Dandash, Orwa; Fornito, Alex; Lee, Jimmy; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Chee, Michael W. L.; Adcock, R. Alison; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J.; Harrison, Ben J.
Recent functional imaging work in individuals experiencing an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis has implicated dorsal striatal abnormalities in the emergence of psychotic symptoms, contrasting with earlier findings implicating the ventral striatum. Our aims here were to characterize putative dorsal and ventral striatal circuit-level abnormalities in ARMS individuals using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and to investigate their relationship to positive psychotic symptoms. Resting-state fMRI was acquired in 74 ARMS subjects and 35 matched healthy controls. An established method for mapping ventral and dorsal striatal functional connectivity was used to examine corticostriatal functional integrity. Positive psychotic symptoms were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Compared with healthy controls, ARMS subjects showed reductions in functional connectivity between the dorsal caudate and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left rostral medial prefrontal cortex, and thalamus, and between the dorsal putamen and left thalamic and lenticular nuclei. ARMS subjects also showed increased functional connectivity between the ventral putamen and the insula, frontal operculum, and superior temporal gyrus bilaterally. No differences in ventral striatal (ie, nucleus accumbens) functional connectivity were found. Altered functional connectivity in corticostriatal circuits were significantly correlated with positive psychotic symptoms. Together, these results suggest that risk for psychosis is mediated by a complex interplay of alterations in both dorsal and ventral corticostriatal systems. PMID:23861539
Comparing vulnerability markers for psychosis in different high-risk populations will ultimately lead to more insight into the causes of the syndrome and a more accurate identification of at-risk individuals. This dissertation concentrated on the comparison of two groups of adolescents that are at
Cotter, Jack; Yung, Alison R; Carney, Rebekah; Drake, Richard J
Dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs are common among people with psychosis. In this meta-analysis we examined whether these are also present in people meeting at-risk mental state (ARMS) criteria. We also explored the relationship between metacognitive beliefs and symptoms in the ARMS group. An electronic database search of Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase from inception until August 2016 was conducted using keyword search terms synonymous with ARMS and metacognition. Eligible studies were original research articles that examined metacognitive beliefs using the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ) among people meeting ARMS criteria. Studies included in the meta-analyses also reported comparison MCQ data acquired from healthy controls, help-seeking individuals, or people with psychotic disorders. Eleven eligible studies were identified, reporting data from six unique ARMS samples. People with ARMS did not differ from those with established psychotic disorders on any MCQ subscale, but they reported significantly more dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs than healthy or help-seeking controls. Maladaptive metacognitive beliefs were associated with a range of symptoms in ARMS individuals, but evidence for associations with specific subthreshold psychotic phenomena was inconsistent. This evidence indicates how valuable assessment and treatment of dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs may be but suggests that specific aspects of methodology should be addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Welsh, Patrick; Tiffin, Paul A
There is a long-standing interest in the relationship between patients affected by psychosis and their families. Previous research also suggests that perceived family dysfunction is a factor commonly associated with psychological problems in adolescence. The current study examined the role of self-reported family perceptions in the context of adolescents with an At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) for psychosis. Family perceptions were obtained using the Family Perceptions Scale (FPS) and compared across three groups; an ARMS for psychosis group (n = 44), a first-episode affective/non-affective psychosis group (n = 26) and a control group (n = 140) drawn from a community population. Scores on the FPS Expressed Emotion subscale were significantly higher in the psychosis and ARMS groups, compared to controls (P = 0.039 and P = 0.041, respectively). In contrast, participants in the ARMS group reported poorer perceived problem solving and lower levels of nurturing behaviour in their families compared to controls (P = 0.032 and P = 0.027). Overall, family perceptions were not related to symptom severity in both the ARMS and psychosis groups (except for manic symptomatology and Expressed Emotion). These findings highlight that ARMS patients are likely to report higher levels of perceived family dysfunction compared to a community sample of young people. However, the mechanisms by which family perceptions may contribute to the development of distressing psychotic symptoms remain unclear and require further study. Family work, with a focus upon improving perceived expressed emotion, nurturing behaviours and hostility may at this stage represent a feasible adjunct therapy for those with ARMS. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Nieman, Dorien H.; McGorry, Patrick D.
The at-risk mental state (ARMS) has been substantially researched and used as the basis for new clinical settings and strategies over the past two decades. However, it has also caused controversy and intense debate. In this Review, we assess available evidence and propose future directions.
Full Text Available Introduction: Shorter duration of untreated psychosis has been associated with better prognosis in patients with schizophrenia. In Introduction: In this study, we measured duration mismatch negativity (dMMN, P3a and reorienting negativity (RON in subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS, patients with first-episode or chronic schizophrenia, and healthy volunteers. The main interest was to determine if these event-related potentials provide a biomarker associated with progression to overt schizophrenia in ARMS subjects.Methods: Seventeen ARMS subjects meeting the criteria of the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State, 38 patients with schizophrenia (19 first-episode and 19 chronic, and 19 healthy controls participated in the study. dMMN, P3a and RON were measured with an auditory odd-ball paradigm at baseline. Results: During the follow-up period (2.2 years, 4 out of the 19 ARMS subjects transitioned to schizophrenia (Converters while 15 did not (non-Converters. dMMN amplitudes of Converters were significantly smaller than those of non-Converters at frontal and central electrodes before onset of illness. dMMN amplitudes of non-Converters did not differ from those of healthy controls, while Converters showed significantly smaller dMMN amplitudes compared to control subjects. RON amplitudes were also reduced at frontal and central electrodes in subjects with schizophrenia, but not ARMS. Converter subjects tended to show smaller RON amplitudes compared to non-Converters. Conclusions: Our data confirm that diminished dMMN amplitudes provide a biomarker which is present before and after the development of psychosis. In this respect, RON amplitudes may also be useful, as suggested for the first time in this study.
Mariné, Rosa; Creus, Marta; Solé, Montse; Cabezas, Ángel; Algora, Maria José; Moreno, Irene; Izquierdo, Eduard; Stojanovic-Pérez, Alexander; Labad, Javier
We studied the clinical correlates of obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions in 109 individuals with early psychosis (31 At-Risk Mental States [ARMS], 78 psychotic disorders with Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were assessed by the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised. We also assessed the severity of psychotic symptoms, depressive symptoms and functioning. ARMS and psychotic disorder patients reported more obsessive-compulsive symptoms than did healthy subjects. The ARMS individuals also reported more overall and checking obsessive-compulsive symptoms compared with the PD patients. Different types of obsessive-compulsive symptoms were related with depressive symptoms in both diagnostic groups. However, a different pattern was observed in the relationship between obsessive-compulsive dimensions and functioning by diagnosis (better functioning in ARMS; poorer functioning in psychotic disorders). Our study suggests that obsessive-compulsive symptoms are present in the early stages of psychotic illness, as well as in individuals at risk for psychosis. Future prospective studies are needed to elucidate how obsessive-compulsive symptoms in ARMS may influence the prognosis in terms of global functioning and the risk of psychosis transition. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Krebs, M-O; Magaud, E; Willard, D; Elkhazen, C; Chauchot, F; Gut, A; Morvan, Y; Bourdel, M-C; Kazes, M
This article aims to present the validation study of the French version of the Comprehensive Assessment of at risk mental states (CAARMS), an interview that seeks to determine whether young adults criteria for at-risk (AR) mental states, or psychosis. We assessed 40 young subjects, 15 were considered as "prodromal" (Prd) and 10 as experiencing a first episode of psychosis (PEP) by our expert clinician at the center - centre d'évaluation des jeunes adultes et adolescents, University Hospital Centre, Paris - and 15 were healthy controls matched for age and sex. When assessed with the CAARMS, 73 % (n=11) of the prodromal subjects reached the criteria for AR mental state, four subjects did not reach the criteria for AR, nor psychosis (P) and 100 % of the PEP reached the criteria for P. The three groups were significantly different on CAARMS total score (P<0.001) and subscores ; Prd subjects had intermediate scores between PEP (P<0.001) and controls (P<0.001) scores, PEP showing the highest scores. Post-hoc analysis showed that Prd significantly differed from Controls on each subscale (P<0.001) and that Prd differed from PEP on the "positive symptoms" subscale (P<0.001), as well as on "behavioural change" (P=0.021), owing to difference on the item "impaired role function". We used the brief psychiatric rating scale 24 items with anchor (BPRS24-EA) in addition to with the CAARMS, the AR group showed intermediate scores between controls and P subjects. Total scores of both scales were correlated (r=0.408 ; P=0.043) and the BPRS24-EA "positive symptoms" score was correlated with CAARMS' scores on the "Positive symptoms" subscale (r=0.456, P=0.022), "emotional disturbance" (r=0.506, P=0.01), and "behavioural change" (r=0.666 P=0.001). We found no correlation between BPRS negative and depression subscales and any of the CAARMS' subscales. When looking at its reliability, reliability coefficients (Cronbach's alpha) showed excellent reliability for "positive symptoms
Lederman, Oscar; Rosenbaum, Simon; Maloney, Chris; Curtis, Jackie; Ward, Philip B
Young people experiencing psychotic illness engage in low amounts of physical activity have poor fitness levels and poor sleep quality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of these modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors among individuals with at-risk mental states (ARMS), who are at increased risk of developing psychosis. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a community-based youth mental health service. Thirty participants (23%♀, 21.3 ± 1.7 years old) were recruited, 10 with ARMS, 10 with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 10 healthy volunteers. Physical activity levels were assessed using self-report and objective measures. Aerobic capacity, upper body strength, hamstring flexibility, forearm grip strength and core endurance were assessed. Sleep quality, depression and anxiety were measured by self-report questionnaire. The ARMS group did not differ significantly on anthropometric measures from FEP or healthy volunteers. They engaged in significantly less physical activity (p < 0.05) and had poorer sleep quality (p < 0.05) than healthy volunteers. Our results are consistent with other studies that found that youth with ARMS are at greater cardiometabolic risk. Interventions aimed at improving these modifiable risk factors may assist with preventing the decline in physical health associated with the development of psychiatric illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A shorter duration of untreated psychosis has been associated with better prognosis in schizophrenia. In this study, we measured the duration mismatch negativity (dMMN, an event-related potential, and cognitive performance in subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS, patients with first-episode or chronic schizophrenia, and healthy volunteers. The main interest was to determine if these neurocognitive measures predict progression to overt schizophrenia in ARMS subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventeen ARMS subjects, meeting the criteria of the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State, 31 schizophrenia patients (20 first-episode and 11 chronic and healthy controls (N=20 participated in the study. dMMN was measured by an auditory odd-ball paradigm at baseline. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated by the Japanese version of the Brief assessment of cognitive function of schizophrenia (BACS-J. The first-episode schizophrenia group showed significantly smaller amplitudes at frontal electrodes than did control subjects whereas chronic patients elicited smaller amplitudes at frontal and central electrodes, consistent with previous reports. During the follow-up period, 4 out of the 17 ARMS subjects transitioned to schizophrenia (converters while 13 did not (non-converters. Specifically, dMMN amplitudes of non-converters did not differ from those of healthy controls, while converters showed significantly smaller dMMN amplitudes at some electrodes compared to control subjects. Converters performed significantly worse on tests of working memory, verbal fluency, and attention/information processing than did non-converters. There was a significant positive correlation between dMMN amplitudes at the frontal electrodes and verbal fluency, as measured by the BACS, in the AMRS subjects as a whole. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ARMS subjects who later developed schizophrenia elicited smaller dMMN amplitudes to begin with, compared
Quijada, Yanet; Tizón, Jorge L; Artigue, Jordi; Kwapil, Thomas R; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus
Insecure attachment may influence vulnerability to and outcome of psychotic symptomatology. The present study examined whether attachment style predicted symptoms and functioning of at-risk mental state (ARMS) patients after 6 months of psychosocial intervention, over and above the effects of initial clinical severity and premorbid social adjustment (PSA). Symptoms and functioning were assessed at baseline and 6 months later in 31 ARMS patients (mean age = 15.7). No patient received antipsychotic medication, but all engaged in intense psychosocial needs-adapted treatment. Clinicians (unaware of the aims of the study) rated attachment, PSA, symptoms, and functioning. Attachment was not related to baseline clinical severity. However, improvement in psychoticism was predicted by attachment (in particular by secure, preoccupied and dismissing) beyond the effects of baseline clinical severity and PSA. Secure attachment also predicted improvements in disorganization and functioning. Poor PSA predicted less improvement in disorganization and negative symptoms but did not impact psychoticism. The three attachment prototypes that predicted improvement in psychoticism (secure, preoccupied and dismissing) share the existence of at least one positive psychological model (either about self or about others). It may be that the psychosocial intervention helped ARMS patients to disconfirm negative models and/or reinforce positive ones. Patients' attachment styles were not related to baseline clinical severity but impacted improvement of positive symptoms. These findings appear consistent with evidence that impaired self-esteem and dysfunctional self and others schemas constitute risk factors for reality distortion. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Ohmuro, Noriyuki; Katsura, Masahiro; Obara, Chika; Kikuchi, Tatsuo; Hamaie, Yumiko; Sakuma, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Ito, Fumiaki; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori
Impairments in cognitive insight-the capacity to appraise and modify one's own distorted beliefs-are believed to be associated with the formation of psychosis. Nevertheless, the association between cognitive insight and cognitive function among people with at-risk mental state (ARMS) for developing psychotic illness has not been made clear. In this study, we used the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) to assess cognitive insight and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) to assess cognitive functions. Fifty subjects with ARMS and 29 healthy volunteers were recruited as participants. The scores for the two groups on the BCIS, BACS, and WCST were compared and Spearman's rank correlations between the domains of the BCIS and cognitive performance were examined in each group. No significant differences were found in BCIS scores between these groups, whereas all of the cognitive function scores were poorer in the participants with ARMS. In the ARMS group, higher self-certainty on the BCIS was significantly correlated with lower performance in the mean number of categories achieved (ρ=-0.31, P=0.03) and perseverative errors of the Nelson type (ρ=0.29, P=0.04) on the WCST. This indicates that excessively high self-certainty might be linked with weaknesses in cognitive flexibility or set-shifting ability in people with ARMS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ozgürdal, Seza; Gudlowski, Yehonala; Witthaus, Henning; Kawohl, Wolfram; Uhl, Idun; Hauser, Marta; Gorynia, Inge; Gallinat, Jürgen; Heinze, Martin; Heinz, Andreas; Juckel, Georg
Neurophysiological methods allow the examination of cognitive-cortical functioning in patients with schizophrenia in its prodromal states. As revealed by previous studies, event-related potential components such as auditory evoked P300 associated with cognitive processes, such as attention and orientation, are known to be reduced in amplitude in acute and chronic as well as in medicated and unmedicated patients. It is, however, unclear whether a P300 amplitude reduction occurs before the schizophrenic psychosis is fully manifested. We studied patients in the prodromal phase of the schizophrenic disorder (i.e. subjects with an at-risk mental state showing attenuated psychotic symptoms or brief limited intermittent symptoms) as well as first-episode patients and chronic patients with schizophrenia and compared these groups to healthy subjects. The event-related P300 was recorded during an auditory oddball paradigm. Groups differed significantly from each other in the P300 amplitude at Pz (F(3/149)=2.532, p=0.02). Post-hoc tests revealed significantly lower P300 amplitudes of non-medicated prodromal (p=.03), first-episode (p=.01) and chronic patients (p=.001) compared to the healthy controls. The study revealed that there are neurophysiological changes as the reduction in P300 amplitudes begins early in schizophrenia at the prodromal phase, i.e. before a manifestation of full-blown psychosis, and that these changes seem to have a progressive course from prodromal to chronic state of schizophrenia as assumed in this cross-sectional study.
Higuchi, Yuko; Seo, Tomonori; Miyanishi, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Michio; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
We measured duration mismatch negativity (dMMN), P3a, and reorienting negativity (RON) in subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS), patients with first-episode or chronic schizophrenia, and healthy volunteers. The main interest was to determine if these event-related potentials provide a biomarker associated with progression to overt schizophrenia in ARMS subjects. Nineteen ARMS subjects meeting the criteria of the Comprehensive Assessment of ARMS, 38 patients with schizophrenia (19 first-episode and 19 chronic), and 19 healthy controls participated in the study. dMMN, P3a, and RON were measured with an auditory odd-ball paradigm at baseline. During the follow-up period (2.2 years), 4 out of the 19 ARMS subjects transitioned to schizophrenia (Converters) while 15 did not (non-Converters). dMMN amplitudes of Converters were significantly smaller than those of non-Converters at frontal and central electrodes before onset of illness. dMMN amplitudes of non-Converters did not differ from those of healthy controls, while Converters showed significantly smaller dMMN amplitudes compared to control subjects. RON amplitudes were also reduced at frontal and central electrodes in subjects with schizophrenia, but not ARMS. Converter subjects tended to show smaller RON amplitudes compared to non-Converters. Our data confirm that diminished dMMN amplitudes provide a biomarker, which is present before and after the development of psychosis. In this respect, RON amplitudes may also be useful, as suggested for the first time based on longitudinal observations.
van der Gaag, Mark; van den Berg, David; Ising, Helga
Patients with an 'At risk mental state' (ARMS) for developing psychosis can be treated successfully with CBT to postpone and prevent the transition to a first psychotic episode. A characteristic of individuals that meet ARMS criteria is that they are still open for multiple explanations for extraordinary experiences. CBT aims to normalize extraordinary experiences with education and to prevent delusional explanations. The treatment is not only effective, but also cost-saving in averting psychosis as well as in reducing disability adjusted life years at 18- and 48-month follow-up. Profiling within the ARMS group results in a personalized treatment. The screening and early treatment for ARMS fulfills all the criteria of the World Health Organization and is ready to be routine screening and treatment in mental health care. At the same time, ARMS patients are complex patients with multi-morbid disorders. Especially childhood trauma is associated to ARMS status, together with co-morbid PTSD, depression, substance abuse and anxiety disorders. Psychotic symptoms appear to be severity markers in other non-psychotic disorders. Preventing psychosis in ARMS patients should be broadened to also address other disorders and aim to reduce chronicity of psychopathology and improve social functioning in general. Several mechanisms play a part in psychopathology in ARMS patients such as stress sensitivity as a result of adverse experiences, dopamine sensitivity that is associated with salience and aggravates several cognitive biases, dissociation mediating between trauma and hallucinations, and low self-esteem and self-stigma. New avenues to treat the complexity of ARMS patients will be proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Michie, Patricia T.; Ward, Philip B.; Todd, Juanita; Stain, Helen; Langdon, Robyn; Thienel, Renate; Paulik, Georgie; Cooper, Gavin; Schall, Ulrich
The onset of schizophrenia is typically preceded by a prodromal period lasting several years during which sub-threshold symptoms may be identified retrospectively. Clinical interviews are currently used to identify individuals who have an ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing a psychotic illness with a view to provision of interventions that prevent, delay or reduce severity of future mental health issues. The utility of bio-markers as an adjunct in the identification of UHR individuals is not yet established. Several event-related potential measures, especially mismatch-negativity (MMN), have been identified as potential biomarkers for schizophrenia. In this 12-month longitudinal study, demographic, clinical and neuropsychological data were acquired from 102 anti-psychotic naive UHR and 61 healthy controls, of whom 80 UHR and 58 controls provided valid EEG data during a passive auditory task at baseline. Despite widespread differences between UHR and controls on demographic, clinical and neuropsychological measures, MMN and P3a did not differ between these groups. Of 67 UHR at the 12-month follow-up, 7 (10%) had transitioned to a psychotic illness. The statistical power to detect differences between those who did or did not transition was limited by the lower than expected transition rate. ERPs did not predict transition, with trends in the opposite direction to that predicted. In exploratory analysis, the strongest predictors of transition were measures of verbal memory and subjective emotional disturbance. PMID:28187217
Rebbekah J Atkinson
Full Text Available The onset of schizophrenia is typically preceded by a prodromal period lasting several years during which sub-threshold symptoms may be identified retrospectively. Clinical interviews are currently used to identify individuals who have an ultra-high risk (UHR of developing a psychotic illness with a view to provision of interventions that prevent, delay or reduce severity of future mental health issues. The utility of bio-markers as an adjunct in the identification of UHR individuals is not yet established. Several event-related potential measures, especially mismatch-negativity (MMN, have been identified as potential biomarkers for schizophrenia. In this 12-month longitudinal study, demographic, clinical and neuropsychological data were acquired from 102 anti-psychotic naive UHR and 61 healthy controls, of whom 80 UHR and 58 controls provided valid EEG data during a passive auditory task at baseline. Despite widespread differences between UHR and controls on demographic, clinical and neuropsychological measures, MMN and P3a did not differ between these groups. Of 67 UHR at the 12-month follow-up, 7 (10% had transitioned to a psychotic illness. The statistical power to detect differences between those who did or did not transition was limited by the lower than expected transition rate. ERPs did not predict transition, with trends in the opposite direction to that predicted. In exploratory analysis, the strongest predictors of transition were measures of verbal memory and subjective emotional disturbance.
Valmaggia, L R; Stahl, D; Yung, A R; Nelson, B; Fusar-Poli, P; McGorry, P D; McGuire, P K
Many research groups have attempted to predict which individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis will later develop a psychotic disorder. However, it is difficult to predict the course and outcome based on individual symptoms scores. Data from 318 ARMS individuals from two specialized services for ARMS subjects were analysed using latent class cluster analysis (LCCA). The score on the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) was used to explore the number, size and symptom profiles of latent classes. LCCA produced four high-risk classes, censored after 2 years of follow-up: class 1 (mild) had the lowest transition risk (4.9%). Subjects in this group had the lowest scores on all the CAARMS items, they were younger, more likely to be students and had the highest Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score. Subjects in class 2 (moderate) had a transition risk of 10.9%, scored moderately on all CAARMS items and were more likely to be in employment. Those in class 3 (moderate-severe) had a transition risk of 11.4% and scored moderately severe on the CAARMS. Subjects in class 4 (severe) had the highest transition risk (41.2%), they scored highest on the CAARMS, had the lowest GAF score and were more likely to be unemployed. Overall, class 4 was best distinguished from the other classes on the alogia, avolition/apathy, anhedonia, social isolation and impaired role functioning. The different classes of symptoms were associated with significant differences in the risk of transition at 2 years of follow-up. Symptomatic clustering predicts prognosis better than individual symptoms.
Ohmuro, Noriyuki; Katsura, Masahiro; Obara, Chika; Kikuchi, Tatsuo; Sakuma, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Hamaie, Yumiko; Ito, Fumiaki; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori
Disturbance of theory of mind (ToM) and its relationship with functioning in schizophrenia is well documented; however, this is unclear in spectrum disorders like at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP). To assess mental state reasoning ability, the total score of the Theory of Mind Picture Stories Task questionnaire was compared among 36 Japanese individuals with ARMS, 40 with FEP, and 25 healthy controls (HC). Pearson's correlations between ToM performance and global and social functioning indices were examined. ToM performance for FEP and ARMS subjects was significantly lower than that for HC, though the significance of the difference between the ARMS and HC disappeared when controlling for premorbid IQ. ToM deficits in ARMS subjects were confirmed only in the comprehension of higher-order false belief. Only among FEP subjects were ToM performance and global functioning significantly correlated, though the significance disappeared when controlling for neurocognitive performance or dose of antipsychotics. No significant correlation between ToM performance and social functioning was observed in the FEP and ARMS groups. The current findings suggest that ToM deficits emerge in ARMS subjects confined within a higher-order domain, and that the relationship between ToM impairment and functional deterioration might be established after psychosis onset. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT in targeting cognitive biases that are involved in the formation of delusions in persons with an ultra-high risk for developing psychosis. A single blind randomised controlled trial compares CBT with treatment as usual in preventing or delaying the onset of psychosis. Method/design All help seeking patients aged 14 to 35 years referred to the mental health services in three regions in the Netherlands are pre-screened with the Prodromal Questionnaire during a period of two years. Patients with a score of 18 or more on the sub-clinical positive symptoms items (45 items in total will be assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental State (CAARMS. In a different pathway to care model all referrals from the mental health services in Amsterdam to the specialized psychosis clinic of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam are also assessed with the CAARMS. The primary outcome is the transition rate to psychosis according to the CAARMS-criteria. Group differences will be analysed with chi-square tests and survival analyses. Discussion CBT is a highly tolerated treatment. The psycho-educational CBT approach may prove to be a successful strategy since most people with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS are distressed by odd disturbing experiences. Giving explanations for and normalising these experiences may reduce the arousal (distress and therefore may prevent people from developing a catastrophic delusional explanation for their odd experiences and thus prevent them from developing psychosis. Screening the entire help-seeking population referred to community mental health services with a two-stage strategy, as compared with traditional referral
The Karen Women’s Organisation
Full Text Available Two reports researched and written by the Karen Women’sOrganisation – Shattering Silences in 2004 and State ofTerror in 20071 – document the wide range of humanrights abuses against Burmese women and girls.
Over the last decade there have been orchestrated efforts to detect and intervene during the earliest stages of psychotic illness. This article reviews some of the literature and highlights the current and future contributions of psychology to a rapidly expanding area of research and clinical practice.
Sipsma, Heather; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Canavan, Maureen; Osei-Akoto, Isaac; Udry, Christopher; Bradley, Elizabeth H
Poor mental health is a leading cause of disability worldwide with considerable negative impacts, particularly in low-income countries. Nevertheless, empirical evidence on its national prevalence in low-income countries, particularly in Africa, is limited. Additionally, researchers and policy makers are now calling for empirical investigations of the association between empowerment and poor mental health among women. We therefore sought to estimate the national prevalence of poor mental health in Ghana, explore its correlates on a national level, and examine associations between empowerment and poor mental health among women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in Ghana in 2009-2010. Interviews were conducted face-to-face with participants (N = 9,524 for overall sample; n = 3,007 for women in relationships). We used the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) to measure psychological distress and assessed women's attitudes about their roles in decision-making, attitudes towards intimate partner violence, partner control, and partner abuse. We used weighted multivariable multinomial regression models to determine the factors independently associated with experiencing psychological distress for our overall sample and for women in relationships. Overall, 18.7% of the sample reported either moderate (11.7%) or severe (7.0%) psychological distress. The prevalence of psychological distress was higher among women than men. Overall, the prevalence of psychological distress differed by gender, marital status, education, wealth, region, health and religion, but not by age or urban/rural location. Women who reported having experienced physical abuse, increased partner control, and who were more accepting of women's disempowerment had greater likelihoods of psychological distress (P-values < 0.05). Psychological distress is substantial among both men and women in Ghana, with nearly 20% having moderate or
Salize, Hans Joachim; Arnold, Maja; Uber, Elisa; Hoell, Andreas
Objective: Overall aim was to reduce the untreated prevalence in persons with untreated mental disorders and at risk for loosing accommodation and descending into homelessness. Primary aim was treatment initiation and treatment adherence by motivational interviewing. Secondary aims were to reduce social or financial problems. Methods: Persons at risk were identified in social welfare services or labour agencies, diagnosed and motivated to initiate treatment in a community mental health service. Results: 58 persons were included, 24 were referred to regular mental health care, 8 were stabilized enough after the initial motivational to refrain from acute treatment, 26 dropped out. During a 6-month follow-up quality of life and social support was improved (partly statistically significant) and psycho-social needs for care decreased. Conclusion: Motivational interviewing is likely to increase insight into illness and acceptance of mental health care in untreated persons with mental disorders at risk for social decline. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available For the last years, the impulse of new technologies has overcome the traditional pathways of face-to-face clinical intervention and web-based psychological methodologies for intervention have started to gain success. This study aims to review the state-of-art about the effectiveness studies on preventive web- based interventions accomplished in samples of subjects at high risk for depressive, anxiety, eating behavior, problematic substance use symptoms and promotion of psychological well-being. Results showed that web-based psychological interventions for the prevention of mental disorders seemed to be effective for at risk individuals. Online health promotion in the general population was also effective to avoid the onset of clinical psychological circumstances. Future research should focus on personalized online intervention and on the evaluation of web-based engagement.
Hsu, Chia-Fen; Eastwood, John D; Toplak, Maggie E
Objective: The avoidance of mental effort is a symptom criterion for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but the experience of mental effort has received relatively little attention in the empirical study of individuals at-risk for ADHD. We explored a novel method to assess the experience of effort and discomfort during a working memory task in a sample of young adults at-risk and not at-risk for ADHD. Method: A sample of 235 undergraduate students (Mean age = 21.02, 86 males) were included in this study. Based on an ADHD-screener (ASRS), 136 participants met criteria for the ADHD-risk group and 99 were in the non-ADHD risk group. Results: Individuals at-risk for ADHD reported higher mental effort and discomfort than individuals not at-risk for ADHD, even when performance on the working memory task was comparable or statistically controlled. Mental effort required and discomfort were more strongly correlated for at-risk compared to not at-risk participants. Individuals at-risk for ADHD displayed a stronger correlation between mental effort required and actual accuracy, but individuals not at-risk for ADHD displayed a stronger association between perceived accuracy and actual accuracy for the hardest experimental conditions. The most intense moment of effort required predicted retrospective discomfort ratings of the task in the ADHD-risk group, but not in the non-risk group. Conclusion: The subjective experience of in the moment mental effort is an important and viable construct that should be more carefully defined and measured. In particular, the experience of effort required (or how taxing a task is) differentiated between individuals at-risk and individuals not at-risk for ADHD in the present study. Whereas previous ADHD research has explored effort exerted, the present work demonstrated that investigating the experience of being mentally taxed might provide a productive line of investigation that could be used to advance our understanding of the
Pedersen, Pernille; Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Labriola, Merete
received a questionnaire on psychological symptoms, mental health-related quality of life, and locus of control. RESULTS: During the first 6 months after inclusion, the two groups had almost the same RR of a full return to work (RR:0.97, 95% CI: 0.78;1.21), but during the first 3 months, the individuals......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of psychoeducation on return to work as an adjunct to standard case management in individuals on sick leave at risk of having a mental disorder. The participants could have different diagnoses but were all at risk of having a mental...... the control group. The intervention did not decrease the level of psychological symptoms or improve mental health-related quality of life; however, individuals in the intervention group improved their scores on internal locus of control at both 3 and 6 months. CONCLUSION: Offering psychoeducation...
Mental health problems often go undiagnosed or unaddressed until a crisis or extreme event brings the problem to the forefront. Youth are particularly at risk for lack of identification and treatment in regard to mental health issues. This article describes an advanced nursing practice mental health initiative for at-risk teenage girls based on Hildegard Peplau's nursing theory, group process, and healing through holistic health approaches. A support group, RICHES, was developed with focus on core components of relationships, identity, communication, health, esteem, and support. The acronym RICHES was chosen as the name of the support group. Selected themes and issues addressed in this school-based support group are illustrated in case vignettes. Through a collaborative approach with the community and school, this practice initiative presents a unique healing process that extends knowledge in the realm of intervention with at-risk teenage girls. Further research is needed on the efficacy of support groups to modify risk factors and to address goals for primary prevention in at-risk teenage girls. © The Author(s) 2014.
Perrin, Paul B; Heesacker, Martin; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Uthe, Catherine E; Rittman, Maude R
This study examined (1) causality in the relationship between stroke caregiver mental health and care-recipient functioning, and (2) the prediction from stroke caregiver and care-recipient variables 5 months and 11 months later. Questionnaire, interview, and observational data were collected from 124 ethnically diverse stroke caregiver/care-recipient dyads in the homes of care recipients at 1, 6, and 12 months after discharge. The magnitudes of the causal pathways between stroke caregiver mental health and care-recipient functioning were not significantly different. At 1 month after discharge, the best predictors of poor caregiver mental health 11 months later were care-recipient low daily functioning and caregiver low sense of coherence, high burden, and high depression. Caregiver mental health and care-recipient functioning may have reciprocal causal influence on each other, so one of the first steps in stroke rehabilitation may be providing counseling to the primary caregiver. Caregivers with high burden, a low sense of coherence, and a low-functioning care recipient are those most at risk for poor mental health outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) trial
Rietdijk, J.; Dragt, S.; Klaassen, R.; Ising, H; Nieman, D.; Wunderink, L.; Delespaul, P.; Cuijpers, P.; Linszen, D.; van der Gaag, M.
Background: Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in
van Hoffen, Marieke F. A.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.
Background: Mental health problems are a leading cause of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Workers at risk of mental LTSA should preferably be identified before they report sick. The objective of this study was to examine mental health symptoms as predictors of future mental LTSA in non-sicklisted
Full Text Available Objectives: Drug related mental imagery is proposed to play a central role in addictive behaviour. However, little is known about such cognition or how it is pharmacologically modulated. Here, we test theoretical predictions of the âelaborated intrusionâ theory by comparing neutral with alcohol related mental imagery, and examine the effects of low dose alcohol on phenomenological aspects of this imagery. Methods: Alcohol related and neutral imagery was assessed after at risk drinkers (n=40 consumed alcohol (0.3g/kg or placebo, in a crossover design. Sensory and visuospatial qualities of imagery, along with associated craving, positive affect and âmind wanderingâ were assessed. Results: Alcohol related mental imagery was rated as more vivid and sensorially rich, effects that were larger following the priming dose of alcohol. In addition, mind wandering was substantially lower during alcohol versus neutral imagery, especially after alcohol consumption. First person perspective was more prevalent for alcohol imagery after alcohol, although the DrinkÃImagery type interaction did not reach statistical significance. However, first person imagery was associated with higher levels of craving during alcohol related imagery. Conclusions: Alcohol related mental imagery differs phenomenologically from neutral imagery on a number of dimensions. Priming with alcohol may enable cognitive elaboration by biasing the output of controlled cognitive processing towards enhanced sensory elaboration and increased attention to alcohol related cognition. These feedforward effects may be involved in focusing cognitive and behavioural resources on alcohol acquisition/consumption through the elaboration and rehearsal of relevant goals and plans. Keywords: Mental imagery, Elaborated intrusion theory, Alcohol, Alcohol priming, Craving, Mind wandering
Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August
INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...
Gates, Nicola J; Valenzuela, Michael; Sachdev, Perminder S; Singh, Nalin A; Baune, Bernhard T; Brodaty, Henry; Suo, Chao; Jain, Nidhi; Wilson, Guy C; Wang, Yi; Baker, Michael K; Williamson, Dominique; Foroughi, Nasim; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A
The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT) and progressive resistance training (PRT) on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART). Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk×6 mo) in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs). Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (fMRS). SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the immediate and long term benefits of CT, PRT, and combined
Marcos D. Robles; Curtis H. Flather; Susan M. Stein; Mark D. Nelson; Andrew Cutko
In this study, we present a coarse-scale, first approximation of the geographic areas where privately owned forests support at-risk species in the conterminous United States. At-risk species are defined as those species listed under the US Endangered Species Act or with a global conservation status rank of critically imperiled, imperiled, or vulnerable. Our results...
Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Acri, Mary; Morrissey, Meghan; Peth-Pierce, Robin
To systematically review experimental evidence regarding animal-assisted therapies (AAT) for children or adolescents with or at risk for mental health conditions, we reviewed all experimental AAT studies published between 2000-2015, and compared studies by animal type, intervention, and outcomes. Studies were included if used therapeutically for…
Downs, Andrew; Boucher, Laura A.; Campbell, Duncan G.; Polyakov, Anita
There is a clear need for colleges to do a better job of identifying students who may benefit from treatment and encouraging those students to actually seek help (Hunt & Eisenberg, 2010). Indeed, research suggests that population-based screening can encourage college students who are at risk for mental health problems to seek treatment (Kim,…
Husky, Mathilde M.; Kaplan, Adam; McGuire, Leslie; Flynn, Laurie; Chrostowski, Christine; Olfson, Mark
This study compares referrals for mental health services among high school students randomized to two means of referral to mental health services: referral via systematic identification through a brief mental health screening procedure (n = 365) or referral via the usual process of identification by school personnel, parents, or students…
Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the feasibility of providing web-based mental health services, including synchronous internet video conferencing of an evidence-based support/education group, to at-risk women, specifically poor lone mothers. The objectives of this study were to: (i adapt a face-to-face support/education group intervention to a web-based format for lone mothers, and (ii evaluate lone mothers' response to web-based services, including an online video conferencing group intervention program. Methods Participating mothers were recruited through advertisements. To adapt the face-to-face intervention to a web-based format, we evaluated participant motivation through focus group/key informant interviews (n = 7, adapted the intervention training manual for a web-based environment and provided a computer training manual. To evaluate response to web-based services, we provided the intervention to two groups of lone mothers (n = 15. Pre-post quantitative evaluation of mood, self-esteem, social support and parenting was done. Post intervention follow up interviews explored responses to the group and to using technology to access a health service. Participants received $20 per occasion of data collection. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Adherence to the intervention protocol was evaluated. Results Mothers participating in this project experienced multiple difficulties, including financial and mood problems. We adapted the intervention training manual for use in a web-based group environment and ensured adherence to the intervention protocol based on viewing videoconferencing group sessions and discussion with the leaders. Participant responses to the group intervention included decreased isolation, and increased knowledge and confidence in themselves and their parenting; the responses closely matched those of mothers who obtained same service in face-to-face groups. Pre-and post
Lipman, Ellen L; Kenny, Meghan; Marziali, Elsa
We examined the feasibility of providing web-based mental health services, including synchronous internet video conferencing of an evidence-based support/education group, to at-risk women, specifically poor lone mothers. The objectives of this study were to: (i) adapt a face-to-face support/education group intervention to a web-based format for lone mothers, and (ii) evaluate lone mothers' response to web-based services, including an online video conferencing group intervention program. Participating mothers were recruited through advertisements. To adapt the face-to-face intervention to a web-based format, we evaluated participant motivation through focus group/key informant interviews (n = 7), adapted the intervention training manual for a web-based environment and provided a computer training manual. To evaluate response to web-based services, we provided the intervention to two groups of lone mothers (n = 15). Pre-post quantitative evaluation of mood, self-esteem, social support and parenting was done. Post intervention follow up interviews explored responses to the group and to using technology to access a health service. Participants received $20 per occasion of data collection. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Adherence to the intervention protocol was evaluated. Mothers participating in this project experienced multiple difficulties, including financial and mood problems. We adapted the intervention training manual for use in a web-based group environment and ensured adherence to the intervention protocol based on viewing videoconferencing group sessions and discussion with the leaders. Participant responses to the group intervention included decreased isolation, and increased knowledge and confidence in themselves and their parenting; the responses closely matched those of mothers who obtained same service in face-to-face groups. Pre-and post-group quantitative evaluations did not show
Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT and progressive resistance training (PRT on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART. Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. Methods SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk × 6 mo in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog, neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs. Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (fMRS. Discussion SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the
Gulshat Tavkil’evna Shavalieva
Full Text Available This article deals with the peculiarities of structural and functional organization of mental states of three age groups’ respondents. Depending on the degree of exposure in primary school children, adolescents, and adults similar in nature mental states, but different in their stability and structure are observed. It was found that children with different levels of mental development of a completely different operating parameters of the states – mental proces-ses, physiological reactivity, feelings and behavior. The specifics of the states and the reliefs showed different levels of mental activity of children of three age groups. The structural and functional organization of mental states to identify the different structures of blocks, their interconnectivity, and they differ in the degree of involvement of the parameters of mental states to each other. Each group revealed a different level of mental activity. The differences in the mechanisms of perception of children of three age groups depending on the level of mental development.The aim is to study the features of mental conditions of «school age» children, their structural and functional organization of the perception of the artistic image «Before the Wedding» picture of the famous Russian artist F.S. Zhuravlev’s «Before the Wedding». Identification of the mechanisms of perception of the image and the features state structures of subjects.Method and methodology of work. Research carried out on the basis of a systematic methodology and the theory of activity developed by Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria and A. Brushlinskii subject approach, SL Rubinstein and also theoretical principles and provisions of the concept of mental conditions of the person (A.O. Prohorov and concepts of color (J.W. Go-ethe, P.V. Yanshin et al.. The material of the study served as a theoretical analysis of the general and special literature on the perception of color and artistic images
Pearson, Frank S; Cleland, Charles M; Chaple, Michael; Hamilton, Zachary; Prendergast, Michael L; Rich, Josiah D
This study examined the relationships between substance abuse, mental health problems and HIV risk behavior in offenders discharged from prison and referred to substance abuse treatment programs. Data from 34 sites (n = 1,358) in a federally-funded cooperative agreement, the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJDATS), were analyzed. Among parolees referred to substance abuse treatment, self reports for the six-month period before the arrest resulting in their incarceration revealed frequent problems with both substance use and mental health. HIV risk behavior was operationalized as either (a) unsafe injection drug use, e.g., sharing needles and/or sharing injection equipment, or (b) unsafe sex, e.g., sex without a condom. The findings were that (1) unsafe injection drug use was associated with unsafe sex and vice versa, (2) unsafe sex behavior was related to frequency of drug use, and (3) unsafe sex behavior was related to frequency of alcohol use. In these samples, mental health problems did not have a significant effect on risk behavior, controlling for other variables. Future research should probe this "nonfinding" using standardized diagnostic and symptom measures to provide greater detail on the mental health problems (e.g., age of onset, frequency, and severity of the problem).
Guy, Sophie; Furber, Gareth; Leach, Matthew; Segal, Leonie
To estimate the prevalence of children in the Australian population with risk factors for adult mental illness. Key risk factors and risk domains were identified from a 2013 review of longitudinal studies on child and adolescent determinants of adult mental illness. Data items were identified from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children that map onto the risk domains and were used to estimate the prevalence of these key individual risk factors and the magnitude of multiple risk in children aged 3 months to 13 years. Even by infancy, risk factors for adult mental illness are highly prevalent, with 51.7% of infants having multiple risks. In 10 infants, 1 was born to mothers who consumed daily alcohol and 1 in 8 to mothers who smoked cigarettes daily during pregnancy. Also, 10.5% of infants were in families where the parents had separated, which increased to 18% in 10-11 year-olds. Psychological problems in the clinical range (based on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire total problems score) ranged from 7.8% to 9.7% across the 4-13 years age range. Risks from negative parenting behaviours were highly prevalent across age groups. Two-thirds of children aged 12-13 years had parents who displayed low warmth or exhibited high hostility/anger. Across childhood, one in seven children are in families exposed to 3+ major life stressors. By age 8-9 years, more than 18% of children are exposed to ⩾5 risk factors. We find that modifiable risk factors for adult mental illness occur at the earliest stage in the life course and at greater prevalence than is commonly recognised. Considerable capacity will be required in child and adolescent mental health services and complementary family support programmes if risk factors for adult mental illness that are already apparent in infancy and childhood are to be addressed. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Pedersen, Pernille; Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Labriola, Merete
and coping strategies. The main outcome, the relative risk (RR) of a full return to work based on register data from the job centres, was determined during the first 3 and 6 months after participation in the psychoeducation programme. At baseline and at 3 and 6 months after the intervention, the participants...... received a questionnaire on psychological symptoms, mental health-related quality of life, and locus of control. RESULTS: During the first 6 months after inclusion, the two groups had almost the same RR of a full return to work (RR:0.97, 95% CI: 0.78;1.21), but during the first 3 months, the individuals...... the control group. The intervention did not decrease the level of psychological symptoms or improve mental health-related quality of life; however, individuals in the intervention group improved their scores on internal locus of control at both 3 and 6 months. CONCLUSION: Offering psychoeducation...
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Cook-Daniels, Loree; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Erosheva, Elena A; Emlet, Charles A; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P; Goldsen, Jayn; Muraco, Anna
This study is one of the first to examine the physical and mental health of transgender older adults and to identify modifiable factors that account for health risks in this underserved population. Utilizing data from a cross-sectional survey of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560), we assessed direct and indirect effects of gender identity on 4 health outcomes (physical health, disability, depressive symptomatology, and perceived stress) based on a resilience conceptual framework. Transgender older adults were at significantly higher risk of poor physical health, disability, depressive symptomatology, and perceived stress compared with nontransgender participants. We found significant indirect effects of gender identity on the health outcomes via fear of accessing health services, lack of physical activity, internalized stigma, victimization, and lack of social support; other mediators included obesity for physical health and disability, identity concealment for perceived stress, and community belonging for depressive symptomatology and perceived stress. Further analyses revealed that risk factors (victimization and stigma) explained the highest proportion of the total effect of gender identity on health outcomes. The study identifies important modifiable factors (stigma, victimization, health-related behaviors, and social support) associated with health among transgender older adults. Reducing stigma and victimization and including gender identity in nondiscrimination and hate crime statutes are important steps to reduce health risks. Attention to bolstering individual and community-level social support must be considered when developing tailored interventions to address transgender older adults' distinct health and aging needs.
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.
