Capaldi, Deborah M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Yoerger, Karen
Examined deviancy training as a risk factor for aggression toward female partners among boys and young men in the longitudinal Oregon Youth Study. Found that the relation of adolescent deviant peer association and later aggression toward partners was mediated by antisocial behavior. Observed hostile talk about women with male peers explained…
Meadowbrooke, Chrysta C; Veinot, Tiffany C; Loveluck, Jimena; Hickok, Andrew; Bauermeister, José A
Health research shows that knowing about health risks may not translate into behavior change. However, such research typically operationalizes health information acquisition with knowledge tests. Information scientists who investigate socially embedded information behaviors could help improve understanding of potential associations between information behavior-as opposed to knowledge-and health behavior formation, thus providing new opportunities to investigate the effects of health information. We examine the associations between information behavior and HIV testing intentions among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), a group with high rates of unrecognized HIV infection. We used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict intentions to seek HIV testing in an online sample of 163 YMSM. Multiple regression and recursive path analysis were used to test two models: (a) the basic TPB model and (b) an adapted model that added the direct effects of three information behaviors (information exposure, use of information to make HIV-testing decisions, prior experience obtaining an HIV test) plus self-rated HIV knowledge. As hypothesized, our adapted model improved predictions, explaining more than twice as much variance as the original TPB model. The results suggest that information behaviors may be more important predictors of health behavior intentions than previously acknowledged.
Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Ydesen, Christian
in the project and by the youths participating in the project. The project was designed to facilitate and support transition to an adult life by giving participants social support, feedback, experiences, room for reflection and feeling of acceptance and inclusion. In Denmark all social work with young people...... at risk involves guidance to “the right path”, since individual guidance seems to be the key asset in mobilizing young person’s needs and experiences. The article indicates important elements in the guidance of youth at risk, such as psychological intervention and personal support, support from...
Odeta Manuela Belei
Full Text Available The “angry young men” were a group of mostly working and middle class British playwrights and novelists who became prominent in the 1950s. The group’s leading members included John Osborne and Kingsley Amis. The phrase was originally coined by the Royal Court Theatre’s press officer to promote John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger. It is thought to be derived from the autobiography of Leslie Paul, founder of the Woodcraft Folk, whose Angry Young Men was published in 1951. Following the success of the Osborne play, the label was later applied by British newspapers to describe young British writers who were characterized by disillusionment with traditional English society. The term was always imprecise, began to have less meaning over the years as the writers to whom it was originally applied became more divergent, and many of them dismissed the label as useless.
Full Text Available Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM especially those who are HIV positive are at risk for HPV-associated anal cancer. We systematically reviewed studies with data on the prevalence of vaccine preventable anal HPV among men who have sex with men aged 25 or younger and identified 6 studies. None of these studies were specifically designed to determine the prevalence of HPV in this population. Available data, albeit limited, suggest many young MSM may not already be HPV infected. Further studies using representative sampling focused on teenage MSM are required to confirm this.
Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Owen, Lee D.; Wiesner, Margit; Pears, Katherine C.
Fatherhood can be a turning point in development and in men's crime and substance use trajectories. At-risk boys (N = 206) were assessed annually from ages 12 to 31 years. Crime, arrest, and tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use trajectories were examined. Marriage was associated with lower levels of crime and less frequent substance use. Following…
Moya, Tatiana; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Goodman, Robert
A representative sample of 7-14-year-old young people in southeast Brazil (N=1251) was assessed using standardized parent and youth interviews, thereby identifying an "at-risk" group of young people who met one or more DSM-IV criteria for anorexia and/or bulimia nervosa. These young people were compared with an age and gender matched…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of anal cancer, a Human Papillomavirus (HPV-related neoplasia, has been increasing in recent decades, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM. Cytological changes of the anal epithelium induced by HPV can be detected through an anal pap smear. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiological correlates of anal cytological abnormalities among relatively young MSM at risk for HIV-1 infection, to help clarify whether or not this population deserves further investigation to assess the presence of anal cancer precursor lesions. Methods MSM were recruited among attendees of a large STI clinic for a HIV-1 screening program. Anal samples, collected with a Dracon swab in PreservCyt, were used both for liquid-based cytology and HPV testing by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavior were collected in face-to-face interviews. Results A total of 346 MSM were recruited (median age 32 years. Overall, 72.5% of the individuals had an anal HPV infection, with 56.1% of them being infected by oncogenic HPV genotypes. Anal cytological abnormalities were found in 29.8% of the cases (16.7% ASC-US and 13.1% L-SIL. Presence of ASC-US+ was strongly associated with infection by any HPV type (OR=4.21, 95% CI: 1.97-9.23, and particularly by HPV 16 and/or 18 (OR=5.62, 95% CI: 2.33-13.81. A higher proportion of ASC-US+ was found in older MSM, in those with a higher number of lifetime partners and in those with a history of ano-genital warts. However, none of these variables or the others analyzed showed any significant association with abnormal cytological findings. Conclusions The presence of anal cytological abnormalities in about one third of the recruited MSM and their strong association with HPV infection, in particular that caused by HPV 16 and/or 18, might provide a further complement to the data that now support the introduction of HPV vaccination among
This paper draws on focus group and interview data from 45 young men from the north of England to explore the barriers to effective sex and relationships education (SRE). Recent policy debates in relation to establishing statutory SRE in schools provide an opportunity to revisit how it is currently delivered to, and received by, young men. The…
An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.
Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold;
BACKGROUND: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men...
Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Lee, Jae Hoon
A latent profile analysis of 323 economically and academically at-risk adolescent and young adult learners yielded two classes: an average literacy class (92%) and a low literacy class (8%). The class profiles significantly differed in their word reading and math skills, and in their processing speeds and self-reported learning disabilities. The…
Brown, Jennifer A.; Garzarek, Jessica E.; Donegan, Katharine L.
The purpose of this multiple baseline study across participants was to examine a narrative retell intervention with guided self-monitoring on narrative macrostructure skills in low-income African American young children at risk for language disorders. Three target 4-year-old children in a mixed-age kindergarten class of nine students participated…
Nahgahgwon, Kari N.; Umbreit, John; Liaupsin, Carl J.; Turton, Amina M.
This study examined the efficacy of function-based intervention for young children at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in inclusive environments. Participants were two kindergarten students and one first-grade student, all of whom exhibited chronic disruptive behavior in the classroom despite previous interventions implemented…
Haahtela, T; Lindholm, H; Björkstén, F; Koskenvuo, K; Laitinen, L A
OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of asthma in cohorts of Finnish young men in the period 1926-89. DESIGN--A retrospective analysis using reports and statistics of Finnish defence forces. SETTING--Call up examinations of candidates for military conscription and examination of conscripts discharged because of poor health. SUBJECTS--Roughly 900,000 men--that is, 98% of men of conscription age--examined in 1966-89 and a proportional but unknown number examined in 1926-61. MAIN OUTCOME MEASU...
Purcell, R; Harrigan, S; Glozier, N; Amminger, G P; Yung, A R
A significant relationship exists between experiencing psychosis and both engaging in criminal offending and being a victim of crime. A substantial proportion of violence and offending occurs during the first episode of psychosis, but it is unclear whether such behaviour is also evident in the earlier pre-psychotic stage of illness. As part of a prospective study of young people who were seeking help for mental health problems, we enquired about participants' experiences of being charged and/or convicted of a criminal offence and being a victim of crime. This paper uses cross-sectional baseline data to compare the rates of these forensic outcomes in participants at-risk of psychosis (n=271) with those not at-risk (n=440). Univariate logistic regression showed that the at-risk for psychosis group was significantly more likely than the not at-risk participants to report having been charged by police (11.1% vs 5.9%; p=.015) and convicted by the courts (4.4% vs. 1.6%; p=0.028) with a non-violent offence, as well as to have been convicted of any criminal offence (6.3% vs. 3.0%; p=0.037). The at-risk were also more likely to report having been a victim of crime (23.7% vs 14.0%; p=.002), particularly violent victimization (16.5% vs 8.2%; p=.001). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, being at-risk for psychosis remained a significant predictor of three of the four outcome measures after controlling for other known covariates such as gender, age, substance misuse and unemployment. This is the first study to demonstrate that, relative to their non-psychotic help-seeking counterparts, young people at-risk for psychosis are at higher risk of forensic outcomes, particularly violent crime victimization.
The Mexican American Community Services Agency's (MACSA) male involvement program aims to delay early sexual activities among young boys, educate young males on personal sexual responsibility, prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancies, and promote fatherhood responsibility. 40% of the population in the project area, Santa Clara County, belong to ethnic minorities. The program's target population is divided into three age ranges: 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24 year olds. Boys in the 10-14 year old range are accessed through programs at middle schools, community centers and MACSA centers. The 15-19 year age group are reached through the juvenile probation department, its own youth center, community health fairs and service organizations, and local high schools. Young men aged 20-24 years are channeled through adult education classes, incarceration facilities, trade and special training schools, community centers and other MACSA programs. MACSA programs "Be Proud, Be Responsible" and "Independent Thinking Skills" are presented to young men who are prone to gang activity and drug use. Part of the program offered at Elmwood Correctional Facility focuses on issues aside from pregnancy prevention and encourages young men to plan for their future through sessions on earning high school equivalency certification, on anger management, and on substance abuse.
Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna
The objective was to use thermal imaging (ThermaCAM SC500) as an effective tool in establishing a thermal map of young participants, with a high diagnostic value for medicine, physiotherapy and sport. A further aim was to establish temperature distributions and ranges on the body surface of the young women and men as standard temperatures for the examined age group, taking into account BMI, body surface area and selected parameters of body fat distribution. The participants included young, healthy and physically active women (n = 100) and men (n = 100). In the women and men, the highest Tmean temperatures were found on the trunk. The warmest were the chest and upper back, then the lower back and abdomen. The lowest Tmean were found in the distal parts of the body, especially on the lower limbs. The results showed that only in the area of the chest was Tmean significantly higher in women than in men. In the areas of the hands (front and back) Tmean were similar for women and men. In the other analyzed body surface areas, Tmean were significantly lower in women. Research showed significant differences in body surface temperature between the women and men. Among the analyzed characteristics, Tmean in the chest, upper back, abdomen, lower back (both in women and men) were mainly correlated with BMI and PBF; the correlations were negative. Difficulties in interpreting changes in temperature in selected body areas in people with various conditions can be associated with the lack of studies on large and representative populations of healthy individuals with normal weight/height parameters. Therefore, it seems that this presented research is a significant practical and cognitive contribution to knowledge on thermoregulation, and may therefore be used as a reference for other studies using thermal imaging in the evaluation of changes in body surface temperatures.
Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne
In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all.
Mikocka-Walus Antonina A; Turnbull Deborah A; Colgan Yola; Delfabbro Paul
Abstract Background Numerous researchers studied risk factors associated with smoking uptake, however, few examined protective factors associated with smoking resilience. This study therefore aims to explore determinants of smoking resilience among young people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds who are at risk of smoking. Methods Overall, 92 out of 92 vocational education students accepted invitation to participate in this exploratory study. The Adelaide Technical and Further Education (TA...
Bulik Cynthia M
Full Text Available Abstract Backround Appearance concerns are of increasing importance in young men's lives. We investigated whether muscle dissatisfaction is associated with psychological symptoms, dietary supplement or anabolic steroid use, or physical activity in young men. Methods As a part of a questionnaire assessment of health-related behaviors in the population-based FinnTwin16 study, we assessed factors associated with muscle dissatisfaction in 1245 men aged 22–27 using logistic regression models. Results Of men, 30% experienced high muscle dissatisfaction, while 12% used supplements/steroids. Of highly muscle-dissatisfied men, 21.5% used supplements/steroids. Mean body mass index, waist circumference, or leisure aerobic activity index did not differ between individuals with high/low muscle dissatisfaction. Muscle dissatisfaction was significantly associated with a psychological and psychosomatic problems, alcohol and drug use, lower height satisfaction, sedentary lifestyle, poor subjective physical fitness, and lower life satisfaction. Conclusion Muscle dissatisfaction and supplement/steroid use are relatively common, and are associated with psychological distress and markers of sedentary lifestyle.
James A. McCubbin
Full Text Available Hypertension has been linked to impaired cognitive/CNS function, and some of these changes may precede development of frank essential hypertension. The stress and fatigue of sleep deprivation may exacerbate these cognitive changes in young adults at risk. We hypothesize that individuals at risk for hypertension will show significant declines in cognitive function during a night of sleep deprivation. Fifty-one young adults were recruited for 28-hour total sleep deprivation studies. Hypertension risk was assessed by mildly elevated resting blood pressure and by family history of hypertension. A series of cognitive memory tasks was given at four test sessions across the sleep deprivation period. Although initially comparable in cognitive performance, persons at risk showed larger declines across the night for several indices of working memory, including code substitution, category, and order recall. These results suggest that cognitive/CNS changes may parallel or precede blood pressure dysregulation in the early stages of hypertension development. The role of CNS changes in the etiology of essential hypertension is discussed.
Casey, Erin A; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J
Parallel bodies of research have described the diverse and complex ways that men understand and construct their masculine identities (often termed "masculinities") and, separately, how adherence to traditional notions of masculinity places men at risk for negative sexual and health outcomes. The goal of this analysis was to bring together these two streams of inquiry. Using data from a national, online sample of 555 heterosexually active young men, we employed latent class analysis (LCA) to detect patterns of masculine identities based on men's endorsement of behavioral and attitudinal indicators of "dominant" masculinity, including sexual attitudes and behaviors. LCA identified four conceptually distinct masculine identity profiles. Two groups, termed the Normative and Normative/Male Activities groups, respectively, constituted 88 % of the sample and were characterized by low levels of adherence to attitudes, sexual scripts, and behaviors consistent with "dominant" masculinity, but differed in their levels of engagement in male-oriented activities (e.g., sports teams). Only eight percent of the sample comprised a masculinity profile consistent with "traditional" ideas about masculinity; this group was labeled Misogynistic because of high levels of sexual assault and violence toward female partners. The remaining four percent constituted a Sex-Focused group, characterized by high numbers of sexual partners, but relatively low endorsement of other indicators of traditional masculinity. Follow-up analyses showed a small number of differences across groups on sexual and substance use health indicators. Findings have implications for sexual and behavioral health interventions and suggest that very few young men embody or endorse rigidly traditional forms of masculinity.
Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Annette; Rasmussen, Palle;
marginalized from the labor market. The youth participants in the project had all experienced serious social and academic problems during compulsory school. They were motivated for further education, but they needed extensive support in the process of choosing education and attending school. The problems......The paper discusses and analyses results from qualitative research on a Danish youth project named Youth in Development (Danish: “Unge i Vækst”). The project, financially supported by the EU and local authorities, was aimed at finding new ways in the guidance of young adults at risk of being...
Teasdale, T. W.; Antal, K.
This study has primarily aimed to investigate first, the prevalence of psychological distress complaints among a population-representative sample of young men, second, whether psychological distress is associated with poorer performance on an intelligence test and third, whether any association...... of distress-related items, the Personal Health Schema (PHS), having yes/no responses, together with a general IQ test, the Børge Prien's Prøve (BPP). The rate of endorsement of the PHS items was low, ranging between 3% and 29% with a median of two/three items. The Pearson correlation between the two variables......, when interpreting intelligence test scores....
The aim of the study is to investigate how young men constructing identities in talk about their own use of violence. The study is based on a fieldwork at a youth detention home in Sweden. The data consists of individual interviews and video recordings of the treatment programme Aggression Replacement Training (ART). Detailed analyses have been made of conversations between the young men, between the young men and the trainers, and of the narratives generated in the individual interviews. The...
Yeo, Tien Ee Dominic; Fung, Tsz Hin
Young men who have sex with men are becoming the most at-risk subgroup for HIV incidence in Hong Kong. To understand how young gay men in Hong Kong interpret and implement safer sex and condom use, focus-group discussions and individual in-depth interviews were held. The 74 participants were nearly all ethnic Chinese gay men aged between 18 and 25 years. Findings indicate that the challenge for health intervention lies in young gay men's inconsistent condom use despite their high level of HIV-related knowledge. Participants described using condoms, testing for HIV and abstaining from anal sex as measures undertaken to prevent HIV infection. However, sociocultural norms and expectations pertaining to '0' (docile, bottom) and '1' (assertive, top) roles and trust between partners complicate the consistent implementation of risk-reduction measures. Influenced by heteronormative and romantic beliefs, sexual behaviours such as condomless anal sex and internal ejaculation hold symbolic meanings - exclusivity, commitment, intimacy, possession - for young gay men in Hong Kong, which override health concerns. These findings support more empowerment-driven HIV programming for young gay men.
Mikocka-Walus Antonina A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous researchers studied risk factors associated with smoking uptake, however, few examined protective factors associated with smoking resilience. This study therefore aims to explore determinants of smoking resilience among young people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds who are at risk of smoking. Methods Overall, 92 out of 92 vocational education students accepted invitation to participate in this exploratory study. The Adelaide Technical and Further Education (TAFE Arts campus was chosen for the study given the focus on studying resilience in young people of lower socioeconomic status i.e. resilient despite the odds. A self-report questionnaire comprising a measure of resilience: sense of coherence, sense of humour, coping styles, depression, anxiety and stress, and family, peers and community support, was distributed among participants aged 15 to 29. Additional factors researched are parental approval and disapproval, course type, and reasons for not smoking. Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 13.0, analyses were undertaken using frequencies, means, standard deviations, independent sample t-tests, correlations, analysis of variance, logistic regression, and chi-square test. Results Twenty five (27% out of 92 students smoked. Young people with peer support tended to smoke (p Conclusions The current study showed that most students chose 'health and fitness' as the reason for not smoking. Single anti-smoking messages cannot be generalised to all young people, but should recognise that people within different contexts, groups and subcultures will have different reasons for choosing whether or not to smoke. Future studies should use larger samples with a mixed methods design (quantitative and qualitative.
Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping
This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…
Johnson, Lauren C
Female sex tourism has become an accepted income generator for many underemployed men in Jamaica who seek to reap economic benefits from relationships with visiting tourist women. This issue provides contexts to explore the numerous ways in which health intersects with issues of masculinity, sexuality and marginality. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a popular Jamaican resort town, this paper examines the health implications of female sex tourism for the local population and tourist visitors. Data from this project indicate the need for improved sexually transmitted infection education and HIV outreach work towards men who are involved in transactional sex with tourist women. Due to prevalent perceptions of masculinity and gendered notions of sexuality, men who engage in sex tourism constitute a population that rarely receives the attention of local and national health authorities. Data from this qualitative study suggest that engaging this particular vulnerable population could potentially decrease the risk of STI and HIV infection in the country's most popular resort areas. Research of this kind is urgently needed to better understand the risk factors and challenges for Caribbean populations, as well as to inform future prevention efforts in the region.
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161256.html Smoking Bans May Keep Young Men From Heavy Smoking Study found lower rates ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking bans may help reduce smoking among young American men, a new study finds. Researchers examined ...
In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the research…
Full Text Available Approximately 10% of young adults report non-medical use of stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate, which puts them at risk for the development of dependence. This fMRI study investigates whether subjects at early stages of stimulant use show altered decision making processing.158 occasional stimulants users (OSU and 50 comparison subjects (CS performed a "risky gains" decision making task during which they could select safe options (cash in 20 cents or gamble them for double or nothing in two consecutive gambles (win or lose 40 or 80 cents, "risky decisions". The primary analysis focused on risky versus safe decisions. Three secondary analyses were conducted: First, a robust regression examined the effect of lifetime exposure to stimulants and marijuana; second, subgroups of OSU with >1000 (n = 42, or <50 lifetime marijuana uses (n = 32, were compared to CS with <50 lifetime uses (n = 46 to examine potential marijuana effects; third, brain activation associated with behavioral adjustment following monetary losses was probed.There were no behavioral differences between groups. OSU showed attenuated activation across risky and safe decisions in prefrontal cortex, insula, and dorsal striatum, exhibited lower anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and dorsal striatum activation for risky decisions and greater inferior frontal gyrus activation for safe decisions. Those OSU with relatively more stimulant use showed greater dorsal ACC and posterior insula attenuation. In comparison, greater lifetime marijuana use was associated with less neural differentiation between risky and safe decisions. OSU who chose more safe responses after losses exhibited similarities with CS relative to those preferring risky options.Individuals at risk for the development of stimulant use disorders presented less differentiated neural processing of risky and safe options. Specifically, OSU show attenuated brain response in regions critical for performance monitoring
Vervaeke, Hylke K.E.; Benschop, Annemieke; Van Den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J.
Our aim is to identify predictors of first-time ecstasy use in a prospective study among young people at risk. As part of the multidisciplinary Netherlands XTC Toxicity Study (NeXT), we monitored 188 subjects aged up to 18 years who were ecstasy-naive at baseline but seemed likely to start taking ecstasy in the near future. After an 11- to…
H.K.E. Vervaeke; A. Benschop; W. van den Brink; D.J. Korf
Our aim is to identify predictors of first-time ecstasy use in a prospective study among young people at risk. As part of the multidisciplinary Netherlands XTC Toxicity Study (NeXT), we monitored 188 subjects aged ≥ 18 who were ecstasy-naive at baseline but seemed likely to start taking ecstasy in t
Dowshen, Nadia; Binns, Helen J.; Garofalo, Robert
Young men who have sex with men (MSM) represent an increasing number of new HIV infections in many communities. Many individuals still hold beliefs that may lead to discrimination against HIV-positive individuals. HIV stigma is associated with negative health and psychosocial outcomes and may lead to greater challenges for this marginalized population. This study describes stigma experienced by HIV-positive young MSM, explores its relationship to psychosocial measures, and tests the hypothesi...
Full Text Available In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.
King, Rachel; Barker, Joseph; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; Katuntu, David; Lubwama, George; Bagenda, Danstan; Lane, Tim; Opio, Alex; Hladik, Wolfgang
In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.
Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria
OBJECTIVE: To describe semen quality and reproductive hormone concentrations of young men living in Rochester, New York, and to compare these with published data from similar European and Japanese populations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University and college campuses in the Rochester......(S): Our study provides the first data in 70 years on semen quality and reproductive hormones in young men in the United States with unknown fertility. These data suggest that, overall, reproductive parameters in our study population of young college students from the northeastern United States are similar...
Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…
Wheldon, Christopher W.; Daley, Ellen M.; Buhi, Eric R.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.
Objective: Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for all men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA until the age of 26 years. Despite this recommendation, vaccine uptake remains low. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe salient beliefs related to HPV vaccination among young MSM; (2) determine factors that underlie these…
Martos, A. J.; Valera, P.; Bockting, W. O.; Wilson, P. A.
Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for approximately 10% of the total HIV infection in the United States but represent <1% of the population. Few interventions exist that address their unique needs, and those that do adopt a narrow, risk-based framework for prevention. Qualitative data from the Brothers Connect Study were…
Thomas, Tami L; Stephens, Dionne P; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Higgins, Melinda
This exploratory descriptive study examined perceived vulnerabilities to human papillomavirus (HPV) and the correlation to factors influencing vaccine beliefs and vaccine decision making in young Hispanic males attending a large public urban university. Only 24% of participants believed that the HPV vaccine could prevent future problems, and 53% said they would not be vaccinated. The best predictors of HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men were agreement with doctor recommendations and belief in the vaccine's efficacy. Machismo cultural norms influence young Hispanic men's HPV-related decision making, their perceptions of the vaccine, and how they attitudinally act on what little HPV information they have access to. This study provides culturally relevant information for the development of targeted health education strategies aimed at increasing HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men.
Full Text Available Young men in precarious situations of persistent un(deremployment in post-civil war Freetown, Sierra Leone are depicted in popular and policy debate as â€œstuckâ€ economically or â€œdangerousâ€ and prone to violence. In the present paper, by contrast, we draw on young menâ€™s explanations of their work and livelihood struggles as â€œstraining.â€ We explore the logic of straining, its innovations and demands, and its geography across the city, especially where acts of straining interface with the prohibition and criminalisation of informal trading. We argue that straining innovates and endures because of (not despite young menâ€™s marginalisation and limited autonomy and power. In this context, young men build forms of provisional agency and enact dynamic forms of waithood, in their strategies to earn a living to try to support their families and to negotiate a transition from youth to manhood. Drawing on this research, we argue for a more complex understanding of young men at work in Freetown, in particular, and of the â€œyouth bulge,â€ in general, in African cities.
Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan
We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.
Asmussen, Ida Helene
Empirical, qualitative studies in Danish and Norwegian RJ-sessions show, that young men (offenders and victims) are characterised by passive acquiescence, by not expressing opinions, by getting out of their ‘turn to talk’ as quickly as possible and by silence. The way this type of ‘non-acting’ has...... been understood is that youth are subject to adult conceptions and interpretations of the mediation situation, and that the youth have not yet developed empathy and moral reasoning. In other words the young men are seen as taking a kind of ‘underdog’ position in the RJ-settings. The interpretation......-reflection and articulation of personal feelings, which does not correspond to traditional ideals of masculinity as strength, authority and control. From this point of view the young men are not trying to fit in, but actually the opposite: to make a revolt by not entering the “scene” - doing an “offstage” performance...
Ford, Wesley L; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Iverson, Ellen; Lopez, Donna
Recruiting a scientifically sound cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is an enduring research challenge. The few cohort studies that have been conducted to date on YMSM have relied on non-probability sampling methods to construct their cohorts. While these studies have provided valuable information about HIV risk behaviors among YMSM, their generalizability to broader YMSM populations is limited.In this paper the authors describe a venue-based sampling methodology used to recruit a large and diverse cohort of YMSM from public venues in Los Angeles County. Venue-based sampling is a multi-stage, probability sampling design that uses standard outreach techniques and standard survey methods to systematically enumerate, sample, and survey hard-to-reach populations. The study design allowed the authors to estimate individual, familial and interpersonal psychosocial factors associated with HIV risk and health seeking behaviors for a cohort of YMSM with known properties. Study participants completed an extensive baseline survey and over a two year period will complete four follow-up surveys at six-month intervals. The baseline survey was administered in both English and Spanish.
Nguyen, Vu H.
Osteoporosis in men is a major and neglected public health issue. An experimental study with a sample of 37 young men tested an osteoporosis prevention education intervention to alter osteoporosis health beliefs and to increase osteoporosis-preventive behaviors, in order to determine effectiveness and make public health recommendations. After pretest, control and treatment interventions were administered, with the administration of a posttest 2 weeks later. For all osteoporosis health beliefs...
Full Text Available Background: With the aim of targeting high-risk hidden heterosexual young people for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT testing, an innovative web-based screening strategy using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS and home-based CT testing, was developed, piloted and evaluated. Methods: Two STI clinic nurses encouraged 37 CT positive heterosexual young people (aged 16–25 years, called index clients, to recruit peers from their social and sexual networks using the web-based screening strategy. Eligible peers (young, living in the study area could request a home-based CT test and recruit other peers. Results: Twelve (40% index clients recruited 35 peers. Two of these peers recruited other peers (n = 7. In total, 35 recruited peers were eligible for participation; ten of them (29% requested a test and eight tested. Seven tested for the first time and one (13% was positive. Most peers were female friends (80%. Nurses were positive about using the strategy. Conclusions: The screening strategy is feasible for targeting the hidden social network. However, uptake among men and recruitment of sex-partners is low and RDS stopped early. Future studies are needed to explore the sustainability, cost-effectiveness, and impact of strategies that target people at risk who are not effectively reached by regular health care.
Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Jensen, Hans Henrik
BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the relationship between IQ and risk of mental disorder has focused on schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the relationship between IQ test scores in early adulthood and various mental disorders. METHOD: For 3289 men from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort......, military IQ test scores and information on psychiatric hospitalisation were available. We identified 350 men in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and compared the mean IQ test scores of nine diagnostic categories with the mean scores of 2939 unregistered cohort controls. RESULTS: Schizophrenia...... and related disorders, other psychotic disorders, adjustment, personality, alcohol and substance-use-related disorders were significantly associated with low IQ scores, but this association remained significant for the four non-psychotic disorders only when adjusting for comorbid diagnoses. For most...
Reviews research related to the impact of outdoor adventure programs designed to reduce the criminal behavior of young persons. Suggests that a lack of specific cognitive skills predispose individuals to engage in criminal behavior and that a rational for adventure-based interventions should address such deficits as lack of interpersonal…
Gilbert, Tony; Farrand, Paul; Lankshear, Gloria
This article reports on interview data gathered from 27 young people involved with a street-level service for young people considered "at risk" of diagnosis of personality disorder. Interviews with a self-selecting sample of young people explored the events that led to their initial contact with the service. Using Silverman's…
Edgren, Robert; Castrén, Sari; Mäkelä, Marjukka
This review aims to clarify which instruments measuring at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG) among youth are reliable and valid in light of reported estimates of internal consistency, classification accuracy, and psychometric properties. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, and Psyc....... Reliability estimates were reported for five ARPG instruments. Most studies (66%) evaluated the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents. The Gambling Addictive Behavior Scale for Adolescents was the only novel instrument. In general, the evaluation of instrument reliability was superficial. Despite...... its rare use, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory (CAGI) had a strong theoretical and methodological base. The Gambling Addictive Behavior Scale for Adolescents and the CAGI were the only instruments originally developed for youth. All studies, except the CAGI study, were population based. ARPG...
Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Dublin (Ireland).
Designed to acquaint young men and women with the agricultural education programs currently available in Ireland's institutions of vocational and higher education, this prospectus describes the educational requirements, facilities, and programs under the auspices of Ireland's Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Specifically, this document…
Hart, R J; Doherty, D A; McLachlan, R I
STUDY QUESTION: By investigating a birth cohort with a high ongoing participation rate to derive an unbiased population, what are the parameters and influences upon testicular function for a population not selected with regard to fertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: While varicocele, cryptorchidism...... biased sources such as recruits from infertility clinics, self-selected volunteer sperm donors for research or artificial insemination or once-fertile men seeking vasectomy. It is well known that studies requiring semen analysis have low recruitment rates which consequently question their validity....... However, there has been some concern that a surprisingly high proportion of young men may have semen variables that do not meet all the WHO reference range criteria for fertile men, with some studies reporting that up to one half of participants have not meet the reference range for fertile men. Reported...
Meadowbrooke, Chrysta C.; Veinot, Tiffany C; Loveluck, Jimena; Hickok, Andrew; Bauermeister, José A.
Health research shows that knowing about health risks may not translate into behavior change. However, such research typically operationalizes health information acquisition with knowledge tests. Information scientists who investigate socially embedded information behaviors could help improve understanding of potential associations between information behavior—as opposed to knowledge—and health behavior formation, thus providing new opportunities to investigate the effects of health informati...
Haasnoot, A; Koedijk, F D H; Op De Coul, E L M; Götz, H M; van der Sande, M A B; Van Den Broek, I V F
Ethnic disparities in chlamydia infections in The Netherlands were assessed, in order to compare two definitions of ethnicity: ethnicity based on country of birth and self-defined ethnicity. Chlamydia positivity in persons aged 16-29 years was investigated using data from the first round of the Chlamydia Screening Implementation (CSI, 2008-2009) and surveillance data from STI centres (2009). Logistic regression modelling showed that being an immigrant was associated with chlamydia positivity in both CSI [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2·3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·0-2·6] and STI centres (aOR 1·4, 95% CI 1·3-1·5). In both settings, 60% of immigrants defined themselves as Dutch. Despite the difference, classification by self-defined ethnicity resulted in similar associations between (non-Dutch) ethnicity and chlamydia positivity. However, ethnicity based on country of birth explained variation in chlamydia positivity better, and is objective and constant over time and therefore more useful for identifying young persons at higher risk for chlamydia infection.
Schademan, Alfred R.
Research has shown that African American young men as a demographic group occupy the lowest levels of academic performance in both science and mathematics. In spite of this educational problem, little research has been conducted on the knowledge related to these disciplines that these young men learn and develop through everyday cultural practices. Such knowledge is needed in order to: (1) combat the deficit views that many teachers currently hold of African American young men, and (2) inform teachers interested in implementing pedagogies in their classrooms that draw upon the knowledge of African American young men. To add to our knowledge in this field, this study examines the resources that African American young men learn, use, and develop through a card game called Spades. Specifically, the study identifies and analyzes the models and model-based reasoning that the players use in order to win games. The study focuses upon modeling as it is central to both science and mathematics. To imbed player models and reasoning in context, the study employs a syncretic theoretical framework that examines how Spades has changed over time and how it is currently played in a high school setting. The qualitative study uses ethnographic methods combined with play-by-play analyses to reconstruct games and examine player strategies and reasoning that guide their decisions. The study found that the players operate from a number of different models while playing the game. Specifically, the players consider multiple variables and factors, as well as their mathematical relationships, to predict future occurrences and then play cards accordingly. Further, the players use a number of resources to win games including changing the game to maintain a competitive edge, counting cards, selectively memorizing cards played, assessing risk, bluffing, reading partners as well as opponents, reneging, estimating probabilities, and predicting outcomes. The player models and resources bear
Hughes, Celia Penelope
This article examines the political, social and psychological experiences of a group of young working-class men who in the early-to-mid 1960s became active members in branches of the Labour Party Young Socialists. Concentrated in London's East End, these branches had become increasingly open...... maturation from child to adult intersected with the formation of a new and distinctive extra-parliamentary culture on the British left that came to full fruition around Britain's anti-war movement, the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign. The formation of this collection of inner lives occurred simultaneously...
Southern African HIV Clinicians Society Consensus Committee
resistance among those with undiagnosed acute HIV infection during PrEP initiation and among those with sub-optimal adherence who become HIV infected while on PrEP. Risk compensation (increasing sexual behaviours that can result in exposure to HIV while on PrEP may become a concern, and clinicians should continue to support MSM clients to continue to use condoms, condom-compatible lubrication and practice safer sex. Research is ongoing to assess optimum dosing regimens, potential long-term effects and alternative PrEP medications. Recommendations for the use of PrEP among other at-risk individuals, and the components of these recommendations, will be informed by future evidence. S Afr J HIV Med 2012;13(2:40-55.
Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Hansen, Troels Krarup
the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 ± 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak...
Lee, Jin Hyun; Kwon, Hee Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Yeong; Nam, Kyung Jin; Roh, Young Hoon; Jeong, Jin Sook [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
In general, focal nodular hyperplasia is a hepatic lesion that most frequently affects the healthy women of reproductive age. Focal nodular hyperplasia lesions have a benign natural course; the majority of the cases remain asymptomatic and complications are rare. Spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia is a rare disease, and the hemorrhage in young men is even more uncommon. We report a rare case of spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia in a 19-year-old man.
California, to quantify the im pact o f smoking cessation on a measure of aerobic fitness among healthy young men. MILITARY MEDICINE, Vol. 180...Trinick T: Physical activity, physical fitness and respiratory function— exercise and respiratory function. Ir J Med Sci 1999; 168(2): 119-23. 20...improved physical perform ance as a potential motivation to quit sm oking.7-1 Quantifiable measures of cardiopulmonary fitness , such as maximal
Karabakan, M; Bozkurt, A; Hirik, E; Celebi, B; Akdemir, S; Guzel, O; Nuhoglu, B
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) in young Turkish men and to evaluate PE in a population having good physical and mental health. A total of 1230 healthy university graduates aged between 24 and 30 attending the police academy having no physical or mental problems were included in the study. To identify the presence of PE, the participants were asked to complete the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT). The mean ages in the PE and non-PE group were 27.3 and 26.7 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups concerning age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status and alcohol consumption (P > 0.05). The PE prevalence was found to be 9.2%. The mean PEDT score was calculated as 6.3. Of the participants, 92 scored 11 and higher (9.2%), 66 scored 9 and 10 (6.6%), and the remaining 842 obtained a score equal to or lower than 8 (84.2%). The lower prevalence of PE in young Turkish men compared to the results of studies in the literature can be attributed to the physical and mental well-being of the participants. This study showed that the prevalence of PE in young men with good physical and mental health is lower than that found in the literature.
Sleczka, Pawel; Braun, Barbara; Grüne, Bettina; Bühringer, Gerhard; Kraus, Ludwig
Objectives Male sex, young age, and frequent gambling are considered as risk factors for gambling disorder (GD) and stress might be one of the triggers of gambling behavior among problem gamblers. Conversely, well-developed coping with stress might counteract gambling problems. The Proactive Coping Theory provides a promising approach for the further development of preventive and treatment measures. The objective of the study was to investigate different facets of proactive coping (PC) in young male gamblers. Methods Young men from Bavaria were recruited via the Munich citizens' registry (n = 2,588) and Facebook invitations (n = 105). In total, 173 out of 398 individuals were positively screened for frequent gambling and/or signs of related problems and completed the baseline questionnaire of the Munich Leisure-time Study. Factors investigated include gambling problems, PC, impulsiveness, social support, and psychological distress. Results Gambling problems were associated with lower levels of preventive coping as well as of adaptive reaction delay. The associations were also significant when controlled for impulsiveness and general psychological distress. Preventive coping moderated the association between social support and gambling problems. Discussion and conclusions Young men with gambling problems less frequently prevent the occurrence of stressors and more often react hasty when these occur. While the investigated group reported good social support, this factor was negatively associated with GD only among individuals with good preventive coping. Preventive coping poses a useful construct for selective prevention and treatment as it can be modified in professional interventions.
Farrugia, Adrian; Fraser, Suzanne
It is perhaps no surprise that young people can be sceptical of the drug-related information they receive in school-based health education, health promotion and the media. Significant societal anxiety surrounds young people's drug consumption, so it is tempting to approach this scepticism as a problem to be solved. In this article, we look closely at a group of young Australian men (n = 25), all of whom hold deeply sceptical views about the drug information they received in schools, social marketing campaigns and public speech generally. We do not approach their scepticism as a problem to be solved in itself, however. Instead, we analyse its origins and how it relates to the way knowledge is constructed in drug education, health promotion and media accounts of drug use. To conceptualise this scepticism, we draw on Irwin and Michael's analysis of the changing relationship between science and society, Warner's theorisation of publics and counterpublics, and Race's related notion of 'counterpublic health'. The article organises the data into three key themes: scepticism about the accuracy of the claims made about drug risks and dangers, scepticism about representations of drug users, and scepticism about the motivations behind the health messages and drug policy in general. We then draw these different aspects of scepticism together to argue that the young men can be seen to constitute a health 'counterpublic', and we consider the implications of this approach, arguing for what has been described as a more diplomatic engagement between science and publics.
Peng, Peng; Namkung, Jessica M; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S; Patton, Samuel; Yen, Loulee; Compton, Donald L; Zhang, Wenjuan; Miller, Amanda; Hamlett, Carol
The purpose of this study was to explore domain-general cognitive skills, domain-specific academic skills, and demographic characteristics that are associated with calculation development from first grade to third grade among young children with learning difficulties. Participants were 176 children identified with reading and mathematics difficulties at the beginning of first grade. Data were collected on working memory, language, nonverbal reasoning, processing speed, decoding, numerical competence, incoming calculations, socioeconomic status, and gender at the beginning of first grade and on calculation performance at four time points: the beginning of first grade, the end of first grade, the end of second grade, and the end of third grade. Latent growth modeling analysis showed that numerical competence, incoming calculation, processing speed, and decoding skills significantly explained the variance in calculation performance at the beginning of first grade. Numerical competence and processing speed significantly explained the variance in calculation performance at the end of third grade. However, numerical competence was the only significant predictor of calculation development from the beginning of first grade to the end of third grade. Implications of these findings for early calculation instructions among young at-risk children are discussed.
Maria Mercedes Diaz Rodriguez
Full Text Available The city of León has pioneered the development of community health programs, developing comprehensive health programs such as the project ‘A New Initiative for the Americas’, a university hospital, a hospital ‘Mother´s Friend’, teaching assistance municipality, including many others. In the last five years, a group of professionals from different fields of medicine, psychology, and social work has focused on the task of working together with the community, National Police, My Family, MINED, as well as national and international NGOs to study the youth phenomenon and its impact on society. There have been five meetings with teenagers and young people promoted by the Departmental Board of Save the Children and Youth Leonesa, where the UNAN León is actively participating. Based on these meetings, a possibility of a descriptive cross-sectional study on the characterization of young people at risk of social exclusion of the peripheral area of the city of Leon arose, and the results are revealing.
Hemmingsson, T; Lundberg, I; Diderichsen, Finn
The aim of this study was to analyse the role of differences in alcohol consumption and other risk factors for alcoholism established in late adolescence, for later differences in the distribution of alcoholism between social classes among young men. Data on risk factors in childhood and adolesce......The aim of this study was to analyse the role of differences in alcohol consumption and other risk factors for alcoholism established in late adolescence, for later differences in the distribution of alcoholism between social classes among young men. Data on risk factors in childhood...... and adolescence, e.g. risk use of alcohol, was collected among 49,323 men, born 1949-1951, at conscription for compulsory military training 1969/1970. Data on socio-economic group was obtained from the 1975 census and data on alcoholism diagnoses from the national in-patient care register 1976-1983. Several risk...... factors for alcoholism, such as risk use of alcohol, psychiatric diagnosis at conscription, parental divorce, low emotional control and contact with police and child care authorities, seemed to be more common among those who were recruited to blue-collar occupations compared to those who were recruited...
Keglovitz, Kristin; Lancki, Nicola; Walsh, Tim; Schneider, John A.
Abstract Purpose: Limited data are available on anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in young, Black populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of and relationships between ASILs and high-risk HPV infection in a young (sex with men (MSM) population. Methods: Results of anal cytology and HPV DNA were gathered for 83 individuals. Results: Forty-two percent of individuals (35) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and 33% (27) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion by cytology. Only 9% tested positive for both high-risk HPV subtypes 16 and 18. Conclusion: Low rates of infection with both HPV types 16 and 18 may provide further evidence that we should continue to vaccinate young, Black MSM against HPV. PMID:27673362
Mathur, Sanyukta; Higgins, Jenny A; Thummalachetty, Nityanjali; Rasmussen, Mariko; Kelley, Laura; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John S
Compared to a large body of work on how gender may affect young women's vulnerability to HIV, we know little about how masculine ideals and practices relating to marriage and fertility desires shape young men's HIV risk. Using life-history interview data with 30 HIV-positive and HIV-negative young men aged 15-24 years, this analysis offers an in-depth perspective on young men's transition through adolescence, the desire for fatherhood and experience of sexual partnerships in rural Uganda. Young men consistently reported the desire for fatherhood as a cornerstone of masculinity and transition to adulthood. Ideally young men wanted children within socially sanctioned unions. Yet, most young men were unable to realise their marital intentions. Gendered expectations to be economic providers combined with structural constraints, such as limited access to educational and income-generating opportunities, led some young men to engage in a variety of HIV-risk behaviours. Multiple partnerships and limited condom use were at times an attempt by some young men to attain some part of their aspirations related to fatherhood and marriage. Our findings suggest that young men possess relationship and parenthood aspirations that - in an environment of economic scarcity - may influence HIV-related risk.
Full Text Available Introduction: Homicide is the second leading cause of death among youth aged 15–24. Prior crosssectional studies, in non-healthcare settings, have reported exposure to community violence, peer behavior, and delinquency as risk factors for violent injury. However, longitudinal cohort studies have not been performed to evaluate the temporal or predictive relationship between these risk factors and emergency department (ED visits for injuries among at-risk youth. The objective was to assess whether self-reported exposure to violence risk factors in young adults can be used to predict future ED visits for injuries over a 1-year period. Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed in the ED of a Southeastern US Level I trauma center. Eligible participants were patients aged 18–24, presenting for any chief complaint. We excluded patients if they were critically ill, incarcerated, or could not read English. Initial recruitment occurred over a 6-month period, by a research assistant in the ED for 3–5 days per week, with shifts scheduled such that they included weekends and weekdays, over the hours from 8AM-8PM. At the time of initial contact in the ED, patients were asked to complete a written questionnaire, consisting of previously validated instruments measuring the following risk factors: a aggression, b perceived likelihood of violence, c recent violent behavior, d peer behavior, e community exposure to violence, and f positive future outlook. At 12 months following the initial ED visit, the participants’ medical records were reviewed to identify any subsequent ED visits for injury-related complaints. We analyzed data with chisquare and logistic regression analyses. Results: Three hundred thirty-two patients were approached, of whom 300 patients consented. Participants’ average age was 21.1 years, with 60.1% female, 86.0% African American. After controlling for participant gender, ethnicity, or injury complaint at time of first
Parra, M D; Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between anogenital distance (AGD) measures and semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels in Caucasian young men from southern Spain. Two variants of AGD [from the anus to the posterior base of the scrotum (AGDAS ) and to the cepha......The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between anogenital distance (AGD) measures and semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels in Caucasian young men from southern Spain. Two variants of AGD [from the anus to the posterior base of the scrotum (AGDAS...... ) and to the cephalad insertion of the penis (AGDAP )] were assessed in 215 university students. Semen parameters (semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm counts, motility and morphology) and serum reproductive hormones (follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, inhibin B, testosterone, calculated free...... testosterone, oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin) were also determined. Associations between AGD measures and the semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were tested using multiple regression analyses. Overall, median sperm concentration was 44.0 × 10(6) ml(-1) (5th-95th percentiles: 8...
Armstrong, David W; Rue, John-Paul H; Wilckens, John H; Frassica, Frank J
Approximately 5% of all military recruits incur stress fracture injuries during intense physical training, predominately in the lower extremity. We compared young men and women with stress fracture injury (subjects) to a matched group of uninjured volunteers (controls) during a summer training program at the United States Naval Academy to identify possible risk factors for stress fracture injury. The subject group was composed of 13 female and 18 male plebes with training-induced stress fracture injury verified by plain radiographs and/or nuclear bone scan. The control group was composed of 13 female and 18 male plebes who remained without injury during plebe summer training but who were matched with the 31 injured plebes for the Initial Strength Test (1-mi run time, means: women, 7.9 min; men, 6.4 min) and body mass index (means: women, 23.4; men, 23.8). We found that the subjects lost significant body weight (mean, 2.63 +/- 0.54 kg) between Day 1 and the date of their diagnosis of a stress fracture (mean, Day 35) and that they continued to lose weight until the date of their DEXA scan (mean, Day 49). Among female plebes, there was no evidence of the female athlete triad (eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, or low bone density). Thigh girth was significantly smaller in female subjects than in female controls and trended to be lower in male subjects than in male controls. Total body bone mineral content was significantly lower in the male subjects than in male controls. Bone mineral density of the distal tibia and femoral neck were not significantly different between the groups. DEXA-derived structural geometric properties were not different between subjects and controls. Because, on average, tibias were significantly longer in male subjects than in male controls, the mean bone strength index in male subjects was significantly lower than that of male controls. We conclude that significant, acute weight loss combined with regular daily physical training among
Gillum, R Frank; Jarrett, Nicole; Obisesan, Thomas O
In order to elucidate cultural correlates of utilization of primary health services by young adult men, we investigated religion in which one was raised and service utilization. Using data from a national survey we tested the hypothesis that religion raised predicts access to and utilization of a regular medical care provider, examinations, HIV and other STD testing and counseling at ages 18-44 years in men born between 1958 and 1984. We also hypothesized that religion raised would be more predictive of utilization for Hispanic Americans and non-Hispanic Black Americans than for non-Hispanic White Americans. The study included a national sample of 4276 men aged 18-44 years. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to assess the hypotheses using data on religion raised and responses to 14 items assessing health care access and utilization. Compared to those raised in no religion, those raised mainline Protestant were more likely (p Religion raised was not associated with testicular exams, STD counseling or HIV testing. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounders, significant associations of religion raised with insurance coverage, a physician as usual source of care and physical examination remained which varied by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, although religion is a core aspect of culture that deserves further study as a possible determinant of health care utilization, we were not able to document any consistent pattern of significant association even in a population with high rates of religious participation.
Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.
Onder Yaman; Zafer Tokatli; Murat Akand; Atilla H. Elhan; Kadri Anafarta
Aim: To determine the effect of sildenafil citrate on the nocturnal penile erections (I.e. Time to onset, the duration of erection, and the interval between first and second erections) of healthy young men. Methods: Twenty-two potent men, 23-29 years old, were recruited for the study. All subjects completed three sessions over consecutive nights using the RigiScan monitoring device (Dacomed, Minneapolis, USA). After a first night of adaptation, night 2 records were their baseline values, and on night 3 they received 100 mg of sildenafil citrate. Statistical comparisons were done between the second and third night data. Results: The mean time to onset of the first erection with sildenafil citrate was (34 ± 18) min, whereas it was (74 ± 24) min (P ＜ 0.001) without sildenafil citrate. The number of erections observed during the first 5 h after sildenafil citrate medication was 3.6 ± 0.5 in contrast to 2.4 ± 0.5 with no medication (P = 0.001). The interval between first and second erections was shorter with sildenafil citrate: (52 ± 26) min vs.(85 ± 34) min (P = 0.01). The duration of the last erection was statistically significantly longer with the sildenafil citrate: (64 ± 33) min vs. (42 ± 28) min (P ＜ 0.01). Conclusion: Healthy young men achieved erection within 34 min after sildenafil citrate administration, which is shorter than the 1 h interval proposed by the manufacturer. The interval between the first and second erections was shorter and the duration of the last nocturnal erection was longer.
Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Emmanuel, Diona; Durant, Sarah; Rhodes, Scott D
Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent 64.0% of people living with HIV (PLWH) over the age of 13 years. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are particularly affected by HIV/AIDS; the rate of HIV infection for YMSM between the ages of 13 and 24 represents 72.0% of new infections among youth. To understand the current state of the science meant to prevent HIV for YMSM, we reviewed studies of HIV behavioral prevention interventions for YMSM. Five literature databases were searched, from their inception through October 2015, using key words associated with HIV prevention intervention evaluation studies for YMSM. The review criteria included behavioral HIV/AIDS prevention interventions, articles published in English-language peer-reviewed journals, YMSM between 13 and 24 years of age, and longitudinal repeated measures design. A total of 15 YMSM behavioral HIV prevention intervention studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and reported statistically significant findings. Common outcomes included unprotected sexual intercourse, HIV/AIDS risk behavior, condom use, HIV testing, safer sex attitude, and HIV prevention communication. Participant age, representation of Black/African American YMSM, application of theoretical and model underpinnings, congruence of assessment measures used, follow-up assessment times, and application of process evaluation were inconsistent across studies. To advance HIV prevention intervention research for YMSM, future studies should be theory-based, identify common constructs, utilize standard measures, include process evaluation, and evaluate sustained change over standard periods of time. HIV prevention interventions should incorporate the needs of the diverse, well-educated, web-connected millennial generation and differentiate between adolescent YMSM (13 to 18 years of age) and young adulthood YMSM (19 to 24 years of age). Because Black/African American YMSM represent more than 50% of new HIV infections, future HIV
Geeraert, L; Van den Noortgate, W; Grietens, H; Onghena, P
In this article, a meta-analysis is presented on 40 evaluation studies of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect with mostly nonrandomized designs. The main aim of all programs was to prevent physical child abuse and neglect by providi
Dowshen, Nadia; Binns, Helen J; Garofalo, Robert
Young men who have sex with men (MSM) represent an increasing number of new HIV infections in many communities. Many individuals still hold beliefs that may lead to discrimination against HIV-positive individuals. HIV stigma is associated with negative health and psychosocial outcomes and may lead to greater challenges for this marginalized population. This study describes stigma experienced by HIV-positive young MSM, explores its relationship to psychosocial measures, and tests the hypothesis that stigma scores will be higher in those diagnosed less than 1 year ago versus more than 1 year. From August 2004 to September 2005 young MSM completed a questionnaire including demographic information and psychosocial measures. Descriptive and bivariate analyses of association were used to interpret data from the total stigma scale and four subscales: personalized stigma (PS), public attitudes (PA), negative self-image (NSI), and disclosure concerns (DC). Index scores were calculated by standardizing each subscale for direct comparisons. The 42 participants were: mean 21.3 years; 45% black, 24% Hispanic, 26% white; 14% transgender; and 50% diagnosed HIV-positive less than 1 year. Participants reported HIV-related stigma across all domains with mean index subscale scores: PS 0.57, PA 0.61, NSI 0.63, DC 0.75 indicating that disclosure concerns were prevalent in comparison to other forms of HIV-related stigma. Stigma scores correlated with depression, social support, self-esteem, and romantic loneliness. Stigma scores did not differ for those diagnosed less than 1 year ago versus more than 1 year ago. Providers should address HIV-related stigma concerns, particularly disclosure, throughout the trajectory of the illness when caring for HIV-positive young MSM as a factor affecting health outcomes and psychosocial functioning.
Full Text Available Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus (XMRV was recently reported to be associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Infection was also reported in 3.7% of healthy individuals. These highly reported frequencies of infection prompted concerns about the possibility of a new, widespread retroviral epidemic. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS provides an opportunity to assess the prevalence of XMRV infection and its association with HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men. Reliable detection of XMRV infection requires the application of multiple diagnostic methods, including detection of human antibodies to XMRV and detection of XMRV nucleic acid. We, therefore, tested 332 patient plasma and PBMC samples obtained from recent visits in a subset of patients in the MACS cohort for XMRV antibodies using Abbott prototype ARCHITECT chemiluminescent immunoassays (CMIAs and for XMRV RNA and proviral DNA using a XMRV single-copy qPCR assay (X-SCA. Although 9 of 332 (2.7% samples showed low positive reactivity against a single antigen in the CMIA, none of these samples or matched controls were positive for plasma XMRV RNA or PBMC XMRV DNA by X-SCA. Thus, we found no evidence of XMRV infection among men in the MACS regardless of HIV-1 serostatus.
Garofalo, Robert; Gayles, Travis; Bottone, Paul Devine; Ryan, Dan; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Mustanski, Brian
Objective: HIV disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men, and knowledge about HIV transmission is one factor that may play a role in high rate of infections for this population. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in HIV knowledge among young men who have sex with men in the USA and their correlation to condom usage…
Martos, Alexander J.
Over 30 years after HIV was first recognised in the USA, the epidemic continues to pose a disproportionate threat to vulnerable and marginalised populations. Increasing HIV incidence among young men who have sex with men has spurred debate around the content and approach to HIV prevention interventions directed towards this vulnerable population.…
Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.
The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…
Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A
Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.
de Granda Orive, J I; Peña Miguel, T; González Quijada, S; Escobar Sacristán, J; Gutiérrez Jiménez, T; Herrera de la Rosa, A
This study aimed to determine the attitudes toward smoking and the characteristics of smoking patterns in young men of military age. Individuals performing their military service were surveyed using a self-administered, anonymous, personal and voluntary questionnaire. Questions were included on smoking habits, social context, and desire to quit. Responses were received from 386 (93.46%) subjects, all male, whose mean age was 20.52 +/- 2.3 years. The sample included 207 smokers (53.62%), 173 non smokers (44.81%) and 6 ex-smokers (1.55%). Mean age of initiation was 15.07 +/- 2.4 years and mean age of start of habitual smoking was 16.46 +/- 2.2 years. The main reasons for starting to smoke were curiosity (39.73%) and peer pressure (29.45%). Between 11 and 20 cigarettes/day were smoked by 53.74%. Those who began before 18 years of age smoked more than those who began after age 19. Light tobacco was smoked by 90.87%. Non smokers had fewer friends and family members who smoked than did smokers (p reason for increased smoking. We conclude that the prevalence of daily smoking is high among young men, who begin smoking regularly at 16 years of age. Those who begin later smoke less. The influence of friends and family members on initiation and maintenance of smoking is great. Half the smokers contemplated quitting and reported a high number of earlier attempts to stop. We believe that military quarters are an ideal place for health education and promotion, offering the possibility of designing special programs for decreasing the prevalence of smoking among adults.
Pharr, Jennifer R.; Lough, Nancy L.; Echezona E Ezeanolue
Clark County, Nevada had a 52% increase in newly diagnosed HIV infections in young people age 13-24 with 83% of the new diagnoses in this age group being men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV testing and counseling is critical for HIV prevention, care and treatment, yet young people are the least likely to seek HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing experienced by young MSM in Clark County, Nevada. We conducted a qualitative focus group ...
Balaji, Alexandra B; Oster, Alexandra M; Viall, Abigail H; Heffelfinger, James D; Mena, Leandro A; Toledo, Carlos A
While the disproportionate impact of HIV on young black men who have sex with men (MSM) is well documented, the reasons for this disparity remain less clear. Through in-depth interviews, we explored the role of familial, religious, and community influence on the experiences of young black MSM and identified strategies that these young men use to negotiate and manage their sexual minority status. Between February and April 2008, 16 interviews were conducted among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young (19- to 24-year-old) black MSM in the Jackson, Mississippi, area. Results suggest that overall, homosexuality remains highly stigmatized by the men's families, religious community, and the African American community. To manage this stigma, many of the participants engaged in a process of "role flexing," in which individuals modified their behavior in order to adapt to a particular situation. The data also provided evidence of internalized homophobia among a number of the participants. The impact of stigma on risk behavior should be more fully explored, and future intervention efforts need to explicitly address and challenge stigma, both among young men themselves and the communities in which they reside. Attention should also be paid to the role masculinity may play as a driver of the HIV epidemic among young black MSM and how this knowledge can be used to inform prevention efforts.
Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...
Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity.
Mets, O.M.; Hulst, R.A. van; Jacobs, C.; Ginneken, B. van; Jong, P.A. de
The purpose of our study was to assess the normal range of CT measures of emphysema and air trapping in young men with normal lung function.A cohort of 70 young men with high-normal spirometry and body plethysmography underwent paired inspiratory and expiratory CT. Visual and quantitative scores of
Freer, Patrick K.; Tan, Leonard
The persistence of young men in choral singing activity has been widely studied in North America, with emerging parallel research in Europe (Freer, 2013; Harrison & Welch, 2012). There has been little such research in Asia. This study, of 12 young men enrolled in Singapore's pre-university schools, collected both written narratives and drawn…
Over the last decade, the relationship between boys, young men and sex and relationships education (SRE) is one that has been characterised by a history of problematising. One of the main difficulties lies with young men's engagement with the subject, and in this article I make a retrospective examination of recent classroom experience with young…
Hopkins, Megan; Martinez-Wenzl, Mary; Aldana, Ursula S.; Gándara, Patricia
Newcomer young men confront numerous obstacles that limit their chances for attainment and achievement. Using social and cultural capital frameworks and a case study methodology, this article examines how four Latino newcomer young men navigated an urban U.S. high school. It reveals how teachers and a counselor cultivated capital and how the young…
Jeffrey, Craig; Jeffery, Roger; Jeffery, Patricia
This paper explores the cultural and economic strategies of educated but un/under-employed young Muslim men aged between 20 and 34 in a village in western Uttar Pradesh, north India. Drawing on Connell's gender theory, the paper demonstrates how economic and political forces shape Muslim young men's strategies. The paper distinguishes between…
Teo, Chin Hai; Ng, Chirk Jenn; White, Alan
Objectives Uptake of health screening is low in men, particularly among those aged purposively sampled according to their ethnicity, job position, age and screening status in order to achieve maximal variation. Results Eight IDIs and five FGDs were conducted (n=31) and six themes emerged from the analysis. (1) Young men did not consider screening as part of prevention and had low risk perception. (2) The younger generation was more receptive to health screening due to their exposure to health information through the internet. (3) Health screening was not a priority in young men except for those who were married. (4) Young men had limited income and would rather invest in health insurance than screening. (5) Young men tended to follow doctors' advice when it comes to screening and preferred doctors of the same gender and ethnicity. (6) Medical overuse was also raised where young men wanted more screening tests while doctors tended to promote unnecessary screening tests to them. Conclusions This study identified important factors that influenced young men's screening behaviour. Health authorities should address young men's misperceptions, promote the importance of early detection and develop a reasonable health screening strategy for them. Appropriate measures must be put in place to reduce low value screening practices. PMID:28283491
Ellis, Louise A; Collin, Philippa; Davenport, Tracey A; Hurley, Patrick J; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B
Background Young men are particularly vulnerable to suicide, drug, and alcohol problems and yet fail to seek appropriate help. An alternative or adjunct to face-to-face services has emerged with widespread uptake of the Internet and related communication technologies, yet very little evidence exists that examines the capacity of the Internet to engage young men and promote help seeking. Objective To explore young people’s attitudes and behaviors in relation to mental health and technology use...
Svetlana Tigranovna Dzhaneryan
Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study aimed at research of social frustration of personality of city studying youth – pupils of the 10th grade of secondary school, college students, high school students, working and getting additional education young men and women.Methods: testing, survey, statistical data processing.Results. The article summarizes aspects of the frustration research, substantiates the possibility of studying the social frustration of personality and empirical criteria for its expressiveness: high values and the relationship of frustration indicators under the influence of external (interpersonal and internal (intrapersonal frustrators, the relationship of frustration indicators and indicators of social adaptation / disadaptation of personality. Empirically proven increase in number of frustrated young people among the students and working person, compared with school and college students; high frustration of young women – schoolgirls and female college students, compared with young men – schoolboys and college students, as well as a very high frustration of working young men. Depending on the social status and sexual differentiation of young people set the dynamics of expression of social frustration; differences in the content of leading frustrators in each of life spheres of young men and women; summation of interpersonal and intrapersonal frustrators, associated with the expressiveness of social adaptation / disadaptation of young men and women. Highlighted the psychological characteristics of young men and women, enhancing expressiveness of their social frustration.Application of the results: psychological services in high schools and personnel services in different companies.
Full Text Available Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men.
Nutritionally at-risk children suffer delays in physical growth and motor and language development. Infectious diseases such as malaria pose an additional risk. We examined the cross-sectional relationships among malaria infection, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), motor ...
Feldman, M.; McDonald, L.; Serbin, L.; Stack, D.; Secco, M. L.; Yu, C. T.
Background: Despite extensive research with families raising children with or at risk for developmental delay (DD), it is not clear whether primary caregivers of these children are at increased risk for depressive symptoms. Discrepant findings in the literature may be owing to heterogeneity of child problems. More research is needed on child,…
Coleman, R; Piek, J P; Livesey, D J
Several studies have linked poor kinaesthetic ability with poor motor coordination in school-aged children. However, few studies have investigated kinaesthesis in younger children. The aim of this study was to determine if preschool aged children who have been identified as at risk of developing developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have poorer kinaesthetic ability than matched controls. Kinaesthetic ability and performance IQ were examined in a group of children aged between 4 and 5 years. Following individual assessment of 291 children, 31 were identified as at risk of DCD at this age. One year later, 30 of these children were retested, and 23 were still found to be at risk. These children were matched on verbal IQ, age and sex with control children and their performance compared on the kinaesthetic acuity test (KAT) [D.J. Livesey and N.A. Parkes, Aust. J. Psychol., 47 (1995) 160] and three subtests of the WPPSI-R performance IQ (D. Wechsler, Manual for the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence--revised, Psychological Corporation, New York, 1989). Both the KAT and the performance subtest scores were found to be significantly poorer in the children at risk of DCD. Follow-up testing one year later showed that both groups improved their kinaesthetic acuity score although the control children remained significantly better than the children with poor motor coordination.
Mashburn, Andrew J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Miller, Robin L.; Clark, Leslie F.
This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, knowledge, and psychosocial variables on HIV testing among a sample (n = 551) of young African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) from three cities--Atlanta (n = 241), Birmingham (n = 174), and Chicago (n = 136). Among the entire sample of young men, age,…
Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin; Haywood, Chris
This article explores Pakistani and Bangladeshi young men's experiences of schooling to examine what inclusion/exclusion means to them. Qualitative research was undertaken with 48 Pakistani and Bangladeshi young men living in areas of the West Midlands, England. The young men highlighted three key areas: the emergence of a schooling regime…
Sommer, Marni; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kaaya, Sylvia
The challenge of violence for youth in low-income countries includes a range of experiences from witnessing, to experiencing, to participating in violence. Although boys and young men are often the perpetrators of such violence, they may also be its victims. Yet little evidence exists from the voiced experiences of boys themselves on perceptions and interpretations of the violence around them. Given the numerous negative health implications of violence for boys, for the girls and other boys with whom they interact, and for the health of their future partners and families, we conducted an in-depth study in rural and urban Tanzania with adolescent boys on the masculinity norms shaping their transitions through puberty that might be contributing to high-risk behaviours, including engagement in violence. The findings identified underlying societal gendered norms influencing the enactment of violence, and recommendations from the boys on how to diminish the violence around them. Additional research is needed with boys on the social norms and structural factors influencing their engagement in violence.
Andersen, A G; Jensen, Tina Kold; Carlsen, E;
for military service, this provided a unique opportunity to study the reproductive function in an unbiased population. Altogether 891 young men delivered a blood sample in which reproductive hormones were measured. From 708 of these men data were also obtained on semen quality and testis size. The median sperm...... immotile spermatozoa and follicle stimulating hormone. Possible causes for this high frequency of young men with suboptimal semen quality are obscure and need to be explored. Whether these findings apply for young male populations of comparable countries remains to be seen....
Brøns, Charlotte; Saltbæk, Pernille N; Friedrichsen, Martin
for 24 h, to measure levels of glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), triglycerides (TG), insulin, C-peptide, leptin, resistin, ghrelin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), incretins (GLP-1 and GIP), and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6) in 13 young men born SGA and 11 young men born AGA. RESULTS...... variations in levels of blood glucose, plasma TG, FFA, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, GIP, leptin, visfatin, TNF-α, IL-6 and PAI-1. The variation in FFA levels differed between the groups during the evening. Plasma ghrelin and glucagon levels did not display diurnal variations. CONCLUSIONS: Young men born SGA...
Jun-qing WU; Er-sheng GAO; Jian-guo TAO; Cui-ling LIANG; Wenying LI; Qiu-ying YANG; Kang-shou YAO; Wei-qun LU; Lu CHEN
Objective To understand the current semen quality status among Chinese young men and influential factors in China and to explore its evaluation index. Methods A total of 562 healthy male volunteers were recruited during their premarital examinations in seven provincials and municipal regions' MCH centers; descriptive and principal component analyses were used to analyze data.Results The findings show that semen volume (2.61±1.10 mL), sperm density (64.47±34.59×106/mL), percentage of sperm forward progression (59.89%±17.11%), percentage of sperm viability (77.19%±11.87%), and percentage of normal sperm morphology (78.23%±9.15%). The first principal component function is Z1=-8.512 54 + 0.001 36X1' +0.031 92X2'+0.043 52X3'+ 0.039 84X4', which is closely related to percentage of sperm viability (X3), percentage of sperm forward progression (X2), and percentage of normal sperm morphology (X4);The second principal component function is: Z2=0.491 92+ 0.080 80X1- 0.000 58X2 - 0.005 10X3 - 0.018 07X4, which depends on the total sperm count (X1). Conclusion Only 42.3% subjects meet all the common WHO standard of semen quality. The multiple analysis of Z1 showed that the highest Z1 are among subjects from Guizhou, workers, or town residents. Multiple analysis of Z2 showed that the older age when the subjects had the first sexual impulse, the longer period of sexual abstinence and more quantity of sperm they had; the more sexual activity subjects had, the less amount of sperm they had.
Nompumelelo B. Zondi
Full Text Available Literature is highly influenced by society and cultural contexts in which it is produced or read. It is a reflection of how a particular society constructs reality. The values, beliefs and norms transferred from one generation to another reflect, in the main, that society’s way of life. When creative writers use verbal art forms like novels, short stories or drama, they do so in order to create an allusive and fictitious setting which enable them to comment on contemporary issues without blatantly seeming to do so. In this sense it becomes a prerogative for artists to remark on what is happening in communities without being directly confrontational. In our view, it is also their responsibility to approach literature from an angle that reflects changing times, thus challenging anything that is contrary. In 2013 we involved our final year undergrad literature class in a project whose aim was to sensitize them on gender disparities still affecting our society today. Five of nine groups comprising ten students each – both men and women-chose to study the work of an acclaimed Zulu writer, D.B.Z. Ntuli (1982. Based on the comments of the male students in those groups the discussion was stretched to the entire class. It was perturbing to discover that we are still producing male students who are not sensitive to gender disparities. In this article we argue that indifference displayed by these young men where issues of gender were concerned call for attention. This article presents the callous treatment of women characters in the selected short story and examples of comments made by male students on their reading of the text. We also contend that we are still far from reaping the fruits of our hard -won democracy given that Zulu men in the study still seems to lack an understanding of basic human rights. Their failure to understand obvious gender-based violence as an intolerable social ill.En ons dog ons lewer pragtige jongmanne op. Literatuur word
Otto, Luther B.
Girl friends are significant-others who influence young men's career aspirations and achievements. Girl friends and same sex peers evaluate a youth's educational potential using broader criteria than do parents. (Author/MV)
Andersen, A G; Jensen, T K; Carlsen, E
Male reproductive function seems to have deteriorated considerably during the past 4-5 decades. However, studies of the reproductive function in unselected populations have not previously been reported. As the large majority of young men in Denmark are subjected to a compulsory medical examination...... for military service, this provided a unique opportunity to study the reproductive function in an unbiased population. Altogether 891 young men delivered a blood sample in which reproductive hormones were measured. From 708 of these men data were also obtained on semen quality and testis size. The median sperm...... immotile spermatozoa and follicle stimulating hormone. Possible causes for this high frequency of young men with suboptimal semen quality are obscure and need to be explored. Whether these findings apply for young male populations of comparable countries remains to be seen....
Pharr, Jennifer R; Lough, Nancy L; Ezeanolue, Echezona E
Clark County, Nevada had a 52% increase in newly diagnosed HIV infections in young people age 13-24 with 83% of the new diagnoses in this age group being men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV testing and counseling is critical for HIV prevention, care and treatment, yet young people are the least likely to seek HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing experienced by young MSM in Clark County, Nevada. We conducted a qualitative focus group discussion to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among eleven young MSM in March, 2015. The primary barrier to HIV testing identified by the group was a lack of awareness or knowledge about testing for HIV. Other barriers within the person included: fear of results, fear of rejection, and fear of disclosure. Barriers identified within the environment included: access issues, stigma, and unfriendly test environments for young people. In addition to increasing awareness, intervention to increase HIV testing among MSM young people should incorporate access to testing in environments where the adolescents are comfortable and which reduces stigma. HIV testing sites should be convenient, accessible and young person/gay friendly.
Feigelman, William; Gorman, Bernard S.; Lesieur, Henry
Although many clinical studies document a relationship between gambling and suicidality, evidence of this association in general population surveys has been mixed. Probing this association in a nationally representative sample of young adults with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, we made same gender comparisons of…
MacLeod, Rhona; Beach, Anna; Henriques, Sasha; Knopp, Jasmin; Nelson, Katie; Kerzin-Storrar, Lauren
While debate has focused on whether testing of minors for late onset genetic disorders should be carried out if there is no medical benefit, less is known about the impact on young people (testing often many years before the likely onset of symptoms. We looked at the experiences of young people who had had predictive testing for a range of conditions with variable ages at onset and options for screening and treatment. A consecutive series of 61 young people who had a predictive test aged 15-25 years at the Clinical Genetic Service, Manchester, for HD, HBOC (BrCa 1 or 2) or FCM (Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy or Dilated Cardiomyopathy), were invited to participate. Thirty-six (36/61; 59%) agreed to participate (10 HD, 16 HBOC and 10 FCM) and telephone interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. None of the participants expressed regret at having the test at a young age. Participants saw the value of pretest counselling not in facilitating a decision, but rather as a source of information and support. Differences emerged among the three groups in parent/family involvement in the decision to be tested. Parents in FCM families were a strong influence in favour of testing, in HBOC the decision was autonomous but usually congruent with the views of parents, whereas in HD the decision was autonomous and sometimes went against the opinions of parents/grandparents. Participants from all three groups proposed more tailoring of predictive test counselling to the needs of young people.
Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve
The article examines the use of newer, interactive information and communication technologies (ICTs) in young men's health promotion (HP), drawing on gender theory, HP research and evidence on young men's Internet usage. The focus is on highlighting an agenda for research in terms of emerging issues. New forms of social media ICT (for example 'web 2'-based on-line social networking sites, micro-blogging services, i-phones and podcasts) have the potential to enable young men to engage with health information in new and interesting ways. Given concerns about young men's engagement with health services, innovative ICT formats, particularly using the Internet, have been tried. However, issues persist around surfing 'addiction', quality control and equal access. Approaches to HP using new ICTs offer distributed control over information content and quality and a lay social context for accessing information. Online communities can potentially legitimize young men's participation in discourses around health, and support sustained engagement. The article discusses how this could support young men to re-conceptualize healthy choices in the context of masculine imperatives and responsible citizenship if specific conditions are met (for trusting engagement) and risks addressed (such as commercial disinformation). The skill requirements for young men to engage effectively with new ICTs are explored, focusing on health literacy (HL). It is predicted that social marketing approaches to HP for young men will increasingly include new ICTs, making specific requirements for HL. These approaches may appeal narrowly to hegemonic masculinities or broadly to multiple masculinities, including those historically marginalized. Recommendations are made for future research.
Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W.; Sihvola, Elina; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko
Objective: To describe patterns, comorbidity, and outcomes from a case series of anorexia nervosa (AN) among young men from the general population and their co-twins. Method: Men (N = 2,122) born between 1975 and 1979 from Finnish twin cohorts were screened for lifetime eating disorders by questionn
Schneider, Stephen G.; And Others
Explored relationship of homosexuality to suicidal behavior by questionnaire responses from 52 men in gay and lesbian college organizations and 56 men in homosexual rap groups. Family background of alcoholism and physical abuse, social supports perceived as rejecting homosexuality, and no religious affiliation were associated with history of…
Rasmussen, Mette L; Haavind, Hanne; Dieserud, Gudrun; Dyregrov, Kari
This study explores the developmental history of ten young men who completed suicide in the transition to adulthood. The young men, aged 18-30, had no previous history of suicide attempts or treatment in mental health. In-depth interviews with four to eight informants for each suicide were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Three developmental issues from early age onwards emerged: (a) unsuccessful in becoming independent; (b) weakened competence to deal with shame; and (c) trapped in anger. The capacity to regulate emotions like shame and anger could make certain men vulnerable to suicide when facing adult challenges and defeats.
Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline
by aerobic training in young and older men. METHODS: 17 young (23 ± 1 years, 24 ± 1 kg m(-2), and 20 ± 2% body fat) and 15 older men (68 ± 1 years; 27 ± 1 kg m(-2), and 29 ± 2% body fat) underwent 2 weeks' one leg immobilization followed by 6 weeks' cycle training. Biopsies were obtained from m. vastus......-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity RESULTS: The older men had higher intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) (73 %) and Glycogen (16%) levels compared to the young men, and IMTG tended to increase with immobilization. PLIN2 and 3 protein content increased with immobilization in the older men only. The young men had higher...... GS (74%) protein compared to the older men. Immobilization decreased and training restored HAD activity, GS and SNAP23 protein content in young and older men. CONCLUSION: Evidence of age-related metabolic inflexibility is presented, seen as body fat and IMTG accumulation. The question arises...
David R. Howell
The decline in the employment status of young black men relative to their white peers in the post-1970 U.S. Labor market is the impetus for this research. This paper examines the effects of recent employment restructuring on young workers by race and sex. In the case of the least educated group of young black men (aged 25-34), the employment-to-population ratio declined by almost 35 percent (equivalent to 28 percentage points) from 1970 tol985. Moreover, the 1980s were a stark reversal to the...
Full Text Available The purpose of Project Gel was to determine the safety and acceptability of rectal microbicides in young men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender women (TGW at risk of HIV infection.MSM and TGW aged 18-30 years were enrolled at three sites; Pittsburgh, PA; Boston, MA; and San Juan, PR. Stage 1A was a cross-sectional assessment of sexual health and behavior in MSM and TGW. A subset of participants from Stage 1A were then enrolled in Stage 1B, a 12-week evaluation of the safety and acceptability of a placebo rectal gel. This was followed by the final phase of the study (Stage 2 in which a subset of participants from Stage 1B were enrolled into a Phase 1 rectal safety and acceptability evaluation of tenofovir (TFV 1% gel.248 participants were enrolled into Stage 1A. Participants' average age was 23.3 years. The most common sexually transmitted infection (STIs at baseline were Herpes simplex (HSV-2 (16.1% by serology and rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT (10.1% by NAAT. 134 participants were enrolled into Stage 1B. During the 12 week period of follow-up 2 HIV, 5 rectal CT, and 5 rectal Neisseria gonorrhea infections were detected. The majority of adverse events (AEs were infections (N = 56 or gastrointestinal (N = 46 and were mild (69.6% or moderate (28.0%. Of the participants who completed Stage 1B, 24 were enrolled into Stage 2 and randomized (1:1 to receive TFV or placebo gel. All participants completed Stage 2. The majority of AEs were gastrointestinal (N = 10 and of mild (87.2% or moderate (10.3% severity.In this study we were able to enroll a sexually active population of young MSM and TGW who were willing to use rectal microbicides. TFV gel was safe and acceptable and should be further developed as an alternative HIV prevention intervention for this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01283360.
Foster, Michael L; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory; Kegeles, Susan M
Young black men who have sex with men account for 48% of 13-29-year-old HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men's lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18-30-year-old men who have sex with men in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in men who have sex with men's lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions, (2) the continued importance of spirituality among men who have sex with men, (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches, (4) tension between being a man who has sex with men and being a Christian, (5) religion and spirituality's impact on men's sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive men who have sex with men may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD both genetic and environmental factors have important roles. The characteristic affective disturbance and impulsive aggression are linked to imbalances in the central serotonin system, and most of the genetic association studies focused on serotonergic candidate genes. However, the efficacy of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2 blocking antipsychotic drugs in BPD treatment also suggests involvement of the dopamine system in the neurobiology of BPD. Methods In the present study we tested the dopamine dysfunction hypothesis of impulsive self- and other-damaging behaviors: borderline and antisocial traits were assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis (SCID for DSM-IV in a community-based US sample of 99 young adults from low-to-moderate income families. For the BPD trait analyses a second, independent group was used consisting of 136 Hungarian patients with bipolar or major depressive disorder filling out self-report SCID-II Screen questionnaire. In the genetic association analyses the previously indicated polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT Val158Met and dopamine transporter (DAT1 40 bp VNTR were studied. In addition, candidate polymorphisms of the DRD2 and DRD4 dopamine receptor genes were selected from the impulsive behavior literature. Results The DRD2 TaqI B1-allele and A1-allele were associated with borderline traits in the young adult sample (p = 0.001, and p = 0.005, respectively. Also, the DRD4 -616 CC genotype appeared as a risk factor (p = 0.02. With severity of abuse accounted for in the model, genetic effects of the DRD2 and DRD4 polymorphisms were still significant (DRD2 TaqIB: p = 0.001, DRD2 TaqIA: p = 0.008, DRD4 -616 C/G: p = 0.002. Only the DRD4 promoter finding was replicated in the independent sample of psychiatric inpatients (p = 0.007. No association was found with the COMT and DAT1 polymorphisms. Conclusions Our results
Ngo, Duc Anh; Ross, Michael W; Phan, Ha; Ratliff, Eric A; Trinh, Thang; Sherburne, Lisa
Rapid socioeconomic transformation in Vietnam in last 15 years has been followed by more liberation of sexual expression and representation of sexual identity among young people. There has been an increase in the visibility of homosexual men in major cities of Vietnam who were largely an unknown population until the emergence of the HIV epidemic. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are now considered as one of the target groups in many HIV prevention programs. This qualitative study examines local identities, relationships, and sexual practices among young MSM aged 15-24 in the cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Our analyses were based on 26 in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions with young MSM recruited through public place intercepts and cruising areas. Data document the linguistic classification, sexual relationships and behaviors, identity and process of homosexual identification, and the potential linkage between sexual identity and sexual behaviors of MSM in Vietnam. Data also highlight the stages of homosexual community development in urban Vietnam and important differences between Vietnam and the West in the representation of homosexual identity, relationships, and practices. In light of the findings, we suggest that the continuing development and elaboration of a homosexual community in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City offers significant opportunities for targeted HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the Vietnamese MSM population.
Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Gaskins, Audrey J
BACKGROUND: In the United States, anabolic sex steroids are administered to cattle for growth promotion. There is concern regarding the reproductive consequences of this practice in men who eat beef. We investigated whether meat consumption was associated with semen quality parameters and reprodu...
Full Text Available Background. Some factors which have been considered to be responsible for female athlete triad include the specific type and amount of high intensity training in young female athletes (especially when begun before puberty, reduced body weight, a lower percentage of fat tissue, and psychological stress. The aim of this study is to estimate the risk of amenorrhoea in female athletes with menstrual irregularity, on the basis of body composition results, nutritional factors, and endocrine factors. Material and methods. Fifty-five female professional athletes with menstrual irregularities, of mean ages 17.9 ±2.1 years, with mean training histories of 5.8 ±2.6 years, and BMIs of 20.6 ±1.4 kg/m2 participated in the study. The first group (ED included athletes from endurance disciplines (n = 30, while the second group (WD consisted of females from weight category disciplines (n = 25. A second classification was also employed, distinguishing between the group of athletes (IH with luteinizing hormone to follicle-stimulating hormone ratio LH/FSH < 0.6 (n = 24 – diagnosed as hypofunction of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis – and a second group (GR containing athletes with LH/FSH > 0.6, diagnosed as a good result (n = 31. Nutritional status was evaluated on the basis of body composition analysis using the BIA method employing a Harpenden skinfold callipers, which yielded measurements of the percentage of adipose tissue (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, and skinfold thickness (ST. Nutritional values were estimated by examining dietary records for 7 consecutive days, and using threefold recall for the last 24 h. Moreover, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol (E, progesterone (P, and serum leptin levels were measured. Results. Significant differences were found between the hormone levels of for each discipline group: for LH, the ED group had 3.6 ±2.5 mlU/ml, and the WC group had 5.4 ±2.4 mlU/ml (p < 0.05, while for FSH, the
Gorbachenko, A V; Shalimov, P M
One hundred and sixty-six young military man with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) aged 19.2+/-0.8 years were examined. Complex system approach to health status was applied to study clinico-functional features of this condition in young military men. The study found that clinico-functional manifestations of MVP in young military men reflected a multifocal character of dysadaptation during the first stages of military service. Conditions of professional military activity potentiate permanent progress of crisp prolapse as well as the severity of mitral regurgitation, structural and functional myocardial alterations, and myocardial electric instability increasing in the presence of abnormal cardiac chords under the influence of a prominent vegetative dysfunction. The reserve of the cardiorespiratory system and the entire organism in military men with MVP was lowered. The study registered inadequate hemodynamic responses to functional orthostatic test and physical load test, typical for hyperventilation syndrome.
Cremonese, Cleber; Piccoli, Camila; Pasqualotto, Fabio; Clapauch, Ruth; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio; Freire, Carmen
The association of occupational exposure to current-use pesticides with reproductive hormones, semen quality, and genital measures was investigated among young men in the South of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 99 rural and 36 urban men aged 18-23 years. Information on pesticide use was obtained through questionnaire. Serum and semen samples were analyzed for sex hormones and sperm parameters, respectively, and measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and testis volume (TV) were performed. Associations were explored using multivariate linear regression. Rural men had poorer sperm morphology, higher sperm count, and lower LH levels relative to urban subjects. Lifetime use of pesticides, especially herbicides and fungicides, was associated with poorer morphology and reduced LH and prolactin, with evidence of a linear pattern. Maternal farming during pregnancy was associated with larger AGD and TV. Chronic occupational exposure to modern pesticides may affect reproductive outcomes in young men.
Celentano, David D; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Hylton, John; Torian, Lucia V; Guillin, Vincent; Koblin, Beryl A
The prevalence of HIV infection is disproportionately higher in both racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and in men under the age of 25, where the leading exposure category is homosexual contact. Less is known, however, about patterns of HIV prevalence in young racial/ethnic minority MSM. We analyzed data from the Young Men's Survey (YMS), an anonymous, cross-sectional survey of 351 MSM in Baltimore and 529 MSM in New York City, aged 15-22, to determine whether race/ethnicity differences exist in the prevalence of HIV infection and associated risk factors. Potential participants were selected systematically at MSM-identified public venues. Venues and associated time periods for subject selection were selected randomly on a monthly basis. Eligible and willing subjects provided informed consent and underwent an interview, HIV pretest counseling, and a blood draw for HIV antibody testing. In multivariate analysis, adjusted for city of recruitment and age, HIV seroprevalence was highest for African Americans [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 12.5], intermediate for those of "other/mixed" race/ethnicity (AOR = 8.6), and moderately elevated for Hispanics (AOR = 4.6) as compared to whites. Stratified analysis showed different risk factors for HIV prevalence in each ethnic group: for African Americans, these were history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and not being in school; for Hispanics, risk factors were being aged 20-22, greater number of male partners and use of recreational drugs; and for those of "other/mixed" race/ethnicity, risk factors included injection drug use and (marginally) STDs. These findings suggest the need for HIV prevention and testing programs which target young racial/ethnic minority MSM and highlight identified risk factors and behaviors.
Dalton, Brian H; Allen, Matti D; Power, Geoffrey A; Vandervoort, Anthony A; Rice, Charles L
Human adult aging is associated with a loss of strength, contractile velocity and hence, power. The principal plantar flexors, consisting of the bi-articular gastrocnemeii and the mono-articular soleus, appear to be affected differently by the aging process. However, the age-related effect of knee joint angle on the torque-angular velocity relationship and power production of this functionally important muscle group is unknown. The purpose was to determine whether flexing the knee, thereby reducing the gastrocnemius contribution to plantar flexion, would exacerbate the age-related decrements in plantar flexion power, or shift the torque-angular velocity relationship differently in older compared with young men. Neuromuscular properties were recorded from 10 young (~25 y) and 10 old (~78 y) men with the knee extended (170°) and flexed (90°), in a randomized order. Participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs), followed by maximal velocity-dependent shortening contractions at pre-set loads, ranging from 15 to 75% MVC. The young men were ~20-25% stronger, ~12% faster and ~30% more powerful than the old for both knee angles (Ptorque was ~17% greater in the extended than flexed knee position, with no differences in voluntary activation (>95%). The young men produced 7-12% faster angular velocities in the extended knee position for loads ≤30% MVC, but no differences at higher loads; whereas there were no detectable differences in angular velocity between knee positions in the old across all relative loads. For both knee angles, young men produced peak power at 43.3±9.0% MVC, whereas the old men produced peak power at 54.8±7.9% MVC. These data indicate that the young, who have faster contracting muscles compared with the old, can rely more on velocity than torque for generating maximal power.
Pyky, Riitta; Jauho, Anna-Maiju; Ahola, Riikka; Ikäheimo, Tiina M.; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Mäntysaari, Matti; Jämsä, Timo; Korpelainen, Raija
Background Sedentary behavior is associated with poor well-being in youth with adverse trajectories spanning to adulthood. Still, its determinants are poorly known. Our aim was to profile sedentary and non-sedentary young men and to clarify their differences in a population-based setting. Methods A total of 616 men (mean age 17.9, SD 0.6) attending compulsory conscription for military service completed a questionnaire on health, health behavior, socioeconomic situation and media use. They und...
Fazli Khalaf, Zahra; Low, Wah Yun; Ghorbani, Behzad; Merghati Khoei, Effat
Background Perception of Masculinity plays an important role in men’s lifestyles and health behaviors. Although, the importance of masculinity has been widely discussed in men’s health literature, very little is known about the meanings of masculinity in the Malaysian setting. This research aimed to explore the meanings of masculinity among Malaysian university men. Methods This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 34 young Malaysian university men, aged 20–30 years from three ...
Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, K; Nielsen, Torben Leo;
and 600 men aged 60-74 years randomly recruited from the background population. MEASUREMENTS: Sex hormones and SHBG were measured, and reference intervals were determined in healthy individuals in both groups and in elderly men stratified according to whether they were obese or lean (waist......), respectively, in both young and elderly men. CONCLUSION: Reference intervals for TT were comparable in healthy young and elderly men, but reference intervals for FT and BT were lower in elderly men due to higher levels of SHBG. Androgens and SHBG were lower in elderly men with chronic disease and inversely...
This essay chooses as its texts three films representing contemporary gay male subjects from each of the "three" China's: HK, Taiwan, and the Mainland. Relocating the homoerotic image of the "sad young man," a trope popular from Hollywood rebellion films of the 1950s and 1960s, to contemporary China, I discuss how this masculine icon has been transformed from one of heroic rebellion to one of existential isolation. Indeed, as the politics of both the outmoded Confucian family and fractured Chinese nationhood intersect, what the sad young (gay) man rebels against is a political fluctuation which is no longer fixed; as the young man's opposition is no longer fixed, so too does he become alienated even from his own rebellious cause.
Kranich, Selma K; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria;
.17 over the three different sample collections. Of the 33 men, 2 men had HIs above 1 in one of their three samples, indicating that occasionally the combined exposure to the investigated phthalates reached a level that may not be considered safe. Besides the phthalates investigated here, humans......Because of wide exposure to phthalates, we investigated whether simultaneous exposure to several phthalates reached levels that might cause adverse antiandrogenic effects. Thirty three healthy young Danish men each delivered three 24-h urine samples during a three months period. The daily intakes...... are exposed to numerous other chemicals that also may contribute to a cumulative antiandrogenic exposure....
Foster, Michael L.; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory; Kegeles, Susan M.
Young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for 48% of 13–29 year old HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men’s lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18–30 year old YBMSM in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in YBMSM’s lives, which is central in the lives of many African American...
Herd, S L; Lawrence, J E; Malkova, D; Murphy, M H; Mastana, S; Hardman, A E
This study compared the postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) response to a high-fat meal in trained and untrained normolipidemic young adults after 2 days' abstinence from exercise. Fifty-three subjects (11 endurance-trained men, 9 endurance-trained women, 10 sprint/strength-trained men, 11 untrained men, 11 untrained women) consumed a meal (1.2 g fat, 1.1 g carbohydrate, 66 kJ per kg body mass) after a 12-h fast. Venous blood samples were obtained in the fasted state and at intervals until 6 h. Postprandial responses were the areas under the plasma or serum concentration-vs.-time curves. Neither fasting TAG concentrations nor the postprandial TAG response differed between trained and untrained subjects. The insulinemic response was 29% lower in endurance-trained men than in untrained men [mean difference -37.4 (95% confidence interval -62.9 to -22.9) microIU/ml x h, P = 0.01]. Responses of plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma nonesterified fatty acids were all lower for endurance-trained men than for untrained men. These findings suggest that, in young adults, no effect of training on postprandial lipemia can be detected after 60 h without exercise. The effect on postprandial insulinemia may persist for longer.
Hidalgo, Marco A; Kuhns, Lisa M; Kwon, Soyang; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert
Young men who have sex with men (MSM) are a risk group highly vulnerable to HIV infection and psychiatric symptoms are direct predictors of sexual risk behavior in MSM. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with psychiatric symptomology in adolescence, and MSM are disproportionately impacted by CSA compared to heterosexuals. Some evidence suggests that childhood gender nonconformity, a natural variation of human gender expression, is more common in MSM than heterosexual males and places MSM at greater risk for CSA. This study examined whether or not childhood gender expression moderated the association between incidents of unwanted, early sexual experiences occurring before age 13 (ESE) and current psychiatric symptomology in a community-based sample of 449 young MSM aged 16-20. Analyses revealed significant bivariate associations between ESE and psychological symptoms, and significant multivariable associations between ESE, gender nonconformity and psychiatric outcomes. Young MSM with childhood gender nonconformity may be disproportionately victimized by CSA thereby increasing their likelihood of developing psychiatric symptoms in adolescence. Early intervention addressing these factors may help reduce lifetime negative sequelae.
reported protected sex with their partners at risk for infection. Future studies should focus on understanding barriers to disclosure and factors driving risk behavior amongst MSM in Thailand.
WHITESIDE, Y. Omar; SONG, Ruiguang; WERTHEIM, Joel O.; OSTER, Alexandra M.
Objective To understand the spread of HIV among and between age and racial/ethnic groups of men who engage in male-to-male sexual contact (men who have sex with men, MSM) in the United States. Design Analysis of HIV-1 pol sequences for MSM collected through the U.S. National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS) during 2001–2012. Methods Pairwise genetic distance was calculated to determine potential transmission partners (those with very closely related nucleotide sequences, i.e., distance ≤1.5%). We described race/ethnicity and age of potential transmission partners of MSM. Results Of 23,048 MSM with HIV sequences submitted to NHSS during 2000–2012, we identified potential transmission partners for 8,880 (39%). Most potential transmission partners were of the same race/ethnicity (78% for blacks/African Americans, 64% for whites, and 49% for Hispanics/Latinos). This assortative mixing was even more pronounced in the youngest age groups. Significantly fewer young black/African American and Hispanic/Latino MSM had older potential transmission partners compared with young white MSM. Conclusion Black/African American MSM, who are more profoundly affected by HIV, were more likely to have potential HIV transmission partners who were of the same race/ethnicity and similar in age, suggesting that disparities in HIV infections are in large part not due to age-disassortative relationships. Concerted efforts to increase access to pre-exposure prophylaxis, quality HIV care, and effective treatment are needed to interrupt transmission chains among young, black/African American MSM. PMID:26558547
Young Children Living in Risky Circumstances. Addressing the Needs of At Risk Students during the Early Learning Years. Technical Team Report. Submitted to the Commission for Students At Risk of School Failure.
Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.
This report addresses the conditions of at-risk children and builds a case for changing the odds so that they favor such children. The introduction summarizes nearly a decade of education reform efforts related to disadvantaged youth. It underscores the need to intervene early. Four subsequent sections: (1) describe the developmental…
Doonan, Robert J; Mutter, Andrew; Egiziano, Giordano; Gomez, Yessica-Haydee; Daskalopoulou, Stella S
There is controversy as to whether there are sex differences in arterial stiffness. Acute physical stress can elicit vascular abnormalities not present at rest. Our objective was to assess sex differences in arterial stiffness at rest and in response to acute physical stress. Healthy young men (n=67) and women (n=55) underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest and 2, 5, 10 and 15 min following an exercise test to exhaustion. At rest, aortic systolic, diastolic, pulse and mean pressures were all significantly higher in men as was aortic pulse pressure at 10 and 15 min post exercise and aortic systolic pressure at 15 min. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was significantly higher in men (6.0±0.7 m s(-1) vs. 5.6±0.6 m s(-1), P=0.03) at rest and at all time points post exercise. Heart rate-adjusted augmentation index was significantly lower (-10.7±10.2% vs. -4.0±10.9, Psex differences in the arterial stiffness response to acute physical stress in young men and women. Although we were not able to elicit differences in vascular function after adjustment, which were not present at rest, we found that young men and women exhibit differences in arterial stiffness at rest and after acute physical stress.
Nilson, J; Schachter, C; Mulder, K; Hahn, M; Steele, M; Hilliard, P; Jarock, C
The Canadian Physiotherapists in Hemophilia Care (CPHC) sought to learn about attitudes and behaviours of young male adults with mild haemophilia towards their condition and care. Semi-structured in-person or telephone interviews were conducted with 18 young men from and across Canada. This report summarizes the participants' attitudes towards their haemophilia, previous injuries, perceived barriers to seeking treatment, as well as their decision-making process when self-assessing injury. The interviews demonstrated that communication between the young adults and the health care team was not optimal, with common reference to the ineffectiveness of lecture style education. Gaps in knowledge also emerged regarding bleed identification and management.
Kirkland, David E.
The default image to which many ELA standards adhere lacks the complexity and sensitivity to account for the diverse range of students that occupy ELA classrooms. For young Black men, such standards poise a unique threat as they fail to reflect the social and cultural dimensions that factor into Black male literacy practices. In so doing, Kirkland…
This article, based on an ethnographic study of an urban General Education Development (GED) program, suggests that for some marginalized young men of color, Adult education programs are counter-spaces of spatial justice in opposition to previous negative school spaces. Framed by critical race theory (CRT) and drawing on critical geography and…
Buston, Katie; Wight, Daniel
This paper focuses on young men's views on the school sex education they have received, the influence of this sex education on their intended or actual behaviour, and the extent to which other sources of information complement or supplement school sex education. Thirty-five in-depth interviews and eight group discussions were conducted with male…
The impact of the criminal justice system on Black male adults in the 20-to-29 year age group was examined. End results of the large-scale involvement of young Black men in the criminal justice system are considered, and the implications for crime control are discussed. Using data from Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Bureau of the Census…
Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Nielsen, T L; Brixen, K;
The prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age. The diagnosis of sarcopenia relies in part on normative data on muscle mass, but these data are lacking. This study provides population-based reference data on muscle mass in young men, and these results may be used clinically for the diagnosis of ...
Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven
Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…
Grogan, Sarah; Hartley, Louise; Conner, Mark; Fry, Gary; Gough, Brendan
Aim: This study was designed to investigate the link between appearance concerns and smoking in young men and women. Methods: A total of 244, 17-34-year-olds completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Sub-Scales (MBSRQ-AS). Findings: Smokers scored significantly lower than non-smokers on appearance evaluation and…
Dumas, Michael J.
In this article, the author argues that the Obama Administration's My Brother's Keeper (MBK) initiative serves as an exemplar of neoliberal governmentality, in which Black young men and boys are constructed as essentially damaged, as problems in need of a technocratic public--private solution. More than simply an ideological imposition from above…
Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between basic somatic features (body mass and height and body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men exposed to thermal stress in a dry sauna.
Hornsveld, R.H.; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Muris, P.; Zwets, A.J.; Kanters, T.
The effects of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) were explored in a group of Dutch violent young men aged 16 to 21 years, who were obliged by the court to follow a treatment program in a forensic psychiatric outpatient clinic. To evaluate the training, patients completed a set of self-report que
Kehler, Michael D.
Drawing on a larger ethnographic study of four high school young men, this paper foregrounds high school male-male friendships as a context for examining how heterosexism and homophobia operate to limit and delimit the ways masculinities are constructed. I begin this article by first highlighting an inconsistency between recent school initiatives…
Across the analysis of interview fragments from two young men with hearing disabilities who attended secondary schools in Australia, this paper will demonstrate that masculinity in the schoolyard frequently emerges within and as a collective form of violence and malevolence against the disabled body. Yet while certain individuals or groups may…
MInguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime
and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination...
Hvid, Lars G; Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of 4days of disuse (knee brace) on contractile function of isolated vastus lateralis fibers (n=486) from 11 young (24.3±0.9yrs) and 11 old (67.2±1.0yrs) healthy men having comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to disuse single fiber ...
