instrument currently in space covering important absorption bands of both gases in this spectral range. Global SCIAMACHY nadir observations from the time period 2003-2009 have been used to retrieve carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged mole fractions (which are the quantities needed for inverse modelling to get information on the sources and sinks) constituting seven years of greenhouse gas information derived from European EO data and offering temporal overlap with GOSAT. These new improved WFM-DOAS multi-year global data sets extending afore existing retrievals will be presented and discussed including an analysis of the long-term characteristics and comparison of the retrieved mole fractions with independent data, e.g., a first analysis of how the SCIAMACHY results compare with GOSAT retrievals for the overlapping time period.

  14. Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse gases observing satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morino

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT was launched on 23 January 2009 to monitor the global distributions of carbon dioxide and methane from space. It has operated continuously since then. Here, we describe a retrieval algorithm for column abundances of these gases from the short-wavelength infrared spectra obtained by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS. The algorithm consists of three steps. First, cloud-free observational scenes are selected by several cloud-detection methods. Then, column abundances of carbon dioxide and methane are retrieved based on the optimal estimation method. Finally, the retrieval quality is examined to exclude low-quality and/or aerosol-contaminated results. Most of the retrieval random errors come from instrumental noise. The interferences due to auxiliary parameters retrieved simultaneously with gas abundances are small. The evaluated precisions of the retrieved column abundances for single observations are less than 1% in most cases. The interhemispherical differences and temporal variation patterns of the retrieved column abundances show features similar to those of an atmospheric transport model.

  15. Influence of aerosols and thin cirrus clouds on the GOSAT-observed CO2: a case study over Tsukuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bril

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lidar observations of vertical profiles of aerosols and thin cirrus clouds were made at Tsukuba (36.1° N, 140.1° E, Japan, to investigate the influence of aerosols and thin cirrus clouds on the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2 retrieved from observation data of the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer, measured in the Short-Wavelength InfraRed band (TANSO-FTS SWIR, onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. The lidar system measured the backscattering ratio, depolarization ratio, and/or the wavelength exponent of atmospheric particles. The lidar observations and ground-based high-resolution FTS measurements at the Tsukuba Total Carbon Column Observing Network (Tsukuba TCCON site were recorded simultaneously during passages of GOSAT over Tsukuba. GOSAT SWIR XCO2 data (version 01.xx released in August 2010 were compared with the lidar and Tsukuba TCCON data. High-altitude aerosols and thin cirrus clouds had a large impact on the GOSAT SWIR XCO2 results. By taking into account the observed aerosol/cirrus vertical profiles and using a more adequate solar irradiance database in the GOSAT SWIR retrieval, the difference between the GOSAT SWIR XCO2 data and the Tsukuba TCCON data was greatly reduced.

  16. The Greenhouse Gas Project Of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI): Phase 1 Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Aben, I.; Armante, R.; Bergamaschi, P.; Blumenstock, T.; Bovensmann, H.; Brunner, D.; Buchmann, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Chevallier, F.; Crevoisier, C. D.; Detmers, R.; Deutcher, N.; Dils, B.; Frankenberg, C.; Guerlet, S.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Heymann, J.; Kaminski, T.; Laeng, A.; Lichtenberg, G.; De Maziere, M.; Noel, S.; Notholt, J.; Parker, R.; Scholze, M.; Sussmann, R.; Stiller, G. P.; Warneke, T.; Zehner, C.

    2013-12-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI, http://www.esa-cci.org/), which delivers data sets of various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to generate global satellite-derived data sets of the two important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) with a quality as needed to derive information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks. A good understanding of GHG sources and sinks is a pre-requisite for reliable climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are near-surface sensitive column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and TANSO- FTS/GOSAT. Other satellite instruments such as IASI and MIPAS are also used as they provide additional information about the two GHGs. Here we present an overview of Phase 1 of the GHG-CCI project (Sept.2010 - Dec.2013), focusing on scientific achievements and on the “Climate Research Data Package” (CRDP), which is the first version of the ECV GHG data base.

  17. Inverse modeling of CH4 emissions for 2010–2011 using different satellite retrieval products from GOSAT and SCIAMACHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alexe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in 2009 new space-borne observations of dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of atmospheric methane (XCH4 became available from the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observations–Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS instrument onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. Until April 2012 concurrent CH4 measurements were provided by the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY instrument onboard ENVISAT. The GOSAT and SCIAMACHY XCH4 retrievals can be compared during their circa 32 month period of overlap. We estimate monthly average CH4 emissions between January 2010 and December 2011, using the TM5-4DVAR inverse modeling system. Additionally, high-accuracy measurements from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA ESRL global air sampling network are used, providing strong constraints of the remote surface atmosphere. We discuss five inversion scenarios that make use of different GOSAT and SCIAMACHY XCH4 retrieval products, including two sets of GOSAT proxy retrievals processed independently by the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON/Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, and the University of Leicester (UL, and the RemoTeC "Full-Physics" (FP XCH4 retrievals available from SRON/KIT. 2 year average emission maps show a~good overall agreement among all GOSAT-based inversions, and compared to the SCIAMACHY-based inversion, with consistent flux adjustment patterns, particularly across Equatorial Africa and North America. The inversions are validated against independent shipboard and aircraft observations, and XCH4 measurements available from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. All GOSAT and SCIAMACHY inversions show very similar validation performance.