Purpose: This study is one of the first to examine the physical and mental health of transgender older adults and to identify modifiable factors that account for health risks in this underserved population. Design and Methods: Utilizing data from a cross-sectional survey of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560), we assessed direct and indirect effects of gender identity on 4 health outcomes (physical health, disability, depressive symptomatology, and perceived stress) based on a resilience conceptual framework. Results: Transgender older adults were at significantly higher risk of poor physical health, disability, depressive symptomatology, and perceived stress compared with nontransgender participants. We found significant indirect effects of gender identity on the health outcomes via fear of accessing health services, lack of physical activity, internalized stigma, victimization, and lack of social support; other mediators included obesity for physical health and disability, identity concealment for perceived stress, and community belonging for depressive symptomatology and perceived stress. Further analyses revealed that risk factors (victimization and stigma) explained the highest proportion of the total effect of gender identity on health outcomes. Implications: The study identifies important modifiable factors (stigma, victimization, health-related behaviors, and social support) associated with health among transgender older adults. Reducing stigma and victimization and including gender identity in nondiscrimination and hate crime statutes are important steps to reduce health risks. Attention to bolstering individual and community-level social support must be considered when developing tailored interventions to address transgender older adults’ distinct health and aging needs. PMID:23535500
Geisner, Irene Markman; Bowen, Sarah; Lostutter, Ty W; Cronce, Jessica M; Granato, Hollie; Larimer, Mary E
Disordered gambling has been linked to increased negative affect, and some promising treatments have been shown to be effective at reducing gambling behaviors and related problems (Larimer et al. in Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012). The current study seeks to expand upon the findings of Larimer et al. (Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012) by examining the relationship between gambling-related problems and mental health symptoms in college students. Specifically, the three-group design tested the effects of two brief interventions for gambling—an individual, in-person personalized feedback intervention (PFI) delivered using motivational interviewing and group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, versus assessment only on mood outcomes. The mediating effect of gambling-related problems on mood was also explored. Participants (N = 141; 65% men; 60% Caucasian, 28% Asian) were at-risk college student gamblers [South Oaks Gambling Screen (Lesieur and Blume in Am J Psychiatry 144:1184-1188, 1987) ≥3], assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Gambling problems were assessed using the Gambling Problems Index (Neighbors et al. in J Gamb Stud 18:339-360, 2002). Mental health symptoms were assessed using the depression, anxiety, and hostility subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis in Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): administration, scoring, and procedures manual, National Computer Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, 1993). Results revealed that the PFI condition differentially reduced negative mood, and that reductions in gambling-related problems partially mediated this effect. Implications for intervention for comorbid mood and gambling disorders are discussed.
Mar 1, 2009 ... they will treat patients with substance-related problems and ... depending on factors such as age, coexisting medical conditions ... at-risk drinking behaviour therefore needs to be addressed. ... looked at gender differences in students' knowledge of at-risk .... The subgroup of students who reported use of.
Conley, Colleen S; Shapiro, Jenna B; Kirsch, Alexandra C; Durlak, Joseph A
This meta-analysis found empirical support for the effectiveness of indicated prevention programs for higher education students at risk for subsequent mental health difficulties based on their current subclinical levels of various presenting problems, such as depression, anxiety, or interpersonal difficulties. A systematic literature search identified 79 controlled published and unpublished interventions involving 4,470 college, graduate, or professional students. Programs were effective at post-intervention overall (ES = 0.49, CI [0.43, 0.55]), and for both targeted outcomes (ES = 0.58, CI [0.51, 0.64]) as well as additional nontargeted outcomes assessed in the studies (ES = 0.32, CI [0.25, 0.39]). Interventions compared with a no-intervention or a wait-list control (ES = 0.64, CI [0.57, 0.71], k = 68) demonstrated significantly larger effects overall than did interventions compared with an attention-placebo control (ES = 0.27, CI [0.11, 0.43], k = 11), although both were significant. Among the former group, modality and presenting problem emerged as significant moderators of intervention effectiveness, and among the 43 of these that assessed effectiveness at an average follow-up period of 35 weeks, the positive effects from intervention remained strong (ES = 0.59, CI [0.50, 0.68]). Overall, programs were fairly brief, attracted and retained students, were positively rated by students, and effective when administered by paraprofessionals as well as professionals. Current findings are promising and stimulate recommendations for improving future research, such as expanding the range of outcomes assessed, and clarifying moderators and mediators of intervention impact. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Ane Knüppel; Rikke Steensgaard; Kristine Jensen de López
Sixteen 4 to 6-year-old Danish children were video-recorded, while interacting spontaneously with their family in their homes. The mental state talk of the children was identified and analysed with respect to three mental domains: desire, feeling and cognition, and was compared to data from a similar study carried out with Canadian families (Jenkins et al., 2003). Our results suggest some cross-cultural differences in children’s mental state talk. First, Danish children produce a larger varia...
Rice, Jennifer Kathleen
College suicide rates are stable, but up to 10% of students experience suicidal ideation each year, and most do not access mental health services. Little is known about campus mental health service structure and delivery. In a mixed model, quantitative-to-qualitative design, this study examined the link between suicidal ideation, mental health service use, and suicide attempt using archival survey data of over 25,000 college students from 70 campuses, collected in 2006 by the UT Austin-based ...
Stupp, Paul; Okoroh, Ekwutosi; Besera, Ghenet; Goodman, David; Danel, Isabella
Objectives In 1996, the U.S. Congress passed legislation making female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) illegal in the United States. CDC published the first estimates of the number of women and girls at risk for FGM/C in 1997. Since 2012, various constituencies have again raised concerns about the practice in the United States. We updated an earlier estimate of the number of women and girls in the United States who were at risk for FGM/C or its consequences. Methods We estimated the number of women and girls who were at risk for undergoing FGM/C or its consequences in 2012 by applying country-specific prevalence of FGM/C to the estimated number of women and girls living in the United States who were born in that country or who lived with a parent born in that country. Results Approximately 513,000 women and girls in the United States were at risk for FGM/C or its consequences in 2012, which was more than three times higher than the earlier estimate, based on 1990 data. The increase in the number of women and girls younger than 18 years of age at risk for FGM/C was more than four times that of previous estimates. Conclusion The estimated increase was wholly a result of rapid growth in the number of immigrants from FGM/C-practicing countries living in the United States and not from increases in FGM/C prevalence in those countries. Scientifically valid information regarding whether women or their daughters have actually undergone FGM/C and related information that can contribute to efforts to prevent the practice in the United States and provide needed health services to women who have undergone FGM/C are needed. PMID:26957669
Farley, Jennifer L; Whipple, Ellen E
The expansion of infant mental health (IMH) to at-risk preschoolers and their families has contributed to the integration of relational play therapy (RPT) into IMH treatment services for this population. Integrating RPT allows access to specialized play and expressive techniques specific to preschool and family development, which improves the clinical ability to meet the multiple and complex needs of at-risk parent-child dyads and their families. This article will examine the RPT literature and explore the similarities and differences between IMH and RPT. In addition, two case studies will highlight a five-phase, integrative clinical-treatment process and provide insight into how IMH clinicians are integrating RPT models and maintaining adherence to the IMH treatment approach. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Full Text Available Sixteen 4 to 6-year-old Danish children were video-recorded, while interacting spontaneously with their family in their homes. The mental state talk of the children was identified and analysed with respect to three mental domains: desire, feeling and cognition, and was compared to data from a similar study carried out with Canadian families (Jenkins et al., 2003. Our results suggest some cross-cultural differences in children’s mental state talk. First, Danish children produce a larger variation of mental state talk words than Canadian children do, and second, the distribution of mental state talk across the three domains differed for the two language groups. Semantic variation between Danish and English was identified in the study, which may partly explain the findings. Furthermore we present a usage-based approach to the investigation of children’s development of psychological categories in language as well as cross-linguistically.
Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Westervelt, James D. [ERDC-CERL
A decision framework for setting management goals for species at risk is presented. Species at risk are those whose potential future rarity is of concern. Listing these species as threatened or endangered could potentially result in significant restrictions to activities in resource management areas in order to maintain those species. The management areas in the example application are United States (US) military installations, which are concerned about potential restrictions to military training capacity if species at risk become regulated under the US Endangered Species Act. The decision framework, designed to foster proactive management, has nine steps: identify species at risk on and near the management area, describe available information and potential information gaps for each species, determine the potential distribution of species and their habitat, select metrics for describing species status, assess the status of local population or metapopulation, conduct threat assessment, set and prioritize management goals, develop species management plans, and develop criteria for ending special species management where possible. This framework will aid resource managers in setting management goals that minimally impact human activities while reducing the likelihood that species at risk will become rare in the near future. The benefits of the proactive management set forth in this formal decision framework are that it is impartial, provides a clear procedure, calls for identification of causal relationships that may not be obvious, provides a way to target the most urgent needs, reduces costs, enhances public confidence, and, most importantly, decreases the chance of species becoming more rare.
Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Westervelt, James D. [ERDC-CERL
A decision framework for setting management goals for species at risk is presented. Species at risk are those whose potential future rarity is of concern. Listing these species as threatened or endangered could potentially result in significant restrictions to activities in resource management areas in order to maintain those species. The decision framework, designed to foster proactive management, has nine steps: identify species at risk on and near the management area, describe available information and potential information gaps for each species, determine the potential distribution of species and their habitat, select metrics for describing species status, assess the status of local population or metapopulation, conduct threat assessment, set and prioritize management goals, develop species management plans, and develop criteria for ending special species management where possible. This framework will aid resource managers in setting management goals that minimally impact human activities while reducing the likelihood that species at risk will become rare in the near future. The management areas in many of the examples are United States (US) military installations, which are concerned about potential restrictions to military training capacity if species at risk become regulated under the US Endangered Species Act. The benefits of the proactive management set forth in this formal decision framework are that it is impartial, provides a clear procedure, calls for identification of causal relationships that may not be obvious, provides a way to target the most urgent needs, reduces costs, enhances public confidence, and, most importantly, decreases the chance of species becoming more rare.
Testimony focuses on the results of recent reviews of computer security at the Department of State and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Makes specific recommendations for improving State and FAA's information security posture. Highlights be...
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate undergraduate medical students' knowledge of at-risk drinking behaviour and their own patterns of alcohol intake. The use of non-alcoholic psychoactive substances was also investigated. Design: A cross-sectional study design was used. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was completed by participants. Questionnaires were designed using the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services guidelines for identifying at-risk drinking. Setting: The School of Medicine, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein. Subjects: Participants included first-, fourth- and fifth-year medical students enrolled in 2006. Results: 371/408 (90.9% questionnaires were returned. 10% of students who repeated an academic year ascribed it to substance use. The majority of students conservatively estimated the maximum daily and weekly safe levels of alcohol consumption for both men and women as notably lower than recommended by the guidelines. Nevertheless, 32% of students admitted to alcohol intake exceeding these limits, and 55.3% were identified as at-risk drinkers. Marijuana was the most common non-alcoholic substance used by medical students (14.6% in the preceding three years. Alcohol or other substances was most frequently used during social activities with friends. Conclusions: Medical students' knowledge of levels of alcohol intake associated with increased risks and their own drinking patterns might influence their approach to patients with alcohol-related problems. Therefore, education regarding at-risk drinking behaviour requires to be addressed.
Pedersen, Pernille; Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Yde, Bjarne Frostholm
functioning.The primary outcome is the duration of sickness absence measured by register data. Secondary outcomes include psychological symptoms, mental health-related quality of life, and locus of control. These outcomes are measured by questionnaires at the start of the intervention and at 3 and 6 months...... psychoeducation can lead to faster and sustainable return to work.Trial Registration: Clinical Trial.gov NCT01637363. Registered 6 July 2012....
Xiang, Hua; Jiang, Peilin; Xiao, Shuang; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo
Emotion is one of the most essential and basic attributes of human intelligence. Current AI (Artificial Intelligence) research is concentrating on physical components of emotion, rarely is it carried out from the view of psychology directly(1). Study on the model of artificial psychology is the first step in the development of human-computer interaction. As affective computing remains unpredictable, creating a reasonable mental model becomes the primary task for building a hybrid system. A pragmatic mental model is also the fundament of some key topics such as recognition and synthesis of emotions. In this paper a Mental State Transition Network Model(2) is proposed to detect human emotions. By a series of psychological experiments, we present a new way to predict coming human's emotions depending on the various current emotional states under various stimuli. Besides, people in different genders and characters are taken into consideration in our investigation. According to the psychological experiments data derived from 200 questionnaires, a Mental State Transition Network Model for describing the transitions in distribution among the emotions and relationships between internal mental situations and external are concluded. Further more the coefficients of the mental transition network model were achieved. Comparing seven relative evaluating experiments, an average precision rate of 0.843 is achieved using a set of samples for the proposed model.
-body problem. Computational functionalism attempted to reduce explanations of mental state to machine state explanation. This reductionism, on the initial assumption that mental state is a functional state of the whole organism, is used to ...
Oman, Roy F.; Merritt, Breanca T.; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean M.
Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a national comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) intervention to a national abstinence-only TPP intervention on middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to teen sexual behaviors in a state with high teen birth rates. Methods: Pre- and…
Full Text Available AIMS - The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN - Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822 were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484. The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score≥2 was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS - The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74 for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56 for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26 for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23 for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12 for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24 for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39 for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34 for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.
Fox, C; Alessi, C; Ahluwalia, S; Hachinski, V
The prevalence of dementia in the UK is rising rapidly and is predicted to double over the next 30 years. The NHS in England has been told to push for a rapid rise in dementia diagnosis rates, so that by 2015, two out of three cases are identified. The Prime Minister has raised the 'dementia challenge' as a priority for the NHS. While there is agreement on the need for action, debate arises over the nature of that intervention. Some, including Professor Alessi, argue that tools exist to support the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and they should be used because the disease is amenable to interventions. He believes that we need a shift in knowledge and attitude from thresholds to a continuum of cognitive impairment, from late to early stages and from effects to causes. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa) should become part of the routine NHS Health Check after people reach age 40. Dr Fox argues on the other hand that widespread testing could lead to unnecessary anxiety and panic among those at risk and that funding should be focused on learning more about the early stages of dementia. While the concept of early testing is appealing, there is a large knowledge gap; instruments in use have not been tested in pre-dementia patients and have limited validity. While there is debate over the approach, we can agree that the economic and social impacts of this condition need to be addressed sooner rather than later.
Miara, A.; Macknick, J.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Corsi, F.; Fekete, B. M.; Newmark, R. L.; Tidwell, V. C.; Cohen, S. M.
Thermoelectric plants supply 85% of electricity generation in the United States. Under a warming climate, the performance of these power plants may be reduced, as thermoelectric generation is dependent upon cool ambient temperatures and sufficient water supplies at adequate temperatures. In this study, we assess the vulnerability and reliability of 1,100 operational power plants (2015) across the contiguous United States under a comprehensive set of climate scenarios (five Global Circulation Models each with four Representative Concentration Pathways). We model individual power plant capacities using the Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution model (TP2M) coupled with the Water Balance Model (WBM) at a daily temporal resolution and 5x5 km spatial resolution. Together, these models calculate power plant capacity losses that account for geophysical constraints and river network dynamics. Potential losses at the single-plant level are put into a regional energy security context by assessing the collective system-level reliability at the North-American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) regions. Results show that the thermoelectric sector at the national level has low vulnerability under the contemporary climate and that system-level reliability in terms of available thermoelectric resources relative to thermoelectric demand is sufficient. Under future climates scenarios, changes in water availability and warm ambient temperatures lead to constraints on operational capacity and increased vulnerability at individual power plant sites across all regions in the United States. However, there is a strong disparity in regional vulnerability trends and magnitudes that arise from each region's climate, hydrology and technology mix. Despite increases in vulnerabilities at the individual power plant level, regional energy systems may still be reliable (with no system failures) due to sufficient back-up reserve capacities.
Flavius Robert Lilly
Full Text Available This study examined outcomes for two groups of stroke survivors treated in Veteran Health Administration (VHA hospitals, those with a severe mental illness (SMI and those without prior psychiatric diagnoses, to examine risk of non-psychiatric medical hospitalizations over five years after initial stroke.This retrospective cohort study included 523 veterans who survived an initial stroke hospitalization in a VHA medical center during fiscal year 2003. The survivors were followed using administrative data documenting inpatient stroke treatment, patient demographics, disease comorbidities, and VHA hospital admissions. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to examine the relationship between patients with and without SMI diagnosis preceding the stroke and their experience with non-psychiatric medical hospitalizations after the stroke.The study included 100 patients with SMI and 423 without SMI. Unadjusted means for pre-stroke non-psychiatric hospitalizations were higher (p = 0.0004 among SMI patients (1.47 ± 0.51 compared to those without SMI (1.00 ± 1.33, a difference which persisted through the first year post-stroke (SMI: 2.33 ± 2.46; No SMI: 1.74 ± 1.86; p = 0.0004. Number of non-psychiatric hospitalizations were not significantly different between the two groups after adjustment for patient sociodemographic, comorbidity, length of stay and inpatient stroke treatment characteristics. Antithrombotic medications significantly lowered risk (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49-0.73 for stroke-related readmission within 30 days of discharge.No significant differences in medical hospitalizations were present after adjusting for comorbid and sociodemographic characteristics between SMI and non-SMI stroke patients in the five-year follow-up. However, unadjusted results continue to draw attention to disparities, with SMI patients experiencing more non-psychiatric hospitalizations both prior to and up to one year after their initial stroke. Additionally
Full Text Available Epistemic states of mind, connected with the cognitive activity of a man, are aimed not only at apprehending the world around us, but also at the process of this apprehension. A very important step on this way is an attempt to model these states and processes in terms of formal logics and semantics, irrespective of the language of cognition. The article presents the idea of how formal logical and linguistic modeling of the process of thinking shows the correlation and the interdependence of semantic units connected with mental activities of human brain. The basic notions of the conceptual field of cognition are presented in the article
Zheng, Guohua; Xiong, Zhenyu; Zheng, Xin; Li, Junzhe; Duan, Tingjin; Qi, Dalu; Ling, Kun; Chen, Lidian
Evidence from quantitative studies suggest that Tai Chi produces a variety of health-related benefits, but few qualitative studies have investigated how older adults perceive the benefit of Tai Chi. The objective of the current study was to qualitatively evaluate the perceived benefits of Tai Chi practice among community older population. This study was conducted with participants from a trial examining the effects of a 12-week Tai Chi training on ischemic stroke risk in community older adults (n = 170). A total of 20 participants were randomly selected from a convenience sample of participants who had completed 12-week Tai Chi training (n = 68) were interviewed regarding their perceived benefit on physical and mental health and whether Tai Chi exercise was suitable for the elderly. All participants agreed that Tai Chi training could relax their body and make them comfortable. Most of them thought Tai Chi training could promote physical health, including relieving pain, enhancing digestion, strengthening immunity, enhancing energy and improving sleep quality, enhancing their mental and emotional state (e.g. improving mood and reducing anxiety, improving concentration and promoting interpersonal relationship). Most of participants also agreed that Tai Chi exercise was appropriate for community older people. Three primary themes emerged from content analysis: Improving physical health; Enhancing mental and emotional state; Conforming with the request of the elderly. The findings indicate that regular Tai Chi exercise may have positive benefits in terms of improved physical health and mental state among community elderly population, and may be useful and feasible body-mind exercise to community elderly population for its positive effects and advantages. ChiCTR ChiCTR-TRC-13003601 . Registered 23 July 2014.
Kozlowska, Kasia; Elliott, Bronwen
Family therapists understand that children presenting for treatment are often bearers of symptoms signalling relational problems within the family system. Rather than addressing the children's symptoms in isolation, family therapists typically take those relational problems as their starting point in therapy. This study used the School-aged Assessment of Attachment (SAA) to assess the self-protective (attachment) strategies of the siblings of children presenting for psychiatric evaluation and also of the siblings of control children drawn from the normative population. Siblings of children in the clinical group were much more likely than siblings of control children to use at-risk self-protective strategies and to have markers suggestive of unresolved loss or trauma. School-aged siblings were found to use a broad range of strategies, and the pattern of change from first born to later born involved either a reversal of strategy or a shift to a more complex strategy. The study highlights that siblings of children presenting to mental health services are significantly affected by family relational stress. A family systems approach to assessment, one that enquires about the wellbeing of all family members, will ensure that the emotional needs of siblings are also addressed during the therapy process.
De Massari, Daniele; Pacheco, Daniel; Malekshahi, Rahim; Betella, Alberto; Verschure, Paul F M J; Birbaumer, Niels; Caria, Andrea
The combination of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology, allowing online monitoring and decoding of brain activity, with virtual and mixed reality (MR) systems may help to shape and guide implicit and explicit learning using ecological scenarios. Real-time information of ongoing brain states acquired through BCI might be exploited for controlling data presentation in virtual environments. Brain states discrimination during mixed reality experience is thus critical for adapting specific data features to contingent brain activity. In this study we recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) data while participants experienced MR scenarios implemented through the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM). The XIM is a novel framework modeling the integration of a sensing system that evaluates and measures physiological and psychological states with a number of actuators and effectors that coherently reacts to the user's actions. We then assessed continuous EEG-based discrimination of spatial navigation, reading and calculation performed in MR, using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Dynamic single trial classification showed high accuracy of LDA and SVM classifiers in detecting multiple brain states as well as in differentiating between high and low mental workload, using a 5 s time-window shifting every 200 ms. Our results indicate overall better performance of LDA with respect to SVM and suggest applicability of our approach in a BCI-controlled MR scenario. Ultimately, successful prediction of brain states might be used to drive adaptation of data representation in order to boost information processing in MR.
Daniele eDe Massari
Full Text Available The combination of Brain-Computer Interface technology, allowing online monitoring and decoding of brain activity, with virtual and mixed reality systems may help to shape and guide implicit and explicit learning using ecological scenarios. Real-time information of ongoing brain states acquired through BCI might be exploited for controlling data presentation in virtual environments. In this context, assessing to what extent brain states can be discriminated during mixed reality experience is critical for adapting specific data features to contingent brain activity. In this study we recorded EEG data while participants experienced a mixed reality scenario implemented through the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM. The XIM is a novel framework modeling the integration of a sensing system that evaluates and measures physiological and psychological states with a number of actuators and effectors that coherently reacts to the user's actions. We then assessed continuous EEG-based discrimination of spatial navigation, reading and calculation performed in mixed reality, using LDA and SVM classifiers. Dynamic single trial classification showed high accuracy of LDA and SVM classifiers in detecting multiple brain states as well as in differentiating between high and low mental workload, using a 5 s time-window shifting every 200 ms. Our results indicate overall better performance of LDA with respect to SVM and suggest applicability of our approach in a BCI-controlled mixed reality scenario. Ultimately, successful prediction of brain states might be used to drive adaptation of data representation in order to boost information processing in mixed reality.
Young, Mark S; Brookhuis, Karel A; Wickens, Christopher D; Hancock, Peter A
Mental workload (MWL) is one of the most widely used concepts in ergonomics and human factors and represents a topic of increasing importance. Since modern technology in many working environments imposes ever more cognitive demands upon operators while physical demands diminish, understanding how MWL impinges on performance is increasingly critical. Yet, MWL is also one of the most nebulous concepts, with numerous definitions and dimensions associated with it. Moreover, MWL research has had a tendency to focus on complex, often safety-critical systems (e.g. transport, process control). Here we provide a general overview of the current state of affairs regarding the understanding, measurement and application of MWL in the design of complex systems over the last three decades. We conclude by discussing contemporary challenges for applied research, such as the interaction between cognitive workload and physical workload, and the quantification of workload 'redlines' which specify when operators are approaching or exceeding their performance tolerances.
Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R
Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding.
Mcquaid, Nancy; Bigelow, Ann E.; McLaughlin, Jessica; MacLean, Kim
Mothers' mental state language in conversation with their preschool children, and children's preschool attachment security were examined for their effects on children's mental state language and expressions of emotional understanding in their conversation. Children discussed an emotionally salient event with their mothers and then relayed the…
attitude to mental illness in. Ogun State, Nigeria. NC Aghukwa. Department of Psychiatry, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. Abstract. Objective: Teachers as role models stand in a unique position in the formation of their pupils' set values about mental health issues. The aim of this study ...
WRITTEN FROM THE STANDPOINT OF THE SOCIOLOGIST OR SOCIAL SCIENTIST, THIS BOOK REPORTS DATA OBTAINED FROM STATISTICAL RESEARCH ON MENTAL RETARDATES. ITS CHIEF PURPOSE IS THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED AND PROVISIONS MADE FOR THEM IN THE UNITED STATES. DISCUSSION OF THE GENERAL CONDITION COVERS DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION, ETIOLOGY,…
while remaining symptomatic or socially disabled,' The Free. State mental health service (MHS) has .... More than double the proportion of blacks received disability grants than was the case with white patients ..... Mechanic D, Rochefort DA A policy of inclusion for the mentally ill. Health Affl992; n(1):. 1~150. 15. Melzer D ...
... ab initio, be taken to avoid the metaphysical pitfalls of considering phenomenal characters or properties of mental states to be part of the fabric of the world. Key words. Consciousness, phenomenal property, mental experience, raw feels, qualia, Metaphysics, African Philosophy of Mind. Thought and Practice: A Journal of ...
Beaulieu-Pelletier, Genevieve; Bouchard, Marc-André; Philippe, Frederick L
Mental states refer to the quality of one's capacity to mentally elaborate and open up to his or her subjective experience. The Mental States Task (MST) was developed to evaluate individual differences relative to this capacity. Using the MST, participants described a story from an emotionally challenging image and responded to a set of items about their cognitive and emotional processes while completing the task. The validation of the French version of the MST comprises two samples: 264 undergraduate/graduate students with a mean age of 27.27 years (Sample 1), and 206 students with a mean age of 26.61 years (Sample 2). The validation of the English version of the MST also includes two samples: 110 undergraduate students with a mean age of 20.15 years (Sample 3) and 188 students with a mean age of 20.90 years (Sample 4). Results suggest that 6 mental states can be distinguished and that the MST presents an adequate factorial structure, in both its French and English versions. The MST scores were associated with mental state scores derived from a content analysis method and with other related constructs (e.g., authenticity, empathy). Overall, findings provide convincing evidence of validity and reliability for the MST as an assessment tool of mental states. This innovative measure is likely to facilitate the clinical and empirical investigation of mentalization. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sowell, Richard L; Phillips, Kenneth D; Seals, Brenda; Murdaugh, Carolyn; Rush, Charles
To identify the incidence and correlates of physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected women at risk for pregnancy, a cross-sectional examination was conducted within a longitudinal study of reproductive decision making. Participants consisted of 275 HIV-infected women 17 to 49 years of age (mean = 30.1 years). Women were predominantly African American (87%) and single (82%), with annual incomes of $10,000 or less (66%). Overall, 68% of the women reported experiencing lifetime physical and/or sexual violence. Before becoming HIV infected, 65% of the women reported having been physically or sexually abused. After HIV diagnosis, 33% of the women reported experiencing physical or sexual abuse. Women reporting greater violence were more likely to disclose their HIV-seropositive status to their sex partner. Using logistic regression, greater intent to get pregnant (odds ratio [OR] = 0.933), decreased present life satisfaction (OR = 1.048), having three or more children (OR = 0.474), and history of drug use (OR = 0.794) significantly distinguished between women who reported physical and/or sexual violence and those who did not.
Lockwood, Mark B; Saunders, Milda R; Nass, Rachel; McGivern, Claire L; Cunningham, Patrick N; Chon, W James; Josephson, Michelle A; Becker, Yolanda T; Lee, Christopher S
Despite our knowledge of barriers to the early stages of the transplant process, we have limited insight into patient-reported barriers to the prekidney transplant medical evaluation in populations largely at-risk for evaluation failure. One-hundred consecutive adults were enrolled at an urban, Midwestern transplant center. Demographic, clinical, and quality of life data were collected prior to patients visit with a transplant surgeon/nephrologist (evaluation begins). Patient-reported barriers to evaluation completion were collected using the Subjective Barriers Questionnaire 90-days after the initial medical evaluation appointment (evaluation ends), our center targeted goal for transplant work-up completion. At 90 days, 40% of participants had not completed the transplant evaluation. Five barrier categories were created from the 85 responses to the Subjective Barriers Questionnaire. Patient-reported barriers included poor communication, physical health, socioeconomics, psychosocial influences, and access to care. In addition, determinants for successful evaluation completion included being of white race, higher income, free of dialysis, a lower comorbid burden, and reporting higher scores on the Kidney Disease Quality of Life subscale role-emotional. Poor communication between patients and providers, and among providers, was the most prominent patient-reported barrier identified. Barriers were more prominent in marginalized groups such as ethnic minorities and people with low income. Understanding the prevalence of patient-reported barriers may aid in the development of patient-centered interventions to improve completion rates.
Birch, Susan A J; Bloom, Paul
Young children exhibit several deficits in reasoning about their own and other people's mental states. We propose that these deficits, along with more subtle limitations in adults' social-cognitive reasoning, are all manifestations of the same cognitive bias. This is the 'curse of knowledge' - a tendency to be biased by one's own knowledge when attempting to appreciate a more naïve or uninformed perspective. We suggest the developmental differences in mental state reasoning exist because the strength of this bias diminishes with age, not because of a conceptual change in how young children understand mental states. By pointing out the common denominator in children's and adults' limitations in mental state reasoning we hope to provide a unified framework for understanding the nature and development of social cognition.
Cole, Geoff G; Smith, Daniel T; Atkinson, Mark A
Theory of mind is said to be possessed by an individual if he or she is able to impute mental states to others. Recently, some authors have demonstrated that such mental state attributions can mediate the "gaze cueing" effect, in which observation of another individual shifts an observer's attention. One question that follows from this work is whether such mental state attributions produce mandatory modulations of gaze cueing. Employing the basic gaze cueing paradigm, together with a technique commonly used to assess mental-state attribution in nonhuman animals, we manipulated whether the gazing agent could see the same thing as the participant (i.e., the target) or had this view obstructed by a physical barrier. We found robust gaze cueing effects, even when the observed agent in the display could not see the same thing as the participant. These results suggest that the attribution of "seeing" does not necessarily modulate the gaze cueing effect.
Martinez, Haley S; Klanecky, Alicia K; McChargue, Dennis E
Scarce research has examined the combined effect of mental health difficulties and demographic risk factors such as freshman status and Greek affiliation in understanding college problem drinking. The current study is interested in looking at the interaction among freshman status, Greek affiliation, and mental health difficulties. Undergraduate students (N = 413) from a private and public Midwestern university completed a large online survey battery between January 2009 and April 2013. Data from both schools were aggregated for the analyses. After accounting for gender, age, and school type, the three-way interaction indicated that the highest drinking levels were reported in freshman students who reported a history of mental health problems although were not involved in Greek life. Findings are discussed in the context of perceived social norms, as well as alcohol-related screenings and intervention opportunities on college campuses.
Dick, J P; Guiloff, R J; Stewart, A; Blackstock, J; Bielawska, C; Paul, E A; Marsden, C D
The Mini-Mental State examination has been found to be a quick and valuable test for simple bedside screening, and for serial assessment of cognitive function in a population of 126 neurological patients. Amongst those with cognitive impairment, there was a close relation between the Mini-Mental State examination and the conventional Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). However, the Mini-Mental test was not a sensitive indicator of focal versus diffuse hemisphere disease. Further refinement in the areas of language and visuo-spatial function may improve its value. PMID:6736981
Liu, Chia-Ju; Hou, I-Lin; Chiu, Houn-Lin; Treagust, David F.
This study explored factors of students' mental states, including emotion, intention, internal mental representation, and external mental representation, which can affect their learning performance. In evaluating students' mental states during the science learning process and the relationship between mental states and learning…
Hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking, has been increasing exponentially across the United States, which holds the largest known shale gas reserves in the world. Studies have found that the high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing process (HVHFP) threatens water resources, harms air quality, changes landscapes, and damages ecosystems. However, there is minimal research focusing on the spatial study of environmental and human risks of HVHFP, which is necessary for state and federal governments to administer, regulate, and assess fracking. Integrating GIS and spatial kernel functions, we study the presently operating fracking wells across the state of Pennsylvania (PA), which is the main part of the current hottest Marcellus Shale in US. We geographically process the location data of hydraulic fracturing wells, 2010 census block data, urbanized region data, railway data, local road data, open water data, river data, and wetland data for the state of PA. From this we develop a distance based risk assessment in order to understand the environmental and urban risks. We generate the surface data of fracking well intensity and population intensity by integrating spatial dependence, semivariogram modeling, and a quadratic kernel function. The surface data of population risk generated by the division of fracking well intensity and population intensity provide a novel insight into the local and regional regulation of hydraulic fracturing activities in terms of environmental and health related risks due to the proximity of fracking wells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Derek T. O' Donnell; Tyron J. Venna; David E. Calkin
Federal wildfire management agencies in the United States are under substantial pressure to reduce and economically justify their expenditures. To support economically efficient management of wildfires, managers need better estimates of the resource benefits and avoided damage costs associated with alternative wildfire management strategies. This paper reports findings...
Marc D. Rudolph
Full Text Available Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N = 212; 10–25y examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the “brain age” of a given individual then validate it with an independent measure of cortical thickness. We then show, on average, that “brain age” across the group during the teen years has the propensity to look younger in emotional contexts. Further, we show this phenotype (i.e. a younger brain age in emotional contexts relates to a group mean difference in risk perception − a pattern exemplified greatest in young-adults (ages 18–21. The results are suggestive of a specified functional brain phenotype that relates to being at “risk to be risky.”
M. Yu. Ababkova
Full Text Available Introduction. Neurotechnologies based on the principles of a nervous system functioning are being introduced into modern educational process more and more actively. Neurotechnology-based devices give the chance to develop new educational products; to enlarge the content of education by means of transition from text, graphic and sound content filling of educational process to use of tactile, motor, emotional, and other content. One of the most perspective neurotechnologies for the field of education is the method of biofeedback (BF which enables to define students’ mental state, change various physiological processes proceeding from the obtained data, correct educational process, and improve its quality and effectiveness.The aim of the present publication is to identify the opportunities of the biofeedback method application for educational purposes.Methodology and research methods. A pilot study on the basis of biofeedback technique was conducted in order to study the influence of active learning methods on students’ mental state mastering in specialty “Advertising and Public Relations”. H. Eysenck’s PEN Model was used to form focus-groups (control and experimental; psychophysiological technique CMS (Current Mental State was applied for results processing. Also, such methods as comparative analysis, induction and generalization were used.Results. A true picture of psychological attributes of students’ mental condition has been received for efficient studying of the current psychological state on psychophysiological functions, and training active methods impact on a condition of mentality of students according to the results of cardiorhythmogram.The main results of a pilot research were quantitative data (as percentage points of the current mental and psychological conditions of examinees. The obtained results have reflected the degree of attributes manifestation such as general adaptive resource, degree of mobility (lability of
Derr, Amelia Seraphia
Objective Immigrants face stressors unique to the experience of migration that may exacerbate or cause mental health problems but access care at rates far below the general population, leaving them at risk of untreated mental health conditions. This review synthesizes current findings on mental health service utilization among immigrants to inform future research efforts addressing disparities in access to care. Methods A systematic literature search of seven databases yielded 62 articles that met inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed reports of empirical studies based in the United States with an explicit focus on immigrant mental health service use. Each article was evaluated, and information was extracted by using a structured abstracting form. Results Studies have shown that immigrants from Asia, Latin America, and Africa use mental health services at lower rates than nonimmigrants, despite an equal or greater need. Lower usage has been found to be more pronounced among men, the uninsured, and the undocumented. Structural barriers to service use reported included lack of insurance, high cost, and language barriers. Studies have shown that social support is particularly important for immigrants and that those who seek help for mental health concerns tend to turn first to family, friends, or religious leaders. Conclusions Important areas for future research on disparities in mental health service use among immigrants include expanding research and analytic design to emphasize understudied groups and the heterogeneity of immigrant experiences over time, studying interventions that foster collaboration between formal and informal service sectors, and examining the role of social support in problem recognition and treatment initiation. PMID:26695493
Al-Barrak, Lulwah; Kanjo, Eiman; Younis, Eman M G
Urban spaces have a great impact on how people's emotion and behaviour. There are number of factors that impact our brain responses to a space. This paper presents a novel urban place recommendation approach, that is based on modelling in-situ EEG data. The research investigations leverages on newly affordable Electroencephalogram (EEG) headsets, which has the capability to sense mental states such as meditation and attention levels. These emerging devices have been utilized in understanding how human brains are affected by the surrounding built environments and natural spaces. In this paper, mobile EEG headsets have been used to detect mental states at different types of urban places. By analysing and modelling brain activity data, we were able to classify three different places according to the mental state signature of the users, and create an association map to guide and recommend people to therapeutic places that lessen brain fatigue and increase mental rejuvenation. Our mental states classifier has achieved accuracy of (%90.8). NeuroPlace breaks new ground not only as a mobile ubiquitous brain monitoring system for urban computing, but also as a system that can advise urban planners on the impact of specific urban planning policies and structures. We present and discuss the challenges in making our initial prototype more practical, robust, and reliable as part of our on-going research. In addition, we present some enabling applications using the proposed architecture.
Full Text Available Urban spaces have a great impact on how people's emotion and behaviour. There are number of factors that impact our brain responses to a space. This paper presents a novel urban place recommendation approach, that is based on modelling in-situ EEG data. The research investigations leverages on newly affordable Electroencephalogram (EEG headsets, which has the capability to sense mental states such as meditation and attention levels. These emerging devices have been utilized in understanding how human brains are affected by the surrounding built environments and natural spaces. In this paper, mobile EEG headsets have been used to detect mental states at different types of urban places. By analysing and modelling brain activity data, we were able to classify three different places according to the mental state signature of the users, and create an association map to guide and recommend people to therapeutic places that lessen brain fatigue and increase mental rejuvenation. Our mental states classifier has achieved accuracy of (%90.8. NeuroPlace breaks new ground not only as a mobile ubiquitous brain monitoring system for urban computing, but also as a system that can advise urban planners on the impact of specific urban planning policies and structures. We present and discuss the challenges in making our initial prototype more practical, robust, and reliable as part of our on-going research. In addition, we present some enabling applications using the proposed architecture.
Chambers, David A; Rupp, Agnes
With the rise of "big data," the opportunities to use administrative and clinical data to evaluate impact of state level program initiatives are greatly expanded. The National Institute of Mental Health has in recent years supported research studies pooling data across states to address state-relevant questions. This commentary summarizes these activities and describes future platforms that may enhance ongoing work in this area.
Antonius, Daniel; Martin, Peter S
In this commentary, we reflect on Korngold and colleagues' comprehensive review of the legal challenges encountered by mentally ill immigrant detainees in the United States. Specifically, we further review the competency question as it relates to detainees, as well as recent developments in the legal system. We expand the discussion to general treatment and care of mentally ill detainees in United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) facilities. In addition, we provide an allegory to the juvenile justice system and discuss cultural considerations. We conclude by highlighting the significant implications changes in the immigration justice system may have for forensic examiners and competency evaluations. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L
Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL
interventions have been service-based and do not provide information regarding the experience of patients in the ... outcome variable, whereas in their view clinical, social and quality-of-life information are the main outcome ... State mental health service (MHS) has fewer hospital beds. (especially for chronic cases) than is ...
This study was designed to find out the attitude of people in Ekiti State Nigeria, towards epilepsy and mental illness in terms of work opportunities and marriage options and to examine whether the level of education, gender and religious affiliation would affect people's attitude towards person with these disorders.
Background: Mild cognitive impairment is a recently described neuropsychiatric entity with the possibility of evolving into overt dementia. ... Keywords: Cognitive impairment, Mini Mental State Examination, Nigerians. Access this article online. Quick Response Code ... including depression. All had been normally functional in.
Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.; Cowan, R.
Theory of mind studies of emotion usually focus on children's ability to predict other people's feelings. This study examined children's spontaneous references to mental states in explaining others' emotions. Children (4-, 6- and 10-year-olds, n=122) were told stories and asked to explain both
However, certain important correctives for thinking about mental states and processes undermine the apparent simplicity and logic of Libet's data. The appropriateness, relevance and ecological validity of Libet's methods are further undermined by considerations of how we ought to characterise intentional actions, ...
Background: Mini‑mental state exam (MMSE) was used several times but no study has examined cognition on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this study, we compared MMSE with MoCA in patients with DR and searched for an association between the severity of DR ...
Taylor, Eboni M; Yanni, Emad A; Pezzi, Clelia; Guterbock, Michael; Rothney, Erin; Harton, Elizabeth; Montour, Jessica; Elias, Collin; Burke, Heather
We conducted a survey among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States to assess their physical and mental health status and healthcare access and utilization following the initial 8-month, post-arrival period. We randomly selected Iraqi refugees: ≥18 years of age; living in the United States for 8–36 months; and residents of Michigan, California, Texas and Idaho. Participants completed a household questionnaire and mental health assessment. We distributed 366 surveys. Seventy-five percent of participants had health insurance at the time of the survey; 43 % reported delaying or not seeking care for a medical problem in the past year. Sixty percent of participants reported one chronic condition; 37 % reported ≥2 conditions. The prevalence of emotional distress, anxiety, and depression was approximately 50 % of participants; 31 % were at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder. Iraqi refugees in this evaluation reported a high prevalence of chronic conditions and mental health symptoms despite relatively high access to healthcare. It is important for resettlement partners to be aware of the distinctive health concerns of this population to best address needs within this community.
Viron, Mark; Bello, Iruma; Freudenreich, Oliver; Shtasel, Derri
Specialized transitional shelters are available in various cities to provide assistance to homeless individuals with serious mental illness. Little is known about the population using such shelters. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review to collect demographic, social, and clinical data of residents in a state-operated mental health transitional shelter in Massachusetts. A total of 74 subjects were included. Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were present in 67.6 % of the sample and mood disorders in 35.1 %. Substance use disorders were documented in 44.6 %. Chronic medical illness (mostly hypertension, dyslipidemia, asthma, and diabetes) was found in 82.4 %. The co-occurrence of a psychiatric and substance use disorder and chronic medical illness was found in 36.5 %. The majority (75.7 %) of patients had a history of legal charges. Homeless individuals with serious mental illness served by specialized transitional shelters represent a population with complex psychiatric, medical and social needs.
Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted
In this intervention study, we tested the differential effect of talking about children's desires versus talking about others' thoughts and knowledge on children's acquisition of mental state vocabulary for children who did and did not have mirror self-recognition. In a sample of 96 mother-toddler dyads, each mother was randomly assigned a specially constructed, interactive lift-the-flap book to read to her child three times a week for 4 weeks. In the child desire condition the story elicited comments regarding the child's desires, and in the cognitive condition the story elicited the mother's comments about her own thoughts and knowledge while reading the story. Children's mirror self-recognition and mental state vocabulary were assessed at pre- and post-test. Children in the condition that focused on the child's desires showed a significantly greater increase in their mental state vocabulary; however, this effect was moderated by their levels of self-awareness, with children benefitting more from the intervention if they also showed self-recognition at pre-test. We argue that the combination of specific types of maternal talk and children's prior insights facilitates gains in children's mental state vocabulary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article intends to develop a historical, theoretical and critical debate about mental health, as a social policy, resulting from the dialectical relationship between state and civil society. The adopted methodology is qualitative, consisting on a bibliographical and reflexive review, through which it aims to evaluate positions of various authors on the subject. A discussion of the historical development of the Mental Health policy in Brazil was made, emphasizing the presence of various social movements, such as the Workers in Mental Health Movement, the Sanitary Reform Movement, the Psychiatric Reform Movement and the Anti-Asylum Movement. Therefore, it is verified that society has great ability to fight for effective social policies, in order to mitigate the destructive effects of capitalism. It is concluded that, although social policy is incapable of overcoming the social order, it includes significant changes to the recognition and assurance of rights to the people deprived of wealth and power in society.
Anthony, N; Leff, A M
The publicizing of the abysmal conditions in state mental institutions and the problems precipitated by their deinstitutionalization programs, have challenged local health authorities to develop effective roles in ameliorating these difficulties. Long-view State Hospital is a state mental hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Cincinnati Health Department acted as a change agent to deal with the hospital's many chronic problems and the new difficulties precipitated by moving patients into the community for care. The city conducted its own evaluation of the hospital and its deinstitutionalization program and strongly advocated needed improvements. Problems were encountered in implementing this advocacy role, particularly in relation to the local health department's authority regarding this state-funded and operated institution. However, the many city recommendations that were implemented, the increased funding given the hospital and the community mental health centers, the continuing communication between city and state officials, as well as a follow-up evaluation indicated that the Cincinnati Health Department had played a positive role in the change process. (Am. J. Public Health 69:64-67, 1979.)
Full Text Available An in vitro fertilization (IVF pregnancy is stressful both financially and emotionally. Patients undergoing an IVF procedure often have already had infertility and reproductive losses. Pregnancy through IVF involves the increased risk of various medical complications. Experts around the world are actively engaged in studying the specifics of the mental state of participants in IVF programs during pregnancy. Of critical importance is the issue of providing psychological support for couples who are preparing for and who have received an IVF pregnancy. The aim of our research was to investigate the mental state of women participating in an IVF program. The study involved 224 pregnant women in the second and third trimesters: 62 women with an IVF pregnancy and 162 women who conceived naturally. The study took place at the Kulakov Scientific Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Perinatology in Moscow, Russia. All the study participants had encountered medical complications during their pregnancy. No significant differences were identified in mental well-being in the two groups; this finding suggests that somatic complications during pregnancy are a general source of anxiety regardless of the reason for their occurrence. The second and third trimesters of pregnancy register increased anxiety levels associated with experiences of reproductive loss and the presence of physical problems. The main resources of a woman’s personality that contribute to her self-confidence and mental stability are her professional employment and flexible behavior.
Introduction: Social categories are used to determine which individuals are at an increased risk of unfavorable outcomes and they are a vital tool for the development of targeted interventions. This presentation takes a critical look at the Resourceful and At Risk categories, that are often...
Tan, Lucy B G; Lo, Barbara C Y; Macrae, C Neil
The ability to infer and understand the mental states of others (i.e., Theory of Mind) is a cornerstone of human interaction. While considerable efforts have focused on explicating when, why and for whom this fundamental psychological ability can go awry, considerably less is known about factors that may enhance theory of mind. Accordingly, the current study explored the possibility that mindfulness-based meditation may improve people's mindreading skills. Following a 5-minute mindfulness induction, participants with no prior meditation experience completed tests that assessed mindreading and empathic understanding. The results revealed that brief mindfulness meditation enhanced both mental state attribution and empathic concern, compared to participants in the control group. These findings suggest that mindfulness may be a powerful technique for facilitating core aspects of social-cognitive functioning.