Deo, Shekhar H; Holwerda, Seth W; Keller, David M; Fadel, Paul J
Several studies have demonstrated that blacks exhibit elevations in systemic oxidative stress. However, the source(s) and mechanism(s) contributing to the elevation in oxidative stress remain unclear. Given that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be a major source of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide production, we tested the hypothesis that young black men demonstrate greater superoxide production and NADPH oxidase expression in PBMCs compared with whites. PBMCs were freshly isolated from whole blood in young normotensive black (n = 18) and white (n = 16) men. Intracellular superoxide production in PBMCs was measured using dihydroethidium fluorescence, protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, gp91(phox) (membranous) and p47(phox) (cytosolic) in PBMCs were assessed using Western blot analysis, and plasma protein carbonyls were measured as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. Black men showed elevated intracellular superoxide production (4.3 ± 0.5 vs. 2.0 ± 0.6 relative fluorescence units; black men vs. white men, P superoxide production or NADPH oxidase subunit protein expression. These findings indicate that black men exhibit greater resting PBMC-derived superoxide production and an upregulation of the NADPH oxidase pathway with a possible contribution to increases in systemic oxidative stress.
Kubicek, Katrina; McDavitt, Bryce; Carpineto, Julie; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.
Research investigating the role of religion in the lives of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is limited. Given the unique developmental stage of emerging adults and the fact that most religions have restrictions on homosexual behavior, it is important to understand how YMSM integrate their sexual and religious/spiritual identities. Drawing…
Mustanski, Brian; Lyons, Tom; Garcia, Steve C
Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experience sexual health disparities due to a lack of support in settings that traditionally promote positive youth development. The Internet may help to fill this void, but little is known about how it is used for sexual health purposes among young MSM. This mixed-methods study reports quantitative results of a large survey of 18- to 24-year-old MSM in an HIV testing clinic (N = 329) as well as qualitative results from interviews. Level of Internet use was high in this sample and the majority of participants reported using the Internet to find HIV/AIDS information. Black and Latino youth used the Internet less frequently than White youth, and after controlling for age, education, and frequency of Internet use, Black youth were 70% less likely to use the Internet to find HIV/AIDS information. Qualitative analyses identified themes related to the role of the Internet in finding sexual health information, sexual minority identity development, and sexual risk taking behaviors. Participants reported that the Internet filled an important and unmet need for sexual health education. It allowed for connections to the gay community and support during the coming out process, but also exposure to homophobic messages. There was no evidence of increased risk behaviors with partners met online, but at the same time the potential for the use of the Internet to facilitate safer sex communication was largely untapped. Our findings generally present an optimistic picture about the role of the Internet in the development of sexual health among young MSM.
Kuhlmann, Sabrina; Piel, Marcel; Wolf, Oliver T
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to modulate memory in animals and humans. One popular model suggests that stress or GC treatment enhances memory consolidation while impairing delayed memory retrieval. Studies in humans have documented that treatment with GCs impairs delayed memory retrieval. Similar alterations after exposure to stress have not been observed thus far. In the present study, 19 young healthy male subjects were exposed to either a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control condition in a crossover manner. After both treatments, retrieval of a word list (learned 24 h earlier) containing 10 neutral, 10 negative, and 10 positive words was tested. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol and a decrease in mood. Memory retrieval (free recall) was significantly impaired after the stress condition. Follow-up analysis revealed that negative and positive words (i.e., emotionally arousing words) were affected, whereas no effect was observed for neutral words. No changes were detected for cued recall, working memory, or attention. The present study thus demonstrates that psychosocial stress impairs memory retrieval in humans and suggests that emotionally arousing material is especially sensitive to this effect.
Keska, Anna; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Czajkowska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna; Mazurek, Krzysztof
Resistance to insulin actions is contributing to many metabolic disturbances. Such factors as age, sex, nutrition, body fat, and physical activity determine body insulin resistance. Present study attempted to asses insulin resistance and its metabolic effects with respect to energy intake in young, lean, and active men. A total of 87 men aged 18-23 participated in the study. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, cortisol, and TSH were determined. Insulin resistance was expressed as Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and calculated using homeostatic model. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide subjects into two groups. Men did not differ in anthropometric parameters, daily physical activity, and plasma TSH and cortisol levels. However, in men with higher HOMA-IR significantly lower daily energy intake was observed concomitantly with higher TG, TC, and HDL-C concentrations in plasma versus their counterparts with lower HOMA-IR. Exclusively in subjects with higher HOMA-IR significant and positive correlation was noted between HOMA-IR and TC and LDL-C. We concluded that despite a normal body weight and physical activity, a subset of young men displayed unfavorable changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, probably due to insufficient energy intake.
Full Text Available Resistance to insulin actions is contributing to many metabolic disturbances. Such factors as age, sex, nutrition, body fat, and physical activity determine body insulin resistance. Present study attempted to asses insulin resistance and its metabolic effects with respect to energy intake in young, lean, and active men. A total of 87 men aged 18–23 participated in the study. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, cortisol, and TSH were determined. Insulin resistance was expressed as Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR and calculated using homeostatic model. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344 was used to divide subjects into two groups. Men did not differ in anthropometric parameters, daily physical activity, and plasma TSH and cortisol levels. However, in men with higher HOMA-IR significantly lower daily energy intake was observed concomitantly with higher TG, TC, and HDL-C concentrations in plasma versus their counterparts with lower HOMA-IR. Exclusively in subjects with higher HOMA-IR significant and positive correlation was noted between HOMA-IR and TC and LDL-C. We concluded that despite a normal body weight and physical activity, a subset of young men displayed unfavorable changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, probably due to insufficient energy intake.
Carpineto, Julie; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face myriad challenges when deciding to disclose their sexual orientation to family members. Key to this decision is consideration of how disclosure may influence the support they receive from family. This paper explores a diverse sample of YMSM's (N = 43) perspectives on disclosure of their same-sex attractions to key family members and its impact on family support. Several stages/categories of disclosure are described and some YMSM seemed to continue to move between categories. Additionally, relationships after disclosure included negotiations between the expression of their sexual orientation and the maintenance of family support.
Vaara, J P; Vasankari, T; Fogelholm, M; Häkkinen, K; Santtila, M; Kyröläinen, H
The aim was to study associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with inflammatory biomarkers independent of cardiorespiratory fitness in those with and without abdominal obesity. 686 young healthy men participated (25±5 years). Maximal strength was measured via isometric testing using dynamo-meters to determine maximal strength index. Muscular endurance index consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect cycle ergometer test until exhaustion was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). Participants were stratified according to those with (>102 cm) and those without abdominal obesity (obesity (β=-0.08, -0.14, respectively) (pobesity (β=-0.11, -0.26, respectively) (p<0.05). This cross-sectional study demonstrated that muscular fitness is inversely associated with C-reactive protein and IL-6 concentrations in young adult men independent of cardiorespi-ratory fitness.
Dungey, Claire Elisabeth; Meinert, Lotte
This chapter explores various perspectives on the shifting notion of adulthood in Uganda. Invoking Paul Willis’ book ‘Learning to Labour (2000 ) concerning working class lads in Great Britain, we explore the implicit curriculum of how young men in Uganda learn to habituate the practice...... of waiting which is both characterised by creativity and passivity. Based on fieldwork in Kisoro and Tororo, we argue that young men learn to habituate the practice of waiting through schooling which leads them toward a kind of educated, docile but often frustrated and unstable adulthood. A growing body...... of literature around the globe has focused on how youth feel trapped in endless liminality without being able to achieve the assumed permanence of adulthood. However, male adulthood in rural Uganda is far from stable, as the position can easily be lost or gained. Adult status depends on several dimensions...
Lifshay, Julie; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; King, Rachel; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Katuntu, David; Batamwita, Richard; Ezati, Enoch; Coutinho, Alex; Kazibwe, Cissy; Bunnell, Rebecca
Prevention with positives (PWP) is a fundamental component of HIV prevention in industrialized countries. Despite the estimated 22.4 million HIV-infected adults in Africa (UNAIDS, 2006), culturally appropriate PWP guidelines have not been developed for this region. In order to inform these guidelines, we conducted 37 interviews (17 women, 20 men, no couples) from October 2003 to May 2004 with purposefully selected HIV-infected individuals in care in Uganda. Participants reported increased condom use and reduced intercourse frequency and numbers of partners after testing HIV-positive. Motivations for behavior change included concerns for personal health and the health of others, and decreased libido. Gender-power inequities (sometimes manifesting in forced sex), pain experienced by women while using condoms, decreased pleasure for men while using condoms, lack of social support, and desire for children appear to have resulted in increased risk for uninfected partners. Interventions addressing domestic violence, partner negotiation, use of lubricants and alternative sexual activities could increase condom use and/or decrease sexual activity and/or numbers of partners, thereby reducing HIV transmission risk.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms leading to muscle hypertrophy in humans by studying local muscle molecular and systemic hormonal responses to a single bout of heavy resistance exercise (RE) and to long-term resistance training (RT) with or without protein supplementation in a randomized controlled double-blinded design. In line with earlier studies, heavy RT for 21 weeks led to muscle hypertrophy and an increase in muscle strength in both young and older men. Wh...
Bovenkerk, F.; Fokkema, T.
High crime rates among second-generation immigrants are usually attributed to the ethnic group’s weak socioeconomic position in the host society. The causes of crime can, however, also be sought in their native countries or regions. Owing to a lack of empirical data, this has rarely been tested. The Netherlands is an exception: small-scale ethnographic case studies among young Moroccan men in Dutch cities suggest that their regional background and culture, particularly if they are from the le...
Dalton, Brian H; Harwood, Brad; Davidson, Andrew W; Rice, Charles L
Mean maximal motor unit firing rates (MUFRs) of the human soleus are lower (5-20 Hz) than other limb muscles (20-50 Hz) during brief sustained contractions. With healthy adult aging, maximal MUFRs are 20-40% lower and twitch contractile speed of lower limb muscles are 10-40% slower compared with young adults. However, it is unknown whether the inherently low maximal MUFRs for the soleus are further reduced with aging in association with age-related slowing in contractile properties. The purpose of the present study was to compare the changes in triceps surae contractile properties and MUFRs of the soleus throughout a variety of contraction intensities in six old ( approximately 75 yr old) and six young ( approximately 24 yr old) men. Neuromuscular measures were collected from the soleus and triceps surae during repeated sessions (2-6 sessions). Populations of single MUFR trains were recorded from the soleus with tungsten microelectrodes during separate sustained 6- to 10-s isometric contractions of varying intensities [25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC)]. The old men had weaker triceps surae strength (MVC; 35% lower) and slower contractile properties (contraction duration; 20% longer) than the young men. However, there was no difference in average MUFRs of the soleus at 75% and 100% MVC ( approximately 14.5 Hz and approximately 16.5 Hz, respectively). At 25% and 50% MVC, average rates were 10% and 20% lower in the old men compared with young, respectively. Despite a significant slowing in triceps surae contraction duration, there was no age-related change in MUFRs recorded at high contractile intensities in the soleus. Thus the relationship between the whole muscle contractile properties and MUFRs found in other muscle groups may not exist between the triceps surae and soleus and may be muscle dependent.
Skuja, Kathy; Halford, W. Kim
Within a social learning model, family-of-origin violence places men at risk for developing negative communication in their adult relationships. Thirty young men exposed to family-of-origin violence (exposed group) and 30 unexposed young men were videotaped discussing a conflict topic with their female dating partners. Relative to the unexposed…
Brown, Eleanor; Mwangi-Powell, Faith; Jerotich, Miriam; le May, Victoria
The Girl Summit held in 2014 aimed to mobilise greater effort to end Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) within a generation, building on a global movement which viewed the practice as a severe form of violence against women and girls and a violation of their rights. The UN, among others, endorse "comprehensive" strategies to end FGM, including legalistic measures, social protection and social communications. FGM is a sensitive issue and difficult to research, and rapid ethnographic methods can use existing relations of trust within social networks to explore attitudes towards predominant social norms which posit FGM as a social necessity. This study used Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation Research (PEER) to understand young men's (18-25 years) perceptions of FGM, demand for FGM among future spouses, and perceptions of efforts to end FGM in a small town in West Pokot, Kenya, where FGM is reported to be high (between 85% to 96%). Twelve PEER researchers were recruited, who conducted two interviews with their friends, generating a total of 72 narrative interviews. The majority of young men who viewed themselves as having a "modern" outlook and with aspirations to marry "educated" women were more likely not to support FGM. Our findings show that young men viewed themselves as valuable allies in ending FGM, but that voicing their opposition to the practice was often difficult. More efforts are needed by multi-stakeholders - campaigners, government and local leaders - to create an enabling environment to voice that opposition.
Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J; Maurer, David G; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N
Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during nonfatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men.
Söylemez, H; Atar, M; Sancaktutar, A A; Penbegül, N; Bozkurt, Y; Onem, K
The aim of this study was to determine the average penile length of a group of healthy, young Turkish men, and to investigate the relationship between penile length and somatometric parameters in the same group. The flaccid and stretched length and circumference of the penis was measured in a group of 2276 physically normal, young men. The correlation between penile length and weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of the participants was determined by Pearson's analysis. The mean age of the participants was 21.1 ± 3.1 (18-39) years. The mean flaccid, fully stretched and circumferential length of the participants' penises were 8.95 ± 1.04, 13.98 ± 1.58 and 8.89 ± 0.86 cm, respectively. There was a significant relationship between all of these variables (Psizes and to make convenient decisions in the counseling and/or treatment of people with short penis concerns. Our study provides mean penile lengths in a large sample of healthy, young Turkish men, and the penile dimensions were found to be weakly correlated with somatometric parameters.
Fefelova, V V; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Fefelova, Yu A
Serum lipid profiles of 76 men of young age (17-21years) were investigated using thin layer chromatography and determination of somatotypes was realized using the scheme of V.P. Chtetsov et al. (1978). The investigation was conducted on an empty stomach and after one hour after food loads (test meal with energy value of 419 kcal, content of proteins - 17,9 g, fats - 11,9 g, carbohydrates - 60,1 g). Regularities inherent to certain somatotypes were revealed. In young men with the abdominal somatotype (with the most pronounced fat component), changes evidencing membranes rigidity growth were revealed: cholesterol esterification processes inhibition and increase of sphingomyelin after meal (p = 0.001). In young men with muscular somatotype the highest level of phosphatidylcholine and the lowest level of easily-oxidized phospholipid fractions in comparison to other somatotypes [thoracic (p = 0.044), abdominal (p = 0.037) and undetermined (p = 0.021)] were registered. General rule is lowering of the free fatty acids levels after meal in comparison with the indices on the empty stomach for all somatotypes: thoracic (p = 0.0001), muscular (p = 0.012), abdominal (p = 0.041) and undetermined (p = 000018). Definiteness of the effect of lowering of free fatty acids levels after meal for all somatotypes could evidence the importance Of this process for maintaining the homeostatic body constants.
O'Donnell, Lydia; Agronick, Gail; San Doval, Alexi; Duran, Richard; Myint-U, Athi; Stueve, Ann
Culturally relevant prevention programs are required to reduce HIV risk exposure of Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM). As part of Hermanos Jóvenes, 465 Latino YMSM were surveyed at community venues of New York City outside the gay-identified area of lower Manhattan. We examined factors that influence ethnic and gay community attachments; the association between community attachments and social support in sexual matters; and the relationship between levels of attachment, social support in sexual matters, and sexual risk behaviors. Sixty-eight percent felt closely connected to their ethnic community; about 34% were highly attached to both neighborhood and New York City gay communities. Greater social support in sexual matters was associated with ethnic and gay community attachments. Latino YMSM connected to their ethnic community were about 40% less likely to report recent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a male partner, and 60% less likely to have engaged in UAI during the last sexual contact with a nonmain male partner. Gay community attachment was not significantly related to risk behaviors. Findings point to the importance of ethnic ties and involving ethnic community organizations in HIV prevention efforts.
Thoma, Brian C; Huebner, David M
Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among heterosexual adolescents, but it is unknown if these findings generalize to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Sexual orientation-specific stressors, including "coming out" to parents, complicate the family context of YMSM. We examined associations between parental monitoring, communication about sex, outness to cohabitating parents, and sexual behaviors. Ethnically diverse YMSM ages 14-19 provided cross-sectional data (n = 257). Monitoring and outness to parents interacted to predict recent same-sex unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). For YMSM who reported mixed or uncertain outness to parents, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with greater risk of UAI. Higher levels of communication about sex were associated with greater risk of UAI for YMSM out to parents. Parental monitoring and communication about sex might not protect YMSM against sexual risk in the same way they protect heterosexual youth. Future research should examine whether adapted forms of family factors could protect YMSM, and family-based HIV risk-reduction interventions for YMSM should be attuned to the unique ways family factors function within this group.
Li, Michael Jonathan; Distefano, Anthony; Mouttapa, Michele; Gill, Jasmeet K
The present study aimed to determine whether the experience of bias-motivated bullying was associated with behaviors known to increase the risk of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) aged 18-29, and to assess whether the psychosocial problems moderated this relationship. Using an Internet-based direct marketing approach in sampling, we recruited 545 YMSM residing in the USA to complete an online questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses tested three regression models where we controlled for sociodemographics. The first model indicated that bullying during high school was associated with unprotected receptive anal intercourse within the past 12 months, while the second model indicated that bullying after high school was associated with engaging in anal intercourse while under the influence of drugs or alcohol in the past 12 months. In the final regression model, our composite measure of HIV risk behavior was found to be associated with lifetime verbal harassment. None of the psychosocial problems measured in this study - depression, low self-esteem, and internalized homonegativity - moderated any of the associations between bias-motivated bullying victimization and HIV risk behaviors in our regression models. Still, these findings provide novel evidence that bullying prevention programs in schools and communities should be included in comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention among YMSM.
Anema, Aranka; Marshall, Brandon D.L.; Stevenson, Benjamin; Gurm, Jasmine; Montaner, Gabriela; Small, Will; Roth, Eric A.; Lima, Viviane D.; Montaner, Julio S.G.; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S.
An emerging body of evidence suggests that intergenerational sexual partnerships may increase risk of HIV acquisition among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). However, no studies have comprehensively evaluated literature in this area. We applied a scoping review methodology to explore the relationships between age mixing, HIV risk behavior, and HIV seroconversion among YMSM. This study identified several individual, micro-, and meso-system factors influencing HIV risk among YMSM in the context of intergenerational relationships: childhood maltreatment, coming of age and sexual identity, and substance use (individual-level factors); family and social support, partner characteristics, intimate partner violence, connectedness to gay community (micro-system factors); and race/ethnicity, economic disparity, and use of the Internet (meso-system factors). These thematic groups can be used to frame future research on the role of age-discrepant relationships on HIV risk among YMSM, and to enhance public health HIV education and prevention strategies targeting this vulnerable population. PMID:24272070
Rasberry, Catherine N; Morris, Elana; Lesesne, Catherine A; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Topete, Pablo; Carver, Lisa H; Robin, Leah
Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. This study informs school-centered strategies for connecting YMSM to health services by describing their willingness, perceived safety, and experiences in talking to school staff about sexual health. Cross-sectional data were collected from Black and Latino YMSM aged 13-19 through web-based questionnaires (N = 415) and interviews (N = 32). School nurses were the staff members youth most often reported willingness to talk to about HIV testing (37.8%), STD testing (37.1%), or condoms (37.3%), but least often reported as safe to talk to about attraction to other guys (11.4%). Interviews revealed youth reluctance to talk with school staff including nurses when uncertain of staff members' perceptions of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) people or perceiving staff to lack knowledge of LGBTQ issues, communities, or resources. Nurses may need additional training to effectively reach Black and Latino YMSM.
Glick, Sara Nelson; Golden, Matthew R
Few data exist on the early sexual behavior patterns of contemporary young men who have sex with men (YMSM), the social context of these patterns, and which of these factors influence risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We enrolled 94 YMSM (age 16-30) into a 1-year cohort study with serial online retrospective surveys and HIV/STI testing. The first three partnerships of YMSM were characterized by relatively high rates of unprotected anal sex and a rapidly expanding sexual repertoire, but also increasing rates of HIV status disclosure. During follow-up, 17 % of YMSM reported any nonconcordant unprotected anal intercourse (NCUAI) and 15 % were newly diagnosed with HIV/STI. Sex education in high school and current maternal support were protective against HIV/STI, while isolation from family and friends was associated with recent NCUAI. Social support-including from parents, peers, and school-based sex education-may help mitigate HIV/STI risk in this population.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in a large, representative sample of young Swiss men and to assess factors associated with this disorder. METHODS: Our sample consisted of 5656 Swiss men (mean age 20 years who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF. ADHD was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between ADHD and several socio-demographic, clinical and familial factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of ADHD was 4.0%, being higher in older and French-speaking conscripts. A higher prevalence also was identified among men whose mothers had completed primary or high school/university and those with a family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems. Additionally, adults with ADHD demonstrated impairment in their professional life, as well as considerable mental health impairment. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that ADHD is common among young Swiss men. The impairments in function and mental health we observed highlight the need for further support and interventions to reduce burden in affected individuals. Interventions that incorporate the whole family also seem crucial.
Derefinko, Karen J; Peters, Jessica R; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Walsh, Erin C; Adams, Zachary W; Lynam, Donald R
The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits (negative urgency, sensation seeking, and positive urgency), behavioral measures of risk taking and reward seeking, and physiological reactivity related to three different risky sexual behaviors in sexually active undergraduate men (N = 135). Regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking and behavioral risk-taking predicted unique variance in number of sexual partners. These findings suggest that, for young men, acquisition of new partners is associated with need for excitement and reward and willingness to take risks to meet those needs. Sensation seeking, behavioral risk-taking, and skin conductance reactivity to arousing stimuli was related to ever having engaged in sex with a stranger, indicating that, for men, willingness to have sex with a stranger is related not only to the need for excitement and risk-taking but also with innate responsiveness to arousing environmental triggers. In contrast, regression analyses indicated that young men who were impulsive in the context of negative emotions were less likely to use condoms, suggesting that emotion-based impulsivity may be an important factor in negligent prophylactic use. This study adds to the current understanding of the divergence between the correlates of risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of individualized HIV prevention programming.
Jensen, Tina Kold; Finne, Katrine Folmann; Skakkebæk, Niels E
their fitness for military service from 2008 to 2012. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS: A total of 1068 healthy, young Danish men (mean age 19 years) participated. They were asked to assess whether onset of penile and testicular growth, development of pubic hair and voice break occurred earlier......STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between pubertal onset and subsequent reproductive health in young men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Self-reported later onset of puberty was associated with reduced semen quality and altered serum levels of reproductive hormones among 1068 healthy, young Danish men. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY: The long-term effects of variations in the onset of male puberty on subsequent reproduction remain largely unstudied. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In a cross-sectional study, young healthy Danish men were approached when they attended a compulsory medical examination to determine...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many visitors, including military troops, who enter highland regions from low altitude areas may suffer from acute mountain sickness (AMS, which negatively impacts workable man-hours and increases healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the population level risk factors and build a multivariate model, which might be applicable to reduce the effects of AMS on Chinese young men traveling to this region. Methods Chinese highland military medical records were used to obtain data of young men (n = 3727 who entered the Tibet plateau between the years of 2006-2009. The relationship between AMS and travel profile, demographic characteristics, and health behaviors were evaluated by logistic regression. Univariate logistic models estimated the crude odds ratio. The variables that showed significance in the univariate model were included in a multivariate model to derive adjusted odds ratios and build the final model. Data corresponding to odd and even years (2 subsets were analyzed separately and used in a simple cross-validation. Results Univariate analysis indicated that travel profile, prophylactic use, ethnicity, and province of birth were all associated with AMS in both subsets. In multivariate analysis, young men who traveled from lower altitude (600-800 m vs. 1300-1500 m, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.32-1.44 to higher altitudes (4100-4300 m vs. 2900-3100 m, AOR = 3.94-4.12; 3600-3700 m vs. 2900-3100 m, AOR = 2.71-2.74 by air or rapid land transport for emergency mission deployment (emergency land deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.08-2.11; normal air deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.00-2.20; emergency air deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.40-3.34 during the cold season (cold vs. warm, AOR = 1.25-1.28 are at great risk for developing AMS. Non-Tibetan male soldiers (Tibetan vs. Han, AOR = 0.03-0.08, born and raised in lower provinces (eastern vs. northwestern, AOR = 1
Full Text Available Knowledge regarding the heterogeneity of BMI trajectories is limited for the Canadian population. Using latent class growth modelling, four distinct BMI trajectories of individuals from young adulthood to middle age were identified for both women and men from the longitudinal data of the National Population Health Survey. The associations between BMI trajectories and the individuals’ sociodemographic characteristics and behavioural factors were also examined. Aboriginal women were found more likely to be in the long-term overweight or obese groups. It reveals that increased years of smoking, drinking, and being physically active were associated with lowering the BMI trajectory in all groups for both women and men, with some exceptions in the long-term normal weight group for men. Increased years of rural living, being employed, and living with low income were associated with raising the BMI trajectory in all groups for women and in some groups for men. Food insecurity was associated with raising the BMI trajectory in each group for both women and men.
Limberg, Jacqueline K; Johansson, Rebecca E; Peltonen, Garrett L; Harrell, John W; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Sebranek, Joshua J; Schrage, William G
We tested the hypothesis that women exhibit greater vasodilator responses to β-adrenoceptor stimulation compared with men. We further hypothesized women exhibit a greater contribution of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase to β-adrenergic-mediated vasodilation compared with men. Forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) was measured in young men (n = 29, 26 ± 1 yr) and women (n = 33, 25 ± 1 yr) during intra-arterial infusion of isoproterenol (β-adrenergic agonist). In subset of subjects, isoproterenol responses were examined before and after local inhibition of nitric oxide synthase [N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA); 6 male/10 female] and/or cyclooxygenase (ketorolac; 5 male/5 female). Vascular conductance (blood flow ÷ mean arterial pressure) was calculated to assess vasodilation. Vascular conductance increased with isoproterenol infusion (P 0.99) or women (P = 0.21). In contrast, ketorolac infusion markedly increased isoproterenol-mediated responses in both men (P vasodilation is not different between men and women and sex differences in the independent contribution of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase to β-mediated vasodilation are not present. However, these data are the first to demonstrate β-adrenoceptor activation of cyclooxygenase suppresses nitric oxide synthase signaling in human forearm microcirculation and may have important implications for neurovascular control in both health and disease.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine whether androgen receptor (AR CAG (polyglutamine and GGN (polyglycine polymorphisms influence bone mineral density (BMD, osteocalcin and free serum testosterone concentration in young men. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Whole body, lumbar spine and femoral bone mineral content (BMC and BMD, Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA, AR repeat polymorphisms (PCR, osteocalcin and free testosterone (ELISA were determined in 282 healthy men (28.6+/-7.6 years. Individuals were grouped as CAG short (CAG(S if harboring repeat lengths of 21, and GGN was considered short (GGN(S or long (GGN(L if GGN 23. There was an inverse association between logarithm of CAG and GGN length and Ward's Triangle BMC (r = -0.15 and -0.15, P<0.05, age and height adjusted. No associations between CAG or GGN repeat length and regional BMC or BMD were observed after adjusting for age. Whole body and regional BMC and BMD values were similar in men harboring CAG(S, CAG(L, GGN(S or GGN(L AR repeat polymorphisms. Men harboring the combination CAG(L+GGN(L had 6.3 and 4.4% higher lumbar spine BMC and BMD than men with the haplotype CAG(S+GGN(S (both P<0.05. Femoral neck BMD was 4.8% higher in the CAG(S+GGN(S compared with the CAG(L+GGN(S men (P<0.05. CAG(S, CAG(L, GGN(S, GGN(L men had similar osteocalcin concentration as well as the four CAG-GGN haplotypes studied. CONCLUSION: AR polymorphisms have an influence on BMC and BMD in healthy adult humans, which cannot be explained through effects in osteoblastic activity.
The potential for young men in crisis to be supported by their lay networks is an important issue for suicide prevention, due to the under-utilisation of healthcare services by this population. Central to the provision of lay support is the capability of social networks to recognise and respond effectively to young men\\'s psychological distress and suicide risk. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore young men\\'s narratives of peer suicide, in order to identify how they interpreted and responded to behavioural changes and indications of distress from their friend before suicide. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted during 2009\\/10 with 15 Irish males (aged 19-30 years) who had experienced the death by suicide of a male friend in the preceding 5 years. The data were analysed using a thematic approach. Through the analysis of the participants\\' stories and experiences, we identified several features of young male friendships and social interactions that could be addressed to strengthen the support available to young men in crisis. These included the reluctance of young men to discuss emotional or personal issues within male friendships; the tendency to reveal worries and emotion only within the context of alcohol consumption; the tendency of friends to respond in a dismissive or disapproving way to communication of suicidal thoughts; the difficulty of knowing how to interpret a friend\\'s inconsistent or ambiguous behaviour prior to suicide; and beliefs about the sort of person who takes their own life. Community-based suicide prevention initiatives must enhance the potential of young male social networks to support young men in crisis, through specific provisions for developing openness in communication and responsiveness, and improved education about suicide risk.
ZHUO Qin; SUN Rui; GOU Ling Yan; PIAO Jian Hua; LIU Jian Min; TIAN Yuan; ZHANG Yu Hui; YANG Xiao Guang
Objective Doubly labeled water (DLW) method is the gold standard for measuring total energy expenditure (TEE). We used this method to measure TEE in Chinese young men. Methods Sixteen healthy young men age 23±1 years with body mass index 22.0±1.4 kg/m2 were recruited. TEE was measured by the DLW method, and basal energy expenditure (BEE) was determined by indirect calorimetry. We also conducted 24-h activity, energy balance and factorial approach to estimate energy requirements of the subjects. Results TEE of subjects by DLW method was 9.45±0.57 MJ/day (2258±180 kcal/day). The 24-h activity was 10.80±0.33 MJ/day (2582±136 kcal/day). The energy requirement, derived from energy balance observations, was 9.93±1.32 MJ/day (2373±315 kcal/day). The BEE of 6.65±0.28 MJ/day (1589±67 kcal/day), calculated by the adjusted Schofield equation, was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that measured by indirect calorimetry, 5.99±0.66 MJ/day (1433±158 kcal/day). The TEE derived from the factorial approach was 10.31±0.43 MJ/day (2463±104 kcal/day). Conclusion The TEE of Chinese young men measured by the DLW method was about 10%lower than the current recommended nutrient intake (RNI), suggesting that the RNI for Chinese men maybe overestimated. Further studies are warranted to determine the value of the estimated energy requirement.
Full Text Available Introduction: 5-alpha reductase inhibitors can reduce the risk of prostate cancer but can be associated with significant side effects. A library of nomograms which predict the risk of clinical endpoints relevant to dutasteride treatment may help determine if chemoprevention is suited to the individual patient. Methods: Data from the REDUCE trial was used to identify predictive factors for nine endpoints relevant to dutasteride treatment. Using the treatment and placebo groups from the biopsy cohort, Cox proportional hazards and competing risks regression models were used to build 18 nomograms, whose predictive ability was measured by concordance index and calibration plots. Results: A total of 18 nomograms assessing the risks of cancer, high-grade cancer, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN, atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP, erectile dysfunction (ED, acute urinary retention (AUR, gynecomastia, urinary tract infection (UTI and BPH-related surgery either on or off dutasteride were created. The nomograms for cancer, high grade cancer, ED, AUR, and BPH-related surgery demonstrated good discrimination and calibration while those for gynecomastia, UTI, HGPIN, and ASAP predicted no better than random chance. Conclusions: To aid patients in determining whether the benefits of dutasteride use outweigh the risks, we have developed a comprehensive metagram that can generate individualized risks of 9 outcomes relevant to men considering chemoprevention. Better models based on more predictive markers are needed for some of the endpoints but the current metagram demonstrates potential as a tool for patient counseling and decision making that is accessible, intuitive, and clinically relevant.
Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.
A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…
Nafziger, Dean H.; And Others
Holland's occupational classification was used to analyze the work histories of a national representative sample of young men and women age 14-24. This study extended previous tests of the classification in three ways: (1) It was applied for the first time to a national, representative sample of women, (2) For the sample of men, 3-year…
Kapadia, Farzana; Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Moeller, Robert W.; Figueroa, Rafael Perez; Barton, Staci C.; Blachman-Forshay, Jaclyn
Objectives. We examined associations of individual, psychosocial, and social factors with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among young men who have sex with men in New York City. Methods. Using baseline assessment data from 592 young men who have sex with men participating in an ongoing prospective cohort study, we conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between covariates and likelihood of recently engaging in UAI with same-sex partners. Results. Nineteen percent reported recent UAI with a same-sex partner. In multivariable models, being in a current relationship with another man (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.87), an arrest history (AOR = 2.01), greater residential instability (AOR = 1.75), and unstable housing or homelessness (AOR = 3.10) was associated with recent UAI. Although high levels of gay community affinity and low internalized homophobia were associated with engaging in UAI in bivariate analyses, these associations did not persist in multivariable analyses. Conclusions. Associations of psychosocial and socially produced conditions with UAI among a new generation of young men who have sex with men warrant that HIV prevention programs and policies address structural factors that predispose sexual risk behaviors. PMID:23488487
Klein, C S; Rice, C L; Marsh, G D
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the loss of muscle strength in the elderly could be explained entirely by a decline in the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of muscle. Isometric force, muscle activation (twitch interpolation), and coactivation (surface electromyograph) were measured during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the elbow flexors (EFs) and extensors (EEs) in 20 young (23 +/- 3 yr) and 13 older (81 +/- 6 yr) healthy men. PCSA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging, and normalized force (NF) was calculated as the MVC/PCSA ratio. The PCSA was smaller in the old compared with the young men, more so in the EEs (28%) compared with the EFs (19%) (P MVC (approximately 30%) with age was similar in the two muscle groups. Muscle activation was not different between the groups, but coactivation was greater (5%) (P architecture of the triceps brachii muscle. In conclusion, although the decline in PCSA explained the majority of strength loss in the old men, additional factors such as greater coactivation or reduced specific tension also may have contributed to the age-related loss of isometric strength.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is insufficient evidence available regarding the relationship between level of physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in younger adults. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of measured cardiovascular and musculoskeletal physical fitness level on HRQoL in Finnish young men. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we collected data regarding the physical fitness index, including aerobic endurance and muscle fitness, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA, body composition, health, and HRQoL (RAND 36 for 727 men [mean (SD age 25 (5 years]. Associations between HRQoL and the explanatory parameters were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis model. Results Of the 727 participants who took part in the study, 45% were in the poor category of the physical fitness, while 37% and 18% were in the satisfactory and good fitness categories, respectively. A higher frequency of LTPA was associated with higher fitness (p Conclusions Our study of Finnish young men indicates that higher physical fitness and leisure-time physical activity level promotes certain dimensions of HRQoL, while morbidities impair them all. The results highlight the importance of health related physical fitness while promoting HRQoL.
Kuhns, Lisa M; Kwon, Soyang; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian S
Evidence suggests that respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is an efficient approach to sampling among varied populations of adult men who have sex with men (MSM) both in the USA and abroad, although no studies have yet evaluated its performance among younger MSM, a population with a steep rise in HIV infection in recent years. Young MSM (YMSM) may differ in terms of their connectedness to other YMSM (e.g., due to evolving sexual identity, internalization of sexual minority stigma, and lack of disclosure to others) and mobility (e.g., due to parental monitoring) which may inhibit the sampling process. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of RDS-based sampling among young urban MSM and to identify factors associated with recruitment success. We hypothesized that demographic, social, behavioral, and network factors, including racial/ethnic minority status, homelessness (i.e., as an indicator of socioeconomic marginalization), HIV-positive status, substance use problems, gay community connectedness, and network size would be positively related to recruitment productivity, while sexual minority stigmatization, environmental barriers (e.g., parental monitoring), and meeting sex partners on the internet (i.e., virtual venue) would be negatively related to recruitment productivity. Between December 2009 and February 2013, we used RDS to recruit a sample of 450 YMSM, ages 16-20. Findings suggest that the use of RDS for sampling among YMSM is challenging and may not be feasible based on the slow pace of recruitment and low recruitment productivity. A large number of seeds (38 % of the sample, n = 172) had to be added to the sample to maintain a reasonable pace of recruitment, which makes use of the sample for RDS-based population estimates questionable. In addition, the prevalence of short recruitment chains and segmentation in patterns of recruitment by race/ethnicity further hamper the network recruitment process. Thus, RDS was not
Cook, Stephanie H; Watkins, Daphne C; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A
This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City (n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM's sexual behavior.
Johnson, David; Harrison, Patricia; Sidebottom, Abbey
This study describes a community outreach project designed to increase access to reproductive health services to young African American men living in low-income urban neighborhoods. The project examined the effectiveness of providing community-based outreach and health education on increasing sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening. Outreach workers provided STD education and risk assessment in community settings, including street corners, parks, schools, and community centers. Data were recorded on outreach contacts, including client demographics, health education topics covered, and risk assessment results. Outreach workers conducted 9,701 contacts in a 176-week period. Most contacts (89%) were with African Americans, and most (84%) were with young men between 15 and 20 years old. Outreach workers discussed each health education item in their protocol at least 85% of the time and each risk assessment item at least 90% of the time. The majority of contacts (94%) reported being sexually active. Compared with the year prior to the project, actual STD testing of the target population doubled at the project clinics. This study suggests that going beyond traditional clinic-based testing to reach young, disenfranchised males constitutes a promising approach to reducing racial disparities in STD infections.
Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce
Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends ("gay boy talk"). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we…
Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men.
Tuxen, A.; Bakke, M.; Pinholt, E. M.
The primary aim was to relate information about masseter muscle fibres and function to aspects of facial morphology in a group of healthy young men. The secondary aim was to investigate possible sex differences using data previously obtained from a comparable group of age-matched, healthy women....... Dental status and facial morphology were recorded in 13 male students aged 20-26 years. Functional examinations included bite-force measurements and electromyographic recordings of masseter activity. A biopsy was removed from the masseter of each participant during surgical extraction of a wisdom tooth......, and the tissue examined for myosin ATPase activity. Further, the cross-sectional areas of the different fibre types were measured. In spite of using age-matched healthy men and women with a full complement of teeth, statistically significant sex differences were found among measures related to muscle function...
Eric Julian Manalastas
Full Text Available In this exploratory study, I investigated lived experiences of unrequited love among young Filipino gay men in order to explore unrequited love beyond its heteronormative forms. Analysis of qualitative accounts from 11 out gay men who participated in focus groups indicated that unrequited love was a highly meaningful subjective experience involving a spectrum of negative affect, uncertainty, and self-esteem lowering. Non-reciprocity was often attributed to a lack of matching on dimensions like availability, sexual orientation, relationship goals, and personality. Non-homophobic social support was important in the reduction of uncertainty and management of distress, in addition to other strategies for coping with rejection and non-formation of the desired love relationship.
Full Text Available Evolutionary theories suggest that depression has evolved as an adaptation to insurmountable adversity or defeat. One prediction stemming from these models is that individual attributes associated with defeat in a given social environment could be risk factors for depression. We hypothesized that in young military men, where physical prowess was important, short stature might constitute a risk of depression and that this risk would be specific to depression and not to other prevalent mental disorders such as anxiety. A preliminary analysis of the diagnostic profile of a sample of male military personnel treated for mental health indicates that men both shorter and taller than average by 1 standard deviation may be predisposed to higher rates of depressive but not anxiety disorders. Practical and theoretical implications of our findings are discussed.
Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna H; Skakkebaek, Niels E
/week) and/or caffeine (>800 mg/day) intake was associated with reduced sperm concentration and total sperm count, although only significant for cola. High-intake cola drinkers had an adjusted sperm concentration and total sperm count of 40 mill/mL (95% confidence interval (CI): 32, 51) and 121 mill (95% CI......The authors examined the association between semen quality and caffeine intake among 2,554 young Danish men recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service in 2001-2005. The men delivered a semen sample and answered a questionnaire including information about...... caffeine intake from various sources, from which total caffeine intake was calculated. Moderate caffeine and cola intakes (101-800 mg/day and 14 0.5-L bottles...
Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna H; Skakkebaek, Niels E;
The authors examined the association between semen quality and caffeine intake among 2,554 young Danish men recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service in 2001-2005. The men delivered a semen sample and answered a questionnaire including information about...... caffeine intake from various sources, from which total caffeine intake was calculated. Moderate caffeine and cola intakes (101-800 mg/day and 14 0.5-L bottles....../week) and/or caffeine (>800 mg/day) intake was associated with reduced sperm concentration and total sperm count, although only significant for cola. High-intake cola drinkers had an adjusted sperm concentration and total sperm count of 40 mill/mL (95% confidence interval (CI): 32, 51) and 121 mill (95% CI...
Fleming, Paul J; Andes, Karen L; DiClemente, Ralph J
Young men often define themselves and their masculine identity through romantic and sexual relationships, and their resulting sexual decisions can affect their successful transition into adulthood, as well as STI, HIV and pregnancy rates. This paper looks at how young Paraguayan men's peer groups, family and masculine identity formation influence their behaviours in sexual and romantic relationships. In Asunción, Paraguay, we conducted five focus-group discussions (FGDs) examining neighbourhood norms in 2010, with male peer groups ranging in age from 14 to 19 years. We then interviewed half the members from each peer group to examine their relationships with friends, family and young women and their beliefs about existing gender norms. Young men described two types of masculine norms, 'partner/provider' and macho, and two types of romantic relationships, 'casual' and 'formal'. The language used to describe each spectrum of behaviours was often concordant and highlights the connection between masculine norms and romantic relationships. The perceived norms for the neighbourhood were more macho than the young men's reported behaviours. Norms cannot change unless young men speak out about their non-normative behaviours. This provides evidence for more research on the formation, meaning and transformation of male gender norms.
Schwegler, Kyrill; Ettlin, Dominik; Buser, Iris; Klaghofer, Richard; Goetzmann, Lutz; Buddeberg, Claus; Alon, Eli; Brügger, Mike; de Quervain, Dominique J-F
Remembering painful incidents has important adaptive value but may also contribute to clinical symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain states. Because glucocorticoids are known to impair memory retrieval processes, we investigated whether cortisol affects recall of previously experienced pain in healthy young men. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 male participants were presented pictures, half of them combined with a heat-pain stimulus. The next day, the same pictures were shown in the absence of pain. Cortisol (20 mg) administered 1h before retention testing reduced recall of explicit contextual pain memory, whereas it did not affect pain threshold or pain tolerance.
Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W
OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction among young men who had suffered a head injury during childhood or adolescence, in particular focusing upon the effects of age and the severity of the injury. METHODS: By cross linkage of Danish national registers for hospital.......0, irrespective of age at injury. For cases of two concussions, all odds ratios were > 1.4 but were not significant for all age groupings. CONCLUSIONS: For milder forms of single head injury before age 12 there is no evidence of enduring cognitive dysfunction. The apparent effect at later ages may reflect...
Kristensen, M.; Savorani, F.; Christensen, S.;
flaxseed DF; high-mucilage dose (HM): 3.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF. During the 7 h test day, subjective appetite sensation was assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite-regulating hormones, and lipemia and glycemia were measured, after which ad libitum energy intake was recorded......: Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a doubleblind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source were: control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from...
Sweeney, Lorna; Owens, Christabel; Malone, Kevin
The potential for young men in crisis to be supported by their lay networks is an important issue for suicide prevention, due to the under-utilisation of healthcare services by this population. Central to the provision of lay support is the capability of social networks to recognise and respond effectively to young men's psychological distress and suicide risk. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore young men's narratives of peer suicide, in order to identify how they interpreted and responded to behavioural changes and indications of distress from their friend before suicide. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted during 2009/10 with 15 Irish males (aged 19-30 years) who had experienced the death by suicide of a male friend in the preceding 5 years. The data were analysed using a thematic approach. Through the analysis of the participants' stories and experiences, we identified several features of young male friendships and social interactions that could be addressed to strengthen the support available to young men in crisis. These included the reluctance of young men to discuss emotional or personal issues within male friendships; the tendency to reveal worries and emotion only within the context of alcohol consumption; the tendency of friends to respond in a dismissive or disapproving way to communication of suicidal thoughts; the difficulty of knowing how to interpret a friend's inconsistent or ambiguous behaviour prior to suicide; and beliefs about the sort of person who takes their own life. Community-based suicide prevention initiatives must enhance the potential of young male social networks to support young men in crisis, through specific provisions for developing openness in communication and responsiveness, and improved education about suicide risk.
Van de Schoot, R.; van der Velden, F.; Boom, J.; Brugman, D.
This study aimed to extend the understanding of anti-social behaviour and its association with popularity and sociometric status in a sample of at-risk adolescents from diverse ethnic backgrounds (n ¼ 1491, average age 14.7 years). Both overt and covert types of antisocial behaviour were used to dis
van Waelvelde, Hilde; Oostra, Ann; DeWitte, Griet; van den Broeck, Christine; Jongmans, Marian J.
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of motor problems in a clinically referred sample of children with, or at risk of, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and/or developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: Participants were 49 children (39 males, 10 females; mean age 5y…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between unilateral squat strength and measures of static balance to compare balance performance between the dominant and non-dominant leg. Seventeen apparently healthy men (mean mass 90.5 ± 20.9 kg and age 21.7 ± 1.8 yrs and 25 women (mean mass 62.2 ± 14.5 kg and age 21.9 ± 1.3 yrs completed the study. Weight bearing unilateral strength was measured with a 1RM modified unilateral squat on the dominant and non-dominant leg. The students completed the stork stand and wobble board tests to determine static balance on the dominant and non-dominant leg. Maximum time maintained in the stork stand position, on the ball of the foot with the uninvolved foot against the involved knee with hands on the hips, was recorded. Balance was measured with a 15 second wobble board test. No significant correlations were found between the measurements of unilateral balance and strength (r values ranged between -0.05 to 0.2 for the men and women. Time off balance was not significantly different between the subjects' dominant (men 1.1 ± 0.4 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s and non-dominant (men 0.9 ± 0.3 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s leg for the wobble board. Similar results were found for the time balanced during the stork stand test on the dominant (men 26.4 ± 6.3 s; women 24.1 ± 5.6 s and non-dominant (men 26.0 ± 5.7 s; women 21.3 ± 4.1 s leg. The data indicate that static balance and strength is unrelated in young adult men and women and gains made in one variable after training may not be associated with a change in performance of the other variable. These results also suggest that differences in static balance performance between legs can not be determined by leg dominance. Similar research is needed to compare contralateral leg balance in populations who participate in work or sport activities requiring repetitive asymmetrical use. A better understanding of contralateral balance performance will help
Full Text Available Purpose: to develop criteria of evaluation of indicators and components of physical quality of speed. Material & Methods: young men, who specialize in rowing, that differ on age and sports qualification, were examined. Sensomotory reactions to sound and light irritants were investigated, and rate, time and speed of one movement, frequency of movements were defined by the developed by us technique of measurement of effect of training action. The process of testing models typical conditions of training and competitive activity and estimates performance of task. Results: criteria of the assessment are developed for young men of different age and sports qualification, who go in for rowing on the basis of the conducted complex researches of indicators of physical quality of speed and elements making it (rate, time and speed of one movement, frequency of movements. The offered technique of researches allows studying force and mobility of nervous processes, functional endurance and psychomotor efficiency of sportsmen. Conclusions: the developed criteria of evaluation of physical quality of speed allow finding specific psychophysiological features of organism of the sportsman, which will give the chance to introduce amendments in the improvement of high-speed abilities and to operate the training process effectively.
Heffernan, Kevin S; Fahs, Christopher A; Shinsako, Kevin K; Jae, Sae Young; Fernhall, Bo
The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate recovery (HRR) and linear/nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) before and after resistance training. Fourteen young men (25.0 +/- 1.1 yr of age) completed a crossover design consisting of a 4-wk time-control period, 6 wk of resistance training (3 days/wk), and 4 wk of detraining. Linear HRV was spectrally decomposed using an autoregressive approach. Nonlinear dynamics of heart rate complexity included sample entropy (SampEn) and Lempel-Ziv entropy (LZEn). HRR was calculated from a graded maximal exercise test as maximal heart rate attained during the test minus heart rate at 1 min after exercise (HRR). There was no change in SampEn, LZEn, or HRR after the time-control portion of the study (P > 0.05). SampEn (P 0.05). These findings suggest that resistance exercise training increases heart rate complexity and HRR after exercise but has no effect on spectral measures of HRV in young healthy men. These autonomic changes regress shortly after cessation of training.
Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte; Friedrichsen, Martin;
Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a plasma protein which is elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether RBP4 represents a mechanism underlying the associations between low birth weight (LBW), high-fat diet, and insulin resistance. Forty-six young, lean men with low (n......-ray absorptiometry scan, and plasma RBP4 by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RBP4 was not associated with birth weight, but with BMI (ß = 0.9 µg/ml (0.08; 1.8) (95% confidence interval), P = 0.03) and plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ß = 5.3 µg/ml (1.9; 8.7), P = 0.03) and triglycerides (ß...... with peripheral glucose disposal rate or hepatic insulin resistance index. RBP4 levels were not influenced by overfeeding or related to peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance provoked by the dietary intervention. In conclusion, plasma RBP4 in young men associates with components of the metabolic syndrome...