  18. Analyzing six-year-long GOSAT Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Noda, H.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Takagi, H.; Kim, H. S.; Saito, M.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Fujita, T.; Kawazoe, F.; Ajiro, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has been operating for more than six-and-a-half years since January 2009. In 2014, GOSAT went through some technical difficulties in the functioning of its solar paddle and sensor pointing mechanism. These problems were overcome later, and the GOSAT observation is still continued without major flaws. GOSAT TANSO-FTS SWIR Level 2 data products, the column-averaged concentrations of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) calculated over the past measurement period, have been validated and disseminated to registered researchers and the general public by the NIES GOSAT Project. Also, monthly regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 (Level 4A data products) over a few year period have been estimated from the FTS SWIR Level 2 data and ground-based GHG monitoring data. Although the above-mentioned technical problems caused a data discontinuity, we accumulated FTS SWIR Level 2 data for more than six years. It is expected that more data will be collected for a few more years while the satellite remains operational. Anomalies in the time series of regional-mean column-averaged concentrations and fluxes are being investigated. In this presentation, we will show the results of the investigation, particularly the ones for some tropical and sub-tropical regions where only few retrievals were obtained due to the influence of frequent cloudiness. Also, we will touch changes in the number of retrievals found over these regions after modifying the satellite's observational pattern. The GOSAT Research Announcement (RA) activities by selected researchers are still continued. In analyzing long-term GOSAT data, events of concentration anomalies (e.g. in 2010 in Europe and in the US, and similar ones in 2013) were found by some of the RA studies. We will summarize the characteristics of GOSAT data products generated over the past several years, and some of the important research outcomes brought by the GOSAT RA researchers.

  19. Using ocean-glint scattered sunlight as a diagnostic tool for satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic measurements of sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface is a technique widely used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituent concentrations from space. Thereby, remote sensing of greenhouse gases poses particularly challenging accuracy requirements for instrumentation and retrieval algorithms which, in general, suffer from various error sources. Here, we investigate a method that helps disentangle sources of error for observations of sunlight backscattered from the glint spot on the ocean surface. The method exploits the backscattering characteristics of the ocean surface, which is bright for glint geometry but dark for off-glint angles. This property allows for identifying a set of clean scenes where light scattering due to particles in the atmosphere is negligible such that uncertain knowledge of the lightpath can be excluded as a source of error. We apply the method to more than 3 yr of ocean-glint measurements by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT, which aims at measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 concentrations. The proposed method is able to clearly monitor recent improvements in the instrument calibration of the oxygen (O2 A-band channel and suggests some residual uncertainty in our knowledge about the instrument. We further assess the consistency of CO2 retrievals from several absorption bands between 6400 cm−1 (1565 nm and 4800 cm−1 (2100 nm and find that the absorption bands commonly used for monitoring of CO2 dry air mole fractions from GOSAT allow for consistency better than 1.5 ppm. Usage of other bands reveals significant inconsistency among retrieved CO2 concentrations pointing at inconsistency of spectroscopic parameters.

  20. Using ocean-glint scattered sunlight as a diagnostic tool for satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic measurements of sunlight backscattered by the Earth's surface is a technique widely used for remote sensing of atmospheric constituent concentrations from space. Thereby, remote sensing of greenhouse gases poses particularly challenging accuracy requirements for instrumentation and retrieval algorithms which, in general, suffer from various error sources. Here, we investigate a method that helps disentangle sources of error for observations of sunlight backscattered from the glint spot on the ocean surface. The method exploits the backscattering characteristics of the ocean surface which is bright for glint geometry but dark for off-glint angles. This property allows for identifying a set of clean scenes where light scattering due to particles in the atmosphere is negligible such that uncertain knowledge of the lightpath can be excluded as a source of error. We apply the method to more than 3 yr of ocean-glint measurements by the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO – Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS onboard the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT which aims at measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 concentrations. The proposed method is able to clearly monitor recent improvements in the instrument calibration of the oxygen (O2 A-band channel and suggests some residual uncertainty in our knowledge about the instrument. We further assess the consistency of CO2 retrievals from several absorption bands between 6400 cm−1 (1565 nm and 4800 cm−1 (2100 nm and find that the absorption bands commonly used for monitoring of CO2 dry air mole fractions from GOSAT allow for consistency better than 1.5 ppm. Usage of other bands reveals significant inconsistency among retrieved CO2 concentrations pointing at inconsistency of spectroscopic parameters.

  1. Large XCH4 anomaly in summer 2013 over northeast Asia observed by GOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Misa; Uchino, Osamu; Morino, Isamu; Inoue, Makoto; Yoshida, Yukio; Mabuchi, Kazuo; Shirai, Tomoko; Tohjima, Yasunori; Maksyutov, Shamil; Ohyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Shuji; Takizawa, Atsushi; Belikov, Dmitry

    2016-07-01

    Extremely high levels of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of atmospheric methane (XCH4) were detected in August and September 2013 over northeast Asia (˜ 20 ppb above the averaged summertime XCH4 over 2009-2012, after removing a long-term trend), as being retrieved from the Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) spectral data observed with the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). Similar enhancements of XCH4 were also observed by the ground-based measurements at two Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) sites in Japan. The analysis of surface CH4 concentrations observed at three monitoring sites around the Japan archipelago suggest that the extreme increase of XCH4 has occurred in a limited area. The model analysis was conducted to investigate this anomalously high XCH4 event, using an atmospheric transport model. The results indicate that the extreme increase of XCH4 is attributed to the anomalous atmospheric pressure pattern over East Asia during the summer of 2013, which effectively transported the CH4-rich air to Japan from the strong CH4 source areas in east China. The two Japanese TCCON sites, ˜ 1000 km east-west apart each other, coincidentally located along the substantially CH4-rich air flow from east China. This analysis demonstrates the capability of GOSAT to monitor an XCH4 event on a synoptic scale. We anticipate that the synoptic information of XCH4 from GOSAT data contributes to improve our understanding of regional carbon cycle and the regional flux estimation.