Miralena I. Tomescu
Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder and many of the factors contributing to its pathogenesis are poorly understood. In addition, identifying reliable neurophysiological markers would improve diagnosis and early identification of this disease. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS is one major risk factor for schizophrenia. Here, we show further evidence that deviant temporal dynamics of EEG microstates are a potential neurophysiological marker by showing that the resting state patterns of 22q11DS are similar to those found in schizophrenia patients. The EEG microstates are recurrent topographic distributions of the ongoing scalp potential fields with temporal stability of around 80 ms that are mapping the fast reconfiguration of resting state networks. Five minutes of high-density EEG recordings was analysed from 27 adult chronic schizophrenia patients, 27 adult controls, 30 adolescents with 22q11DS, and 28 adolescent controls. In both patient groups we found increased class C, but decreased class D presence and high transition probabilities towards the class C microstates. Moreover, these aberrant temporal dynamics in the two patient groups were also expressed by perturbations of the long-range dependency of the EEG microstates. These findings point to a deficient function of the salience and attention resting state networks in schizophrenia and 22q11DS as class C and class D microstates were previously associated with these networks, respectively. These findings elucidate similarities between individuals at risk and schizophrenia patients and support the notion that abnormal temporal patterns of EEG microstates might constitute a marker for developing schizophrenia.
Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko
Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)
Xu, Ziyan; Müller, Mario; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Metzler, Sibylle; Dvorsky, Diane; Oexle, Nathalie; Walitza, Susanne; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas
Mental illness stigma may contribute to suicidality and is associated with social isolation and low self-esteem among young people at risk of psychosis. However, it is unclear whether mental illness stigma contributes to suicidality in this population. We therefore examined the associations of self-labeling and stigma stress with suicidality among young people at risk. Self-labeling as "mentally ill", stigma stress, social isolation, self-esteem, symptoms and suicidal ideation were assessed in 172 individuals at risk of psychosis. Self-labeling and stigma stress were examined as predictors of suicidality by path analysis. Increased self-labeling as "mentally ill" was associated with suicidality, directly as well as indirectly mediated by social isolation. More stigma stress was related to social isolation which in turn was associated with low self-esteem, depression and suicidal ideation. Social isolation fully mediated the link between stigma stress and suicidal ideation. Interventions to reduce the public stigma associated with risk of psychosis as well as programs to facilitate non-stigmatizing awareness of at-risk mental state and to reduce stigma stress among young people at risk of psychosis might strengthen suicide prevention in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jacobs, Rachel H; Watkins, Edward R; Peters, Amy T; Feldhaus, Claudia G; Barba, Alyssa; Carbray, Julie; Langenecker, Scott A
This pilot randomized control trial was designed to examine whether Rumination-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy (RFCBT) reduces rumination and residual depressive symptoms among adolescents with a history of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) who are at risk for relapse. We also examined whether these changes in symptoms were associated with changes in functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a key node in the default mode network (DMN). Thirty-three adolescents (ages 12-18) were randomized to eight weeks of RFCBT or an assessment only (AO) control. Twenty two adolescents successfully completed fMRI scans pre- and post-intervention. Adolescents were recruited from the clinic and community and met criteria for at least one previous episode of MDD and were currently in full or partial remission. An Independent Evaluator interviewed parent and child before and after the eight-week intervention. The left PCC (-5, -50, 36) seed was used to probe resting state functional connectivity of the DMN. Adolescents who received RFCBT demonstrated reduced rumination (F = -2.76, df = 112, p depression across eight weeks (F = -2.58, df = 113, p depression and rumination. These data suggest that rumination can be reduced over eight weeks and that this reduction is associated with parallel decreases in residual depressive symptoms and decreased functional connectivity of the left PCC with cognitive control nodes. These changes may enhance the ability of vulnerable youth to stay well during the transition to adulthood. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01905267.
Comparini, Lisa; Douglas, Edith M.; Perez, Sara N.
Research Findings: This research examines preschoolers' use of mental state terms in naturally occurring peer conflicts in the classroom to determine how children use mental state terms for organizing their social interactions. Analyses focus on the types, frequencies, and social interactive functions of mental state terms. Utterances (N = 166)…
Misailidi, Plousia; Papoudi, Despina; Brouzos, Andreas
The study focuses on the mental state language kindergarten teachers use when narrating picture stories. The aims were to examine (a) individual differences in the frequency with which kindergarten teachers use mental state terms, (b) the types of mental state terms (e.g., emotion, desire, belief terms) teachers use most frequently, and (c) the…
Lench, Heather C; Taylor, Aaron B; Bench, Shane W
Establishing the mental states that affect human behavior is a primary goal of experiments on social cognitive processes. Such mental states can be manipulated only indirectly; therefore, after delivering a manipulation, researchers attempt to verify that the mental state of interest, the representation of a mental state, was in fact changed by the manipulation and that this change caused the observed effect. The usual procedure is to examine mean differences in a measure of the mental state of interest (a manipulation check) among experimental conditions and to infer whether the manipulation was effective. We describe a procedure that strengthens the construct validity of manipulations and, hence, causal inferences in experiments that focus on mental states using analyses familiar to most researchers. This procedure employs a traditional manipulation check that assesses the relationship between manipulations and mental states but, additionally, tests the relationship between the manipulation check and dependent measure.
Geerligs, Linda; Rubinov, Mikail; Cam-Can; Henson, Richard N
Resting-state functional connectivity, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), is often treated as a trait, used, for example, to draw inferences about individual differences in cognitive function, or differences between healthy or diseased populations. However, functional connectivity can also depend on the individual's mental state. In the present study, we examined the relative contribution of state and trait components in shaping an individual's functional architecture. We used fMRI data from a large, population-based human sample (N = 587, age 18-88 years), as part of the Cambridge Centre for Aging and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN), which were collected in three mental states: resting, performing a sensorimotor task, and watching a movie. Whereas previous studies have shown commonalities across mental states in the average functional connectivity across individuals, we focused on the effects of states on the pattern of individual differences in functional connectivity. We found that state effects were as important as trait effects in shaping individual functional connectivity patterns, each explaining an approximately equal amount of variance. This was true when we looked at aging, as one specific dimension of individual differences, as well as when we looked at generic aspects of individual variation. These results show that individual differences in functional connectivity consist of state-dependent aspects, as well as more stable, trait-like characteristics. Studying individual differences in functional connectivity across a wider range of mental states will therefore provide a more complete picture of the mechanisms underlying factors such as cognitive ability, aging, and disease. The brain's functional architecture is remarkably similar across different individuals and across different mental states, which is why many studies use functional connectivity as a trait measure. Despite these trait-like aspects, functional connectivity varies over
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2016
Montana's definition of a basic system of quality public elementary and secondary schools includes educational programs for at-risk students (20-9-309, MCA). State statute defines an at-risk student as a "student who is affected by environmental conditions that negatively impact the student's educational performance or threaten a student's…
McLaughlin, C P; Zelman, W N
An effective Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) program in entrepreneurship--the provision of services in the marketplace at a profit to subsidize other programs--requires the support and encouragement of the state-level mental health authority. This paper discusses potential financial, programmatic, political, and managerial risks and rewards to CMHCs and to state authorities from such efforts. As each party faces certain risks as well as rewards from such efforts, it is important that they participate in a process of mutual risk reduction involving: Documenting and legitimizing the entrepreneurship program; Separating funding for seed monies and working capital for ventures, Restructuring the Centers' finances and/or corporate structure to reduce the problems of funds diversion and comingling, Negotiating in advance how the proceeds of the ventures will be used to benefit programs, and Providing technical assistance to enhance the probabilities of success in such ventures. For these steps to work the state authorities must be willing to give up some financial and programmatic control to motivate entrepreneurship on the part of CMHCs.
Full Text Available This study analysed children’s Theory of Mind (ToM as assessed by mental state talk in oral narratives. We hypothesized that the children’s mental state talk in narratives has an underlying structure, with specific terms organized in clusters. Ninety-eight children attending the last year of kindergarten were asked to tell a story twice, at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Mental state talk was analysed by identifying terms and expressions referring to perceptual, physiological, emotional, willingness, cognitive, moral, and sociorelational states. The cluster analysis showed that children’s mental state talk is organized in two main clusters: perceptual states and affective states. Results from the study confirm the feasibility of narratives as an outlet to inquire mental state talk and offer a more fine-grained analysis of mental state talk structure.
Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…
Haer, Toon; Kalnay, Eugenia; Kearney, Michael; Moll, Henk
Global sea-level rise poses a significant threat not only for coastal communities as development continues but also for national economies. This paper presents estimates of how future changes in relative sea-level rise puts coastal populations at risk, as well as affect overall GDP in the
Nearly thirty years after the Cold War era commission's report titled "A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform," educators and historians must evaluate its relevance and its contribution to the shifting educational paradigm in the United States.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The EEG (Electroencephalogram is a representative signal containing information about the condition of the brain. The shape of the wave may contain useful information about the state of the brain. However, the human observer can not directly monitor these subtle details. Besides, since bio-signals are highly subjective, the symptoms may appear at random in the time scale. Therefore, the EEG signal parameters, extracted and analyzed using computers, are highly useful in diagnostics. This work discusses the effect on the EEG signal due to music and reflexological stimulation. Methods In this work, nonlinear parameters like Correlation Dimension (CD, Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE, Hurst Exponent (H and Approximate Entropy (ApEn are evaluated from the EEG signals under different mental states. Results The results obtained show that EEG to become less complex relative to the normal state with a confidence level of more than 85% due to stimulation. Conclusions It is found that the measures are significantly lower when the subjects are under sound or reflexologic stimulation as compared to the normal state. The dimension increases with the degree of the cognitive activity. This suggests that when the subjects are under sound or reflexologic stimuli, the number of parallel functional processes active in the brain is less and the brain goes to a more relaxed state
Power Sarah D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is an optical imaging technology that has recently been investigated for use in a safe, non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI for individuals with severe motor impairments. To date, most NIRS-BCI studies have attempted to discriminate two mental states (e.g., a mental task and rest, which could potentially lead to a two-choice BCI system. In this study, we attempted to automatically differentiate three mental states - specifically, intentional activity due to 1 a mental arithmetic (MA task and 2 a mental singing (MS task, and 3 an unconstrained, "no-control (NC" state - to investigate the feasibility of a three-choice system-paced NIRS-BCI. Results Deploying a dual-wavelength frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, we interrogated nine sites around the frontopolar locations while 7 able-bodied adults performed mental arithmetic and mental singing to answer multiple-choice questions within a system-paced paradigm. With a linear classifier trained on a ten-dimensional feature set, an overall classification accuracy of 56.2% was achieved for the MA vs. MS vs. NC classification problem and all individual participant accuracies significantly exceeded chance (i.e., 33%. However, as anticipated based on results of previous work, the three-class discrimination was unsuccessful for three participants due to the ineffectiveness of the mental singing task. Excluding these three participants increases the accuracy rate to 62.5%. Even without training, three of the remaining four participants achieved accuracies approaching 70%, the value often cited as being necessary for effective BCI communication. Conclusions These results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of a three-state system-paced NIRS-BCI with two intentional control states corresponding to mental arithmetic and mental singing.
Liu, Chia-Ju; Hou, I.-Lin; Chiu, Houn-Lin; Treagust, David F.
This study explored factors of students' mental states, including emotion, intention, internal mental representation, and external mental representation, which can affect their learning performance. In evaluating students' mental states during the science learning process and the relationship between mental states and learning achievement, valid, reliable, and scalable measures of students' mental states and learning achievement are needed. This paper presents the development of the Mental State Conceptual Learning Inventory (MSCLI) to identify students' mental states before and after learning about acids and bases. This instrument is time efficient and convenient and can be administered to large student samples so that teachers and researchers can gain profound insights into their students' learning of acids and bases in science class. The results of this study indicate that students' mental states are highly correlated with their achievement. As a whole, low-achieving students tended to have negative emotions and low intentions, were not good at internal visualization, and were unable to interpret graphics and draw pictures. In contrast, high-achieving students had positive emotions and intentions when learning life-related topics about acids and bases, and were good at internal visualization and drawing and interpreting graphics.
Lecce, Serena; Zocchi, Silvia; Pagnin, Adriano; Palladino, Paola; Taumoepeau, Mele
The relation between children's mental state knowledge and metaknowledge about reading was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 196 children (mean age = 9 years) were tested for verbal ability (VA), metaknowledge about reading, and mental state words in a story task. In Study 2, the results of Study 1 were extended by using a cross-lagged design and…
Lawson, Janelle E.; Cmar, Jennifer L.
For over 25 years, students with disabilities in California received educationally related mental health services through interagency collaboration between school districts and county mental health agencies. After a major change in state policy that eliminated state-mandated interagency collaboration, school districts in California are now solely…
Esposito, Fabrizio; Otto, Tobias; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Goebel, R.
Brain activity during rest is spatially coherent over functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks. In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis yields spatially distributed network representations reflecting distinct mental processes, such
Brodersen, Gunnar; Oettingen, Gabriele
Mental contrasting of a desired future with impeding reality is a self-regulatory strategy fostering goal pursuit. However, there is little research on mental contrasting of a negative future with a positive reality. We conducted two experiments, each with four experimental conditions, investigating the effects of mental contrasting a negative future with a positive reality on state anxiety: participants who mentally contrasted a negative future regarding a bacterial epidemic (Study 1, N = 199) or an idiosyncratic negative event (Study 2, N = 206) showed less state anxiety than participants who imagined the negative future only or who reverse contrasted; participants who mentally elaborated on the positive reality also showed less state anxiety. Our findings suggest that mental contrasting of a negative future helps people reduce disproportional anxiety regarding a negative future. PMID:28979223
Extent of myocardium at risk for left anterior descending artery, right coronary artery, and left circumflex artery occlusion depicted by contrast-enhanced steady state free precession and T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging
Nordlund, David; Heiberg, Einar; Carlsson, Marcus
Background - Contrast-enhanced steady state free precession (CE-SSFP) and T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR) have been clinically validated to estimate myocardium at risk (MaR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance while using myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed to...... and at a group level. Clinical Trial Registration - URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01379261 and NCT01374321....
Brockmeyer, Timo; Pellegrino, Judith; Münch, Hannah; Herzog, Wolfgang; Dziobek, Isabell; Friederich, Hans-Christoph
Building on recent models of anorexia nervosa (AN) that emphasize the importance of impaired social cognition in the development and maintenance of the disorder, the present study aimed at examining whether women with AN have more difficulties with inferring other people's emotional and nonemotional mental states than healthy women. Social cognition was assessed in 25 adult women with AN and 25 age-matched healthy women. To overcome limitations of previous research on social cognition in AN, the processing of social information was examined in a more complex and ecologically valid manner. The Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) reflects complex real-life social interaction and allows for disentangling emotional and non-emotional mental state inference as well as different types of errors in mentalizing. Women with AN showed poorer emotional mental state inference, whereas non-emotional mental state inference was largely intact. Groups did not differ in undermentalizing (overly simplistic theory of mind) and overmentalizing (overly complex or over-interpretative mental state reasoning). Performance in the MASC was independent of levels of eating disorder psychopathology and symptoms of depression and anxiety. The findings suggest that AN is associated with specific difficulties in emotional mental state inference despite largely intact nonemotional mental state inference. Upon replication in larger samples, these findings advocate a stronger emphasis on socio-emotional processing in AN treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:883-890). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Becker Razuri, Erin; Hiles Howard, Amanda R; Purvis, Karyn B; Cross, David R
Maternal mental state language is thought to influence children's mental state language and sociocognitive understanding (e.g., theory of mind), but the mechanism is unclear. The current study examined the longitudinal development of mental state language in mother-child interactions. The methodology included assessments of the child and/or mother-child dyad at six time points between 12 to 52 months of the child's age. Measures determined child's attachment style and language abilities, and mental state language used by mother and child during a block-building task. Results showed that (a) mental state talk, including belief and desire language, increased over time; (b) there were differences between the type of mental state words used by the mother in insecure versus secure dyads; (c) there were differences in patterns of mental state words used in both mothers and children in insecure versus secure dyads; and (d) attachment appeared to exert a consistent influence over time. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Gergelyfi, Mónika; Jacob, Benvenuto; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre
Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, Skin conductance responses (SCRs), questionnaires and performance in a working memory (WM) task) in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 min. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants’ subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability (HRV) increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources. PMID:26217203
Gergelyfi, Mónika; Jacob, Benvenuto; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre
Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, Skin conductance responses (SCRs), questionnaires and performance in a working memory (WM) task) in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 min. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants' subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability (HRV) increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources.
Full Text Available Mental fatigue (MF is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement.Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, skin conductance responses, questionnaires and performance in a working memory task in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 minutes. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants’ subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources.
Korner, E.A.; Lauritzen, L.; Nilsson, F.M.
-geriatrician). RESULTS: 101 persons were included, 29 were healthy, non-demented; 82 participants were assessed at visit two, 90 at visit three, but only 88 ratings were useable. The best cut-off value for the MMSE was > or = 26. Inter-rater and test-retest (r=0.91) correlations of the MMSE were high as were......INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...... version. It achieved excellent inter-rater and test-retest reliability. A cut-off value of = 26 proved better than 24 which was preferred hitherto. However, the ranges of the MMSE scores are so dispersed within the same global degree of severity that the MMSE should not generally be used to describe...
Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Ochi, Marina; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi
Internet addiction disrupts the daily lives of adolescents. We investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction in junior high school students, elucidated the relation between Internet addiction and mental states, and determined the factors associated with Internet addiction in adolescents. Junior high school students (aged 12-15 years) were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Japanese version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and a questionnaire on access to electronic devices. Based on total IAT scores, 2.0% (male, 2.1%; female, 1.9%) and 21.7% (male, 19.8%; female, 23.6%) of the total 853 participants (response rate, 97.6%) were classified as addicted and possibly addicted, respectively. Total GHQ scores were significantly higher in the addicted (12.9 ± 7.4) and possibly addicted groups (8.8 ± 6.0) than in the non-addicted group (4.3 ± 4.6; P addicted group than in the non-addicted group. Further, accessibility to smartphones was significantly associated with Internet addiction. Students in the addicted and possibly addicted groups were considered 'problematic' Internet users. Use of smartphones warrants special attention, being among the top factors contributing to Internet addiction. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Husky, Mathilde M.; McGuire, Leslie; Flynn, Laurie; Chrostowski, Christine; Olfson, Mark
This study compared demographic, academic, and clinical characteristics of adolescents at risk for mental health problems who either did or did not request help during a voluntary mental health screening. High school students completed a self-report to identify risk of mental health problems (n = 364). Students at risk were administered a clinical…
Conrad, K M; Furner, S E; Qian, Y
This study examined associations between workers' reported exposure to occupational hazards and at risk drinking. A sample of 15,907 working adults was drawn from the 1985 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (weighted sample represented 85,395,000 workers). This was the only year the NHIS included questions on both occupational hazard exposure and at risk drinking. Occupational hazard exposures included chemical/biological substances, physical hazards, injury risk, and mental stress. At risk drinking was defined as binge drinking and drinking and driving. Prevalence adjusted odds ratios were estimated. Sixty percent of workers reported exposure to one or more occupational hazards with considerable variation among and within occupations. In all, 31% reported binge drinking and 15% drove after drinking too much. In a multivariate analysis that controlled for background characteristics, workers who reported occupational hazard exposures were 1.2 to 1.4 times more likely to engage in binge drinking than workers without exposures. Similar results were found for drinking/driving. All multivariate results were statistically significant. Findings suggest workers who report occupational hazard exposures are at greater risk of both binge drinking and drinking/driving. Occupational and environmental health nurses can lead workplace initiatives to reduce occupational hazard exposure and, simultaneously, invest in health promotion efforts to curb at risk drinking among workers.
Janse van Rensburg, André; Petersen, Inge; Wouters, Edwin; Engelbrecht, Michelle; Kigozi, Gladys; Fourie, Pieter; van Rensburg, Dingie; Bracke, Piet
The Life Esidimeni tragedy in South Africa showed that, despite significant global gains in recognizing the salience of integrated public mental health care during the past decade, crucial gaps remain. State and non-state mental health service collaboration is a recognized strategy to increase access to care and optimal use of community resources, but little evidence exist about how it unfolds in low- to middle-income countries. South Africa's Mental Health Policy Framework and Strategic Plan 2013-20 (MHPF) underlines the importance of collaborative public mental health care, though it is unclear how and to what extent this happens. The aim of the study was to explore the extent and nature of state and non-state mental health service collaboration in the Mangaung Metropolitan District, Free State, South Africa. The research involved an equal status, sequential mixed methods design, comprised of social network analysis (SNA) and semi-structured interviews. SNA-structured interviews were conducted with collaborating state and non-state mental health service providers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with collaborating partners and key stake holders. Descriptive network analyses of the SNA data were performed with Gephi, and thematic analysis of the semi-structured interview data were performed in NVivo. SNA results suggested a fragmented, hospital centric network, with low average density and clustering, and high authority and influence of a specialist psychiatric hospital. Several different types of collaborative interactions emerged, of which housing and treatment adherence a key point of collaboration. Proportional interactions between state and non-state services were low. Qualitative data expanded on these findings, highlighting the range of available mental health services, and pointed to power dynamics as an important consideration in the mental health service network. The fostering of a well-integrated system of care as proposed in the MHPF requires
Garfield, Rachel L
Transformation--systemic, sweeping changes to promote recovery and consumerism--is a pervasive theme in discussions of U.S. mental health policy. State systems are a fundamental component of national transformation plans. However, it is not clear how the vision of transformation will be balanced against the idiosyncratic political forces that traditionally characterize state policy making. This article examines the development of state mental health policy to assess whether and how it reflects the broader context of transformation versus political forces. Analysis used qualitative evidence collected from semistructured interviews in four states (California, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New Mexico), which were chosen to capture variation in geography and population, health systems, and political environment. Interviewees included 35 key mental health officials, directors of principal mental health consumer and family advocacy groups, and executives of major mental health provider groups. Interviews were conducted between May 2007 and March 2008. Many recent state policy priorities in mental health are consistent with the overall goals of transformation, but some are particular to a state's circumstance. The case studies showed that these priorities are largely shaped by executive control, stakeholder interests, and crises. There is mixed evidence on whether these drivers of state priorities reflect an underlying transformative process. States' mental health policies are largely guided by the problems and resources of the states: sometimes these forces dovetail with nationwide transformation goals and processes, and sometimes they are idiosyncratic to a particular state. Thus, although states can play an integral role in forwarding transformation, their own mental health policy agendas are not eclipsed by this nationwide movement.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Prins, Seth J; Flake, Morgan; Philbin, Morgan; Frazer, M Somjen; Hagen, Daniel; Hirsch, Jennifer
Despite abundant state-level policy activity in the U.S. related to immigration, no research has examined the mental health impact of the overall policy climate for Latinos, taking into account both inclusionary and exclusionary legislation. To examine associations between the state-level policy climate related to immigration and mental health outcomes among Latinos. We created a multi-sectoral policy climate index that included 14 policies in four domains (immigration, race/ethnicity, language, and agricultural worker protections). We then examined the relation of this policy climate index to two mental health outcomes (days of poor mental health and psychological distress) among Latinos from 31 states in the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a population-based health survey of non-institutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older. Individuals in states with a more exclusionary immigration policy climate had higher rates of poor mental health days than participants in states with a less exclusionary policy climate (RR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.10). The association between state policies and the rate of poor mental health days was significantly higher among Latinos versus non-Latinos (RR for interaction term: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06). Furthermore, Latinos in states with a more exclusionary policy climate had 1.14 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.25) times the rate of poor mental health days than Latinos in states with a less exclusionary policy climate. Results were robust to individual- and state-level confounders. Sensitivity analyses indicated that results were specific to immigration policies, and not indicators of state political climate or of residential segregation. No relationship was observed between the immigration policy index and psychological distress. These results suggest that restrictive immigration policies may be detrimental to the mental health of Latinos in the United States. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ornaghi, Veronica; Brockmeier, Jens; Grazzani Gavazzi, Ilaria
In this study the authors investigated whether training preschool children in the use of mental state lexicon plays a significant role in bringing about advanced conceptual understanding of mental terms and improved performance on theory-of-mind tasks. A total of 70 participants belonging to two age groups (3 and 4 years old) were randomly…
Oosterwijk, S.; Winkielman, P.; Pecher, D.; Zeelenberg, R.; Rotteveel, M.; Fischer, A.H.
Mental states—such as thinking, remembering, or feeling angry, happy, or dizzy—have a clear internal component. We feel a certain way when we are in these states. These internal experiences may be simulated when people understand conceptual references to mental states. However, mental states can
Dulany, Donelson E
Answers to the title's question have been influenced by a history in which an early science of consciousness was rejected by behaviourists on the argument that this entails commitment to ontological dualism and "free will" in the sense of indeterminism. This is, however, a confusion of theoretical assertions with metaphysical assertions. Nevertheless, a legacy within computational and information-processing views of mind rejects or de-emphasises a role for consciousness. This paper sketches a mentalistic metatheory in which conscious states are the sole carriers of symbolic representations, and thus have a central role in the explanation of mental activity and action-while specifying determinism and materialism as useful working assumptions. A mentalistic theory of causal learning, experimentally examined with phenomenal reports, is followed by examination of these questions: Are there common roles for phenomenal reports and brain imaging? Is there defensible evidence for unconscious brain states carrying symbolic representations? Are there interesting dissociations within consciousness?
Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Pedersen, Steen Fjord; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke
Measuring myocardial salvage is important to evaluate the possible cardioprotective effects of adjunctive cardioprotective intervention in patients with myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous intervention. Contrast-enhanced steady-state free precession magnetic resonance imaging (CE-CINE......) has recently been used to quantify AAR and validated against myocardial perfusion SPECT. In this study we sought to determine how well T2-STIR and CE-CINE depicts AAR in an experimental porcine model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury using histopathology as the reference for infarct size...
Olfson, Mark; Mojtabai, Ramin; Sampson, Nancy A.; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objectives Although mental health treatment dropout is common, patterns and predictors of dropout are poorly understood. This study explores patterns and predictors of mental health treatment dropout in a nationally representative sample. Methods Data come from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a nationally representative household survey. Respondents in mental health treatment in the 12 months (n=1,664) before interview were asked about dropout defined as quitting treatment before the provider wanted. Cross-tabulation and discrete-time survival analyses were used to identify predictors. Results Approximately one-fifth (22.4%) of patients quit treatment prematurely. The highest dropout rate was from the general medical sector (31.6%) and the lowest was from psychiatrists (15.1%). Dropout rates were intermediate in the human service sector (19.7%) and among patients seen by non-psychiatrist mental health professionals (18.9%). Over 70% of all dropout occurred after the first or second visits. Mental health insurance was associated with low odds of dropout (0.6, 0.4–0.9). Psychiatric comorbidity was associated with a trend towards dropout. Several patient characteristics differentially predicted dropout across treatment sectors and in early and later phases of treatment. Conclusions Roughly one-fifth of adults in mental health treatment each year drop out before completing the recommended course of treatment. Dropout is most common in the general medical sector and varies by patient characteristics across treatment sectors. Interventions focused on high-risk patients and sectors will likely be required to reduce the high proportion of patients who prematurely terminate treatment. PMID:19564219
Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart
Developmental precursors to children’s early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children were tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of gratitude-eliciting situations. A model-building path analysis approach was used to examine longitudinal relations among early emotion and mental state knowledge and later understanding of gratitude. Children with a better early understanding of emotions and mental states understand more about gratitude. Mental state knowledge at age 4 mediated the relation between emotion knowledge at age 3 and gratitude understanding at age 5. The current study contributes to the scant literature on the early emergence of children’s understanding of gratitude. PMID:23331105
Pagani, M; Giovannetti, A M; Covelli, V; Sattin, D; Raggi, A; Leonardi, M
Caregivers of patients in vegetative state and minimally conscious state play a crucial role in the process of taking care and, as previous studies reported, they can suffer of high burden and negative health outcomes. The aim of this national cross-sectional study was to assess whether physical and mental health of caregivers, considering gender differences, is related to the presence of depressive symptoms, anxiety, age and patient's disease duration. Four-hundred and eighteen caregivers, 294 women and 124 men, completed the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y, Beck Depression Inventory, second version and Short Form-12. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate to which extent depressive and anxiety symptoms predict physical and mental health. Men reported higher levels of mental health state, whereas physical health was not different across gender. High levels of anxiety symptoms were associated to negative mental health outcomes in both genders, whereas depressive symptoms were found to impact on female's mental and physical health only. A comprehensive and cost-effective screening of anxiety and depressive symptoms may help to identify determinants of health worsening in order to plan, when necessary, caregivers' support. Female caregivers of patients in vegetative state and minimally conscious state have poorer levels of mental health, whereas physical health is similar to men's. Anxiety symptoms are related to negative mental health outcomes in both male and female caregivers, whereas depressive symptoms are found to impact on female mental and physical health only. It is essential to consider and assess depressive and anxiety symptoms as they may contribute to caregivers' health worsening. This knowledge can lead to plan more comprehensive and tailored caregivers' supports and a better care for patients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Herman, Daniel; Felton, Chip; Susser, Ezra
In October 2001, the New York State Office of Mental Health and the Department of Epidemiology of the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University conducted a rapid assessment of the nature and magnitude of mental health needs in the state resulting from the September 11th terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. This effort was carried out during a period of great turmoil and uncertaintyas New Yorkers responded to the shocking events of this unprecedented disaster. Using the li...
The mental health dilemma that is facing higher education today does not appear to be abating. It is imperative that colleges have fully-staffed and adequately-trained counseling personnel to assist students with psychological issues. Institutions also must create a climate of awareness, so that issues may be recognized early. In addition,…
Martin, Erika G; Barry, Colleen L
We sought state-level factors associated with the adoption of medications to treat mental health conditions on state formularies for the AIDS Drug Assistance Program. We interviewed 22 state and national program experts and identified 7 state-level factors: case burden, federal dollar-per-case Ryan White allocation size, political orientation, state wealth, passage of a mental health parity law, number of psychiatrists per population, and size of mental health budget. We then used survival analysis to test whether the factors were associated with faster adoption of psychotropic drugs from 1997 to 2008. The relative size of a state's federal Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program allocation, the state's political orientation, and its concentration of psychiatrists were significantly associated with time-to-adoption of psychotropic drugs on state AIDS Drug Assistance Program formularies. Substantial heterogeneity exists across states in formulary adoption of drugs to treat mental illness. Understanding what factors contribute to variation in adoption is vital given the importance of treating mental health conditions as a component of comprehensive HIV care.
Tucker, Jalie A; Cheong, JeeWon; Chandler, Susan D; Crawford, Scott M; Simpson, Cathy A
Substance use and risk-taking are common during emerging adulthood, a transitional period when peer influences often increase and family influences decrease. Investigating relationships between social network features and substance use can inform community-based prevention programs. This study investigated whether substance use among emerging adults living in disadvantaged urban areas was influenced by peer and family social network messages that variously encouraged and discouraged substance use. Cross-sectional, naturalistic field study. Lower-income neighborhoods in Birmingham, Alabama, USA with 344 participants (110 males, 234 females, ages 15-25 years; mean = 18.86 years), recruited via respondent-driven sampling. During structured interviews conducted in community locations, the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test assessed substance use and related problems. Predictor variables were network characteristics, including presence of substance-using peers, messages from friends and family members about substance use and network sources for health information. Higher substance involvement was associated with friend and family encouragement of use and having close peer network members who used substances (Ps risk (b = - 1.46, P < 0.05), whereas family discouragement had no protective association. Social networks appear to be important in both promoting and preventing substance use in disadvantaged young adults in the United States. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Coghlan, Michelle; Vigod, Simone
This study assessed the stability of maternal anxiety and concordance between State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores in the immediate postpartum period to 8 weeks postpartum. A population-based sample of 522 mothers completed the STAI at 1, 4, and 8 weeks postpartum. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power of the 1-week STAI in relation to identifying mothers with elevated STAI scores at 4 and 8 weeks was determined. Predictive power of the STAI was further assessed using odds ratios and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. At 1 week postpartum, 22.6% of mothers scored >40 on the STAI, decreasing to 17.2% at 4 weeks and 14.8% at 8 weeks. Using the cut-off score of >40, the 1-week STAI accurately classified 84.0% mothers at 4 weeks and 83.6% at 8 weeks with or without anxiety symptomatology. The 1-week STAI was significantly correlated to the 4-week (r=0.68, p40 were 15.2 times more likely at 4 weeks (95% CI=8.9-26.1) and 14.0 times more likely at 8 weeks (95% CI=7.9-24.8) to exhibit postpartum anxiety symptomatology. Psychiatric interviews were not completed in collaboration with the STAI and specific types of anxiety disorders were not identified. A cut-off score of >40 on the STAI administered early in the postpartum period is recommended in a 2-phase identification program in order to not miss mothers with postpartum anxiety. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kleiner, Sibyl; Schunck, Reinhard; Schömann, Klaus
This paper takes a comparative approach to the topic of work time and health, asking whether weekly work hours matter for mental health. We hypothesize that these relationships differ within the United States and Germany, given the more regulated work time environments within Germany and the greater incentives to work long hours in the United States. We further hypothesize that German women will experience greatest penalties to long hours. We use data from the German Socioeconomic Panel and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine hours effects on mental health score at midlife. The results support our initial hypothesis. In Germany, longer work time is associated with worse mental health, while in the United States, as seen in previous research, the associations are more complex. Our results do not show greater mental health penalties for German women and suggest instead a selection effect into work hours operating by gender. © American Sociological Association 2015.
King, Elizabeth; La Paro, Karen
Research Findings: This study examined 34 Head Start teachers' use of four categories of mental state talk (verbalizations of mental processes using emotion terms, cognition terms, desire terms, and perception terms) during naturally occurring classroom interactions. Transcriptions from classroom videos were coded for mental state talk…
Sprong, M.; Becker, H. E.; Schothorst, P. F.; Swaab, H.; Ziermans, T. B.; Dingemans, P. M.; Linszen, D.; van Engeland, I.
Background: The comparison of high-risk populations with different developmental pathways to psychosis may lend more insight into the heterogeneity of the manifestation of the psychotic syndrome, and possible differing etiological pathways. Aim: To compare high-risk traits and symptoms in two
Sprong, M.; Becker, H. E.; Schothorst, P. F.; Swaab, H.; Ziermans, T. B.; Dingemans, P. M.; Linszen, D.; van Engeland, H.
BACKGROUND: The comparison of high-risk populations with different developmental pathways to psychosis may lend more insight into the heterogeneity of the manifestation of the psychotic syndrome, and possible differing etiological pathways. AIM: To compare high-risk traits and symptoms in two
Domínguez Martínez, Tecelli
La presente tesis doctoral se ha desarrollado dentro del marco del nuevo paradigma de la detección e intervención temprana de los trastornos psicóticos. En la primera parte de la tesis se presentan y desarrollan los principales conceptos teóricos y metodológicos, así como la justificación y el estado de la cuestión del paradigma de detección e intervención temprana en psicosis. En esta primera parte se incluyen tres artículos teóricos que han sido recientemente publicados en revistas científi...
Way, Bruce B; Sawyer, Don A; Kahkejian, Deborah; Moffitt, Catherine; Lilly, Stephanie N
Studies have demonstrated the importance of patient perceptions' of mental health service quality. No studies, however, could be found that surveyed recipients in prison, despite the rapid growth of patients, and litigation in these settings. Patients were asked to complete an anonymous survey in private, and sealed it in an envelope. Of 613 respondents, most were satisfied (79%), agreed they had sufficient access to therapists (78%), were involved with treatment decisions (84%), and thought the MH services they had received would help them better deal with a crisis and emotional stress (75%). There were differences among mental health programs/housing units. Several of perception questions were significantly correlated with medication compliance, admission to crisis observation cells, and receiving disciplinary infractions. Random samples were requested, but likely only a convenience sample was obtained. However, the positive results suggest the need to strive to enhance patient quality of care ratings.
Nielsen, Thor Pajhede
Testing the validity of value-at-risk (VaR) forecasts, or backtesting, is an integral part of modern market risk management and regulation. This is often done by applying independence and coverage tests developed by Christoffersen (International Economic Review, 1998; 39(4), 841–862) to so...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School mental health services are important contact points for children and adolescents with mental disorders, but their ability to provide comprehensive treatment is limited. The main objective was to estimate in mentally disordered adolescents of a nationally representative United States cohort the role of school mental health services as guide to mental health care in different out-of-school service sectors. METHODS: Analyses are based on weighted data (N = 6483 from the United States National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (participants' age: 13-18 years. Lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed using the fully structured WHO CIDI interview, complemented by parent report. Adolescents and parents provided information on mental health service use across multiple sectors, based on the Service Assessment for Children and Adolescents. RESULTS: School mental health service use predicted subsequent out-of-school service utilization for mental disorders i in the medical specialty sector, in adolescents with affective (hazard ratio (HR = 3.01, confidence interval (CI = 1.77-5.12, anxiety (HR = 3.87, CI = 1.97-7.64, behavior (HR = 2.49, CI = 1.62-3.82, substance use (HR = 4.12, CI = 1.87-9.04, and eating (HR = 10.72, CI = 2.31-49.70 disorders, and any mental disorder (HR = 2.97, CI = 1.94-4.54, and ii in other service sectors, in adolescents with anxiety (HR = 3.15, CI = 2.17-4.56, behavior (HR = 1.99, CI = 1.29-3.06, and substance use (HR = 2.48, CI = 1.57-3.94 disorders, and any mental disorder (HR = 2.33, CI = 1.54-3.53, but iii not in the mental health specialty sector. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that in the United States, school mental health services may serve as guide to out-of-school service utilization for mental disorders especially in the medical specialty sector across various mental disorders, thereby
Bianco, Federica; Lecce, Serena; Banerjee, Robin
Despite 30years of productive research on theory of mind (ToM), we still know relatively little about variables that influence ToM development during middle childhood. Recent experimental studies have shown that conversations about the mind affect ToM abilities, but they have not explored the mechanisms underlying this developmental effect. In the current study, we examined two potential mechanisms through which conversations about mental states are likely to influence ToM: an increased frequency of references to mental states when explaining behavior and an increased accuracy of mental-state attributions. To this aim, we conducted a training study in which 101 children were assigned to either an intervention condition or a control condition. The conversation-based intervention was made up of four sessions scheduled over 2weeks. Children completed a battery of assessments before and after the intervention as well as 2months later. The groups were equivalent at Time 1 (T1) for age, family affluence, vocabulary, and executive functions. The ToM group showed an improvement in ToM skills (as evaluated on both the practiced tasks and a transfer task). Mediation analyses demonstrated that the accuracy of mental-state attributions, but not the mere frequency of mental-state references, mediated the positive effect of conversations about the mind on ToM development. Our results indicate that conversational experience can enhance mental-state reasoning not by simply drawing children's attention to mental states but rather by scaffolding a mature understanding of social situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The author studied mental functions disorders in children with a history of paroxysmal states of various etiologies and compared mental development disorder patterns in patients with epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysms. Study sample were 107 children, aged 6 to 10 years. The study used experimental psychological and neuropsychological techniques. According to the empirical study results, non-epileptic paroxysms unlike epileptic much less combined with a number of mental functions disorders and intelligence in general. However, non-epileptic paroxysmal states as well as epileptic seizure associated with increasing activity exhaustion and abnormal function of the motor analyzer (dynamic and kinesthetic dyspraxia. Visual memory disorders and modal-nonspecific memory disorders have more pronounced importance in the mental ontogenesis structure in children with convulsive paroxysms compared to children with cerebral pathology without paroxysms history
Full Text Available This article identifies unique mental health problems experienced by Chinese international students in the United States. The uniqueness of these problems suggests the need to address them independently from other Chinese and international student communities. First, an overview of the common sources of mental health problems and specific stressors these students face is provided. This article then develops culturally sensitive programming recommendations to improve collaborative efforts between health providers, mental health social workers, faculty, and academic staff within universities to serve these students more effectively.
Dulany, Donelson E.
Answers to the title’s question have been influenced by a history in which an early science of consciousness was rejected by behaviourists on the argument that this entails commitment to ontological dualism and “free will” in the sense of indeterminism. This is, however, a confusion of theoretical assertions with metaphysical assertions. Nevertheless, a legacy within computational and information-processing views of mind rejects or de-emphasises a role for consciousness. This paper sketches a mentalistic metatheory in which conscious states are the sole carriers of symbolic representations, and thus have a central role in the explanation of mental activity and action-while specifying determinism and materialism as useful working assumptions. A mentalistic theory of causal learning, experimentally examined with phenomenal reports, is followed by examination of these questions: Are there common roles for phenomenal reports and brain imaging? Is there defensible evidence for unconscious brain states carrying symbolic representations? Are there interesting dissociations within consciousness? PMID:21694964
This article identifies unique mental health problems experienced by Chinese international students in the United States. The uniqueness of these problems suggests the need to address them independently from other Chinese and international student communities. First, an overview of the common sources of mental health problems and specific stressors these students face is provided. This article then develops culturally sensitive programming recommendations to improve collaborative efforts betw...
Whittaker, W; Sutton, M.
The UK has experienced substantial increases in the number of individuals claiming work incapacity benefit (IB) and the proportion of people claiming IB for mental health reasons. Following high-profile reports claiming that intervention would cost the State nothing, the Government has increased the availability of psychological therapies. The cost-neutrality claim relied on two statistics: the proportion of IB claimants diagnosed with mental and behavioural disorders; and estimates of the co...
Thousands of survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake are currently living in the United States. This podcast features a brief non-disease-specific interview with Dr. Marc Safran, CDC's longest serving psychiatrist, about a few of the mental health challenges such survivors may face. Created: 4/16/2010 by CDC Center of Attribution: Mental and Behavioral Health Team, 2010 CDC Haiti Earthquake Mission, CDC Emergency Operations Center. Date Released: 5/6/2010.
Fabrizio Esposito; Tobias Otto; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.; Rainer Goebel
Brain activity during rest is spatially coherent over functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks. In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis yields spatially distributed network representations reflecting distinct mental processes, such as intrinsic (default) or extrinsic (executive) attention, and sensory inhibition or excitation. These aspects can be related to different treatments or subjective experiences. Among these, exhaus...
Mellick, William; Sharp, Carla
Several adult depression studies have investigated mental state decoding, the basis for theory of mind, using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Findings have been mixed, but a comprehensive study found a greater severity of depression to be associated with poorer mental state decoding. Importantly, there has yet to be a similar study of adolescent depression. Converging evidence suggests that atypical mental state decoding may have particularly profound effects for psychosocial functioning among depressed adolescent boys. Adolescent boys with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 33) and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 84) completed structured clinical interviews, self-report measures of psychopathology and the Child Eyes Test (CET). The MDD group performed significantly better than HCs on the CET overall (p = 0.002), underscored by greater accuracy for negatively valenced items (p = 0.003). Group differences on items depicting positive (p = 0.129) and neutral mental states (p = 0.081) were nonsignificant. Enhanced mental state decoding among depressed adolescent boys may play a role in the maintenance of and vulnerability to adolescent depression. Findings and implications are discussed. Limitations of this study include a reliance on self-report data for HC boys, as well as a lack of 'pure' depression among the boys with MDD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Ydesen, Christian
Karen Egedal Andreasen, Palle Rasmussen and Christian Ydesen question in their article, how to guide youth in danger of being marginalised or excluded from society in general and the labour market in particular. They analyse the guidance dimension in the youth in development project as described...... in the project and by the youths participating in the project. The project was designed to facilitate and support transition to an adult life by giving participants social support, feedback, experiences, room for reflection and feeling of acceptance and inclusion. In Denmark all social work with young people...... at risk involves guidance to “the right path”, since individual guidance seems to be the key asset in mobilizing young person’s needs and experiences. The article indicates important elements in the guidance of youth at risk, such as psychological intervention and personal support, support from...
Conlon, M M M; Bush, C J; Ariyaratnam, M I; Brennan, G K; Owtram, R
Mental health nurses are expected to adhere to a range of professional values. The values of social integration that mental health nurses practise are somewhat at odds with the values of the British welfare state. Alternative systems of welfare support are demonstrated in other countries. Mental health nurses must consider models of practice, such as that described by Clifton et al. (2013b), to manage the disconnection between what is expected and what can be achieved. This discussion paper considers the implications for mental health nursing practice when working alongside individuals in receipt of state benefits. There is arguably a profound impact on an individual's recovery from mental ill health when that individual is also dependent on financial support from the government. Access to welfare benefits can have a significant impact on the recovery journey of that individual. This discussion paper will consider the practice implications for mental health nurses whose professional values include maxims such as 'challenging inequality' and 'respecting diversity', and will seek to examine the implications for practice when such values are divergent from those demonstrated in government policy. The paper will make comparisons with international welfare systems to demonstrate the way in which alternative configurations of state welfare can promote a system of social justice that is in greater equilibrium with the professional values of mental health nurses. Finally, the discussion will focus on the options for mental health nurses to either subscribe to government policy or to find compromise solutions that enable attention to remain focused and active on a strong value base of social justice and recovery-focused practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state and music emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between the mind world and the music. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics and structure were taken into consideration. With EEGs during various sleep stages as an example, the music generated from them had different patterns of pitch, rhythm, and tonality. 35 volunteers listened to the music pieces, and significant difference in music arousal levels was found. It implied that different mental states may be identified by the corresponding music, and so the music from EEG may be a potential tool for EEG monitoring, biofeedback therapy, and so forth.