Lund, Michael Taulo; Dalby, Sina; Hartmann, Bolette
Aim: After both oral and intravenous glucose administration, peripheral insulin concentrations are lower in trained compared with untrained humans. Part of this is explained by an adaptation within the b-cell. The insulin secretion rate is higher after oral compared with intravenous glucose admin...... plasma insulin concentrations found in trained compared with untrained, young, healthy men are most likely explained by lower b-cell sensitivity to glucose and enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in the former group.......Aim: After both oral and intravenous glucose administration, peripheral insulin concentrations are lower in trained compared with untrained humans. Part of this is explained by an adaptation within the b-cell. The insulin secretion rate is higher after oral compared with intravenous glucose...... with untrained humans after oral and intravenous glucose administration. Methods: A 3½-h oral glucose tolerance test was performed in eleven trained and ten untrained, young, healthy men. On a separate day, an isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusion was performed matching the individual glucose concentrations...
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This select bibliography lists books, articles, and reports, almost all of which were published since 1980, on at-risk youth. The following areas are included: (1) general; (2) dropouts; (3) drug and alcohol abusers; (4) youth offenders; (5) teen parents; (6) young children at risk; and (7) unemployed youth. For each item the following information…
Gram, Martin; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Yokota, Takashi
capacity in 17 young (23±1years) and 15 elderly (68±1years) healthy men. We applied high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized fibers from muscle biopsies at inclusion after immobilization and training. Furthermore, protein content of mitochondrial complexes I-V, mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (mt......HSP70) and voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) were measured in skeletal muscle by Western blotting. The elderly men had lower content of complexes I-V and mtHSP70 but similar respiratory capacity and content of VDAC compared to the young. In both groups the respiratory capacity and protein content...... and protein contents of complexes I-V, mtHSP70 and VDAC similarly in the two groups. This suggests that inactivity and training alter mitochondrial biogenesis equally in young and elderly men....
Jones, Kenneth T; Johnson, Wayne D; Wheeler, Darrell P; Gray, Phyllis; Foust, Evelyn; Gaiter, Juarlyn
Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are at considerable risk for HIV infection. A convenience sample of BMSM (n=252) attending nightclubs in three North Carolina cities was surveyed to investigate factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). About 45% reported UAI in the past 2 months. BMSM who strongly agreed that their male friends used condoms for anal sex were significantly less likely to report any UAI. Recently incarcerated men were significantly more likely to report unprotected insertive anal sex. In secondary analyses, men who reported experiencing discrimination based on their race and nongay identified men reported more favorable peer norms for condom use. Men who reported that their family disapproved of their being gay were more likely to have been incarcerated in the past 2 months. HIV prevention for BMSM must promote supportive peer norms for condom use and address incarceration, racial discrimination, and family disapproval.
Van Cauter, E; Plat, L; Scharf, M B; R Leproult; Cespedes, S; L'Hermite-Balériaux, M; Copinschi, G..
The aim of this study was to investigate, in normal young men, whether gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a reliable stimulant of slow-wave (SW) sleep in normal subjects, would simultaneously enhance sleep related growth hormone (GH) secretion. Eight healthy young men participated each in four experiments involving bedtime oral administration of placebo, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 g of GHB. Polygraphic sleep recordings were performed every night, and blood samples were obtained at 15-min intervals from 2000...
Halle, B; Halle, D M; Torfing, T;
We studied the role of acetabulum geometry and head neck ratio in the development of osteoarthritis of the hip in young men. Contrary to previous studies we evaluated the significance of the anterior, posterior and total coverage of the femoral head, the influence of the femoral neck and the cons......We studied the role of acetabulum geometry and head neck ratio in the development of osteoarthritis of the hip in young men. Contrary to previous studies we evaluated the significance of the anterior, posterior and total coverage of the femoral head, the influence of the femoral neck...
Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on the levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 in obese young men. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included sixteen obese young men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2. They were randomly divided between control and exercise groups (n = 8 in each group). The exercise group performed treadmill exercise for 40 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks at the intensi...
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS among young men from different regions when arriving in Tibet, and explore the medical geographic differences of high altitude adaptability of people from different regions. Methods Cluster sampling survey of AMS incidence was performed among the young men from different regions when arriving in high altitude area, by using the AMS symptoms scoring method, and the military standards were employed as reference, for classifying and scoring. For distinguishing the differences of geographic environment, the systematic cluster analysis of natural geographical factors of their native places was performed and verified by nonparametric tests. The one-way ANOVA was used to analyze the differences of AMS symptom scores among young men from different regions. Results The native places of the studied subjects were divided into 5 regions by cluster analysis, and the geographic factors among the 5 regions were found to be significantly different (P<0.01. It was found that there were significant differences in the AMS incidence among people came from different regions (P<0.05. Specifically, the AMS incidence was significantly higher (P<0.05 in people from region 2 than in people from region 3, 4 and 5. In terms of main symptoms of AMS, the incidence of headache in people from region 2 was 82.8%, and it was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from regions 3, 4 and 5; the incidence of nausea and vomiting was 37.9%, and it was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from region 3; the incidence of fatigue and drowsiness was 724.% and 27.6%, and it was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from region 5. The incidence of vertigo in people from region 1 and 3 was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from region 5. Conclusions The significant geographic differences of AMS incidence are found to exist among
Jeffries, William L; Okeke, Janice O; Gelaude, Deborah J; Torrone, Elizabeth A; Gasiorowicz, Mari; Oster, Alexandra M; McCree, Donna Hubbard; Bertolli, Jeanne
Although religion and spirituality can promote healthy behaviours and mental well-being, negative religious experiences may harm sexual minority men's health. Despite increasing vulnerability to HIV infection among young gay and bisexual men, few studies examine how religion and spirituality might affect them. To this end, we interviewed young gay and bisexual men who were diagnosed with HIV infection during January 2006-June 2009. Questionnaires assessed religious service attendance, disclosure of sexuality within religious communities, and beliefs about homosexuality being sinful. A subset described religious and spiritual experiences in qualitative interviews. We calculated the prevalence of religion- and spirituality-related factors and identified themes within qualitative interviews. Among men completing questionnaires, 66% currently attended religious services, 16% believed they could disclose their sexuality at church, and 37% believed homosexuality was sinful. Participants who completed qualitative interviews commonly discussed religious attendance and negative experiences within religious settings. They often expressed their spirituality through prayer, and some used it to cope with adverse experiences. These data suggest that religion and spirituality are notable factors that shape young, HIV-infected gay and bisexual men's social contexts. Programmes and interventions that constructively engage with religious institutions and are sensitive to spiritual beliefs may promote these men's health.
Charles R. Rogers, Ph.D., CHES
Full Text Available Racial disparities in health among African American men in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, African American men have more illnesses and die younger. African American men have colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among African American men, CRC screening is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger African American men’s views of CRC screening. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms, knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult African American men (ages 19-45. Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better, yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high. More negative attitudes towards CRC screening correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive male role norms and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure, work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult African American men's view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors.
Theunissen, Kevin; Hoebe, Christian; Kok, Gerjo; Crutzen, Rik; Kara-Zaïtri, Chakib; de Vries, Nanne; van Bergen, Jan; Hamilton, Robert; van der Sande, Marianne; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole
BACKGROUND: With the aim of targeting high-risk hidden heterosexual young people for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing, an innovative web-based screening strategy using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) and home-based CT testing, was developed, piloted and evaluated. METHODS: Two STI clinic nurses e
Jun-qing WU; Jiang ZHU; Zhan-hai FU; Yin-mei DU; Cui-ling LIANG; Er-sheng GAO; Jian-guo TAO; Qiu-ying YANG; Xiao XU; Wen-juan CAI; Jian GUO; Feng TANG
Objective To explore the correlation between serum heavy metal and semen quality in normal Chinese young menMethods This study was designed as a multi-center cross-sectional investigation. The subjects consisted of 562 male vomunteers who had undergone premarital physical examination in maternal and children health centers in 7 provinces in China.Results Results from Spearman rank correlation analysis (partial variable: region) show that serum lead and cadmium are negatively related to percentage of morphological normal sperm, but canonical correlation between semen quality and serum heavy metal are not significant. Canonical correlation analysis among the subjects from Guizhou shows cadmium is harmful to sperm morphology. In Henan, furthermore, results show lead and cadmium could negatively affect sperm viability and morphology.Conclusion Among all study subjects, canonical correlation between semen quality and serum heavy metal were not significant; however, results in some region showed serum cadmium and lead might be harmful to sperm quality.
Hoedt, Andrea; Christensen, Britt; Nellemann, Birgitte
KEY POINT: Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment may induce myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) expression and prevent apoptosis in satellite cells (SCs) in murine and in vitro models. Endurance training stimulates SC proliferation in vivo in murine and human skeletal muscle. In the present study, we...... show, in human skeletal muscle, that treatment with an Epo-stimulating agent (darbepoetin-α) in vivo increases the content of MyoD(+) SCs in healthy young men. Moreover, we report that Epo receptor mRNA is expressed in adult human SCs, suggesting that Epo may directly target SCs through ligand......-term Epo treatment during disease conditions involving anaemia may impact SCs and warrants further investigation. Satellite cell (SC) proliferation is observed following erythropoitin treatment in vitro in murine myoblasts and endurance training in vivo in human skeletal muscle. The present study aimed...
Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens Juul;
We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...... Intralipid infusion. At LI, glucose oxidation decreased by 10%, whereas glucose disposal, glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were not significantly altered. At HI, glucose disposal, and glucose oxidation decreased by 12% and 24%, respectively, during Intralipid infusion. Glycolytic flux......, glucose storage, and glucose production were unchanged. Insulin secretion rates increased in response to Intralipid infusion, but disposition indices (DI = insulin action.insulin secretion) were unchanged. In conclusion, a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion caused insulin resistance in the oxidative (but...
Kim, Sang Hee; Hwang, Ji Hee; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Eun
Neuroticism and extraversion are two core dimensions of personality and are considered to be associated with emotional disorders. We investigated resting state brain metabolic correlates of neuroticism and extraversion using a positron emission tomography. Twenty healthy young men completed an F-flurodeoxyglucose-PET scan at rest and the Korean version of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Neuroticism was negatively correlated with regional glucose metabolism in prefrontal regions including the medial prefrontal cortex. Extraversion was positively correlated with metabolism in the right putamen. These results suggest close associations between resting state brain activity in the prefrontal and striatal regions and specific personality traits and thus contribute to the understanding of the neurobiological bases of predisposition to psychiatric disorders.
Simonsen, Jane Angel; Rasmussen, Mona S; Vach, Werner
NO (nitric oxide) may be involved in fluid homoeostasis. We hypothesized that increases in NO synthesis contribute to acute, saline-induced natriuresis, which, therefore, should be blunted when NO availability is stabilized. Young men were studied during simultaneous infusions of L-NAME [NG......-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; bolus of 750 μg·kg-1 of body weight and 8.3 μg·min-1·kg-1 of body weight] and SNP (sodium nitroprusside), the latter at a rate preventing L-NAME from increasing total peripheral resistance ('NO-clamping'). Slow volume expansion (saline, 20 μmol of NaCl·min-1·kg-1 of body weight for 3 h...
Ishizaki, Yuko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Tanaka, Hidetaka; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Fujii, Yuri; Hattori-Uchida, Yuko; Nakamura, Minako; Ohkawa, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Hodaka; Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Kaneko, Kazunari
Microgravity due to prolonged bed rest may cause changes in cerebral circulation, which is related to brain function. We evaluate the effect of simulated microgravity due to a 6° head-down tilt bed rest experiment on executive function among 12 healthy young men. Four kinds of psychoneurological tests—the table tapping test, the trail making test, the pointing test and losing at rock-paper-scissors—were performed on the baseline and on day 16 of the experiment. There was no significant difference in the results between the baseline and day 16 on all tests, which indicated that executive function was not impaired by the 16-day 6° head-down tilting bed rest. However, we cannot conclude that microgravity did not affect executive function because of the possible contribution of the following factors: (1) the timing of tests, (2) the learning effect, or (3) changes in psychophysiology that were too small to affect higher brain function.
Barbara E. Gibson PhD, MSc, BMR(PT
Full Text Available In this article we provide a critical reflection on the integrated use of solicited audio diaries, photography, and interviews in a study with disabled young men transitioning to adulthood. In the study, we developed a methodological approach for illuminating the intersectionality of gender, disability, and generation (life stage identities. Drawing from a critical Bourdieusian perspective, we suggest that rather than producing single or “true” accounts, the combination of methods can be used to elucidate how participants establish, maintain, and reform their identities in everyday practices. Furthermore, we discuss how participants' acts of data creation are analyzable events in themselves, wherein participants do work to establish, maintain, and reform their identities. We conclude with some lessons learned and future directions.
Couppé, C; Hansen, P; Kongsgaard, M
Age-related loss in muscle mass and strength impairs daily life function in the elderly. However, it remains unknown whether tendon properties also deteriorate with age. Cross-linking of collagen molecules provides structural integrity to the tendon fibrils and has been shown to change with age...... in animals but has never been examined in humans in vivo. In this study, we examined the mechanical properties and pyridinoline and pentosidine cross-link and collagen concentrations of the patellar tendon in vivo in old (OM) and young men (YM). Seven OM (67 +/- 3 years, 86 +/- 10 kg) and 10 YM (27 +/- 2...... contractions. Percutaneous tendon biopsies were taken and analyzed for hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP), lysyl pyridinoline (LP), pentosidine, and collagen concentrations. We found no significant differences in the dimensions or mechanical properties of the tendon between OM and YM. Collagen concentrations were...
Devlieger, Patrick J; Albrecht, Gary L; Hertz, Miram
During the past two decades, debate about disability definitions, concepts, models and policies has been led primarily by Western white middle class disability activists and scholars. This paper contributes to the discussion by examining how disability is conceived and disability culture is developed in a poor, African-American community. The recognition of disability as a defining identity and disability culture as a cohesive force is unusual in the African-American community, and we ask what conditions are necessary for such an identity and culture to develop. To address this question, in 1998 we began a 5 year ethnographic research project concerning young African-American men in the spinal cord injury unit of an inner city rehabilitation hospital in Chicago USA. Based on this research, we argue that there are three necessary conditions for a disability culture to emerge in a group of African-Americans who acquired their disability violently. First, is the perception of social alienation from family and fellow gang members. Second, is immersion in a supportive physical and social environment where disability meanings are produced, reinforced and passed on across generations. Third, is the development of personal narratives and metaphors that give meaning to disability, anchor behavioral changes and help to reconcile value conflicts. Our analysis allows us to understand a change in identity among these young men and the emergence of a shared disability culture represented through signs, symbols, language, rules and ceremonies. This analytical framework also permits us to re-examine disability culture in white society and in specific disability cultures such as deaf culture and to suggest that while there are similarities across groups, disability culture is not monolithic.
Full Text Available Summary Aim: To identify the etiology of serious visual impairment and legal blindness and to declare the preventive factors among young men who live in the southeast region of Turkey. Material and Method: Between January 2004 and December 2008, records of the patients who admitted to Ophthalmology Department of Diyarbakir Military Hospital were examined respectively. The study includes 2000 young men cases (20 to 30 years whose visual acuity was worse than 0,05 with Snellen chart in at least one eye. Results: Among the patients’eyes of which visual acuity worse than 0,05 with Snellen chart; 11,6 % (232 were bilateral and 43,8 % (876 were only right eye and 44,6 % (892 were only left eye. The distribution of the etiology of the serious visual impairment and blindness was: 1. Trauma 68,4 % (1368, 2. Corneal opacities due to infectious diseases 10 % (200, 3. Congenital cataract 9,4 % (188, 4. Amblyopia due to strabismus and refractive errors 1,2 % (24 ve 5. Genetic eye disorders 10,6 % (212. The classification of the pathologies according to the anatomical segments of the eye was: Anterior segment disorders 53% (1060, posterior segment disorders % 21,2 (424, disintegration of the anatomy of the eye 24,8 % (496 and others 1% (20. Conclusion: It is possible to decrease the rate of prevalence and incidence of visual impairment and blindness both in this region and other parts of our country by creating systematic educational and health programs. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 737-740
Sato, Youichi; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Shinka, Toshikatsu; Nozawa, Shiari; Yoshiike, Miki; Koh, Eitetsue; Kanaya, Jiro; Namiki, Mikio; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Tsujimura, Akira; Komatsu, Kiyoshi; Itoh, Naoki; Eguchi, Jiro; Yamauchi, Aiko; Nakahori, Yutaka
Several case-control studies have investigated whether Y chromosome haplogroups or deletions are associated with spermatogenic failure. However, the relationships between Y chromosome haplogroups or deletions and semen quality in general population have not been elucidated. In this study, we assessed relationships between Y chromosome haplogroups or deletions and semen parameters in 791 fertile Japanese men and 1221 young men from the general Japanese population. We found that the haplogroup D2 (M55 lineage) was significantly associated with lower semen parameters, especially total motile sperm count (P = 0.00051, beta = -0.097), in men from the general population but not in fertile men. In addition, we found that the gr/gr subdeletion was associated with semen quality and in particular, strongly associated with decreased sperm motility (P = 0.00041, beta = -3.14) and total motile sperm count (P = 0.00031, beta = -0.099) in men from the general population but not in fertile men. The combined analysis of fertile Japanese men and men from the general Japanese population showed that the haplogroup D2 (M55 lineage) and the gr/gr subdeletion were strongly associated with reduced sperm motility (P = 0.00056, beta = -2.71, and P = 7.7 × 10(-5), beta = -3.05, respectively) and that haplogroup O2b1 was strongly associated with elevated sperm motility (P = 0.00089, beta = 2.94). These observations add further support for the view that the gr/gr subdeletion diminishes sperm motility that consequently may result in male infertility.
Kubicek, Katrina; Carpineto, Julie; McDavitt, Bryce; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D
The Internet has opened many doors with its accessibility to information, entertainment and web-based communities. For young men who have sex with men (YMSM), the Internet can provide access to information on relevant sexual behavior and health information, stories from other men about relationship issues, and a venue for locating potential sexual and dating partners. Understanding YMSM's motivations for going online for information, advice or sexual relationships, is important as the Internet becomes increasingly used not only as a space to find sexual partners, but also as a venue for HIV and STI interventions. Having an understanding of the risks associated with searching for partners online, and how and why YMSM use the Internet for a variety of purposes, can inform the development of more effective Internet-based risk reduction programs. This article presents qualitative and quantitative data from the Healthy Young Men's Study, a longitudinal study of an ethnically diverse cohort of 526 YMSM. Qualitative interviews (N = 24) described not only the prevalence of using the Internet for finding sexual partners and the possible benefits and risks associated with that practice, but also the processes and perceptions of using this mechanism. Our data indicate that YMSM used the Internet to find information related to sex and sexuality, seek friendships, sexual partners as well as "hook-ups" or casual sex. Findings were presented in relation to how YMSM researchers and interventionists can identify how to most effectively reach YMSM through online methods.
Traube, Dorian E; Holloway, Ian W; Schrager, Sheree M; Kipke, Michele D
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to be at elevated risk for substance use; however, models explaining this phenomenon have often focused on a limited array of explanatory constructs. This study utilizes Social Action Theory (SAT) as a framework to address gaps in research by documenting the social, behavioral, and demographic risk factors associated with illicit drug use among YMSM. Structural equation modeling was used to apply SAT to a cross-sectional sample of 526 men from the Healthy Young Men Study, a longitudinal study of substance use and sexual risk behavior among YMSM in Los Angeles. The final model possessed very good fit statistics (Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.936, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = 0.925, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.040) indicating that SAT is appropriate for use with YMSM. Substance use interventions for YMSM could be enhanced by employing SAT as conceptualized in this study and using a multitargeted strategy for impacting illicit drug use.
Torre, Peter; Dreisbach, Laura E; Kopke, Richard; Jackson, Ron; Balough, Ben
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of risk factors on distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in young adult men with normal hearing. Four hundred thirty-six United States Marine recruit men (mean age = 19.2 years +/- 1.8 years; age range = 17-29 years) participated in this study. Questionnaires were given to each recruit to obtain demographic data and history of noise exposure, solvent exposure, smoking history, and hearing-related histories. Otoscopy, tympanometry, pure-tone air-conduction audiometry (2.0-8.0 kHz) and DPOAEs (2.3-8.0 kHz) were measured. DPOAE levels were lower in Not Hispanic or Latino recruits, in heavy smokers, in recruits who reported loud live music exposure and ringing in their ears after noise exposure. These differences were not statistically significant at all frequencies. Recruits with multiple risk factors had the lowest DPOAEs as compared to recruits with fewer, or no, risk factors; these differences were not statistically significant. Obtaining risk factor data as part of an audiometric evaluation is important even though the individual may have normal hearing.
Darelid, Anna; Ohlsson, Claes; Nilsson, Martin; Kindblom, Jenny M; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias
The aim of this study was to investigate the development of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in relation to peak height velocity (PHV), and to investigate whether late normal puberty was associated with remaining low BMD and BMC in early adulthood in men. In total, 501 men (mean ± SD, 18.9 ± 0.5 years of age at baseline) were included in this 5-year longitudinal study. Areal BMD (aBMD) and BMC, volumetric BMD (vBMD) and cortical bone size were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and pQCT. Detailed growth and weight charts were used to calculate age at PHV, an objective assessment of pubertal timing. Age at PHV was a strong positive predictor of the increase in aBMD and BMC of the total body (R(2) aBMD 11.7%; BMC 4.3%), radius (R(2) aBMD 23.5%; BMC 22.3%), and lumbar spine (R(2) aBMD 11.9%; BMC 10.5%) between 19 and 24 years (p bone size, whereas cortical and trabecular vBMD were 0.7% (p males was associated with a substantial catch up in aBMD and BMC in young adulthood, leaving no deficits of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total body at age 24 years.
Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Rodríguez-González, F Germán; Dorado, Cecilia; Olmedillas, Hugo; Fuentes, Teresa; Pérez-Gómez, Jorge; Delgado-Guerra, Safira; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Ara, Ignacio; Guerra, Borja; Arteaga-Ortiz, Rafael; Calbet, José A L; Díaz-Chico, B Nicolás
The exon-1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene contains two repeat length polymorphisms which modify either the amount of AR protein inside the cell (GGN(n), polyglycine) or its transcriptional activity (CAG(n), polyglutamine). Shorter CAG and/or GGN repeats provide stronger androgen signalling and vice versa. To test the hypothesis that CAG and GGN repeat AR polymorphisms affect muscle mass and various variables of muscular strength phenotype traits, the length of CAG and GGN repeats was determined by PCR and fragment analysis and confirmed by DNA sequencing of selected samples in 282 men (28.6 ± 7.6 years). Individuals were grouped as CAG short (CAG(S)) if harbouring repeat lengths of ≤ 21 and CAG long (CAG(L)) if CAG >21. GGN was considered short (GGN(S)) or long (GGN(L)) if GGN ≤ 23 or >23, respectively. No significant differences in lean body mass or fitness were observed between the CAG(S) and CAG(L) groups, or between GGN(S) and GGN(L) groups, but a trend for a correlation was found for the GGN repeat and lean mass of the extremities (r=-0.11, p=0.06). In summary, the lengths of CAG and GGN repeat of the AR gene do not appear to influence lean mass or fitness in young men.
Robert S. Tan
Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the association between testosterone therapy and new myocardial infarction (MI and stroke events in a series of patients treated at Low T Centers across the United States, consisting of mainly young (mean age = 46, otherwise, healthy men. Electronic medical records were queried between the years 2009 and 2014 to identify patients diagnosed with hypogonadism, MI, and stroke, as indicated by ICD-9 codes. The incidence of MI and stroke events was compared to community-based registries. 39,936 patients recruited from 40 Low T Centers across the United States were treated and 19,968 met eligibility criteria for receiving testosterone treatment. The incidence rate ratio (IRR for MI in testosterone- (T- treated versus nontreated patients was 0.14 (C.I. = 0.08 to 0.18, P<0.0001 whereas the IRR for stroke for T-treated versus nontreated patients was 0.11 (C.I. = 0.02 to 0.13, P<0.0001. There was no evidence of worsening preexisting MI or stroke in patients treated with testosterone. The experience in Low T Centers shows that, in an injectable testosterone patient registry, testosterone is generally safe for younger men who do not have significant risk factors. Of patients that developed MI with testosterone, there was no association with testosterone or hematocrit levels.
Bohlin, M C; Sorbring, E; Widén, S E; Erlandsson, S I
Music and high levels of sound have not traditionally been associated with risk-taking behaviors. Loud music may intensify and bring more power and meaning to the musical experience, but it can at the same time be harmful to hearing. The present study aims to increase the knowledge about young women's and men's risk judgement and behaviour by investigating patterns in adolescent risk activities among 310 adolescents aged 15-20 (143 women; 167 men). The Australian instrument ARQ was used with additional questions on hearing risks and a factor analysis was conducted. The main results showed that the factor structure in the judgement and behavior scale for Swedish adolescents was rather different from the factor structure in the Australian sample. Also, the factor structure was not similar to the Australian sample split on gender. The results are discussed from a gender- and existential perspective on risk taking, and it is emphasized that research on risk behavior needs to reconceptualize stereotypical ideas about gender and the existential period in adolescence.
Silenzio, Vincent M B; Duberstein, Paul R; Tang, Wan; Lu, Naiji; Tu, Xin; Homan, Christopher M
Young lesbian, gay, and bisexual (young LGB) individuals report higher rates of suicide ideation and attempts from their late teens through early twenties. Their high rate of Internet use suggests that online social networks offer a novel opportunity to reach them. This study explores online social networks as a venue for prevention research targeting young LGB. An automated data collection program was used to map the social connections between LGB self-identified individuals between 16 and 24 years old participating in an online social network. We then completed a descriptive analysis of the structural characteristics known to affect diffusion within such networks. Finally, we conducted Monte Carlo simulations of peer-driven diffusion of a hypothetical preventive intervention within the observed network under varying starting conditions. We mapped a network of 100,014 young LGB. The mean age was 20.4 years. The mean nodal degree was 137.5, representing an exponential degree distribution ranging from 1 through 4309. Monte Carlo simulations revealed that a peer-driven preventive intervention ultimately reached final sample sizes of up to 18,409 individuals. The network's structure is consistent with other social networks in terms of the underlying degree distribution. Such networks are typically formed dynamically through a process of preferential attachment. This implies that some individuals could be more important to target to facilitate the diffusion of interventions. However, in terms of determining the success of an intervention targeting this population, our simulation results suggest that varying the number of peers that can be recruited is more important than increasing the number of randomly-selected starting individuals. This has implications for intervention design. Given the potential to access this previously isolated population, this novel approach represents a promising new frontier in suicide prevention and other research areas.
Stokes, Keith A; Gilbert, Kate L; Hall, George M; Andrews, Robert C; Thompson, Dylan
Exercise is a potent stimulus for release of growth hormone (GH), cortisol, testosterone and prolactin, and prolonged exercise inhibits insulin secretion. These responses seem to be specific to the type of exercise but this has been poorly characterised primarily because they have not been compared during exercise performed by the same individuals. We investigated hormone responses to resistance, sprint and endurance exercise in young men using a repeated measures design in which each subject served as their own control. Eight healthy non-obese young adults (18-25 years) were studied on four occasions in random order: 30-s cycle ergometer sprint (Sprint), 30-min resistance exercise bout (Resistance), 30-min cycle at 70 % VO(2max) (Endurance), and seated rest in the laboratory (Rest). Cortisol, GH, testosterone, prolactin, insulin and glucose concentrations were measured for 60 min after the four different interventions. Endurance and sprint exercise significantly increased GH, cortisol, prolactin and testosterone. Sprint exercise also increased insulin concentrations, whereas this decreased in response to endurance exercise. Resistance exercise significantly increased only testosterone and glucose. Sprint exercise elicited the largest response per unit of work, but the smallest response relative to mean work rate in all hormones. In conclusion, the nature and magnitude of the hormone response were influenced by exercise type, perhaps reflecting the roles of these hormones in regulating metabolism during and after resistance, sprint and endurance exercise.
Lyons, Thomas; Johnson, Amy K; Garofalo, Robert
Young men who have sex with men (MSM) experience multiple health disparities, including alcohol and drug use, partner violence, victimization due to sexual orientation, and HIV infection. Syndemic theorists explain the clustering of these disparities among adult MSM as a result of cultural marginalization. To date, research on a similar emerging syndemic among young MSM has been limited to quantitative studies. This study seeks to better understand these disparities, and how they may cluster together, via qualitative interviews with 21 ethnically diverse, HIV infected young MSM aged 18-24 years old. These youth report a lack of gay-specific HIV prevention education, absence of role models, and lack of productive future goal-related activities as factors related to their acquisition of HIV, and downplay substance use as a factor. Although not necessarily the components traditionally cited by syndemic theorists, these findings support the notion that multiple factors of cultural marginalization cluster together in the lives of young MSM, and underscore the importance of community-level interventions, such as sexual health education, access to mentors, and assistance with future goal setting and planning.
Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian
Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…
Bartelt, Stine; Timm, Michael; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab;
Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) are thought to have immune-modulating effects, but the specific effects and mechanisms are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary n-3 LCPUFA could affect ex vivo oxidative burst in healthy young men. The study had...
Schademan, Alfred R.
The study examines the resources related to science that African American young men learn and develop by playing a card game called Spades, a common cultural practice in African American communities that dates back to the Civil War Era. The qualitative study examines what the Spades players at a local high school consider when making decisions…
Wells, Ryan S.; Bills, David B.; Devlin, Maura E.
This paper investigates early employment influences on postsecondary expectations and enrolment for working men and women who have recently completed high school in the United States. We find that young workers still have very high expectations for postsecondary education, but that women are more likely to enrol. However, this difference is…
Hansen, Rasmus Kopp; Andersen, J B; Vinther, A S;
A randomized, controlled, cross-over study was used to investigate the effects of breaking up prolonged sitting with low intensity physical activity on postprandial blood glucose concentrations in healthy, young, normal-weight adults. 14 men (n=6) and women (n=8) were assigned to 2.5 h of prolonged...
Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Leslie-Santana, Matthew
Internet use provides a vital opportunity for sexual-minority youth to learn about sexual desires and pursue partnerships otherwise publically stigmatized. Researchers, however, have portrayed the Internet as an inherently risky venue for HIV or sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission among young gay men (YGM). We therefore investigated…
Faith, the woman character in Young Goodman Brown written by American writer Nathaniel Hawthorne, is regarded as the general woman character in the men-dominated society, who owned a low status both in family and society in relation to their male counterparts. This paper aims to analyse the female image represented by Faith based on the theory of androcentrism and feminism.
Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F
Theory and research emphasize differences in men's and women's sexual and romantic attitudes, concluding that men have stronger preferences for sexual than romantic stimuli as compared to women. However, most of the research on gender differences have relied on self-reports, which are plagued by problems of social desirability bias. The current study assessed young men's and women's implicit attitudes toward sexual and romantic stimuli to test whether, in fact, men have a stronger preference for sexual over romantic stimuli compared to women. We also assessed associations between implicit and explicit attitudes, as well as sex role ideology and personality. College students (68 men and 114 women) completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) that assessed strengths of associations of sexual and romantic stimuli to both pleasant and unpleasant conditions. Results revealed that both men and women more strongly associated romantic images to the pleasant condition than they associated the sexual images to the pleasant condition. However, as predicted, women had a stronger preference toward romantic versus sexual stimuli compared to men. Our study challenges a common assumption that men prefer sexual over romantic stimuli. The findings indicate that measures of implicit attitudes may tap preferences that are not apparent in studies relying on self-reported (explicit) attitudes.
Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Frank, Blye; Ogilvie, Gina
Sexually transmitted infection testing rates among young men remain low, and their disengagement from sexual health services has been linked to enactments of masculinity that prohibit or truncate discussions of sexual health. Understanding how men align with multiple masculinities is therefore important for tailoring interventions that appropriately respond to their needs. We draw on 32 in-depth interviews with 15-24-year-old men to explore the discourses that facilitate or shut down sexual health communication with peers and sex partners. We employ a critical discourse analysis to explore how men's conversations about sexual health are constituted by masculine hierarchies (such as the ways in which masculinities influence men's ability to construct or challenge and contest dominant discourses about sexual health). Men's conversations about sexual health focused primarily around their sexual encounters - something frequently referred to as 'guy talk'. Also described were situations whereby participants employed a discourse of 'manning up' to (i) exert power over others with disregard for potential repercussions and (ii) deploy power to affirm and reify their own hyper-masculine identities, while using their personal (masculine) power to help others (who are subordinate in the social ordering of men). By better understanding how masculine discourses are employed by men, their sexual health needs can be advanced.
O'Donnell, Lydia; Bonaparte, Beverly; Joseph, Heather; Agronick, Gail; Leow, Deborah McLean; Myint-U, Athi; Stueve, Ann
This article addresses the challenge of developing HIV prevention interventions that not only prove to be efficacious but also are designed from the outset to overcome obstacles to reaching priority populations. We describe how community input has informed development of Keep It Up (KIU), a community health screening and behavioral prevention program for young Black men. KIU embeds HIV prevention in a broader health promotion campaign, with the goal of reducing stigma and reaching a population that bears a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS and other health problems-hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, asthma, and obesity. Information from community partners, expert advisers, and focus groups was collected at key junctures and incorporated into four core components: social marketing, a computerized behavioral learning module, biological testing for HIV and other conditions, and a personalized health profile and risk reduction plan. A pilot with 116 participants provided evidence that the KIU model of integrating HIV prevention with other health screening is acceptable and has the potential to reach Black men at risk for HIV as well as other chronic health conditions.
Laska, Melissa N; Lytle, Leslie A; Nanney, Marilyn S; Moe, Stacey G; Linde, Jennifer A; Hannan, Peter J
Excess weight gain tends to occur in young adulthood. However, research examining effective weight-related interventions for this age group has been limited. As one of seven trials in the EARLY Trials consortium (Early Adult Reduction of weight through LifestYle intervention), the CHOICES Study (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) tested effects of a technology-integrated, young adult weight gain prevention intervention. It was a randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline (2011) and 4-, 12- and 24-months post-intervention initiation and included 441 participants (ages 18-35) who were students at three Minnesota community colleges. The 24-month intervention included a 1-credit academic course and social networking and support online intervention. This analysis examined effects on 12 secondary behavioral outcomes across three domains: diet (fast food, sugary beverages, breakfast, at-home meal preparation), physical activity/screen time (minutes and energy expenditure in leisure time physical activity, television viewing, leisure time computer use) and sleep (hours of sleep, time required to fall asleep, days not getting enough rest, difficulty staying awake). The intervention resulted in significant reductions in fast food (p=0.007) but increases in difficulty staying awake (p=0.015). There was limited evidence of other behavior changes at 4months (0.05
young adults, particularly when addressing multiple weight-related outcomes.
Full Text Available Introduction: Mounting evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that females are more vulnerable to drug and alcohol abuse than males. Some of this increased risk may be related to behavioral traits, such as impulsivity. Here we examined sex differences in two forms of behavioral impulsivity (inhibitory control and impulsive choice in young men and women, in relation to their level of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems (at-risk or non-risk. Methods: Participants performed a go/no-go task to assess inhibitory control and a measure of delay discounting to assess impulsive choice. Results: On the measure of inhibitory control, at-risk women committed significantly more inhibitory errors than at-risk men, indicating poorer behavioral control among the women. By contrast, no sex differences were observed between at-risk men and women in delay discounting, or between the male and female non-risk drinkers on any measure. Conclusion: Heavy drinking women displayed poorer inhibitory control than heavy drinking men. It remains to be determined whether the sex differences in inhibitory control are the result of drinking, or whether they pre-dated the problematic drinking in these individuals.
Schousboe, John T; Tanner, S Bobo; Leslie, William D
Whether to use young male or young female reference data to calculate bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores in men remains controversial. The third National Health and Nutrition Examination and Survey (NHANES III) data show that the mean and standard deviation of femoral neck and total hip BMD is greater in young men than young women, and therefore differences in T-scores at these sites using NHANES III female vs male norms becomes less as BMD decreases. In contrast, manufacturer-specific reference databases generally assume similar standard deviations of BMD in men and women. Using NHANES III reference data for the femoral neck and total hip, respectively we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used have T-scores of -2.4 and -2.3 when young female norms are used. Using manufacturer-specific reference data, we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used at the femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine, or one-third of the forearm would have T-scores ranging from -2.4 to -0.4 when young female norms are used, depending on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer. The change of proportions of men diagnosed with osteoporosis when young female norms are used instead of young male reference data differs substantially according to skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young men involved in the criminal justice system face disproportionately high rates of sexual risk behavior, drug, use, and violence. Little is known about how their involvement in sex partnerships might mitigate their unique health and social risks. This study explores whether sex partner experience protects against harmful sexual behaviors, drug problems, violence, and recidivism in 16-18-year-old Black and Latino men leaving a US jail. Methods Data were drawn from the Returning Educated African-American and Latino Men to Enriched Neighborhoods (REAL MEN study conducted between 2003-2007, which tracked 552 adolescents during their time in a New York City jail and 397 of them one year after their release. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between sex partner experience and sex behavior, drug use, violence, and recidivism. Results This study indicates that young men who have long-term sex partners prior to incarceration are less likely to be inconsistent condom users (OR = 0.50, p ≤ 0.01, have sex while high on drugs/alcohol (OR = 0.14, p ≤ 0.001, use marijuana daily (OR = 0.45, p ≤ 0.001, and carry weapons during illegal activity (OR = 0.58, p ≤ 0.05, especially compared with peers who simultaneously are involved with long-term and casual "short-term" sex partners. However, the positive effects of having a long-term sex partner generally do not apply over time - in this case, one year after being released from jail. Aside from sexual partners, factors such as employment and housing stability predict whether these young men will experience positive or negative outcomes post-incarceration. Conclusions This study highlights the importance and potential benefits of health interventions that engage young Black and Latino men who are involved in the criminal justice system in the US, as well as their sex partners, in health promotion programs. The study also confirms the need for programs that
Fields, Errol Lamont; Bogart, Laura M; Smith, Katherine C; Malebranche, David J; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A
Objectives. We explored gender role strain (GRS) arising from conflict between homosexuality and cultural conceptions of masculinity among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted a categorical analysis (a qualitative, 3-stage, iterative analysis) of data from studies conducted in 2001 to 2006, which interviewed 35 men aged 18 to 24 years in 3 New York cities and Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Participants described rigid, often antihomosexual expectations of masculinity from their families, peers, and communities. Consistent with GRS, this conflict and pressure to conform to these expectations despite their homosexuality led to psychological distress, efforts to camouflage their homosexuality, and strategies to prove their masculinity. Participants believed this conflict and the associated experience of GRS might increase HIV risk through social isolation, poor self-esteem, reduced access to HIV prevention messages, and limited parental-family involvement in sexuality development and early sexual decision-making. Conclusions. Antihomosexual expectations of masculinity isolate young Black MSM during a developmental stage when interpersonal attachments are critical. GRS may influence sexual risk behavior and HIV risk and be an important target for HIV prevention.
Men played an important role in nursing in colonial Australia. However the number of men undertaking nursing duties declined dramatically in the second half of the nineteenth century. Reasons for this are explored in relation to ramifications of the introduction of the Nightingale pattern of nurse training in Australia, which occurred within the Victorian ethos of gentility and decorum. In this context, nursing came to be seen as a calling that was natural and appropriate for women. The controlled, decorous ambience of nursing, its subservient relationship to medicine and the attractiveness to employers of female pay rates are all associated with the decline in male participation over this period.
Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Ra, Song-Gyu; Shiraki, Hitoshi; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Maeda, Seiji
Choi, Y, Akazawa, N, Zempo-Miyaki, A, Ra, S-G, Shiraki, H, Ajisaka, R, and Maeda, S. Acute effect of high-intensity eccentric exercise on vascular endothelial function in young men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2279-2285, 2016-Increased central arterial stiffness is as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence regarding the effects of high-intensity resistance exercise on vascular endothelial function and central arterial stiffness is conflicting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute high-intensity eccentric exercise on vascular endothelial function and central arterial stiffness. We evaluated the acute changes in endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD), low-flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC), and arterial stiffness after high-intensity eccentric exercise. Seven healthy, sedentary men (age, 24 ± 1 year) performed maximal eccentric elbow flexor exercise using their nondominant arm. Before and 45 minutes after eccentric exercise, carotid arterial compliance and brachial artery FMD and L-FMC in the nonexercised arm were measured. Carotid arterial compliance was significantly decreased, and β-stiffness index significantly increased after eccentric exercise. Brachial FMD was significantly reduced after eccentric exercise, whereas there was no significant difference in brachial L-FMC before and after eccentric exercise. A positive correlation was detected between change in arterial compliance and change in FMD (r = 0.779; p ≤ 0.05), and a negative correlation was detected between change in β-stiffness index and change in FMD (r = -0.891; p eccentric exercise. In this study, acute high-intensity eccentric exercise increased central arterial stiffness; this increase was accompanied by a decrease in endothelial function caused by reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation but not by a change in endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction.
HwanchcolSon; HanjooLee; Jung-SikHuh; SooWoongKim; Jae-SeungPaick
Aim:To investigate the flaccid and stretched penile sizes of young Korean men and their complexes or pride about their penile size. Methods: After an explanation and agreement to the purpose and methods of this study,123 Korean men in their early 20's visiting the Jinhae Military General Hospital were included in the study. The flaccid penile length, flaccid mid-shaft circumference, stretched length and pre-pubic bone fat pad depth were measured in a warm comfortable environment. The accuracy the subjects assessed their penile size was investigated by asking them to rate their penile size, as ‘very small', ‘small', ‘normal', ‘large' or ‘very large'. All subjects were asked to completethe Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) test. Results: The mean flaccid length, flaccid cireumfereace,stretched length and fat pad depth of the 123 subjects were (6.9 ± 0.8) cm, (8.5 ± 1.1) cm, (9.6± 0.8) cm and (1.1± 0.4) cm, respectively. The answer distribution on penile size was 1 (0.8 %) ‘very small', 29 (23.6 %) ‘small', 86(69.9 %) ‘normal', 6 (4.9 %) ‘large' and 1 (0.8 %)‘'very large'. Subjects who underestimated their penile size showed significantly higher scores on the hypochondriasis (Hs), depression (D) and psychasthenia (Pt) subscales of the MMPI than those in the Unbiased Group (P<0.05). Conclusion: In consultation, with a patient requesting penile augmentation, the urologist should consider the psychologic attitude of the patient to his penile size. (Asian J Androl 2003 Sep, 5: 185-189)
Yaniv Shalom Avital
Full Text Available Background: The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. Aim: To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII, non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. Results : The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Conclusions: Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA.
Svetlana Tigranovna Dzhaneryan
Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study aimed at research of the characteristics of personification as the substantive characteristic of each type of the way of life ideals (matrimonial, bohemian, health, career, community, social, social-protection, gnostic of young men and women – graduates of the university.Research methods: survey (questionnaire for study the way of life ideal, a content analysis of the open questions of the questionnaire, expert evaluation categories, methods of nonparametric statistics.Results. The article presents ideas about the way of life ideals, discloses its components and characteristics. In the article designated types of way of life ideals: matrimonial, bohemian, health, career, community, social-protection, gnostic. Established the features of personification of each type of boys and girl’s ideals (who are graduates of the university. The results show that all kinds of way of life ideals are personified; that there are attractive to young people personality traits of real people (or groups whose way of life influences on the construction of their own ideals of life. It is shown that the differentiation of male and female personification of ideals occurs on different parameters: for the ideals of «matrimonial life» and «career life» appears only in the parameter singularity / community; for the ideal of «social life» – in the parameters singularity / community, the psychological portrait, similarities; for the ideal of «health life» – in the parameters singularity / community, the psychological portrait, a means of implementing, similarities.Application of the results: psychological services in high schools and personnel services in different companies.
Pachankis, John E; Buttenwieser, Indiana G; Bernstein, Laura B; Bayles, Damon O
Recent evidence suggests that young sexual minority men's sexual position identities (e.g., "top," "bottom," "versatile") may be governed by dynamic influences. Yet, no study has prospectively examined whether, how, and why this aspect of sexual minority men's sexuality changes over time. Consequently, the present study investigated the extent to which young sexual minority men use sexual position identities consistently over time, typical patterns of position identity change, explanations given for this change, and the correspondence of changing sexual position identities with changing sexual behavior and fantasies. A total of 93 young sexual minority men indicated their sexual position identity, behavior, and fantasies at two assessment points separated by 2 years. Following the second assessment, a subset (n = 28) of participants who represented the various sexual position identity change patterns provided explanations for their change. More than half (n = 48) of participants changed their sexual position identity. Participants showed a significant move away from not using sexual position identities toward using them and a significant move toward using "mostly top." Changes in position identity were reflected, although imperfectly, in changes in sexual behavior and largely not reflected in fantasy changes. Participants offered 11 classes of explanations for their identity changes referencing personal development, practical reasons, changing relationships, and sociocultural influences. Previous investigations of sexual minority men's sexual position identities have not adequately attended to the possibility of the changing use of the sexual position categories "top," "bottom," and "versatile" across young adulthood. Results of the present study suggest the possibility of a more fluid, context-dependent use of these terms than previously documented.
Arn J Schilder
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The association between childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM is well established. However, no studies have examined the potential impact of other forms of childhood maltreatment on HIV incidence in this population. METHODS: We explored the impact of child physical abuse (CPA on HIV seroconversion in a cohort of gay/bisexual men aged 15 to 30 in Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazard models were used, controlling for confounders. RESULTS: Among 287 participants, 211 (73.5% reported experiencing CPA before the age of 17, and 42 (14.6% reporting URAI in the past year. After a median of 6.6 years follow-up, 16 (5.8% participants HIV-seroconverted. In multivariate analysis, CPA was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.89, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.65-14.48, after controlling for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: Our study uncovered a link between childhood physical violence and HIV incidence. Results highlight an urgent need for screening of young gay and bisexual men for histories of violence, and social and structural supports to prevent HIV transmission in this population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Military service in Finland is compulsory for male citizens and annually about 90% of 19-year-old men enter into the service. Approximately 15% of them are discharged due to medical reasons constituting a group of young men who are at risk of being marginalised in society. The purpose of the study was to evaluate predictive associations between medical discharge from the compulsory military service and various intrinsic risk factors, including socio-economic, health, health behavior, and physical fitness outcomes. Methods We followed four successive cohorts of conscripts who formed a representative sample of Finnish young men (18-28 years old, median age 19 yrs for 6 months. To exclude injuries and illnesses originating before the onset of service, conscripts discharged from the service at the medical screenings during the 2-week run-in period were excluded from the analyses. Data regarding medical discharge were charted from computerised patient records. Predictive associations between medical discharge and intrinsic risk factors were examined using multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models. Results Of 1411 participants, 9.4% (n = 133 were discharged prematurely for medical reasons, mainly musculoskeletal (44%, n = 59 and mental and behavioral (29%, n = 39 disorders. Low levels of physical fitness assessed with a 12-min running test (hazard ratio [HR] 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7-6.4, poor school success (HR 4.6; 95% CI: 2.0-11.0, poor self-assessed health (HR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-5.2, and not belonging to a sports club (HR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.2-11.6 were most strongly associated with medical discharge in a graded manner. The present results highlight the need for an improved pre-enlistment examination and provide a new means of identifying young persons with a high risk for discharge. Conclusions The majority of the observed risk factors are modifiable. Thus preventive measures and programs could be implemented. The
Tiziano, Francesco Danilo; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Genuardi, Maurizio; Zeppilli, Paolo
Although relatively rare, inherited primitive cardiac disorders (IPCDs) in athletes have a deep social impact since they often present as sudden cardiac death (SCD) of young and otherwise healthy persons. The diagnosis of these conditions is likely underestimated due to the lack of shared clinical criteria and to the existence of several borderline clinical pictures. We will focus on the clinical and molecular diagnosis of the most common IPCDs, namely hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, long QT syndrome, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and left ventricular non-compaction. Collectively, these conditions account for the majority of SCD episodes and/or cardiologic clinical problems in athletes. In addition to the clinical and instrumental tools for the diagnosis of IPCD, the viral technological advances in genetic testing have facilitated the molecular confirmation of these conditions. However, genetic testing presents several issues: the limited sensitivity (globally, around 50%), the low prognostic predictive value, the probability to find pathogenic variants in different genes in the same patient, and the risk of non-interpretable results. In this review, we will analyze the pros and cons of the different clinical approaches for the presymptomatic identification, the diagnosis and management of IPCD athletes, and we will discuss the indications to the genetic testing for patients and their relatives, particularly focusing on the most complex scenarios, such as presymptomatic tests, uncertain results, and unexpected findings. PMID:27617263
Powell, Terrinieka W.; Herbert, Ann; Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Latkin, Carl A.
The goal of this study was to identify strategies that could yield more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) living in Baltimore, Maryland. The sample had an equal number of regular and infrequent church attendees. Nearly one-fourth of the sample was HIV-positive. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively using a qualitative content analytic approach. Two main recommendations emerged for churches to offer more inclusive HIV prevention efforts: (1) reduce homosexuality stigma by increasing interpersonal and institutional acceptance, and (2) address the sexual health needs of all congregants by offering universal and targeted sexual health promotion. Thus, results support a tiered approached to providing more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. We conclude that Black churches can be a critical access point for HIV prevention among YBMSM and represent an important setting to intervene. PMID:27244189
Johnston, Lisa G; Steinhaus, Mara C; Sass, Justine; Sirinirund, Petchsri; Lee, Catherine; Benjarattanaporn, Patchara; Gass, Robert
HIV infection among men who have sex with men, particularly in Thai urban settings and among younger cohorts, is escalating. HIV testing and counseling (HTC) are important for prevention and obtaining treatment and care. We examine data from a 2013 survey of males, 15-24 years, reporting past-year sex with a male and living in Bangkok or Chiang Mai. Almost three quarters of young MSM (YMSM) in Bangkok and only 27 % in Chiang Mai had an HIV test in the previous year. Associations for HIV testing varied between cities, although having employment increased the odds of HIV testing for both cities. In Bangkok, family knowledge of same sex attraction and talking to parents/guardians about HIV/AIDS had higher odds of HIV testing. Expanded HTC coverage is needed for YMSM in Chiang Mai. All health centers providing HTC, including those targeting MSM, need to address the specific needs of younger cohorts.