  2. CARBONGASES: Retrieval and Analysis of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Greenhouse Gases from SCIAMACHY on Envisat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneising, O.; Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Despite their importance our knowledge about their variable natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks has significant gaps. Satellite observations can add important global scale information on greenhouse gas sources and sinks provided the data are accurate and precise enough and are sensitive to the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability due to regional greenhouse gas sources and sinks are largest. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT was the first and is now besides TANSO onboard GOSAT the only satellite instrument which covers important absorption bands of both gases in the near-infrared/shortwave- infrared (NIR/SWIR) spectral region. In nadir mode SCIAMACHY observes reflected and backscattered solar radiation. The daytime measurements are therefore very sensitive to near-surface greenhouse gas concentration changes except in case of significant cloud cover. The atmospheric greenhouse gas information is extracted from the SCIAMACHY spectra using the Weighting Function Modified Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (WFM-DOAS or WFMD) algorithm developed at the Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP) of the University of Bremen, Germany. In the framework of the CARBONGASES project, which is part of the Changing Earth Science Network, the afore existing data set focussing on the first three full years of the ENVISAT mission (2003-2005) is improved and extended up to end of 2009 constituting seven years of greenhouse gas information derived from European Earth observation data and closing the gap to GOSAT. The status of this retrieval activity and first results are presented.

  3. Aerosol Effects on the Estimation of the Carbon Dioxide Concentration From the Measurements of Solar Absorption Spectra at an Altitude of 800 Meters by Using the FTS (GOSAT-BBM) in SWIR Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Saito, R.; Oguma, H.; Morino, I.; Aoki, K.; Machida, T.; Yokota, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is scheduled to be launched in 2008 to observe tropospheric CO2 and CH4 from space. We developed a retrieval algorithm, which simultaneously estimates the CO2 column concentration and the surface albedo from a spectrum of surface scattered solar radiation at 1.6 μm region measured by Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) aboard GOSAT. To validate and improve the retrieval algorithm, a field experiment was conducted from 1st to 18th December, 2006 using a bread board model (BBM) of the FTS. The surface scattered solar spectra were measured by BBM, which was installed at the terminal station of the cable car near the summit of Mt. Tsukuba (at an altitude of about 800 m). In-situ CO2 censors (NDIR) and skyradiometers were set up at the surface target point and near the BBM for the continuous measurements. Also, CO2 profile was observed in-situ by Cessna aircraft near the surface up to altitude of 3km. Data obtained with no cloud condition were analyzed. The CO2 column concentrations (CCO2) were retrieved with the assumption of with and without the boundary layer aerosol. Optical properties of aerosol were estimated from the skyradiometer measurements. The difference between the CCO2 with and without aerosol had good correlation with the aerosol optical thickness at 1.6 μm, and -0.1 to 0.6 % change in the CCO2 occurred due to aerosol. Most of the CCO2 agreed with in-situ observation within 1.0 % but the maximum difference reached up to 3.0 %.

  4. INITIAL COMPARISON OF BASELINE PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR THE VHTR CANDIDATE GRAPHITE GRADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Mark C

    2014-09-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design, a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled configuration that is capable of producing thermal energy for power generation as well as process heat for industrial applications that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is endeavoring to minimize the conservative estimates of as-manufactured mechanical and physical properties in nuclear-grade graphites by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a thorough comparison between these values in different graphite grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons both in specific properties and in the associated variability between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between each of the grades of graphite that are considered “candidate” grades from four major international graphite producers. These particular grades (NBG-18, NBG-17, PCEA, IG-110, and 2114) are the major focus of the evaluations presently underway on irradiated graphite properties through the series of Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiments. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL from which billets are formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration. NBG-17 graphite from SGL is essentially NBG-18 with the grain size reduced by a factor of two. PCEA, petroleum coke graphite from GrafTech with a similar grain size to NBG-17, is formed via an extrusion process and was initially considered the favored grade for the prismatic layout. IG-110 and 2114, from Toyo Tanso and Mersen (formerly Carbone Lorraine), respectively, are fine-grain grades

  5. Small Specimen Data from a High Temperature HFIR Irradiation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel Lee [ORNL; Thoms, Kenneth R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The HTV capsule is a High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) target-rod capsule designed to operate at very high temperatures. The graphite containing section of the capsule (in core) is approximately 18 inches (457.2 mm) long and is separated into eight temperature zones. The specimen diameters within each zone are set to achieve the desired gas gap and hence design temperature (900 C, 1200 C or 1500 C). The capsule has five zones containing 0.400 inch (10.16 mm) diameter specimens, two zones containing 0.350 inch (8.89 mm) diameter specimens and one zone containing 0.300 inch (7.62 mm) diameter specimens. The zones have been distributed within the experiment to optimize the gamma heating from the HFIR core as well as minimize the axial heat flow in the capsule. Consequently, there are two 900 C zones, three 1200 C zones, and three 1500 C zones within the HTV capsule. Each zone contains nine specimens 0.210 0.002 inches (5.334 mm) in length. The capsule will be irradiated to a peak dose of 3.17 displacements per atom. The HTV specimens include samples of the following graphite grades: SGL Carbon s NBG-17 and NBG-18, GrafTech s PCEA, Toyo Tanso s IG-110, Mersen s 2114 and the reference grade H-451 (SGL Carbon). As part of the pre-irradiation program the specimens were characterized using ASTM Standards C559 for bulk density, and ASTM C769 for approximate Young s modulus from the sonic velocity. The probe frequency used for the determination of time of flight of the ultrasonic signal was 2.25 MHz. Marked volume (specimen diameter) effects were noted for both bulk density (increased with increasing specimen volume or diameter) and Dynamic Young s modulus (decreased with increasing specimen volume or diameter). These trends are extended by adding the property vs. diameter data for unirradiated AGC-1 creep specimens (nominally 12.5 mm-diameter x 25.4 mm-length). The relatively large reduction in Dynamic Young s Modulus was surprising given the trend for increasing density