Wu, Dan; Li, Chaoyi; Yin, Yu; Zhou, Changzheng; Yao, Dezhong
This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state and music emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between the mind world and the music. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics and structure) were taken into consideration. With EEGs during various sleep stages as an example, the music generated from them had different patterns of pitch, rhythm, and tonality. 35 volunteers listened to the music pieces, and significant difference in music arousal levels was found. It implied that different mental states may be identified by the corresponding music, and so the music from EEG may be a potential tool for EEG monitoring, biofeedback therapy, and so forth.
Salzman, C. Daniel; Fusi, Stefano
Neuroscientists have often described cognition and emotion as separable processes implemented by different regions of the brain, such as the amygdala for emotion and the prefrontal cortex for cognition. In this framework, functional interactions between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex mediate emotional influences on cognitive processes such as decision-making, as well as the cognitive regulation of emotion. However, neurons in these structures often have entangled representations, whereby single neurons encode multiple cognitive and emotional variables. Here we review studies using anatomical, lesion, and neurophysiological approaches to investigate the representation and utilization of cognitive and emotional parameters. We propose that these mental state parameters are inextricably linked and represented in dynamic neural networks composed of interconnected prefrontal and limbic brain structures. Future theoretical and experimental work is required to understand how these mental state representations form and how shifts between mental states occur, a critical feature of adaptive cognitive and emotional behavior. PMID:20331363
Uttich, Kevin; Lombrozo, Tania
Theory of mind, the capacity to understand and ascribe mental states, has traditionally been conceptualized as analogous to a scientific theory. However, recent work in philosophy and psychology has documented a "side-effect effect" suggesting that moral evaluations influence mental state ascriptions, and in particular whether a behavior is described as having been performed 'intentionally.' This evidence challenges the idea that theory of mind is analogous to scientific psychology in serving the function of predicting and explaining, rather than evaluating, behavior. In three experiments, we demonstrate that moral evaluations do inform ascriptions of intentional action, but that this relationship arises because behavior that conforms to norms (moral or otherwise) is less informative about underlying mental states than is behavior that violates norms. This analysis preserves the traditional understanding of theory of mind as a tool for predicting and explaining behavior, but also suggests the importance of normative considerations in social cognition. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Zima, Bonnie T; Buka, Stephen L; Houtrow, Amy; Kelleher, Kelly J
The study examined state variation in rates of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) determinations, allowances, and receipt of benefits for ten selected child mental disabilities in 2013. SSI administrative and U.S. Census Bureau data collected by a multidisciplinary consensus committee convened by the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine in 2015 were examined. Less than 1% of children in 2013 were recipients of SSI for mental disabilities. Determination rates ranged from 1,441 to 251 per 100,000 low-income children, an almost sixfold difference. Allowance rates varied from 16% to 78%, a fivefold difference. Receipt of benefits ranged from .7% to 5.3%, a sevenfold difference. Large unexplained discrepancies across states were found in review and receipt of SSI benefits for low-income children with mental disabilities. Inequities that cannot be explained by disability severity or financial need violate the ethos of equitable access to federally entitled services.
McGinty, Emma E; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L
The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995-2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media's continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
McGinty, Emma E.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L.
The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995–2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media’s continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. PMID:27269031
Full Text Available In this paper we extend the concept of Value-at-risk (VaR to bivariate return distributions in order to obtain measures of the market risk of an asset taking into account additional features linked to downside risk exposure. We first present a general definition of risk as the probability of an adverse event over a random distribution and we then introduce a measure of market risk (b-VaR that admits the traditional b of an asset in portfolio management as a special case when asset returns are normally distributed. Empirical evidences are provided by using Italian stock market data.
Valentine, Anne; DeAngelo, Darcie; Alegría, Margarita; Cook, Benjamin L.
Report cards have been used to increase accountability and quality of care in health care settings, and to improve state infrastructure for providing quality mental health care services. However, to date, report cards have not been used to compare states on racial/ethnic disparities in mental health care. This qualitative study examines reactions of mental health care policymakers to a proposed mental health care disparities report card generated from population-based survey data of mental health and mental health care utilization. We elicited feedback about the content, format, and salience of the report card. Interviews were conducted with nine senior advisors to state policymakers and one policy director of a national non-governmental organization from across the U.S. Four primary themes emerged: fairness in state-by-state comparisons; disconnect between the goals and language of policymakers and researchers; concerns about data quality and; targeted suggestions from policymakers. Participant responses provide important information that can contribute to making evidence-based research more accessible to policymakers. Further, policymakers suggested ways to improve the structure and presentation of report cards to make them more accessible to policymakers and to foster equity considerations during the implementation of new health care legislation. To reduce mental health care disparities, effort is required to facilitate understanding between researchers and relevant stakeholders about research methods, standards for interpretation of research-based evidence and its use in evaluating policies aimed at ameliorating disparities. PMID:25383993
Atilola, O; Ayinde, O O; Emedoh, C T; Oladimeji, O
As most child health initiatives in Nigeria lack a child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) strategy, CAMH issues have remained obscure to the country's policy-makers. The lack of current and representative epidemiological data on the mental health of Nigerian children continues to be a barrier to advocacy for CAMH policy initiatives. In view of the importance of CAMH to national development, there must be a continued search for ways of bringing the state of CAMH in Nigeria to the attention of policy-makers. To use information from UNICEF's State of the World's Children as proxy data to speculate on the state of child mental health in Nigeria. With a view to discussing its CAMH implications, social and health indicators in the Nigerian child were extracted from UNICEF's 2012 edition. Most of the social and health indicators assessed reflect significant mental health risks. Up to 65% of households live on less than US$1·25 per day, child malnutrition is evident in up to 40% of children, and the primary and secondary school net enrolment ratios are only 63% and 25%, respectively. In addition, the rate of attendance for antenatal care was 45%, and only 39% of deliveries were supervised by skilled birth attendants. Child labour and under-age marriage is very common. A literature review demonstrates that children living in these circumstances are at significant risk of mental health problems. Current data on the state of Nigerian children contain indices that can serve as proxy information for the state of CAMH in the country. Policy-makers need to invest more in pre-emptive child health initiatives as a way of preserving the physical and mental health of children.
Ni, Hongmei; Yang, Xuming; Fang, Chengquan; Guo, Yingying; Xu, Mingyue; He, Yumin
To apply data mining methods to research on the state of sub-mental health among residents in eight provinces and cities in China and to mine latent knowledge about many conditions through data mining and analysis of data on 3970 sub-mentally healthy individuals selected from 13385 relevant questionnaires. The strategic tree algorithm was used to identify the main manifestations of the state of sub-mental health. The back propogation artificial neural network was used to analyze the main manifestations of sub-healthy mental states of three different degrees. A sub-mental health evaluation model was then established to achieve predictive evaluation results. Using classifications from the Scale of Chinese Sub-healthy State, the main manifestations of sub-mental health selected using the strategic tree were F1101 (Do you lack peace of mind?), F1102 (Are you easily nervous when something comes up?), and F1002 (Do you often sigh?). The relative intensity of manifestations of sub-mental health was highest for F1101, followed by F1102, and then F1002. Through study of the neural network, better differentiation could be made between moderate and severe and between mild and severe states of sub-mental health. The differentiation between mild and moderate sub-mental health states was less apparent. Additionally, the sub-mental health state evaluation model, which could be used to predict states of sub-mental health of different individuals, was established using F1101, F1102, F1002, and the mental self-assessment total score. The main manifestations of the state of sub-mental health can be discovered using data mining methods to research and analyze the latent laws and knowledge hidden in research evidence on the state of sub-mental health. The state of sub-mental health of different individuals can be rapidly predicted using the model established here. This can provide a basis for assessment and intervention for sub-mental health. It can also replace the relatively outdated
Parker, Emily; Griffith, Michael
In recent decades, states and districts have moved toward making education more equitable. A key component of equity in education is providing additional funds for economically disadvantaged students, commonly referred to as "at-risk students." At-risk students are most often defined as students who qualify for free or reduced priced…
Borghini, Gianluca; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio
This book discusses the emerging field of industrial neuroscience, and reports on the authors’ cutting-edge findings in the evaluation of mental states, including mental workload, cognitive control and training of personnel involved either in the piloting of aircraft and helicopters, or in managing air traffic. It encompasses neuroimaging and cognitive psychology techniques and shows how they have been successfully applied in the evaluation of human performance and human-machine interactions, and to guarantee a proper level of safety in such operational contexts. With an introduction to the most relevant concepts of neuroscience, neurophysiological techniques, simulators and case studies in aviation environments, it is a must-have for both students and scientists in the field of aeronautic and biomedical engineering, as well as for various professionals in the aviation world. This is the first book to intensively apply neurosciences to the evaluation of human factors and mental states in aviation.
Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart
Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…
Bartsch, Karen; Wright, Jennifer Cole; Estes, David
Young children's persuasion tactics, and how these reflected attunement to others' mental states, were explored in archived longitudinal samples of transcribed at-home conversations of four children, three to five years old. Over 87,000 utterances were examined to identify conversation "chunks" involving persuasion; 1,307 chunks were then coded…
Scott, Lori N; Levy, Kenneth N; Adams, Reginald B; Stevenson, Michael T
Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) tend to misattribute malevolence to benign social stimuli, including facial expressions. Yet, facial emotion recognition studies examining those with BPD have yielded mixed results, with some studies showing impaired accuracy and others demonstrating enhanced accuracy in the recognition of emotions or mental states. The current study examined the ability to decode mental states from photographs of just the eye region of faces in a nonclinical sample of young adults who exhibited BPD traits (high BPD) compared with those who did not (low BPD). Group differences in mental state decoding ability depended on the valence of the stimuli. The high-BPD group performed better for negative stimuli compared with the low-BPD group, but did not perform significantly different from the low-BPD group for stimuli of neutral or positive valence. The high-BPD group also demonstrated a response bias for attributing negative mental states to facial stimuli. In addition, findings suggested that the group difference in accuracy for negative stimuli could not be explained by response bias, because the group difference in response bias for negative stimuli did not reach significance. These findings suggest that BPD traits may be associated with enhanced ability to detect negative emotions and a bias for attributing negative emotions to nonnegative social stimuli.
Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang
This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age (10;6-14;0) and non-verbal cognitive skills, and the…
Full Text Available This article discusses the results of a study of actual mental state of high school students who are active subjects of career self-determination in terms of interactive learning. There are four groups of methods of interactive training: psychological training, art therapy, cognitive, and game training. The main task, which is solved by a researcher in a formative experiment with the use of each of these methods, is to establish significant differences in health, activity and mood as the indicators of current mental state of students in the classroom. As a result, we found that the most significant improvements in the current mental state takes place when using art and game therapy, so these techniques should be used in groups of students with low motivation to work, as well as in the adverse psychological climate. Less significant was the improvement of the current mental state after psychological training due to the fact that this method allow to update and seek solutions to the most important intrapersonal issues and require the implementation of a deeper reflection
de Mulder, Hannah
This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The
Saracho, Olivia N.
For more than three decades, theory of mind (ToM) has been one of the leading and prevalent issues in developmental psychology. ToM is the ability to ascribe mental states (e.g. beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge) to oneself and others as well as to recognise that others have beliefs, desires, and intentions that differ from…
Ao, Trong; Shetty, Sharmila; Sivilli, Teresa; Blanton, Curtis; Ellis, Heidi; Geltman, Paul L; Cochran, Jennifer; Taylor, Eboni; Lankau, Emily W; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara
Refugee agencies noticed a high number of suicides among Bhutanese refugees resettled in the United States between 2009 and 2012. We aimed to estimate prevalence of mental health conditions and identify factors associated with suicidal ideation among Bhutanese refugees. We conducted a stratified random cross-sectional survey and collected information on demographics, mental health conditions, suicidal ideation, and post-migration difficulties. Bivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation. Prevalence of mental health conditions were: depression (21 %), symptoms of anxiety (19 %), post-traumatic stress disorder (4.5 %), and suicidal ideation (3 %), significant risk factors for suicidal ideation included: not being a provider of the family; perceiving low social support; and having symptoms of anxiety and depression. These findings suggest that Bhutanese refugees in the United States may have a higher burden of mental illness relative to the US population and may benefit from mental health screening and treatment. Refugee communities and service providers may benefit from additional suicide awareness training to identify those at highest risk.
Zaitchik, Deborah; Walker, Caren; Miller, Saul; LaViolette, Pete; Feczko, Eric; Dickerson, Bradford C.
By age 2, children attribute referential mental states such as perceptions and emotions to themselves and others, yet it is not until age 4 that they attribute representational mental states such as beliefs. This raises an interesting question: is attribution of beliefs different from attribution of perceptions and emotions in terms of its neural…
Tânia Cristine Rodrigues da Silva
Full Text Available This article discusses mental health management in a small municipality in the State of Rio de Janeiro based on Law No. 10,216 / 2001. The study is guided by the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform, and the concepts of Humanization and Public Management. It is a study case with qualitative approach and bibliographic review supported by open-ended interviews with the health manager, the director of the Psychosocial Care Center, and one of the authors. Results show the need for greater interaction between the health manager and the area of mental health, so that Humanization is consolidated in this public sphere.
Tânia Cristine Rodrigues da Silva
Full Text Available This article discusses mental health management in a small municipality in the State of Rio de Janeiro based on Law No. 10,216 / 2001. The study is guided by the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform, and the concepts of Humanization and Public Management. It is a study case with qualitative approach and bibliographic review supported by open-ended interviews with the health manager, the director of the Psychosocial Care Center, and one of the authors. Results show the need for greater interaction between the health manager and the area of mental health, so that Humanization is consolidated in this public sphere.
Boulet, Sheree L; D'Angelo, Denise V; Morrow, Brian; Zapata, Lauren; Berry-Bibee, Erin; Rivera, Maria; Ellington, Sascha; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Frey, Meghan; Williams, Tanya; Goldberg, Howard; Warner, Lee; Harrison, Leslie; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Barfield, Wanda; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Kroelinger, Charlan D
Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1,2). Since 2015, Zika virus has been spreading through much of the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas, including U.S. territories. Zika virus is spread through the bite of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, by sex with an infected partner, or from a pregnant woman to her fetus during pregnancy.* CDC estimates that 41 states are in the potential range of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (3), and on July 29, 2016, the Florida Department of Health identified an area in one neighborhood of Miami where Zika virus infections in multiple persons are being spread by bites of local mosquitoes. These are the first known cases of local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission in the continental United States.(†) CDC prevention efforts include mosquito surveillance and control, targeted education about Zika virus and condom use to prevent sexual transmission, and guidance for providers on contraceptive counseling to reduce unintended pregnancy. To estimate the prevalence of contraceptive use among nonpregnant and postpartum women at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually active female high school students living in the 41 states where mosquito-borne transmission might be possible, CDC used 2011-2013 and 2015 survey data from four state-based surveillance systems: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, 2011-2013), which surveys adult women; the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS, 2013) and the Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA, 2013), which surveys women with a recent live birth; and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS, 2015), which surveys students in grades 9-12. CDC defines an unintended pregnancy as one that is either unwanted (i.e., the pregnancy occurred when no children, or no more children, were desired) or mistimed (i.e., the pregnancy occurred earlier than desired). The proportion of
Full Text Available Brain activity during rest is spatially coherent over functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks. In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis yields spatially distributed network representations reflecting distinct mental processes, such as intrinsic (default or extrinsic (executive attention, and sensory inhibition or excitation. These aspects can be related to different treatments or subjective experiences. Among these, exhaustion is a common psychological state induced by prolonged mental performance. Using repeated functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions and spatial independent component analysis, we explored the effect of several hours of sustained cognitive performances on the resting human brain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on the same healthy volunteers in two days, with and without, and before, during and after, an intensive psychological treatment (skill training and sustained practice with a flight simulator. After each scan, subjects rated their level of exhaustion and performed an N-back task to evaluate eventual decrease in cognitive performance. Spatial maps of selected resting-state network components were statistically evaluated across time points to detect possible changes induced by the sustained mental performance. The intensive treatment had a significant effect on exhaustion and effort ratings, but no effects on N-back performances. Significant changes in the most exhausted state were observed in the early visual processing and the anterior default mode networks (enhancement and in the fronto-parietal executive networks (suppression, suggesting that mental exhaustion is associated with a more idling brain state and that internal attention processes are facilitated to the detriment of more extrinsic processes. The described application may inspire future indicators of the level of fatigue in the neural attention system.
Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger; Cummings, Janet R.; Hockenberry, Jason M.; Druss, Benjamin G.
Objective The purpose of this study was to provide updated national estimates and correlates of service use, unmet need, and barriers to mental health treatment among adults with mental disorders. Method The sample included 36,647 adults aged 18–64 years (9723 with any mental illness and 2608 with serious mental illness) from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of mental health treatment and perceived unmet need. Results Substantial numbers of adults with mental illness did not receive treatment (any mental illness: 62%; serious mental illness: 41%) and perceived an unmet need for treatment (any mental illness: 21%; serious mental illness: 41%). Having health insurance was a strong correlate of mental health treatment use (any mental illness: private insurance: AOR=1.63 (95% CI=1.29–2.06), Medicaid: AOR=2.66, (95% CI=2.04–3.46); serious mental illness: private insurance: AOR=1.65 (95% CI=1.12–2.45), Medicaid: AOR=3.37 (95% CI=2.02–5.61)) and of reduced perceived unmet need (any mental illness: private insurance: AOR=.78 (95% CI:.65–.95), Medicaid: AOR=.70 (95% CI=.54–.92)). Among adults with any mental illness and perceived unmet need, 72% reported at least one structural barrier and 47% reported at least one attitudinal barrier. Compared to respondents with insurance, uninsured individuals reported significantly more structural barriers and fewer attitudinal barriers. Conclusions Low rates of treatment and high unmet need persist among adults with mental illness. Strategies to reduce both structural barriers, such as cost and insurance coverage, and attitudinal barriers are needed. PMID:25726980
Quantification of myocardium at risk in ST- elevation myocardial infarction: a comparison of contrast-enhanced steady-state free precession cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance with coronary angiographic jeopardy scores.
De Palma, Rodney; Sörensson, Peder; Verouhis, Dinos; Pernow, John; Saleh, Nawzad
Clinical outcome following acute myocardial infarction is predicted by final infarct size evaluated in relation to left ventricular myocardium at risk (MaR). Contrast-enhanced steady-state free precession (CE-SSFP) cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is not widely used for assessing MaR. Evidence of its utility compared to traditional assessment methods and as a surrogate for clinical outcome is needed. Retrospective analysis within a study evaluating post-conditioning during ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with coronary intervention (n = 78). CE-SSFP post-infarction was compared with angiographic jeopardy methods. Differences and variability between CMR and angiographic methods using Bland-Altman analyses were evaluated. Clinical outcomes were compared to MaR and extent of infarction. MaR showed correlation between CE-SSFP, and both BARI and APPROACH scores of 0.83 (p myocardial salvage in this patient population. Clinical trial registration information for the parent clinical trial: Karolinska Clinical Trial Registration (2008) Unique identifier: CT20080014. Registered 04th January 2008.
Eisenberg, Daniel; Hunt, Justin; Speer, Nicole; Zivin, Kara
We aimed to provide the most comprehensive picture, to date, of service utilization and help-seeking behavior for mental health problems among college students in the United States. We conducted online surveys in 2007 and 2009 of random samples of students in 26 campuses nationwide. Among students with an apparent mental health problem (32% of the weighted sample), 36% received any treatment in the previous year. The prevalence of psychotherapy and medication use was approximately equal. Treatment prevalence varied widely across campuses, with some campuses having prevalence 2 to 3 times higher than those of others. Apparent barriers to help-seeking included skepticism on treatment effectiveness and a general lack of perceived urgency. Overall, the findings indicate that help-seeking for mental health varies substantially across student characteristics and across campuses. Strategies to address the low prevalence of treatment will need to be responsive to this diversity.
Berezin (1978), a geriatric psychiatrist from Harvard, says that as we get older, our personality does not change, it just gets more so! How can it be then, that in 2010, despite the best efforts of many, the state of child and youth mental health in Canada is unknown to countless people? How can it be that despite the fact that nothing has changed for years, except to get more so, few know about the plight of Canadian child and youth mental health services? How can it be that in Ontario, politicians, regardless of political party (all parties have been in power at some time during the past 20 years), have known the facts about child and youth mental health and have effectively turned a blind eye?
Smith, Elizabeth Lizzy M
The effectiveness of occupational health and safety management systems (OHSMS) can be understood through analysis of surveys such as the experiences of exposure to occupational hazards by Australian nursing occupations. How effectively OHSMS are implemented in the Australian health industry is unclear as few studies describe current hazard exposure patterns or the impact of OHSMS in the Australian health industry. This paper concludes from the analysis of an Exposure Survey of Australian nursing occupations that nursing occupations perceive themselves to be "at risk" of injury and/or management of OHS risk in work duties is affected by the patterns of hazard exposure, occupation group as well as employee attributes, perceptions, patterns and situations of work. The results highlight the top-rated hazards and imply that the perceptions of hazards in the workplace are different to actual risk experience (e.g. injury patterns). There is an unacceptable level of exposure to diverse hazards in Australian nursing occupations workplaces in regard to regulatory and performance obligations. Stronger strategies to achieve more effective risk treatment, integrate with hospital accreditation and quality programs are discussed to benefit system performance and the welfare of those in nursing occupations.
Sheehan, Rory; Hassiotis, Angela
The use of digital technologies in the management of mental illness, and more generally in the promotion of well-being and mental health, has received much recent attention and is a focus of current health policy. We conducted a narrative review to explore the opportunities and risks of digital technologies in mental healthcare specifically for people with intellectual disability, a sometimes marginalised and socially excluded group. The scope of digital mental health is vast and the promise of cheaper and more effective interventions delivered digitally is attractive. People with intellectual disability experience high rates of mental illness and could benefit from the development of novel therapies, yet seem to have been relatively neglected in the discourse around digital mental health and are often excluded from the development and implementation of new interventions. People with intellectual disability encounter several barriers to fully embracing digital technology, which may be overcome with appropriate support and adaptations. A small, but growing, literature attests to the value of incorporating digital technologies into the lives of people with intellectual disability, not only for promoting health but also for enhancing educational, vocational and leisure opportunities. Clearly further evidence is needed to establish the safety and clinical efficacy of digital mental health interventions for people with and without intellectual disability. A digital inclusion strategy that explicitly addresses the needs of people with intellectual disability would ensure that all can share the benefits of the digital world. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.
Cognition and emotion combine to define mental states. Situational awareness depends on both knowledge of the environment and the mood of the individual. Cognitive scientists from William James and Sigmond Freud to contemporary theorists in artificial intelligence and neuropsychology have acknowledged the critical role of subjective state in determining the efficiency and flexibility of information processing. One of the most explicit computational models of mental states to incorporate both knowledge and arousal has been described. Knowledge is carried in a typical neural net with categorical nodes and probabilistic links. Arousal determines the focus among these nodes and links. High arousal results in a restricted range of activation. Low arousal causes a wider range of stimulation and a broader linking of categories or "ideas." From this model Gerlernter generates "creativity" in problem solving from a network that is widely active and the possibility of "fixation" from a highly aroused system.
Flindall, Ian Richard; Leff, Daniel Richard; Pucks, Neysan; Sugden, Colin; Darzi, Ara
The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of acute mental fatigue on the recall of clinical information in the non-sleep-deprived state. Acute mental fatigue in the non-sleep-deprived subject is rarely studied in the medical workforce. Patient handover has been highlighted as an area of high risk especially in fatigued subjects. This study evaluates the deterioration in recall of clinical information over 2 h with cognitively demanding work in non-sleep-deprived subjects. A randomised crossover study involving twenty medical students assessed free (presentation) and cued (MCQ) recall of clinical case histories at 0 and 2 h under low and high cognitive load using the N-Back task. Acute mental fatigue was assessed through the Visual Analogue Scale, Stanford Scale and NASA-TLX Mental Workload Rating Scale. Free recall is significantly impaired by increased cognitive load (p recall under high and low cognitive load conditions (p = 1). This study demonstrates the loss of clinical information over a short time period involving a mentally fatiguing, high cognitive load task. Free recall for the handover of clinical information is unreliable. Memory cues maintain recall of clinical information. This study provides evidence towards the requirement for standardisation of a structured patient handover. The use of memory cues (involving recognition memory and cued recall methodology) would be beneficial in a handover checklist to aid recall of clinical information and supports evidence for their adoption into clinical practice.
Full Text Available The dorsomedial frontal part of the cerebral cortex is consistently activated when people read the mental states of others, such as their beliefs, desires, and intentions, the ability known as having a theory of mind (ToM or mentalizing. This ubiquitous finding has led many researchers to conclude that the dorsomedial frontal cortex (DMFC constitutes a core component in mentalizing networks. Despite this, it remains unclear why the DMFC becomes active during ToM tasks. We argue that key psychological and behavioral aspects in mentalizing are closely associated with DMFC functions. These include executive inhibition, distinction between self and others, prediction under uncertainty, and perception of intentions, all of which are important for predicting others’ intention and behavior. We review the literature supporting this claim, ranging in fields from developmental psychology to human neuroimaging and macaque electrophysiology. Because perceiving intentions in others’ actions initiates mentalizing and forms the basis of virtually all types of social interaction, the fundamental issue in social neuroscience is to determine the aspects of physical entities that make an observer perceive that they are intentional beings and to clarify the neurobiological underpinnings of the perception of intentionality in others’ actions.
Emile G Bruneau
Full Text Available In three experiments, we examine parochial empathy (feeling more empathy for in-group than out-group members across novel group boundaries, and test whether we can mitigate parochial empathy with brief narrative descriptions. In the absence of individuating information, participants consistently report more empathy for members of their own assigned group than a competitive out-group. However, individualized descriptions of in-group and out-group targets significantly reduce parochial empathy by interfering with encoding of targets' group membership. Finally, the descriptions that most effectively decrease parochial empathy are those that describe targets' mental states. These results support the role of individuating information in ameliorating parochial empathy, suggest a mechanism for their action, and show that descriptions emphasizing targets' mental states are particularly effective.
Bruneau, Emile G.; Cikara, Mina; Saxe, Rebecca
In three experiments, we examine parochial empathy (feeling more empathy for in-group than out-group members) across novel group boundaries, and test whether we can mitigate parochial empathy with brief narrative descriptions. In the absence of individuating information, participants consistently report more empathy for members of their own assigned group than a competitive out-group. However, individualized descriptions of in-group and out-group targets significantly reduce parochial empathy by interfering with encoding of targets’ group membership. Finally, the descriptions that most effectively decrease parochial empathy are those that describe targets’ mental states. These results support the role of individuating information in ameliorating parochial empathy, suggest a mechanism for their action, and show that descriptions emphasizing targets’ mental states are particularly effective. PMID:26505194
Tardif, T; Wellman, H M
Children's theory of mind appears to develop from a focus on desire to a focus on belief. However, it is not clear (a) whether this pattern is universal and (b) whether it could also be explained by linguistic and sociocultural factors. This study examined mental state language in 10 Mandarin-speaking (21-27 months) and 8 Cantonese-speaking (18-44 months) toddlers. The results suggest a pattern of theory-of-mind development similar to that in English, with early use of desire terms followed by other mental state references. However, the Chinese-speaking children used desire terms much earlier, and the use of terms for thinking was very infrequent, even for Mandarin-speaking adults. This finding suggests a consistency in the overall sequence, but variation in the timing of beginning and end points, in children's theory-of-mind development across cultures.
Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang
This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age...... (;–;) and non-verbal cognitive skills, and the groups with ASD and TD did not differ on language measures. The children with ASD and LI had fewer content elements of the storyline than the TD children. Compared with the TD children, the children with ASD used fewer subordinate clauses about the characters......’ thoughts, and preferred talking about mental states as reported speech, especially in the form of direct speech. The children with LI did not differ from the TD children on these measures. The results are discussed in the context of difficulties with socio-cognition in children with ASD and of language...
Ausili Cèfaro, Giampiero; Perez, Carlos A
This book offers an invaluable guide to the delineation of organs at risk of toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy. It details the radiological anatomy of organs at risk as seen on typical radiotherapy planning CT scans.
This study aims to clarify the effects of working with clay combined with listening to music on the mental states of students aiming to become childcare workers. The effects of clay-work on the clients’ mental states have been clarified through previous qualitative studies in the field and in the area of clinical psychology, mainly in psychotherapy, art therapy, and family therapy. In contrast, my previous quantitative study used a profile of mood state (POMS) and electroencephalography to s...
Fong, Tamara G.; Fearing, Michael A.; Jones, Richard Norman; Shi, Peilin; Marcantonio, Edward Ralph; Rudolph, James; Yang, Frances Margaret; Kiely, Dan K.; Inouye, Sharon
Background Brief cognitive screening measures are valuable tools for both research and clinical applications. The most widely used instrument, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), is limited in that it must be administered face-to-face, cannot be used in participants with visual or motor impairments, and is protected by copyright. Screening instruments such as the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) were developed to provide a valid alternative, with comparable cut-point s...
Sung, Youn-Bum; Lee, Jung-Ho; Park, Young-Han
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in function and mental state after thoracic mobilization and manipulation in patients with chronic lower back pain (LBP). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-six subjects were randomly divided into mobilization group (group A), manipulation group (group B) and control group (group C). The Oswestry disability index (ODI) was used to measure the functional impairment of patients with LBP. A multiple spinal diagnosis was used to measure the r...
Yerkinbekova, Meyrim; Kasumova, Roza; Shagurbaeva, Mentay; Sametova, Fauzya
Currently one of the most important differentiating and integrating factors, young people are the musical preferences that affect the formation of associations of fans of those or other performers. Among modern youth popular musical subcultures distinguish reivers, rockers; hip-hop-representatives of these subcultures would be considered in the work. The relevance of studying the impact of different contemporary styles of music (electronic music, rock, RAP) on the mental state of the people, ...
Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bolanle A.; Coker, Olurotimi A.; Atilola, Olayinka; Mathew P. Zachariah; Olugbile, Olufemi; Fasawe, Adedolapo; Idris, Olajide
Background To combat the increasing rate of suicide, basic data on suicidal behaviours reflecting the uniqueness of the locality are needed in sub-Saharan Africa. Aims To assess the prevalence of suicidal ideation and associated factors. Method Adults (n=11 246) from the five administrative divisions of Lagos State completed questionnaires detailing suicidal ideation, socio-demographic details, common mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms), alcohol and psychoactive substa...
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the degree of the influence of aerobic program on mental state of the trainees after a single and short-term application. We tried to find out the positive effects of an aerobics on the selected parameters of mental state of women that performed aerobics recreationally. Twenty-two healthy women (age 35 ± 5 years were involved in the specific aerobic program with mini trampolines (jumping over the period of 5 weeks. To measure the psychological parameters a modified questionnaire of type X-STAI was distributed before and after the single work out at the beginning of the study and after the 5 weeks period. Chi-quadrat analysis was used to evaluate the data. The greatest and statistically the most significant differences were recorded in the parameters ´enthusiastic´, ´boosted by energy´ and ´relaxed´, in comparison with the emotions at the beginning and at the end of the lesson in initial measuring. Comparison of changes after the 5 weeks period at the beginning and at the end of the lesson shows statistical significance in all parameters, except ´tired´. No statistical changes occurred at either the beginning or the end of the lesson comparing initial and final phases. Based on the results, we can conclude that specialized aerobic training provokes immediate changes in psychological state of the trainees via increase of their positive and decrease of negative emotions right after the lesson and when compared to its beginning. This leads to a better mental stability and a greater resistance to the influences of outer environment on mental state.
Full Text Available A growing body of literature suggests that parents socialize early-emerging prosocial behavior across varied contexts and in subtle yet powerful ways. We focus on discourse about emotions and mental states as one potential socialization mechanism given its conceptual relevance to prosocial behavior and its known positive relations with emotion understanding and social-cognitive development, as well as parents’ frequent use of such discourse beginning in infancy. Specifically, we ask how parents’ emotion and mental state talk with their toddlers relates to toddlers’ helping and how these associations vary by context. Children aged 18- to 30-months (n=38 interacted with a parent during book reading and joint play with toys, two everyday contexts that afford parental discussion of emotions and mental states. Children also participated in instrumental and empathic helping tasks. Results revealed that although parents discuss mental states with their children in both contexts, the nature of their talk differs: during book reading parents labeled emotions and mental states significantly more often than during joint play, especially simple affect words (e.g. happy, sad and explanations or elaborations of emotions; whereas they used more desire talk and mental state words (e.g. think, know in joint play. Parents’ emotion and mental state discourse related to children’s empathic, emotion-based helping behavior; however, it did not relate to instrumental, action-based helping. Moreover, relations between parent talk and empathic helping varied by context: children who helped more quickly had parents who labeled emotion and mental states more often during joint play and who elicited this talk more often during book reading. As emotion and mental state talk both varies between contexts and exhibits context-specific associations with empathic prosocial behavior early in development, we conclude that such discourse may be a key form of socialization
Donohoe, Gary; Duignan, Aoife; Hargreaves, April; Morris, Derek W; Rose, Emma; Robertson, Deirdre; Cummings, Elizabeth; Moore, Susan; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden
Neuropsychological studies comparing patients with bipolar disorder (BD) to patients with schizophrenia (SZ) suggest milder cognitive deficits in BD patients and across a smaller range of functions. The present study investigated whether this pattern is also true for social cognition - a range of socially relevant abilities, including emotion perception and recognition, theory of mind, and social attributions - by comparing performance on measures of social cognition in patients with BD, SZ, and healthy participants. One hundred and two patients with BD, 208 patients with SZ, and 132 healthy participants were assessed using a battery of tasks measuring basic neuropsychological and social cognition. We observed significant differences between patients with BD and healthy participants in a test of mental state decoding ('eyes task') that was at a level comparable to deficits seen in patients with SZ. By comparison, BD patients showed more subtle deficits in mental state reasoning ('hinting task') than those shown by patients with SZ. Mental state decoding difficulties are significant in BD. An important direction for further research will be to establish to what extent these deficits affect social and occupational functioning as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons A/S.
Hernández, Sergio E; Suero, José; Rubia, Katya; González-Mora, José L
To identify the neural correlates of the state of mental silence as experienced through Sahaja yoga meditation. Nineteen experienced meditators underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during three short consecutive meditation periods, contrasted with a control relaxation condition. Relative to baseline, at the beginning of the meditation sessions there was a significant increase of activation in bilateral inferior frontal and temporal regions. Activation became progressively more reduced with deeper meditation stages and in the last meditation session it became localized to the right inferior frontal cortex/ right insula and right middle/superior temporal cortex. Furthermore, right inferior frontal activation was directly associated with the subjective depth of the mental silence experience. Meditators appear to pass through an initial intense neural self-control process necessary to silence their mind. After this they experience relatively reduced brain activation concomitant with the deepening of the state of mental silence over right inferior frontal cortex, probably reflecting an effortless process of attentional contemplation associated with this state.
Sung, Youn-Bum; Lee, Jung-Ho; Park, Young-Han
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in function and mental state after thoracic mobilization and manipulation in patients with chronic lower back pain (LBP). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-six subjects were randomly divided into mobilization group (group A), manipulation group (group B) and control group (group C). The Oswestry disability index (ODI) was used to measure the functional impairment of patients with LBP. A multiple spinal diagnosis was used to measure the range of motion (ROM) of vertebra segments. The Fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FABQ) was used to investigate the mental state of LBP patients. [Results] Group A and group B were significantly different from group C in terms of the ODI. Between groups, there was no difference in ROM during trunk flexion. Group A and group B were also significantly different from the control group in extension ROM. The FABQ of group B was significantly different from that of group A. [Conclusion] Application of mobilization or manipulation to thoracic lumbar vertebrae has a positive effect on function, mental state, and ROM in patients with lower back pain.
Boyd, Jennifer E; Graunke, Bruce; Frese, Frederick J; Jones, James T R; Adkins, Jennifer W; Bassman, Ronald
State licensing boards have obligations to protect the public from impaired professionals and to protect the rights of professionals applying for licensure. Competently functioning professionals who have or have had a mental health diagnosis or are being treated for a mental health condition should not be screened out, according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). A review of case law shows applicable precedents from discrimination among physicians and lawyers but not, to date, among psychologists. An examination of psychology licensure application materials from all 50 states and the District of Columbia revealed that some states, particularly Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Missouri, Montana, and New Hampshire, include language that might screen out professionals with lived experience who are currently functioning competently. For comparison, we review a sample of licensure applications for physicians and lawyers and find a similar pattern. Five of the present authors offer ourselves and other published authors as examples of competent licensed psychologists who have lived with mental illnesses. We conclude with recommendations for more inclusive language and protection of confidentiality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Tong, Zhiqian; Zhang, Jinling; Luo, Wenhong; Wang, Weishan; Li, Fangxu; Li, Hui; Luo, Hongjun; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Jiangning; Wan, You; He, Rongqiao
It is widely known that exogenous formaldehyde exposure induces human cognitive impairment and animal memory loss; and recent studies show that formaldehyde at pathological levels induces Aβ deposition and misfolding of tau protein to form globular amyloid-like aggregates. Endogenous formaldehyde may be a marker for progressive senile dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of endogenous formaldehyde in urine of senile dementia and mini mental state examination (MMSE) scores. Formaldehyde level was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (with fluorescence detection) in human urine from dementia patients (n=141), patients with hypertension (n=33) or diabetes (n=16) and healthy individuals (n=38), autopsy hippocampus samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and brains of three types of AD animal model: namely, senescence accelerated mice (SAMP8), APP-transgenic mice and APP/PS1-transgenic mice. In a double-blind study, there was marked elevation of urine formaldehyde levels in patients (n=91) with dementia, and a slight increase in patients (n=50) with mild cognitive impairment. Urine formaldehyde level was inversely correlated with mini mental state examination scores (Rs=-0.441, psenile dementia are probably related to endogenous formaldehyde levels; and the mini mental state examination scores referred to the evaluation of urine formaldehyde level in dementia patients may be used as a non-invasive method for the investigation and diagnosis of senile dementia. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adrian, Juan E; Clemente, Rosa A; Villanueva, Lidon; Rieffe, Carolien
This study focuses on parent-child book reading and its connection to the development of a theory of mind. First, parents were asked to report about frequency of parent-child storybook reading at home. Second, mothers were asked to read four picture-books to thirty-four children between 4;0 and 5;0. Both frequency of parent-child storybook reading at home, and mother's use of mental state terms in picture-books reading tasks were significantly associated with success on false belief tasks, after partialling out a number of potential mediators such as age of children, verbal IQ, paternal education, and words used by mothers in joint picture-book reading. Among the different mental state references (cognitive terms, desires, emotions and perceptions), it was found that the frequency and variety of cognitive terms, but also the frequency of emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Relationships between mental state language and theory of mind are discussed.
Kana, Rajesh K; Keller, Timothy A; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Minshew, Nancy J; Just, Marcel Adam
This study used fMRI to investigate the functioning of the Theory of Mind (ToM) cortical network in autism during the viewing of animations that in some conditions entailed the attribution of a mental state to animated geometric figures. At the cortical level, mentalizing (attribution of metal states) is underpinned by the coordination and integration of the components of the ToM network, which include the medial frontal gyrus, the anterior paracingulate, and the right temporoparietal junction. The pivotal new finding was a functional underconnectivity (a lower degree of synchronization) in autism, especially in the connections between frontal and posterior areas during the attribution of mental states. In addition, the frontal ToM regions activated less in participants with autism relative to control participants. In the autism group, an independent psychometric assessment of ToM ability and the activation in the right temporoparietal junction were reliably correlated. The results together provide new evidence for the biological basis of atypical processing of ToM in autism, implicating the underconnectivity between frontal regions and more posterior areas.
Full Text Available Despite a growing number of collaborative partnerships between schools and community-based organizations to expand school mental health (SMH service capacity in the United States, there have been relatively few systematic initiatives focused on key strategies for large-scale SMH capacity building with state and local education systems. Based on a framework of ten critical factors for capacity building, as well as existing best practices, two case studies were utilized to develop a replicable capacity-building model to advance interagency SMH development. Seventy education and mental health stakeholders from two selected states participated in baseline assessments of skill com-petency and critical factor implementation followed by two-day trainings (one in each state; 29 (41% of the participants also completed a six month follow-up assessment. Targeted competencies increased significantly for participants from both states, with large effect sizes (d = 2.05 and 2.56, from pre- to post-training. Participant reports of critical factor implementation increased significantly for one of the two states (t = -6.40, p < .001, d = 1.77. Results inform specific training recommendations for stakeholders and collaborative teams, as well as policy implications to support future development of SMH service capacity.
Isett, Kimberley Roussin; Burnam, M Audrey; Coleman-Beattie, Brenda; Hyde, Pamela S; Morrissey, Joseph P; Magnabosco, Jennifer L; Rapp, Charles; Ganju, Vijay; Goldman, Howard H
The evidence-based practice demonstration for services to adults with serious mental illness has ended its pilot stage. This paper presents the approaches states employed to combine traditional policy levers with more strategic/institutional efforts (e.g., leadership) to facilitate implementation of these practices. Two rounds of site visits were completed and extensive interview data collected. The data were analyzed to find trends that were consistent across states and across practices. Two themes emerged for understanding implementation of evidence-based practices: the support and influence of the state mental health authority matters and so does the structure of the mental health systems.
Harmon, Rebecca Bouterie
This research describes nurses' experiences in administering "the water cure," hot or cold wet sheet packs, and continuous tub baths in state mental hospitals during the early twentieth century. Student and graduate nurses were required to demonstrate competence in hydrotherapy treatments used to calm agitated or manic patients in the era before neuroleptics. The nurses interviewed for this study indicated that, although labor intensive, hydrotherapy worked, at least temporarily. Although no longer used in state hospitals, hydrotherapy is regaining popularity with the general public and may serve as an adjunct to pharmacological treatments to calm hospitalized patients in the future.
Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Patanian, Miriam M.; Larson, Eric H.; Lishner, Denise M.; Mauksch, Larry B.; Katon, Wayne J.; Walker, Edward; Hart, L. Gary
Context: Ensuring an adequate mental health provider supply in rural and urban areas requires accessible methods of identifying provider types, practice locations, and practice productivity. Purpose: To identify mental health shortage areas using existing licensing and survey data. Methods: The 1998-1999 Washington State Department of Health files…
Rüsch, Nicolas; Corrigan, Patrick W; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Dvorsky, Diane; Metzler, Sibylle; Müller, Mario; Walitza, Susanne; Rössler, Wulf
When young people at risk of psychosis experience early signs of the disorder or early intervention, they may label themselves as "mentally ill." However, empirical data related to the potentially harmful effects of self-labeling and stigma among young people at risk of psychosis are lacking. This study used a stress-coping model to examine mechanisms by which stigma may exert an impact on young people at risk of psychosis. The authors assessed self-reports of perceived public stigma, shame about having a mental illness, self-labeling, and the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor (stigma stress) as predictors of well-being among 172 residents of Zürich, Switzerland, who were between 13 and 35 years old. All participants were at high risk or ultra-high risk of psychosis or at risk of bipolar disorder. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and well-being was measured by instruments that assessed quality of life, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Perceived public stigma, shame, and self-labeling were independently associated with increased stigma stress. More stigma stress, in turn, predicted reduced well-being, independent of age, gender, symptoms, and psychiatric comorbidity. Stigma stress partly mediated the effects of perceived public stigma, shame, and self-labeling on well-being. Perceived public stigma, shame, and self-labeling appear to be associated with stigma stress and reduced well-being among young people at risk of psychosis. With early intervention programs gaining traction worldwide, effective strategies to address the shame and stigma associated with at-risk states and early psychosis are needed.
Andrea M. Auxier
Full Text Available Changes to the health care market associated with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA are creating both need and opportunity for states, health plans, and providers to improve quality, outcomes, and satisfaction through better integration of traditionally separate health care delivery systems. Applications of the term “integrated care” vary widely and include, but are not limited to, the integration of care for Medicare-Medicaid dually enrolled beneficiaries, the integration of mental health and substance abuse (also known as behavioral health, and the integration of mental health and substance abuse with medical care, most commonly primary care. In this article, integrated care refers to well-coordinated physical health and behavioral health care. Medicaid Health Homes are emerging as a promising practice, with sixteen states having adopted the Health Home model through approved State Plan Amendments. This article describes one state's journey towards establishing Health Homes with a behavioral health focus. We discuss a partnership model between the relevant state organizations, the contracted providers, and the behavioral health managed care organization responsible for many of the supportive administrative functions. We highlight successes and operational challenges and offer recommendations for future Health Home development efforts.
Herman, Daniel; Felton, Chip; Susser, Ezra
In October 2001, the New York State Office of Mental Health and the Department of Epidemiology of the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University conducted a rapid assessment of the nature and magnitude of mental health needs in the state resulting from the September 11th terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. This effort was carried out during a period of great turmoil and uncertainty as New Yorkers responded to the shocking events of this unprecedented disaster. Using the limited data available at the time, we estimated that over 520,000 persons in New York City and the surrounding counties would experience posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from exposure to the attacks, and that more than 129,000 would seek treatment for this disorder during 2002. This assessment is part of an ongoing collaborative process between public and academic partners; the effort is designed to strengthen the capacity of the mental health system to respond to current and future terrorism. Estimates from this initial assessment will be refined over time as further data concerning the impact of the September 11th attacks become available.
Dodell-Feder, David; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Coulson, Joseph P.; Hooker, Christine I.