Kubicek, Katrina; McDavitt, Bryce; Carpineto, Julie; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D
Research investigating the role of religion in the lives of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is limited. Given the unique developmental stage of emerging adults and the fact that most religions have restrictions on homosexual behavior, it is important to understand how YMSM integrate their sexual and religious/spiritual identities. Drawing upon a longitudinal, mixed methods study, we explore the role of religion and spirituality in the lives of a sample of YMSM. Presented are descriptions of messages about homosexuality from religious contexts and how these messages are internalized. The process used to resolve the conflict between these messages and their sexual identity is then described. Findings discuss how to help YMSM retain the more supportive and nurturing aspects of religion to integrate their sexual and religious identities for a functional support system.
Houston, Ebony; Peterson, James; Kuo, Irene; Magnus, Manya
Abstract Purpose: To develop optimal methods to study sexual health among black young men who have sex with men and transgender women (BYMSM/TW). Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods prospective study to identify recruitment and retention strategies for BYMSM/TW (age 16–21) in Washington D.C., and describe HIV risk behaviors and context. Results: Incentivized peer referral was highly productive, and 60% of BYMSM/TW were retained for 3 months. Participants reported high levels of sexual risk, homophobia, racism, and maternal support. Conclusion: BYMSM/TW studies should utilize a combination of peer-based, in-person, and technology-based recruiting strategies. Additional research is needed to leverage mobile technology and social media to enhance retention. PMID:26651365
Jacobsen, Stine C; Gillberg, Linn; Bork-Jensen, Jette
The association between low birthweight (LBW) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes may involve epigenetic mechanisms, with skeletal muscle being a prime target tissue. Differential DNA methylation patterns have been observed in single genes in muscle tissue from type 2 diabetic and LBW...... individuals, and we recently showed multiple DNA methylation changes during short-term high-fat overfeeding in muscle of healthy people. In a randomised crossover study, we analysed genome-wide DNA promoter methylation in skeletal muscle of 17 young LBW men and 23 matched normal birthweight (NBW) men after...... a control and a 5 day high-fat overfeeding diet....
Nørregaard, Jesper; Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas
We studied the effect of physical inactivity and subsequent re-training on cardiovascular risk factors in seventeen young (Y; 23.4±0.5) and fifteen older adult (O; 68.1±1.1 yrs.) men who underwent 14 days of one leg immobilization followed by six weeks of training. Body weight remained unchanged....... Daily physical activity decreased by 31±9 (Y) and 37±9 (O) % (P... increased with reduced activity (Pphysical activity for two weeks increases blood lipids in both Y and O men. Six weeks of training improved...
Jensen, C.B.; Martin-Gronert, M.S.; Storgaard, H.;
obtained from 20 healthy 19-yr old men with BWbirth weight controls (NBW), matched for physical fitness and whole-body glucose disposal, prior to (fasting state) and following a 4-hr hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (insulin stimulated state......BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased future risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have previously shown that young LBW men have reduced skeletal muscle expression of PI3K p85alpha......). Expression and phosphorylation of selected proteins was determined by Western blotting. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Insulin stimulated expression of aPKCzeta (pcontrols. LBW was associated with increased insulin...
Frederiksen, L; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K
on relatively healthy young men, minimizing the possible effects of age, obesity, and severe comorbidity. DESIGN, METHODS, AND SUBJECTS: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 783 men aged 20-29 yr, randomly drawn from the Danish Central Personal Registry. Adiponectin was assessed using an in-house assay......, and IR was determined using HOMA. Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), and thigh fat area (TFA) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Using multiple linear...
Hasan Aykut Aysan
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate theeffect of 8 week of swimming training program on motoricfeatures, resting heart rate, blood pressure, andbody composition in young sedentary men.Materials and methods: Forty volunteers aged between20 and 29 years participated in the research. The participants’body weight, percentage of body fat, body massindex, flexibility, push-up, shuttle, horizontal-verticaljump and 20-meter sprint were measured and comparedbefore and after the 8 weeks of swimming training program.Results: At the end of the study, study groups’ measurementswere compared. Significant decreases wereobserved on parameters of percentage of body fat and20 m sprint run between pre-post test (p0.05. Significant increaseswere observed on parameters of push-up, verticaljump (p0.05.Conclusion: Eight weeks swimming training seems toreduce percentage of body fat. It has been observed that8 weeks swimming training increased values of push-up,shuttle and vertical jump. On the other hand, no changewas observed in values of flexibility and horizontal jump.J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 2(1: 69-73
Preud'homme, X A; Lanquart, J P; Mendlewicz, J; Linkowski, P
The distribution of delta activity across successive nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep episodes and its night-to-night stability across three consecutive nights were investigated by studying delta power with spectral analysis in 31 healthy young men. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with polynomial contrast was applied to grouped data of absolute delta power and three indexes: (1) the rate of delta power per NREM episode to its duration, 2) the standardized rate for the last NREM episode, and 3) the logarithm of the standardized rate. A significant linear decrease across NREM episodes was observed for each variable in each successive night. In addition, using night as a second within-subjects factor, no night effect was observed. Yet, the subsequent analysis of the logarithmic data yielded greater F values in all three nights' data as well as a linear function that accounted for a greater proportion of total variance than the analysis of the nonlogarithmic data. Since a linear decline for the logarithm of a variable implies an exponential distribution for that variable, we conclude that delta activity is distributed exponentially across NREM episodes, and this finding shows a remarkable night-to-night stability.
Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, S K; Jensen, C B
oxidation at the expense of reduced glucose oxidation. We speculate that this may be associated with insufficient capability to retain fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue after meals during day time, with an increased rate of nocturnal and morning lipolysis, and potentially with subtle elevations......OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight (LBW), a marker of disturbed fetal growth, is associated with adiposity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the study was to investigate whether LBW is associated with changes in 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and/or substrate utilization rates...... nocturnal RQ compared to controls (0.81 ± 0.01 vs. 0.85 ± 0.01 (mean ± SE), P = 0.01), and hence higher nocturnal fat oxidation (2.55 ± 0.13 vs. 2.09 ± 0.12 kJ/min (mean ± SE), P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Young LBW men do not exhibit reductions in 24-h EE. However, LBW subjects display increased nocturnal fat...
Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan Carlos; Furio, Josep; Martin, Fernando; Tella, Víctor
Little research has been reported on the effects of using different devices with resistance exercises in a water environment. This study compared muscular activation of lower extremity and core muscles during leg adduction performed at maximum velocity with drag and floating devices of different sizes. A total of 24 young men (mean age 23.20 ± 1.18 years) performed 3 repetitions of leg adduction at maximum velocity using 4 different devices (ie, large/small and drag/floating). The maximum amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of the adductor longus, rectus abdominis, external oblique on the dominant side, external oblique on the nondominant side, and erector lumbar spinae were recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Unexpectedly, no significant (P > 0.05) differences were found in the neuromuscular responses among the different devices used; the average activation of agonist muscle adequate for neuromuscular conditioning was 40.95% of MVIC. In addition, external oblique activation is greater on the contralateral side to stabilize the body (average, 151.74%; P < 0.05). Therefore, if maximum muscle activation is required, the kind of device is not relevant. Thus, the choice should be based on economic factors.
Adler, L; Wedekind, D; Pilz, J; Weniger, G; Huether, G
An initial sample of 120 healthy young men was screened by a personality questionnaire and 15 subjects each with highest and lowest scores respectively on emotionality (emotionally labile, EL subjects and emotionally stable, ES subjects) were recruited for a study on the relationship between the degree of emotionality and the basal secretion of stress-sensitive hormones during night-time. The nocturnal urinary excretion of cortisol, testosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and melatonin was measured over a period of 5 consecutive nights. The average amounts of each hormone excreted per night were not different between the two extreme groups. The variability of the excretion during the 5 nights of cortisol and testosterone, but not of adrenaline, noradrenaline and melatonin, was significantly higher in EL compared to ES subjects. The larger fluctuations in the nocturnal secretion of these two (and no other) hormones in EL subjects indicate that emotional lability is associated with a more labile regulation of cortisol and testosterone secretion. The observed intraindividual variability of basal stress hormone secretion may contribute to the vast interindividual variability noticed in psychoneuroendocrine stress research, especially in emotionally labile subjects.
Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function.
XIAO Ze-ping; CHEN Xing-shi; WANG Ji-jun; ZHANG Ming-dao; WANG Hong-xing; HU Zhen-yu; LU Ying-zhi; ZHANG Zai-fu; GAN Jing-li; LOU Fei-ying; CHEN Chong; ZHANG Tian-hong; FAN Qing
Objective To assess the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on the whole night polysomnography (PSG) in healthy young men.Methods The whole night PSG was recorded by using Neurofax-1518K (Nihon Kohden, Japan) system before and after 38 h of SD among 15 healthy male subjects.Results Compared with PSG before SD, post-SD PSG showed significantly shortened sleep latency (before SD: 19.7±9.3, after SD: 5.6±7.3, P＜0.05), decreased stage 1 (S1) non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep [before SD: (9.2±1.9)%, after SD: (4.0±1.4)%, P＜0.05], and increased stage 4 (S4) NREM sleep [before SD: (10.3±3.7)%, after SD: (26.2±4.3)%, P＜0.01].Conclusion During post-SD sleep, the proportion of S4 NREM sleep was increased as compensation in healthy male. In addition, SD was proved to affect electrophysiological brain activities in normal people.
Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle
Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age.
Kobayashi, Ryota; Hashimoto, Yuto; Hatakeyama, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Takanobu
Arterial stiffness increases after glucose ingestion. Acute low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise decreases arterial stiffness. However, the acute effects of 30 min of cycling at low- and moderate-intensity [25% (LE trial) and 65% (ME trial) peak oxygen uptake, respectively] on arterial stiffness at 30, 60 and 120 min of a postexercise glucose ingestion. Ten healthy young men (age, 22·4 ± 0·5 years) performed LE and ME trials on separate days in a randomized controlled crossover fashion. Carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity (PWV), femoral-ankle (leg) PWV, carotid augmentation index (AIx) and carotid blood pressure (BP) (applanation tonometry), brachial and ankle BP (oscillometric device), heart rate (HR) (electrocardiography), blood glucose (UV-hexokinase method) and blood insulin (CLEIA method) levels were measured at before (baseline) and at 30, 60 and 120 min after the 75-g OGTT. Leg PWV, ankle pulse pressure and BG levels significantly increased from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in the LE trial (P<0·05), but not in the ME trial. Insulin levels and HR significantly increased from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in both trials (P<0·05). Aortic PWV, carotid AIx, brachial BP and carotid BP did not change from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in both trials. The present findings indicate that aerobic exercise at moderate intensity before glucose ingestion suppresses increases leg arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion.
Zimmermann, E; Berentzen, T L; Ängquist, Lars Henrik;
the two examinations, life-style factors nor exclusion of diseased individuals influenced the results.CONCLUSIONS:Although there were increased mortality of the weight-stable obese compared with controls, there was no association between weight loss and mortality in the obese. Weight gain increased...... change and all-cause mortality in a broad range of body mass index (BMI) in young men.METHODS:Among 362200 Danish draftees, examined between 1943 and 1977, all obese (BMI 31.0 kg m(-2); n=1930), and a random 1% sample of the others (n=3601) were identified at a mean age of 20 years (range: 18-25 years......). All the obese and half the controls were re-examined between 4 and 40 years later (mean age 35 years). Weight changes were defined as: weight loss 0.1 kg m(-2) per year. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression.RESULTS:Among the 908 obese and 1073...
Mario Eugénio Tchamo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Birth weight has been considered an important marker of the nutritional transition in developing countries. Objective: To evaluate the influence of birth weight on body composition and physical fitness of young men born in Maputo, Mozambique. Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine students (aged 19 to 22 years were divided into four groups (low birth weight 3.999 g, HBW, n = 31. Anthropometry and body composition were measured. Physical fitness was assessed by handgrip strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, agility, and running speed. Results: IBW showed lower values of body mass and fat free mass while LBW and HBW had high values of hip circumference, suprailiac, subscapular and abdominal skinfold when compared to NBW. LBW and HBW showed a high percentage of individuals with low performance in flexibility, right handgrip, agility, abdominal resistance, arms strength, and horizontal long jump. Around 70% of HBW showed low performance in the running speed test. Conclusion: Both low and high birth weight can influence adult adiposity and the performance in physical fitness tests.
M C Bohlin
Full Text Available Music and high levels of sound have not traditionally been associated with risk-taking behaviors. Loud music may intensify and bring more power and meaning to the musical experience, but it can at the same time be harmful to hearing. The present study aims to increase the knowledge about young women′s and men′s risk judgement and behaviour by investigating patterns in adolescent risk activities among 310 adolescents aged 15-20 (143 women; 167 men. The Australian instrument ARQ was used with additional questions on hearing risks and a factor analysis was conducted. The main results showed that the factor structure in the judgement and behavior scale for Swedish adolescents was rather different from the factor structure in the Australian sample. Also, the factor structure was not similar to the Australian sample split on gender. The results are discussed from a gender- and existential perspective on risk taking, and it is emphasized that research on risk behavior needs to reconceptualize stereotypical ideas about gender and the existential period in adolescence.
Kraemer, R R; Shockett, P; Webb, N D; Shah, U; Castracane, V D
Irisin, a newly discovered, PGC-1α dependent myokine, has recently been shown to increase in circulation in response to sprint exercise. This study examined the effect of prolonged exercise on irisin concentrations in young men (n=7) as well as in young women (n=5) during different stages of the menstrual cycle. Seven young men completed 90 min of treadmill exercise at 60% of VO2max and a resting control trial. Five women completed the same exercise protocol in two different trials: during the early follicular phase and mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for irisin concentrations immediately before exercise, at 54 and 90 min of exercise, and at 20 min of recovery (R20). Findings revealed that by 54 min of a 90 min treadmill exercise protocol at 60% of VO2max, irisin concentrations significantly increased 20.4% in young men and 20.3% as well as 24.6% in young women during the early follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, respectively. However, by 90 min of exercise as well as R20, irisin concentrations were no longer elevated. Stage of the menstrual cycle did not affect responses in young women. Findings indicate that prolonged aerobic exercise produces a transient increase in irisin concentrations during the first hour of exercise for both genders and suggest that this form of moderate exercise may be helpful in improving fat metabolism.
Meissner, H. Cody; Groothuis, Jessie R.; Rodriguez, William J.; Welliver, Robert C.; Hogg, Geoff; Gray, Peter H.; Loh, Richard; Simoes, Eric A. F.; Sly, Peter; Miller, Ann K.; Nichols, Alice I.; Jorkasky, Diane K.; Everitt, Daniel E.; Thompson, Kathleen A.
We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of a humanized monoclonal antibody against a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion protein (SB 209763) to evaluate its safety, pharmacokinetics, and fusion inhibition and neutralization titers. Forty-three infants who were either delivered prematurely (≤35 weeks’ gestation) or exhibited bronchopulmonary dysplasia were administered either single or repeat (two doses, 8 weeks apart) intramuscular injections of SB 209763 at a concentration of 0.25, 1.25, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg or of a placebo. Four of 229 adverse events were considered related to the study drug, including purpura (n = 3) and thrombocytosis (n = 1). No subject developed a detectable level of anti-SB 209763 antibody. Approximately 1 week after administration of the second dose of SB 209763 at 10 mg/kg, the mean plasma concentration (n = 9) was 68.5 μg/ml. The terminal half-life (T1/2) determined by noncompartmental analysis ranged from 22 to 50 days. The population pharmacokinetics for SB 209763 following intramuscular administration was appropriately described by a one-compartment model with first-order input and elimination. Higher values for clearance and volume of distribution at steady state were observed for younger patients, with values decreasing to 0.143 (ml/h)/kg and 161 mL/kg, respectively, by a mean age of 298 days (∼10 months). The mean T1/2 of SB 209763 for the study population was 32.5 days. No other factor (dose, weight, gender, race, premature birth, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia) was observed to alter the population pharmacokinetics of SB 209763 in this study of infants and young children. The mean neutralization titer on day 6 was 286, and the mean fusion inhibition titer was 36. At least 57% of subjects dosed at 1.25 to 10.0 mg of SB 209763 per kg of body weight who were seronegative at baseline experienced a fourfold or greater increase in fusion inhibition titer. Nine RSV infections were documented
Reichkendler, M H; Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Auerbach, P L
% in HIGH (P benefits were found when exercising ∼3,800 as opposed to ∼2,000 kcal/week in young moderately overweight men. This finding may have important......OBJECTIVE: The dose-response effects of exercise training on insulin sensitivity, metabolic risk, and quality of life were examined. METHODS: Sixty-one healthy, sedentary (VO₂max: 35 ± 5 ml/kg/min), moderately overweight (BMI: 27.9 ± 1.8), young (age: 29 ± 6 years) men were randomized to sedentary...... living (sedentary control group; n = 18), moderate (moderate dose training group [MOD]: 300 kcal/day, n = 21), or high (high dose training group [HIGH]: 600 kcal/day, n = 22) dose physical exercise for 11 weeks. RESULTS: The return rate for post-intervention testing was 82-94% across groups. Weekly...
Blomberg, Christoph; Neuber, Nils
Sport is highly relevant in the life of boys and young men. It is not only one of the most common and important leisure activities, but also helps male self-assurance through physical conflicts and competitions as well as through physical proximity and social involvement. At the same time, sport is an ambivalent area that preserves health, but can also be dangerous to it. By considering the development of male identity, the specific possibilities of sport, as well as an overview of the health situation of boys, this article develops starting points for lifestyle-oriented health promotion of boys and young men in the area of exercise, games and sport. In sports, physical practices are learned that can have long-term effects as somatic cultures on health behavior. The work with boys in sports can be health-promoting if opportunities and risks are reflected upon and considered in the didactic planning and execution.
Ni Luh Gede Karyamitha; Kadek Tresna Adhi
Soccer is a favorite sport for people around the world including in Indonesia. Not only the method of training or talent that will determine the achievement, but the intake of daily nutrients directly proper also provide a positive influence on performance and achievements of athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of nutrition, physical activity, and nutritional status of young men athletes soccer. This study useds cross-sectional method. The number of samples take...
Full Text Available Background: Young men are difficult to reach with conventional nutrition information and they have a low intake of vegetables and whole grain cereals. Few intervention studies have focused on improving young men's consumption of vegetables and whole grains. Objective: A 5-month intervention focusing on a combination of increased availability of healthy foods and nutritional information was developed to stimulate the intake of vegetables and semi-whole grain bread among a group of young men in the Norwegian military. Subjects: A total of 376 recruits in the intervention group and 105 recruits in the control group participated in the entire study. Results: The average daily increase in consumption of vegetables was 82 g (p<0.001, and semi-whole grain bread 47 g (p<0.001 between baseline and follow-up in the intervention group. No significant changes were observed in the control group. Differences between intervention and control group at follow-up were significant (p<0.001 for vegetables and semi-whole grain bread, when controlling for baseline values, and seasonal variation for vegetables. The recruits in the intervention group received higher scores on the questions concerning nutritional knowledge after the intervention, compared to baseline (p<0.001. There was a significantly higher increase in the intake of vegetables among the recruits who increased the number of correct answers to the knowledge questions (β-value: 0.14, p<0.05 than among the others. There was no significant change in scores of food satisfaction after the intervention. Conclusion: The combination of increased availability of healthy food items and nutrition information was an effective way to increase the intake of vegetables and semi-whole grain bread, without a reduction in food satisfaction, among young men in the military.
Full Text Available Background Based on the research evidence, the efficiency of resistance exercises depends on the changes in the hormones level to improve the muscle strength and mass. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of a short course blood flow restricted resistance training on serum cortisol and testosterone levels in young men. Patients and Methods A total of 30 healthy young men (aged 19 - 24 years were volunteered for this study. Subjects were randomly assigned into three groups: low-intensity blood flow restricted (LIBFR (n = 15 resistance exercise group (3 sets of 15 repetitions at 20% of 1RM (one repetition maximum, traditional high-intensity without blood flow restriction (HIWBFR (n = 12 resistance exercise group (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 1RM, and a control group (n = 13. Both LIBFR and HIWBFR groups trained for front leg and squat exercises 3 days per week for 3 weeks. Fasting growth hormone cortisol and testosterone levels were measured in the morning before and after exercise sessions. Data were analyzed with paired t-test and One-way ANOVA at the significant level of P < 0.05. Results Serum cortisol level significantly increased after the exercise for both protocols compared to baseline (P < 0.05. After 3 weeks, serum cortisol level increased significantly in LIBFR and HIWBFR groups compared to control group (P < 0.001. At the end of the exercise protocols, serum testosterone level was higher in LIBFR group compared to HIWBFR group; however, this difference was not significant (P ˃ 0.49. Conclusions Short term blood flow restriction (BFR exercise stimulates cortisol hormones production in young men. However, this program seems too short to express any difference in testosterone change. Generally, it can be concluded that low-intensity resistance training can increase short-term BFR catabolic-anabolic hormones in young men.
Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon
We examined the joint trajectories of violent victimization and marijuana use from emerging adulthood to the early thirties and their health consequences in the early thirties among urban African American and Puerto Rican men. Data were collected from a community sample of young men (N = 340) when they were 19, 24, 29, and 32 years old. The joint trajectories of violent victimization and marijuana use were extracted using growth mixture modeling. Three distinct joint trajectory groups of violent victimization and marijuana use were identified: high violent victimization/consistently high marijuana use; low violent victimization/increasingly high marijuana use, and low violent victimization/low marijuana use. Group comparisons using regression analyses showed that men who had experienced high levels of violent victimization and were high frequency marijuana over time users experienced the most adverse psychological and physical health outcomes, including more health problems, psychological maladjustment, and substance use disorders.
Chiu, Y H; Afeiche, M C; Gaskins, A J
STUDY QUESTION: Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER: Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male...... the association of SSBs with sperm parameters and reproductive hormone levels while adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: SSB intake was inversely related to progressive sperm motility. Men in the highest quartile of SSB intake (≥1.3 serving/day) had 9.8 (95% CI: 1.......9,17.8) percentage units lower progressive sperm motility than men in the lowest quartile of intake (intake was unrelated to other semen quality...
Buttelli Adriana Cristine Koch
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of single vs. multiple sets water-based resistance training on maximal dynamic strength in young men. Twenty-one physically active young men were randomly allocated into 2 groups: a single set group (SS, n=10 and a multiple sets group (MS, n=11. The single set program consisted of only 1 set of 30 s, whereas the multiple sets comprised 3 sets of 30 s (rest interval between sets equaled 1 min 30 s. All the water-based resistance exercises were performed at maximal effort and both groups trained twice a week for 10 weeks. Upper (bilateral elbow flexors and bilateral elbow extensors, peck deck and inverse peck deck as well as lower-body (bilateral knee flexors and unilateral knee extensors one-repetition maximal tests (1RM were used to assess changes in muscle strength. The training-related effects were assessed using repeated measures two-way ANOVA (α=5%. Both SS and MS groups increased the upper and lower-body 1RM, with no differences between groups. Therefore, these data show that the maximal dynamic strength significantly increases in young men after 10 weeks of training in an aquatic environment, although the improvement in the strength levels is independent of the number of sets performed.
Christopher B Hurt
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MA is a new arrival to the Southeastern United States (US. Incidence of HIV is also increasing regionally, but data are limited regarding any association between this trend and MA use. We examined behavioral data from North Carolina (NC residents newly diagnosed with HIV, collected by the Department of Health between 2000-2005. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among 1,460 newly diagnosed HIV-positive young men, an increasing trend was seen from 2000-2005 in MA use (p = 0.01, total n = 20. In bivariate analyses, users of MA had significantly greater odds of reporting other substance use, including alcohol, powder or crack cocaine, marijuana, and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy". They were also more likely to have reported sexual activity while traveling outside NC; sex with anonymous partners; and previous HIV testing. In a predictive model, MA use had a negative association with nonwhite race, and strong positive associations with powder cocaine, "ecstasy," or intravenous drug use and being a university student. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to trends seen in more urban parts of the US, MA use among newly diagnosed, HIV-positive young men is increasing in NC. These data are among the first to demonstrate this relationship in a region with a burgeoning epidemic of MA use. Opportunities exist for MA-related HIV risk-reduction interventions whenever young men intersect the healthcare system.
Schilder, Arn J; Orchard, Treena R; Buchner, Christopher S; Miller, Mary Lou; Fernandes, Kim A; Hogg, Robert S; Strathdee, Steffanie A
This paper examines cultural and social meanings associated with semen, along with related issues of unprotected receptive anal intercourse, HIV seroconversion, treatment optimism and viraemia. The findings are derived from qualitative interviews conducted with 12 HIV-positive young gay men and 12 HIV-negative counterparts who participated in a prospective cohort study in Vancouver, Canada. Focussing on the narratives of young gay men, the analysis reveals a diverse range of knowledge, values and functions of semen, especially in relation to its exchange. Beliefs about semen appeared to differ by HIV serostatus and were linked with intimacy, identity and pleasure, particularly among the HIV-positive men. Against dominant representations of semen in relation to issues of loss, anxiety and infertility, this unique study sheds much needed light on its role within the cultural construction of sexuality among gay men. As such, these narratives are of direct importance to primary and secondary HIV prevention, including condom promotion and the development of rectal microbicides.
Santana, M Christina; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; La Marche, Ana; Silverman, Jay G
This study sought to assess the association between traditional masculine gender role ideologies and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration behaviors in young men's heterosexual relationships. Sexually active men age 18-35 years attending an urban community health center in Boston were invited to join a study on men's sexual risk; participants (N=307) completed a brief self-administered survey on sexual risk (unprotected sex, forced unprotected sex, multiple sex partners) and IPV perpetration (physical, sexual and injury from/need for medical services due to IPV) behaviors, as well as demographics. Current analyses included men reporting sex with a main female partner in the past 3 months (n=283). Logistic regression analyses adjusted for demographics were used to assess significant associations between male gender role ideologies and the sexual risk and IPV perpetration behaviors. Participants were predominantly Hispanic (74.9%) and Black (21.9%); 55.5% were not born in the continental U.S.; 65% had been in the relationship for more than 1 year. Men reporting more traditional ideologies were significantly more likely to report unprotected vaginal sex in the past 3 months (OR(adj) = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2-4.6) and IPV perpetration in the past year (OR(adj) = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.6). Findings indicate that masculine gender role ideologies are linked with young men's unprotected vaginal sex and IPV perpetration in relationships, suggesting that such ideologies may be a useful point of sexual risk reduction and IPV prevention intervention with this population.
Behel, Stephanie K; MacKellar, Duncan A; Valleroy, Linda A; Secura, Gina M; Bingham, Trista; Celentano, David D; Koblin, Beryl A; Lalota, Marlene; Shehan, Douglas; Torian, Lucia V
We investigated whether there were racial/ethnic differences among young men who have sex with men (MSM) in their use of, perceived importance of, receipt of, and satisfaction with HIV prevention services received at health care providers (HCP) and HIV test providers (HTP) that explain racial disparities in HIV prevalence. Young men, aged 23 to 29 years, were interviewed and tested for HIV at randomly sampled MSM-identified venues in six U.S. cities from 1998 through 2000. Analyses were restricted to five U.S. cities that enrolled 50 or more black or Hispanic MSM. Among the 2,424 MSM enrolled, 1,522 (63%) reported using a HCP, and 1,268 (52%) reported having had an HIV test in the year prior to our interview. No racial/ethnic differences were found in using a HCP or testing for HIV. Compared with white MSM, black and Hispanic MSM were more likely to believe that HIV prevention services are important [respectively, AOR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0, 1.97 to 4.51 and AOR, 95% CI: 2.7, 1.89 to 3.79], and were more likely to receive prevention services at their HCP (AOR, 95% CI: 2.5, 1.72 to 3.71 and AOR, 95% CI: 1.7, 1.18 to 2.41) and as likely to receive counseling services at their HTP. Blacks were more likely to be satisfied with the prevention services received at their HCP (AOR, 95% CI: 1.7, 1.14 to 2.65). Compared to white MSM, black and Hispanic MSM had equal or greater use of, perceived importance of, receipt of, and satisfaction with HIV prevention services. Differential experience with HIV prevention services does not explain the higher HIV prevalence among black and Hispanic MSM.
Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław
Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass.
Full Text Available Kevin A Zwetsloot,1 Casey S John,1 Marcus M Lawrence,1 Rebecca A Battista,1 R Andrew Shanely1,2 1Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA; 2Human Performance Laboratory, North Carolina Research Campus, Appalachian State University, Kannapolis, NC, USA Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine: 1 the extent to which an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT increases systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and 2 whether 2 weeks of HIIT training alters the inflammatory response. Eight recreationally active males (aged 22±2 years performed 2 weeks of HIIT on a cycle ergometer (six HIIT sessions at 8–12 intervals; 60-second intervals, 75-second active rest at a power output equivalent to 100% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake (VO2max. Serum samples were collected during the first and sixth HIIT sessions at rest and immediately, 15, 30, and 45 minutes post-exercise. An acute session of HIIT induced significant increases in interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared with rest. The concentrations of interferon-γ, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1β were unaltered with an acute session of HIIT. Two weeks of training did not alter the inflammatory response to an acute bout of HIIT exercise. Maximal power achieved during a VO2max test significantly increased 4.6%, despite no improvements in VO2max after 2 weeks of HIIT. These data suggest that HIIT exercise induces a small inflammatory response in young, recreationally active men; however, 2 weeks of HIIT does not alter this response. Keywords: cycle ergometer, inflammatory cytokines, exercise training
A. G. Avtandilov
Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate effect of bisoprolol on circadian blood pressure (BP profile, autonomic cardiovascular regulation, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in young patients with arterial hypertension (HT and obesity. Materials and methods. 36 men aged 18 to 35 years with HT 1-2 degrees, obesity 1-2 degrees and signs of sympathetic over activity were examined. In addition to standard clinical examination assessment of heart rate variability (HRV during orthostatic test with spectral analysis, ambulatory BP monitoring, evaluation of lipid profile, oral glucose tolerance test, determination of immunoreactive insulin, insulin resistance index and functional activity of beta-cells were performed. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index and waist circumference. Bisoprolol in the initial dose of 5 mg QD orally for 12 weeks was assigned to all patients. After 12 weeks of bisoprolol treatment repeated examination was performed. Results. Significant changes in HRV after 12 weeks of treatment with bisoprolol was found. Parasympathetic influence of autonomic nervous system increased during orthostatic test. Contribution of the slow and very slow waves, which reflect sympathetic and neurohumoral activity , reduced. Total spectral power was significantly increased. Initial tachycardia reduced. Target BP values were achieved after 12 weeks of treatment with bisoprolol 5 mg QD. Increase in a number of dippers and decrease in a number of nondippers in terms of both systolic and diastolic BP was observed. Heart rate and HRV was significantly decreased. No adverse events in terms of lipid or carbohydrate metabolism were found during treatment with bisoprolol. Conclusion. Bisoprolol 12 week treatment resulted in sympathetic activity decrease and parasympathetic activity increase, achievement of BP target levels, improvement of BP circadian profile. Bisoprolol therapy in dose of 5 mg/day demonstrated metabolic neutrality in patients with risk factors of
Criado, José R; Gizer, Ian R; Edenberg, Howard J; Ehlers, Cindy L
A lifetime history of alcohol dependence has been associated with elevations in neuroticism in Mexican American young adults. The identification of genetic markers associated with neuroticism and their influence on the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) may contribute to our understanding of the relationship between personality traits and the increased risk of AUD in Mexican Americans. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between neuroticism and 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) α5-subunit (CHRNA5) and α3-subunit (CHRNA3) genes in young adult Mexican American men and women. Participants were 465 young adult Mexican American men and women who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview. Neuroticism was assessed using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. The minor alleles of four CHRNA5 polymorphisms (rs588765, rs601079, rs680244 and rs555018) and three CHRNA3 polymorphisms (rs578776, rs6495307 and rs3743078) showed associations with neuroticism. Several of these SNPs also displayed nominal associations with DSM-IV alcohol and nicotine dependence, but tests of mediation suggested that these relations could be partially explained by the presence of co-occurring neuroticism. These findings suggest that genetic variations in nicotinic receptor genes may influence the development of neuroticism, which in turn is involved in the development of AUDs and nicotine dependence in Mexican American young adults.
Colangelo, Laura A; Chiu, Brian C-H; Liu, Kiang; Kopp, Peter A; Gann, Peter H; Gapstur, Susan M
Nutritional factors might play a role in regulating serum levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which are associated with some cancers. We examined the associations of nutritional factors with IGF-1 and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). Serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels and dietary intake were measured in 459 black and 682 white male subjects of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study at the Year 7 (1992-1993) exam. Analysis of covariance and multivariable linear regression were used to assess associations of IGFs with dietary factors by race. IGF-1 was positively associated with magnesium in both black and white men (P = 0.008 and 0.05, respectively). Calcium was positively significantly related to IGF-1 in black men (P = 0.04) and marginally so in white men (P = 0.09). In black men, IGFBP-3 was positively associated with magnesium (P = 0.02), and one serving of milk per day was associated with an 8.23-ng/ml higher IGF-1 concentration (P = 0.05). Tests for interaction, however, revealed no differences between blacks and whites in the associations of nutrients with IGF-1 or IGFBP-3. In conclusion, the associations of dietary factors with serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 observed in our study corroborate those from other studies and generally do not differ between black and white men.
Solomon, Todd M; Halkitis, Perry N; Moeller, Robert M; Siconolfi, Daniel E; Kiang, Mathew V; Barton, Staci C
Very little information exists with regard to sex party behaviors in young men who have sex with men (YMSM), often defined as men ranging in age from 13 to 29 years. The current analysis examines sex party attendance and behavior in a sample of 540 emergent adult gay, bisexual, and other YMSM in New York City, ages 18-29 years. Findings indicate that 8.7% (n = 47) of the sample had attended a sex party 3 months prior to assessment. Sex party attendees reported that parties included both HIV-positive and HIV-negative men; attendees also reported unprotected sex and limited access to condoms and lubricant. As compared with those who did not attend sex parties, those who did indicated significantly more lifetime and recent (last 3 months) casual sex partners, drug use (both number of different drugs used and total lifetime use), psychosocial burden (history of partner violence and number of arrests), and total syndemic burden (a composite of unprotected anal sex, drug use and psychosocial burden). These results indicate that while only a small percentage of the overall sample attended sex parties, the intersection of both individual risk factors coupled with risk factors engendered within the sex party environment itself has the potential to be a catalyst in the proliferation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in urban settings. Lastly, given that sex parties are different than other sex environments, commercial and public, with regard to how they are accessed, public health strategies may need to become more tailored in order to reach this potentially highly risky group.
Jensen, Tina Kold; Finne, Katrine Folmann; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik;
puberty onset had not yet fully matured although most were in Tanner stage 5. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Approximately 15% of young Danish men have self-reported later onset of puberty than their peers. We found poorer testicular function in young men with a history of later pubertal development...... Environmental Protection Agency and Kirsten and Freddy Johansens Foundation (grant 95-103-72087). There are no competing interests....
Yamanis, Thespina J; Maman, Suzanne; Mbwambo, Jessie K; Earp, Jo Anne E; Kajula, Lusajo J
Developing effective place-based health interventions requires understanding of the dynamic between place and health. The therapeutic landscape framework explains how place-based social processes and physical geography interact and influence health behavior. This study applied this framework to examine how venues, or social gathering places, influenced HIV risk behavior among young, urban men in Tanzania. Eighty-three public venues where men aged 15-19 met new sexual partners were identified by community informants in one city ward. The majority (86%) of the venues were called 'camps', social gathering places that had formal leaders and members. Observations were conducted at 23 camps and in-depth interviews were conducted with 36 camp members and 10 camp leaders in 15 purposively selected camps. Geographic and social features of camps were examined to understand their contributions to men's behaviors. Camps were characterized by a geographic space claimed by members, a unique name and a democratic system of leadership and governance. Members were mostly men and socialized daily at their camp. They reported strong social bonds and engaging in health-promoting activities such as playing sports and generating income. Members also engaged in HIV risk behaviors, such as meeting new sexual partners and having sex in or around the camp at night. Some members promoted concurrent sexual partnerships with their friends and resisted camp leaders' efforts to change their sexual risk behavior. We conclude that camps are strategic venues for HIV prevention programs for young Tanzanian men. They served as both protective and risk landscapes, illustrating three domains of the therapeutic landscape framework: the built environment; identities of landscape occupants; and sites for collective efficacy. The framework and data suggest HIV intervention components might augment the protective features of the camps, while changing environmental features to reduce risk.
Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334
Jennes-Coussens, Marieke; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Koning, Cyndie
Factors influencing quality of life for persons with Asperger syndrome are not yet understood. Men, ages 18 to 21, completed the World Health Organization Quality Of Life measure, the Perceived Support Network Inventory, and a semi-structured interview. Asperger syndrome affects quality of life beyond the obvious social impact. The 12 men with…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrite inhalants ("poppers" are peripheral vasodilators which, since the beginning of the epidemic, have been known to increase risk for acquiring HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM. However, few studies in recent years have characterized use. From 1999 to 2004, new HIV diagnoses among MSM in British Columbia increased 78%, prompting us to examine the prevalence and correlates of this modifiable HIV risk factor. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were completed between October 2002 and May 2004 as part of an open cohort study of HIV-seronegative young MSM. We measured nitrite inhalant use during the previous year and use during sexual encounters with casual partners specifically. Correlates of use were identified using odds ratios. Results Among 354 MSM surveyed, 31.6% reported any use during the previous year. Nitrite inhalant use during sexual encounters was reported by 22.9% of men and was strongly associated with having casual partners, with greater numbers of casual partners (including those with positive or unknown serostatus and with anal intercourse with casual partners. Nitrite inhalant use was not associated with non-use of condoms with casual sexual partners per se. Conclusion Contemporary use of nitrite inhalants amongst young MSM is common and a strong indicator of anal intercourse with casual sexual partners. Since use appears to increase the probability of infection following exposure to HIV, efforts to reduce the use of nitrite inhalants among MSM should be a very high priority among HIV prevention strategies.
Noguchi, Masahiro; Fujikawa, Ryoya; Kimura, Akira
[Purpose] This study was designed to determine whether smoking affects endothelium function after cold therapy in young men. [Subjects] The final cohort included 27 healthy men (age, 20-21 years). Because an impact on vascular endothelium function was anticipated to be caused by smoking, the study enrolled 14 participants in a smoking group and 13 in a non-smoking group. [Methods] Vascular endothelial function was assessed by determining the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), using finger-tonometry. RHI was measured twice, at rest (baseline) and after a cold stimulus. The forearm was cooled with an ice bag for 10 min as the cold stimulus. Comparisons between the RHI at baseline and after cold treatment, and between the smoking and non-smoking groups, were performed using the paired and unpaired t-tests, respectively. [Results] There was a significant difference in baseline RHI values between the smoking and non-smoking groups, but there was no significant difference between the baseline and post-treatment RHI values in either group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that cigarette smoking damages the endothelial cells in young men with a short history of smoking. However, cold therapy did not have a significant impact on the RHI in either group.
In Indonesia, women, commercial sex workers, truck drivers, migrant workers, and people who live in port areas easily accessible to tourists and fishermen are particularly at risk of becoming infected with HIV. Recognizing the country's potential vulnerability to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the government and the World Bank agreed to fund a $35.4 million, 3-year HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) prevention project to strengthen the capacity of government, nongovernmental organizations, and community-based organizations to carry out the basics of HIV/AIDS prevention, extend the sentinel surveillance system, ensure blood safety, launch public education campaigns, educate health workers on universal precautions and safe waste disposal, promote safer sex skills and behavioral change, and test the sensitivity of certain antibiotics to syphilis and gonorrhea. The program will also establish a STD control program and address the economic impact of the disease by improving the livelihood strategies of HIV/AIDS-affected communities.
Full Text Available The aim of our paper was to explore expressions of life choices and life chances (aspects of agency within structures related to power and experiences of health among early unemployed adolescent young men during the transition period to adulthood. These expressions of agency within structure were interpreted in the light of Cockerham's Health Lifestyles Theory. Furthermore, social constructions of masculinities were addressed in our analysis.Repeated interviews with ten young men in a cohort of school leavers were analyzed with qualitative content analysis.Cockerham's model was useful for interpreting our findings and we found disposition to act to be a crucial theoretical tool to capture the will and intentions of participants in relation to health. We developed the model in the following ways: structure and socialization were visualized as surrounding the whole model. Analyses of what enhances or restricts power are important. In addition to practices of health lifestyles, we added experiences of health as outcome as well as emotional aspects in disposition to act. We interpret our findings as constructions of masculinities within certain structures, in relation to choices, habitus and practices.Qualitative research could contribute to develop the understanding of the agency within structure relationships. Future studies need to pay attention to experiences of health among young people at the margin of the labor market in various milieus--and to analyze these in relation to gender constructions and within the frame-work of agency within structure.
Full Text Available To assess the prevalence of osteoporosis in young men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH and to investigate the changes of BMD and metabolic parameters, a total of 22 young male patients with HH and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. BMD, biochemical, and hormonal parameters were measured in two groups. Osteoporosis was more prevalent in HH patients (45.45% than the control subjects (10.00% (P<0.001. The patients with HH had lower BMD in lumbar spine 2–4, femoral neck, and total hip (P<0.001, for all and higher fasting insulin (P=0.001, HOMA-IR (P=0.002, and SHBG (P<0.001 compared to the controls. After 6 months of pulsatile gonadorelin treatment, BMI (P=0.021 and BMD in lumbar spine 2–4, femoral neck, and total hip (P=0.002, P=0.003, and P=0.003, resp. increased dramatically and total cholesterol (P=0.034, fasting insulin (P=0.025, HOMA-IR (P=0.021, and SHBG (P=0.001 decreased significantly in HH patients. The study shows a higher prevalence of osteoporosis in young men with HH. Long-term pulsatile gonadorelin treatment indicates a positive effect on BMD and metabolic parameters of HH patients.
Research investigating intimate partner violence (IPV) among sexual minorities is limited. The research that does exist has found that rates of IPV are similar to or higher than the rates found for heterosexual women, the most commonly studied population in this area. This limited research has resulted in a dearth of prevention/intervention programs targeted for these populations. While some may argue that existing IPV programs can be used for these populations, this review presents an argument for more targeted work with sexual minority populations, using young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as an example. Drawing on the framework of intersectionality, this article argues that the intersectionality of age, sexual identity, and gender combines to create a spectrum of unique factors that require specific attention. This framework allows for the identification of known correlates for IPV as well as factors that may be unique to YMSM or other sexual minority populations. The article presents a conceptual model that suggests new areas of research as well as a foundation for the topics and issues that should be addressed in an intervention.
Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa M; Latkin, Carl A; Muth, Stephen Q
The objective of this study was to characterize and compare individual and sexual network characteristics of Black, White, and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as potential drivers of racial disparities in HIV. Egocentric network interviews were conducted with 175 diverse YMSM who described 837 sex partners within 167 sexual-active egos. Sexual partner alter attributes were summarized by ego. Descriptives of ego demographics, sexual partner demographics, and network characteristics were calculated by race of the ego and compared. No racial differences were found in individual engagement in HIV risk behaviors or concurrent sexual partnership. Racial differences were found in partner characteristics, including female gender, non-gay sexual orientations, older age, and residence in a high HIV prevalence neighborhood. Racial differences in relationship characteristics included type of relationships (i.e., main partner) and strength of relationships. Network characteristics also showed differences, including sexual network density and assortativity by race. Most racial differences were in the direction of effects that would tend to increase HIV incidence among Black YMSM. These data suggest that racial disparities in HIV may be driven and/or maintained by a combination of racial differences in partner characteristics, assortativity by race, and increased sexual network density, rather than differences in individual's HIV risk behaviors.
Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Pachankis, John E; Gamarel, Kristi E; Surace, Anthony; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Given the popularity of social media among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and in light of YMSM's elevated and increasing HIV rates, we tested the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a live chat intervention delivered on Facebook in reducing condomless anal sex and substance use within a group of high risk YMSM in a pre-post design with no control group. Participants (N = 41; 18-29 years old) completed up to eight one-hour motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral skills-based online live chat intervention sessions, and reported on demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Analyses indicated that participation in the intervention (n = 31) was associated with reductions of days of drug and alcohol use in the past month and instances of anal sex without a condom (including under the influence of substances), as well as increases in knowledge of HIV-related risks at 3-month follow-up. This pilot study argues for the potential of this social media-delivered intervention to reduce HIV risk among a most vulnerable group in the United States, in a manner that was highly acceptable to receive and feasible to execute. A future randomized controlled trial could generate an intervention blueprint for providers to support YMSM's wellbeing by reaching them regardless of their geographical location, at a low cost.
Shefer, Tamara; Kruger, Lou-Marie; Schepers, Yeshe
South Africa has seen a rapid increase in scholarship and programmatic interventions focusing on gender and sexuality, and more recently on boys, men and masculinities. In this paper, we argue that a deterministic discourse on men's sexuality and masculinity in general is inherent in many current understandings of adolescent male sexuality, which tend to assume that young women are vulnerable and powerless and young men are sexually powerful and inevitably also the perpetrators of sexual violence. Framed within a feminist, social constructionist the oretical perspective, the current research looked at how the masculinity and sexuality of South African young men is constructed, challenged or maintained. Focus groups were conducted with young men between the ages of 15 and 20 years from five different schools in two regions of South Africa, the Western and Eastern Cape. Data were analysed using Gilligan's listening guide method. Findings suggest that participants in this study have internalised the notion of themselves as dangerous, but were also exploring other possible ways of being male and being sexual, demonstrating more complex experiences of manhood. We argue for the importance of documenting and highlighting the precariousness, vulnerability and uncertainty of young men in scholarly and programmatic work on masculinities.
Shefer, Tamara; Kruger, Lou-Marie; Schepers, Yeshe
South Africa has seen a rapid increase in scholarship and programmatic interventions focusing on gender and sexuality, and more recently on boys, men and masculinities. In this paper, we argue that a deterministic discourse on men's sexuality and masculinity in general is inherent in many current understandings of adolescent male sexuality, which tend to assume that young women are vulnerable and powerless and young men are sexually powerful and inevitably also the perpetrators of sexual violence. Framed within a feminist, social constructionist the oretical perspective, the current research looked at how the masculinity and sexuality of South African young men is constructed, challenged or maintained. Focus groups were conducted with young men between the ages of 15 and 20 years from five different schools in two regions of South Africa, the Western and Eastern Cape. Data were analysed using Gilligan's listening guide method. Findings suggest that participants in this study have internalised the notion of themselves as dangerous, but were also exploring other possible ways of being male and being sexual, demonstrating more complex experiences of manhood. We argue for the importance of documenting and highlighting the precariousness, vulnerability and uncertainty of young men in scholarly and programmatic work on masculinities. PMID:25803702
Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline;
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of aerobic retraining as rehabilitation after short-term leg immobilization on leg strength, leg work capacity, leg lean mass, leg muscle fibre type composition and leg capillary supply, in young and older men. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Seventeen young (23 ± 1 years...... immobilization had marked effects on leg strength, and work capacity and 6 weeks' retraining was sufficient to increase, but not completely rehabilitate, muscle strength, and to rehabilitate aerobic work capacity and leg lean mass (in the young men)....
Jørgensen, Niels; Meldgaard, Michael; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Carlsen, Berit Christina; Stender, Steen; Szecsi, Pal Bela; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; De Meyts, Ewa Rajpert; Thyssen, Jacob P.
Background: Filaggrin is an epidermal protein that is crucial for skin barrier function. Up to 10% of Europeans and 5% of Asians carry at least one null allele in the filaggrin gene (FLG). Reduced expression of filaggrin in carriers of the null allele is associated with facilitated transfer of allergens across the epidermis. We hypothesized that these individuals may have increased transdermal uptake of endocrine disruptors, including phthalates. Objectives: We investigated urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites and testicular function in young men with and without FLG loss-of-function variants in a cross-sectional study of 861 young men from the general Danish population. Methods: All men were genotyped for FLG R501X, 2282del4, and R2447X loss-of-function variants. We measured urinary concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites and serum levels of reproductive hormones. We also evaluated semen quality. Results: Sixty-five men (7.5%) carried at least one FLG-null allele. FLG-null carriers had significantly higher urinary concentrations of several phthalate metabolites, including a 33% higher concentration of MnBP (mono-n-butyl phthalate; 95% CI: 16, 51%). FLG-null variants were not significantly associated with reproductive hormones or semen quality parameters. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that carriers of FLG loss-of-function alleles may have higher internal exposure to phthalates, possibly due to increased transepidermal absorption. FLG loss-of-function variants may indicate susceptible populations for which special attention to transepidermal absorption of chemicals and medication may be warranted. Citation: Joensen UN, Jørgensen N, Meldgaard M, Frederiksen H, Andersson AM, Menné T, Johansen JD, Carlsen BC, Stender S, Szecsi PB, Skakkebæk NE, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Thyssen JP. 2014. Associations of filaggrin gene loss-of-function variants with urinary phthalate metabolites and testicular function in young Danish men. Environ Health Perspect 122
Heaton, K W; Manning, A P; Hartog, M
1. When nineteen "free-living" male students, who normally ate 231 (SEM 14) g white bread/d changed to wholemeal bread for a 19-week period, there was no significant change in body-weight, plasma cholesterol or plasma triglyceride levels. These values, as well as plasma concentrations of calcium, phosphate, urate and haemoglobin, remained essentially the same as those for a control group. 2. Increasing the wheat-fibre intake by eating wholemeal bread is not an effective method for reducing blood lipids levels, at least in healthy young men with a moderate bread intake.