  6. 3 years of GOSAT target mode observations of volcanic CO2 from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, F. M.; Carn, S. A.; Kataoka, F.; Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Goto, N.; Ajiro, M.; Suto, H.; Takeda, T.; Kanekon, S.

    2013-12-01

    We here report on our ongoing project of space-borne detection of volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) point source anomalies. Our goals are: (a) better spatial and temporal coverage of volcano monitoring techniques; (b) improvement of the currently highly uncertain global CO2 emission inventory for volcanoes, irrespective of mode of emission, and (c) use of volcanic CO2 emissions for high altitude, strong point source emission and dispersion studies in atmospheric science. To detect and track volcanic CO2 anomalies, several challenges have to be overcome: orographic clouds, complex dispersion behavior, and an increasingly high tropospheric CO2 background. These obstacles can be overcome by a small field of view, enhanced spectral resolving power, by employing repeat target mode observation strategies, and by comparison to continuous ground based sensor network validation data. The Japanese Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is a single-instrument Earth observing greenhouse gas mission aboard JAXA's IBUKI satellite. GOSAT's Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) has been producing total column XCO2 data since January 2009, at a repeat cycle of 3 days. GOSAT's 10 km field of view has the potential to spatially integrate entire volcanic edifices within one point of measurement in precise target mode. At the expense of not providing a spatial scanning or mapping capability, it has strong spectral resolving power and agile pointing capability to focus on several targets of interest per orbit. To achieve sufficient uncertainty reduction, significant improvements included comprehensive in-flight vicarious calibration, in close collaboration between the author's agencies. Challenges with the on-board pointing mirror system have recently been compensated for employing modified observation planning strategies. Since summer 2010 we have conducted repeated target mode observations of now over 30 persistently active global volcanoes including Etna (Italy), Mayon

  7. Can satellite-based monitoring techniques be used to quantify volcanic CO2 emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Carn, Simon A.; Kuze, Akihiko; Kataoka, Fumie; Shiomi, Kei; Goto, Naoki; Popp, Christoph; Ajiro, Masataka; Suto, Hiroshi; Takeda, Toru; Kanekon, Sayaka; Sealing, Christine; Flower, Verity

    2014-05-01

    Since 2010, we investigate and improve possible methods to regularly target volcanic centers from space in order to detect volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) point source anomalies, using the Japanese Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Our long-term goals are: (a) better spatial and temporal coverage of volcano monitoring techniques; (b) improvement of the currently highly uncertain global CO2 emission inventory for volcanoes, and (c) use of volcanic CO2 emissions for high altitude, strong point source emission and dispersion studies in atmospheric science. The difficulties posed by strong relief, orogenic clouds, and aerosols are minimized by a small field of view, enhanced spectral resolving power, by employing repeat target mode observation strategies, and by comparison to continuous ground based sensor network validation data. GOSAT is a single-instrument Earth observing greenhouse gas mission aboard JAXA's IBUKI satellite in sun-synchronous polar orbit. GOSAT's Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) has been producing total column XCO2 data since January 2009, at a repeat cycle of 3 days, offering great opportunities for temporal monitoring of point sources. GOSAT's 10 km field of view can spatially integrate entire volcanic edifices within one 'shot' in precise target mode. While it doesn't have any spatial scanning or mapping capability, it does have strong spectral resolving power and agile pointing capability to focus on several targets of interest per orbit. Sufficient uncertainty reduction is achieved through comprehensive in-flight vicarious calibration, in close collaboration between NASA and JAXA. Challenges with the on-board pointing mirror system have been compensated for employing custom observation planning strategies, including repeat sacrificial upstream reference points to control pointing mirror motion, empirical individualized target offset compensation, observation pattern simulations to minimize view angle azimuth. Since summer 2010

  8. The Canadian Arctic ACE/OSIRIS Validation Project at PEARL: Validating Satellite Observations Over the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kaley A.; Strong, Kimberly; Fogal, Pierre F.; Drummond, James R.

    2016-04-01

    , the CANDAC Bruker 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer, a Systeme d'Analyse par Observations Zenithales (SAOZ) instrument, and several Brewer spectrophotometers. In the past several years, these results have been used to validate the measurements by the ACE-FTS, ACE-MAESTRO, and OSIRIS instruments as well as the TANSO-FTS instrument on the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). This presentation will focus on an overview of the measurements made by the ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite-borne instruments during the recent ACE/OSIRIS Arctic Validation campaigns and highlight how these have been used for satellite validation.