Social functioning depends on the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others – an ability known as theory of mind (ToM). Research in this field is limited by the use of tasks in which ceiling effects are ubiquitous, rendering them insensitive to individual differences in ToM ability and instances of subtle ToM impairment. Here, we present data from a new ToM task – the Short Story Task (SST) - intended to improve upon many aspects of existing ToM measures. More specifically, the SST was designed to: (a) assess the full range of individual differences in ToM ability without suffering from ceiling effects; (b) incorporate a range of mental states of differing complexity, including epistemic states, affective states, and intentions to be inferred from a first- and second-order level; (c) use ToM stimuli representative of real-world social interactions; (d) require participants to utilize social context when making mental state inferences; (e) exhibit adequate psychometric properties; and (f) be quick and easy to administer and score. In the task, participants read a short story and were asked questions that assessed explicit mental state reasoning, spontaneous mental state inference, and comprehension of the non-mental aspects of the story. Responses were scored according to a rubric that assigned greater points for accurate mental state attributions that included multiple characters’ mental states. Results demonstrate that the SST is sensitive to variation in ToM ability, can be accurately scored by multiple raters, and exhibits concurrent validity with other social cognitive tasks. The results support the effectiveness of this new measure of ToM in the study of social cognition. The findings are also consistent with studies demonstrating significant relationships among narrative transportation, ToM, and the reading of fiction. Together, the data indicate that reading fiction may be an avenue for improving ToM ability. PMID:24244736
Full Text Available Social functioning depends on the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others--an ability known as theory of mind (ToM. Research in this field is limited by the use of tasks in which ceiling effects are ubiquitous, rendering them insensitive to individual differences in ToM ability and instances of subtle ToM impairment. Here, we present data from a new ToM task--the Short Story Task (SST--intended to improve upon many aspects of existing ToM measures. More specifically, the SST was designed to: (a assess the full range of individual differences in ToM ability without suffering from ceiling effects; (b incorporate a range of mental states of differing complexity, including epistemic states, affective states, and intentions to be inferred from a first- and second-order level; (c use ToM stimuli representative of real-world social interactions; (d require participants to utilize social context when making mental state inferences; (e exhibit adequate psychometric properties; and (f be quick and easy to administer and score. In the task, participants read a short story and were asked questions that assessed explicit mental state reasoning, spontaneous mental state inference, and comprehension of the non-mental aspects of the story. Responses were scored according to a rubric that assigned greater points for accurate mental state attributions that included multiple characters' mental states. Results demonstrate that the SST is sensitive to variation in ToM ability, can be accurately scored by multiple raters, and exhibits concurrent validity with other social cognitive tasks. The results support the effectiveness of this new measure of ToM in the study of social cognition. The findings are also consistent with studies demonstrating significant relationships among narrative transportation, ToM, and the reading of fiction. Together, the data indicate that reading fiction may be an avenue for improving ToM ability.
Dodell-Feder, David; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Coulson, Joseph P; Hooker, Christine I
Social functioning depends on the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others--an ability known as theory of mind (ToM). Research in this field is limited by the use of tasks in which ceiling effects are ubiquitous, rendering them insensitive to individual differences in ToM ability and instances of subtle ToM impairment. Here, we present data from a new ToM task--the Short Story Task (SST)--intended to improve upon many aspects of existing ToM measures. More specifically, the SST was designed to: (a) assess the full range of individual differences in ToM ability without suffering from ceiling effects; (b) incorporate a range of mental states of differing complexity, including epistemic states, affective states, and intentions to be inferred from a first- and second-order level; (c) use ToM stimuli representative of real-world social interactions; (d) require participants to utilize social context when making mental state inferences; (e) exhibit adequate psychometric properties; and (f) be quick and easy to administer and score. In the task, participants read a short story and were asked questions that assessed explicit mental state reasoning, spontaneous mental state inference, and comprehension of the non-mental aspects of the story. Responses were scored according to a rubric that assigned greater points for accurate mental state attributions that included multiple characters' mental states. Results demonstrate that the SST is sensitive to variation in ToM ability, can be accurately scored by multiple raters, and exhibits concurrent validity with other social cognitive tasks. The results support the effectiveness of this new measure of ToM in the study of social cognition. The findings are also consistent with studies demonstrating significant relationships among narrative transportation, ToM, and the reading of fiction. Together, the data indicate that reading fiction may be an avenue for improving ToM ability.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world which has created a public health crisis. Correctional facilities have become a front line for mental health care. Public health research in this setting could inform criminal justice reform. We determined prevalence rates for mental illnesses and related comorbidities among all inmates in a state prison system. Methods Cross-sectional study using the Iowa Corrections Offender Network which contains health records of all inmates in Iowa. The point prevalence of both ICD-9 and DSM-IV codes for mental illnesses, timing of diagnosis and interval between incarceration and mental illness diagnosis were determined. Results The average inmate (N = 8574 age was 36.7 ± 12.4 years; 17% were ≥50 years. The majority of inmates were men (91% and white (65%.Obesity was prevalent in 38% of inmates, and 51% had a history of smoking. Almost half of inmates were diagnosed with a mental illness (48%, of whom, 29% had a serious mental illness (41% of all females and 27% of all males, and 26% had a history of a substance use disorder. Females had higher odds of having both a mental illness and substance use disorder. Almost all mental illness diagnoses were first made during incarceration (99%. The mean interval to diagnosis of depression, anxiety, PTSD and personality disorders were 26, 24, 21 and 29 months respectively. Almost 90% of mental illnesses were recognized by the 6th year of incarceration. The mean interval from incarceration to first diagnosis (recognition of a substance abuse history was 11 months. Conclusions There is a substantial burden of mental illness among inmates. Racial, age and gender disparities in mental health care are coupled with a general delay in diagnosis and treatment. A large part of understanding the mental health problem in this country starts at prisons.
Landa, Yulia; Mueser, Kim T; Wyka, Katarzyna E; Shreck, Erica; Jespersen, Rachel; Jacobs, Michael A; Griffin, Kenneth W; van der Gaag, Mark; Reyna, Valerie F; Beck, Aaron T; Silbersweig, David A; Walkup, John T
The onset of psychosis typically occurs during adolescence or early adulthood and can have a detrimental impact on social and cognitive development. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) shows promise in reducing the risk of psychosis. Teaching families to apply CBT with their offspring may bolster therapeutic gains made in time-limited treatment. We developed a comprehensive group-and-family-based CBT (GF-CBT) program that aims to facilitate psychosocial recovery, decrease symptoms and prevent transition to psychosis in youth at risk. GF-CBT is grounded in ecological systems and cognitive theories, resilience models and research on information processing in delusions. The theoretical rationale and description of GF-CBT are presented together with a pilot study that evaluated the program's feasibility and explored participants' outcomes. Youth ages 16-21 at risk for psychosis and their families participated in an open trial with pre, post and 3-month follow-up assessments conducted by an independent evaluator. The Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States was the primary clinical outcome measure. All enrolled participants (n = 6) completed GF-CBT and all remitted from at-risk mental state (ARMS). As a group participants showed statistically significant decreases in attenuated psychotic symptoms, negative symptoms, depression, cognitive biases and improvements in functioning. Family members showed significant improvements in use of CBT skills, enhanced communication with their offspring, and greater confidence in their ability to help. Gains were maintained at follow-up. GF-CBT may delay or prevent transition to psychosis in youth at risk, and potentially facilitate recovery from ARMS. More rigorous, controlled research is needed to further evaluate this program. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Tadić, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi
Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare these with mothers of comparable children with typically developing vision. To investigate whether the characteristics of mother-child discourse were associated with the child's socio-communicative competence. Mother-child discourse with twelve 6-12-year-old children with VI was coded during a shared book-reading narrative and compared with 14 typically sighted children matched in age and verbal ability. Mothers of children with VI elaborated more and made significantly more references to story characters' mental states and descriptive elaborations than mothers of sighted children. Mental state elaborations of mothers in the VI group related positively with the level produced by their children, with the association remaining after mothers' overall verbosity and children's developmental levels were controlled for. Frequency of maternal elaborations, including their mental state language, was related to socio-communicative competence of children with VI. The findings offer insights into the potential contribution of maternal verbal scaffolding to mentalistic language and social-communicative competences of children with VI. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Tadić, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi
Background Lack of sight compromises insight into other people’s mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare these with mothers of comparable children with typically developing vision. To investigate whether the characteristics of mother–child discourse were associated with the child’s socio-communicative competence. Methods & Procedures Mother–child discourse with twelve 6–12-year-old children with VI was coded during a shared book-reading narrative and compared with 14 typically sighted children matched in age and verbal ability. Outcomes & Results Mothers of children with VI elaborated more and made significantly more references to story characters’ mental states and descriptive elaborations than mothers of sighted children. Mental state elaborations of mothers in the VI group related positively with the level produced by their children, with the association remaining after mothers’ overall verbosity and children’s developmental levels were controlled for. Frequency of maternal elaborations, including their mental state language, was related to socio-communicative competence of children with VI. Conclusions & Implications The findings offer insights into the potential contribution of maternal verbal scaffolding to mentalistic language and social–communicative competences of children with VI. PMID:24165364
Chevreul, Karine; McDaid, David; Farmer, Carrie M; Prigent, Amélie; Park, A-La; Leboyer, Marion; Kupfer, David J; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle
To document the investments made in research on mental disorders by both government and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. An exhaustive survey was conducted of primary sources of public and nonprofit organization funding for mental health research for the year 2007 in France and the United Kingdom and for fiscal year 2007-2008 in the United States, augmented with an examination of relevant Web sites and publications. In France, all universities and research institutions were identified using the Public Finance Act. In the United Kingdom, we scrutinized Web sites and hand searched annual reports and grant lists for the public sector and nonprofit charitable medical research awarding bodies. In the United States, we included the following sources: the National Institutes of Health, other administrative entities within the Department of Health and Human Services (eg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the Department of Education, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and the National Science Foundation and, for nonprofit funding, The Foundation Center. We included research on all mental disorders and substance-related disorders using the same keywords. We excluded research on mental retardation and dementia and on the promotion of mental well-being. We used the same algorithm in each country to obtain data for only mental health funding in situations in which funding had a broader scope. France spent $27.6 million (2%) of its health research budget on mental disorders, the United Kingdom spent $172.6 million (7%), and the United States spent $5.2 billion (16%). Nongovernmental funding ranged from 1% of total funding for mental health research in France and the United States to 14% in the United Kingdom. Funding for research on mental disorders accounts for low proportions of research budgets compared with funding levels for research on other major health problems, whereas
Ajoge, N. S.; Aziz, A. A.; Yusof, S. A. Mohd
This paper presents a formal analysis approach for self-efficacy model of interviewee’s mental state during a job interview session. Self-efficacy is a construct that has been hypothesised to combine with motivation and interviewee anxiety to define state influence of interviewees. The conceptual model was built based on psychological theories and models related to self-efficacy. A number of well-known relations between events and the course of self-efficacy are summarized from the literature and it is shown that the proposed model exhibits those patterns. In addition, this formal model has been mathematically analysed to find out which stable situations exist. Finally, it is pointed out how this model can be used in a software agent or robot-based platform. Such platform can provide an interview coaching approach where support to the user is provided based on their individual metal state during interview sessions.
Zhou, Z M; Xu, X H; Liang, J; Hu, B; Cheng, Y J; Shi, C; Zhou, Y J
Objective: This study was designed to observe the impact of cigarette cessation on anxiety and depression in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: A total of 690 cigarette smoking patients with CHD identified by coronary angiography (CAG) were included and analyzed in the study.The mental state were scored with Hamilton anxiety (HAMA) and depression (HAMD) scale both on admission and at 6-month follow-up.The patients were divided into two groups based on the cigarette cessation.The score of mental state between the two groups were compared.The patients were treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or medicine therapy (MT). Results: The clinic data and score of mental state were similar at the time of admission (HAMA: 10.66±5.53 vs 11.09±5.61, P=0.311; HAMD: 29.81±10.13 vs 28.94±10.22, P=0.266 4) between the two groups.After 6 months, the proportions of subjects in smoking cession group with anxiety (24.2% vs 32.3%, Psmoking group irrespective of the treatment strategy.Both the HAMA and HAMD scores were lower in smoking cessation group (HAMA: 9.83±3.40; HAMD: 24.91±7.90) than in smoking group (HAMA: 10.98±4.87; HAMD: 27.70±11.16) (all PSmoking cessation is good for the relief of anxiety and depression in CHD patient.
Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Weaver, Jamie; Cleek, Andrew F; McKay, Mary M; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M
This study prospectively examined the naturalistic adoption of clinical and business evidence-informed training by all 346 outpatient mental health clinics licensed to treat children, adolescents, and their families in New York State. The study used attendance data (September 2011-August 2013) from the Clinic Technical Assistance Center, a training, consultation, and educational center funded by the state Office of Mental Health, to classify the clinics' adoption of 33 trainings. Adoption behavior was classified by number, type, and intensity of trainings. The clinics were classified into four adopter groups reflecting the highest training intensity in which they participated (low, medium, and high adopters and "super-adopters"). A total of 268 clinics adopted trainings (median=5); business and clinical trainings were about equally accessed (82% versus 78%). Participation was highest for hour-long Webinars (96%) followed by learning collaboratives, which take six to 18 months to complete (34%). Most (73%-94%) adopters of business learning collaboratives and all adopters of clinical learning collaboratives had previously sampled a Webinar, although maintaining participation in learning collaboratives was a challenge. The adopter groups captured meaningful adopter profiles: 41% of clinics were low adopters that selected fewer trainings and participated only in Webinars, and 34% were high or super-adopters that accessed more trainings and participated in at least one learning collaborative. More nuanced definitions of adoption behavior can improve the understanding of clinic adoption of training and hence promote the development of efficient rollout strategies by state systems.
Gonzales, Lauren; Chan, Ginny; Yanos, Philip T
While studies indicate that stigmatizing attitudes persist in the general public, individual and neighborhood level factors that are associated with increased likelihood of holding stigmatizing attitudes have been seldom studied. This study examined the demographic and neighborhood correlates of stigmatizing attitudes among community members in New York State. Data were drawn from the Pulse of New York State Survey, a random-digit dial survey of 806 New York State residents. Variables studied included demographic information, the Attitudes Toward Mental Illness scale, and neighborhood disadvantage at the zip code level (using data on community characteristics from the 2000 and 2010 Census). Higher levels of completed education predicted less stigmatizing attitudes. Higher levels of neighborhood disadvantage predicted more stigmatizing attitudes with the 2000 Census, and obtained marginal significance within the 2010 Census. Political affiliation demonstrated the strongest relationship, with more conservative ideology predicting more stigmatizing attitudes. Results highlight the need to consider political affiliation and neighborhood disadvantage as target areas when planning interventions for reducing mental illness stigma.
Kahn, Robert S; Wise, Paul H; Kennedy, Bruce P; Kawachi, Ichiro
Objective To examine the association of state income inequality and individual household income with the mental and physical health of women with young children. Design Cross sectional study. Individual level data (outcomes, income, and other sociodemographic covariates) from a 1991 follow up survey of a birth cohort established in 1988. State level income inequality calculated from the income distribution of each state from 1990 US census. Setting United States, 1991. Participants Nationally representative stratified random sample of 8060 women who gave birth in 1988 and were successfully contacted (89%) in 1991. Main outcome measures Depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression score >15) and self rated health Results 19% of women reported depressive symptoms, and 7.5% reported fair or poor health. Compared with women in the highest fifth of distribution of household income, women in the lowest fifth were more likely to report depressive symptoms (33% v 9%, P<0.001) and fair or poor health (15% v 2%, P<0.001). Compared with low income women in states with low income inequality, low income women in states with high income inequality had a higher risk of depressive symptoms (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 2.6) and fair or poor health (1.8, 0.9 to 3.5). Conclusions High income inequality confers an increased risk of poor mental and physical health, particularly among the poorest women. Both income inequality and household income are important for health in this population. PMID:11090512
Rollo, D.; Buttiglieri, F.
In recent years, a number of studies that have examined how social experiences are related to children's theory of mind development, have found that: (1) the frequency of mothers' mental state utterances used in mother-child picture-book reading, is correlated with children's theory of mind abilities; (2) mothers' use of cognitive terms is related more strongly to children's theory of mind performances than the mothers' references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Adrian, Clemente, Villanueva, Rieffe, 2005; Ruffman, Slade, Crowe, 2002; Taumoepeau, Ruffman, 2006; Dunn, 2002). Despite the evidence for the role of mothers' language, there is disagreement over how exactly it improves children's theory of mind development. In short, mentalistic comments contain distinctive words, grammatical constructions and pragmatic features. The question is, however, which factor is critical (de Rosnay, Pons, Harris, Morrell, 2004). The present study addresses this issue and focuses on relationship between mothers' mental state terms and children's performances in theory of mind tasks (emotion understanding and false belief tasks). Mothers were asked to read some pictures to 10 children between 3;0 and 5;0. Among the different mental state references (perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral and communicative), it was found that the frequency and variety of mothers' mental state words were significantly associated with children's mental lexicon. In addition, emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Kind of emotional words that are used by the mothers with reference to the Italian language will be discussed.
The author presents an investigation of patent-application filings made without external financial support, or "at-risk", based on inventions disclosed to the University of California from fiscal years 1991 to 2000. The success of the at-risk patent applications filed on these invention disclosures is examined from the perspective of…
Ghesquiere, Angela; Thomas, Julie; Bruce, Martha L
Approximately 10% of the bereaved are at risk of bereavement-related mental health disorders. Hospices' bereavement services could potentially address needs of many at risk, but little is known about their service use. We analyzed data from 6160 bereaved family members of hospice patients. Risk of mental health problems was identified by hospice providers postloss. Of those characterized as "at-risk," 52% used services compared to 18% of the "low risk." Factors associated with service use among at-risk were female gender and younger age of death. Those who lost a child used services less than other bereaved. Although hospices appear to be skilled at identifying and providing bereavement services to the at-risk, services do not reach almost half. Results suggest the need to improve care access, especially among men and those losing a child. © The Author(s) 2014.
Tuarob, Suppawong; Tucker, Conrad S; Kumara, Soundar; Giles, C Lee; Pincus, Aaron L; Conroy, David E; Ram, Nilam
It is believed that anomalous mental states such as stress and anxiety not only cause suffering for the individuals, but also lead to tragedies in some extreme cases. The ability to predict the mental state of an individual at both current and future time periods could prove critical to healthcare practitioners. Currently, the practical way to predict an individual's mental state is through mental examinations that involve psychological experts performing the evaluations. However, such methods can be time and resource consuming, mitigating their broad applicability to a wide population. Furthermore, some individuals may also be unaware of their mental states or may feel uncomfortable to express themselves during the evaluations. Hence, their anomalous mental states could remain undetected for a prolonged period of time. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the ability of using advanced machine learning based approaches to generate mathematical models that predict current and future mental states of an individual. The problem of mental state prediction is transformed into the time series forecasting problem, where an individual is represented as a multivariate time series stream of monitored physical and behavioral attributes. A personalized mathematical model is then automatically generated to capture the dependencies among these attributes, which is used for prediction of mental states for each individual. In particular, we first illustrate the drawbacks of traditional multivariate time series forecasting methodologies such as vector autoregression. Then, we show that such issues could be mitigated by using machine learning regression techniques which are modified for capturing temporal dependencies in time series data. A case study using the data from 150 human participants illustrates that the proposed machine learning based forecasting methods are more suitable for high-dimensional psychological data than the traditional vector autoregressive model in
Olin, Su-Chin Serene; O'Connor, Briannon C; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Clark, Lisa J; Perkins, Matthew; Hudson Scholle, Sarah; Whitmyre, Emma D; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Horwitz, Sarah McCue
To examine access to psychiatric care for adolescents with depression in outpatient specialty clinics within a state mental health system, using a simulated patient approach. Trained callers posed as the mother of a 14-year-old girl with depression, following a script. A stratified random sample (n = 264) of 340 state-licensed outpatient mental health clinics that serve youth was selected. Clinics were randomly assigned to season and insurance condition. We examined whether access varied by season, clinic characteristics, and caller insurance type. Weighted logistic and linear mixed effects regression models were fitted to examine associations with appointment availability and wait times. Among clinics at which a treatment appointment could be scheduled, appointment availability differed by season. Clinics that had participated in state-sponsored trainings targeting access were more available. Wait times for treatment appointments varied by season and region. Wait times in New York City were shorter than in some other regions. Although callers were 4.1 times more likely to be able to schedule a psychiatry appointment in the spring, wait times for psychiatry appointments were significantly longer in the spring than in the summer (49.9 vs. 36.7 days). Wait times for therapy appointments were significantly shorter in community than in hospital clinics (19.1 days vs. 35.3 days). Access to psychiatric care for youth with depression was found to be variable in a state system. State-sponsored trainings on strategies to reduce wait times appear to improve care access. The simulated patient approach has promise for monitoring the impact of health care policy reforms on care quality measures. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kunst, M J J
The current study explored whether self-reported mental health problems among victims of violent crime (n = 151) affect their ratings of satisfaction with amount of financial compensation awarded by the Dutch state and vice versa. This topic is important to address, because satisfaction is often used as an indicator of quality of victim services. Relying on medical literature about satisfaction with compensation in patient populations, it was expected that satisfaction levels would be negatively associated with mental health problems. Mental health problems were assessed with the General Health Questionnaire. A threshold of 11/12 on this scale was used to differentiate between victims with and without probable mental health problems. In line with expectations, victims with probable mental health problems reported significantly lower levels of satisfaction than those without. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for potential confounding. Findings were discussed in light of study limitations and directions for future research.
Luciane Prado Kantorski
Full Text Available Introduction: Alcoholism has been a major concern of public health worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, approximately 76.3 million people presented problems of alcohol abuse in 2004. Therefore, the risks arising from the association of psychiatric disorders with alcohol consumption should also be considered in the context of mental health services. Objective: This study aimed to analyze alcohol consumption by the users of Therapeutic Residential Services- SRT and Psychosocial Care Centers- CAPS in five municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methodology: The present study is part of a research entitled Rehabilitation Networks - REDESUL, carried out from September to December 2009 in five municipalities of the aforementioned Brazilian state. The total sample comprised 392 users: 143 from the SRT and 270 from the CAPS services, with intersection of 21 members. Results: The results showed that of the 392 care service users, only 29 had consumed alcohol during the four weeks prior to the survey. The majority of these 29 users were between 31 and 59 years old, male, single, and only n = 13 (48.28% reported being aware of their psychiatric disorders, with prevalence of schizophrenia n = 7 (24.13% followed by bipolar disorders n = 3 (10.34%. Conclusion: It is necessary that the mental health teams are also trained to work with alcohol users, regardless of the type of mental health service they work for, and that they develop actions in relation to guidance on alcohol consumption, treatment adherence, rehabilitation, and integration of users to the community.
Lopata, Joel A; Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Joanisse, Marc F
Alpha-band EEG was used to index how creative mental states relate to the creation of artistic works in skilled musicians. We contrasted differences in frontal upper alpha-band activity between tasks with high and low creativity demands by recording EEGs while skilled musicians listened to, played back, and improvised jazz melodies. Neural responses were compared for skilled musicians with training in musical improvisation versus those who had no formal improvisation training. Consistent with our hypotheses, individuals showed increased frontal upper alpha-band activity during more creative tasks (i.e., improvisation) compared to during less creative tasks (i.e., rote playback). Moreover, this effect was greatest for musicians with formal improvisation training. The strength of this effect also appeared to modulate the quality of these improvisations, as evidenced by significant correlations between upper alpha EEG power and objective post-hoc ratings of individuals' performances. These findings support a conceptualization of creativity as a distinct mental state and suggest spontaneous processing capacity is better nurtured through formal institutional training than informal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moura, Ricardo; Andrade, Peterson Marco Oliveira; Fontes, Patrícia Lemos Bueno; Ferreira, Fernanda Oliveira; Salvador, Larissa de Souza; Carvalho, Maria Raquel Santos; Haase, Vitor Geraldi
Cognitive impairment is frequent in cerebral palsy (CP) and there is a lack of multiprofessional screening instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the Mini-Mental State Examination for Children (MMC), an adapted version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, in screening for cognitive impairments in children with CP. We assessed 397 Brazilian children, 310 with typical development and 87 with CP (hemiplegic and quadriplegic forms), aged 5-16 years. Association between the MMC and general intelligence was assessed by the Colored Progressive Matrices instrument. Psychometric indexes for the MMC were adequate. ROC analyses revealed effective diagnostic accuracy in all ages assessed. Cut-off values are reported. Major difficulties on the MMC were observed in children with CP, particularly individuals with the quadriplegic form. Moreover, the MMC showed moderate correlation with the intelligence test, and was reliable in discriminating, among clinical cases, those with poorer cognitive abilities. The MMC could be useful as a multiprofessional screening instrument for cognitive impairment in children with hemiplegic CP. Results of the MMC in quadriplegic CP children should be interpreted with caution. Diagnosis should be confirmed by further psychological testing.
Full Text Available Virtual reality environments are increasingly being used to encourage individuals to exercise more regularly, including as part of treatment those with mental health or neurological disorders. The success of virtual environments likely depends on whether a sense of presence can be established, where participants become fully immersed in the virtual environment. Exposure to virtual environments is associated with physiological responses, including cortical activation changes. Whether the addition of a real exercise within a virtual environment alters sense of presence perception, or the accompanying physiological changes, is not known. In a randomized and controlled study design, moderate-intensity Exercise (i.e., self-paced cycling and No-Exercise (i.e., automatic propulsion trials were performed within three levels of virtual environment exposure. Each trial was 5 minutes in duration and was followed by posttrial assessments of heart rate, perceived sense of presence, EEG, and mental state. Changes in psychological strain and physical state were generally mirrored by neural activation patterns. Furthermore, these changes indicated that exercise augments the demands of virtual environment exposures and this likely contributed to an enhanced sense of presence.
Vogt, Tobias; Herpers, Rainer; Askew, Christopher D.; Scherfgen, David; Strüder, Heiko K.; Schneider, Stefan
Virtual reality environments are increasingly being used to encourage individuals to exercise more regularly, including as part of treatment those with mental health or neurological disorders. The success of virtual environments likely depends on whether a sense of presence can be established, where participants become fully immersed in the virtual environment. Exposure to virtual environments is associated with physiological responses, including cortical activation changes. Whether the addition of a real exercise within a virtual environment alters sense of presence perception, or the accompanying physiological changes, is not known. In a randomized and controlled study design, moderate-intensity Exercise (i.e., self-paced cycling) and No-Exercise (i.e., automatic propulsion) trials were performed within three levels of virtual environment exposure. Each trial was 5 minutes in duration and was followed by posttrial assessments of heart rate, perceived sense of presence, EEG, and mental state. Changes in psychological strain and physical state were generally mirrored by neural activation patterns. Furthermore, these changes indicated that exercise augments the demands of virtual environment exposures and this likely contributed to an enhanced sense of presence. PMID:26366305
Vogt, Tobias; Herpers, Rainer; Askew, Christopher D; Scherfgen, David; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan
Virtual reality environments are increasingly being used to encourage individuals to exercise more regularly, including as part of treatment those with mental health or neurological disorders. The success of virtual environments likely depends on whether a sense of presence can be established, where participants become fully immersed in the virtual environment. Exposure to virtual environments is associated with physiological responses, including cortical activation changes. Whether the addition of a real exercise within a virtual environment alters sense of presence perception, or the accompanying physiological changes, is not known. In a randomized and controlled study design, moderate-intensity Exercise (i.e., self-paced cycling) and No-Exercise (i.e., automatic propulsion) trials were performed within three levels of virtual environment exposure. Each trial was 5 minutes in duration and was followed by posttrial assessments of heart rate, perceived sense of presence, EEG, and mental state. Changes in psychological strain and physical state were generally mirrored by neural activation patterns. Furthermore, these changes indicated that exercise augments the demands of virtual environment exposures and this likely contributed to an enhanced sense of presence.
Hamer, Mark; Dye, Louise; Siobhan Mitchell, E; Layé, Sophie; Saunders, Caroline; Boyle, Neil; Schuermans, Jeroen; Sijben, John
Intake of specific nutrients has been linked to mental states and various indices of cognitive performance although the effects are often subtle and difficult to interpret. Measurement of so-called objective variables (e.g. reaction times) is often considered to be the gold standard for assessing outcomes in this field of research. It can, however, be argued that data on subjective experience (e.g. mood) are also important and may enrich existing objective data. The aim of this review is to evaluate methods for measuring mental performance and mood, considering the definition of subjective mood and the validity of measures of subjective experience. A multi-stakeholder expert group was invited by ILSI Europe to come to a consensus around the utility of objective and subjective measurement in this field, which forms the basis of the paper. Therefore, the present review reflects a succinct overview of the science but is not intended to be a systematic review. The proposed approach extends the traditional methodology using standard 'objective' measurements to also include the consumers' subjective experiences in relation to food. Specific recommendations include 1) using contemporary methods to capture transient mood states; 2) using sufficiently sensitive measures to capture effects of nutritional intervention; 3) considering the possibility that subjective and objective responses will occur over different time frames; and 4) recognition of the importance of expectancy and placebo effects for subjective measures. The consensus reached was that the most informative approach should involve collection and consideration of both objective and subjective data.
Full Text Available Limited use of contextual information has been suggested as a way of understanding cognition in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. However, it has also been argued that individuals with ASD may have difficulties inferring others’ mental states. Here, we examined how individuals with different levels of autistic traits respond to contextual deviations by measuring event-related potentials that reflect context usage. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ was used to quantify autistic-like traits in 28 university students, and 19 participants were defined as Low or High AQ groups. To additionally examine inferences about mental state, two belief conditions (with or without false belief were included. Participants read short stories in which the final sentence included either an expected or an unexpected word and rated the word’s degree of deviation from expectation. P300 waveform analysis revealed that unexpected words were associated with larger P300 waveforms for the Low AQ group, but smaller P300 responses in the High AQ group. Additionally, AQ social skill subscores were positively correlated with evaluation times in the Unexpected condition, whether a character’s belief was false or not. This suggests that autistic traits can affect responses to unexpected events, possibly because of decreased availability of context information.
Full Text Available Many philosophers consider that self-knowledge reflects the particularity that we can know what we think, believe, desire, in a different way in which we know the mental states of other people. This is the claim of an asymmetry between first and third person. Several approaches han been offered in the epistemological literature in order to account for this asymmetry. Nonetheless, unlike the expected compatibility between adjacent fields, the literature related to the attribution and self-attribution of mental states or, in general, what is called Theory of Mind, does not seem either to preserve this asymmetry or the attempt to preserve it undermines the fundamental role of the different Theory of Mind proposals. This paper will show this in two parts. Firstly, it addresses how the asymmetry thesis han been defended in the epistemological literature. The aim of this section is to offer a geography of the different approaches. Secondly, two proposals in Theory of Mind, the theory theory and simulation theory, will be evaluated in order to show why they do not account for the asymmetry thesis, and some of the consequences that would be gather from the attempt to conciliate these Theory of Mind proposals with the epistemological approaches that defend the asymmetry thesis will be analized.
Parcesepe, Angela M; Cabassa, Leopoldo J
Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public's stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public's stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public's stigma of mental illness.
Parcesepe, Angela M; Cabassa, Leopoldo J
Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental...
Werth, James L., Jr.; Gordon, Judith R.
After providing background material related to the Supreme Court cases on "physician-assisted suicide" (Washington v. Glucksberg, 1997, and Vacco v. Quill, 1997), this article presents the amicus curiae brief that was submitted to the United States Supreme Court by 2 national mental health organizations, a state psychological association, and an…
Examined how participation as mathematics tutors would affect middle school students at-risk for dropping out of school. Comparison of participants to non-participants after 6 weeks of tutoring found significant differences in mathematics performance in class and on state standardized tests. Participation had positive effects on tutors'…
Heisel, Marnin J; Talbot, Nancy L; King, Deborah A; Tu, Xin M; Duberstein, Paul R
To pilot a psychological intervention adapted for older adults at risk for suicide. A focused, uncontrolled, pre-to-post-treatment psychotherapy trial. All eligible participants were offered the study intervention. Outpatient mental health care provided in the psychiatry department of an academic medical center in a mid-sized Canadian city. Seventeen English-speaking adults 60 years or older, at risk for suicide by virtue of current suicide ideation, death ideation, and/or recent self-injury. A 16-session course of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) adapted for older adults at risk for suicide who were receiving medication and/or other standard psychiatric treatment for underlying mood disorders. Participants completed a demographics form, screens for cognitive impairment and alcohol misuse, a semi-structured diagnostic interview, and measures of primary (suicide ideation and death ideation) and secondary study outcomes (depressive symptom severity, social adjustment and support, psychological well-being), and psychotherapy process measures. Participants experienced significant reductions in suicide ideation, death ideation, and depressive symptom severity, and significant improvement in perceived meaning in life, social adjustment, perceived social support, and other psychological well-being variables. Study participants experienced enhanced psychological well-being and reduced symptoms of depression and suicide ideation over the course of IPT adapted for older adults at risk for suicide. Larger, controlled trials are needed to further evaluate the impact of this novel intervention and to test methods for translating and integrating focused interventions into standard clinical care with at-risk older adults. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Internet addiction (IA) is a common disorder among adolescents throughout most of the industrialized world. The purpose of this study was to compare mental states between Japanese undergraduates with IA and those without IA. In a cross-sectional survey, 165 healthy participants were assessed for IA using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), for the frequency and quality of flow experiences in daily life using the Flow Experience Checklist (FEC), and for depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The results showed that the prevalence of IA in the participants of this study was 15% and the frequencies of flow experience and depressive symptoms were significantly higher in the IA group. The results indicate that IA affects a significant number of Japanese university students and is associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms, suggesting a need for intervention programs as part of student mental health services.
Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R
Smoking has been associated with a range of mental disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression. People with mental illness have high rates of morbidity and mortality from smoking related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and cancer. As many people who meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders do not seek treatment for these conditions, we sought to investigate the relationship between mental illness and smoking in recent population-wide surveys. Survey data from the US National Comorbidity Survey-Replication conducted in 2001-2003, the 2007 Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, and the 2007 US National Health Interview Survey were used to investigate the relationship between current smoking, ICD-10 mental disorders and non-specific psychological distress. Population weighted estimates of smoking rates by disorder, and mental disorder rates by smoking status were calculated. In both the US and Australia, adults who met ICD-10 criteria for mental disorders in the 12 months prior to the survey smoked at almost twice the rate of adults without mental disorders. While approximately 20% of the adult population had 12-month mental disorders, among adult smokers approximately one-third had a 12-month mental disorder--31.7% in the US (95% CI: 29.5%-33.8%) and 32.4% in Australia (95% CI: 29.5%-35.3%). Female smokers had higher rates of mental disorders than male smokers, and younger smokers had considerably higher rates than older smokers. The majority of mentally ill smokers were not in contact with mental health services, but their rate of smoking was not different from that of mentally ill smokers who had accessed services for their mental health problem. Smokers with high levels of psychological distress smoked a higher average number of cigarettes per day. Mental illness is associated with both higher rates of smoking and higher levels of smoking among smokers. Further, a significant proportion of
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, Voluntary Assisted Return Programmes (VARPs have received increasing funding as a potential way of reducing the number of refugees in EU member states. A number of factors may affect the mental well-being of returnees. These include adjustment to the home country following return, difficult living conditions, and long-term effects resulting from the severe traumatic stress that had originally driven the affected out of their homes. Little is known about the extent to which these and other factors may promote or inhibit the willingness of refugees to return to their country of origin. The present pilot study investigated refugees who returned to their country of origin after having lived in exile in Germany for some 13 years. Methods Forty-seven VARP participants were interviewed concerning their present living conditions, their views of their native country, and their attitudes towards a potential return prior to actually returning. 33 participants were interviewed nine months after returning to their country of origin. Mental health and well-being were assessed using the questionnaires Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS and EUROHIS and the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.. Our objectives were to examine the mental health status of refugees returning to their home country following an extended period of exile. We also aimed to assess the circumstances under which people decided to return, the current living conditions in their home country, and retrospective returnee evaluations of their decision to accept assisted return. Results Prior to returning to their home country, participants showed a prevalence rate of 53% for psychiatric disorders. After returning, this rate increased to a sizeable 88%. Substantial correlations were found between the living situation in Germany, the disposition to return, and mental health. For two thirds of the participants, the decision
von Lersner, Ulrike; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank
In recent years, Voluntary Assisted Return Programmes (VARPs) have received increasing funding as a potential way of reducing the number of refugees in EU member states. A number of factors may affect the mental well-being of returnees. These include adjustment to the home country following return, difficult living conditions, and long-term effects resulting from the severe traumatic stress that had originally driven the affected out of their homes. Little is known about the extent to which these and other factors may promote or inhibit the willingness of refugees to return to their country of origin. The present pilot study investigated refugees who returned to their country of origin after having lived in exile in Germany for some 13 years. Forty-seven VARP participants were interviewed concerning their present living conditions, their views of their native country, and their attitudes towards a potential return prior to actually returning. 33 participants were interviewed nine months after returning to their country of origin. Mental health and well-being were assessed using the questionnaires Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and EUROHIS and the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.).Our objectives were to examine the mental health status of refugees returning to their home country following an extended period of exile. We also aimed to assess the circumstances under which people decided to return, the current living conditions in their home country, and retrospective returnee evaluations of their decision to accept assisted return. Prior to returning to their home country, participants showed a prevalence rate of 53% for psychiatric disorders. After returning, this rate increased to a sizeable 88%. Substantial correlations were found between the living situation in Germany, the disposition to return, and mental health. For two thirds of the participants, the decision to return was not voluntary. Psychological strain among
Sergio Baxter Andreoli
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression, the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations.
von Lersner, Ulrike; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank
Background In recent years, Voluntary Assisted Return Programmes (VARPs) have received increasing funding as a potential way of reducing the number of refugees in EU member states. A number of factors may affect the mental well-being of returnees. These include adjustment to the home country following return, difficult living conditions, and long-term effects resulting from the severe traumatic stress that had originally driven the affected out of their homes. Little is known about the extent to which these and other factors may promote or inhibit the willingness of refugees to return to their country of origin. The present pilot study investigated refugees who returned to their country of origin after having lived in exile in Germany for some 13 years. Methods Forty-seven VARP participants were interviewed concerning their present living conditions, their views of their native country, and their attitudes towards a potential return prior to actually returning. 33 participants were interviewed nine months after returning to their country of origin. Mental health and well-being were assessed using the questionnaires Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and EUROHIS and the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.). Our objectives were to examine the mental health status of refugees returning to their home country following an extended period of exile. We also aimed to assess the circumstances under which people decided to return, the current living conditions in their home country, and retrospective returnee evaluations of their decision to accept assisted return. Results Prior to returning to their home country, participants showed a prevalence rate of 53% for psychiatric disorders. After returning, this rate increased to a sizeable 88%. Substantial correlations were found between the living situation in Germany, the disposition to return, and mental health. For two thirds of the participants, the decision to return was not voluntary
Grenier, Guy; Fleury, Marie-Josée
The objectives of this article are: 1) to trace the history and role of mental health community organizations (MHCO) in the Quebec mental health system as well as their specific values and practices; and 2) to examine the impact of the Quebec Mental Health Plan 2005-2010 on the functioning of community organizations and their relations with the public healthcare system. This article draws upon writings produced by the principal provincial and regional community organization associations in Québec, as well as results of previous studies related to inter-organizational relations among MHCO. The Quebec community-based system consists of several successive generations of the MHCO, each constructed within a particular context. Before 1960, the Canadian Mental Health Association offered activities for promotion and prevention in mental health and participated in the development of several MHCO. The 1970s witnessed the formation of groups aimed at the protection of human rights and the first alternative resources. During the 1980s and 90s, a proliferation of MHCO followed upon their formal recognition by the Ministère de la Santé et des services sociaux (MSSS). These new organizations were established not so much in opposition, or as an alternative, to the public mental health system, but in complement with it. By 2012-13, there were 412 MCHO financed by the MSSS offering services to the population. Roughly half were located in the regions of Montreal, Montérégie and the Capitale Nationale. The MHCO are distinguished from public institutions by a number of characteristics: 1) treatment based not on diagnosis but on the overall situation of the person; 2) shared experience with peers; and 3) empowerment, inviting the person to become involved in decisions concerning his/her treatment and service use as well as decisions that concern the functioning of the organization; 4) establishment of more egalitarian relationships between service users and treating professionals
De Mulder, Hannah
This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The results showed basic understanding of IR and MST in four-year-olds, but full understanding had not been reached even at five years old. Furthermore, although ToM predicted both IR and MST when linguistic ability was not taken into account, this relationship was no longer significant once the language measures were added. Linguistic ability thus seems to play an important role in the development of both IR and MST. Additional analyses revealed that whereas syntactic ability was the primary predictor of IR, spatial language was the best predictor of MST, suggesting that IR relies primarily on general linguistic skills, but that more specific aspects of language may bootstrap MST.
Gaudreau, G; Monetta, L; Macoir, J; Poulin, S; Laforce, R; Hudon, C
The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing.
Full Text Available The present study investigates the link between various users’ mental state while searching information systems with the outcome of the resulting documents retrieved. Various factors such as user knowledge, search skills, motivation and aims influence the decisions and evaluation of users regarding documents retrieved. MMPI instrument was used to identify users’ mental states. The sample was drawn from female senior students of librarianship, using systematic random sampling. The findings indicated that anxiety and depression have significant inverse relationship to the rate of relevancy identification of the documents retrieved by the users.
Mitrou Francis; Lawrence David; Zubrick Stephen R
Abstract Background Smoking has been associated with a range of mental disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression. People with mental illness have high rates of morbidity and mortality from smoking related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and cancer. As many people who meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders do not seek treatment for these conditions, we sought to investigate the relationship between mental illness and smoking in re...
Abraham, I L; Manning, C A; Snustad, D G; Brashear, H R; Newman, M C; Wofford, A B
To examine factor structures of the Mini-Mental State Examination, attempting first to replicate any of previously proposed 2-factor solutions; and to explore, secondly, the presence of clinically more differentiated and statistically stable factor structures representing common neurocognitive dimensions. Factor analytic investigation of descriptive dataset collected on nursing home residents. Two factor analyses were performed, one in which the number of factors was fixed at 2 in an effort to replicate previous studies, and one in which the number of factors to retain was determined by the scree test. Both factor analyses used established methods for judging the adequacy of the correlation matrix and the significance of factor loadings, and both applied principal components analysis for initial factor extraction and the equamax criterion for orthogonal rotation. Seven nursing homes with a total of 894 beds. 922 assessments on nursing home residents were performed, of which 892 were complete and entered into the factor analyses. The observation-to-variable ratio exceeded 81:1, assuring the statistical stability of factor solutions derived. The Mini-Mental State Examination, with standardization of words to be recalled and the inverted spelling of "world" as the mental reversal task. Two factor structures were derived. A 2-factor solution, explaining 36.5% of the variance and statistically and conceptually different from those obtained in previous studies, distinguished between Perceptual-Organizational and Psychomotor skills. A 4-factor solution, which explained 56.1% of the variance, included a factor named Executing Psychomotor Commands, while also further differentiating the perceptual-organizational processes into the factors of Memory, Concentration, and Language. The 2-factor solution shows that, notwithstanding previous claims to the contrary, the MMSE can make stable and independent distinctions between psychomotor and perceptual-organizational processes
Le Strat, Yann; Dubertret, Caroline; Le Foll, Bernard
Despite the devastating impact of child marriage (marriage before the age of 18 years) on health, no study has yet evaluated its impact on mental health in the general adult population. This article presents nationally representative data on the prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, and psychiatric comorbidity of child marriage among women in the United States. Data were drawn from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. We limited our analyses to the sample of women (N = 24 575) with a known age at first marriage, of whom 18 645 had been or were presently married. The prevalence of child marriage among women was 8.9%. Demographic factors associated with child marriage were black and American Indian/Alaska Native ethnicities, age at interview of >45 years, low educational level, low income, and living in the South and rural areas of the United States. The overall lifetime and 12-month rates of psychiatric disorders were higher for women who married as children, compared with women who married as adults. In addition, women who married as children were more likely to seek and access health services, compared with women who married in adulthood. Child marriage increases the risk of lifetime and current psychiatric disorders in the United States. Support for psychiatric vulnerabilities among women married in childhood is required.