Patel, Viraj V; Masyukova, Mariya; Sutton, Desmond; Horvath, Keith J
Urban young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and transgender women continue to experience high rates of new HIV infections in the USA, yet most of this population is not reached by current prevention interventions. The rate of Internet and social media use among youth is high. However, continually updated understanding of the associations between social media access and use and HIV risk behaviors is needed to reach and tailor technology-delivered interventions for those most vulnerable to HIV-racially and ethnically diverse urban YMSM and transgender persons. Thus, we conducted an in-person, venue-based cross-sectional survey among young gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals at locations primarily visited by Black and Latino gay and bisexual and transgender individuals in New York City to understand social media use and how it may relate to HIV risk behaviors to inform social media-based interventions. Among 102 primarily Black and Latino gay and bisexual men (75.5 %) and transgender women (19.6 %), over 90 % were under 30 years of age, 18.6 % reported homelessness in the past 6 months, and 10.8 % reported having HIV. All participants used social media, most accessed these platforms most often via a mobile device (67.6 %) and most logged on multiple times per day (87.3 %). Participants used social media to seek sex partners (56.7 %), exchange sex for money or clothes (19.6 %), and exchange sex for drugs (9.8 %). These results confirm prior studies demonstrating the feasibility of using social media platforms to reach at-risk, urban youth. Of particular concern is the association between recent STI and exchanging sex for money/clothes and drugs. Interventions using social media for young, urban minority MSM and transgender populations should incorporate risk reduction modules addressing exchange partners and promote frequent and regular HIV/STI testing.
Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N
We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.
Mutchler, Matt G; McDavitt, Bryce
Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends ('gay boy talk'). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we examine risk assessment assumptions conveyed within YGM's communication about sexual health with their friends and how, if at all, the sexual scripts guiding these assumptions may differ between YGM and young women. Findings demonstrated that, while these young adults clearly intended to support their friends and promote safer sex, they also conveyed assumptions about HIV risk assessment, especially regarding sexual partner selection, that may actually increase their friends' risk for HIV infection. Since inaccurate HIV risk assessment assumptions were transmitted via sexual health communication between peers, it is suggested that such assumptions may need to be addressed in HIV prevention programs working with YGM and their friends. Further, gender differences were identified within the sexual scripts shared between YGM and their friends, suggesting that such interventions should be tailored to the specific needs of different friendship networks.
Danielsson, Ulla E; Bengs, Carita; Samuelsson, Eva; Johansson, Eva E
Depression is common among young people. Gender differences in diagnosing depression appear during adolescence. The study aim was to explore the impact of gender on depression in young Swedish men and women. Grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 23 young people aged 17 to 25 years who had been diagnosed with depression. Their narratives were marked by a striving to be normal and disclosed strong gender stereotypes, constructed in interaction with parents, friends, and the media. Gender norms were upheld by feelings of shame, and restricted the acting space of our informants. However, we also found transgressions of these gender norms. Primary health care workers could encourage young men to open up emotionally and communicate their personal distress, and young women to be daring and assertive of their own strengths, so that both genders might gain access to the positive coping strategies practiced respectively by each.
Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of progressive exercise (pyramidal short-term program on plasma fibrinogen, lipid profile and blood viscosity in untrained young men. Changes and imbalances in homeostasis lead to cause of heart attacks. There is conflicting information about the effect of exercise on these factors. 19 young healthy untrained men were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n = 10 and controls (n = 9 groups. Exercise training group with increasing severity of heart maximum 25 to 100 percent began to run the practice (pyramid in 42-minute sessions, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks. There was no significant difference between the parameters of body composition, control, and training groups. Levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein density and viscosity of the blood significantly decreased in the training group compared with the control group (p value, respectively is 0.001, 0.001 and 0.035. The changes in the concentration of fibrinogen, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides in both groups are not significant in both groups (p value, respectively is 0.645, 0.993 and 0.421. The present results show that it is possible that progressive training (pyramidal short-term program changed the levels of cardiovascular risk factors by reducing blood viscosity.
Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on the levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 in obese young men. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included sixteen obese young men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2). They were randomly divided between control and exercise groups (n = 8 in each group). The exercise group performed treadmill exercise for 40 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks at the intensity of 70% heart rate reserve. Blood collection was performed to examine the levels of serum glucose, plasma malonaldehyde, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and plasma eotaxin-1 before and after the intervention (aerobic exercise training). [Results] Following the intervention, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher, while serum glucose, plasma MDA, and plasma eotaxin-1 levels were significantly lower than those prior to the intervention in the exercise group. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise training can induce neurogenesis in obese individuals by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reducing the levels of eotaxin-1. Alleviation of oxidative stress is possibly responsible for such changes.
Bachman, J G; O'Malley, P M
This paper analyzes relationships among self-esteem, educational attainment, and occupational status. Data from a nationwide longitudinal study of more than 1600 young men show a substantial increase in self-esteem between 19TT (when respondents were beginning tenth grade) and 1974. Reliability and construct validity data for the self-esteem measure are reported. As expected, both educational attainment and occupational status are correlated with self-esteem. Contrary to expectations, educational attainment as of 1974 is more strongly correlated with tenth grade self-esteem than with 1974 self-esteem. A path analysis led to these conclusions: (a) Self-esteem during high school has little or no direct causal impact on later educational and occupational attainment; self-esteem and attainment are correlated primarily because of shared prior causes including family background, ability, and scholastic performance. (b) Occupational status has a direct positive impact on self-esteem. (c) Post high school educational attainment has no direct impact on self-esteem and only a trivial indirect impact via occupational status. Additional findings indicate that factors associated with educational success become less central to the self-evaluations of young men during late high school and the years thereafter.
Finkler, Maya; Hochman, Ayala; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32) healthy young men, aged 24-30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise). Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30-60 mL/min/kg). We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness.
Balabukha, Iryna; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie
We examined the role of financial strain, parent-to-parent violence, parent-to-child violence, emotional distress, and alcohol use in intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine. The moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations was also examined. Four hundred and six full-time female university students from four universities in Ukraine participated in the study. We found that emotional distress, parent-to-parent, and parent-to-child violence mediated the link between financial strain and intimate partner violence perpetrated by women on men. However, we found limited support for the moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations in the relationship between individual and familial factors on intimate partner violence. The findings from this investigation suggest that there is a distinct need for supporting families and individuals in dealing with issues of intimate partner violence directed by women against men in Ukraine. Aggr. Behav. 42:380-393, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R; Pardini, Dustin
Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified 4 distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the 4 marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed in the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects.
Young, Lindsay E; Jonas, Adam B; Michaels, Stuart; Jackson, Joel D; Pierce, Mario L; Schneider, John A
The endogenous social support systems of young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM), like surrogate families and social networks, are considered crucial assets for HIV prevention in this population. Yet, the extent to which these social systems foster sexual health protections or risks remains unclear. We examine the networked patterns of membership in ballroom houses and independent gay families, both Black gay subcultures in the United States, and how these memberships are related to HIV protective and risk traits of members. Drawing from a population-based sample of 618 YBMSM living in Chicago between June 2013 and July 2014, we observe a suite of protective and risk traits and perform bivariate analyses to assess each of their associations with being a member of a house or family. We then present an analysis of the homophilous and heterophilous mixing on these traits that structures the patterns of house and family affiliations among members. The bivariate analyses show that members of the house and family communities were more likely than non-members to report protective traits like being aware of PrEP, having health coverage, having a primary care doctor, and discouraging sex drug use among peers. However, members were also more likely to engage in the use of sex drugs. With respect to how these traits inform specific house/family affiliations, results show that members who had a recent HIV test, who were PrEP aware, or who engaged in exchange sex were more likely to belong to the same house or family, while HIV positive individuals were less likely to cluster within houses or families. These findings provide insights regarding the strengths and vulnerabilities of the house and gay family communities that can inform more culturally specific interventions that build on the existing human and social capital in this milieu.
Ompad, Danielle C; Kapadia, Farzana; Bates, Francesca C; Blachman-Forshay, Jaclyn; Halkitis, Perry N
This analysis aimed to determine whether the relationship between a history of arrest and unprotected anal sex (UAS) is the same for Black/Latino gay, bisexual, and other young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as compared to White/Asian/Pacific Islander (API) YMSM in New York City (NYC). Baseline audio-computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) and interviewer-administered survey data from a sample of 576 YMSM aged 18-19 years old who self-reported being HIV-negative were analyzed. Data included history of arrest and incarceration as well as UAS in the past 30 days. Race/ethnicity was an effect modifier of the association between arrest and UAS among YMSM: White/API YMSM with a lifetime arrest history were more than three times as likely to report UAS, and Black/Latino YMSM with a lifetime history of arrest were approximately 70 % less likely to report UAS as compared with White/API YMSM with no reported arrest history. Race/ethnicity may modify the relationship between arrest and sexual risk behavior because the etiology of arrest differs by race, as partially evidenced by racial/ethnic disparities in police stop, arrest, and incarceration rates in NYC. Arrest could not only be an indicator of risky behavior for White/API YMSM but also an indicator of discrimination for Black/Latino YMSM. Further research is needed to assess whether the differential associations observed here vis-à-vis race/ethnicity are robust across different populations and different health outcomes.
Muessig, Kathryn Elizabeth; McNulty, Tobias; Soni, Karina; Knudtson, Kelly; Lemann, Alex; Nwoko, Nkechinyere; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B
Background In the United States, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men (YMSM). For HIV-positive individuals, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical for achieving optimal health outcomes and reducing secondary transmission of HIV. However, YMSM often struggle with ART adherence. Novel mobile phone apps that incorporate game-based mechanics and social networking elements represent a promising intervention approach for improving ART adherence among YMSM. Objective This study used a multiphase, iterative development process to create an ART adherence app for YMSM. Methods The three-phase development process included: (1) theory-based concept development jointly by public health researchers and the technology team, (2) assessment of the target population’s ART adherence needs and app preferences and development and testing of a clickable app prototype, and (3) development and usability testing of the final app prototype. Results The initial theory-based app concept developed in Phase One included medication reminders, daily ART adherence tracking and visualization, ART educational modules, limited virtual interactions with other app users, and gamification elements. In Phase Two, adherence needs, including those related to information, motivation, and behavioral skills, were identified. Participants expressed preferences for an ART adherence app that was informational, interactive, social, and customizable. Based on the findings from Phase Two, additional gaming features were added in Phase Three, including an interactive battle, superhero app theme, and app storyline. Other features were modified to increase interactivity and customization options and integrate the game theme. During usability testing of the final prototype, participants were able to understand and navigate the app successfully and rated the app favorably. Conclusions An iterative development process was critical for the
Leonard, Kenneth E.; Blane, Howard T.
Examined several hypotheses concerning heavy drinking and marital violence. Subjects, 320 married and cohabiting men who participated in a nationally representative study of alcohol consumption, completed scales assessing hostility, self-consciousness, marital satisfaction, and the Alcohol Dependence Scale. Results indicated that alcohol use was…
Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Raikkonen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Henriksson, Markus; Leskinen, Jukka; Osmond, Clive; Forsen, Tom; Barker, David J. P.; Eriksson, Johan G.
We examined the effects of early life stress (ELS) on intellectual ability in 2,725 20-year-old male participants, of whom 321 were separated temporarily (mean 1.7 years) from both their parents during World War II, at an average age of 4.3 years. Intellectual ability was tested when entering compulsory military service. The separated men had…
Pachankis, John E.; Westmaas, J. Lee; Dougherty, Lea R.
Objective: The prevalence of smoking among gay men is considerably higher than in the general population. To investigate possible causes of this health risk disparity, this study used multilevel modeling of daily diary data to examine the temporal relationship between smoking and both sexual orientation concealment and masculine gender role…
Høiberg, M; Nielsen, Torben Leo; Wraae, K;
SUMMARY: Population-based reference values for peak bone mass density in Danish men. BMD of total hip (1.078 +/- 0,14 g/cm2) differed significantly from values from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and of total lumbar spine ((1.073 +/- 0.125 g/cm2) differed significantly from ...
Høiberg, M; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, Kristian;
Population-based reference values for peak bone mass density in Danish men. BMD of total hip (1.078 +/- 0,14 g/cm2) differed significantly from values from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and of total lumbar spine ((1.073 +/- 0.125 g/cm2) differed significantly from Hologic v...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Notions of ideal manhood in South Africa are potentially prescriptive of male sexuality thus accounting for the behaviors which may lead to men being at greater HIV risk. We tested the hypothesis that gender and relationship constructs are associated with condom use among young men living in rural South Africa. Methods 1219 men aged 15–26 years completed a cross-sectional baseline survey from an IsiXhosa questionnaire asking about sexual behaviour and relationships. Univariate and bivariate analyses described condom use patterns and explanatory variables, and multinomial regression modeling assessed the factors associated with inconsistent versus consistent and non-condom use. Results 47.7% of men never used condoms, when 36.9% were inconsistent and 15.4% were consistent with any partner in the past year. Condom use patterns differed in association with gender relations attitudes: never users were significantly more conservative than inconsistent or consistent users. Three gender positions emerged indicating that inconsistent users were most physically/sexually violent and sexually risky; never users had more conservative gender attitudes but were less violent and sexually risky; and consistent users were less conservative, less violent and sexually risky with notably fewer sexual partners than inconsistent users. Conclusions The confluence of conservative gender attitudes, perpetration of violence against women and sexual risk taking distinguished inconsistent condom users as the most risky compared to never condom users, and rendered inconsistent use one of the basic negative attributes of dominant masculinities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This finding is important for the design of HIV prevention and gender equity interventions and emphasizes the need for a wider roll-out of interventions that promote progressive and healthy masculine practices in the country.
Arnold, Emily A; Rebchook, Gregory M; Kegeles, Susan M
In the USA, young Black gay men are disproportionately impacted upon by HIV. In this qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 31 young Black gay men and nine service providers, where we used thematic analysis to guide our interpretations, we found that HIV-related stigma and homophobia, within the larger societal context of racism, were related to sexual risk behaviour, reluctance to obtain HIV testing or care, lower adherence to treatment medication, and non-disclosure of a positive HIV status to sexual partners. Participants experienced homophobia and HIV-related stigma from churches and families within the Black community and from friends within the Black gay community, which otherwise provide support in the face of racism. Vulnerability to HIV was related to strategies that young Black gay men enacted to avoid being stigmatised or as a way of coping with alienation and rejection.
P. A. Yurchenko
Full Text Available To investigate the state of «the pituitary gland-thyroid gland system» in the patients with undifferentiated dysplasia of the connective tissue (UDCT 83 young men of the call up age (18.2±0.4 y.o. were examined. The control group consisted of 26 practically healthy young men of the same age (18.5±0.2 y.o.. Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT was diagnosed in 32.5 % of the men with UDCT. The rate of the internal (visceral phenotypical signs of UDCT in this group was significantly higher than in the men with UDCT but without thyroid problems.
Boccia, Gennaro; Dardanello, Davide; Beretta-Piccoli, Matteo; Cescon, Corrado; Coratella, Giuseppe; Rinaldo, Nicoletta; Barbero, Marco; Lanza, Massimo; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto
Over the past decade, linear and nonlinear surface electromyography (EMG) variables highlighting different components of fatigue have been developed. In this study, we tested fractal dimension (FD) and conduction velocity (CV) rate of changes as descriptors, respectively, of motor unit synchronization and peripheral manifestations of fatigue. Sixteen elderly (69 ± 4 years) and seventeen young (23 ± 2 years) physically active men (almost 3-5 h of physical activity per week) executed one knee extensor contraction at 70% of a maximal voluntary contraction for 30 s. Muscle fiber CV and FD were calculated from the multichannel surface EMG signal recorded from the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles. The main findings were that the two groups showed a similar rate of change of CV, whereas FD rate of change was higher in the young than in the elderly group. The trends were the same for both muscles. CV findings highlighted a non-different extent of peripheral manifestations of fatigue between groups. Nevertheless, FD rate of change was found to be steeper in the elderly than in the young, suggesting a greater increase in motor unit synchronization with ageing. These findings suggest that FD analysis could be used as a complementary variable providing further information on central mechanisms with respect to CV in fatiguing contractions.
Kubicek, Katrina; McDavitt, Bryce; Carpineto, Julie; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.
Research investigating the role of religion in the lives of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is limited. Given the unique developmental stage of emerging adults and the fact that most religions have restrictions on homosexual behavior, it is important to understand how YMSM integrate their sexual and religious/spiritual identities. Drawing upon a longitudinal, mixed methods study, we explore the role of religion and spirituality in the lives of a sample of YMSM. Presented are descriptio...
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce
Sexual risk behaviors of young gay and bisexual men must be understood within the context of other health concerns (e.g., anxiety, substance abuse), population-specific factors (i.e., the coming-out process and gay-related stress), childhood sexual abuse, and other theoretical factors (e.g., safer sex intentions). The current report proposes and longitudinally examines a model of risk factors for subsequent sexual risk behaviors among young gay and bisexual men in New York City. As hypothesiz...
Dunkley, Cara R; Dang, Silvain S; Chang, Sabrina C H; Gorzalka, Boris B
Prior research has documented various ways in which adult attachment styles are characteristic of differential behavioral and cognitive patterns within romantic relationships and sexuality. However, few studies have examined the direct influence of anxious or avoidant attachment orientation on sexual function. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of insecure attachment on sexual function. Undergraduate students completed questionnaires measuring attachment style and sexual functioning. Among women, attachment avoidance tended to be associated with impairments in all aspects of sexual function, whereas anxious attachment tended to be associated with declines in arousal, satisfaction, and ability to achieve orgasm. A different trend was seen in men: Anxious attachment tended to be associated with multiple facets of sexual dysfunction, while avoidant attachment did not correlate with any sexual function deficits and was associated with superior physiological competence. These results suggest that both anxious and avoidant attachment styles are important yet differential predictors of sexual function in men and women.
Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Foster, S Catherine; Servoss, Timothy; LaBelle, Sara
Despite the prevalence of testicular cancer among men 15-39 years of age, little has been done to increase awareness of this disease or educate males about its prevention. To fill this gap, the Standard Model of Health Communication was incorporated to design and implement a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign among male college students. To test the effectiveness of these messages, college students (N = 220) completed measures before and after the campaign. In addition, the authors obtained a control group of male college students (N = 52) who were not exposed to the messages. Survey items assessed awareness of testicular cancer and behaviors related to testicular cancer. Participants' knowledge of testicular cancer and likelihood of conducting a testicular self-exam increased significantly after being exposed to the campaign information. Men who were exposed to testicular cancer messages were more knowledgeable about testicular cancer and were more likely to conduct testicular self-examinations than were men in the control group.
The paper explores the effect of unrestricted access to the birth control pill on young people’s career plans, using annual surveys of college freshmen from 1968 to 1980. In particular it addresses the question of who was affected by the introduction of the birth control pill by looking at career...
Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista
Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…
Bauermeister, José A; Ventuneac, Ana; Pingel, Emily; Parsons, Jeffrey T
We examined the association between HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and romantic feelings among single, young gay and bisexual men (YGBM). Romantic feelings may have positive (romantic ideation) and negative (romantic obsession) connotations. Consequently, we hypothesized that YGBM would report greater risks if they reported having obsessive thoughts about their relationship desires; conversely, we hypothesized that YGBM who envision a romantic relationship would report fewer unprotected partners. Using cross-sectional data from a study examining YGBM's online dating experiences (N = 376; ages 18-24), we found a positive association between romantic obsession and number of partners for unprotected receptive (URAI) and insertive (UIAI) anal intercourse. Conversely, we found a negative association between romantic ideation and number of partners for URAI and UIAI. Is love risky or protective? Our results indicate support for both perspectives. We discuss the implications of our findings, highlighting the importance of addressing romantic pursuits into existing HIV prevention interventions for YGBM.
Brøns, Charlotte; Jensen, Christine B.; Storgaard, Heidi
A high-fat, high-calorie diet is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the relative contribution of metabolic defects to the development of hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes is controversial. Accumulation of excess fat in muscle and adipose tissue in insulin resistance and type 2...... diabetes may be linked with defective mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The aim of the current study was to investigate acute effects of short-term fat overfeeding on glucose and insulin metabolism in young men. We studied the effects of 5 days' high-fat (60% energy) overfeeding (+50%) versus...... significantly in response to overfeeding. However, peripheral insulin action, muscle mitochondrial function, and general and specific oxidative phosphorylation gene expression were unaffected by high-fat feeding. Insulin secretion increased appropriately to compensate for hepatic, and not for peripheral...
Sonne, M P; Højbjerre, L; Alibegovic, A C;
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in young men with LBW (n = 22) and controls (n = 22). METHODS: Insulin sensitivity and endothelial function was studied...... with venous occlusion plethysmography and intra-arterial infusions of adenosine and acetylcholine, before and during a hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp. RESULTS: Forearm blood flow response to systemic hyperinsulinemia was diminished in LBW compared to controls (p ... extraction was similar, and consequently insulin-stimulated forearm glucose clearance was diminished in LBW compared with controls (0.8 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.36 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1), respectively, p
Kvorning, T; Kadi, F; Schjerling, P
AIM: To investigate how suppression of endogenous testosterone during an 8-week strength training period influences the activity of satellite cells and myonuclei. METHODS: Twenty-two moderately trained young men participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blinded intervention...... from the mid-portion of the vastus lateralis muscle. RESULTS: Testosterone resting level in goserelin was 10-20 times lower compared with placebo, and the training-induced increase in the level of testosterone was abolished in goserelin. Training increased satellite cells number in type II fibres by 20......% in placebo and by 52% in goserelin (P cells and myonuclei were seen in type I fibres in either group. Data from the microarray analysis...
Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Bonde, Jens P;
The aim of the present study was to compare assessments of sperm concentration and sperm motility analysed by conventional semen analysis with those obtained by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) (Copenhagen Rigshospitalet Image House Sperm Motility Analysis System (CRISMAS) 4.6 software) us...... and motility analysis. This needs to be accounted for in clinics using this software and in studies of determinants of these semen characteristics.......The aim of the present study was to compare assessments of sperm concentration and sperm motility analysed by conventional semen analysis with those obtained by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) (Copenhagen Rigshospitalet Image House Sperm Motility Analysis System (CRISMAS) 4.6 software......) using semen samples from 166 young Danish men. The CRISMAS software identifies sperm concentration and classifies spermatozoa into three motility categories. To enable comparison of the two methods, the four motility stages obtained by conventional semen analysis were, based on their velocity...
Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Thorning, Tanja K; Astrup, Arne;
BACKGROUND: Calcium from different dairy sources might affect blood lipids and fecal fat excretion differently because of differences in the food matrix and nutritional composition. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether milk- and cheese-based diets with similar calcium contents affect a saturated...... with the control diet, milk- and cheese-based diets attenuated saturated fatty acid-induced increases in total and LDL cholesterol and resulted in increased fecal fat excretion; however, effects of milk and cheese did not differ. Because the diets contained similar amounts of saturated fat, similar increases...... fatty acid-induced increase in blood lipids differently. DESIGN: Fifteen healthy, young men participated in a randomized 3 × 2-wk crossover study in which the following 3 isocaloric diets that were similar in fat contents and compositions were compared: control diet [nondairy diet (~500 mg Ca/d)], milk...
Duncan, Dustin T; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N
The few previous studies examining the influence of the neighborhood context on health and health behavior among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) have predominantly focused on residential neighborhoods. No studies have examined multiple neighborhood contexts among YMSM or the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, health behaviors, and neighborhood concordance. In this study, we assessed spatial polygamy by determining the amount of concordance between residential, social, and sex neighborhoods (defined as boroughs) in addition to examining individual-level characteristics that may be associated with neighborhood concordance. These data come from the baseline assessment of Project 18, a cohort of racially and ethnically diverse YMSM residing in the New York City metropolitan area. Participants (N = 598) provided information on their residential, social, and sex boroughs as well as information on their sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, and health behaviors (e.g., substance use and condomless sex). Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine the distribution of boroughs reported across all three contexts, i.e., residential, social, and sex boroughs. Next, concordance between: (1) residential and social boroughs; (2) residential and sex boroughs; (3) social and sex boroughs; and (4) residential, social, and sex boroughs was assessed. Finally, bivariable analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, and health behaviors in relation to borough concordance. Approximately two-thirds of participants reported concordance between residential/socializing, residential/sex, and sex/socializing boroughs, whereas 25% reported concordance between all three residential/socializing/sex boroughs
Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Parise, Gianni; Bellamy, Leeann; Baker, Steven K; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J; Phillips, Stuart M
Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE) in untrained men (n = 23) and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index = 26.4±0.9 kg•m²) underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (PHypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05) with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46) at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.
Kubicek, Katrina; McNeeley, Miles; Collins, Shardae
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to experience higher rates of HIV infection than other populations. Recently, there have been recommendations to consider HIV prevention at the dyadic or couple level. Using a dyadic approach to HIV prevention would also address an unaddressed concern related to intimate partner violence (IPV) among YMSM. Although research on IPV among YMSM is still in its infancy, great strides have been made in the past 10 years to describe the prevalence and related correlates of IPV within older adult same-sex relationships. These studies have found rates of IPV among MSM to be similar to rates among heterosexual women, and to be on the rise. The present study is designed to provide insight into how power is conceptualized within YMSM relationships and the role it may play in relationship challenges. This study draws from qualitative data collected from 11 focus groups with 86 YMSM and 26 individual semi-structured interviews to understand relationship challenges and the experiences of YMSM involved in partner violence. YMSM described relationship power as stemming from numerous sources including sexual positioning, gender roles, education, income, prior relationship experiences, and internalized homophobia. The findings have a number of implications for service providers and program design. Interventionists and other researchers need to consider power dynamics and other contextual elements of IPV before effective interventions can be developed for YMSM and other sexual minority populations.
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2010
Montana's definition of a basic system of quality public elementary and secondary schools includes educational programs for at-risk students (20-9-309, MCA). State statute defines an at-risk student as a "student who is affected by environmental conditions that negatively impact the student's educational performance or threaten a student's…
Maria A. Polak
Full Text Available There has been an increased interest in the role of vitamin D in depression; however, there have been few studies conducted in younger population groups. Our aim was to investigate the association between vitamin D status and depressive symptoms in a non-clinical young adult sample living in Dunedin, New Zealand. A cross-sectional sample of 615 young adults completed a questionnaire including demographics and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Height, weight and a blood sample for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] was obtained. Serum 25(OHD was used to predict depression scores, adjusting for potential confounders including time spent outdoors for 13 consecutive days, BMI, age, sex and ethnicity. Prevalence of low vitamin D was high even in this age group, and serum 25(OHD was negatively associated with depression symptoms before and after adjustment. When investigating the relationship between the presence versus absence of depressive symptoms and quartiles of 25(OHD, participants in the lowest quartile were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared with those in the highest quartile. Although our findings suggest that vitamin D is a predictor of depression symptomatology, even when controlling for time spent outdoors, a randomised controlled trial in this young adult target group is needed to confirm the association.
Jorge Marcos Marcos
Full Text Available Background: The literature shows how gender mandates contribute to differences in exposure and vulnerability to certain health risk factors. This paper presents the results of a study developed in the south of Spain, where research aimed at understanding men from a gender perspective is still limited. Objective: The aim of this paper is to explore the lay perceptions and meanings ascribed to the idea of masculinity, identifying ways in which gender displays are related to health. Design: The study is based on a mixed-methods data collection strategy typical of qualitative research. We performed a qualitative content analysis focused on manifest and latent content. Results: Our analysis showed that the relationship between masculinity and health was mainly defined with regard to behavioural explanations with an evident performative meaning. With regard to issues such as driving, the use of recreational drugs, aggressive behaviour, sexuality, and body image, important connections were established between manhood acts and health outcomes. Different ways of understanding and performing the male identity also emerged from the results. The findings revealed the implications of these aspects in the processes of change in the identity codes of men and women. Conclusions: The study provides insights into how the category ‘man’ is highly dependent on collective practices and performative acts. Consideration of how males perform manhood acts might be required in guidance on the development of programmes and policies aimed at addressing gender inequalities in health in a particular local context.
Podstawski, Robert; Boraczyński, Tomasz; Boraczyński, Michał; Choszcz, Dariusz; Mańkowski, Stefan; Markowski, Piotr
The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body mass loss (BML) induced by thermal stress in a dry sauna. The study was conducted on a group of 674 sedentary students, 326 women and 348 men aged 19-20. The correlations between BMI scores and BML were determined. The subjects were placed in supine position in a dry sauna for two sessions of 10 minutes each with a 5-minute break. The influence of BMI on the amount of BML in the sauna was determined by nonlinear stepwise regression. The smallest BML was noted in underweight subjects; students with normal weight lost more weight, whereas the greatest BML was reported in overweight and obese subjects. Persons with a high BMI are at higher risk of dehydration, and they should pay particular attention to replenishing fluids during a visit to the sauna. The proposed equations for calculating BML based on a person's BMI can be useful in estimating the amount of fluids that should be replenished by both men and women during a visit to a dry sauna.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and body mass loss (BML induced by thermal stress in a dry sauna. The study was conducted on a group of 674 sedentary students, 326 women and 348 men aged 19-20. The correlations between BMI scores and BML were determined. The subjects were placed in supine position in a dry sauna for two sessions of 10 minutes each with a 5-minute break. The influence of BMI on the amount of BML in the sauna was determined by nonlinear stepwise regression. The smallest BML was noted in underweight subjects; students with normal weight lost more weight, whereas the greatest BML was reported in overweight and obese subjects. Persons with a high BMI are at higher risk of dehydration, and they should pay particular attention to replenishing fluids during a visit to the sauna. The proposed equations for calculating BML based on a person's BMI can be useful in estimating the amount of fluids that should be replenished by both men and women during a visit to a dry sauna.
Full Text Available Introduction: Plasma ghrelin is influenced by nutritional status and is thought to play a role in acute and chronic regulating of food intake and body weight. The purpose of this study was to compare GH, insulin resistance index, lipid profile, and cardiorespiratory function in obese and lean inactive young men and determine their relationships with plasma acylated ghrelin levels. Methods: Study design of this research was causal-comparative. Obese (n=19, BMI: 31.0 kg/m2 and lean (n=19, BMI: 18.5 kg/m2 young men, without experience of regular physical activity during the previous six months, were selected. After 12 h fasting (at 8 a.m., blood samples were collected to determine blood parameter levels. Also, maximal oxygen uptake (as indicator of cardiorespiratory function of subjects was assessed. Results: Insulin levels and HOMA-IR (insulin resistance index were higher, and GH, acylated ghrelin and maximal oxygen uptake levels were lower in obese men compared to lean men (P0.01. Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated to body mass, body fat percent, body mass index, insulin and HOMA-IR, and positively correlated to GH levels and maximal oxygen uptake (P0.01.Conclusion: Obese and lean inactive young men had different levels of acylated ghrelin, GH, insulin, insulin resistance index, cardiorespiratory function and body fat percent. Body fat percent, insulin, and GH levels appear to be the strongest determinant factors of acylated ghrelin levels.
Knudsen, Sine Haugaard; Hansen, Louise Seier; Pedersen, Maria
A lifestyle characterized by inactivity and a high-calorie diet is a known risk factor for impaired insulin sensitivity and development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. To investigate possible links, nine young healthy men (24 ± 3 yr; body mass index of 21.6 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)) completed 14 days of step...
Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Holzer, Harry J.
Low high school graduation rates and sharply declining employment rates among disadvantaged youth have led to increasing numbers of youth who are disconnected from both school and work. What programs and policies might prevent these disconnections and improve educational and employment outcomes, particularly among young men? We review the evidence…
Nordby, Pernille; Auerbach, Pernille L; Rosenkilde, Mads
clearance and suppression of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were increased only in the two training groups. Thus, loss of fat mass (diet or training induced) improves hepatic insulin sensitivity, whereas peripheral insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue is increased by endurance......Health benefits of physical activity may depend on a concomitant weight loss. In a randomized, controlled trial, we compared the effects of endurance training with or without weight loss to the effect of weight loss induced by an energy-reduced diet in 48 sedentary, moderately overweight men who...... completed a 12-week intervention program of training (T), energy-reduced diet (D), training and increased diet (T-iD), or control (C). An energy deficit of 600 kcal/day was induced by endurance training or diet in T and D and a similar training regimen plus an increased dietary intake of 600 kcal...
Manabe, T; Sawai, H; Okada, Y; Funahashi, H; Yamamoto, M; Sato, M; Hayakawa, T; Yamaki, K
Whisky (1 g/kg, 21.5% alcohol) was administered orally to healthy young adult male volunteers, and changes in the plasma concentrations of alcohol, acetaldehyde, gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and serum amylase were measured over time. Values for alcohol and acetaldehyde rapidly reached a peak at 30-45 min after alcohol intake, followed by a gradual decline. The plasma gastrin concentration showed a rapid elevation, while the plasma CCK concentration did not exhibit any significant changes in the early phase after alcohol intake. Elevation of CCK was observed after 75 min, however. These results show that intake of whisky stimulates the secretion of gastrin and is associated with a later increase in CCK.
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This small-scale, qualitative study examines how five young male second-generation Turkish immigrants perceive racial discrimination by ethnic Germans and to what extent this perception influences their collective identities. The typology of interactional patterns the interviewees describe as racial discrimination has four elements: a perception of distrust, a distancing gaze, denial of belonging and rule enforcement by members of the German majority. The interviewees, particularly those who are highly educated and socially mobile, identify with a common Ausländer (foreigner identity in response to experiences of discrimination. This identity is regarded a shared identity marker by immigrants of different backgrounds. It appears as a positive and affirmative identity of difference, which creates a unique type of social capital.
Mustafa Alparslan BABAYIÐIT
Full Text Available Sexually transmitted disease (STD is an important health problem as all over the world in our country. We aimed to determine the level of male adolescents’ knowledge about STD particularly about HIV/AIDS and evaluate the factors regarding to their knowledge. This study was performed in November – December 2004 in Etimesgut Military Troop. Three hundred twenty five person was selected by simple randomized methods, and 310 person accepted to participate in this study. All participants were young male military persons and the mean age was 21,8+1,7. The best known topic was “How many times can a condom used?” (86,5%. AIDS was the best known STD (76,1% , and the Gonore was second, 49,7%, but syphilis was only known 6,5%. Over all knowledge score was 6,4+2,3 (max:10. Mean score of participants who had not graduated elementary school, were only 4,2. We realized that this result increased with education level. Mean score was 7,1 in participants with high school or upper education level and difference between these two groups was statistically significant (p=0,001. Participants who were born and living in the west part of the country had the highest mean score (7,8 and 7,1 respectively. Consequently, young adults who’ve been at high risk about STD, have knowledge needs, especially who live in the east region. It will be useful to have education programmes about this subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 16-24
Dustin T. Duncan
Full Text Available The few previous studies examining the influence of the neighborhood context on health and health behavior among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM have predominantly focused on residential neighborhoods. No studies have examined multiple neighborhood contexts among YMSM or the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, health behaviors, and neighborhood concordance. In this study, we assessed spatial polygamy by determining the amount of concordance between residential, social, and sex neighborhoods (defined as boroughs in addition to examining individual-level characteristics that may be associated with neighborhood concordance. These data come from the baseline assessment of Project 18, a cohort of racially and ethnically diverse YMSM residing in the New York City metropolitan area. Participants (N = 598 provided information on their residential, social, and sex boroughs as well as information on their sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, and health behaviors (e.g., substance use and condomless sex. Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine the distribution of boroughs reported across all three contexts, i.e., residential, social, and sex boroughs. Next, concordance between: (1 residential and social boroughs; (2 residential and sex boroughs; (3 social and sex boroughs; and (4 residential, social, and sex boroughs was assessed. Finally, bivariable analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, and health behaviors in relation to borough concordance. Approximately two-thirds of participants reported concordance between residential/socializing, residential/sex, and sex/socializing boroughs, whereas 25% reported concordance between all three residential
Cameron J Mitchell
Full Text Available Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE in untrained men (n = 23 and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index = 26.4±0.9 kg•m² underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (P<0.001 above rest 60-180 min post-exercise and 184±28% (P = 0.037 180-360 min post exercise. Quadriceps volume increased 7.9±1.6% (-1.9-24.7% (P<0.001 after training. There was no correlation between changes in quadriceps muscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02, 3-6 h (r = 0.16 or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10. Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05 with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46 at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.
Itoh, N; Kayama, F; Tatsuki, T J; Tsukamoto, T
Changes in semen quality of healthy men is a controversial issue throughout the world. It is suspected that many chemical endocrine disrupters may affect the quality of semen. Although exposure to them may be extensive in Japan, no evidence of changes in semen quality has been reported. In this study, changes in semen volume and sperm counts were analyzed over 20 years in the Sapporo area of Japan. Semen volume and sperm counts were measured in 254 and 457 normal, healthy volunteers who lived in the Sapporo area in 1975-1980 and 1998, respectively. Posters and handbills were used to recruit participants in both studies. Semen samples were collected by masturbation after 3 days or more of abstinence. There was no change in semen volume between 1975-1980 and 1998. Mean sperm counts were 70.9 +/- 47.3 x 10(6)/mL in 1975-1980 and 79.6 +/- 49.3 x 10(6)/mL in 1998. Sperm counts did not decline over about 20 years. No significant correlation between age and sperm counts was recognized in either study. The rates of subjects with oligozoospermia and azoospermia were the same in both studies. In the 1975-1980 study, 34 of 254 (13.4%) participants had a child, and in the 1998 study, 51 of 457 (11.2%) participants had a child. Mean sperm count was significantly (P Sapporo area of Japan over 20 years. However, selection bias in the recruitment of volunteers and the issue of variable abstinence might have affected the results of these studies. Therefore, well-designed prospective studies should be performed in several different regions to extrapolate our results on sperm counts to healthy, young Japanese men in general. Key words: Fertility, endocrine disruptors, seminalysis.
Paasch, Uwe; Salzbrunn, Andrea; Glander, Hans Juergen; Plambeck, Kai; Salzbrunn, Harald; Grunewald, Sonja; Stucke, Julia; Vierula, Matti; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Jørgensen, Niels
Population studies have shown that a high proportion of Nordic men may have so poor semen quality that they can be classified as sub-fertile according to international standards. A question is whether the Nordic data are specific for the Nordic countries or they should be seen as an expression of a general trend in Europe. We therefore carried out a prospective study of semen quality of young men raised in the former East Germany (Leipzig) and West Germany (Hamburg). To enable inter-regional comparisons, we utilized a common European research protocol previously used in studies in the Nordic-Baltic region. Three hundred and thirty-four young men representative of the general population from Hamburg, and 457 from Leipzig delivered semen samples, underwent physical examinations and provided information on life-style and reproductive health parameters. The study period in Hamburg was February 2003--July 2004, and in Leipzig July 2003--April 2005. No significant differences were observed in sperm concentration (median 46, 42, and 44 million/mL for men from Hamburg, Leipzig and the combined Hamburg-Leipzig group respectively) or total sperm count (154,141 and 149 million), whereas the differences for morphologically normal spermatozoa (9.4 and 8.4%) and motile spermatozoa (67 and 81%) were significantly different. Previously published studies have shown reduced fertility with decreasing sperm concentrations below 40-55 millions/mL and normal sperm morphology below 9-19%. Thus, a large fraction of young German men seem to have impaired semen quality that may reduce their natural fertility. However, it remains to be investigated to what extent poor semen quality contributes to the low German fertility rates.
Perez, M; Lucia, A; Santalla, A; Chicharro, J
Objective: To determine the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics and delta efficiency (DE) during gradual exercise. The hypothesis was that ES would attenuate the VO2-workload relation and improve DE. Methods: Fifteen healthy, untrained men (mean (SD) age 22 (5) years) were selected. Ten were electrostimulated on both quadriceps muscles with a frequency of 45–60 Hz, with 12 seconds of stimulation followed by eight seconds recovery for a total of 30 minutes a day, three days a week for six weeks. The remaining five subjects were assigned to a control group. A standardised exercise test on a cycle ergometer (ramp protocol, workload increases of 20 W/min) was performed by each subject before and after the experimental period. The slope of the VO2-power output (W) relation (ΔVO2/ΔW) and DE were calculated in each subject at moderate to high intensities (above the ventilatory threshold—that is, from 50–60% to 100% VO2max). Results: The mean (SEM) values for ΔVO2/ΔW and DE had significantly decreased and increased respectively after the six week ES programme (p<0.05; 9.8 (0.2) v 8.6 (0.5) ml O2/W/min respectively and 27.7 (0.9) v 31.5 (1.4)% respectively). Conclusions: ES could be used as a supplementary tool to improve two of the main determinants of endurance capacity, namely VO2 kinetics and work efficiency. PMID:12663356
Balogh, Katalin; Patócs, Attila; Majnik, Judit; Varga, Fatima; Illyés, György; Hunyady, László; Rácz, Károly
We report an unusual presentation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) in a young woman who was subsequently proven to have a novel mutation of the MEN1 gene. The young patient, aged 25 years, was investigated for abdominal discomfort and left upper abdominal pain. Her family history was unremarkable, except an unknown disorder of her father causing early death. Abdominal ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography revealed a giant pancreatic tumor measuring 10 cm in diameter. The diagnosis of a clinically nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor was established by clinical and other studies, including USG-guided aspiration biopsy and octreotide scintigraphy, and the patient underwent a distal pancreatectomy. Histology proved a well-differentiated multinodular neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas. During surgery, a subcutaneous lipoma was also removed from the abdominal wall. Two years later, the patient developed primary hyperparathyroidism, and two enlarged parathyroid glands were surgically removed. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland was normal. Screening for MEN1 gene mutation by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis revealed heterozygosities in exons 3, 8, and 9, while direct sequencing indicated a novel germline mutation (C354X) resulting in a stop codon in exon 8 and polymorphisms in exon 3 (R171Q) and exon 9 (D418D and L432L). Genetic screening revealed no mutation in living family members. Our unusual case suggests that a multinodular pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in a young patient may justify screening for MEN 1 syndrome, even in the absence of other endocrinopathy or family history.
Paasch, U.; Salzbrunn, A.; Glander, H.J.
Population studies have shown that a high proportion of Nordic men may have so poor semen quality that they can be classified as sub-fertile according to international standards. A question is whether the Nordic data are specific for the Nordic countries or they should be seen as an expression...... of a general trend in Europe. We therefore carried out a prospective study of semen quality of young men raised in the former East Germany (Leipzig) and West Germany (Hamburg). To enable inter-regional comparisons, we utilized a common European research protocol previously used in studies in the Nordic......--July 2004, and in Leipzig July 2003--April 2005. No significant differences were observed in sperm concentration (median 46, 42, and 44 million/mL for men from Hamburg, Leipzig and the combined Hamburg-Leipzig group respectively) or total sperm count (154,141 and 149 million), whereas the differences...
Natsume, K; Ogawa, T; Sugenoya, J; Ohnishi, N; Imai, K
To investigate the effects of age on thermal sensitivity, preferred ambient temperature (Tpref) was compared between old (71-76 years) and young (21-30 years) groups, each consisting of six male subjects in summer and winter. The air temperature (Ta) was set at either 20 degrees C or 40 degrees C at commencement. The subject was directed to adjust the Ta for 45 min by manipulating a remote control switch to the level at which he felt most comfortable. In the older group, the Tpref was significantly lower in trails starting at 20 degrees C than that starting at 40 degrees C in summer. The fluctuation of Tpref (temperature difference between maximum and minimum Ta during the last 10 min) was significantly wider in the older group in both summer and winter. Repetition of the same experiment on each subject showed a poorer reproducibility of Tpref in the older group than in the younger group in summer. Tympanic and esophageal temperatures of the older group kept falling throughout the trial starting at 20 degrees C in summer. These results suggest that thermal sensitivity is decreased with advancing age and that thermal perception in the elderly, especially to cold, is less sensitive in summer.
Sergej M. Ostojic
Full Text Available Although dietary nucleotides have been determined to be required for normal immune function, there is limited direct interventional evidence confirming performance-enhancing effects of sublingual nucleotides in humans. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of sublingual nucleotides (50 mg/day administered for 14 days in thirty young healthy physically active males, on endurance performance and immune responses. Fasting white blood cell count, natural killer cells (NKC number, NKC cytotoxic activity, and serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG, and time to exhaustion, peak rate of perceived exertion, peak heart rate, and peak running speed during the exercise test were measured at baseline (day 0 and post-intervention (day 14. Time to exhaustion, as well as serum immunoglobulin A and NKC cytotoxic activity, were significantly higher at day 14 (p < 0.05 in participants supplemented with nucleotides compared with those who consumed placebo. No significant differences in other parameters were observed between groups at post-intervention. No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study nor reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. The results of the present study suggest that sublingual nucleotides may provide pertinent benefit as both an ergogenic and immunostimulatory additive in active males.
Virgilio Mariano Salazar Torres
Full Text Available Background: Traditional forms of masculinity strongly influence men's and women's wellbeing. Objective: This study has two aims: (i to explore notions of various forms of masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in programs addressing sexual health, reproductive health, and/or gender equality and (ii to find out how these young men perceive their involvement in actions aimed at reducing violence against women (VAW. Design: A qualitative grounded theory study. Data were collected through six focus groups and two in-depth interviews with altogether 62 young men. Results: Our analysis showed that the informants experienced a process of change, labeled ‘Expanding your mind’, in which we identified four interrelated subcategories: The apprentice, The responsible/respectful man, The proactive peer educator, and ‘The feminist man’. The process showed how an increased awareness of gender inequities facilitated the emergence of values (respect and responsibility and behavior (thoughtful action that contributed to increase the informant's critical thinking and agency at individual, social, and political levels. The process was influenced by individual and external factors. Conclusions: Multiple progressive masculinities can emerge from programs challenging patriarchy in this Latin American setting. The masculinities identified in this study show a range of attitudes and behaviors; however, all lean toward more equitable gender relations. The results suggest that learning about sexual and reproductive health does not directly imply developing more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors or a greater willingness to prevent VAW. It is paramount that interventions to challenge machismo in this setting continue and are expanded to reach more young men.
Deans, Emily G; Thomas, Samantha L; Daube, Mike; Derevensky, Jeffrey
Gambling is rapidly emerging as an important public health issue, with gambling products causing considerable health and social harms to individuals, families and communities. Whilst researchers have raised concerns about online wagering environments, few studies have sought to explore how factors within different gambling environments (both online and land-based) may be influencing the wagering, and more broadly the gambling risk behaviours of young men. Using semi-structured interviews with 50 Australian men (20-37 years) who gambled on sport, we explored the ways in which online and land-based environments may be risk-promoting settings for gambling. This included the appeal factors associated with gambling in these environments, factors that encouraged individuals to gamble, and factors that encouraged individuals to engage in different, and more harmful types of gambling. Interviews were conducted over the course of a year (April 2015 - April 2016). We identified a number of situational and structural factors that promoted risky gambling environments for young men. In the online environment, gambling products had become exceedingly easy to access through mobile technologies, with young men subscribing to multiple accounts to access industry promotions. The intangibility of money within online environments impacted upon risk perceptions. In land-based environments, the social rituals associated with peer group behaviour and sport influenced risky patterns of gambling. The presence of both gambling and alcohol in pub environments led individuals to gamble more than they normally would, and on products that they would not normally gamble on. Land-based venues also facilitated access to multiple forms of gambling under the one roof. We identified a number of factors in both land and online environments that when combined, created risk-promoting settings for gambling among young men. By exploring these contextual conditions that give rise to gambling harm, we are
Matsumoto, Takuya; Nakamura, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Ryosei; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Sato, Juichi; Shimomura, Yoshiharu
Physiological conditions in humans affect plasma amino acid profiles that might have potential for medical use. Because the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are used as medicines and supplements, we investigated the acute effects of individual BCAAs (10-90 mg/kg body weight) or mixed BCAAs ingested as a bolus on plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men. Plasma leucine levels rapidly increased and peaked around 30 min after leucine ingestion. Concentrations of plasma isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine subsequently decreased after ingestion, and those of methionine and tyrosine tended to decrease. The effects of ingested leucine on other plasma amino acids were biphasic, being higher at lower doses (10-20 mg/kg body weight). Isoleucine or valine intake also caused corresponding plasma amino acid concentrations to rapidly elevate, and peaks at 30-40 min after ingestion were much higher than that of plasma leucine after leucine ingestion. However, the increase in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations essentially did not affect those of other plasma amino acids. The rate of decline among peak plasma BCAA concentrations was the highest for leucine, followed by isoleucine and valine. Oral mixed BCAAs promoted the decline in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations. These results suggest that plasma leucine is a regulator of the plasma concentrations of BCAAs, methionine and aromatic amino acids.