  9. ESA's atmospheric composition and dynamics mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Laur, Henri; Hoersch, Bianca; Ingmann, Paul; Wehr, Tobias; Langen, Joerg; Veihelmann, Ben

    Party Missions is improving. Currently, data from CSA's SCISAT (ACE-FTS, MAESTRO), SSC's ODIN (OSIRIS, SMR), JAXA/NIES' GOSAT (TANSO-FTS, -CAI) missions are available; NASA/KNMI OMI/AURA data is foreseen. ESA, with its mission and instruments, is committed to support the science community in their investigations of fundamental processes related to atmospheric composition, chemistry-dynamics coupling and dynamics in the troposphere, stratosphere and upper atmosphere. The presentation will provide a consolidated status the ESA atmospheric mission, in particular with respect development, instruments, algorithm development and data distribution status.

  10. Methane Footprint Measurements with IASI and GOSAT - Identification of Source Regions from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, E.; Muller, J. P.; Walton, D.; Potts, D.

    2015-12-01

    To date, satellite instruments such as SCIAMACHY and GOSAT-TANSO-FTS have largely focused on regional scale methane output (Kort, A. E., et al. 2014), in order to gain insight into significant methane source regions (such as the Four Corners). However, such an approach does not tackle the root of the issue; the individual sources of methane that account for the total global methane budget, e.g. oil wells and marshland. In this study we aim to use existing satellite sensors onboard Metop and GOSAT to locate point sources of methane from space. We use nine years of global methane measurements from Metop-IASI A/B in order to exploit the exceptionally high global coverage of the instruments (total coverage of the Earth twice a day), and its relatively small spatial footprint in order to accurately identify these methane source regions. Using these data we show which regions have persistent sources (such as the Four Corners), and which are fugitive (methane bubbles in the Arctic), changing from one month to the next. Following the identification of significant source regions using IASI, we increase the resolution by cross-referencing with the higher spatial resolution (but patchy) GOSAT data, in order to answer the question of whether individual gas sources can be identified from space. This study partially follows the method proposed by Kort, who used SCIAMACHY to identify general areas of high methane release in the USA, focusing on the oilrigs in the Four Corners region. This study takes Kort's work further and attempts to identify individual sources (both natural and anthropogenic) using the GOSAT/IASI combination, backed up with ground-based knowledge of sources, such as the FrackTracker database and known natural sources such as the "Door to Hell" in Turkmenistan. Finally we show validation by comparing the individual footprints against methane measurements from the TCCON (Wunch, D., et al. 2010), thus providing confidence in the use of individual satellites

  11. Ten Years of Near-Surface-Sensitive Satellite Observations of Carbon Dioxide and Methane: Selected Results Related to Natural and Anthropogenic Sources and Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, M. A.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Prior to the recently successfully launched OCO-2 mission, global near-surface-sensitive satellite observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been made with SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT during 2002-2012 and are still being made since 2009 with TANSO-FTS/GOSAT, which also deliver atmospheric methane (CH4). The SCIAMACHY and GOSAT overlapping time series of atmospheric column-averaged mole fractions, i.e., XCO2 and XCH4, now cover more than 10 years. During the last years significant progress has been made in improving the quality of the XCO2 and XCH4 data products retrieved from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT and in extending the time series so that more and more applications can be addressed. In this presentation we present some recent results related to CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks. The SCIAMACHY products have been generated using retrieval algorithms developed at University of Bremen. For XCO2 we use an ensemble of data products generated using GOSAT retrieval algorithms developed in Japan (at NIES), in the US (at NASA/JPL and collaborating institutes) and at European institutions (University of Leicester, UK, and SRON, Netherlands, in collaboration with KIT, Germany). Focus will be on three applications: (i) An assessment of the strength of the European terrestrial carbon sink during 2003-2010 based on an ensemble of SCIAMACHY (2003-2010) and GOSAT (2010) XCO2 data products, (ii) an assessment of CO2 and NO2 anthropogenic emission and emission ratio trends using co-located SCIAMACHY XCO2 and NO2 observations over Europe, North America and East Asia, and (iii) an analysis of SCIAMACHY XCH4 retrievals during 2006-2011 over North America focusing on fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas production using tight geological formations ("fracking"). It will be shown that (i) the European terrestrial carbon sink appears to be stronger than expected, (ii) that recent Chinese CO2 and NO2 emissions are increasing but with a trend towards reduced NO2-to-CO2 emission ratios pointing to

  12. Effect of Reacting Surface Density on the Overall Graphite Oxidation Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphite oxidation in an air-ingress accident is presently a very important issue for the reactor safety of the very high temperature gas cooled-reactor (VHTR), the concept of the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) because of its potential problems such as mechanical degradation of the supporting graphite in the lower plenum of the VHTR might lead to core collapse if the countermeasure is taken carefully. The oxidation process of graphite has known to be affected by various factors, including temperature, pressure, oxygen concentration, types of graphite, graphite shape and size, flow distribution, etc. However, our recent study reveals that the internal pore characteristics play very important roles in the overall graphite oxidation rate. One of the main issues regarding graphite oxidation is the potential core collapse problem that may occur following the degradation of graphite mechanical strength. In analyzing this phenomenon, it is very important to understand the relationship between the degree of oxidization and strength degradation. In addition, the change of oxidation rate by graphite oxidation degree characterization by burn-off (ratio of the oxidized graphite density to the original density) should be quantified because graphite strength degradation is followed by graphite density decrease, which highly affects oxidation rates and patterns. Because the density change is proportional to the internal pore surface area, they should be quantified in advance. In order to understand the above issues, the following experiments were performed: (1) Experiment on the fracture of the oxidized graphite and validation of the previous correlations, (2) Experiment on the change of oxidation rate using graphite density and data collection, (3) Measure the BET surface area of the graphite. The experiments were performed using H451 (Great Lakes Carbon Corporation) and IG-110 (Toyo Tanso Co., Ltd) graphite. The reason for the use of those graphite materials is because