Full Text Available Background. The incidence of dementia is growing due to the aging of the population. Active search for the population at risk is necessary. Short cognitive screening tests are one of the most suitable ways of doing that. The most often used test of this kind is Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Its distinctive features are simplicity and shortness. Kratek preizkus spoznavnih sposobnosti (KPSS – Slovenian version of MMSE has been used in Slovenia since 1984, although there were no normative values for Slovenian population, which restricted its applicability and use in clinical practice. The aim of the present paper was to obtain the normative values for KPSS for different age and educational groups in population of adults older than 55 years. Our hypothesis was that test results would be significantly dependent on age and education which will justify the extensive nature of the study.Methods. Some parts of the test were modified based on clinical experience in last years. The modified KPSS was used for testing at general practices in Ljubljana, Maribor and Novo mesto. The research comprised of KPSS testing in 154 volunteers, mean age 65.1 (ranged from 55 to 87 years. None of them had a diagnosis of dementia or other active psychiatric or neurologic ilness.Results. We found that KPSS results are not influenced by gender. The volunteers were aranged in four age groups at five years intervals. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0002 for the mean results among different age groups were found. The volunteers were further divided in groups according to the level of education and the differences in mean results among the educational groups were statistically significant (p < 0.0000. Normative values for the age and education groups were obtained.Conclusions. The main result of our study are KPSS normative values for different age and education groups of Slovenians. The mean results on KPSS are significantlly dependent on age and education
Burke, Michael P; Martini, Lauren H; Çayır, Ebru; Hartline-Grafton, Heather L; Meade, Randa L
Household food insecurity and mental disorders are both prevalent conditions among children and adolescents (i.e., youth) in the United States. Although some research has examined the association between the 2 conditions, it is not known whether more severe food insecurity is differently associated with mental disorders in youth. We investigated the association between severity of household food insecurity and mental disorders among children (aged 4-11 y) and adolescents (aged 12-17 y) using valid and reliable measures of both household food security status and mental disorders. We analyzed cross-sectional data on 16,918 children and 14,143 adolescents whose families participated in the 2011-2014 National Health Interview Survey. The brief Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the 10-item USDA Household Food Security Survey Module were used to measure mental disorders and food security status, respectively. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to test the association between household food security status and mental disorders in youth. There was a significant linear trend in ORs, such that as severity of household food insecurity increased so did the odds of youth having a mental disorder (P food-secure households, youth in marginally food-secure households had higher odds of having a mental disorder with impairment [child OR: 1.26 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.52); adolescent OR: 1.33 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.68)]. In addition, compared with food-secure households, youth in very-low-food-secure households had higher odds of having a mental disorder with severe impairment [child OR: 2.55 (95% CI: 1.90, 3.43); adolescent OR: 3.44 (95% CI: 2.50, 4.75)]. The severity of household food insecurity is positively associated with mental disorders among both children and adolescents in the United States. These results suggest that improving household food security status has the potential to reduce mental disorders among US youth. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Falk, Lisa; Powers, Stephen
Background: The Arizona State Museum, Tucson, received a grant for the school year 2007-08 from the Institute of Museums and Library Services, Museum for America Programs. The goals of this grant were (1) to continue a vibrant, monthly offering of family programs at the Arizona State Museum (ASM) around the topic of museum exhibitions, (2) to…
Cabassa, Leopoldo J.
Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public’s stigma of mental illness. PMID:22833051
Large, Matthew M; Nielssen, Olav B; Lackersteen, Steven M
Mental health laws limiting involuntary admission to psychiatric hospitals to those assessed to be dangerous or at risk of harm to themselves or others (obligatory dangerousness criteria, ODC) have been introduced in almost every jurisdiction in the United States of America. Some mentally ill patients, who might have been admitted for treatment under previous laws, but who were not admitted because they were not considered 'dangerous', could subsequently have committed suicide. In order to investigate whether or not suicide rates increased after the introduction of ODC, we examined suicide statistics from 48 states and the District of Columbia. We aligned suicide statistics according to the year in which ODC were introduced in each jurisdiction. We then examined suicide rates in the 15 years before and after the introduction of ODC and trends in national and state suicide rates between 1960 and 1990. Meta-analysis was used to examine differences in suicide rates in the year immediately before and in the year immediately after the introduction of ODC. Between 1968 and 1977, the decade in which ODC were introduced in the majority of jurisdictions, national suicide rates increased from under 11 per 100,000 per annum to over 12.5 per 100,000 per annum. The increase in many jurisdictions occurred in the years immediately before the introduction of ODC. The introduction of ODC was associated with a non-significant increase in suicide rates in the 49 jurisdictions. There was a significant increase in suicide rates after the introduction of ODC in the 19 jurisdictions that introduced ODC prior to 1976. The introduction of ODC might have contributed to increased suicide rates prior to 1976. However, a simpler explanation for the finding is that national suicide rates were rising for other reasons in the same period. We did not find an increase in suicide rates in the jurisdictions where ODC mental health laws were introduced after 1976. Hence, the findings of this study do
Full Text Available SUMMARY AIM: This study was planned and carried out with the objective of determining stress coping levels and mental state of students attending Police Vocational Schools of Higher Education, in addition to factors effecting these. MATERIAL and METHOD: This desciptive and cross-sectional study consisted of 300 male students enrolled in the 2005-2006 academic year, at Police Vocational School of Higher Education, located in central Erzincan, Turkey. In this study, instead of random sampling, 281 (93.7% students who were present at the school at the time of the study and accepted to partipate in it were included. Data for this study was collected using a desciptive form created by the researchers, Rosenbaum’s Learned Resourcefulness Scale (RLRS and The Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R. During the data analysis, frequency distributions, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA were used; and for analysis of independent groups, t-test was used. RESULTS: Among the students, it was determined that 54.8% were 1. grade, 90.7% had their parents living together, 43.5% had a father and 60.5% had a mother who graduated from elementary school, fathers of 23.5% of students were retired, 93.6% of them had mothers who were home makers. In addition, it was found out that 78.6% of students chose their profession willingly, the average family income of 71.5% of students were at medium levels, 82.9% always believed in themselves and 63.3% of students did not smoke. Based on the results obtained, it was observed that second grade students, those with mothers who are highly educated and those who trusted themselved all the time had significantly high stress coping levels; students who chose their own profession, believed in themselves and did not smoke had significantly low levels of mental symptom indications. CONCLUSION: In this study, the students were determined to posess averge levels of stress coping skills and they were found
Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta; Smigielski, Janusz; Pawełczyk, Tomasz
The objective of the study was to identify associations between a history of obstetrical complications (OCs) and the future development of symptoms indicating risk of psychosis (At Risk Mental State - ARMS). The frequency of OCs was assessed in 66 ARMS subjects, 50 subjects with the first episode of schizophrenia (FES) and 50 healthy controls. Obstetrical data was obtained from medical documentation and evaluated with the Lewis and Murray Scale. Definite OCs, according to the Lewis and Murray Scale, occurred significantly more frequently in the ARMS group compared to the controls (χ(2) = 7.79, p = 0.005; OR = 4.20, 95% CI = 1.46-12.11), as well as in the FES subjects compared to the controls (χ(2) = 8.39, p = 0.004; OR = 4.64, 95% CI = 1.56-13.20). Apgar scores in the first (Apgar 1) and the fifth minute after birth (Apgar 5) were significantly lower in the FES subjects compared to the controls (for Apgar 1 score Z = 4.439, p Apgar 5 score Z = 5.250, p Apgar 5 scores compared to the healthy controls (Z = 3.458, p = 0.0016). The results indicate that OCs and low Apgar 5 score should be considered important factors in identifying subjects at risk of developing psychosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Demissie, Zewditu; Brener, Nancy
Mental health conditions among youth are a major concern. Schools can play an important role in supporting students affected by these conditions. This study examined district-level school health policies related to mental health and social services to determine if they varied by district demographic characteristics. The School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) 2012 collected cross-sectional data on school health policies and practices from a nationally representative sample of public school districts (N = 684). We used logistic regression to examine the association between district-level demographic characteristics and school mental health policies. Southern and low-affluence districts had higher odds of requiring schools to have a specified counselor-to-student ratio as compared with Northeastern and average affluence districts, respectively. Northeastern and urban districts had higher odds of requiring educational and credentialing requirements for school mental health or social services staff, compared to other regions and rural districts, respectively. Results describe the extent to which school mental health and social services programs in the United States are meeting various guidelines. More work is necessary to ensure that all schools have the resources needed to support their students' mental health and meet national guidelines, especially in districts with certain characteristics. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Dean, Pamela M; Feldman, David M; Morere, Donna; Morton, Diane
The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) is commonly used to screen cognitive function in a clinical setting. The measure has been published in over 50 languages; however, the validity and reliability of the MMSE has yet to be assessed with the culturally Deaf elderly population. Participants consisted of 117 Deaf senior citizens, aged 55-89 (M = 69.44, SD = 8.55). Demographic information, including state of residence, age, and history of depression, head injury, and dementia diagnoses, were collected. A standard form of the MMSE was used with modification of test administration and stimuli including translation of English test items into a sign-based form and alteration of two items in order to make them culturally and linguistically appropriate. Significant correlations were observed between overall test score and education level (r = .23, p = .01) as well as test score and age (r = -.33, p < .001). Patterns of responses were analyzed and revealed several items that were problematic and yielded a fewer correct responses. These results indicate that clinicians need to be aware of cultural and linguistic factors associated with the deaf population that may impact test performance and clinical interpretation of test results. On the basis of these data, there is an increased risk of false positives obtained when using this measure. Further research is needed to validate the use of this measure with the culturally Deaf population.
Mourgkasi, Vasiliki; Mavropoulou, Sofia
In this single-subject study, we evaluated the effects of an intervention using a modified version of the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) approach on the story composition skills and the use of mental state language in three writers with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Interestingly, the intervention was not found to be effective in…
Kenworthy, Amy L.; Hrivnak, George A.
In this article, a hands-on experiential exercise session in a fitness center is presented as a teaching tool for management instructors to facilitate a theoretically based discussion about the connection between individuals' physical and mental states. Before discussing the components of the exercise session itself, a rationale for integrating…
Grazzani, Ilaria; Ornaghi, Veronica
This study investigates the relationship between mental-state language and theory of mind in primary school children. The participants were 110 primary school students (mean age = 9 years and 7 months; SD = 12.7 months). They were evenly divided by gender and belonged to two age groups (8- and 10-year-olds). Linguistic, metacognitive and cognitive…
Doan, Stacey N.; Wang, Qi
This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the…
Sanua, Victor D.
The paper first reviews previous studies made of the causes of schizophrenia as seen by mental health professionals in Western countries and in the Third World. The study at hand focuses on infantile autism and how it is viewed by professionals in the United States and Europe. Questionnaires addressed issues, characteristics and etiology,…
At risk students need to experience a reading curriculum which offers success in learning to read; appropriate sequence of reading activities; feedback regarding what has been accomplished in reading; rewards for doing well when comparing past with present achievement records; intrinsic motivation in wanting to read; help and guidance to achieve…
Noble, Charles; Hill, Doug; Smith, Erica; Smith, Andrew
Australia's "user choice" program, which provides public funds to training providers chosen by apprentices and trainees, was evaluated. The distinction between viable and at-risk training markets was not found to be an effective guide to decision making; local or regional decision making was preferable. (SK)
J. Daníelsson (Jón); C.G. de Vries (Casper)
textabstractWe propose a semi-parametric method for unconditional Value-at-Risk (VaR) evaluation. The largest risks are modelled parametrically, while smaller risks are captured by the non-parametric empirical distribution function. A comparison of methods on a portfolio of stock and option returns
Sorenson, Georgia; Adams, Bruce; Kretman, Kathy Postel; Linsky, Marty; Burns, John S.; Gmelch, Walter H.; Kellerman, Barbara; Rost, Joseph C.
This report describes the Eisenhower Leadership Program, an approach to leadership learning that aims to educate students for democracy. Based on the premise that democracy at risk threatens the fabric of the national culture, the document presents five key elements considered essential for educating students to become democratic leaders. These…
... higher and higher. This is called high blood sugar or diabetes. Am I at risk for gestational diabetes? Answer ... follow their treatment plans and control their blood sugar levels. Managing Gestational Diabetes: A Patient’s Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy, a ...
Necessary, James R.; Parish, Thomas S.
Surveys 776 K-12 students from a rural Indiana school district, using various personal-attribute and personal-history inventories, to see whether students' self-concept scores correlated with their teachers' ratings of students' at-risk behaviors on the Potential Dropout Checklist. Although the personal-attribute inventories across all grade…
Walters, Suzan M; Rivera, Alexis V; Starbuck, Lila; Reilly, Kathleen H; Boldon, Nyasha; Anderson, Bridget J; Braunstein, Sarah
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the risk of HIV was approved in 2012 and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in 2005. We report the differences in awareness of PrEP/PEP and factors associated with awareness by examining 3 risk groups (men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs, and high-risk heterosexuals). National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system data collected in New York City (NYC) and Long Island, NY in 2011-2013 were used. Logistic regressions by region were developed to estimate adjusted associations [Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR)] and determine differences in awareness of PrEP/PEP. Awareness of PrEP/PEP was low for all groups. In multivariate analysis controlling for sociodemographic factors, noninjection drug use, HIV status, and exposure to HIV prevention, males who inject drugs in NYC had significantly decreased odds of PrEP/PEP awareness [AOR: 0.45; confidence interval (CI): 0.25 to 0.81] compared with MSM. MSM aged 18-29 years had increased awareness of PrEP (AOR: 2.94; 95% CI 1.11 to 7.80). On Long Island, females who inject drugs (AOR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.62), males who inject drugs (AOR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.39), female heterosexuals (AOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.59), and male heterosexuals (AOR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.73) had significantly decreased odds of PrEP/PEP awareness. Black MSM had increased awareness of PrEP (AOR: 4.08 CI:1.21 to 13.73). Large proportions of groups at-risk for HIV were unaware of PrEP/PEP. When comparing risk groups to MSM, we found MSM to have greater awareness in both regions. On Long Island, people who inject drugs and heterosexuals were far less likely to have PrEP/PEP awareness than in NYC. On Long Island, Black MSM had increased PrEP awareness and in NYC MSM aged 18-29 had increased PrEP awareness. These findings suggest that awareness may be spreading through networks and highlight the importance of targeted educational and prevention efforts by group and region.
Glymour, M M; Kawachi, I; Jencks, C S; Berkman, L F
The association between schooling and old age cognitive outcomes such as memory disorders is well documented but, because of the threat of reverse causation, controversy persists over whether education affects old age cognition. Changes in state compulsory schooling laws (CSL) are treated as natural experiments (instruments) for estimating the effect of education on memory and mental status among the elderly. Changes in CSL predict changes in average years of schooling completed by children who are affected by the new laws. These educational differences are presumably independent of innate individual characteristics such as IQ. CSL-induced changes in education were used to obtain instrumental variable (IV) estimates of education's effect on memory (n = 10,694) and mental status (n = 9751) for white, non-Hispanic US-born Health and Retirement Survey participants born between 1900 and 1947 who did not attend college. After adjustment for sex, birth year, state of birth and state characteristics, IV estimates of education's effect on memory were large and statistically significant. IV estimates for mental status had very wide confidence intervals, so it was not possible to draw meaningful conclusions about the effect of education on this outcome. Increases in mandatory schooling lead to improvements in performance on memory tests many decades after school completion. These analyses condition on individual states, so differences in memory outcomes associated with CSL changes cannot be attributed to differences between states. Although unmeasured state characteristics that changed contemporaneously with CSL might account for these results, unobserved genetic variation is unlikely to do so.
van der Meulen, A. (Anna); Roerig, S. (Simone); D. de Ruyter (Doret); Lier, P. (Pol van); L. Krabbendam (Lydia)
textabstractThe ability to read mental states from subtle facial cues is an important part of Theory of Mind, which can contribute to children's daily life social functioning. Mental state reading performance is influenced by the specific interactions in which it is applied; familiarity with
Bang, Janet; Burns, Jesse; Nadig, Aparna
Mental state terms and personal narratives are conversational devices used to communicate subjective experience in conversation. Pre-adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA, n = 20) were compared with language-matched typically-developing peers (TYP, n = 17) on production of mental state terms (i.e., perception, physiology, desire, emotion,…
Ringø, Pia; Høgsbro, Kjeld
The chapter presents historical developments in the conception of disability and services for people with disability and mental illness. It identifies the social, political and technological movements, which have led to the epistemologies that exist in this field today. The diverse understandings...... of mental problems and vulnerability have all through history motivated different guidelines for social work practice when it comes to people with cognitive and mental deficits and in the final section of the chapter, we discuss how current sociological, neurological, and psychiatric perspectives...... in research as well as clinical experiences from advanced welfare services might support a new model for understanding mental vulnerability....
Blais, Rebecca K; Tsai, Jack; Southwick, Steven M; Pietrzak, Robert H
Objective: Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among older veterans compared with their civilian counterparts, but many veterans with symptoms of psychiatric disorders do not utilize mental health services...
... Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Rural Mental Health There is a significant need for mental health ... action to prevent suicides? Where can I find mental health statistics for rural populations? The Substance Abuse and ...
Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, despite the fact that a variety of factors contributing to the progress in technology has made people get things done faster the speed and accuracy in accomplishing affairs, as a result of which, this progress has brought about mankind obtain new achievements, has caused some diseases and mental disorders and undermined relations and human values. Thus, the target of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational factors and mental health of the staffs in governmental organizations. Materials and Methods: The method of this descriptive and correlation study was carried out on 379 staff of state organizations of Lorestan province who selected using stratified proportional sampling. For data collecting, General Health Questionnaire (28-GHQ, Metzkas and Bardnez’s management style questionnaire, role ambiguity and role conflict scale of Jamshidinezhad, Deep and Sosman’s organizational climate, and a researcher-made questionnaire for measuring employees, attitudes and organizational factors associated with stress were used. For analyzing the data, SPSS software (version 19, descriptive indicators, Pearson correlation, stepwise regression, independent t-test and multivariate analysis were used. Results: The results showed that for predicting mental health of the staff of state organizations, working conditions, organizational climate, task-oriented style of manager and role ambiguity were significant. The results of independent t-test and multivariate analysis showed that there is no significant difference between male and female in general mental health scale and its components. Conclusion: The overall results of this study indicate the role of organizational variables in predicting mental health of the staff in state organizations of Lorestan state.
Bojorquez, Ietza; Aguilera, Rosa M; Ramírez, Jacobo; Cerecero, Diego; Mejía, Silvia
Deportations from the Unites States (US) to Mexico increased substantially during the last decade. Considering deportation as a stressful event with potential consequences on mental health, we aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) among deported migrants; and (2) explore the association between migratory experience, social support and psychological variables, and CMD in this group. In repatriation points along the border, a probability sample of deportees responded to the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). The prevalence of CMD was 16.0% (95% CI 12.3, 20.6). There was a U-shaped association between time in the US and SRQ score. Times returned to Mexico, having a spouse in the US, number of persons in household, less social support, anxiety as a personality trait, and avoidant coping style were directly associated with SRQ score. Public health policies should address the need for mental health care among deported migrants.
Holloway, Barbara; Jay Coon, Patricia; McClosky-Armstrong, Thelma; Min, Sung-joon
Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) administration via telehealth with a focus on the auditory and visual test components. Reliability was assessed through use of an in-person collaborator and by assessment of faxed test copies. The MMSE was administered via telehealth with the assistance of a face-to-face collaborator. Patient responses were recorded by both the remote and in-person nurse and compared item by item; total scores for each subject were also compared. Visual items were assessed through a blinded separate scoring of a faxed copy. Percent agreement per item and total score were calculated and correlations between scores were determined by Pearson correlation coefficients. Mean score differences and associated 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Eighty percent of individual items demonstrated remote to in-person agreement of >95% and all items were >85.5% in agreement. Pearson correlation coefficients demonstrated high correlations (>0.86) between 80% of the items examined. Mean differences in scored test items were not significantly different from zero. This study demonstrates the utility of using telehealth for cognitive assessment by MMSE. It supports the use of telehealth to improve healthcare access among patients for whom distance, cost, and mobility are potential barriers to attending face-to-face clinical visits. Continued validation and reliability testing is warranted to ensure that all healthcare provided via telehealth maintains an equal quality level to that of in-person care. PMID:19548827
Drescher, Christopher F; Lopez, Eliot J; Griffin, James A; Toomey, Thomas M; Eldridge, Elizabeth D; Stepleman, Lara M
Smoking prevalence for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals is higher than for heterosexual, cisgender individuals. Elevated smoking rates have been linked to psychiatric comorbidities, substance use, poverty, low education levels, and stress. This study examined mental health (MH) correlates of cigarette use in LGBT individuals residing in a metropolitan area in the southeastern United States. Participants were 335 individuals from an LGBT health needs assessment (mean age 34.7; SD = 13.5; 63% gay/lesbian; 66% Caucasian; 81% cisgender). Demographics, current/past psychiatric diagnoses, number of poor MH days in the last 30, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) 2 depression screener, the Three-Item Loneliness Scale, and frequency of cigarette use were included. Analyses included bivariate correlations, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression. Multiple demographic and MH factors were associated with smoker status and frequency of smoking. A logistic regression indicated that lower education and bipolar disorder were most strongly associated with being a smoker. For smokers, a hierarchical regression model including demographic and MH variables accounted for 17.6% of the variance in frequency of cigarette use. Only education, bipolar disorder, and the number of poor MH days were significant contributors in the overall model. Conclusions/Importance: Less education, bipolar disorder, and recurrent poor MH increase LGBT vulnerability to cigarette use. Access to LGBT-competent MH providers who can address culturally specific factors in tobacco cessation is crucial to reducing this health disparities.
Matallana, Diana; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Cano, Carlos; Reyes, Pablo; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A
To study the effect of education and language of response at the interview on performance in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) domains, we studied 2861 Mexican Americans aged 65 and older from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) followed from 1993 to 1994 until 2004 to 2005. The MMSE was examined as total score (0-30) or divided into 2 global domains: (1) no-memory (score 0-24): Orientation, attention, and language; and (2) memory (score 0-6): working and delayed memory. Mean age and total MMSE were 72.7 years and 24.6 at baseline, and 81.7 years and 20.5 at 11 years of follow-up. Spanish-speaking participants had less education (4.1 vs 7.4 years, P memory, no-memory, and total MMSE compared with English-speaking participants. In multivariate longitudinal analyses, participants with more years of education performed better than those with less education, especially in total MMSE and no-memory domain. Spanish-speaking participants with 4 to 6 years of education had higher memory scores than those speaking English (estimate 0.40, standard error [SE] = 0.14, P variations in MMSE performance. Because the memory domain of the MMSE is less affected by education, it may be used along with other cognitive tests for early detection of cognitive decline in older populations with low education.
Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno
This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to examine cognitive performance after mild stroke via Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA and to compare the results.Material and methods: We examined 54 patients with mild stroke (aged 52 to 72 (mean 63.17, SD 5.96; 34 males and 20 females and 54 controls, adjusted by age, sex and education level. All subjects were tested via MMSE (Bulgarian version and MoCa (Bulgarian version. Data was collected in the single step model at the 90th day after stroke incident for patients and at the day of obtaining informed consent for controls. Results: Patients have poorer performance on both MMSE and MoCa than controls. MoCa has comparatively good discriminative validity and sensitivity.Conclusions: Although MMSE is one of the classical screening tools for cognitive impairment widely used in Bulgaria, other screening tools should not be ignored. On the basis of our results, MoCa is also a good screening instrument, especially for poststroke cognitive impairment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the frequency of cognitive impairment in patients with Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Methods We analyzed baseline data from all 46 patients with FMS and 92 age- and sex-matched controls per diagnosis of neuropathic (NeP or mixed pain (MP selected from a larger prospective study. Results FMS had a slight but statistically significant lower score in the adjusted MMSE score (26.9; 95% CI 26.7-27.1 than either NeP (27.3; 95% CI 27.2-27.4 or MP (27.3; 27.2-27.5. The percentage of patients with congnitive impairment (adjusted MMSE ≤ 26 was numerically higher in FMS (15%; 95% CI 6.3-29 compared with NeP (5%; 95% CI 1.8-12.2 or MP (5%; 95% CI 1.8-12.2 and higher than in the same age stratum of the general population (0.05%. Conclusions Compared with the population reference value, patients with FMS showed high frequency of cognitive impairment.
Adewuya, Abiodun O; Ola, Bolanle A; Coker, Olurotimi A; Atilola, Olayinka; Zachariah, Mathew P; Olugbile, Olufemi; Fasawe, Adedolapo; Idris, Olajide
To combat the increasing rate of suicide, basic data on suicidal behaviours reflecting the uniqueness of the locality are needed in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the prevalence of suicidal ideation and associated factors. Adults (n=11 246) from the five administrative divisions of Lagos State completed questionnaires detailing suicidal ideation, socio-demographic details, common mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms), alcohol and psychoactive substance use disorders and disability. The weighted prevalence of current suicidal ideation was 7.28% (s.e. 0.27). Independently associated factors were older age, being female, not married, low occupational group, depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms and disability. Despite the validity of cross-national surveys, there is need for individual countries to generate complementary local data to explain variability in rates and risk factors in order to plan for suicide prevention or develop timely and effective response. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.
The extent that handling farm animals causes them to suffer is a central concern when assessing their welfare. "Suffering" is a mental state, resulting from different emotions, such as fear, pain, or boredom, which have different causes and effects on the animal's behavior and physiology. What is common is that they are aversive; animals will seek to avoid such experiences. The degree of aversiveness can be measured using behavioral techniques, which are based on an animal's ability to learn the predictive relationships between events. Compared with physiological stress responses, aversion learning techniques are more easily interpreted in terms of animal suffering and are more able to discriminate between handling treatments. They can sometimes be used to predict physiological responses to handling. The outcome of experiments in aversion learning can be affected by factors influencing the learning ability and memory of animals, and researchers need be aware of potential confounding in experimental design. Such techniques have been used to compare sheep handling practices, examine which components of transport are aversive for pigs and poultry, and examine the relationship between animals and handlers.
Awan, Safia; Shahbaz, Naila; Akhtar, Syed Wasim; Ahmad, Arsalan; Iqbal, Sadaf; Ahmed, Sellal; Naqvi, Haider; Wasay, Mohammad
Validation study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in Urdu language for Pakistani population. This study was conducted primarily to validate and determine the optimal cutoff score in the diagnosis of dementia among Pakistani's and study the effects of gender and education on the MMSE performance in our population. Four hundred participants took part in the study. Patient with dementia recruited from five major hospitals from Pakistan. The MMSE was translated into Urdu. There were 61 men and 39 women in dementia group and 225 men and 75 women in the control group. The mean score of Urdu MMSE were lower in patients with dementia 18.5 ± 5.6 (range 0-30) as compared to the controls 26.8 ± 2.6 (range 7-30). This difference between groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). Educational based MMSE score below 15 yielded perfect sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of dementia. These finding confirm the influence of level of education on MMSE score and education stratified cutoff scores should be used while screening for cognitive impairment in this population.
Apostolova, Liana G; Lu, Po H; Rogers, Steve; Dutton, Rebecca A; Hayashi, Kiralee M; Toga, Arthur W; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Thompson, Paul M
The Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) is a brief cognitive screening instrument frequently used to track Alzheimer disease (AD) progression. We investigated the structural neuroimaging correlates of MMSE performance in patients with clinical and preclinical AD. We analyzed structural magnetic resonance imaging data from 29 probable AD and 5 MCI patients who later converted to probable AD using an advanced 3D cortical mapping technique. MMSE scores were entered as covariates in a general linear model that predicted the gray matter density at each cortical surface point. The results were corrected for multiple comparisons by permutation testing. The global permutation-corrected significance for the maps linking gray matter loss and cognitive decline was P=0.005 for the left and P=0.012 for the right hemisphere. Strongest correlations between MMSE score and gray matter integrity were seen in the entorhinal, parahippocampal, precuneus, superior parietal, and subgenual cingulate/orbitofrontal cortices. Significant correlations were also seen bilaterally in the temporal, the middle frontal and the left angular and supramarginal gyri. As a global cognitive measure, MMSE depends on the integrity of widely distributed cortical areas in both brain hemispheres with left-sided predominance.
Full Text Available Objective. The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 30 healthy control (HC subjects. Method. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Results. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. Conclusion. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing.
Saracho, Olivia N.
For more than two decades, research has focused on the understanding of pretence as an important means for young children to conceptualise the mind. Many use the phrase "mental representation" to a mental model of some entity or concept, which describes what is inside the minds of young children in relation to a real-world situation or…
Wijsman, J.L.P; Grundlehner, Bernard; Liu, Hao; Penders, Julien; Hermens, Hermanus J.
Timely mental stress detection can help to prevent stress-related health problems. The aim of this study was to identify those physiological signals and features suitable for detecting mental stress in office-like situations. Electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration, skin conductance and surface
Aaronson, Alexandra; Withy, Kelley
National data reports the number of adults with any diagnosable mental disorder within a given year is nearly 1 in 5. Hawai'i, along with the rest of the nation, faces a serious shortage of mental health providers. This article describes the research undertaken to create a more accurate assessment of the current mental health provider workforce in Hawai'i through developing an estimation strategy to appraise local mental health workforce needs. The results indicate the supply of psychiatrists for Hawai'i's 2010 census population was found to be 161.4 Full Time Equivalents (FTEs) psychiatrists, or 11.86 psychiatrists/100,000 population, with the greatest number of psychiatrists per capita on the island of O'ahu. Of the 161.4 FTEs, 50.4 FTEs or 31.2% were accepting new Medicaid patients. The state's results show that Hawai'i is short of meeting current patient need by more than 100 psychiatrists though the state was only short by 6 FTE psychiatrists with regard to estimates of Medicaid patients' need. While the first number is likely accurate, the second number is likely to be significantly underestimated for a number of reasons. One reason is that practitioners who reported accepting new Medicaid patients likely see comparatively few. Another reason is that it is likely that Medicaid patients make up more than the approximate 20% of the psychiatric patient population. It is reported nationally that a greater percentage of the mentally ill receive Medicaid than the population at large. Thus, there are probably many more patients on Medicaid than our estimations accounted for. It is clear more research and more changes need to be made in Hawai'i's publicly funded healthcare system to incentivize physician acceptance and make mental healthcare more accessible to this growing population.
Kokkinen, Lauri; Muntaner, Carles; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Varje, Pekka; Väänänen, Ari
Epidemiological studies have shown an association between educational credentials and mental disorders, but have not offered any explanation for the varying strength of this association in different historical contexts. In this study, we investigate the education-specific trends in hospitalisation due to psychiatric disorders in Finnish working-age men and women between 1976 and 2010, and offer a welfare state explanation for the secular trends found. Population-based setting with a 25% random sample of the population aged 30-65 years in 7 independent consecutive cohorts (1976-1980, 1981-1985, 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010). Participants were randomly selected from the Statistics Finland population database (n=2,865,746). These data were linked to diagnosis-specific records on hospitalisations, drawn from the National Hospital Discharge Registry using personal identification numbers. Employment rates by educational credentials were drawn from the Statistics Finland employment database. Hospitalisation and employment. We found an increasing trend in psychiatric hospitalisation rates among the population with only an elementary school education, and a decreasing trend in those with higher educational credentials. The employment rate of the population with only an elementary school education decreased more than that of those with higher educational credentials. We propose that restricted employment opportunities are the main mechanism behind the increased educational inequality in hospitalisation for psychiatric disorders, while several secondary mechanisms (lack of outpatient healthcare services, welfare cuts, decreased alcohol duty) further accelerated the diverging long-term trends. All of these inequality-increasing mechanisms were activated by welfare state retrenchment, which included the liberalisation of financial markets and labour markets, severe austerity measures and narrowing down of public sector employment commitment. Published
LeMoult, Joelle; Joormann, Jutta; Kircanski, Katharina; Gotlib, Ian H
This study examined, for the first time, whether attentional biases can be modified in adolescents at risk for depression. The final sample consisted of 41 girls at familial risk for depression, who were randomly assigned to receive six sessions (864 trials) of real or sham attention bias training [Real attentional bias training (ABT) vs. Sham ABT]. Participants who received Real ABT completed a modified dot-probe task designed to train attention toward positive and away from negative facial expressions; in contrast, girls who received Sham ABT completed the standard dot-probe task. Attentional biases, self-reported mood, and psychophysiological responses to stress were measured at pre- and post-training assessments. As expected, girls who received Real ABT, but not those who received Sham ABT, exhibited significant increases from pre- to post-training in their attention toward happy faces and away from sad faces. Moreover, adolescents who received Real ABT were buffered against the negative outcomes experienced by adolescents who received Sham ABT. Specifically, only adolescents who received Sham ABT experienced an increase in negative mood and a pre- to post-training increase in heart rate in anticipation of the stressor. The current findings provide the first experimental evidence that attentional biases can be modified in youth at risk for depression and further suggest that ABT modulates the heightened response to stress that is otherwise experienced by high-risk adolescents. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Ho, Jennifer S; Radoeva, Petya D; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Chow, Carolyn; Hopkins, Jessica; Tran, Wen-Ching; Mehta, Ami; Enrique, Nicole; Gilbert, Chelsea; Antshel, Kevin M; Fremont, Wanda; Kates, Wendy R; Bearden, Carrie E
Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) results from a genetic mutation that increases risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We compared Theory of Mind (ToM) skills in 63 individuals with VCFS (25% with an ASD diagnosis) and 43 typically developing controls, and investigated the relationship of ToM to reciprocal social behavior. We administered a video-based task to assess mentalizing at two sites University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical University. The videos depicted interactions representing complex mental states (ToM condition), or simple movements (Random condition). Verbal descriptions of the videos were rated for Intentionality (i.e. mentalizing) and Appropriateness. Using Repeated Measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), we assessed the effects of VCFS and ASD on Intentionality and Appropriateness, and the relationship of mentalizing to Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores. Results indicated that individuals with VCFS overall had lower Intentionality and Appropriateness scores than controls for ToM but not for Random scenes. In the SUNY sample, individuals with VCFS, both with and without ASD, performed more poorly than controls on the ToM condition; however, in the UCLA sample, only individuals with VCFS without ASD performed significantly worse than controls on the ToM condition. Controlling for site and age, performance on the ToM condition was significantly correlated with SRS scores. Individuals with VCFS, regardless of an ASD diagnosis, showed impairments in the spontaneous attribution of mental states to abstract visual stimuli, which may underlie real-life problems with social interactions. A better understanding of the social deficits in VCFS is essential for the development of targeted behavioral interventions. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Brown, Robert; Jeanneret, Neryl
Many studies have highlighted the capacity of community arts programs to re-engage those young people considered at-risk of disconnection from future education and/or employment. "Evolution" is an artist-guided visual arts program established for young people challenged by mental health and social issues that aims to foster re-engagement…
Moffitt, Lauren B.; Garcia-Williams, Amanda; Berg, John P.; Calderon, Michelle E.; Haas, Ann P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.
Suicidal behavior is a significant concern among graduate students. Because many suicidal graduate students do not access mental health services, programs to connect them to resources are essential. This article describes the Interactive Screening Program (ISP), an anonymous, Web-based tool for screening and engaging at-risk graduate school…
Sturm, Roland; Goldman, William; McCulloch, Joyce
BACKGROUND: In the United States, insurance benefits for treating alcohol, drug abuse and mental health (ADM) problems have been much more limited than medical care benefits. To change that situation, more than 30 states were considering legislation that requires equal benefits for ADM and medical care ("parity") in the past year. Uncertainty about the cost consequences of such proposed legislation remains a major stumbling block. There has been no information about the actual experience of implementing parity benefits under managed care or the effects on access to care and utilization. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Document the experience of the State of Ohio with adopting full parity for ADM care for its state employee program under managed care. Ohio provides an unusually long time series with seven years of managed behavioral health benefits, which allows us to study inflationary trends in a plan with unlimited ADM benefits. METHODS: Primarily a case study, we describe the implementation of the program and track utilization, and costs of ADM care from 1989 to 1997. We use a variety of administrative and claims data and reports provided by United Behavioral Health and the state of Ohio. The analysis of the utilization and cost effect of parity and managed care is pre-post, with a multiyear follow-up period. RESULTS: The switch from unmanaged indemnity care to managed carve-out care was followed by a 75% drop in inpatient days and a 40% drop in outpatient visits per 1000 members, despite the simultaneous increase in benefits. The subsequent years saw a continuous decline in inpatient days and an increased use of intermediate services, such as residential care and intensive outpatient care. The number of outpatient visits stabilized in the range of 500-550 visits per 1000. There was no indication that costs started to increase during the study period; instead, costs continued to decline. A somewhat different picture emerges when comparing utilization under HMOs with
Power, Sarah D.; Kushki, Azadeh; Chau, Tom
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has recently been investigated as a non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) for individuals with severe motor impairments. For the most part, previous research has investigated the development of NIRS-BCIs operating under synchronous control paradigms, which require the user to exert conscious control over their mental activity whenever the system is vigilant. Though functional, this is mentally demanding and an unnatural way to communicate. An attractive alternative to the synchronous control paradigm is system-paced control, in which users are required to consciously modify their brain activity only when they wish to affect the BCI output, and can remain in a more natural, 'no-control' state at all other times. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a system-paced NIRS-BCI with one intentional control (IC) state corresponding to the performance of either mental arithmetic or mental singing. In particular, this involved determining if these tasks could be distinguished, individually, from the unconstrained 'no-control' state. Deploying a dual-wavelength frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, we interrogated nine sites around the frontopolar locations (International 10-20 System) while eight able-bodied adults performed mental arithmetic and mental singing to answer multiple-choice questions within a system-paced paradigm. With a linear classifier trained on a six-dimensional feature set, an overall classification accuracy of 71.2% across participants was achieved for the mental arithmetic versus no-control classification problem. While the mental singing versus no-control classification was less successful across participants (62.7% on average), four participants did attain accuracies well in excess of chance, three of which were above 70%. Analyses were performed offline. Collectively, these results are encouraging, and demonstrate the potential of a system-paced NIRS-BCI with one IC state corresponding to
Zaitchik, Deborah; Walker, Caren; Miller, Saul; LaViolette, Pete; Feczko, Eric; Dickerson, Bradford C
By age 2, children attribute referential mental states such as perceptions and emotions to themselves and others, yet it is not until age 4 that they attribute representational mental states such as beliefs. This raises an interesting question: is attribution of beliefs different from attribution of perceptions and emotions in terms of its neural substrate? To address this question with a high degree of anatomic specificity, we partitioned the TPJ, a broad area often found to be recruited in theory of mind tasks, into 2 neuroanatomically specific regions of interest: Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS) and Inferior Parietal Lobule (IPL). To maximize behavioral specificity, we designed a tightly controlled verbal task comprised of sets of single sentences--sentences identical except for the type of mental state specified in the verb (belief, emotion, perception, syntax control). Results indicated that attribution of beliefs more strongly recruited both regions of interest than did emotions or perceptions. This is especially surprising with respect to STS, since it is widely reported in the literature to mediate the detection of referential states--among them emotions and perceptions--rather than the inference of beliefs. An explanation is offered that focuses on the differences between verbal stimuli and visual stimuli, and between a process of sentence comprehension and a process of visual detection. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McClintock, Clayton H.; Lau, Elsa; Miller, Lisa
While the field of empirical study on religion and spirituality in relation to mental health has rapidly expanded over the past decade, little is known about underlying dimensions of spirituality cross-culturally conceived. We aimed to bridge this gap by inductively deriving potential universal dimensions of spirituality through a large-scale, multi-national data collection, and examining the relationships of these dimensions with common psychiatric conditions. Five-thousand five-hundred and twelve participants from China, India, and the United States completed a two-hour online survey consisting of wide-ranging measures of the lived experience of spirituality, as well as clinical assessments. A series of inductive Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and cross-validating Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) were conducted to derive common underlying dimensions of spirituality. Logistic regression analyses were then conducted with each dimension to predict depression, suicidal ideation, generalized anxiety, and substance-related disorders. Preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by ESEM findings. Analyses of 40 spirituality measures revealed five invariant factors across countries which were interpreted as five dimensions of universal spiritual experience, specifically: love, in the fabric of relationships and as a sacred reality; unifying interconnectedness, as a sense of energetic oneness with other beings in the universe; altruism, as a commitment beyond the self with care and service; contemplative practice, such as meditation, prayer, yoga, or qigong; and religious and spiritual reflection and commitment, as a life well-examined. Love, interconnectedness, and altruism were associated with less risk of psychopathology for all countries. Religious and spiritual reflection and commitment and contemplative practice were associated with less risk in India and the United States but associated with greater risk in China. Education was directly
Clayton Hoi-Yun McClintock
Full Text Available While the field of empirical study on religion and spirituality in relation to mental health has rapidly expanded over the past decade, little is known about underlying dimensions of spirituality cross-culturally conceived. We aimed to bridge this gap by inductively deriving potential universal dimensions of spirituality through a large-scale, multi-national data collection and examining the relationships of these dimensions with common psychiatric conditions. Five-thousand five-hundred twelve participants from China, India, and the United States completed a two-hour online survey consisting of wide-ranging measures of the lived experience of spirituality, as well as clinical assessments. A series of inductive Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and cross-validating Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM were conducted to derive common underlying dimensions of spirituality. Logistic regression analyses were then conducted with each dimension to predict depression, suicidal ideation, generalized anxiety, and substance-related disorders. Preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by ESEM findings. Analyses of forty spirituality measures revealed five invariant factors across countries which were interpreted as five dimensions of universal spiritual experience, specifically: love, in the fabric of relationships and as a sacred reality; unifying interconnectedness, as a sense of energetic oneness with other beings in the universe; altruism, as a commitment beyond the self with care and service; contemplative practice, such as meditation, prayer, yoga, or qigong; and religious and spiritual reflection and commitment, as a life well-examined. Love, interconnectedness, and altruism were associated with less risk of psychopathology for all countries. Religious and spiritual reflection and commitment and contemplative practice were associated with less risk in India and the United States but associated with greater risk in China. Education
Prins, Seth J
Two federal reports dating from 1999 and 2006 are by far the most widely cited sources for the prevalence of mental illness among persons in U.S. jails and prisons. To provide a broader picture of the issue, the author undertook a systematic review of 28 articles published between 1989 and 2013. Not only did the review confirm the high prevalence of mental illnesses among prisoners, it identified a litany of health problems associated with the incarceration of persons with mental illness and profound difficulties in finding housing and employment after release.
Buckingham, Betty Jo
This annotated bibliography covers materials about children at risk because of disabilities and/or abilities. The bibliography includes approximately 560 entries. The following categories are addressed: autism; gifted; handicapped--general and multiple; hearing impaired/deaf; learning disabilities; mental illness; mentally handicapped/brain…
J. Daníelsson (Jón); C.G. de Vries (Casper); B.N. Jorgensen (Bjørn); P.F. Christoffersen (Peter); F.X. Diebold (Francis); T. Schuermann (Til); J.A. Lopez (Jose); B. Hirtle (Beverly)
textabstractDiscusses the issues in value-at-risk modeling and evaluation. Value of value at risk; Horizon problems and extreme events in financial risk management; Methods of evaluating value-at-risk estimates.
Dziurzyńska Ewa; Pawłowska Beata; Potembska Emilia
The aim of the present study was to provide an answer to the question of whether, and what, differences in stress coping strategies could be found between university students at risk and those not at risk of mobile phone addiction. The study included 408 students aged 19 to 28 years. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mobile Phone Addiction Assessment Questionnaire (in Polish, Kwestionariusz do Badania Uzależnienia od Telefonu Komórkowego, KBUTK) by Paw...
Lobo, Sarah E.M.; Rucker, James; Kerr, Madeleine; Gallo, Fidel; Constable, Giles; Hotopf, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; Broadbent, Matthew; Baggaley, Martin; Lovestone, Simon; McGuffin, Peter; Amarasinghe, Myanthi; Newman, Stuart; Schumann, Gunter; Brittain, Philip J.
Objectives The mental state examination (MSE) provides crucial information for healthcare professionals in the assessment and treatment of psychiatric patients as well as potentially providing valuable data for mental health researchers accessing electronic health records (EHRs). We wished to establish if improvements could be achieved in the documenting of MSEs by junior doctors within a large United Kingdom mental health trust following the introduction of an EHR based semi-structured MSE a...
Kamaruzzaman, Zetty Ain; Isa, Zaidi
Normal mixture distributions model has been successfully applied in financial time series analysis. In this paper, we estimate the return distribution, value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR) for monthly and weekly rates of returns for FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (FBMKLCI) from July 1990 until July 2010 using the two component univariate normal mixture distributions model. First, we present the application of normal mixture distributions model in empirical finance where we fit our real data. Second, we present the application of normal mixture distributions model in risk analysis where we apply the normal mixture distributions model to evaluate the value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR) with model validation for both risk measures. The empirical results provide evidence that using the two components normal mixture distributions model can fit the data well and can perform better in estimating value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR) where it can capture the stylized facts of non-normality and leptokurtosis in returns distribution.
Full Text Available Analizamos el impacto del desempleo en la salud mental de los inmigrantes mexicanos, comparando a éstos con los mexicanos nacidos en Estados Unidos, con otros hispanos, y con los nativos blancos y afroamericanos, con base en las National Health Interview Surveys de 1999 y 2009. Destacan las bajas prevalencias de tensiones sicológicas en los inmigrantes mexicanos. A pesar del aumento de las tasas de desempleo, los problemas de salud mental se mantuvieron estables; sin embargo, nuestros resultados sugieren un fuerte efecto negativo del desempleo sobre la salud mental. Efectos de la composición de los grupos ayudan a explicarlo. El impacto del desempleo sobre la salud mental aumenta considerablemente entre los blancos nativos, mientras en los grupos con más des - ventajas socioeconómicas, los afroamericanos y los hispanos, se mantuvo sin cambios.