Sayapina Natalia Nikolaevna
Full Text Available Relevance of a subject of article is caused by recognition in the society of a priority role of the family being one of values of created by mankind for all history of the existence, tendencies of development of a family, ways of increase of its pedagogical culture. With development of society the view of the family and marriage relations of spouses in a family changes. Research objective is identification at students during their vocational training of ideas of marriage, a family and future marriage partner by means of carrying out diagnostic procedures. As a result of research the various techniques allowing in the period of vocational training to reveal social and psychological features at young men and girls in a choice of the marriage partner on the basis of the analysis of results of diagnostics are defined and used. The scope of results extends on process of socialization of modern youth, on its decisions in family creation the psychological climate in which plays a crucial role in family education.
Наталия Николаевна Саяпина
Full Text Available Relevance of a subject of article is caused by recognition in the society of a priority role of the family being one of values of created by mankind for all history of the existence, tendencies of development of a family, ways of increase of its pedagogical culture. With development of society the view of the family and marriage relations of spouses in a family changes. Research objective is identification at students during their vocational training of ideas of marriage, a family and future marriage partner by means of carrying out diagnostic procedures.As a result of research the various techniques allowing in the period of vocational training to reveal social and psychological features at young men and girls in a choice of the marriage partner on the basis of the analysis of results of diagnostics are defined and used.The scope of results extends on process of socialization of modern youth, on its decisions in family creation the psychological climate in which plays a crucial role in family education.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-33
Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Cash, Brian M; McCormack, Mark; Rieger, Gerulf
This exploratory study assessed physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of sexual and romantic indicators of sexual orientation identities among young men (mean age = 21.9 years) with predominant same-sex sexual and romantic interests: those who described themselves as bisexual leaning gay (n = 11), mostly gay (n = 17), and gay (n = 47). Although they were not significantly distinguishable based on physiological (pupil dilation) responses to nude stimuli, on behavioral and self-report measures a descending linear trend toward the less preferred sex (female) was significant regarding sexual attraction, fantasy, genital contact, infatuation, romantic relationship, sex appeal, and gazing time to the porn stimuli. Results supported a continuum of sexuality with distinct subgroups only for the self-report measure of sexual attraction. The other behavioral and self-report measures followed the same trend but did not significantly differ between the bisexual leaning gay and mostly gay groups, likely the result of small sample size. Results suggest that romantic indicators are as good as sexual measures in assessing sexual orientation and that a succession of logically following groups from bisexual leaning gay, mostly gay, to gay. Whether these three groups are discrete or overlapping needs further research.
Tanimoto, Michiya; Ishii, Naokata
We investigated the acute and long-term effects of low-intensity resistance exercise (knee extension) with slow movement and tonic force generation on muscular size and strength. This type of exercise was expected to enhance the intramuscular hypoxic environment that might be a factor for muscular hypertrophy. Twenty-four healthy young men without experience of regular exercise training were assigned into three groups (n = 8 for each) and performed the following resistance exercise regimens: low-intensity [ approximately 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM)] with slow movement and tonic force generation (3 s for eccentric and concentric actions, 1-s pause, and no relaxing phase; LST); high-intensity ( approximately 80% 1RM) with normal speed (1 s for concentric and eccentric actions, 1 s for relaxing; HN); low-intensity with normal speed (same intensity as for LST and same speed as for HN; LN). In LST and HN, the mean repetition maximum was 8RM. In LN, both intensity and amount of work were matched with those for LST. Each exercise session consisting of three sets was performed three times a week for 12 wk. In LST and HN, exercise training caused significant (P exercise. The results suggest that intramuscular oxygen environment is important for exercise-induced muscular hypertrophy.
Anne Vested; Cecilia H Ramlau-Hansen; Jens P Bonde; Ane M Thulstrup; Susanne L Kristensen; Gunnar Toft
The aim of the present study was to compare assessments of sperm concentration and sperm motility analysed by conventional semen analysis with those obtained by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) (Copenhagen Rigshospitalet Image House Sperm Motility Analysis System (CRISMAS) 4.6 software) using semen samples from 166 young Danish men. The CRISMAS software identifies sperm concentration and classifies spermatozoa into three motility categories. To enable comparison of the two methods, the four motility stages obtained by conventional semen analysis were, based on their velocity classifications, divided into three stages, comparable to the three CRISMAS motility categories: rapidly progressive (A), slowly progressive (B) and non-progressive (C+D). Differences between the two methods were large for all investigated parameters (P<0.001). CRISMAS overestimated sperm concentration and the proportion of rapidly progressive spermatozoa and, consequently, underestimated the percentages of slowly progressive and non-progressive spermatozoa, compared to the conventional method. To investigate whether results drifted according to time of semen analysis, results were pooled into quarters according to date of semen analysis. CRISMAS motility results appeared more stable over time compared to the conventional analysis; however, neither method showed any trends. Apparently, CRISMAS CASA results and results from the conventional method were not comparable with respect to sperm concentration and motility analysis. This needs to be accounted for in clinics using this software and in studies of determinants of these semen characteristics.
Rossow, Lindy; Fahs, Christopher A; Guerra, Myriam; Jae, Sae Young; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernhall, Bo
The purpose of this study was to determine the cumulative effects of repeated cycling sprints (Wingate tests) on carotid compliance and blood pressure (BP). Fourteen young, healthy men and women completed this study. Vascular and hemodynamic measurements were taken at rest, 5 min following a first Wingate test, 25 min following the first Wingate test, 5 min following a second Wingate test, and 25 min following the second Wingate test. At each time point, the measurements taken included brachial and carotid pulse pressure (PP), heart rate, carotid artery maximum and minimum diameters, and carotid compliance. Carotid BP was obtained with applanation tonometry. Carotid diameters were obtained using ultrasonography and compliance was calculated from carotid diameters and BP. Carotid and brachial PP increased significantly (P sprint, carotid arterial compliance decreased significantly more than 5 min following the first sprint (P sprint reduces carotid artery compliance immediately after exercise. Performance of a second identical cycling sprint further compounds this vascular change, reducing carotid artery compliance beyond levels seen following a single cycling sprint.
Gilder, M; Ramsbottom, R; Currie, J; Sheridan, B; Nevill, A M
Exercise results in release of brain derived neurotrophic factor into the circulation; however, little is known about the changes in serum and plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations and factors influencing brain derived neurotrophic factor during exercise and recovery. Serum (n=23) and plasma (n=10) brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations were measured in healthy young men at rest, during steady-rate and after exercise to determine the maximum aerobic power. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in blood during exercise and recovery, with one between-subject factor (a median split on: age, height, body mass, fat free mass, body mass index and aerobic fitness), and one within-subject factor (time). Serum brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations increased in response to exercise and declined rapidly in recovery. Plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor had a greater proportional increase relative to exhaustive exercise compared with serum brain derived neurotrophic factor and was slower to return to near baseline values. There was a significant group-by-time interaction indicating a greater release and faster recovery for serum brain derived neurotrophic factor in high- compared with low-fat free mass individuals.
Lee, Hojin; Song, Jae Wook; Chang, Woojin
In this paper new Value at Risk (VaR) model is proposed and investigated. We consider the multifractal property of financial time series and develop a multifractal Value at Risk (MFVaR). MFVaR introduced in this paper is analytically tractable and not based on simulation. Empirical study showed that MFVaR can provide the more stable and accurate forecasting performance in volatile financial markets where large loss can be incurred. This implies that our multifractal VaR works well for the risk measurement of extreme credit events.
Khan, M E; Mishra, Anurag; Morankar, Sudhakar
Increase in extramarital sex among youths, gender-based violence, lack of contraceptive knowledge among newly married couples and lack of knowledge of protection against diseases like STIs/HIV are the information and service needs of young people that need to be addressed urgently in order to make them future knowledgeable, responsible, and non-violent partners. In addressing these needs the gatekeepers, including parents, formal and informal community leaders and teachers, play a critical role, by facilitating/hindering access to appropriate and correct information about sexual and reproductive health to young people. The study was conducted in a district of Uttaranchal, India. The specific objective was to understand the social context and gatekeepers' views on family planning and sexual and reproductive health needs of young men. Thirty-two in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted with parents, formal and informal community leaders, teachers, and selected development officials. The findings indicate that gatekeepers are worried about rapid changes in the aspiration, expectation, and behavior of young men. Most of them were seriously concerned about the increasing drinking habit, use of drugs, and changing values of sexuality leading to various risk behaviors among young men. They felt that many of these changes are consequences of wider societal changes, rising aspirations, explosion of electronic media, and globalization of a new youth culture where extramarital sex, alcohol consumption, and violence are expressions of different facets of masculinity and symbols of the affluent class. Overall, there was a feeling that TV/films and their peers now influence more the socialization of young people and parents are losing control in guidance and mentoring of their children.
Full Text Available The article presents research on the process of social exclusion from the first stage of the education of children at risk of social maladjustment. The author presents strategies and tactics used by teachers of preschool education to eliminate the exclusion of children who cause educational problems. The author analyzes the data in accordance with the methodology of grounded theory in the context of game theory.
Addresses South Carolina's Educational Improvement Act of 1984, at risk in the context of four considerations: (1) the seduction of test scores; (2) the issue of teacher pay, particularly incentive pay; (3) the real tasks of intervention; and (4) the expectations of leadership. (JK)
Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar
fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...
Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, Søren Kruse; Astrup, Arne
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) associates with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. LBW individuals exhibit disproportionately reduced peripheral insulin action and increased fat oxidation after a 5-day high-fat overfeeding (HFO) challenge. Furthermore, LBW men exhibit increased...... with NBW men during the entire 24-h period (P = 0.06) and during nighttime (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that disproportionally enhanced fat oxidation in LBW individuals during short-term HFO represents a compensatory response to reduced subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability and storage capacity...... nocturnal fat oxidation during energy balance and low energy expenditure (EE) during fasting. We hypothesized that short-term HFO could further unmask key defects of whole-body energy metabolism in LBW men. METHODS: Eighteen LBW (2717 ± 268 g) and 26 normal birth weight (NBW) (3893 ± 207 g) healthy young...
de Boer, Maarten D; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Seynnes, Olivier R; Rennie, Michael J; Narici, Marco V
Muscles and tendons are highly adaptive to changes in chronic loading, though little is known about the adaptative time course. We tested the hypothesis that, in response to unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS), the magnitude of tendon mechanical adaptations would match or exceed those of skeletal muscle. Seventeen men (1.79 +/- 0.05 m, 76.6 +/- 10.3 kg, 22.3 +/- 3.8 years) underwent ULLS for 23 days (n = 9) or acted as controls (n = 8). Knee extensor (KE) torque, voluntary activation (VA), cross-sectional area (CSA) (by magnetic resonance imaging), vastus lateralis fascicle length (L(f)) and pennation angle (), patellar tendon stiffness and Young's modulus (by ultrasonography) were measured before, during and at the end of ULLS. After 14 and 23 days (i) KE torque decreased by 14.8 +/- 5.5% (P < 0.001) and 21.0 +/- 7.1% (P < 0.001), respectively; (ii) VA did not change; (iii) KE CSA decreased by 5.2 +/- 0.7% (P < 0.001) and 10.0 +/- 2.0% (P < 0.001), respectively; L(f) decreased by 5.9% (n.s.) and 7.7% (P < 0.05), respectively, and by 3.2% (P < 0.05) and 7.6% (P < 0.01); (iv) tendon stiffness decreased by 9.8 +/- 8.2% (P < 0.05) and 29.3 +/- 11.5% (P < 0.005), respectively, and Young's modulus by 9.2 +/- 8.2% (P < 0.05) and 30.1 +/- 11.9% (P < 0.01), respectively, with no changes in the controls. Hence, ULLS induces rapid losses of KE muscle size, architecture and function, but not in neural drive. Significant deterioration in tendon mechanical properties also occurs within 2 weeks, exacerbating in the third week of ULLS. Rehabilitation to limit muscle and tendon deterioration should probably start within 2 weeks of unloading.
Tapp, Alan; Pressley, Ashley; Baugh, Mike; White, Paul
Young men from poorer backgrounds are associated with high road traffic collision levels. However, solving this problem has proven very difficult. Hence this paper summarises the findings of a UK government funded two-year trial of a cross-discipline intervention to reduce aggressive driving amongst this group. The intervention reported on here departed from traditional approaches such as fear appeals, stand-alone educational approaches, or punitive measures. Instead, the discipline of social marketing was used to provide overarching direction and structure for the trial, with a key focus on motivation and engagement. The project rested on a strong education and training platform and included a bespoke coaching programme, incentives, and an in-vehicle measurement and feedback device. The project had three development phases leading to the final trial. First, a literature and case study review identified possible design strategies. Second, these strategies were explored using primary research in the form of a qualitative inquiry. Third, a pre-trial design phase sought to introduce key components of the intervention to the trial cohort, retaining some flexibility before committing to the final design. Young males with a history of challenging behaviour (e.g. criminal records, driving convictions) from an economically deprived area within a UK city were recruited. Of 42 recruits, 23 successfully completed the trial. Behaviour changes were measured pre-, during and post-trial through a combination of driver performance data measured by in-vehicle data recorders (IVDRs), assessments of driving undertaken by trained observers, and self-assessment surveys and interviews with trial participants. Results indicate a significant average improvement in driving skills amongst participants who completed the trial. Given the difficulty in engaging and changing behaviour of this specific group, this is regarded as a significant finding. In summary the study provides an indication
Ni Luh Gede Karyamitha
Full Text Available Soccer is a favorite sport for people around the world including in Indonesia. Not only the method of training or talent that will determine the achievement, but the intake of daily nutrients directly proper also provide a positive influence on performance and achievements of athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the adequacy of nutrition, physical activity, and nutritional status of young men athletes soccer. This study useds cross-sectional method. The number of samples taken as much as 96 athletes from all senior high schools in Denpasar and selected systematic random sampling. Results showed the average level of nutritional adequacy of athletes still in the category of less (<80%. Respectively for energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are 75.95%, 77.24%, 78.96% and 75.83%. If seen the proportion of athletes that sufficient levels of nutrients in enough categories, then each for energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are 58.3%, 57.3%, 51%, and 53.1%. Level of physical activity in athletes only low (56.3% and moderate category (43.8%. Most athletes have normal nutritional status (94.8%, there was only 1% having thin status, and 4.2% had nutritional status of overweight. The advice can be given to provide knowledges that related with intake of nutrients for the coaches and athletes, increasing physical activity for athletes who have low physical activity, and can be the nutritional status as a selection soccer athletes. However, further research can be done is to measure the physical endurance athletes associated with the intake of nutrients or physical activity.
Full Text Available Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. miRNAs are taken in by intracellular exosomes, secreted into circulation, and taken up by other cells, where they regulate cellular functions. We hypothesized that muscle-enriched miRNAs existing in circulation mediate beneficial metabolic responses induced by exercise. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in muscle-enriched circulating miRNAs in response to acute and chronic aerobic exercise. Methods: Eleven healthy young men (age, 21.5 ± 4.5 y; height, 168.6 ± 5.3 cm; and body weight, 62.5 ± 9.0 kg performed a single bout of steady-state cycling exercise at 70% VO2max for 60 min (acute exercise and cycling training 3 days per week for 4 weeks (chronic exercise. Blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and after acute and chronic exercise. RNA was extracted from serum, and the levels of muscle-enriched miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b, miR-206, miR-208b, miR-486, and miR-499 were measured. Results: All of these miRNAs, except for miR-486, were found at too low copy numbers at baseline to be compared. miR-486 was significantly decreased by both acute (P = 0.013 and chronic exercise (P = 0.014. In addition, the change ratio of miR-486 due to acute exercise showed a significant negative correlation with VO2max for each subject (R = 0.58, P = 0.038. Conclusion: The reduction in circulating miR-486 may be associated with metabolic changes during exercise and adaptation induced by training.
Christensen, G.T.; Mortensen, E.L.; Christensen, K.;
related to all-cause mortality with a 28% higher risk of dying during the study period per 1 standard deviation (SD) decrease in intelligence test score (HR=1.28 95% CI=1.27–1.29). The strength of the observed inverse associations did not vary much across main groups of natural and external causes......An inverse association has been reported between early life intelligence and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this well-established association differed according to the underlying cause of death and across different birth cohorts. The associations between young...... adult intelligence and mortality from natural and external causes were investigated in the Danish Conscription Database (DCD), which is a cohort of more than 700,000 men born 1939–1959 and followed in Danish registers from young adulthood until late mid-life. Young adult intelligence was inversely...
Kumar, Vinod; Selby, Anna; Rankin, Debbie; Patel, Rekha; Atherton, Philip; Hildebrandt, Wulf; Williams, John; Smith, Kenneth; Seynnes, Olivier; Hiscock, Natalie; Rennie, Michael J
We investigated how myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle anabolic signalling were affected by resistance exercise at 20-90% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) in two groups (25 each) of post-absorptive, healthy, young (24 +/- 6 years) and old (70 +/- 5 years) men with identical body mass indices (24 +/- 2 kg m(-2)). We hypothesized that, in response to exercise, anabolic signalling molecule phosphorylation and MPS would be modified in a dose-dependant fashion, but to a lesser extent in older men. Vastus lateralis muscle was sampled before, immediately after, and 1, 2 and 4 h post-exercise. MPS was measured by incorporation of [1,2-(13)C] leucine (gas chromatography-combustion-mass spectrometry using plasma [1,2-(13)C]alpha-ketoisocaparoate as surrogate precursor); the phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70s6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was measured using Western analysis with anti-phosphoantibodies. In each group, there was a sigmoidal dose-response relationship between MPS at 1-2 h post-exercise and exercise intensity, which was blunted (P men. At all intensities, MPS fell in both groups to near-basal values by 2-4 h post-exercise. The phosphorylation of p70s6K and 4EBP1 at 60-90% 1 RM was blunted in older men. At 1 h post-exercise at 60-90% 1 RM, p70s6K phosphorylation predicted the rate of MPS at 1-2 h post-exercise in the young but not in the old. The results suggest that in the post-absorptive state: (i) MPS is dose dependant on intensity rising to a plateau at 60-90% 1 RM; (ii) older men show anabolic resistance of signalling and MPS to resistance exercise.
Full Text Available The current conceptual paper describes the purpose and foundation of the Bakari© Mentoring Program, a culturally sensitive and gender specific prevention and intervention program for 14-17 year old, at-risk, male and female adolescents. Given the program’s mission, it aims to serve high school youth throughout San Luis Obispo County, California with the aim of assisting them in becoming socially conscious, responsible, and productive young men and women who successfully transition into adulthood while confronting life challenges in prosocial ways. Held on a college campus and supported by university departments and community partners, the Bakari© Mentoring Program focuses on psycho-educational concepts and mastery of life skills and development. Discussion is focused on the history, foundation, structure, and outcomes of the program. In addition, preliminary outcome data is provided along with future directions for the program.
Full Text Available In this paper we extend the concept of Value-at-risk (VaR to bivariate return distributions in order to obtain measures of the market risk of an asset taking into account additional features linked to downside risk exposure. We first present a general definition of risk as the probability of an adverse event over a random distribution and we then introduce a measure of market risk (b-VaR that admits the traditional b of an asset in portfolio management as a special case when asset returns are normally distributed. Empirical evidences are provided by using Italian stock market data.
Kagawa, Masaharu; Kerr, Deborah; Uchida, Hayato; Binns, Colin W
This cross-sectional study aimed to determine ethnic and environmental influences on the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat, using a sample of 144 Japanese and 140 Australian-Caucasian men living in Australia, and eighty-eight Japanese men living in Japan. Body composition was assessed by anthropometry using standard international methods (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry protocol). Body density was predicted using Durnin and Womersley's (1974) equation, and percentage body fat was calculated from Siri's (1961) equation. Significant (P<0.05) ethnic differences in stature, body mass and BMI were observed between Japanese and Australian men, but no ethnic differences were observed in their percentage body fat and height-corrected sum of skinfold thicknesses. No differences were found in the BMI-percentage body fat relationship between the Japanese subjects living in Australia and in Japan. Significant (P<0.05) ethnic differences in the BMI-percentage body fat relationship observed from a comparison between pooled Japanese men (aged 18-40 years, BMI range 16.6-32.8 kg/m2) and Australians (aged 18-39 years, BMI range 16.1-31.4 kg/m2) suggest that Japanese men are likely to have a greater percentage body fat than Australian men at any given BMI value. From the analyses, the Japanese men were estimated to have an equivalent amount of body fat to the Australian men at BMI values that were about 1.5 units lower than those of the Australians (23.5 kg/m2 and 28.2 kg/m2, respectively). It was concluded that Japanese men have greater body fat deposition than Australian-Caucasians at the same BMI value. Japanese men may therefore require lower BMI cut-off points to identify obese individuals compared with Australian-Caucasian men.
Hemmingsson, T; Lundberg, I; Diderichsen, Finn
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of intergenerational health-related mobility in explaining social-class inequalities in alcoholism among young men. Data on social class of origin and on risk factors in childhood and adolescence, e.g. risk use of alcohol, were collected for 49......,323 men, born 1949-51, at enlistment for compulsory military training in 1969/70. Information on achieved socioeconomic class was obtained from Sweden's 1975 census. Data on alcoholism diagnoses were collected from the national in-patient care register 1976-83. Risk indicators for alcoholism established...... in adolescence were found to be more common among downwardly mobile individuals, and also among stable manual workers, than among those who ended up as non-manual employees. Downwardly mobile individuals, and also stable manual workers, were also found to have an increased risk of alcoholism diagnosis...
Ramaswamy, Megha; Freudenberg, Nicholas
This article explores how incarceration amplifies the disconnection from school and work experienced by urban, young men of color in the United States and ultimately leads to their social exclusion. The authors draw on longitudinal data collected in interviews with 397 men age 16 to 18 in a New York City jail and then again one year after their release. Using logistic regression analysis, the authors found that though incarceration did not appear to exacerbate disconnectedness directly, it was associated with unstable housing, which in turn may contribute to several negative outcomes related to social exclusion. These findings may inform advocates, policy makers, and researchers in their efforts to meet the needs of socially excluded youth, in particular those with criminal justice histories.
Herbst, Karen L; Coviello, Andrea D; Page, Stephanie; Amory, John K; Anawalt, Bradley D; Bremner, William J
Acyline is a novel GnRH antagonist that reliably inhibits gonadotropins and testosterone (T) levels in men for 48 h after a single dose up to 75 microg/kg. In this study we examined gonadotropin and T levels in 28 healthy young men administered acyline as single doses of 150 or 300 microg/kg or serial injections of 75 microg/kg. A single 300 microg/kg dose of acyline suppressed gonadotropins and T to castrate levels for 15 d (baseline, 21.1 +/- 3.1; nadir, 1.95 +/- 0.4 nmol/liter; mean +/- sem; P gonadotropins for more than 20 d (nadir T, 1.06 +/- 0.17 nmol/liter; P hormonal male contraceptive or for treatment of hormonally dependent disease.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic physical training (APT on heart rate variability (HRV and cardiorespiratory responses at peak condition and ventilatory anaerobic threshold. Ten young (Y: median = 21 years and seven middle-aged (MA = 53 years healthy sedentary men were studied. Dynamic exercise tests were performed on a cycloergometer using a continuous ramp protocol (12 to 20 W/min until exhaustion. A dynamic 24-h electrocardiogram was analyzed by time (TD (standard deviation of mean R-R intervals and frequency domain (FD methods. The power spectral components were expressed as absolute (a and normalized units (nu at low (LF and high (HF frequencies and as the LF/HF ratio. Control (C condition: HRV in TD (Y: 108, MA: 96 ms; P<0.05 and FD - LFa, HFa - was significantly higher in young (1030; 2589 ms²/Hz than in middle-aged men (357; 342 ms²/Hz only during sleep (P<0.05; post-training effects: resting bradycardia (P<0.05 in the awake condition in both groups; VO2 increased for both groups at anaerobic threshold (P<0.05, and at peak condition only in young men; HRV in TD and FD (a and nu was not significantly changed by training in either groups. The vagal predominance during sleep is reduced with aging. The resting bradycardia induced by short-term APT in both age groups suggests that this adaptation is much more related to intrinsic alterations in sinus node than in efferent vagal-sympathetic modulation. Furthermore, the greater alterations in VO2 than in HRV may be related to short-term APT.
Laganovic, M.; Bendix, L.; Rubelj, I.;
Objective: The mechanisms that increase cardiovascular risk in individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are not well understood. Telomere shortening has been suggested to be a predictor of disease onset. Our aim was to determine whether impaired intrauterine growth is associated with early...... signs of vascular aging and whether telomere length could be a biomarker of this pathway. Methods: One hundred and fourteen healthy young men born SGA or after normal pregnancy [appropriate for gestational age (AGA)] were enrolled. Patient data were gathered from questionnaires and clinical exams...
Gurman, Tilly A; Dhillon, Preeti; Greene, Jessica L; Makadzange, Panganai; Khumlao, Philisiwe; Shekhar, Navendu
Assessing predictors of intention to circumcise can help to identify effective strategies for increasing uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). Grounded in the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the current study of uncircumcised males ages 13-29 in Swaziland (N = 1,257) employed multivariate logistic regression to determine predictors of VMMC intention. The strongest predictors were strongly disagreeing/disagreeing that sex was more painful for a circumcised man (odds ratio [OR] = 4.37; p = theory to explore young men's intention to circumcise and can help inform interventions aimed at increasing uptake of VMMC.
Livingstone, R. S.; Grunnet, L. G.; Thomas, N.
Aims: To assess young healthy men from rural India, who had normal or low birth weights, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the potential differences in ectopic fat storage between birth weight groups, and to determine if ectopic fat storage was associated with insulin resistance...... weight were not observed to have ectopic fat storage in the liver or muscle, and the amount of liver and muscle fat was unrelated to insulin resistance. Older age and/or an urban affluent lifestyle may be required to show a potential role of ectopic fat storage on insulin resistance in Indian people...
Nielsen, Joachim; Suetta, Charlotte; Hvid, Lars G;
Previous studies have shown that skeletal muscle glycogen and mitochondria are distributed in distinct subcellular localizations, but the role and regulation of these subcellular localizations are unclear. In the present study, we used transmission electron microscopy to investigate the effect...... of disuse and aging on human skeletal muscle glycogen and mitochondria content in subsarcolemmal (SS), intermyofibrillar (IMF), and intramyofibrillar (intra) localizations. Five young (∼23 yr) and five old (∼66 yr) recreationally active men had their quadriceps muscle immobilized for 2 wk by whole leg......, our findings demonstrate a localization-dependent adaptation to immobilization in glycogen and mitochondria content of skeletal muscles of both young and old individuals. Specifically, this suggests that short-term disuse preferentially affects glycogen particles located inside the myofibrils...
Kriegbaum, Margit; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Rasmussen, Jeppe Nørgaard;
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and filling of medicine prescriptions for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), with young adult intelligence (IQ) as a potential mediator. DESIGN: Birth cohort study with logistic and Cox-proportional ......OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and filling of medicine prescriptions for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), with young adult intelligence (IQ) as a potential mediator. DESIGN: Birth cohort study with logistic and Cox......-proportional hazard regression analyses of associations between childhood SEP, retrieved from birth certificates, and prevalence, initiation of and refill persistency for CVD preventive medicine. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 8736 Danish men born in 1953, who had no CVD at the start of follow-up in 1995, were...
Owens, Zachary D
The rapid proliferation of social media, mobile applications, and Internet technologies has shifted a wide variety of social interaction from physical spaces to an online environment. Drawing from 42 semistructured, in-depth interviews with gay college-aged men between the ages of 18 and 27, this article explores these changing patterns of social interaction among gay men. I discuss three strategies of identity management college-aged gay men use to disclose or conceal their sexual identity to others. The first group of men, "Out and Proud," uses Facebook as a way to celebrate and reaffirm their sexual identity, in addition to actively coming out to others on the social media Web site. The second group, "Out and Discreet," uses Facebook to indirectly come out to some of their friends while hiding this information from others. The men in the last group I identify, "Facebook Closeted," actively manage their online profiles to ensure their sexual identity is not exposed. Facebook is both transformative and risky for college-aged gay men, as it represents a new platform for them to come out as gay to friends and family, as well as other areas of their lives where they must actively manage the presentation of their sexual identity.
Schou, Jakob Hagen; Pilgaard, Kasper; Vilsbøll, Tina
CONTEXT: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. An impaired incretin effect was reported previously in type 2 diabetic patients. OBJECTIVE: We studied the secretion and action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic po...... or action of GLP-1 or GIP does not explain a relative reduced beta-cell responsiveness to glucose or the slightly elevated plasma glucose concentrations observed in young LBW men....... polypeptide (GIP) in young LBW men (n = 24) and matched normal birth weight controls (NBW) (n = 25). RESULTS: LBW subjects were 5 cm shorter but had a body mass index similar to NBW. LBW subjects had significantly elevated fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, as well as postprandial (standard meal test......) plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations, suggestive of insulin resistance. Insulin secretion in response to changes in glucose concentration ("beta-cell responsiveness") during the meal test was similar in LBW and NBW but inappropriate in LBW relative to insulin sensitivity. Fasting and postprandial...
Dobbins, J G; Mastro, T D; Nopkesorn, T; Sangkharomya, S; Limpakarnjanarat, K; Weniger, B G; Schmid, D S
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) has been in Thailand longer than has been HIV-1. The epidemiology of the 2 viruses was compared in an attempt to gain insight into likely future trends of the dissemination of HIV-1 and HSV-2 in the country. Findings are based upon questionnaire and serostatus data on a cohort of 1115 young male army conscripts who entered service in northern Thailand in 1991. The 1061 conscripts were 21 years old and the remainder were 22-27 years old. 879 were unmarried, 598 were farmers, and 55 were students. 6.9% of the young men were infected with HIV-1 and 14.9% with HSV-2. Among HSV-2-seropositive men who reported previous genital ulcers, HIV-1 seroprevalence was 32%. For most variables, there was a close correspondence between the prevalence ratios for HIV-1 and HSV-2, except that prevalence ratios for HIV-1 tended to be greater than the corresponding ratios for HSV-2. The seroprevalence of both viruses was strongly related to early and frequent contact with female prostitutes, infrequent condom use with such prostitutes, and residence in the upper northern region of Thailand. The patterns of infection were similar for the 2 viruses, suggesting the direction in which HIV-1 seroprevalence levels will go.
Lassen, Tina Harmer; Friis-Hansen, Lennart Jan; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh
CONTEXT: Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN-1) is a rare, autosomal dominant inherited disorder. Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is the most frequent and usually the earliest expression of MEN-1, with typical age of onset at 20-25 years. Early detection of the disease and correct treatment...... endocrine neoplasia 1 OR multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 AND Mutational analysis OR genetic testing OR testing OR Hyperparathyroidism, primary [majr]. A total of 625 abstracts were reviewed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Whether to perform screening of patients with pHPT under the age of 30, 35, or 40 years...
Hvid, Lars G; Brocca, Lorenza; Ørtenblad, Niels
Short-term disuse and subsequent recovery affect whole muscle and single myofiber contractile function in young and old. While the loss and recovery of single myofiber specific force (SF) following disuse and rehabilitation has been shown to correlate with alterations in myosin concentrations...... in young, it is unknown whether similar relationships exist in old. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 14days lower limb disuse followed by 28days of active recovery on single muscle fiber myosin content in old (68yrs) and young (24yrs) recreationally physically active...... contractile capacity of MHC 2a fibers. In conclusion, adaptive changes in myofiber myosin content appear to occur rapidly following brief periods of disuse (2wks) and after subsequent active recovery (4wks) in young and old, which contribute to alterations in contractile function at the single muscle fiber...
Hélène De Naeyer
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between serum testosterone (T levels, muscle mass and muscle force in eugonadal men is incompletely understood. As polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR gene cause differences in androgen sensitivity, no straightforward correlation can be observed between the interindividual variation in T levels and different phenotypes. Therefore, we aim to investigate the relationship between genetic variations in the AR, circulating androgens and muscle mass and function in young healthy male siblings. DESIGN: 677 men (25-45 years were recruited in a cross-sectional, population-based sibling pair study. METHODS: Relations between genetic variation in the AR gene (CAGn, GGNn, SNPs, sex steroid levels (by LC-MS/MS, body composition (by DXA, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA (by pQCT, muscle force (isokinetic peak torque, grip strength and anthropometrics were studied using linear mixed-effect modelling. RESULTS: Muscle mass and force were highly heritable and related to age, physical activity, body composition and anthropometrics. Total T (TT and free T (FT levels were positively related to muscle CSA, whereas estradiol (E2 and free E2 (FE2 concentrations were negatively associated with muscle force. Subjects with longer CAG repeat length had higher circulating TT, FT, and higher E2 and FE2 concentrations. Weak associations with TT and FT were found for the rs5965433 and rs5919392 SNP in the AR, whereas no association between GGN repeat polymorphism and T concentrations were found. Arm span and 2D:4D finger length ratio were inversely associated, whereas muscle mass and force were not associated with the number of CAG repeats. CONCLUSIONS: Age, physical activity, body composition, sex steroid levels and anthropometrics are determinants of muscle mass and function in young men. Although the number of CAG repeats of the AR are related to sex steroid levels and anthropometrics, we have no evidence that these variations in the AR
Galitzky, J; Sengenès, C; Thalamas, C; Marques, M A; Senard, J M; Lafontan, M; Berlan, M
We recently demonstrated that natriuretic peptides and especially the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are powerful lipolytic agents on isolated human fat cells. To search for a possible influence of obesity on ANP responsiveness, we compared the lipolytic effects of human ANP (h-ANP) on isolated subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) fat cells from young healthy lean and obese men. The lipid-mobilizing effects of an intravenous infusion of h-ANP was studied, as well as various metabolic and cardiovascular parameters that were compared in the same subjects. h-ANP (50 ng/min/kg) was infused iv for 60 min. Microdialysis probes were inserted in SCAAT to measure modifications of the extracellular glycerol concentrations during h-ANP infusion. Spectral analysis of blood pressure and heart rate oscillations that were recorded using digital photoplethysmography were used to assess changes in autonomic nervous system activity. h-ANP induced a marked and similar increase in glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids, and a weak increase in insulin plasma levels in lean and obese men. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations rose similarly during h-ANP infusion in lean and obese men. The effects of h-ANP infusion on the autonomic nervous system were similar in both groups, with an increase in the spectral energy of the low-frequency band of systolic blood pressure variability and a decrease in the spectral energy of the high-frequency band of heart rate. In SCAAT, h-ANP infusion increased extracellular glycerol concentration and decreased blood flow similarly in both groups. The increase in extracellular glycerol observed during h-ANP infusion was not modified when 0.1 mM propranolol was added to the microdialysis probe perfusate to prevent beta-adrenoceptor activation. These data show that ANP is a potent lipolytic hormone independent of the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and that obesity did not modify the lipid-mobilizing effect of ANP in young obese
Brøns, Charlotte; Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi
OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight (LBW) is an independent risk factor of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) may play a key role in the pathogenesis of insulin...... mitochondrial dysfunction per se is the underlying key metabolic defect that explains or precedes whole body insulin resistance in LBW subjects at risk for developing type 2 diabetes....
Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Madsbad, Sten
associated with LBW. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Vastus lateralis muscle was obtained by percutaneous biopsy from 20 healthy 19-yr-old men with birth weights at 10th percentile or lower for gestational age (LBW) and 20 normal birth weight controls, matched for body fat, physical fitness, and whole-body glucose...
Descriptive findings indicate that the average gender identity is higher in women than in men. Perhaps the reason for this is of cultural developments, changes in income and increase in women's participation in economic and educational opportunities. When it comes to different dimensions of participation, namely, social integration and development, again women have a higher average than men. In fact, participation let women in today's society feel that they are part of the society, that their lives have purpose. Thus they become hopeful about the future and developments in society. When it comes to the range of variation in social adaptation and acceptance, men do have a higher average. This means that men have a positive view towards human nature. Other findings of the study indicate that social health varies by gender and marital status of women, but this does not apply to men. The main assumptions of this research are confirmed. The variable of trust as a mediator in the relationship between two main variables of the study plays a decisive role. The regression analysis revealed that six variables (personal gender identity, social gender identity, trust, gender, accountable education and age are able to explain 43% of the variance of the dependent variable, which is social health. Our analysis showed that the variable of trust, in comparison to other variables, has a more influence on social health. A person with a high gender identity achieves social trust in relationships with others in the community and this will be a source of social health. Given the fact that most previous studies correspond with the findings of our study and support them, one could say that this is a powerful theoretical approach, whose results can be safely generalized to other populations.
Meissner, Birte; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf
Worldwide suicide is a deeply gendered phenomenon. In South Africa, approximately 80% of suicide completers are male. This study aimed to investigate how a group of young South African men understand and think about suicidal behavior. In-depth semistructured interviews and thematic analysis using a grounded theory approach revealed that this group of young South African men had permissive attitudes to suicide and viewed suicide as a morally defensible alternative in specific situations. They spoke of suicide as a goal-directed behavior that provides a means of regaining control, asserting power, communicating, and rendering oneself visible. From this perspective, suicide was understood as a brave act requiring strength and determination. These data have congruence with the Theory of Gender and Health, which proposes that constructions of masculinity may be implicated in the attitudes and beliefs young men in South Africa hold toward suicide.
Guðnadóttir, Unnur; Garðarsdóttir, Ragna B
Exposure to media images of the 'body-perfect' ideal has been partly blamed for the pursuit of thinness among women and muscularity among men. Research has largely overlooked the materialistic messages frequently associated with these images. We present findings from two studies with Icelandic students aged 18-21, one focusing on young women (n = 303) and one on young men (n = 226), which test associations of materialistic and body-perfect ideals with body dissatisfaction and excessive body shaping behaviors. In both studies, the internalization of materialistic values is strongly linked to the internalization of body-perfect ideals: the thin-ideal for young women, and the muscular-ideal for young men. A materialist value orientation also predicted body dissatisfaction in both studies, and was linked to body shaping behaviors, albeit differently for young women and men. Thus, the research identifies materialism as a further correlate of both body dissatisfaction and excessive body-shaping behaviors. The findings support Dittmar's (2008) Consumer Culture Impact Model, which proposes that the body-perfect and 'material good life' ideals jointly impact well-being.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapidly increasing number of activity-induced musculoskeletal injuries among adolescents and young adults is currently a true public health burden. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a neuromuscular training programme with injury prevention counselling is effective in preventing acute musculoskeletal injuries in young men during military service. Methods The trial design was a population-based, randomised study. Two successive cohorts of male conscripts in four companies of one brigade in the Finnish Defence Forces were first followed prospectively for one 6-month term to determine the baseline incidence of injury. After this period, two new successive cohorts in the same four companies were randomised into two groups and followed prospectively for 6 months. Military service is compulsory for about 90% of 19-year-old Finnish men annually, who comprised the cohort in this study. This randomised, controlled trial included 968 conscripts comprising 501 conscripts in the intervention group and 467 conscripts in the control group. A neuromuscular training programme was used to enhance conscripts' motor skills and body control, and an educational injury prevention programme was used to increase knowledge and awareness of acute musculoskeletal injuries. The main outcome measures were acute injuries of the lower and upper limbs. Results In the intervention groups, the risk for acute ankle injury decreased significantly compared to control groups (adjusted hazards ratio (HR = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 0.15 to 0.78, P = 0.011. This risk decline was observed in conscripts with low as well as moderate to high baseline fitness levels. In the latter group of conscripts, the risk of upper-extremity injuries also decreased significantly (adjusted HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.99, P = 0.047. In addition, the intervention groups tended to have less time loss due to injuries (adjusted HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0
Franko, Debra L; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Rodgers, Rachel F; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Yager, Zali; Smolak, Linda; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Shingleton, Rebecca M
We examined whether internalization of sociocultural body ideals mediated the relationship between conformity to masculine norms and drive for muscularity, leanness, and thinness in a sample of males from Sweden, US, UK, and Australia. Over six hundred young men [n=142 (Sweden); n=192 (US); n=141 (UK); n=160 (Australia)] completed an online survey that included assessments of masculine role norms, body image, and internalization of sociocultural body ideals. Path analyses confirmed internalization as a mediator between greater conformity to masculine norms and body image measures (drive for thinness, desire for leanness, and desire for muscularity) across the sample. However, significant cross-country differences in the strength of these mediation effects were found. Mediation effects among US, Australian, and Swedish males were comparable, whereas these effects were weaker in the UK sample. Findings confirmed the importance of internalization of sociocultural body ideals in the tested models.
Pituitary hormones play an important role energy expenditure and body temperature regulation during exercise. The aim of the stu¬dy was to investigate the effect of two different endurance training in ambient temperature (30.76 ± 1.71oC and 57.92 ± 5.80% r.h.) on plasma growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) levels in non-trained healthy subjects. Twenty-four untrained healthy men participated in an 8-wk progressive two different endurance-training program. Subjects were divided into two gro...
Eddie, D; Kim, C; Lehrer, P; Deneke, E; Bates, M E
The present pilot study investigated the implementation feasibility, and efficacy for reducing alcohol and drug craving, of a brief, 3-session heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV BFB) intervention added to a traditional 28-day substance abuse disorder inpatient treatment program. Forty-eight young adult men received either treatment as usual (TAU) plus three sessions of HRV BFB training over 3 weeks, or TAU only. Participants receiving HRV BFB training were instructed to practice daily using a hand-held HRV BFB device. HRV BFB training was well tolerated by participants and supported by treatment staff. Men receiving TAU + HRV BFB demonstrated a greater, medium effect size reduction in alcohol and drug craving compared to those receiving TAU only, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. In addition, an interaction effect was observed in analyses that accounted for baseline craving levels, wherein heart rate variability (HRV) levels at treatment entry were predictive of changes in craving in the TAU group only. Low baseline levels of HRV were associated with increases in craving, whereas higher baseline HRV levels were associated with greater decreases in craving from start to end of treatment. In the TAU + HRV BFB group, however, there was no such association. That is, HRV BFB appeared to dissociate individual differences in baseline HRV levels from changes in craving. Given that alcohol and drug craving often precipitates relapse, HRV BFB merits further study as an adjunct treatment to ameliorate craving experienced by persons with substance use disorders.
M E Tel'nova
Full Text Available Objective: to assess hormonal and metabolic parameters and psychological status of young men with obesity. Methods: The study included 60 men with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2 divided in two groups. Patients in the first group (n=30 received orlistat for 12 weeks (120 mg 3 times daily with meal. Patients in second group (n=30 followed hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise. All patients were examined before treatment and after 12 weeks. Evaluation included hormonal and biochemical analyses, 48 patients were examined by psychological questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Results: Patients that received orlistat treatment showed significant decrease of body mass: 50% of patients had decrease more than 5%, 30% of patients - more than 10% (p<0,05. In first group after 12 weeks of treatment level of cortisol decreased and level of testosterone increased. The results of treatment in second group were less significant. There was a significant decrease in anxiety and depression scales in patients taking orlistat (p<0,05. High levels of social anxiety did not decrease in both groups after treatment. As a result of orlistat treatment there was a decrease in external eating behavior and increase in expression of restraint eating behavior by DEBQ (p<0,05. Conclusions: treatment with orlistat reduces body weight, which is correlated by improvement of hormonal and biochemical parameters. Weight loss is accompanied by changes in rates of anxiety and depression.
Full Text Available Background. Low-Risk Human Papillomavirus (LR-HPV genotypes 6 and 11 cause genital warts. This study investigated the association of LR-HPV infection with male circumcision (MC. Methods. We used data from the South African MC trial conducted among young men. Urethral swabs, collected among intervention (circumcised and control (uncircumcised groups, were analyzed using HPV linear array. Adjusted LR-HPV prevalence rate ratio (aPPR and Poisson mean ratio (aPMR of number of LR-HPV genotypes were estimated using log-Poisson regression, controlling for background characteristics, sexual behaviour, and HIV and HSV-2 statuses. Results. Compared to controls, LR-HPV prevalence and mean number of genotypes were significantly lower among the intervention group ((8.5% versus 15.8%; aPRR: 0.54, P<.001 and (0.33 versus 0.18; aPMR: 0.54, P<.001, resp.. Mean number of LR-HPV genotypes increased with number of lifetime sexual partners and decreased with education level and consistent condom use. Conclusions. This study shows a reduction in LR-HPV infection among circumcised men.
Patel, Sheetal; Schechter, Martin T; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Atim, Stella; Lakor, Sam; Kiwanuka, Noah; Spittal, Patricia M
Despite growing knowledge of the dynamics of HIV infection during conflict, far less is known about the period that follows cessation of hostilities and its implications for population health. This study sought to fill a lacuna in epidemiological evidence by examining HIV infection and related vulnerabilities of young people living in resource-scarce, post-emergency transit camps that are now home to thousands of displaced people following two decades of war in northern Uganda. In 2010, a cross-sectional demographic and behavioural survey was conducted with 384 transit camp residents aged 15-29 years old in Gulu District. Biological specimens were collected for rapid and confirmatory HIV testing. Separate multivariable logistic regression models by sex identified risk factors for HIV infection. HIV prevalence was 15.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.8%, 21.6%) among females and 9.9% (95% CI: 6.1%, 15.0%) among males. The strongest correlate of HIV infection among men was a non-consensual sexual debut (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.24; 95% CI: 1.37-7.67), and having practiced dry sex (AOR 7.62; 95% CI: 1.56-16.95) was the strongest correlate among women. Conflict-affected men and women experience vulnerability to HIV infection in different ways than may have originally been understood. Post-conflict programme planners must therefore design and implement contextualised, evidence-based responses to HIV that are sensitive to gender and cultural issues.
Storholm, Erik David; Satre, Derek D; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N
Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at increased likelihood of experiencing depression and engaging in condomless sexual behaviors. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the relationship between negative mood and compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and to assess for their individual and combined influence on sexual risk-taking behavior among a diverse sample of YMSM in New York City (the P18 Cohort Study). We first analyzed sociodemographic, depressive symptoms, CSB, and sexual risk-taking from the cross-sectional data of 509, 18- or 19-year-old YMSM recruited using non-probability sampling. We found a significant positive correlation between CSB and depression and between CSB and frequency of condomless anal sex acts reported over the last 30 days. Multivariate results found that the presence of both depression and CSB contributed to elevated sexual risk-taking among these urban YMSM. Clinical implications include the importance of assessing for CSB when depression is present and vice versa in order to improve HIV prevention. Informed by minority stress theory and syndemic theory, our results suggest that interventions focused on the health of YMSM recognize that mental health and social context all interact to increase physical health vulnerability vis-a-vis sexual behaviors, depression, and CSB. Thus, HIV prevention and intervention programs need to incorporate mental health components and services that address these needs.
Bauermeister, José A.; Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Pingel, Emily; VanHemert, William; Loveluck, Jimena
Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes among minority populations. The increasing evidence regarding health disparities among sexual minorities has underscored the importance of addressing sexuality discrimination as a public health issue. We conducted a web-based survey between May and September of 2012 in order to obtain a diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (ages 18–29; N = 397; 83% gay; 49% Black, 27% White, 15% Latino) living in the Detroit Metro Area (Michigan, USA). Using multivariate regression models, we examined the association between overall health (self-rated health, days in prior month when their physical or mental health was not good, limited functionality) and experiences of sexuality-based work discrimination. Fifteen percent reported at least one experience of sexuality-based work discrimination in the prior year. Recent workplace discrimination was associated with poorer self-rated health, a greater number of days when health was not good, and more functional limitation. We discuss the importance of addressing sexuality-related discrimination as a public health problem and propose multilevel intervention strategies to address these discriminatory practices. PMID:24659928
González, Cristina; Torres, Montserrat; Benito, Amparo; Del Romero, Jorge; Rodríguez, Carmen; Fontillón, María; Trastoy, Mónica; Viciana, Pompeyo; Del Amo, Julia; Ortiz, Marta; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz
The aim of our study was to determine the baseline prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and associated risk factors in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in a Spanish ongoing multicenter cohort. CoRIS-HPV started in 2007, nested in the Spanish AIDS Research Network Cohort (CoRIS). Anal liquid cytology testing was performed. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection was determined, and positive samples were genotyped. We analyzed all subjects up to April 2011. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. A total of 551 subjects with baseline anal liquid cytologies were analyzed; 37.0% negative for intraepithelial lesion, 9.0% atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS), 41.0% low-grade SIL, 4.0% high-grade SIL and 9.0% inadequate. Prevalence of anal SIL (excluding ASCUS) in valid samples (n = 450) was 54.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 49.9-59.3). Globally HR-HPV prevalence was 81.7% (95% CI = 78.0-85.2). Multiple infections (≥2 HR-HPV genotypes) were documented in 77.7% (95% CI = 73.1-82.0). The only risk factor associated with anal SIL was the number of HR-HPV types; MSM with five or more HR-HPV genotypes had an odds ratio (OR) of anal SIL seven times greater (OR = 7.4; 95% CI = 2.8-19.6) than those with one HR-HPV genotype. No associations were found for age, educational level, smoking, geographical origin, CD4 T-cell count, antiretroviral treatment or number of sexual partners. The prevalence of anal SIL in young HIV-positive MSM is high, and the main risk factor is multiple infections with HR-HPV types.