  13. Effect of reacting surface density on the overall graphite oxidation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphite oxidation in an air-ingress accident is presently a very important issue for the reactor safety of the very high temperature gas cooled-reactor (VHTR), the concept of the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) because of its potential problems such as mechanical degradation of the supporting graphite in the lower plenum of the VHTR might lead to core collapse if the countermeasure is taken carefully. The oxidation process of graphite has known to be affected by various factors, including temperature, pressure, oxygen concentration, types of graphite, graphite shape and size, flow distribution, etc. However, our recent study reveals that the internal pore characteristics play very important roles in the overall graphite oxidation rate. One of the main issues regarding graphite oxidation is the potential core collapse problem that may occur following the degradation of graphite mechanical strength. In analyzing this phenomenon, it is very important to understand the relationship between the degree of oxidization and strength degradation. In addition, the change of oxidation rate by graphite oxidation degree characterization by burn-off (ratio of the oxidized graphite density to the original density) should be quantified because graphite strength degradation is followed by graphite density decrease, which highly affects oxidation rates and patterns. Because the density change is proportional to the internal pore surface area, they should be quantified in advance. In order to understand the above issues, the following experiments were performed: (1) Experiment on the fracture of the oxidized graphite and validation of the previous correlations, (2) Experiment on the change of oxidation rate using graphite density and data collection, (3) Measure the BET surface area of the graphite. The experiments were performed using H451 (Great Lakes Carbon Corporation) and IG-110 (Toyo Tanso Co., Ltd) graphite. The reason for the use of those graphite materials is because

  14. Inverse modelling of CH4 emissions for 2010-2011 using different satellite retrieval products from GOSAT and SCIAMACHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexe, M.; Bergamaschi, P.; Segers, A.; Detmers, R.; Butz, A.; Hasekamp, O.; Guerlet, S.; Parker, R.; Boesch, H.; Frankenberg, C.; Scheepmaker, R. A.; Dlugokencky, E.; Sweeney, C.; Wofsy, S. C.; Kort, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of 2009 new space-borne observations of dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of atmospheric methane (XCH4) became available from the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observations-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) instrument on board the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Until April 2012 concurrent {methane (CH4) retrievals} were provided by the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY) instrument on board the ENVironmental SATellite (ENVISAT). The GOSAT and SCIAMACHY XCH4 retrievals can be compared during the period of overlap. We estimate monthly average CH4 emissions between January 2010 and December 2011, using the TM5-4DVAR inverse modelling system. In addition to satellite data, high-accuracy measurements from the Cooperative Air Sampling Network of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA ESRL) are used, providing strong constraints on the remote surface atmosphere. We discuss five inversion scenarios that make use of different GOSAT and SCIAMACHY XCH4 retrieval products, including two sets of GOSAT proxy retrievals processed independently by the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)/Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), and the University of Leicester (UL), and the RemoTeC "Full-Physics" (FP) XCH4 retrievals available from SRON/KIT. The GOSAT-based inversions show significant reductions in the root mean square (rms) difference between retrieved and modelled XCH4, and require much smaller bias corrections compared to the inversion using SCIAMACHY retrievals, reflecting the higher precision and relative accuracy of the GOSAT XCH4. Despite the large differences between the GOSAT and SCIAMACHY retrievals, 2-year average emission maps show overall good agreement among all satellite-based inversions, with consistent flux adjustment patterns, particularly across equatorial Africa and North America. Over North

  15. Impact of differences in line parameter databases on methane retrieval through radiative transfer calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, A.; Saitoh, N.; Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal infrared (TIR) band of Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) observes CH4 profile at wavenumber range from 1210 cm-1 to 1360 cm-1 including CH4 ν4 band. The current retrieval algorithm (V1.0) uses LBLRTM v12.1 with AER v3.1 line database to calculate optical depth. The purpose of this study is to compare several line parameter databases to assess their impact on CH4 retrieval: HITRAN2004 database, HITRAN2008 database, AER v3.2 database, and HITRAN2012 database (Rothman et al. 2005, 2009, and 2013. Clough et al., 2005). The CH4 line parameters of AER v3.1 and v3.2 databases are based on HITRAN2008 and it updates until May 2009 with line mixing parameters. The line strengths are almost the same between HITRAN2008 and HITRAN2012 in the CH4 ν4 band, although their line centers are shifted about 0.002 cm-1 (Brown et al., 2013). We used LBLRTM v12.2 to calculate optical depth of each layer with wavenumber resolution of 0.0034 cm-1 (Clough et al., 2005). Then we calculated forward radiance spectra and convoluted them with sinc function. At 1247.8 cm-1 where there exist three relatively strong CH4 absorption lines (1247.705 cm-1, 1247.823 cm-1, and 1247.842 cm-1), no H2O interference, and small N2O interference, the differences in calculated brightness temperatures between HITRAN2008 and HITRAN2004, between HITRAN2008 and AER v3.2, and between HITRAN2012 and HITRAN2008 were 0.002 K, 0.4 K, and 0.06 K, respectively. These differences may affect CH4 retrieval. In wavenumber range from 1210 cm-1 to 1360 cm-1, several H2O line parameters were updated from HITRAN2008 to HITRAN2012. These updates could also affect on CH4 retrieval through simultaneous retrieval with H2O at CH4 ν4 band.