Walters, Kate; Buszewicz, Marta; Weich, Scott; King, Michael
There is much debate over when it is appropriate to intervene medically for psychological distress, and limited evidence on patients' perspectives about a broad range of possible treatment options. It is currently unclear whether preferences may differ for those patients with milder symptoms compared to those experiencing more severe distress. To determine patient preferences for professional, informal, and alternative help for psychological distress in primary care, and the impact of their current mental state on these. Cross-sectional survey in seven general practices across suburban/urban London. Participants were 1357 consecutive general practice attenders aged 18 years and over. The main outcome measure was the General Health Questionnaire 12-item version and a questionnaire on help-seeking preferences. Overall, only 47% of participants reported wanting 'some help' if feeling stressed, worried, or low and it was affecting their daily life. Those currently experiencing mild-to-moderate distress preferred informal sources of help such as friends/family support, relaxation/yoga, exercise/sport, or massage along with general advice from their GP and talking therapies. Self-help (books/leaflets or computer/internet) was not popular at any level of distress, and less favoured by those with mild-to-moderate distress (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.70). Those experiencing severe distress were much more likely to want talking therapies (OR = 3.43, 95% CI = 2.85 to 4.14), tablets (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = 2.00 to 4.71), and support groups (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = 1.72 to 5.47). People with mild-to-moderate distress appear to prefer informal sources of help and those involving human contact, compared to medication or self-help. This has implications for the implementation of potential interventions for psychological distress in primary care.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE is one of the most commonly used instruments in the evaluation of global cognitive status. Few studies have investigated the relationship among its components in terms of factorial structure in Japanese individuals suffering from dementia. The aims of this study were: 1 to analyze the factorial structure of MMSE in Japanese dementia patients, 2 to clarify the MMSE static structure in identifying different cognitive profiles and understanding how these profiles are related to levels of dysfunction in subsets of dementia patients. Methods 30,895 consecutive outpatients with dementia were evaluated. The 11 subtests composing the MMSE and the global MMSE score were analyzed. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis with Promax rotation was applied to the data representing the frequency of failures in each subtest as identified by the MMSE. Results Factor analysis identified three factors that explained approximately 44.57% of the total variance. The first factor, immediate memory, essentially constituted a simple index of the reading and writing subtests. The second factor, orientation and delayed recall, expressed the ability to handle new information. The third factor, working memory, was most closely related to the severity of dementia at the time of test administration. Conclusions Japanese dementia patients appear to develop difficulty handling new information in the early stages of their disease. This finding, and our finding that there is a factor associated with disease severity, suggest that understanding the specific factors related to subtest items, which underlie the total MMSE score may be useful to clinicians in planning interventions for Japanese patients in the early stages of dementia.
Full Text Available ObjectiveAutomatic emotional processing of faces and facial expressions gain more and more of relevance in terms of social communication. Among a variety of different primes, targets and tasks, whole face images and facial expressions have been used to affectively prime emotional responses. This study investigates whether emotional information provided solely in eye regions that display mental states can also trigger affective priming.MethodsSixteen subjects answered a lexical decision task (LDT coupled with an affective priming paradigm. Emotion-associated eye regions were extracted from photographs of faces and acted as primes, whereas targets were either words or pseudo-words. Participants had to decide whether the targets were real German words or generated pseudo-words. Primes and targets belonged to the emotional categories fear, disgust, happiness and neutral.ResultsA general valence effect for positive words was observed: Responses in the LDT were faster for target words of the emotional category happiness when compared to other categories. Importantly, pictures of emotional eye regions preceding the target words affected their subsequent classification. While we show a classical priming effect for neutral target words - with shorter RT for congruent compared to incongruent prime-target pairs- , we observed an inverse priming effect for fearful and happy target words - with shorter RT for incongruent compared to congruent prime-target pairs. These inverse priming effects were driven exclusively by specific prime-target pairs.ConclusionReduced facial emotional information is sufficient to induce automatic implicit emotional processing. The emotional-associated eye regions were processed with respect to their emotional valence and affected the performance on the LDT.
Wagenbreth, Caroline; Rieger, Julia; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Zaehle, Tino
Automatic emotional processing of faces and facial expressions gain more and more of relevance in terms of social communication. Among a variety of different primes, targets and tasks, whole face images and facial expressions have been used to affectively prime emotional responses. This study investigates whether emotional information provided solely in eye regions that display mental states can also trigger affective priming. Sixteen subjects answered a lexical decision task (LDT) coupled with an affective priming paradigm. Emotion-associated eye regions were extracted from photographs of faces and acted as primes, whereas targets were either words or pseudo-words. Participants had to decide whether the targets were real German words or generated pseudo-words. Primes and targets belonged to the emotional categories "fear," "disgust," "happiness," and "neutral." A general valence effect for positive words was observed: responses in the LDT were faster for target words of the emotional category happiness when compared to other categories. Importantly, pictures of emotional eye regions preceding the target words affected their subsequent classification. While we show a classical priming effect for neutral target words - with shorter RT for congruent compared to incongruent prime-target pairs- , we observed an inverse priming effect for fearful and happy target words - with shorter RT for incongruent compared to congruent prime-target pairs. These inverse priming effects were driven exclusively by specific prime-target pairs. Reduced facial emotional information is sufficient to induce automatic implicit emotional processing. The emotional-associated eye regions were processed with respect to their emotional valence and affected the performance on the LDT.
S S Jayasinghe
Full Text Available Background : Chronic damage to the central nervous system resulting in cognitive impairment has been shown with repeated, low doses of organophosphorus (OP exposure over month or years. Aim: The study aimed to find out whether there is any cognitive impairment following acute OP exposure that could be detected by a simple screening instrument, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, in clinical settings. Settings and Design: A cohort study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with matched controls. Consecutive patients admitted to the hospital with acute ingestion of OP were recruited. Cognitive function was assessed with the MMSE, digit span test, test of long-term memory function and concentration. Patients were assessed twice: at 1 and 6 weeks of exposure. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were analyzed with the paired and unpaired T-tests. Non-normally distributed data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Discrete variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Results: There were 60 patients and 61 controls. The mean age (SD of the patients and controls was 31.5 (11.6 and 31.3 (11.8 years, respectively. Forty-two patients turned up for the second assessment. Significant impairment of cognitive function was seen in the total score of MMSE (95% CI -2.5 to -0.3, orientation (95% CI -1 to -0.2 and language (95% CI -0.9 to -0.1 domains of MMSE, digit span test (95% CI 0.1-1.7 and test of long-term memory function (95% CI 0.3-2.3 in the first assessment compared with the controls. When the results of the second assessment were compared with the controls, no significant differences were seen. Conclusion: Although there was a slight transient cognitive impairment detected with the screening tests following acute OP ingestion, no long-term cognitive defects was detected.
Caicedo,Maritza; Edwin VANGAMREN
Analizamos el impacto del desempleo en la salud mental de los inmigrantes mexicanos, comparando a éstos con los mexicanos nacidos en Estados Unidos, con otros hispanos, y con los nativos blancos y afroamericanos, con base en las National Health Interview Surveys de 1999 y 2009. Destacan las bajas prevalencias de tensiones sicológicas en los inmigrantes mexicanos. A pesar del aumento de las tasas de desempleo, los problemas de salud mental se mantuvieron estables; sin embargo, nuestros ...
Subedi, Parangkush; Li, Changwei; Gurung, Ashok; Bizune, Destani; Dogbey, M Christina; Johnson, Caroline C; Yun, Katherine
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for Bhutanese refugee community leaders in the U.S. We hypothesized that training refugee leaders would improve knowledge of mental health problems and treatment process and decrease negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. One hundred and twenty community leaders participated in MHFA training, of whom 58 had sufficient English proficiency to complete pre- and post-tests. The questionnaires assessed each participant's ability to recognize signs of depression, knowledge about professional help and treatment, and attitudes towards people with mental illness. Between the pre- and post-test, participants showed significant improvement in the recognition of symptoms of depression and expressed beliefs about treatment that became more concordant with those of mental health professionals. However, there was no reduction in negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. MHFA training course is a promising program for Bhutanese refugee communities in the U.S. However, some adaptations may be necessary to ensure that MHFA training is optimized for this community.
Piarroux, Martine; Piarroux, Renaud; Knapp, Jenny; Bardonnet, Karine; Dumortier, Jérôme; Watelet, Jérôme; Gerard, Alain; Beytout, Jean; Abergel, Armand; Bresson-Hadni, Solange
During 1982–2007, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) was diagnosed in 407 patients in France, a country previously known to register half of all European patients. To better define high-risk groups in France, we conducted a national registry-based study to identify areas where persons were at risk and spatial clusters of cases. We interviewed 180 AE patients about their way of life and compared responses to those of 517 controls. We found that almost all AE patients lived in 22 départements in eastern and central France (relative risk 78.63, 95% CI 52.84–117.02). Classification and regression tree analysis showed that the main risk factor was living in AE-endemic areas. There, most at-risk populations lived in rural settings (odds ratio [OR] 66.67, 95% CI 6.21–464.51 for farmers and OR 6.98, 95% CI 2.88–18.25 for other persons) or gardened in nonrural settings (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.82–10.91). These findings can help sensitization campaigns focus on specific groups. PMID:23647623
Varallo, Patrick A.
Educating and meeting the multiple needs of students at risk of low academic achievement has been a growing concern for public schools in the United States. Many at-risk students require alternative school-based interventions. This study examined the operation, premise, and objectives of art therapy integrated in 14 school districts across the…
The effect of a mindfulness-based intervention in cognitive functions and psychological well-being applied as an early intervention in schizophrenia and high-risk mental state in a Chilean sample: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Langer, Álvaro I; Schmidt, Carlos; Mayol, Rocío; Díaz, Marcela; Lecaros, Javiera; Krogh, Edwin; Pardow, Aída; Vergara, Carolina; Vergara, Guillermo; Pérez-Herrera, Bernardita; Villar, María José; Maturana, Alejandro; Gaspar, Pablo A
According to the projections of the World Health Organization, 15% of all disabilities will be associated with mental illnesses by 2020. One of the mental disorders with the largest social impacts due to high personal and family costs is psychosis. Among the most effective psychological approaches to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders at the world level is cognitive behavioral therapy. Recently, cognitive behavioral therapy has introduced several tools and strategies that promote psychological processes based on acceptance and mindfulness. A large number of studies support the effectiveness of mindfulness in dealing with various mental health problems, including psychosis. This study is aimed at determining the efficiency of a mindfulness-based program in increasing cognitive function and psychological well-being in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and a high risk mental state (those at risk of developing an episode of psychosis). This is an experimentally designed, multi-center randomized controlled trial, with a 3-month follow-up period. The study participants will be 48 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (first episode) and 48 with a high-risk mental state, from Santiago, Chile, aged between 15 and 35 years. Participants will be submitted to a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI), which will involve taking part in eight mindfulness workshops adapted for people with psychosis. Workshops will last approximately 1.5 hours and take place once a week, over 8 weeks. The primary outcome will be the cognitive function through Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) and the secondary outcome will be psychological well-being measured by self-reporting questionnaires. The outcomes of this trial will add empirical evidence to the benefits and feasibility of MBIs for the psychotherapeutic treatment of patients with schizophrenia and high-risk mental states in reducing cognitive impairment in
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Many research indicated that adolescents’ residential centers have the high possibility to diagnose with psychological disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was investigated the mental health, happiness and emotion control among adolescents’ residential centers of state welfare organization.Materials and Methods: This research is a causal –comparative research. The 80 adolescents’ residential centers were chosen through available sampling and 80 adolescents of schools of Alborz city were selected through cluster method. Statistical analysis was conducted by using the independent t-test. The research instruments were Emotion Control Questionnaire (ECQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, Goldenberg, and Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI.Results: The significantly different was observed in mental health, happiness and emotion control between two adolescents groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results indicate that the institutional-reared decrease the level of mental health, happiness and emotion control in adolescents. Thus, counselors should be considered these factors in therapeutic intervention to enhancing the mental health of adolescents’ residential centers.
Melzer, Dawn K; Claxton, Laura J
Studies on pretense mental state understanding in young children have produced inconsistent findings. These findings could potentially emerge from the confounding influences of action manipulation or the failure to examine possible influences on individual children's performances. To address these issues, we created a task in which 68 3- and 4-year-olds viewed two actors, side by side, on a monitor. Children were told that one actor was knowledgeable about a specific animal, whereas the other actor was not. The actors performed identical movements that were either related or unrelated to the animal they were mimicking or engaged in different behaviors contradictory to their knowledge. Saliency of action was also manipulated by presenting either dynamic images or a paused frame of the actors' behavior (i.e., the static condition). Children performed similarly on the dynamic and static conditions. Children selected the knowledgeable actor more often in the unrelated and related trials but were not as successful at selecting the knowledgeable actor when the actor's knowledge contradicted the actor's behavior. Therefore, by 3 years of age, some children may understand that pretend play involves mental representations and appreciate that the mind influences a pretender's behavior. To investigate the observed individual differences, we also examined children and parents as they engaged in reading and pretense activities prior to data collection. The frequency of parents' cognitive mental state utterances strongly predicted performance on the mental state task. Individual differences in performance as a result of parental language and executive functioning abilities are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Morten Kromann; Wistoft, Karen
for learning, democratic participation and citizenship education through farming and gardening. Keywords: Food Systems, Transformative Learning, Youth Empowerment Stream: Food Policies, Politics and Cultures Presentation Type: Paper Presentation in a Themed Session in English Paper: A paper has not yet been......The paper will discuss how farm based empowerment programs directed at youth "at risk" through the construction of "safe spaces" around farming, cooking and different workshops, and with a critical approach to the food system can provide a framework for transformative learning. Data in the research...... as different motivations, strategies and outcomes from participation in the program activities that can be identified in two main trajectories: network building and job training and emerging activist identities engaging youth in food justice issues and movement building in local communities. The research shows...
Pedersen, Mona Kyndi
services is the point where patients’ needs meet the professional system. There is a need to enhance our understanding of the complex pattern of risk factors associated with hospital readmission and to investigate the role of current practices and organisational determinants to improve the health outcomes......Hospital readmission is common and considered an adverse health outcome in older persons. Acute readmission of recently discharged patients puts additional pressure on clinical resources within health care services and support. Despite the frequency of readmissions, affecting health and wellbeing...... of older persons, there is still a relatively incomplete understanding of the broader array of factors pertaining to hospital readmission. The current evidence on risk factors for hospital readmission is not adequate to identify person at risk of readmission in a heterogeneous population of older persons...
Hacking, Sue; Secker, Jenny; Kent, Lyn; Shenton, Jo; Spandler, Helen
Although participation in arts activity is believed to have important mental health and social benefits for people with mental health needs, the evidence base is currently weak. This article reports the first phase of a study intended to support the development of stronger evidence. Objectives for the first phase were to map current participatory arts activity, to identify appropriate indicators and to develop measures for use in the second phase of the research. A survey of participatory arts projects for people with mental health needs aged 16 to 65 in England, identified via the Internet and relevant organizations, was carried out to map the scale and scope of activity and to establish the nature of current approaches to evaluation. The results indicate that the scope of activity, in terms of projects' settings, referral sources, art forms and participation is impressively wide. In terms of scale, however, projects reported low funding and staffing levels that may have implications for the feasibility of routine evaluation in this field. Current approaches to evaluation were limited, but entailed considerable effort and ingenuity, suggesting that projects are keen to demonstrate their benefits. The survey has enabled us to build on the best evaluation practice identified to develop a measure for assessing the mental health, social inclusion and empowerment outcomes of arts participation for people with mental health needs. For the second phase of the study we will work with arts and mental health projects, using the measure alongside qualitative work in a realistic evaluation design, in order to identify the characteristics of effective projects.
Corrias, Michela; Turco, Matteo; Rui, Michele D; Gatta, Angelo; Angeli, Paolo; Merkel, Carlo; Amodio, Piero; Schiff, Sami; Montagnese, Sara
The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been utilized for the diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, its threshold of abnormality has not been formally tested in patients with cirrhosis and its diagnostic/prognostic validity remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess it in a large group of well-characterized outpatients with cirrhosis and no overt HE. One-hundred-and-ninety-one patients underwent clinical assessment, MMSE, electroencephalography (EEG) and paper-and-pencil psychometry (PHES); 117 were followed up for 8 ± 5 months in relation to the occurrence of HE-related hospitalizations. On the day of study, 81 patients (42%) had abnormal EEG and 67 (35%) abnormal PHES; 103 (60%) had a history of HE. Average MMSE was 26.6 ± 3.5; 22 (19%) patients had abnormal MMSE based on the standard threshold of 24. Patients with abnormal EEG/PHES/history of HE had worse MMSE performance than their counterparts with normal tests/negative history (25.7 ± 4.2 vs. 27.3 ± 2.7; P < 0.01; 25.5 ± 3.2 vs. 27.9 ± 1.8, P < 0.0001; 26.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.4 ± 2.6, P < 0.05, respectively). Based on the above results, MMSE thresholds of 26 and 27 were tested against abnormalities in clinical/EEG/PHES indices and significant associations were observed. An MMSE threshold of 26 was also a predictor of HE-related hospitalization (Cox-Mantel: P = 0.001); patients with MMSE <26 were significantly older than those with MMSE ≥26 but comparable in terms of liver dysfunction and ammonia levels. When MMSE items were considered separately, those which correlated most significantly with standard HE indices where spatial orientation and writing. In conclusion, an MMSE <26 identifies older patients with cirrhosis who are more prone to manifest HE signs.
Corrias, Michela; Turco, Matteo; Rui, Michele D.; Gatta, Angelo; Angeli, Paolo; Merkel, Carlo; Amodio, Piero; Schiff, Sami; Montagnese, Sara
Background/objectives The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been utilized for the diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, its threshold of abnormality has not been formally tested in patients with cirrhosis and its diagnostic/prognostic validity remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess it in a large group of well-characterized outpatients with cirrhosis and no overt HE. Methods One-hundred-and-ninety-one patients underwent clinical assessment, MMSE, electroencephalography (EEG) and paper-and-pencil psychometry (PHES); 117 were followed up for 8 ± 5 months in relation to the occurrence of HE-related hospitalizations. Results On the day of study, 81 patients (42%) had abnormal EEG and 67 (35%) abnormal PHES; 103 (60%) had a history of HE. Average MMSE was 26.6 ± 3.5; 22 (19%) patients had abnormal MMSE based on the standard threshold of 24. Patients with abnormal EEG/PHES/history of HE had worse MMSE performance than their counterparts with normal tests/negative history (25.7 ± 4.2 vs. 27.3 ± 2.7; P < 0.01; 25.5 ± 3.2 vs. 27.9 ± 1.8, P < 0.0001; 26.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.4 ± 2.6, P < 0.05, respectively). Based on the above results, MMSE thresholds of 26 and 27 were tested against abnormalities in clinical/EEG/PHES indices and significant associations were observed. An MMSE threshold of 26 was also a predictor of HE-related hospitalization (Cox–Mantel: P = 0.001); patients with MMSE <26 were significantly older than those with MMSE ≥26 but comparable in terms of liver dysfunction and ammonia levels. When MMSE items were considered separately, those which correlated most significantly with standard HE indices where spatial orientation and writing. Conclusion In conclusion, an MMSE <26 identifies older patients with cirrhosis who are more prone to manifest HE signs. PMID:25755545
Mental-level modeling of software is a powerful abstraction in artificial intelligence that is encountered, for example, in the case of autonomous BDI-based agents. An agent of this type is equipped with goals that it attempts to achieve by selecting plans that it considers to be appropriate in
Full Text Available The notion of 'risk' is used in a number of sciences. The Faculty of Law studies the risk depending on its legality. The Accident Theory applies this term to describe the damage and the disasters. One can find studies on the risks in the works of psychology, philosophy, medicine and within each of these areas the study of the risk is based on the given science subject and, of course, on their methods and approaches. Such a variety of risk study is explained by the diversity of this phenomenon. Under the market economy conditions, the risk is an essential component of any economic agent management policy, of the approach developed by this one, a strategy that depends almost entirely on individual ability and capacity to anticipate his evolution and to exploit his opportunities, assuming a so-called 'risk of business failure.' There are several ways to measure the risks in projects, one of the most used methods to measure this being the Value at Risk(VaR. Value at Risk (VaR was made famous by JP Morgan in the mid 1990s, by introducing the RiskMetrics approach, and hence, by far, has been sanctioned by several Governing Bodies throughout the world bank. In short, it measures the value of risk capital stocks in a given period at a certain probability of loss. This measurement can be modified for risk applications through, for example, the potential loss values affirmation in a certain amount of time during the economic life of the project- clearly, a project with a lower VaR is better. It should be noted that it is not always possible or advisable for a company to limit itself to the remote analysis of each risk because the risks and their effects are interdependent and constitute a system .In addition, there are risks which, in combination with other risks, tend to produce effects which they would not have caused by themselves and risks that tend to offset and even cancel each other out.
Benedict, Frances Turcotte; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie
This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Olin, S. Serene; Horwitz, Sarah; McKay, Mary; Cleek, Andrew; Gleacher, Alissa; Lewandowski, Eric; Nadeem, Erum; Acri, Mary; Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Kuppinger, Anne; Burton, Geraldine; Weiss, Dara; Frank, Samantha; Finnerty, Molly; Bradbury, Donna M.; Woodlock, Kristin M.; Hogan, Michael
Dissemination of innovations is widely considered the sine qua non for system improvement. At least two dozen states are rolling-out evidence-based mental health practices targeted at children and families using trainings, consultations, webinars, and learning collaboratives to improve quality and outcomes. In New York State (NYS) a group of researchers, policy-makers, providers and family support specialists have worked in partnership since 2002 to redesign and evaluate the children’s mental health system. Five system strategies driven by empirically-based practices and organized within a state-supported infrastructure have been used in the child and family service system with over 2,000 providers: (a) business practices; (b) use of health information technologies in quality improvement; (c) specific clinical interventions targeted at common childhood disorders; (d) parent activation; and (e) quality indicator development. The NYS system has provided a laboratory for naturalistic experiments. We describe these initiatives, key findings and challenges, lessons learned for scaling, and implications for creating evidence-based implementation policies in state systems. PMID:24460518
Mangan, M.; Wood, N. J.; Dinitz, L.
California is a leader in comprehensive planning for devastating earthquakes, landslides, floods, and tsunamis. Far less attention, however, has focused on the potentially devastating impact of volcanic eruptions, despite the fact that they occur in the State about as frequently as the largest earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault Zone. At least 10 eruptions have occurred in the past 1,000 years—most recently in northern California (Lassen Peak 1914 to 1917)—and future volcanic eruptions are inevitable. The likelihood of renewed volcanism in California is about one in a few hundred to one in a few thousand annually. Eight young volcanoes, ranked as Moderate to Very High Threat  are dispersed throughout the State. Partially molten rock (magma) resides beneath at least seven of these—Medicine Lake Volcano, Mount Shasta, Lassen Volcanic Center, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, Long Valley Volcanic Region, Coso Volcanic Field, and Salton Buttes— causing earthquakes, toxic gas emissions, hydrothermal activity, and (or) ground deformation. Understanding the hazards and identifying what is at risk are the first steps in building community resilience to volcanic disasters. This study, prepared in collaboration with the State of California Governor's Office of Emergency Management and the California Geological Survey, provides a broad perspective on the State's exposure to volcano hazards by integrating mapped volcano hazard zones with geospatial data on at-risk populations, infrastructure, and resources. The study reveals that ~ 16 million acres fall within California's volcano hazard zones, along with ~ 190 thousand permanent and 22 million transitory populations. Additionally, far-field disruption to key water delivery systems, agriculture, utilities, and air traffic is likely. Further site- and sector-specific analyses will lead to improved hazard mitigation efforts and more effective disaster response and recovery.  "Volcanic Threat and Monitoring Capabilities
Papmeyer, Martina; Aston, Jacqueline; Everts-Graber, Judith; Heitz, Ulrike; Studerus, Erich; Borgwardt, Stefan J; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Riecher-Rössler, Anita
We aimed to determine the prognostic accuracy of the Basel Screening Instrument for Psychosis (BSIP) in terms of specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive value by following up individuals that were initially not considered to be at increased risk of psychosis based on the BSIP. Moreover, clinical characteristics of these individuals were examined given the relative lack of such information in the literature. As part of the "Früherkennung von Psychosen" (FePsy) study, 87 individuals were screened with the BSIP. Of these, 64 were classified at baseline as being in an at-risk mental state (ARMS+) for psychosis using the BSIP and followed up at regular time intervals for at least 2 years to determine a putative transition to psychosis. Twenty-three individuals were classified at baseline as not being in an at-risk mental state (ARMS-) using the BSIP and re-assessed after 4 years. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the BSIP were computed. Clinical characteristics of the ARMS- group were analysed descriptively. During the follow-up period, none of the ARMS- individuals, but 21 of ARMS+ had developed psychosis. Sensitivity of the BSIP was 1.0, specificity was 0.35. The majority of ARMS- individuals showed depressive disorders or anxiety disorders and varying levels of functioning. The BSIP has good prognostic accuracy for detecting the prodromal phase of psychosis with an excellent sensitivity and a specificity similar to other risk instruments and the advantage of a relatively short duration. Depressive and anxiety symptoms commonly develop in ARMS- individuals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Full Text Available The state issues related to implementation of the differentiated and individual approach to first-year institutions of higher learning in the process of improving their mental and physical state of the means of physical education. Analysis of scientific literature revealed that such a state of the vast majority of students below this, and adaptation to the training activities carried out by the irrational. In this connection it is necessary to improve student performance marked by using one of the most effective means - exercise, and taking into account their interests, needs, motives. One solution to this problem is the differentiation of the content of exercise on the basis of features, which are characterized by the representatives of different somatotype. At the same time, research in this area are rare, hence the need to address this problem.
Maurivan Batista da Silva
relate it to mental health. We tried to contextualize the purposes of public safety services through a brief history of the state police, its division and how it has been used against daily violence. Based on labor psychology view, we made use of techniques and concepts based on the Ergonomics of the Activity and on Labor Psychodynamics; observing the work process, document research, individual and collective interviews. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that military officers are in the center of a link of forces coming from work organization, the precariousness of the work and, finally, from the contemporary society. The ways these relationships of forces are joined contribute to harmful implications to the mental health of professionals, favoring the increase in psychological suffering and it can lead to alcoholism, depression, and even suicide. Data from Medical Council of João Pessoa, (2003 to 2005, show an average of 489 military officers who retired from work on medical grounds. These are worrisome figures in an area of public service that is essential to the population. These figures would be higher if the leaves granted in the workplace were also included. Procedures for granting internal leaves occur in an attempt to mediate the possible long period of health treatment.
Padgett, Deborah K
As the homelessness 'crisis' in the United States enters a third decade, few are as adversely affected as persons with serious mental illness. Despite recent evidence favoring a 'housing first' approach, the dominant 'treatment first' approach persists in which individuals must climb a ladder of program requirements before becoming eligible for an apartment of their own. Drawing upon the concept of 'ontological security', this qualitative study examines the subjective meaning of 'home' among 39 persons who were part of a unique urban experiment that provided New York City's homeless mentally ill adults with immediate access to independent housing in the late 1990s. The study design involved purposively sampling from the experimental (housing first) group (N=21) and the control (treatment first) group (N=18) and conducting two life history interviews with each participant. Markers of ontological security-constancy, daily routines, privacy, and having a secure base for identity construction-provided sensitizing concepts for grounded theory analyses designed to also yield emergent, or new, themes. Findings revealed clear evidence of the markers of ontological security among participants living in their own apartments. This study expands upon previous research showing that homeless mentally ill persons are capable of independent living in the community. The emergent theme of 'what's next' questions and uncertainty about the future points to the need to address problems of stigma and social exclusion that extend beyond the minimal achievement of having a 'home'.
Mann, Farhana; Bone, Jessica K; Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Frerichs, Johanna; Pinfold, Vanessa; Ma, Ruimin; Wang, Jingyi; Johnson, Sonia
There is growing evidence of significant harmful effects of loneliness. Relatively little work has focused on how best to reduce loneliness in people with mental health problems. We aim to present an overview of the current state of the art in loneliness interventions in people with mental health problems, identify relevant challenges, and highlight priorities for future research and implementation. A scoping review of the published and grey literature was conducted, as well as discussions with relevant experts, to propose a broad classification system for types of interventions targeting loneliness. We categorised interventions as 'direct', targeting loneliness and related concepts in social relationships, and 'indirect' broader approaches to well-being that may impact on loneliness. We describe four broad groups of direct interventions: changing cognitions; social skills training and psychoeducation; supported socialisation or having a 'socially-focused supporter'; and 'wider community approaches'. The most promising emerging evidence appears to be in 'changing cognitions', but, as yet, no approaches have a robust evidence base. Challenges include who is best placed to offer the intervention, how to test such complex interventions, and the stigma surrounding loneliness. Development of clearly defined loneliness interventions, high-quality trials of effectiveness, and identifying which approaches work best for whom is required. Promising future approaches may include wider community initiatives and social prescribing. It is important to place loneliness and social relationships high on the wider public mental health and research agenda.
Xin Xu; Shifu Xiao; Tri Budi Rahardjo; Eef Hogervorst
Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM) in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of <19 and a MMSE cut-off score of <24, a total of 69 DEM case...
Tobias Vogt; Rainer Herpers; Askew, Christopher D.; David Scherfgen; Heiko K. Strüder; Stefan Schneider
Virtual reality environments are increasingly being used to encourage individuals to exercise more regularly, including as part of treatment those with mental health or neurological disorders. The success of virtual environments likely depends on whether a sense of presence can be established, where participants become fully immersed in the virtual environment. Exposure to virtual environments is associated with physiological responses, including cortical activation changes. Whether the add...
Proctor, Enola K; Landsverk, John; Baumann, Ana A; Mittman, Brian S; Aarons, Gregory A; Brownson, Ross C; Glisson, Charles; Chambers, David
The Implementation Research Institute (IRI) provides two years of training in mental health implementation science for 10 new fellows each year. The IRI is supported by a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) R25 grant and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Fellows attend two annual week-long trainings at Washington University in St. Louis. Training is provided through a rigorous curriculum, local and national mentoring, a 'learning site visit' to a federally funded implementation research project, pilot research, and grant writing. This paper describes the rationale, components, outcomes to date, and participant experiences with IRI. IRI outcomes include 31 newly trained implementation researchers, their new grant proposals, contributions to other national dissemination and implementation research training, and publications in implementation science authored by the Core Faculty and fellows. Former fellows have obtained independent research funding in implementation science and are beginning to serve as mentors for more junior investigators. Based on the number of implementation research grant proposals and papers produced by fellows to date, the IRI is proving successful in preparing new researchers who can inform the process of making evidence-based mental healthcare more available through real-world settings of care and who are advancing the field of implementation science.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. Results: In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Conclusion: Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement.
Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H
While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy.
Chlebowski, Susan M
The child whose mother is diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is at risk for developing this disorder. The mother with BPD may be limited in her ability to negotiate a secure attachment with her baby. Mothers with BPD may have difficulties with bonding, internalization, affect attunement, and attachment. Because it is through mirroring and mentalization that a child can learn emotional regulation and master the early stages of development, the child may fail to develop object constancy and master the tasks of separation and individuation. The authors present two cases of patients with BPD. The first case is of a patient with BPD who, after surrendering custody of her two children to their father, participated in weekly Dynamic Deconstructive Psychotherapy sessions for two years. The second case is a mother with BPD who presents for dyadic therapy with her three-month-old daughter. In each case the mother developed insight regarding her relationship with her mother and how that relationship affected the relationship with her own child. The author concludes that psychiatry should consider prepartum screening for BPD and if necessary, early dyadic intervention.
Grundberg, Åke; Hansson, Anna; Religa, Dorota; Hillerås, Pernilla
Elderly people with multiple chronic conditions, or multimorbidity, are at risk of developing poor mental health. These seniors often remain in their homes with support from home care assistants (HCAs). Mental health promotion by HCAs needs to be studied further because they may be among the first to observe changes in clients' mental health status. To describe HCAs' perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among homebound seniors with multimorbidity. We applied a descriptive qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews. Content analyses were performed on five focus group interviews conducted in 2014 with 26 HCAs. Most HCAs stated that they were experienced in caring for clients with mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and high alcohol consumption. The HCAs mentioned as causes, or risk factors, multiple chronic conditions, feelings of loneliness, and social isolation. The findings reveal that continuity of care and seniors' own thoughts and perceptions were essential to detecting mental health problems. Observation, collaboration, and social support emerged as important means of detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health. The HCAs had knowledge of risk factors, but they seemed insecure about which health professionals had the primary responsibility for mental health. They also seemed to have detected early signs of mental health problems, even though good personal knowledge of the client and continuity in home visits were crucial to do so. When it came to mental health promotion, the suggestions related to the aim of ending social isolation, decreasing feelings of loneliness, and increasing physical activity. The results indicate that the HCAs seemed dependent on supervision by district nurses and on care managers' decisions to support the needed care, to schedule assignments related to the detection of mental health problems, and to promote mental health.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide an answer to the question of whether, and what, differences in stress coping strategies could be found between university students at risk and those not at risk of mobile phone addiction. The study included 408 students aged 19 to 28 years. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mobile Phone Addiction Assessment Questionnaire (in Polish, Kwestionariusz do Badania Uzależnienia od Telefonu Komórkowego, KBUTK by Pawłowska and Potembska, and the Coping with Stress Questionnaire (SVF by Janke, Erdmann, and Boucsein, translated into Polish by Januszewska. The results of the study showed that individuals at risk of mobile phone addiction were more likely to cope with stress by seeking substitute gratification, reacting with resignation, passivity, dejection and hopelessness, blaming themselves, pitying themselves and looking for support. They also tended to ruminate over their suffering, withdraw from social interactions, react with aggression and/or take to drinking.
... in interscholastic or community level competitive sports are not eligible afterschool care programs... otherwise required, at-risk afterschool care centers must meet State or local health and safety standards. When State or local health and safety standards have not been established, State agencies are...
... labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? ... for preterm labor and premature birth. What are preterm labor and premature birth? Preterm and premature mean ...
... NHLBI on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for Coronary Microvascular Disease? Coronary microvascular disease can affect both men and women. However, women may be at risk for coronary microvascular disease if they have lower than normal levels of ...
Bloemer, J.M.M.; Brijs, T.; Swinnen, S.P.; Vanhoof, K.
This paper evaluates complete versus partial classification for the problem of identifying customers at risk. We define customers at risk as customers reporting overall satisfaction, but these customers also possess characteristics that are strongly associated with dissatisfied customers. This
Sociocultural approaches to children and youth at risk are lacking. This paper presentation uses the notion of recognition and trajectory of participation in order to explain the participation of youth at risk while at residential care......Sociocultural approaches to children and youth at risk are lacking. This paper presentation uses the notion of recognition and trajectory of participation in order to explain the participation of youth at risk while at residential care...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between estimated Mental Retardation (MR and school dropout in a sample of students of the third and fourth grades at state schools in Porto Alegre, the capital of the southernmost state of Brazil. METHOD: In this case - control study, students that dropped out from schools (n=44 and a control group who continued attending schools (n=44 had their intelligence quotient (IQ determined by the vocabulary and cubes subtests of the Wescheler Intelligence Scale fraction three-quarters third edition (WISCfraction three-quartersIII. Students with IQ lower than 70 were considered as potential cases of MR. Other prevalent mental disorders in this age range were assessed in both groups using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Schoolfraction three-quarters Age Children, Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E. RESULTS: The prevalence of potential MR was significantly higher in the dropped out group than in the control group (p<0.001. Odds ratio for school dropout was significantly higher in the presence of MR even after controlling for potentially confounding factors (age, conduct disorder, grade repetition, family structure and income (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Children with IQ lower than 70 (potential MR were at higher risk for school dropout. These children need to be identified at school and specific educational strategies should be implemented to assure their inclusion in the learning process.
Bright, Measha; Parker, Sophie; French, Paul; Fowler, David; Gumley, Andrew; Morrison, Anthony P; Birchwood, Max; Jones, Peter B; Stewart, Suzanne L K; Wells, Adrian
Poor social functioning has been found to be present in those at risk for psychosis. This study aimed to examine metacognitive beliefs as potential predictors of structured activity (measure of social functioning) in those with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS). Regression and correlation analyses were conducted. The sample included 109 young people. Age was found to be positively correlated to structured activity. Metacognitive beliefs concerning uncontrollability and danger of worry were found to negatively predict structured activity. This was after controlling for age, gender, treatment allocation, cognitive schemas, positive symptom severity, social anxiety, and depression. Metacognitive danger items were most important. Age was the only control variable found to be an independent predictor of structured activity in the regression model, despite negative bi-variate relationships with structured activity found across three cognitive schema subscales and social anxiety. This is the first study to find that higher negative metacognitive beliefs about uncontrollability and danger predict lower social functioning in an ARMS sample, and that the perception of thoughts being dangerous was of particular importance. Psychological interventions should consider targeting this metacognitive dimension to increase social functioning. Future longitudinal research is required to strengthen findings in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Salerno, John P.
Background: Stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness and low mental health literacy have been identified as links to social adversity, and barriers to seeking and adhering to treatment among adolescents suffering from mental illness. Prior research has found that it is possible to improve these outcomes using school-based mental health…
Barone, Lavinia; Fossati, Andrea; Guiducci, Valentina
We report the outcome of an investigation on how specific attachment states of mind and corresponding risk factors related to different DSM Axis I comorbidities in subjects with BPD. Mental representations of attachment in four BPD sub-groups (BPD and Anxiety/Mood Disorders, BPD and Substance Use and Abuse Disorders, BPD and Alcohol Use and Abuse Disorders, and BPD and Eating Disorders) were assessed in 140 BPD subjects using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). In addition to the global attachment picture in which Insecure organized (Dismissing 51% and Enmeshed 35%) and Insecure disorganized categories (40%) were overrepresented, significant differences in attachment category were found between the four BPD sub-groups. Axis I comorbidities corresponded with attachment features on the internalizing/externalizing functioning dimension of the disorder. Furthermore, specific constellations of inferred developmental antecedents and attachment states of mind corresponded differentially with the BPD sub-groups. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.
Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Caswell, Dorte; Marston, Greg
The paper explores recent developments in Australian and Danish unemployment policies with a special focus on the technologies used to classify and categorize unemployed people on government benefits. Using governmentality as our theoretical framework, we consider the implications of reducing...... complex social problems to statistical scores and differentiated categories – forms of knowledge that diminish the capacity to think about unemployment as a collective problem requiring collective solutions. What we argue is that classification systems, which are part and parcel of welfare state...
Full Text Available The aim of the study was the assessment of physical and mental health of school-age children from the war zone in the Eastern Ukraine. Materials and methods. Clinical and instrumental examination was performed in 286 children aged 7–18 years, of which 209 were from the zone of the antiterrorist operation, and 77 — children of migrants from the Donetsk and Luhansk regions. The comparison group consisted of 672 children of the same age of the Kharkiv region and Kharkiv. To determine the characteristics of violations of children’s mental health, there was conducted a clinical and psychological examination by filling a special form. Results. It was found that most of the children from the war zone in the Eastern Ukraine and migrants had somatic and psychosomatic complaints. The data were obtained on polymorphism of clinical symptoms regarding psychopathological disorders in this cohort, with predominance in the clinical structure of fatigue, emotional instability, stress, and increased physical fatigue, recurrent headaches, dizziness. Conclusions. It was found that in terms of the incidence of most clinical entities with respect to somatic and psychiatric pathologies, the differences between the study group and population controls are absent. One of the priorities of maintaining and strengthening the health of children during the military conflict in the East of Ukraine is the need to develop and put into practice active psychoprophylactic activities regarding adaptation disorders.
Hernández, Sergio Elías; Barros-Loscertales, Alfonso; Xiao, Yaqiong; González-Mora, José Luis; Rubia, Katya
Some meditation techniques teach the practitioner to achieve the state of mental silence. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions that are associated with their volume and functional connectivity (FC) with the depth of mental silence in long-term practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation. Twenty-three long-term practitioners of this meditation were scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In order to identify the neural correlates of the depth of mental silence, we tested which gray matter volumes (GMV) were correlated with the depth of mental silence and which regions these areas were functionally connected to under a meditation condition. GMV in medial prefrontal cortex including rostral anterior cingulate cortex were positively correlated with the subjective perception of the depth of mental silence inside the scanner. Furthermore, there was significantly increased FC between this area and bilateral anterior insula/putamen during a meditation-state specifically, while decreased connectivity with the right thalamus/parahippocampal gyrus was present during the meditation-state and the resting-state. The capacity of long-term meditators to establish a durable state of mental silence inside an MRI scanner was associated with larger gray matter volume in a medial frontal region that is crucial for top-down cognitive, emotion and attention control. This is furthermore corroborated by increased FC of this region during the meditation-state with bilateral anterior insula/putamen, which are important for interoception, emotion, and attention regulation. The findings hence suggest that the depth of mental silence is associated with medial fronto-insular-striatal networks that are crucial for top-down attention and emotional control. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. All rights reserved.
Aarons, Gregory A; Glisson, Charles; Green, Phillip D; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kelleher, Kelly J.; Landsverk, John A; ,
AbstractBackgroundEvidence-based practices have not been routinely adopted in community mental health organizations despite the support of scientific evidence and in some cases even legislative or regulatory action. We examined the association of clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice with organizational culture, climate, and other characteristics in a nationally representative sample of mental health organizations in the United States.MethodsIn-person, group-administered surveys ...
Lawson, Nicholas D.
Purpose This study examined the relationship between estimates of the prevalence of mental disorders and mental health stigma. It also examined whether stigma might be more greatly associated with the terms ?mental illness,? ?mental disorder,? or ?mental health condition.? Methods Respondents (N?=?302) on Amazon?s Mechanical Turk completed an online survey designed to measure social distance, which is one variant of stigma. Half of the respondents were informed at the beginning of the survey ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many refugees live for years in exile. The combination of stress in the host country, together with long-term effects resulting from traumatic stress usually experienced in the home country may affect mental health. Little is known, to what extent these and other factors promote or stall the willingness to return to the country of origin. Here, we investigate, as an example, refugees who will return to their country of origin after having lived in exile in Germany for some 11 years. Objective What is the mental health status of returnees before the actual return who have been living in exile for an extended period? We also asked, what are the current living conditions in Germany and what are the motives for and reasons against a voluntary return to the country of origin? Methods Forty-seven participants of programs for assisted voluntarreturn were interviewed about their present living situation, their view regarding their home country and voluntary return. These findings were compared to a group of 53 refugees who had decided to remain in Germany (stayers. Participants were recruited by means of advertisements posted in refugee centres, language schools, at doctors' offices and in organisations involved in the management of voluntary return in Germany. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among respondents was tested using the structured interview M.I.N.I. The Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS was used to assess PTSD in more detail and EUROHIS was applied to measure the subjective quality of life of participants. Results We found a prevalence rate of 44% psychiatric disorders in the group of returnees and a rate of 78% in the group of stayers. We also recorded substantial correlations between the living situation in Germany, disposition to return and mental health. In almost two thirds of the participants the decision to return was not voluntary but strongly influenced by immigration authorities. The most
Ellenbogen, Stephen; Chamberland, Claire
Compared the characteristics of friends, the environments of the friendship network, and the nature of peer relations of students (N=191) at-risk and not at risk of leaving high school. Results indicate that at risk students had more dropout friends, more working friends, fewer school friends, and fewer same-sex friends. (RJM)
Blosnich, John R; Marsiglio, Mary C; Gao, Shasha; Gordon, Adam J; Shipherd, Jillian C; Kauth, Michael; Brown, George R; Fine, Michael J
To examine whether indicators of community- and state-level lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender equality are associated with transgender veterans' mental health. We extracted Veterans Administration data for patients who were diagnosed with gender identity disorder, had at least 1 visit in 2013, and lived in a zip code with a Municipality Equality Index score (n = 1640). We examined the associations of whether a state included transgender status in employment nondiscrimination laws and in hate crimes laws with mood disorders; alcohol, illicit drug, and tobacco use disorders; posttraumatic stress disorder; and suicidal ideation or attempt. Nearly half (47.3%) of the sample lived in states with employment discrimination protection, and 44.8% lived in states with hate crimes protection. Employment nondiscrimination protection was associated with 26% decreased odds of mood disorders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59, 0.93) and 43% decreased odds of self-directed violence (AOR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.95). Understanding lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender social stressors can inform treatment and care coordination for transgender populations.
Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Chiu, Helen; Copeland, John; Dewey, Michael; Scazufca, Marcia; Varghese, Mathew
The Geriatric Mental State (GMS) is the most widely used psychiatric research assessment for older persons. Evidence for validity comes from the developed world. To assess the validity of GMS/AGECAT organicity and depression diagnoses in 26 centres in India, China, Latin America and Africa. We studied 2941 persons aged 60 years and over: 742 people with dementia and three groups free of dementia (697 with depression, 719 with high and 783 with low levels of education). Local clinicians diagnosed dementia (DSM-IV) and depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score >/=18). For dementia diagnosis GMS/AGECAT performed well in many centres but educational bias was evident. Specificity was poor in India and sensitivity sub-optimal in Latin America. A predictive algorithm excluding certain orientation items but including interviewer judgements improved upon the AGECAT algorithm. For depression, sensitivity was high. The EURO-D depression scale, derived from GMS items using European data, has a similar factor structure in Latin America, India and, to a lesser extent, China. Valid, comprehensive mental status assessment across cultures seems achievable in principle.
Constantino, Patricia; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach
The aim of this article is to assess the mental health status of inmates and people in custody in the state of Rio de Janeiro and the association between mental health and imprisonment using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory for Adults. 1,573 individuals, via stratified sampling with probability proportional to size. more than half have up to 29 years old; 70.6% were black/brown; 77.4% had strong family ties; 42.9% had been incarcerated for under a year; and 22,9% performed work tasks in prison. Stress: 35.8% of men and 57.9% of women. Factors associated with stress among men: length of time in prison and family ties. Male prisoners who had been in prison for between 1 and 9 years are 0.55 times less likely to experience stress symptoms than those who had been in prison for less than a year; those with regular/weak family ties are more likely to experience stress than those with strong ties. Women with only regular/weak family ties are more likely to experience stress; work tasks performed in prison was a protective factor. Depression: 7.5% of women and 6.3% of men. Among men, practicing a religion, maintaining strong family ties, and performing prison work tasks are protective factors. Among women, an association was found between depression and family ties.