Bleizgys, Andrius; Šapoka, Virginijus
Vitamin D might have a role in diminishing endothelial dysfunction (ED). The initial aim was to test the hypothesis of reciprocity between levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and levels of soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that could serve as biomarkers of ED. Randomly selected men of age 20-39 were examined at February or March (cold season) and reexamined at August or September (warm season). Some lifestyle and anthropometrical data were recorded. Laboratory measurements, including those for serum levels of soluble CAMs—sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sP-selectin—were also performed. As some of the results were rather unexpected, indices of geomagnetic activity (GMA), obtained from the online database, were included in further analysis as a confounder. In 2012-2013, 130 men were examined in cold season, and 125 of them were reexamined in warm season. 25(OH)D levels were found to be significantly negatively associated with sVCAM-1 levels ( β = -0.15, p = 0.043 in warm season; β = -0.19, p = 0.007 for changes). Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 from the same seasons were notably different between years and have changed in an opposite manner. Soluble P-selectin levels were higher at warm season in both years. GMA was positively associated with sVCAM-1 ( β = 0.17, p = 0.039 in cold season; β = 0.22, p = 0.002 for changes) and negatively with sICAM-1 ( β = -0.30. p Vitamin D might play a role in diminishing sVCAM-1 levels. Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were associated with the GMA; this implies a need for further research.
The identification of disengaged early school leavers as young people "at risk" can lead to a deficit-based framing of how educational institutions respond to them. A rural secondary school in Victoria, Australia established an alternative education programme to cater for local disengaged young people. A critical ethnographic study was…
Satyanarayan, Sammita; Kapur, Abhinav; Azhar, Sameena; Yeldandi, Vijay; Schneider, John A
Little is known about the women connected to Indian MSM and their impact on HIV risk. We surveyed 240 Indian MSM, who identified their social networks (n = 7,092). Women (n = 1,321) comprised 16.7 % of the network, with 94.7 % representing non-sexual connections. MSM were classified as having low, moderate, or high female network proportion. MSM with moderate female network proportion (8-24 % total network) had significantly lowered odds of HIV seropositivity (AOR = 0.24, 95 % CI = 0.1-0.6). This suggests moderate proportions of female connections could mediate HIV risk. HIV prevention interventions in India could consider the greater involvement of women among their target audiences. Se sabe poco sobre las mujeres conectadas a HSH en India y su impacto en el riesgo de VIH. Se encuestó a 240 HSH indios, quienes identificaron sus redes sociales (n = 7,092). Las mujeres (n = 1,321) formaron al 16.7 % de la red, del cual el 94.7 % representa conexiones no sexuales. Los HSH se clasificaron como baja, moderada o alta proporción de red femenina. HSH con proporción moderada de red femenina (8-24 % del red total) tuvieron un riesgo significativamente reducido de seropositividad de VIH (AOR = 0,24; IC 95 % = 0,1-0,6). Esto sugiere que tener una proporción moderada de contactos femeninos podría atenuar el riesgo de VIH. Las intervenciones de prevención del VIH en India podrían considerar una mayor participación de las mujeres en su público objetivo.
This paper, from the approach of motif, discusses the taboo motif from the stories of young men and young women of snake incarnation, and gives a cultural interpretation of their manifestations. There is a stable relationship and mutual benefits between the original totem taboo customs and those in reality. Totem taboo customs in later days reveal the uncompromising conflicts between man and nature. The evident representations of these conflicts lie with the established taboos for different kinds of species and the breaking of taboos by human being.%运用母题学的研究方法，从蛇郎蛇女型故事中提择出禁忌母题，并对其不同的表现形态进行文化释读：最初的与现实生活中相对应的图腾禁忌习俗建立了一种牢固的互惠关系，后来的则透示了人与自然之间难以消解的对立；异类的设禁和人类的违禁是这种对立的行为显现。
Jørgensen, Sine W; Brøns, Charlotte; Bluck, Les
fasting differed between 21 young adults born SGA and 18 matched controls born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). METHODS: A frequently sampled IVGTT and indirect calorimetry measurements were performed after a 36 h fast. Endogenous glucose production, insulin sensitivity (SI), first-phase insulin...... secretion and glucose effectiveness were estimated by stable isotope tracer techniques and minimal modelling. Muscle and fat biopsies were obtained after 35 h of fasting. RESULTS: During fasting, SGA individuals experienced a more pronounced decrease in serum insulin and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels...... compared with AGA individuals. In addition, energy expenditure decreased in SGA but increased in AGA individuals. After fasting, SGA individuals displayed lower fat oxidation than AGA individuals. SG was reduced in SGA compared with AGA individuals, whereas hepatic or whole body insulin action (SI) did...
Full Text Available Abstract The determinants of bone mineral density (BMD at multiple sites were examined in a fit college population. Subjects were 755 males (mean age = 18.7 years entering the United States Military Academy. A questionnaire assessed exercise frequency and milk, caffeine, and alcohol consumption and tobacco use. Academy staff measured height, weight, and fitness. Calcaneal BMD was measured by peripheral dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (pDXA. Peripheral-quantitative computed tomography (pQCT was used to measure tibial mineral content, circumference and cortical thickness. Spine and hip BMD were measured by DXA in a subset (n = 159. Mean BMD at all sites was approximately one standard deviation above young normal (p
Brands, Myrte; Hoeks, Joris; Sauerwein, Hans P; Ackermans, Mariette T; Ouwens, Margriet; Lammers, Nicolette M; van der Plas, Mart N; Schrauwen, Patrick; Groen, Albert K; Serlie, Mireille J
Free fatty acid (FFA)- and obesity-induced insulin resistance has been associated with disturbed mitochondrial function. Elevated plasma FFA can impair insulin-induced increase of adenosine triphosphate synthesis and downregulate the expression of genes important in the biogenesis of mitochondria in human skeletal muscle. Whether FAs have a direct effect on intrinsic mitochondrial capacity remains to be established. Therefore, we measured ex vivo mitochondrial respiratory capacity in human skeletal muscle after exposure to hyperinsulinemia and high levels of plasma FFA. Nine healthy lean men were studied during a 6-hour hyperinsulinemic (600 pmol/L) euglycemic clamp with concomitant infusion of Intralipid (Fresensius Kabi Nederland, Den Bosch, the Netherlands) (FFA clamped at 0.5 mmol/L) or saline. Mitochondrial respiratory capacity was measured by high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized muscle fibers using an Oxygraph (OROBOROS Instruments, Innsbruck, Austria). Each participant served as his own control. Peripheral glucose uptake (rate of disappearance) was significantly lower during infusion of the lipid emulsion compared with the control saline infusion (68 μmol/kg·min [saline] vs 40 μmol/kg·min [lipid], P = .008). However, adenosine diphosphate-stimulated and maximal carbonylcyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)-phenylhydrazone-stimulated uncoupled respiration rates were not different in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers after exposure to high levels of FFA compared with the control condition. We conclude that short-term elevation of FFA within the physiological range induces insulin resistance but does not affect intrinsic mitochondrial capacity in skeletal muscle in humans.
Elmasry, Hoda; Webb Hooper, Monica; Niaura, Raymond S; Hamilton, Alison B; Milburn, Norweeta G
Background Recent evidence suggests that sexualized text communication (“sexting”) is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adults, yet little is known about this relationship among young adult African American gay and bisexual men, a population disproportionately impacted by HIV in the United States. Rapid advances in mobile phone technology indicate a clear need for research using mobile health (mHealth) methods such as ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to serve as a viable counterpart to retrospective evaluation methods by using real-time data collection to assess sexting and substance use among this population. Objective The objective of this pilot study was to (1) describe the EMA study design and protocol, (2) characterize the study population, and (3) assess the feasibility of a random prompt text message-based thrice-daily EMA over 14 days, as a means of prospectively studying sexting, marijuana, and alcohol use among a sample of young adult African American gay and bisexual men ages 21 to 25. Methods Participants were recruited through flyers and snowball sampling during spring and summer 2015 at a community-based HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support organization in Washington, DC. Eligible participants were enrolled in a one-time in-person study visit that consisted of informed written consent to participate in the study, a self-administered survey, a semi-structured interview, and enrollment and training in EMA data collection. Commencing the day after the study visit, a random prompt survey was texted to participants on their personal mobile phones 3 times a day over a 14-day data collection period assessing mood, texts sent, texts received, sexts sent, sexts received, marijuana want, marijuana use, and alcohol use. Results EMA feasibility was tested with 25 self-identified African American gay (n=16) and bisexual (n=9) men (mean age of 23.48 years, SD 1.5). Each random prompt survey had 8 questions with responses
Alzheimer's genes: Are you at risk? Several genes have been associated with Alzheimer's disease, but more research is needed. By Mayo ... Certain genes make you more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease. Genes control the function of every cell ...
... on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for an Arrhythmia? Arrhythmias are very common in older adults. Atrial fibrillation (a common type of arrhythmia that can cause problems) affects millions of people, ...
... NHLBI on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... role in atherosclerosis risk. Other Factors That Affect Atherosclerosis Other factors also may raise your risk for ...
Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Mollard, Rebecca C; Yurchenko, Svitlana; Nunez, Maria Fernanda; Berengut, Shari; Liu, Ting Ting; Smith, Christopher E; Pelkman, Christine L; Anderson, G Harvey
The objective of this study was to determine the dose response effect of whole grain high-amylose maize (HAM) flour as a source of resistant starch (RS) on blood glucose, appetite and short-term food intake. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, healthy men (n = 30, 22.9 ± 0.6 y, BMI of 22.6 ± 0.3 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 3 cookies once a week for 3 wk. Cookies were control (100% wheat flour), low-dose (63% wheat flour,37% HAM flour), and high-dose (33% wheat flour, 67% HAM flour) providing 53.5, 43.5, and 36.3 g of available carbohydrate, respectively. Ad libitum food intake was measured 120 min at a pizza meal, blood glucose and subjective appetite were measured after consumption of the cookie (0 to 120 min) and after the pizza meal (140 to 200 min). Blood glucose concentrations were lower at 30 and 45 min after high-dose treatment, and at 120 min after both high- and low-dose treatments compared to control (P < 0.05). Blood glucose AUC before the pizza meal (0 to 120 min) was 44% and 14% lower, and higher by 43% and 41% after the pizza meal (140 to 200 min) compared with control. Yet despite the higher response following the meal, cumulative AUC (0 to 200 min) was still 22% lower after the high-dose treatment (P < 0.05). All treatments equally suppressed subjective appetite and there was no effect on food intake. In conclusion, HAM flour as a source of RS and incorporated into a cookie was associated with better glycemic control in young men.
Moreir, Kelly Cristina de Almeida; Silva, Denize Elena Garcia da
The paper aims to present and discuss discursive representations near the characterization of the problem of children and adolescents at risk, and how they relate to their perception in the regular educational system. We seek, speciﬁcally, to identify these young people’s opinion about then educational institutions attended by them. The main theoretical and methodological procedure used for the critical study of discourse is based on Fairclough (2001; 2003). The Systemic Functional Linguistic...
Full Text Available An association of higher body mass index (BMI with lower risk of attempted and completed suicide has been reported. In contrast, increasing BMI has been found to be associated with depression and other risk factors for suicidal behavior. We aimed to investigate this possible paradox in a cohort comprising 49 000 Swedish men. BMI, mental health, lifestyle and socioeconomic measures were recorded at conscription in 1969-70, at ages 18-20. Information on attempted suicide 1973-2008 and completed suicide 1971-2008 was obtained from national records. Hazard ratios (HR were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. We found that each standard deviation (SD increase in BMI was associated with a 12% lower risk of later suicide attempt (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.94. Associations were somewhat weaker for completed suicide and did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.01. Adjustment for a wide range of possible confounding factors had little effect on the associations. Lower BMI at conscription was also associated with higher prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses, low emotional control and depressed mood. Our results confirm previous findings regarding the association of higher BMI with a reduced risk of suicide, extending them to show similar findings in relation to suicide attempts. The associations were little affected by adjustment for a range of possible confounding factors. However, we found no evidence that high BMI was associated with an increased risk of depression cross-sectionally or longitudinally.
Kelley, D S; Taylor, P C; Nelson, G J; Schmidt, P C; Ferretti, A; Erickson, K L; Yu, R; Chandra, R K; Mackey, B E
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as triacylglycerol on the fatty acid composition, eicosanoid production, and select activities of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC). A 120-d study with 11 healthy men was conducted at the Metabolic Research Unit of Western Human Nutrition Reach Center. Four subjects (control group) were fed the stabilization diet throughout the study; the remaining seven subjects were fed the basal diet for the first 30 d, followed by 6 g DHA/d for the next 90 d. DHA replaced an equivalent amount of linoleic acid; the two diets were comparable in their total fat and all other nutrients. Both diets were supplemented with 20 mg D alpha-tocopherol acetate per day. PBMNC fatty acid composition and eicosanoid production were examined on day 30 and 113; immune cell functions were tested on day 22, 30, 78, 85, 106, and 113. DHA feeding increased its concentration from 2.3 to 7.4 wt% in the PBMNC total lipids, and decreased arachidonic acid concentration from 19.8 to 10.7 wt%. It also lowered prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production, in response to lipopolysaccharide, by 60-75%. Natural killer cell activity and in vitro secretion of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha were significantly reduced by DHA feeding. These parameters remained unchanged in the subjects fed the control diet. B-cell functions as reported here and T-cell functions that we reported previously were not altered by DHA feeding. Our results show that inhibitory effects of DHA on immune cell functions varied with the cell type, and that the inhibitory effects are not mediated through increased production of PGE2 and LTB4.
Larsen, Mads S; Vissing, Kristian; Thams, Line; Sieljacks, Peter; Dalgas, Ulrik; Nellemann, Birgitte; Christensen, Britt
The aim was to investigate the ability of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), alone or in combination with endurance training, to induce changes in human skeletal muscle fibre and vascular morphology. In a comparative study, 36 healthy untrained men were randomly dispersed into the following four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9); sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9); training-placebo (TP, n = 10); or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). The ESA or placebo was injected once weekly. Training consisted of progressive bicycling three times per week for 10 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, muscle biopsies and magnetic resonance images were collected from the thigh muscles, blood was collected, body composition measured and endurance exercise performance evaluated. The ESA treatment (SE and TE) led to elevated haematocrit, and both ESA treatment and training (SE, TP and TE) increased maximal O2 uptake. With regard to skeletal muscle morphology, TP alone exhibited increases in whole-muscle cross-sectional area and fibre diameter of all fibre types. Also exclusively for TP was an increase in type IIa fibres and a corresponding decrease in type IIx fibres. Furthermore, an overall training effect (TP and TE) was statistically demonstrated in whole-muscle cross-sectional area, muscle fibre diameter and type IIa and type IIx fibre distribution. With regard to muscle vascular morphology, TP and TE both promoted a rise in capillary to muscle fibre ratio, with no differences between the two groups. There were no effects of ESA treatment on any of the muscle morphological parameters. Despite the haematopoietic effects of ESA, we provide novel evidence that endurance training rather than ESA treatment induces adaptational changes in angiogenesis and muscle morphology.
Madkins, Krystal; Greene, George J; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Johnson, Brent A; Sullivan, Patrick; Bass, Michael; Abel, Rebekah
Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are increasing among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), yet few HIV prevention programs have studied this population. Keep It Up! (KIU!), an online HIV prevention program tailored to diverse YMSM, was developed to fill this gap. The KIU! 2.0 randomized controlled trial (RCT) was launched to establish intervention efficacy. Objective The objective of the KIU! study is to advance scientific knowledge of technology-based behavioral HIV prevention, as well as improve public health by establishing the efficacy of an innovative electronic health (eHealth) prevention program for ethnically and racially diverse YMSM. The intervention is initiated upon receipt of a negative HIV test result, based on the theory that testing negative is a teachable moment for future prevention behaviors. Methods This is a two-group, active-control RCT of the online KIU! intervention. The intervention condition includes modules that use videos, animation, games, and interactive exercises to address HIV knowledge, motivation for safer behaviors, self-efficacy, and behavioral skills. The control condition reflects HIV information that is readily available on many websites, with the aim to understand how the KIU! intervention improves upon information that is currently available online. Follow-up assessments are administered at 3, 6, and 12 months for each arm. Testing for urethral and rectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is completed at baseline and at 12-month follow-up for all participants, and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups for participants who test positive at baseline. The primary behavioral outcome is unprotected anal sex at all follow-up points, and the primary biomedical outcome is incident STIs at 12-month follow-up. Results Consistent with study aims, the KIU! technology has been successfully integrated into a widely-used health technology platform. Baseline enrollment for the RCT was completed on December 30, 2015 (N
Kim, Jeong-su; Cross, James M; Bamman, Marcas M
Myostatin inhibits myoblast proliferation and differentiation in developing muscle. Mounting evidence suggests that myostatin also plays a limiting role in growth/repair/regeneration of differentiated adult muscle by inhibiting satellite cell activation. We tested the hypothesis that myostatin mRNA expression would decrease after resistance loading (RL) with a blunted response in older (O) females (F) who have shown minimal hypertrophy [vs. males (M)] after long-term RL. As myostatin is thought to modulate cell cycle activity, we also studied the response of gene transcripts key to stimulation (cyclin B1 and D1) and inhibition (p21cip and p27kip) of the cell cycle, along with the muscle-specific load-sensitive mitogen mechano-growth factor (MGF). Twenty young (Y; 20-35 yr, 10 YF, 10 YM) and 18 O (60-75 yr, 9 OF, 9 OM) consented to vastus lateralis biopsy before and 24 h after a bout of RL (3 sets x 8-12 repetitions to volitional fatigue of squat, leg press, knee extension). Gene expression levels were determined by relative RT-PCR with 18S as an internal standard and analyzed by age x gender x load repeated-measures ANOVA. A load effect was found for four transcripts (P Y) and an age x gender interaction (66%, OF > YF vs. 10%, OM > YM; P Y) led to a main age effect (P < 0.05). An age x load interaction for cyclin B1 (P < 0.05) was driven by a 26% increase in Y with no change in O after RL. No age or gender differences, or load-mediated changes, were detected in levels of p21cip mRNA expression. These data clearly demonstrate that RL downregulates myostatin expression and alters genes key to cell cycle progression. However, failure to reduce myostatin expression may play a role in limiting RL-induced hypertrophy in OF.
Popadic Gacesa Jelena Z
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bradykinin type 2 receptor (B2BRK genotype was reported to be associated with changes in the left-ventricular mass as a response to aerobic training, as well as in the regulation of the skeletal muscle performance in both athletes and non-athletes. However, there are no reports on the effect of B2BRK 9-bp polymorphism on the response of the skeletal muscle to strength training, and our aim was to determine the relationship between the B2BRK SNP and triceps brachii functional and morphological adaptation to programmed physical activity in young adults. Methods In this 6-week pretest-posttest exercise intervention study, twenty nine healthy young men (21.5 ± 2.7 y, BMI 24.2 ± 3.5 kg/m2 were put on a 6-week exercise protocol using an isoacceleration dynamometer (5 times a week, 5 daily sets with 10 maximal elbow extensions, 1 minute rest between sets. Triceps brachii muscle volumes were assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging before and after the strength training. Bradykinin type 2 receptor 9 base pair polymorphism was determined for all participants. Results Following the elbow extensors training, an average increase in the volume of both triceps brachii was 5.4 ± 3.4% (from 929.5 ± 146.8 cm3 pre-training to 977.6 ± 140.9 cm3 after training, p9 allele compared to individuals with one or two +9 alleles (−9/-9, 8.5 ± 3.8%; vs. -9/+9 and +9/+9 combined, 4.7 ± 4.5%, p B2BRK genotype (−9/-9, 50.2 ± 19.2%; vs. -9/+9 and +9/+9 combined, 46.8 ± 20.7%, p > 0.05. Conclusions We found that muscle morphological response to targeted training – hypertrophy – is related to polymorphisms of B2BRK. However, no significant influence of different B2BRK genotypes on functional muscle properties after strength training in young healthy non athletes was found. This finding could be relevant, not only in predicting individual muscle adaptation capacity to training or sarcopenia related to aging and inactivity, but also in
Siervo, M; Sabatini, S; Fewtrell, M S; Wells, J C K
Watching television and playing video game being seated represent sedentary behaviours and increase the risk of weight gain and hypertension. We investigated the acute effects of violent and non-violent video-game playing on blood pressure (BP), appetite perception and food preferences. Forty-eight young, normal-weight men (age: 23.1±1.9 years; body mass index: 22.5±1.9 kg/m(2)) participated in a three-arm, randomized trial. Subjects played a violent video game, a competitive, non-violent video game or watched TV for 1 h. Measurements of BP, stress and appetite perception were recorded before a standardized meal (∼300 kcal) and then repeated every 15 min throughout the intervention. Violent video-game playing was associated with a significant increase in diastolic BP (Δ±s.d.=+7.5±5.8 mm Hg; P=0.04) compared with the other two groups. Subjects playing violent video games felt less full (P=0.02) and reported a tendency towards sweet food consumption. Video games involving violence appear to be associated with significant effects on BP and appetite perceptions compared with non-violent gaming or watching TV.
Zvyagintsev, M; Klasen, M; Weber, R; Sarkheil, P; Esposito, F; Mathiak, K A; Schwenzer, M; Mathiak, K
In violent video games, players engage in virtual aggressive behaviors. Exposure to virtual aggressive behavior induces short-term changes in players' behavior. In a previous study, a violence-related version of the racing game "Carmageddon TDR2000" increased aggressive affects, cognitions, and behaviors compared to its non-violence-related version. This study investigates the differences in neural network activity during the playing of both versions of the video game. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recorded ongoing brain activity of 18 young men playing the violence-related and the non-violence-related version of the video game Carmageddon. Image time series were decomposed into functional connectivity (FC) patterns using independent component analysis (ICA) and template-matching yielded a mapping to established functional brain networks. The FC patterns revealed a decrease in connectivity within 6 brain networks during the violence-related compared to the non-violence-related condition: three sensory-motor networks, the reward network, the default mode network (DMN), and the right-lateralized frontoparietal network. Playing violent racing games may change functional brain connectivity, in particular and even after controlling for event frequency, in the reward network and the DMN. These changes may underlie the short-term increase of aggressive affects, cognitions, and behaviors as observed after playing violent video games.
Nagai, Narumi; Sakane, Naoki; Moritani, Toshio
The present study was designed to investigate the metabolic and sympathetic responses to a high-fat meal in humans. Fourteen young men (age: 23.6 +/- 0.5 y, BMI: 21.3 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) were examined for energy expenditure and fat oxidation measured by indirect calorimetry for 3.5 h after a high-fat (70%, energy from fat) or an isoenergetic low-fat (20% energy from fat) meal served in random order. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was assessed using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). After the high-fat meal, increases in thermoregulatory SNS activity (very low-frequency component of HRV, 0.007-0.035 Hz, 577.4+/-45.9 vs. 432.0+/-49.3 ms2, p<0.05) and fat oxidation (21.0+/-5.3 vs. 13.3+/-4.3 g, p<0.001) were greater than those after the low-fat meal. However, thermic effects of the meal (TEM) were lower after the high-fat meal than after the low-fat meal (27.5+/-11.2 vs. 36.1+/-10.9 kcal, p<0.05). In conclusion, the high-fat meal can stimulate thermoregulatory SNS and lipolysis, but resulted in lower TEM, suggesting that a high proportion of dietary fat intake, even with a normal daily range of calories, may be a potent risk factor for further weight gain.
Clagett, Bartholt; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Ciosek, Stephanie L.; McDermoth, Monique; Vaughn, David J.; Mitra, Nandita; Weiss, Andrew; Martonik, Rachel; Kanetsky, Peter A.
Random-digit dialing (RDD) using landline telephone numbers is the historical gold standard for control recruitment in population-based epidemiologic research. However, increasing cell-phone usage and diminishing response rates suggest that the effectiveness of RDD in recruiting a random sample of the general population, particularly for younger target populations, is decreasing. In this study, we compared landline RDD with alternative methods of control recruitment, including RDD using cell-phone numbers and address-based sampling (ABS), to recruit primarily white men aged 18–55 years into a study of testicular cancer susceptibility conducted in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, metropolitan area between 2009 and 2012. With few exceptions, eligible and enrolled controls recruited by means of RDD and ABS were similar with regard to characteristics for which data were collected on the screening survey. While we find ABS to be a comparably effective method of recruiting young males compared with landline RDD, we acknowledge the potential impact that selection bias may have had on our results because of poor overall response rates, which ranged from 11.4% for landline RDD to 1.7% for ABS. PMID:24008901
Full Text Available The effect of resistance exercise with the ingestion of supplementary protein on the activation of the mTOR cascade, in human skeletal muscle has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the impact of a single bout of resistance exercise, immediately followed by a single dose of whey protein isolate (WPI or placebo supplement, on the activation of mTOR signalling was analyzed. Young untrained men completed a maximal single-legged knee extension exercise bout and were randomized to ingest either WPI supplement (n = 7 or the placebo (n = 7. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before, and 2, 4 and 24 hr post-exercise. WPI or placebo ingestion consumed immediately post-exercise had no impact on the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473. However, WPI significantly enhanced phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser2448, 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46 and p70S6K (Thr389 at 2 hr post-exercise. This study demonstrates that a single dose of WPI, when consumed in modest quantities, taken immediately after resistance exercise elicits an acute and transient activation of translation initiation within the exercised skeletal muscle.
Maman, Suzanne; Kajula, Lusajo; Balvanz, Peter; Kilonzo, Mrema; Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina
Gender inequality is at the core of the HIV patterns that are evident in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender-based violence (GBV) and lack of economic opportunity are important structural determinants of HIV risk. We piloted a microfinance and health promotion intervention among social networks of primarily young men in Dar es Salaam. Twenty-two individuals participated in the microfinance component and 30 peer leaders were recruited and trained in the peer health leadership component. We collected and analysed observational data from trainings, monitoring data on loan repayment, and reports of peer conversations to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Eighteen of the loan recipients (82%) paid back their loans, and of these 15 (83%) received a second, larger loan. Among the loan defaulters, one died, one had chronic health problems, and two disappeared, one of whom was imprisoned for theft. The majority of conversations reported by peer health leaders focused on condoms, sexual partner selection, and HIV testing. Few peer leaders reported conversations about GBV. We demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of this innovative HIV and GBV prevention intervention. The lessons learned from this pilot have informed the implementation of a cluster-randomised trial of the microfinance and peer health leadership intervention.
董振鑫; 徐杰; 张洪波; 斗智; 米国栋; 吴尊友; 阮玉华; 申莉梅; 闵向东
目的 调查我国年轻男男性行为者(young men who have sex with men,YMSM)中梅毒新发感染状况及影响因素,为在YMSM人群中开展性病预防干预提供依据.方法 以18 ～ 25岁YMSM且梅毒抗体检测为阴性者为研究对象,于2009年5至11月采用滚雪球的方法在北京、上海、昆明、贵阳、重庆、成都、乌鲁木齐和南宁8个城市招募符合条件的研究对象1 037名,建立研究队列并完成基线调查,分别于基线调查后的第6个月和12个月进行随访调查.调查内容包括社会人口学特征、艾滋病相关知识、态度、近6个月性行为及安全套使用情况.同时,采集静脉血8ml,进行梅毒血清学检测.采用x2检验比较基线与2次随访时研究对象的人口学特征；运用Cox回归分析的方法,探讨YMSM人群梅毒感染的影响因素.结果 在1 037名YMSM研究对象中,在第6、12个月随访时,队列随访率分别为79.85％ (828/1 037)和82.16％ (852/1 037).在12个月的随访期间共新发梅毒感染39例,随访期间累计观察时间为1 106.67人年,梅毒新发感染率为3.5％；多因素Cox回归分析显示,YMSM梅毒感染的危险因素包括文化程度为高中或中专[以文化程度为大学及以上者为参考组,RR(95％ CI):2.19(1.21 ～3.98)]、性取向为双性[以同性性取向者为参考组,RR(95％ CI):2.19(1.21 ～3.97)]、HIV相关知识得分＜8分[以得分为8分者为参考组,RR(95％CI):2.39(1.35～4.21)]、近6个月有多个同性性伴且不能坚持使用安全套[以坚持使用安全套为参考组,RR(95％CI):3.10(1.39 ～6.91)].结论 我国YMSM梅毒新发感染率处于较高水平,且多性伴和高危性行为等危险因素广泛存在.%Objectives To investigate the incidence of syphilis infection and to determine the risk factors related to syphilis infection among young men who had sex with men (YMSM),which were documented for developing effective intervention to prevent sexually transmitted
Arnaud Alexandre Rabat
Full Text Available Chronic sleep restriction (CSR induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e. attention, executive under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8h TIB followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4h TIB, 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8h TIB and 2 more ones 8 days later (R12-R13. Subjective sleepiness (KSS, maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT were evaluated 4 times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m. and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m. and evening (6:30 p.m. sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13 and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12 samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1, tardily (after R2 and no recovered (R13. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741.
Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir
Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject's capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12-R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject's age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject's performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject's capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741).
Amy C Reynolds
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep restriction is associated with development of metabolic ill-health, and hormonal mechanisms may underlie these effects. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of short term sleep restriction on male health, particularly glucose metabolism, by examining adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, cortisol, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, leptin, testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: N = 14 healthy men (aged 27.4±3.8, BMI 23.5±2.9 underwent a laboratory-based sleep restriction protocol consisting of 2 baseline nights of 10 h time in bed (TIB (B1, B2; 22:00-08:00, followed by 5 nights of 4 h TIB (SR1-SR5; 04:00-08:00 and a recovery night of 10 h TIB (R1; 22:00-08:00. Subjects were allowed to move freely inside the laboratory; no strenuous activity was permitted during the study. Food intake was controlled, with subjects consuming an average 2000 kcal/day. Blood was sampled through an indwelling catheter on B1 and SR5, at 09:00 (fasting and then every 2 hours from 10:00-20:00. On SR5 relative to B1, glucose (F(1,168 = 25.3, p<0.001 and insulin (F(1,168 = 12.2, p<0.001 were increased, triglycerides (F(1,168 = 7.5, p = 0.007 fell and there was no significant change in fasting homeostatic model assessment (HOMA determined insulin resistance (F(1,168 = 1.3, p = 0.18. Also, cortisol (F(1,168 = 10.2, p = 0.002 and leptin (F(1,168 = 10.7, p = 0.001 increased, sex hormone binding globulin (F(1,167 = 12.1, p<0.001 fell and there were no significant changes in ACTH (F(1,168 = 0.3, p = 0.59 or total testosterone (F(1,168 = 2.8, p = 0.089. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sleep restriction impaired glucose, but improved lipid metabolism. This was associated with an increase in afternoon cortisol, without significant changes in ACTH, suggesting enhanced adrenal reactivity. Increased cortisol and reduced sex hormone binding globulin
... Smoking . Insulin resistance or diabetes . Overweight or obesity . Metabolic syndrome . Lack of physical activity . Unhealthy diet. Older age. (The risk increases for men after 45 years of age and for women after 55 years of age.) Family history of ...
Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte;
measured fasting plasma levels of 45 acylcarnitine species in 18 LBW and 25 NBW men after an isocaloric control diet and a 5‐day high‐fat, high‐calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW men had higher C2 and C4‐OH levels after the control diet compared with NBW men, indicating an increased fatty acid beta...
Goldbaum, G; Perdue, T R; Higgins, D.
Non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To understand these men and to develop interventions to reduce their HIV risks, the authors interviewed staff at agencies that serve non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men, business people who interact with them, and the men themselves. Interviews were augmented with focus groups of non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men and field observations at sites identified as places...
Full Text Available Background: Recent findings suggest that a strong negative social emotion (i.e., shame increases YMSM’s sexual risk-taking. Unchangeable shame (e.g., desire for other men might undermine (moderate the link between knowledge and self-efficacy or between self-efficacy and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI: This may be less likely for changeable shame (e.g., shame about risky sexual behavior.Aim: To test the hypotheses that shame (i.e., sexual desire shame, but not shame about behavior (i.e., sexual behavior shame, will be positively related to UAI and will moderate the relationship between knowledge and self-efficacy and/or self-efficacy and UAI among YMSM.Method: In an online national study, 1177 young adult (18-24 year old MSM reported one or more acts of UAI in the past 90 days with a casual partner. Eligible MSM filled out a survey in which they provided information about their knowledge of safer sex, self-efficacy for safer sex, reported levels of shame, and reported past 90-day UAI. Results: Sexual desire shame was negatively correlated with knowledge and self-efficacy and positively correlated with UAI: The pattern reversed for sexual behavior shame. Sexual desire shame significantly lowered the knowledge to self-efficacy and the self-efficacy to UAI links. Sexual behavior shame also reduced the link from knowledge to self-efficacy, but not the self-efficacy to UAI link. Conclusion: The present study shows that there are different types of shame that may produce different effects with different implications for health behavior. Sexual desire shame may better reflect an emotion that is activated prior to risky behavior (e.g., when men reflect upon or feel desire for another man. Sexual behavior shame, on the other hand, better reflects what has already happened: Thus, those higher in knowledge, efficacy, and therefore safer sex are least likely to experience shame behavior.
J. Daníelsson (Jón); C.G. de Vries (Casper)
textabstractAccurate prediction of the frequency of extreme events is of primary importance in many financial applications such as Value-at-Risk (VaR) analysis. We propose a semi-parametric method for VaR evaluation. The largest risks are modelled parametrically, while smaller risks are captured by
Harper, Doris; And Others
Describes three approaches to helping students at risk: (1) a 30-week program to provide adults with basic proficiency in written and spoken English, problem-solving techniques, computer software, and teamwork skills; (2) motivating students by caring about them and creating a positive classroom environment; and (3) communicating effectively with…
Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain
Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. PMID:23935885
Mohammad Alamgir Kabir
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking (TS and illicit drug use (IDU are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15-24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS, which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15-59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05 associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%, and smoked ganja (2.8% and tari (1.6%. In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10 predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables revealed significantly (p<0.001 higher likelihood of IDU (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 5.81-15.82 among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001 with increased use of cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC programs.
West, Daniel W D; Kujbida, Gregory W; Moore, Daniel R; Atherton, Philip; Burd, Nicholas A; Padzik, Jan P; De Lisio, Michael; Tang, Jason E; Parise, Gianni; Rennie, Michael J; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M
We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced elevations in systemic concentration of testosterone, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) enhanced post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and phosphorylation of signalling proteins important in regulating mRNA translation. Eight young men (20 +/- 1.1 years, BMI = 26 +/- 3.5 kg m(-2)) completed two exercise protocols designed to maintain basal hormone concentrations (low hormone, LH) or elicit increases in endogenous hormones (high hormone, HH). In the LH protocol, participants performed a bout of unilateral resistance exercise with the elbow flexors. The HH protocol consisted of the same elbow flexor exercise with the contralateral arm followed immediately by high-volume leg resistance exercise. Participants consumed 25 g of protein after arm exercise to maximize MPS. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were taken as appropriate. There were no changes in serum testosterone, GH or IGF-1 after the LH protocol, whereas there were marked elevations after HH (testosterone, P Exercise stimulated a rise in MPS in the biceps brachii (rest = 0.040 +/- 0.007, LH = 0.071 +/- 0.008, HH = 0.064 +/- 0.014% h(-1); P hormones (P = 0.72). Phosphorylation of the 70 kDa S6 protein kinase (p70S6K) also increased post-exercise (P hormones do not enhance fed-state anabolic signalling or MPS following resistance exercise. Local mechanisms are likely to be of predominant importance for the post-exercise increase in MPS.
Nunez, Maria Fernanda; Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Wong, Christina L; Anderson, G Harvey
The high intake of dietary sodium (Na(+)) has been associated with obesity and insulin resistance, sparking the hypothesis that the consumption of salty foods affects food intake (FI) and postprandial blood glucose (BG) response. Therefore, we conducted 2 randomized repeated-measures experiments to examine the acute effects of the Na(+) content of solid food and beverage on FI, water intake (WI), subjective appetite, thirst, and BG. FI and WI were measured at ad libitum pizza test meals; appetite, thirst, and BG were measured at baseline and at regular intervals before and after meals. In the first experiment, 16 males (mean body mass index (BMI), 22.2 kg·m(-2)) consumed a low-Na(+) (71 mg) bean preload (300 kcal) with or without 740 mg or 1480 mg of added Na(+) 120 min prior to the pizza meal. Participants ate 116 kcal more at the test meal after consuming beans with 740 mg of added Na(+) than after beans with 1480 mg of added Na(+). In the second experiment, 19 males (mean BMI, 23.2 kg·m(-2)) consumed a low-Na(+) (62 mg) tomato beverage (73 kcal) with or without 500, 1000, 1500, or 2000 mg of added Na(+) 30 min prior to a pizza meal. The beverage with 2000 mg of added Na(+) led to higher WI during the pizza meal than the beverage with 500 mg of added Na(+). However, compared with the control conditions (no added Na(+)), added Na(+) treatments had no effect on dependent measures in either experiment. In conclusion, the acute intake of Na(+), in a solid or liquid form, did not affect short-term subjective ratings of appetite or thirst, ad libitum FI or WI, or BG in healthy young men.
Tanimoto, Michiya; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenta; Kawano, Hiroshi; Gando, Yuko; Tabata, Izumi; Ishii, Naokata; Miyachi, Motohiko
Our previous study showed that relatively low-intensity (approximately 50% one-repetition maximum [1RM]) resistance training (knee extension) with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) caused as significant an increase in muscular size and strength as high-intensity (approximately 80% 1RM) resistance training with normal speed (HN). However, that study examined only local effects of one type of exercise (knee extension) on knee extensor muscles. The present study was performed to examine whether a whole-body LST resistance training regimen is as effective on muscular hypertrophy and strength gain as HN resistance training. Thirty-six healthy young men without experience of regular resistance training were assigned into three groups (each n = 12) and performed whole-body resistance training regimens comprising five types of exercise (vertical squat, chest press, latissimus dorsi pull-down, abdominal bend, and back extension: three sets each) with LST (approximately 55-60% 1RM, 3 seconds for eccentric and concentric actions, and no relaxing phase); HN (approximately 80-90% 1RM, 1 second for concentric and eccentric actions, 1 second for relaxing); and a sedentary control group (CON). The mean repetition maximum was eight-repetition maximum in LST and HN. The training session was performed twice a week for 13 weeks. The LST training caused significant (p exercises) comparable with those induced by HN training (9.1 +/- 4.2%, 41.2 +/- 7.6% in each measurement item). There were no such changes in the CON group. The results suggest that a whole-body LST resistance training regimen is as effective for muscular hypertrophy and strength gain as HN resistance training.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of survivors of preterm birth are growing into adulthood today. Long-term health-effects of prematurity are still poorly understood, but include increased risk for diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. To test if reduced physical fitness may be a link in the causal chain of preterm birth and diseases in later life, the association of preterm birth and adult exercise capacity was investigated. The hypothesis was that preterm birth contributes independently of other risk factors to lower physical fitness in adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Population-based national cohort study of all males conscripting for military service in 1993-2001 and born in Sweden 1973-1983, n = 218,820. Data were retrieved from the Swedish Conscript Register, the Medical Birth Register and the Population and Housing Census 1990. Primary outcome was the results from maximal exercise test (Wmax in Watt performed at conscription. Association to perinatal and socioeconomic risk factors, other co-variates and confounders were analysed. General linear modelling showed that preterm birth predicted low Wmax in a dose-response related pattern, with 25 Watt reduction in Wmax for the lowest gestational ages, those born ≤27 weeks. Low birth weight for gestational age also independently predicted low Wmax compared to normal and high birth weight (32 Watt reduction for those with a birth weight Standard Deviation Score <2. Low parental education was significantly associated with reduced Wmax (range 17 Watt, as well as both low and high current BMI, with severe obesity resulting in a 16 Watt deficit compared to Wmax top performance. CONCLUSION: Being born preterm as well as being born small for gestational age predicts low exercise capacity in otherwise healthy young men. The effect size of being born preterm equal or exceed that of other known risk factors for unfitness in adults, such as low parental education and overweight.
Adler, Robert A
Osteoporosis has finally been recognized as an important disorder in men. Men have osteoporotic fractures about 10 years later in life than women. Owing to increasing life expectancy, more fractures are predicted. Important risk factors for men include advancing age, smoking or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, glucocorticoid therapy, and androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Other groups at risk for osteoporosis include those with alcohol abuse, men on enzyme-inducing antise...
Randomized trial on the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine in adolescents and young adults.
Gasparini, Roberto; Conversano, Michele; Bona, Gianni; Gabutti, Giovanni; Anemona, Alessandra; Dull, Peter M; Ceddia, Francesca
This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults.
Association of in utero exposure to maternal smoking with reduced semen quality and testis size in adulthood: a cross-sectional study of 1,770 young men from the general population in five European countries
Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Punab, Margus
with unexposed men. Percentages of motile and morphologically normal sperm cells were 1.85 (95% CI: 0.46, 3.23) and 0.64 (95% CI: -0.02, 1.30) percentage points lower, respectively, among men exposed in utero, and exposed men had a 1.15-ml (95% CI: 0.66, 1.64) smaller testis size. The associations were present......Between 1996 and 1999, the authors invited all young men from five European countries who were undergoing compulsory medical examination for possible military service to participate in a study on male reproductive health. The participation rate was 19% in two cities in Denmark (n = 889), 17......, current smoking habits, and exposure to smoking in utero. After adjustment for confounding factors, men exposed to smoking in utero had a reduction in sperm concentration of 20.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.8, 33.5) and a reduction in total sperm count of 24.5% (95% CI: 9.5, 39.5) in comparison...
... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...
... may raise your risk for varicose veins. The normal wear and tear of aging may cause the valves in your veins to weaken and not work well. Gender Women tend to get varicose veins more often than men. Hormonal changes that occur during puberty, pregnancy, and menopause (or ...
J. Danielsson; C.G. de Vries (Casper); B.N. Jorgensen (Bjørn); P.F. Christoffersen (Peter); F.X. Diebold (Francis); T. Schuermann (Til); J.A. Lopez (Jose); B. Hirtle (Beverly)
textabstractDiscusses the issues in value-at-risk modeling and evaluation. Value of value at risk; Horizon problems and extreme events in financial risk management; Methods of evaluating value-at-risk estimates.
Stevens, R; Pihl, R O
This study was designed to assess the effects of failure on the subsequent test performance in school of young adolescents. Fifty-one seventh-grade students, identified as at-risk for future school failure, were compared to 51 randomly selected classmates on individually administered measures of intelligence, self-concept, problem-solving ability, coping ability, attribution, and locus of control. Teachers' ratings, mathematics ability, and grades of the two groups were also compared. Students with a history of school failure, although of normal intelligence, were found to be significantly less intellectually, academically, and affectively competent than their more successful peers and were rated by their teachers as significantly less able to deal adaptively with normal school stress. A discriminant analysis separated the groups with 93% accuracy. On two equivalent mathematics tests, one given under relaxed conditions, and the other under normal school test-like conditions, approximately thirty percent of both the at-risk and the otherwise normal students got lower scores when they thought they were taking a test. Implications of these results for the understanding and remediation of stress-depressed school performance are discussed.
Hsu, Chia-Fen; Eastwood, John D.; Toplak, Maggie E.
Objective: The avoidance of mental effort is a symptom criterion for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but the experience of mental effort has received relatively little attention in the empirical study of individuals at-risk for ADHD. We explored a novel method to assess the experience of effort and discomfort during a working memory task in a sample of young adults at-risk and not at-risk for ADHD. Method: A sample of 235 undergraduate students (Mean age = 21.02, 86 males) were included in this study. Based on an ADHD-screener (ASRS), 136 participants met criteria for the ADHD-risk group and 99 were in the non-ADHD risk group. Results: Individuals at-risk for ADHD reported higher mental effort and discomfort than individuals not at-risk for ADHD, even when performance on the working memory task was comparable or statistically controlled. Mental effort required and discomfort were more strongly correlated for at-risk compared to not at-risk participants. Individuals at-risk for ADHD displayed a stronger correlation between mental effort required and actual accuracy, but individuals not at-risk for ADHD displayed a stronger association between perceived accuracy and actual accuracy for the hardest experimental conditions. The most intense moment of effort required predicted retrospective discomfort ratings of the task in the ADHD-risk group, but not in the non-risk group. Conclusion: The subjective experience of in the moment mental effort is an important and viable construct that should be more carefully defined and measured. In particular, the experience of effort required (or how taxing a task is) differentiated between individuals at-risk and individuals not at-risk for ADHD in the present study. Whereas previous ADHD research has explored effort exerted, the present work demonstrated that investigating the experience of being mentally taxed might provide a productive line of investigation that could be used to advance our understanding of the
Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Hellgren, Lars; Brøns, Charlotte;
and after a 5‐day high‐fat, high‐calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW and NBW men increased plasma alanine levels and decreased valine and leucine/isoleucine levels in response to overfeeding. Also, LBW men had higher alanine, proline, methionine, citrulline, and total amino acid levels after overfeeding...
Gysel, T.; Tonoli, C.; Pardaens, S.; Cambier, D.; Kaufman, J-M.; Zmierczak, H-G.; Goemaere, S.; Lapauw, B.; Calders, P.
Objectives: This study investigated whether an association between insulin resistance (IR) and muscle parameters is appreciable in young healthy men, independent of obesity. Furthermore, markers of muscle metabolism and hormones/possible determinants, were explored. Methods: 358 healthy young men were divided into a less and more insulin sensitive (LIS [age=33.2±5.4, BMI=23.4±2.3] and MIS [age=35.5±5.3, BMI=28.1±3.7]) group based on upper and lower quartile of HOMA-IR. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), -density, handgrip force, serum testosterone, estradiol, SHBG, Vitamin 25(OH)D, creatinine, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and leptin levels were compared between these groups, correcting for differences in age, physical activity and fat mass. Correlations between HOMA-IR and these parameters, and between muscle measures and biochemical parameters, were calculated. Results: LIS is related to lower relative muscle CSA, muscle density, muscle/fat CSA ratio, relative handgrip force and level of physical activity. Furthermore, lower levels in SHBG, testosterone, Vitamin 25(OH)D and higher leptin, IGF-1 & IGFBP-3 levels were observed in LIS. Bio available T, FT, TE2, FE2, bioavailable E2, serum and urinary creatinine levels did not differ between groups. Conclusion: Differences in muscle performance are already present in healthy men with lower insulin sensitivity and could be possibly modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27973382
Solorio, Rosa; Norton-Shelpuk, Pamela; Forehand, Mark; Martinez, Marcos; Aguirre, Joel
Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a) describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b) describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c) describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c) determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay.
Full Text Available Background Manual anthropometric measurements are time-consuming and challenging to perform within acceptable intra- and inter-individual error margins in large studies. Three-dimensional (3D laser body scanners provide a fast and precise alternative: within a few seconds the system produces a 3D image of the body topography and calculates some 150 standardised body size measurements. Objective The aim was to enhance the small number of existing validation studies and compare scan and manual techniques based on five selected measurements. We assessed the agreement between two repeated measurements within the two methods, analysed the direct agreement between the two methods, and explored the differences between the techniques when used in regressions assessing the effect of health related determinants on body shape indices. Methods We performed two repeated body scans on 123 volunteering young men using a Vitus Smart XXL body scanner. We manually measured height, waist, hip, buttock, and chest circumferences twice for each participant according to the WHO guidelines. The participants also filled in a basic questionnaire. Results Mean differences between the two scan measurements were smaller than between the two manual measurements, and precision as well as intra-class correlation coefficients were higher. Both techniques were strongly correlated. When comparing means between both techniques we found significant differences: Height was systematically shorter by 2.1 cm, whereas waist, hip and bust circumference measurements were larger in the scans by 1.17–4.37 cm. In consequence, body shape indices also became larger and the prevalence of overweight was greater when calculated from the scans. Between 4.1% and 7.3% of the probands changed risk category from normal to overweight when classified based on the scans. However, when employing regression analyses the two measurement techniques resulted in very similar coefficients, confidence
Maarten W Peeters
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether subject positioning would affect the measurement of raw body volume, thoracic gas volume, corrected body volume and the resulting percent body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography (ADP. METHODS: Twenty-five young adult men (20.7±1.1 y, BMI = 22.5±1.4 kg/m(2 were measured using the BOD POD® system using a measured thoracic gas volume sitting in a 'forward bent' position and sitting up in a straight position in random order. RESULTS: Raw body volume was 58±124 ml (p<0.05 higher in the 'straight' position compared to the 'bent' position. The mean difference in measured thoracic gas volume (bent-straight = -71±211 ml was not statistically significant. Corrected body volume and percent body fat in the bent position consequently were on average 86±122 ml (p<0.05 and 0.5±0.7% (p<0.05 lower than in the straight position respectively. CONCLUSION: Although the differences reached statistical significance, absolute differences are rather small. Subject positioning should be viewed as a factor that may contribute to between-test variability and hence contribute to (inprecision in detecting small individual changes in body composition, rather than a potential source of systematic bias. It therefore may be advisable to pay attention to standardizing subject positioning when tracking small changes in PF are of interest. The cause of the differences is shown not to be related to changes in the volume of isothermal air in the lungs. It is hypothesized and calculated that the observed direction and magnitude of these differences may arise from the surface area artifact which does not take into account that a subject in the bent position exposes more skin to the air in the device therefore potentially creating a larger underestimation of the actual body volume due to the isothermal effect of air close to the skin.