  16. Consistent satellite XCO2 retrievals from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT using the BESD algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, J.; Reuter, M.; Hilker, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Schneising, O.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Deutscher, N. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Hase, F.; Kawakami, S.; Kivi, R.; Morino, I.; Petri, C.; Roehl, C.; Schneider, M.; Sherlock, V.; Sussmann, R.; Velazco, V. A.; Warneke, T.; Wunch, D.

    2015-07-01

    Consistent and accurate long-term data sets of global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) are required for carbon cycle and climate-related research. However, global data sets based on satellite observations may suffer from inconsistencies originating from the use of products derived from different satellites as needed to cover a long enough time period. One reason for inconsistencies can be the use of different retrieval algorithms. We address this potential issue by applying the same algorithm, the Bremen Optimal Estimation DOAS (BESD) algorithm, to different satellite instruments, SCIAMACHY on-board ENVISAT (March 2002-April 2012) and TANSO-FTS on-board GOSAT (launched in January 2009), to retrieve XCO2, the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of CO2. BESD has been initially developed for SCIAMACHY XCO2 retrievals. Here, we present the first detailed assessment of the new GOSAT BESD XCO2 product. GOSAT BESD XCO2 is a product generated and delivered to the MACC project for assimilation into ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System. We describe the modifications of the BESD algorithm needed in order to retrieve XCO2 from GOSAT and present detailed comparisons with ground-based observations of XCO2 from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). We discuss detailed comparison results between all three XCO2 data sets (SCIAMACHY, GOSAT and TCCON). The comparison results demonstrate the good consistency between SCIAMACHY and GOSAT XCO2. For example, we found a mean difference for daily averages of -0.60 ± 1.56 ppm (mean difference ± standard deviation) for GOSAT-SCIAMACHY (linear correlation coefficient r=0.82), -0.34 ± 1.37 ppm (r = 0.86) for GOSAT-TCCON and 0.10 ± 1.79 ppm (r = 0.75) for SCIAMACHY-TCCON. The remaining differences between GOSAT and SCIAMACHY are likely due to non-perfect collocation (± 2 h, 10° x 10° around TCCON sites), i.e. the observed air masses are not exactly identical but likely also due to a still non-perfect BESD

  17. Long-term analysis of carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged mole fractions retrieved from SCIAMACHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schneising

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launch 2002 was the first and is now with TANSO onboard GOSAT (launch 2009 one of only two satellite instruments currently in space whose measurements are sensitive to CO2 and CH4 concentration changes in the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability due to sources and sinks is largest.

    We present long-term SCIAMACHY retrievals (2003–2009 of column-averaged dry air mole fractions of both gases (denoted XCO2 and XCH4 derived from absorption bands in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared (NIR/SWIR spectral region focusing on large-scale features. The results are obtained using an upgraded version (v2 of the retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS including several improvements, while simultaneously maintaining its high processing speed. The retrieved mole fractions are compared to global model simulations (CarbonTracker XCO2 and TM5 XCH4 being optimised by assimilating highly accurate surface measurements from the NOAA/ESRL network and taking the SCIAMACHY averaging kernels into account. The comparisons address seasonal variations and long-term characteristics.

    The steady increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide primarily caused by the burning of fossil fuels can be clearly observed with SCIAMACHY globally. The retrieved global annual mean XCO2 increase agrees with CarbonTracker within the error bars (1.80±0.13 ppm yr−1 compared to 1.81±0.09 ppm yr−1. The amplitude of the XCO2 seasonal cycle as retrieved by SCIAMACHY, which is 4.3±0.2 ppm for the Northern Hemisphere and 1.4±0.2 ppm for the Southern Hemisphere, is on average about 1 ppm larger than for CarbonTracker.

    An investigation of the boreal forest carbon uptake during the

  18. Long-term analysis of carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged mole fractions retrieved from SCIAMACHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schneising

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launch 2002 was the first and is now together with TANSO onboard GOSAT (launch 2009 the only satellite instrument currently in space whose measurements are sensitive to CO2 and CH4 concentration changes in the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability due to sources and sinks is largest.

    We present long-term SCIAMACHY retrievals (2003–2009 of column-averaged mole fractions of both gases (denoted XCO2 and XCH4 derived from absorption bands in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared (NIR/SWIR spectral region focusing on large-scale features. The results are obtained using an upgraded version (v2 of the retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS including several improvements, while simultaneously maintaining its high processing speed. The retrieved mole fractions are compared to global model simulations (CarbonTracker XCO2 and TM5 XCH4 being optimised by assimilating highly accurate surface measurements from the NOAA/ESRL network and taking the SCIAMACHY averaging kernels into account. The comparisons address seasonal variations and long-term characteristics.

    The steady increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide primarily caused by the burning of fossil fuels can be clearly observed with SCIAMACHY globally. The retrieved annual mean XCO2 increase over both hemispheres agrees with CarbonTracker within the error bars but is on average somewhat smaller (1.8 ppm yr−1 compared to 1.9 ppm yr−1. The amplitude of the XCO2 seasonal cycle as retrieved by SCIAMACHY, which is 4.3 ppm for the Northern Hemisphere and 1.4 ppm for the Southern Hemisphere, is on average about 1 ppm larger than for CarbonTracker.

    An investigation of the boreal forest carbon

  19. Retrieving CO2 from Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, David

    2014-06-01

    reflected sunlight in near infrared CO2 and O2 bands. However, this is among the most challenging space-based remote sensing applications because even the largest CO2 sources and sinks produce changes in the background XCO2 distribution no larger than 1%, and most are smaller 0.25% (˜1 ppm). This approach was pioneered by the European Space Agency's EnviSat SCIAMACHY and Japanese GOSAT TANSO-FTS instruments. These sensors have provided valuable insights into space based XCO2 measurement techniques, but still do not have the sensitivity, resolution, and coverage needed to quantify CO2 sources and sinks on regional scales. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) is the first NASA spacecraft designed to exploit this measurement approach. This spacecraft carries and points a 3channel, imaging, grating spectrometer that collects high resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in the 765 nm O2 A-band and in the 1610 and 2060 nm CO2 bands. Coincident O2 and CO2 spectra are combined into "soundings" that are analyzed with a full-physics retrieval algorithm to yield estimates of XCO2. Each spectrometer channel will collect 24 spectra per second, yielding up to a million soundings per day over the sunlit hemisphere. Between 10 and 30% of these soundings are expected to be sufficiently cloud free to yield full-column estimates of XCO2. OCO-2 is currently scheduled for launch from Space Launch Complex 2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on a United Launch Alliance Delta-II 7320-10 Launch Vehicle at 02:56:44 AM PDT (12:56:44 GMT) on 1 July 2014. The nominal spacecraft checkout and orbit raising plan will take about 37 days to insert the observatory into the 705-km Afternoon Constellation (A-Train). This 98.8-minute, sun-synchronous orbit has a 98.2-degree inclination, a 1:36:30 PM mean ascending equator crossing time time, and a 16-day (233 orbit) ground track repeat cycle. Once in the A-Train, the instrument's optical bench and detectors will be cooled to their operating

  20. Spectral Parameters and Signal-to-noise Ratio Requirement for CO2 Hyper Spectral Remote Sensor%CO2高光谱遥感仪器的光谱参数和信噪比需求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩; 杨忠东; 毕研盟

    2014-01-01

    卫星短波红外 CO2遥感获得大气低层 CO2浓度信息,已成为目前国际热点研究领域。结合气候变化及碳源、汇观测需求,利用高精度大气辐射传输模式研究了高光谱分辨率、高精度 CO2探测目标的可实现性。针对高光谱CO2探测器光栅分光、阵列探测器特点,分析了光谱分辨率、光谱采样率等关键技术指标对 CO2探测的可能影响;基于辐射敏感度因子分析了不同探测精度要求下的信噪比需求。结果表明:高光谱 CO2探测器首先应具有足够高的光谱分辨率,以便从太阳反射连续谱段中分辨出 CO2吸收线;为保证 CO2光谱的准确性,光谱仪所用探测器面元应该保证光谱采样率大于2;尽管探测边界层内 CO2浓度1%变化所要求的信噪比难以达到,但探测整层大气CO2浓度1%的变化所需要的信噪比是可以实现的。%With the stable increase of carbon dioxide (CO2 )concentrations,space based measurement of CO2 concentration in lower atmosphere by reflected sunlight in near infrared band has become a hot research topic.Recently,instruments sensitive to total CO2 column data in near-surface have become available through the SCIAMACHY instrument on ENVISAT and TANSO-FTS on GOSAT.The developing hyper spectral CO2 detector in China carried by TANSAT is going to be launched in 2015.Hyper spectral CO2 detector is designed to provide global measurements of CO2 in lower troposphere,employing high resolu-tion spectra of reflected sunlight taken simultaneously in near-infrared CO2 (1.61 μm and 2.06 μm)and O2 (0.76 μm)bands. Associated with climate change and observation requirements of carbon sources and sinks,the feasibil-ity of making CO2 column concentration measurements with high-resolution and high-precision is studied by high resolution atmosphere radiation transfer model.In consideration of the application requirements, effects of key specifications of the hyper spectral CO2

  1. Atmospheric CH4 and CO2 enhancements and biomass burning emission ratios derived from satellite observations of the 2015 Indonesian fire plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert J.; Boesch, Hartmut; Wooster, Martin J.; Moore, David P.; Webb, Alex J.; Gaveau, David; Murdiyarso, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    increases in regional greenhouse gas concentrations. CH4 is particularly enhanced, due to the dominance of smouldering combustion in peatland fires, with CH4 total column values typically exceeding 35 ppb above those of background "clean air" soundings. By examining the CH4 and CO2 excess concentrations in the fire-affected GOSAT observations, we determine the CH4 to CO2 (CH4 / CO2) fire emission ratio for the entire 2-month period of the most extreme burning (September-October 2015), and also for individual shorter periods where the fire activity temporarily peaks. We demonstrate that the overall CH4 to CO2 emission ratio (ER) for fires occurring in Indonesia over this time is 6.2 ppb ppm-1. This is higher than that found over both the Amazon (5.1 ppb ppm-1) and southern Africa (4.4 ppb ppm-1), consistent with the Indonesian fires being characterised by an increased amount of smouldering combustion due to the large amount of organic soil (peat) burning involved. We find the range of our satellite-derived Indonesian ERs (6.18-13.6 ppb ppm-1) to be relatively closely matched to that of a series of close-to-source, ground-based sampling measurements made on Kalimantan at the height of the fire event (7.53-19.67 ppb ppm-1), although typically the satellite-derived quantities are slightly lower on average. This seems likely because our field sampling mostly intersected smaller-scale peat-burning plumes, whereas the large-scale plumes intersected by the GOSAT Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) footprints would very likely come from burning that was occurring in a mixture of fuels that included peat, tropical forest and already-cleared areas of forest characterised by more fire-prone vegetation types than the natural rainforest biome (e.g. post-fire areas of ferns and scrubland, along with agricultural vegetation).The ability to determine large-scale ERs from satellite data allows the combustion behaviour of very