Willging, Cathleen E; Salvador, Melina; Kano, Miria
This qualitative study examined how lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in rural areas of the poor and multiethnic state of New Mexico access secular (professional and lay) and sacred (indigenous and Christian) mental health care resources. In-depth, semistructured interviews were used to document the help-seeking processes of 38 rural LGBT people. Obtaining assistance was complicated by the ideal of self-reliance and the view of mental illness as a sign of weakness. Financial considerations and a lack of and community-based LGBT social networks also exerted substantial influence on help seeking. Many LGBT people would strategically remain silent about their sexuality or gender status and rely on their family ties to access the range of secular and sacred resources that are most commonly available in medically underserved rural communities. Although persons from sexual and gender minority groups often experience positive outcomes as a result of help seeking, some LGBT people remain vulnerable to anti-LGBT sentiments that persist within secular and sacred sectors of rural health care systems.
Cullati, Stéphane; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine
Mental health trajectories are known to be influenced by work and family circumstances. However, few studies have examined both of these influences simultaneously in a longitudinal manner. The life-course perspective stresses the importance of examining trajectories in terms of both stable and dynamic components. In this article we use structural equation models (latent state-trait, LST) to distinguish the stable and situational components of mental health trajectories and hypothesise that situational mental health is influenced by satisfaction with work and family, and this effect differs by gender. An analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of 1616 working Swiss residents (2000-2006) shows that mental health trajectories are mostly stable and only slightly sensitive to situational influences. However, situational influences in a given wave do predict situational influences in the next wave. Satisfaction with work and family influences situational mental health in both genders, but the impact is greater for men. In conclusion, the LST approach allows for the examination of mental health trajectories from a life-course perspective by distinguishing stable and situational components. Mental health trajectories are more stable and constant than they are dependent on work and family circumstances, and men are more sensitive to family circumstances than women. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons.
Pinto, Giuliana; Tarchi, Christian; Bigozzi, Lucia
Joint narratives are a mean through which children develop and practice their Theory of Mind (ToM), thus they represent an ideal means to explore children’s use and development of mental state talk. However, creating a learning environment for storytelling based on peer interaction, does not necessarily mean that students will automatically exploit it by engaging in productive collaboration, thus it is important to explore under what conditions peer interaction promotes children’s ToM. This study extends our understanding of social aspects of ToM, focusing on the effect of joint narratives on school-age children’s mental state talk. Fifty-six Italian primary school children participated in the study (19 females and 37 males). Children created a story in two different experimental conditions (individually and with a partner randomly assigned). Each story told by the children, as well as their dialogs were recorded and transcribed. Transcriptions of narratives were coded in terms of text quality and mental state talk, whereas transcriptions of dialogs were coded in terms of quality of interaction. The results from this study confirmed that peer interaction does not always improve children’s mental state talk performances in oral narratives, but certain conditions need to be satisfied. Peer interaction was more effective on mental state talk with lower individual levels and productive interactions, particularly in terms of capacity to regulate the interactions. When children were able to focus on the interaction, as well as the product, they were also exposed to each other’s reasoning behind their viewpoint. This level of intersubjectivity, in turn, allowed them to take more in consideration the contribution of mental states to the narrative. PMID:27826283
Anna van der Meulen
Full Text Available The ability to read mental states from subtle facial cues is an important part of Theory of Mind, which can contribute to children's daily life social functioning. Mental state reading performance is influenced by the specific interactions in which it is applied; familiarity with characteristics of these interactions (such as the person can enhance performance. The aim of this research is to gain insight in this context effect for mental state reading in children, assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME task that originally consists of pictures of adults' eyes. Because of differences between children and adults in roles, development and frequency of interaction, children are more familiar with mental state reading of other children. It can therefore be expected that children's mental state reading depends on whether this is assessed with children's or adults' eyes. A new 14 item version of the RME for children was constructed with pictures of children instead of adults (study 1. This task was used and compared to the original child RME in 6–10 year olds (N = 718, study 2 and 8–14 year olds (N = 182, study 3. Children in both groups performed better on the new RME than on the original RME. Item level findings of the new RME were in line with previous findings on the task and test re-test reliability (in a subgroup of older children, n = 95 was adequate (0.47. This suggests that the RME with children's eyes can assess children's daily life mental state reading and supplement existing ToM tasks.
Abdullah Maria Chong
Full Text Available This study examined the relationships between emotional intelligence (EI and the delinquent behavior (DB of the students. The level of DB reported by the students is categorized under the headings of crime, drugs, vandalism, pornography and sexual behavior, other misbehavior, and dishonesty. Meanwhile, EI is investigated by looking at the level of EI domains, such as self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation, empathy, social skills, maturity, and spiritual awareness. Data were gathered from a sample of 300 secondary school students aged 15 to 18 years in Selangor. The schools they attended were selected from the so-called “hardcore schools,” which were identified by Schools Division in the State of Selangor. Two instruments, namely, surveys on the “Behavior of Students” and “Malaysian Emotional Quotient Inventory (R–Adolescence (MEQI,” were utilized to collect the research data and were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The data showed that the highest delinquency among the adolescents was misbehavior in school, followed by crime, vandalism, pornography, dishonesty, and drugs. Results also revealed a negative linear relationship between EI (r = −.208, n = 300, p = .001 and DB, implying that adolescents with better EI had lower levels of delinquency. Multiple regression analysis revealed that EI is a significant predictor of DB and self-awareness is the main factor of DB. This study contributes to the knowledge of the importance of EI in understanding DB. EI can be used to identify and discriminate emotional skills among those adolescents who exhibit DB. Addressing the role of EI as a predictor would probably prove to be effective in reducing DB.
Full Text Available Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of <19 and a MMSE cut-off score of <24, a total of 69 DEM cases were identified. Risk factors, such as advanced age (≥68 years, low education (no or primary level, self-reported history of hypertension, and self-reported subjective memory complaints (SMC were significantly predictive of DEM. The presence of ≥3 out of four of the above mentioned risk factors can effectively discriminate DEM cases from non-DEM subjects.
Full Text Available This study explores whether the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE could reliably exclude definite dementia and dementia-free cases from requiring more extensive neuropsychological investigations in memory clinic settings in Singapore. Patients with memory complaints referred for possible dementia underwent the MMSE, followed by standardized neuropsychological and clinical assessments which led to a consensus diagnosis. MMSE cut-off points were derived stratified for education (less and equal/above primary level. Results show that after education stratification, using an optimal Positive Likelihood Ratio (PLR and optimal Negative Likelihood Ratio (NLR, a higher percentage of patients were correctly identified as having dementia or dementia-free, with minimal misclassification rate. The finding suggests the MMSE can be used to exclude patients not requiring full neuropsychological assessments in a memory clinic.
Kerker, Bonnie D; Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Radigan, Marleen; Perkins, Matthew B; Setias, Jade; Wang, Rui; Olin, S Serene; Horwitz, Sarah M
The authors evaluated Project TEACH (PT), a statewide training and consultation program for pediatric primary care providers (PCPs) on identification and treatment of mental health conditions. An intervention group of 176 PCPs who volunteered for PT training was compared with a stratified random sample of 200 PCPs who did not receive PT training. Data on prescription practices, diagnoses, and follow-up care were from New York State Medicaid files (2009-2013) for youths seen by the trained (N=21,784) and untrained (N=46,607) PCPs. The percentage of children prescribed psychotropic medication increased after PT training (9% to 12%, p<.001), a larger increase than in the untrained group (4% to 5%, p<.001) (comparison, p<.001). Fewer differences were noted in diagnoses and in medication use and follow-up care among children with depression. This intervention may have an impact on providers' behaviors, but further research is needed to clarify its effectiveness.
Full Text Available The central coherence involves the processes of perceptual coding and attention mechanisms, highly deficient in children with ADHD (Booth & Happé, 2010. According to this theory, also children with autism are overly focused on details to the expense of a global perspective, and this negatively affects their ability to integrate environmental stimuli into a coherent whole (Happé, Booth, Charlton, Hughes, 2006. The aim of this study was to determine differences in central coherence of children with high functioning autism (ASD; n=10, children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=10 and typically developing peers (n=10. Individuals with ADHD exhibit significant deficits in perceptual skills and problem solving, failing also in mental states understanding tasks. While the children with autism spectrum disorder show impairments in making pragmatic inferences. Future research should therefore concentrate on the investigation of the cognitive and psychological mechanisms underlying these effects.
Omurtag, Ahmet; Aghajani, Haleh; Onur Keles, Hasan
Objective. Concurrent scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which we refer to as EEG+fNIRS, promises greater accuracy than the individual modalities while remaining nearly as convenient as EEG. We sought to quantify the hybrid system’s ability to decode mental states and compare it with its unimodal components. Approach. We recorded from healthy volunteers taking the category fluency test and applied machine learning techniques to the data. Main results. EEG+fNIRS’s decoding accuracy was greater than that of its subsystems, partly due to the new type of neurovascular features made available by hybrid data. Significance. Availability of an accurate and practical decoding method has potential implications for medical diagnosis, brain-computer interface design, and neuroergonomics.
Fortuna, L R; Álvarez, K; Ramos Ortiz, Z; Wang, Y; Mozo Alegría, X; Cook, B L; Alegría, M
Immigration stress appears to augment the risk for suicide behaviors for Latinos. Yet, specific risk factors that contribute to suicidal ideation (SI) among diverse Latino immigrant populations are not well established. Data were collected in Boston, Madrid and Barcelona using a screening battery assessing mental health, substance abuse risk, trauma exposure, demographics, and sociocultural factors. Prevalence rates of lifetime and 30-day SI were compared across sites. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify sociodemographic, clinical, and sociocultural-contextual factors associated with 30-day SI. Five hundred and sixty-seven Latino patients from primary care, behavioral health and HIV clinics and community agencies participated. Rates of lifetime SI ranged from 29-35%; rates for 30-day SI were 21-23%. Rates of SI were not statistically different between sites. Factors associated with SI included exposure to discrimination, lower ethnic identity, elevated family conflict, and low sense of belonging (PLatinos suffering depression, trauma exposure, and immigration stressors are more likely to experience SI. Despite differences in country of origin, education, and other demographic factors between countries, rates of SI did not differ. Recommendations for prevention and clinical practice for addressing suicidal ideation risk among Latino immigrants are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Football supporters, by and large, continue to have a negative image and be presented in a very destructive way by the media generally. This has been reflected academically by the fact that much of the research that has been done into football and football fans has focused on negative aspects of small numbers of supporters' behaviours such as hooliganism and racism. This paper describes a two stage study exploring some of the more positive effects noted during studies with football fans from Mansfield Town, a team currently in the third division of the English Football League. The study explores the perceived benefits to mental health for fans gained from the supporting experience in such areas as stress relief, catharsis and the development of good parent-child relationships. Discussion takes place around the paradox that some of the behaviours described by supporters as beneficial and done in 'the spirit of carnival' may challenge liberal beliefs and be viewed as antisocial and offensive. The key feature in health promotional terms is the overwhelming view of fans that the 'carnivalesque' behaviours stay in the football ground where such behaviours are viewed as acceptable and socially sanctioned.
Korngold, Caleb; Ochoa, Kristen; Inlender, Talia; McNiel, Dale; Binder, Renée
Most immigrant detainees held in U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) facilities do not have legal representation, because immigration proceedings are a matter of civil, not criminal, law. In 2005, Mr. Franco, an immigrant from Mexico with an IQ between 35 and 55, was found incompetent to stand trial, but was not appointed an attorney for his immigration proceedings. This failure led to a class action lawsuit, known as the Franco litigation, and in April 2013, a federal judge ordered the U. S. government to provide legal representation for immigrant detainees in California, Arizona, and Washington who are incompetent to represent themselves due to a mental disorder or defect. This development has implications for forensic evaluators, because there is likely to be an increase in the number of competency examinations requested by courts for immigrant detainees. Furthermore, forensic evaluators must understand that an evaluation for competency of an immigrant detainee includes both the Dusky criteria and capacity for self-representation. In this article, we explore the legal context and ethics concerns related to the Franco litigation. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
treatment and etiology of psychological disorders relate to seeking professional help at a military mental health clinic and to general healthcare...beliefs about six different disorders or diseases (Cocaine Addiction, Mental Retardation , AIDS, Psychosis, Depression, and Cancer). The PDAQ has three...08-2-0702 TITLE: Mental Health and Resilience: Soldiers’ Perceptions about Psychotherapy, Medication, and Barriers to Care in the United
Waerden, J.E.B. van der; Hoefnagels, C.C.J.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Jansen, M.W.J.
Background: Most disadvantaged women are exposed to risk factors for depression, but not all necessarily have an identical risk for this mental health problem. A better prediction of which low socioeconomic status (SES) women are most at risk for depressive symptoms can help target preventive
Quinn, Tori; Cavanaugh, Lauren
Mental toughness (MT) is defined as a set of attributes that allow an individual to persevere through difficult circumstances that ultimately can lead to successful outcomes. It is also a critical component of maximizing the performance of an athlete. These attributes assist with and promote a state of mind that enhances performance. A negative…
Background Evidence-based practices have not been routinely adopted in community mental health organizations despite the support of scientific evidence and in some cases even legislative or regulatory action. We examined the association of clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice with organizational culture, climate, and other characteristics in a nationally representative sample of mental health organizations in the United States. Methods In-person, group-administered surveys were conducted with a sample of 1,112 mental health service providers in a nationwide sample of 100 mental health service institutions in 26 states in the United States. The study examines these associations with a two-level Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analysis of responses to the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) at the individual clinician level as a function of the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measure at the organizational level, controlling for other organization and clinician characteristics. Results We found that more proficient organizational cultures and more engaged and less stressful organizational climates were associated with positive clinician attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice. Conclusions The findings suggest that organizational intervention strategies for improving the organizational social context of mental health services may contribute to the success of evidence-based practice dissemination and implementation efforts by influencing clinician attitudes. PMID:22726759
Aarons Gregory A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based practices have not been routinely adopted in community mental health organizations despite the support of scientific evidence and in some cases even legislative or regulatory action. We examined the association of clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice with organizational culture, climate, and other characteristics in a nationally representative sample of mental health organizations in the United States. Methods In-person, group-administered surveys were conducted with a sample of 1,112 mental health service providers in a nationwide sample of 100 mental health service institutions in 26 states in the United States. The study examines these associations with a two-level Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM analysis of responses to the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS at the individual clinician level as a function of the Organizational Social Context (OSC measure at the organizational level, controlling for other organization and clinician characteristics. Results We found that more proficient organizational cultures and more engaged and less stressful organizational climates were associated with positive clinician attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice. Conclusions The findings suggest that organizational intervention strategies for improving the organizational social context of mental health services may contribute to the success of evidence-based practice dissemination and implementation efforts by influencing clinician attitudes.
Krajcovicova, Lenka; Marecek, Radek; Mikl, Michal; Rektorova, Irena
The resting brain exhibits continuous intrinsic activity, which is correlated between groups of regions forming resting state networks. Evaluating resting connectivity is a popular approach for studying brain diseases. Several hundred studies are now available that address integrity of resting connectivity in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as well as preclinical at-risk subjects. Most studies focus on the default mode network, a system of specific brain areas showing strong connected resting activity that attenuates during goal-directed behavior. The extent of intrinsic brain activity tends to be strongly correlated with cognitive processes and is specifically disrupted in AD and MCI patients and at-risk subjects, with changes seeming to evolve during the transition between the disease stages. In this study, we review the current findings in default mode network and other resting state network studies in AD and MCI patients and at-risk subjects as assessed by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Lykes, M B; Brabeck, M M; Ferns, T; Radan, A
The Task Force of the American Psychological Association Division 35, Psychology of Women, conducted a literature review of resources from Latin America to examine the social dimensions of state-sponsored violence in Latin America, their effects on socialization and community, and some responses of women surviving these experiences. It limited its review to works of women's groups, progressive organizations, and individual women exploring the effects of war and state-sponsored violence on women's mental health. Recurring emergent themes included the false dichotomy of violence committed against women in public versus that committed in private, silencing of women accompanies state imposed terror, collective resistance to such terror. The resources addressed 3 types of women's experiences of violence: exile within and beyond one's national borders; torture--an extreme form of state-sponsored violence; and nontraditional, culturally appropriate interventions--alternatives to Western models. This review motivated the Task Force to call on their colleagues to contribute to the on-going documentation of state-sponsored violence. Task Force members identified several areas for collaborative research and/or theory development. Psychologists should question the validity of clinical neutrality and examine the particular meanings of non-neutrality within different cultures. For example, some Latin American psychologists reject diagnoses of intrapsychic syndromes (e.g., post-traumatic stress syndrome) and propose concepts that center on the nexus of individuals and social life. The Task Force sees great opportunities for US psychologists to network and to form solidarity-based relationships with Latin American women. It has identified many women's groups working in Latin America. Human rights organizations (e.g., Americas Watch) have formed women's projects. Further work should be done to improve resource exchanges.
Karch, D L; Barker, L; Strine, T W
To calculate the prevalence of substance abuse and mental illness among suicide victims of different racial/ethnic groups and to identify race/ethnicity trends in mental health and substance abuse that may be used to improve suicide prevention. Data are from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based data integration system that, for 2004, includes data from 13 US states. The NVDRS integrates medical examiner, toxicology, death certificate, and law enforcement data. Within participating states, for data year 2004, 6865 suicide incidents in which race/ethnicity are known were identified. This included 5797 (84.4%) non-Hispanic whites, 501 (7.3%) non-Hispanic blacks, 257 (3.7%) Hispanics, and 310 (4.5%) persons from other racial/ethnic groups. At the time of the suicide event, non-Hispanic blacks had lower blood alcohol contents than other groups. Non-Hispanic whites had less cocaine but more antidepressants and opiates. There were no differences in the levels of amphetamines or marijuana by race/ethnicity. Hispanics were less likely to have been diagnosed with a mental illness or to have received treatment, although family reports of depression were comparable to non-Hispanic whites and other racial/ethnic groups. Non-Hispanic whites were more likely to be diagnosed with depression or bipolar disorder and non-Hispanic blacks with schizophrenia. Comorbid substance abuse and mental health problems were more likely among non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks, while Hispanics were more likely to have a substance abuse problem without comorbid mental health problems. The results support earlier research documenting differences in race/ethnicity, substance abuse, and mental health problems as they relate to completed suicide. The data suggest that suicide prevention efforts must address not only substance abuse and mental health problems in general, but the unique personal, family, and social characteristics of different racial/ethnic groups.
Full Text Available Introduction: Strabismus is a serious ophthalmological and cosmetic disorder which may cause psychological discomfort. An increased incidence of various mental disturbances in patients with squint has been described. Affected children and adolescents experience more difficulties at school and worse results in sport. Squint may cause a disadvantageous social reception and may sometimes make it difficult to get a satisfying job. It may considerably decrease the quality of life. Objective: This study addressed three questions: 1 Is strabismus linked to psychiatric and psychological disorders? 2 Can it influence social competences? 3 Is it linked to dysmorphophobia (DSM-IV? Material and methods: Thirty persons with strabismus at the age of 13-17 years were compared with the control group of 30 persons of the same age, without eye problems. To detect psychiatric problems GHQ-28 scale was used. To assess social competences the Social Competence Questionnaire KKS (Kwestionariusz Kompetencji Społecznych was used. Dysmorphophobia symptoms were measured using the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination (BDDE. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, functioning, social competences or dysmorphophobia in adolescents with strabismus, as compared to the control group. Significantly worse social competences were shown by those adolescents with strabismus who underwent surgical treatment, as compared to other persons with squint (p=0.006. Discussion: In literature, we have not found any studies on social competences in young people with strabismus. The prevalence of dysmorphophobia was not confirmed among them. No higher incidence of psychiatric disorders was observed in our study in adolescents with strabismus.
Collaborative HIV/AIDS and Adolescent Mental Health Programme) in South Africa with specific reference to outcome effects among adults. CHAMP was originally developed in the United States and is a developmentally-timed intervention, ...
Solsberry, Priscilla Wilson
Reviews the historical antecedents of interracial relationships in the United States, gives information regarding those who participate in these relationships, and examines society's reaction to their occurrence. Focuses on relationships involving African Americans and European Americans. Discusses issues, interventions, and support groups. (JBJ)
War-related traumas impact refugees' mental health. Recent literature suggests that structural and sociocultural factors related to the resettlement also become critical in shaping refugees' mental health. So far, there is limited empirical evidence to support this claim among resettled refugees. Resettlement contextual factors that influence mental health outcomes were examined using Latino and Asian refugees (n = 656) from a nationally representative survey. Linear and logistic regressions predicted factors associated with the study's outcomes (self-reported mental health, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders). Post-resettlement traumas were significantly associated with mental health outcomes, but pre-resettlement traumas were not. Unemployment, everyday discrimination, and limited English were significantly associated with mental health outcomes among both Latino and Asian refugees. The outcomes indicate that resettlement contextual factors have a significant association with refugees' mental health. Therefore, future studies with refugees must pay closer attention to structural and sociocultural factors after resettlement.
Lawson, Nicholas D
This study examined the relationship between estimates of the prevalence of mental disorders and mental health stigma. It also examined whether stigma might be more greatly associated with the terms "mental illness," "mental disorder," or "mental health condition." Respondents (N = 302) on Amazon's Mechanical Turk completed an online survey designed to measure social distance, which is one variant of stigma. Half of the respondents were informed at the beginning of the survey that the lifetime morbid risk (LMR) of meeting criteria for at least one mental disorder at some point in life was 70-80 %, while the others were asked to provide their own LMR estimates. All respondents were also randomly assigned to view the survey with either the term "mental illness," "mental disorder," or "mental health condition." Higher LMR estimates (B = -0.030; β = -0.154), having a mental disorder (B = -2.002; β = -0.200), and a history of contact with an individual with a mental disorder (B = -2.812; β = -0.298), each significantly predicted lower desire for social distance. Respondents in the "mental disorder" group endorsed greater desire for social distance. Participants who were informed about LMR at the start of the survey did not score lower on social distance. Estimates for LMR were more than half as predictive of social distance scores as contact with individuals with mental disorders. But anti-stigma interventions may need to do more than inform individuals about the high prevalence of mental disorders in order to be effective.
Lavelle, Jane Suilin
The Direct Social Perception Hypothesis maintains that we can perceive other people's psychological states. Furthermore, it claims that doing so does not require any cognitive process that is simulative or theory-like, putting it in sharp contrast with mainstream accounts of social cognition. This paper contrasts the DSPH against the modular account of mindreading as proposed by Peter Carruthers and H. Clark Barrett. It maintains that the modularity view can respond to the challenges levelled by the DSPH, and that the positions are not as distinct as they originally appear. Finally, the paper discusses the role of non-folk psychological state concepts in our perceptions of other people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stambaugh, Leyla F; Forman-Hoffman, Valerie; Williams, Jason; Pemberton, Michael R; Ringeisen, Heather; Hedden, Sarra L; Bose, Jonaki
This brief research report presents findings from a US national household survey on the number and percentage of parents with mental illness. Using combined annual data from the 2008-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, parents were defined as having children in the household from birth to 18 years. Prediction models developed in an earlier clinical study using a National Survey on Drug Use and Health subsample were used to estimate serious mental illness (SMI). A total of 2.7 million parents (3.8%) had a SMI in the past year and 12.8 million parents (18.2%) had any mental illness in the past year. Mental illness was more common among mothers than fathers and least common among Asians compared with other races. SMI was less prevalent in parents who were aged 50 years and older compared with younger age groups. The burden of mental illness in parents is high in the United States, especially among mothers. Physicians who treat parents should routinely screen for mental illness and discuss its implications for parenting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Villatoro, Alice P.; Morales, Eduardo S.; Mays, Vickie M.
Considering the central role of familismo in Latino culture, it is important to assess the extent to which familismo affects mental health help-seeking. This study examined the role of behavioral familismo, the level of perceived family support, in the use of mental health services of Latinos in the United States. Data come from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), a representative household survey examining the prevalence of mental disorders and services utilization among Latinos and Asian Americans. Analyses were limited to Latino adults with a clinical need for mental health services, indexed by meeting DSM–IV diagnostic criteria for any mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder during the past 12 months (N = 527). One-third of Latinos with a clinical need used any type of service in the past year, including specialty mental health, general medical, and informal or religious services. High behavioral familismo was significantly associated with increased odds of using informal or religious services, but not specialty or medical services. Self-perceived need and social perceptions of need for care within close networks (i.e., told by family/friends to seek professional help) also were significant predictors of service use. These results carry important implications toward expansions of the mental health workforce in the informal and religious services settings. PMID:24999521
Successful completion of the Living Environment, one state's high school biology course, is a state graduation requirement. The academically at-risk students enrolled in one suburban public high school had been disproportionately unsuccessful at achieving a passing grade in this course. In response, a constructivist biology curriculum was created to address the needs of at-risk students in a heterogeneous ability classroom. There is a gap in current research on students' perceptions of their learning experiences; consequently, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to obtain at-risk students' perceptions of a constructivist-based curriculum and to clarify what aspects of the Living Environment course assisted in their success. Eight academically at-risk students who successfully passed the Living Environment course were surveyed to seek their perceptions of the curricular and pedagogical change. These data were analyzed using the typological method with the inclusion of both inductive and predetermined categories. The students stated a preference for group work and active engagement. They also found that the binder system introduced in the course kept them better organized and helped them increase academic performance. Students perceived that effort was required but was rewarding. Findings derived from this study may contribute to social change by assisting teachers in tailoring curriculum and pedagogical decisions. This study provided a voice for the academically at-risk student and, in doing so, may contribute to social change by providing insight to teachers and administrators that can help students succeed academically, increase graduation rates, and enhance employment opportunities.
Looking at children at risk in history, one of the most striking changes over time is the relative and absolute growth of the number of at-risk children. Although this is not a linear development, the need for intervention and prevention in the 1970s being much weaker than before and after that
J.A. Musick; S.A. Berkeley; G.M. Cailliet; M. Camhi; G. Huntsman; M. Nammack; Melvin L. Warren
The American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommends that registory agencies closely scrutinize both marine fish and invertebrate stocks that may be at risk of extinction and take remedial action before populations are threatened or endungered. Initial AFS analyses of marine stocks at risk in North America show at least four primary geographic "hot spots" with...
A peer mentoring program has been implemented to support a group of at-risk students enrolled in two sections of an elementary algebra course at an urban community college. Peer mentors were recruited from advanced mathematics classes and trained to provide individualized tutoring and mentoring support to at-risk students. The results show that…
... Achievers having better communication skills and being more diligent than At Risk Students. Vast differences in perceptions of reasons for success or failure were also identified. The study furthermore showed that Achievers on average have better cognitive abilities and obtained better school marks than At Risk Students.
Hans, S L; Auerbach, J G; Asarnow, J R; Styr, B; Marcus, J
To better understand whether poor social adjustment, a core characteristic of schizophrenic illness, may also be an indicator of vulnerability in young people who are at genetic risk for schizophrenia, but who do not have schizophrenia. Between 1992 and 1996, 27 Israeli adolescents with a schizophrenic parent, 29 adolescents with no mentally ill parent, and 30 adolescents with a parent having a nonschizophrenic mental disorder were assessed on multiple domains of social adjustment measured using the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents and the Youth Self-Report. Young people with a schizophrenic parent showed poor peer engagement, particularly heterosexual engagement, and social problems characterized by immaturity and unpopularity with peers. These social adjustment difficulties in youths at risk for schizophrenia could not be attributed solely to the presence of early-onset mental disorders, although problems were greater in those with disorders in the schizophrenia spectrum. Young people whose parents had other disorders showed different patterns of social maladjustment characterized by difficult, conflictual relationships with peers and family. Adolescents at risk for schizophrenia have social deficits that extend beyond early-onset psychopathology and that may reflect vulnerability to schizophrenic disorder.
Lewis, Marcus Wayne
Self-efficacy has been shown to be an important element in the success of individuals in a variety of different settings. This research examined the impact of a two week new employee orientation training program on the general and social self-efficacy of newly hired direct care employees at state mental health facilities. The research showed that…
Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Golan, Yael
Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have difficulties recognizing others' emotions. Research has mostly focused on "basic" emotion recognition, devoid of context. This study reports the results of a new task, assessing recognition of "complex" emotions and mental states in social contexts. An ASC group (n = 23) was compared to a general…
Midgley, Erin Kathleen; Lo, Celia C.
The impact of a parent's incarceration and adolescents' emotional health on their substance abuse and delinquency is described for a group of at-risk 10- to 14-year-old adolescents. Data were drawn from a two-wave longitudinal study from the federally funded Children at Risk program, ongoing in five states from 1993 to 1997. Results point to a…
Evans-Lacko, S; Courtin, E; Fiorillo, A; Knapp, M; Luciano, M; Park, A-L; Brunn, M; Byford, S; Chevreul, K; Forsman, A K; Gulacsi, L; Haro, J M; Kennelly, B; Knappe, S; Lai, T; Lasalvia, A; Miret, M; O'Sullivan, C; Obradors-Tarragó, C; Rüsch, N; Sartorius, N; Svab, V; van Weeghel, J; Van Audenhove, C; Wahlbeck, K; Zlati, A; McDaid, D; Thornicroft, G
Stigma and social exclusion related to mental health are of substantial public health importance for Europe. As part of ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe), we used systematic mapping techniques to describe the current state of research on stigma and social exclusion across Europe. Findings demonstrate growing interest in this field between 2007 and 2012. Most studies were descriptive (60%), focused on adults of working age (60%) and were performed in Northwest Europe-primarily in the UK (32%), Finland (8%), Sweden (8%) and Germany (7%). In terms of mental health characteristics, the largest proportion of studies investigated general mental health (20%), common mental disorders (16%), schizophrenia (16%) or depression (14%). There is a paucity of research looking at mechanisms to reduce stigma and promote social inclusion, or at factors that might promote resilience or protect against stigma/social exclusion across the life course. Evidence is also limited in relation to evaluations of interventions. Increasing incentives for cross-country research collaborations, especially with new EU Member States and collaboration across European professional organizations and disciplines, could improve understanding of the range of underpinning social and cultural factors which promote inclusion or contribute toward lower levels of stigma, especially during times of hardship. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Möller, Clara; Falkenström, Fredrik; Holmqvist Larsson, Mattias; Holmqvist, Rolf
In order to prevent relapse into criminality, it is important to understand what precedes criminal behavior. Two earlier studies found deficits in mentalizing ability to be related to violent and criminal actions. Mentalizing refers to the ability to make human behavior predictable and meaningful by inferring mental states (thoughts, feelings, etc.) as explaining behavior. In this study, mentalizing ability was assessed by rating 42 Adult Attachment Interviews with young male offenders with t...
Full Text Available It is analysed the results of a research of psychological state defining of patients with myocardial infarction at a sanatorium stage of rehabilitation. It is identified a positive dynamics in the integrated application of means and methods of physical rehabilitation, and psychotherapeutic factors. The features of physical rehabilitation of patients are exposed by the heart attack of myocardium that is making program of rehabilitation on the sanatorium stage. It is certain that the program of physical rehabilitation is based on the complex of such measures as a morning hygienical gymnastics, medical gymnastics, medical dosed walking, training walking by steps.
Keyes, Emily F; Kane, Catherine F
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the experience of Bosnian refugees currently living in the United States. Using a phenomenological method, seven adult female Bosnian refugees each participated in an audio-recorded interview lasting from one to two hours. Two major themes emerged from the analyses of the text: belonging and adapting. Belonging included concepts of cultural memory, identity and difference, empathy and reciprocity, and perfection of speech. Adapting focused on coping with transitions, coping with memories of past and attendant losses, coping with accepting a new culture while trying to fit into the new culture, and learning the new language perfectly. Implicit in the refugees' experiences were states of culture shock, loneliness, psychic numbness, grief, nostalgia, and feelings of dejection, humiliation, inferiority, and feeling as if they belonged nowhere. Simultaneously, the refugees reported feelings of relief and safety after leaving behind the threat of death in their old homes, feelings of gratefulness for their new freedom to hope for a better life, and their restored ability to notice beauty, as well as a sense of normalcy in their new lives. Recommendations for nursing research include the need to identify additional factors promoting successful belonging and adapting in refugees. Recommendations for nursing practice include the importance of adopting a perspective that is respectful of the uniqueness of each refugee and the necessity for recognizing the normal processes of refugee adaptation.
Barratt, Emma L; Davis, Nick J
Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR) is a previously unstudied sensory phenomenon, in which individuals experience a tingling, static-like sensation across the scalp, back of the neck and at times further areas in response to specific triggering audio and visual stimuli. This sensation is widely reported to be accompanied by feelings of relaxation and well-being. The current study identifies several common triggers used to achieve ASMR, including whispering, personal attention, crisp sounds and slow movements. Data obtained also illustrates temporary improvements in symptoms of depression and chronic pain in those who engage in ASMR. A high prevalence of synaesthesia (5.9%) within the sample suggests a possible link between ASMR and synaesthesia, similar to that of misophonia. Links between number of effective triggers and heightened flow state suggest that flow may be necessary to achieve sensations associated with ASMR.
Emma L. Barratt
Full Text Available Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR is a previously unstudied sensory phenomenon, in which individuals experience a tingling, static-like sensation across the scalp, back of the neck and at times further areas in response to specific triggering audio and visual stimuli. This sensation is widely reported to be accompanied by feelings of relaxation and well-being. The current study identifies several common triggers used to achieve ASMR, including whispering, personal attention, crisp sounds and slow movements. Data obtained also illustrates temporary improvements in symptoms of depression and chronic pain in those who engage in ASMR. A high prevalence of synaesthesia (5.9% within the sample suggests a possible link between ASMR and synaesthesia, similar to that of misophonia. Links between number of effective triggers and heightened flow state suggest that flow may be necessary to achieve sensations associated with ASMR.
Athanassios C Tsikliras
Full Text Available The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W, central (C and eastern (E Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS, with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures.
Vivian, Eva M; Becker, Tara L; Carrel, Aaron L
The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes among African American, Latino American, and Native American children in the United States has led to increasing focus on strategies for prevention. However, little is known about the perceptions toward weight, nutrition, and physical activity among these youth. This pilot study explored the perceptions of body weight among overweight and obese children and their parents. Thirty eight children, ages 8-16 years who were enrolled in a diabetes prevention study were surveyed to assess their perception of their weight. Nearly all (84%) of the children were obese. When asked whether they considered themselves to be overweight, African-American children were less likely to report that they were overweight than other children (33% vs. 80% of other children, p = 0.01). The parents of these children (n = 29) were also surveyed to assess their perception of their child's weight. The parents of two-thirds (65%) of the children reported that the child was overweight, while the rest reported their child was underweight or the right weight. African-American parents were less likely to report that their child's weight was unhealthy compared to other parents (46% vs. 77%, p = 0.069). This study's findings indicate that future intervention efforts should assess children's and parents' awareness of obesity and diabetes risk and these factors should be considered when developing prevention interventions for families with youth at risk for diabetes in underserved communities.
Vivian Eva M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes among African American, Latino American, and Native American children in the United States has led to increasing focus on strategies for prevention. However, little is known about the perceptions toward weight, nutrition, and physical activity among these youth. This pilot study explored the perceptions of body weight among overweight and obese children and their parents. Results Thirty eight children, ages 8-16 years who were enrolled in a diabetes prevention study were surveyed to assess their perception of their weight. Nearly all (84% of the children were obese. When asked whether they considered themselves to be overweight, African-American children were less likely to report that they were overweight than other children (33% vs. 80% of other children, p = 0.01. The parents of these children (n = 29 were also surveyed to assess their perception of their child's weight. The parents of two-thirds (65% of the children reported that the child was overweight, while the rest reported their child was underweight or the right weight. African-American parents were less likely to report that their child's weight was unhealthy compared to other parents (46% vs. 77%, p = 0.069. Conclusions This study's findings indicate that future intervention efforts should assess children's and parents' awareness of obesity and diabetes risk and these factors should be considered when developing prevention interventions for families with youth at risk for diabetes in underserved communities.
Carroll, A; Baglioni, A J; Houghton, S; Bramston, P
The purpose of the present research was to examine whether at-risk and not at-risk primary school aged students differ in two social and psychological domains (future goal orientations and social reputation). A total of 886 years 5, 6 and 7 students from five primary schools in the Brisbane metropolitan area of Queensland, Australia, participated in the study. The Children's Activity Questionnaire which constitutes three parts (demographic information, the Importance of Goals Scale, and the Reputation Enhancement Scale) was administered under standardised conditions. A series of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) and univariate F-tests performed on each of the sets of dependent variables (goal orientations and reputation enhancement) revealed significant differences between the at-risk and not at-risk participants on both goals and reputation. Not at-risk children sought to attain an Academic Image through education and interpersonal goals, whereas at-risk children sought a Social Image and attached greater importance to physical goals. In line with this, children in the not at-risk group perceived themselves and ideally wished to be perceived as a conforming person, while at-risk children perceived themselves and ideally wished to be perceived as non-conforming. Significant gender differences were also found on both sets of dependent variables. The findings are compared to recent research conducted with high school adolescents.
Kurokawa, Ken; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Murata, Akiho; Akaike, Yoko; Katsuura, Sakurako; Nishida, Kensei; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kuwano, Yuki; Kawai, Tomoko; Rokutan, Kazuhito
Chronic academic stress responses were assessed by measuring mental state, salivary cortisol levels, and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expression in healthy Japanese medical students challenging the national medical license examination. Mental states of 17 male and 9 female medical undergraduates, aged 25.0 ± 1.2 years (mean ± SD), were assessed by the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) 2 months before, 2 days before, and 1 month after the examination. At the same time points, saliva and blood were collected. STAI-state scores peaked 2 days before the examination. Scores on STAI-trait and SDS, and salivary cortisol levels were consistently higher during the pre-examination period. One month after the examination, all these measures had significantly decreased to baseline levels. Real-time reverse transcription PCR showed that this chronic anxious state did not change the expression of the functional GRα mRNA isoform in peripheral leukocytes, while it resulted in reduced expression of the GRβ isoform 2 days before the examination. Our results replicate and extend a significant impact of chronic academic stressors on the mental state of healthy Japanese medical students and suggest a possible association of GRβ gene in response to psychological stress.
Conditional Value-at-Risk (equivalent to the Expected Shortfall, Tail Value-at-Risk and Tail Conditional Expectation in the case of continuous probability distributions) is an increasingly popular risk measure in the fields of actuarial science, banking and finance, and arguably a more suitable alternative to the currently widespread Value-at-Risk. In my paper, I present a brief literature survey, and propose a statistical test of the location of the CVaR, which may be applied by practising a...
Banks, Tachelle; Eaton, India
Preparing at-risk youth and students with mild disabilities for state and district tests is important for improving their test performance, and basic instruction in test preparation can significantly improve student test performance. The article defines noncognitive variables that adversely affect test-taker performance. The article also describes…
Abu Bakar, Siti Hajar; Wahab, Haris Abd.; Rezaul Islam, M.
The aim of this study was twofold: to explore the influential factors of parents' attachment for at-risk children's antisocial behaviour, and to know the types of children's antisocial behaviour caused by being a single-parent family. The sample comprised 1,434 secondary school children from the state of Johore, Malaysia. Results from the…
Sue A. Ferguson; Steven J. McKay; David E. Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam L. Rorig; Casey Anderson; Lara. Kellogg
To assess values of air quality and visibility at risk from wildland fire in the United States, we generated a 40-year database that includes twice daily values of wind, mixing height, and a ventilation index that is the product of windspeed and mixing height. The database provides the first nationally consistent map of surface wind and ventilation index. In addition,...
Ross, Steven M.; And Others
Describes a program of distance tutoring developed by Apple Computer, Inc., Memphis City Schools, and Memphis State University for at-risk minority students. The electronic bulletin board system (BBS) used is described; types of distance learning systems are explained; and research outcomes are discussed, including tutor roles and writing skills.…
John L. Koprowski; Sandra L. Doumas; Melissa J. Merrick; Brittany Oleson; Erin E. Posthumus; Timothy G. Jessen; R. Nathan Gwinn
Climate change is a serious immediate and long-term threat to wildlife species. State and federal agencies are working with universities and non-government organizations to predict, plan for, and mitigate such uncertainties in the future. Endemic species may be particularly at-risk as climate-induced changes impact their limited geographic ranges. The Madrean...
Although state governing bodies and community agencies have requested increased enrollment in nursing programs, this would be futile without curtailment of the student attrition rate. This article describes the use of a peer-tutoring program to increase retention of students at risk of failing a medical-surgical nursing course.
Undergraduate student dropout is gradually becoming a global problem and the 39 Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) are no exception to this trend. The purpose of this research was to develop a method that can be used for early detection of students who are at-risk of performing poorly in their undergraduate studies. A sample of 279 students…
Owens, Tom; And Others
This document reviews programs and policy initiatives in the following Northwestern States aimed at reducing the number of youth who are at risk of dropping out of school or remaining unemployed: (1) Alaska; (2) Hawaii; (3) Idaho; (4) Montana; (5) Oregon; and (6) Washington. The following regional trends are identified: (1) establishing…
Lie, Stein Atle; Tveito, Torill H; Reme, Silje E; Eriksen, Hege R
Disability benefits and sick leave benefits represents huge costs in western countries. The pathways and prognostic factors for receiving these benefits seen in recent years are complex and manifold. We postulate that mental health and IQ, both alone and concurrent, influence subsequent employment status, disability benefits and mortality. A cohort of 918 888 Norwegian men was followed for 16 years from the age of 20 to 55. Risk for health benefits, emigration, and mortality were studied. Indicators of mental health and IQ at military enrolment were used as potential risk factors. Multi-state models were used to analyze transitions between employment, sick leave, time limited benefits, disability benefits, emigration, and mortality. During follow up, there were a total of 3 908 397 transitions between employment and different health benefits, plus 12 607 deaths. Men with low IQ (below 85), without any mental health problems at military enrolment, had an increased probability of receiving disability benefits before the age of 35 (HRR = 4.06, 95% CI: 3.88-4.26) compared to men with average IQ (85 to 115) and no mental health problems. For men with both low IQ and mental health problems, there was an excessive probability of receiving disability benefits before the age of 35 (HRR = 14.37, 95% CI: 13.59-15.19), as well as an increased probability for time limited benefits and death before the age of 35 compared to men with average IQ (85 to 115) and no mental health problems. Low IQ and mental health problems are strong predictors of future disability benefits and early mortality for young men.
Philipps, Viviane; Amieva, Hélène; Andrieu, Sandrine; Dufouil, Carole; Berr, Claudine; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Proust-Lima, Cécile
The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in population-based longitudinal studies to quantify cognitive change. However, its poor metrological properties, mainly ceiling/floor effects and varying sensitivity to change, have largely restricted its usefulness. We propose a normalizing transformation that corrects these properties, and makes possible the use of standard statistical methods to analyze change in MMSE scores. The normalizing transformation designed to correct at best the metrological properties of MMSE was estimated and validated on two population-based studies (n = 4,889, 20-year follow-up) by cross-validation. The transformation was also validated on two external studies with heterogeneous samples mixing normal and pathological aging, and samples including only demented subjects. The normalizing transformation provided correct inference in contrast with models analyzing the change in crude MMSE that most often lead to biased estimates of risk factors and incorrect conclusions. Cognitive change can be easily and properly assessed with the normalized MMSE using standard statistical methods such as linear (mixed) models. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Werner, P; Heinik, J; Lin, R; Bleich, A
The aim of this study was to examine whether the type of sentence used in the repetition task included in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) affected performance in a group of 79 demented and 19 non-demented Hebrew-speaking elderly persons. The cognitive functioning of the participants was assessed using the MMSE and CAMCOG examinations. The performance of the repetition task was evaluated by using three sentences: the literal translation of the English language expression used in the original MMSE; a well-known Hebrew proverb consisting of monosyllabic words and rhythmic effects; and another well-known Hebrew proverb without such attributes. Only a third of the participants successfully repeated the literally translated expression. It showed low predictive value and was highly affected by education. The well-known Hebrew monosyllabic proverb showed moderate predictive value but no discriminatory ability. The other well-known Hebrew proverb performed the best. The translation of the repetition task in the MMSE to other languages is problematic. Strict adherence to the original language proved to be the least desirable choice. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dai, Ting; Davey, Adam; Woodard, John L.; Miller, L. Stephen; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Kim, Seock-Ho; Poon, Leonard W.
Centenarians represent a rare but rapidly growing segment of the oldest-old. This study presents item-level data from the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, M=16.2, SD=8.8, Range 0–30) in a cross-sectional, population-based sample of 244 centenarians and near-centenarians (aged 98–108, 16% men, 21% African-American, 38% community-dwelling) from the Georgia Centenarian Study (2001–2008) by age, education, sex, race, and residential status. Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Causes (MIMIC) models were used to identify systematic domain-level differences on MMSE scores by key demographic characteristics in this age group. Indirect effects of age, educational attainment, race, and residential status were found on MMSE scores. Direct effects were limited to concentration for education and race, and orientation for residential status. Mean levels of cognitive functioning in centenarians were low, with mean values below most commonly-used cut-offs. Overall scores on the MMSE differed as a function of age, education, race, and residential status, with differences in scale performance limited primarily to concentration and orientation, with no evidence for interactions among centenarian characteristics. Adjusting for education was not sufficient to account for differences by race; adjusting for residential status was not sufficient to account for differences by age. PMID:23889552
Hasni, Anita A; Adamson, Lauren B; Williamson, Rebecca A; Robins, Diana L
Theory of mind (ToM) gradually develops during the preschool years. Measures of ToM usually target visual experience, but auditory experiences also provide valuable social information. Given differences between the visual and auditory modalities (e.g., sights persist, sounds fade) and the important role environmental input plays in social-cognitive development, we asked whether modality might influence the progression of ToM development. The current study expands Wellman and Liu's ToM scale (2004) by testing 66 preschoolers using five standard visual ToM tasks and five newly crafted auditory ToM tasks. Age and gender effects were found, with 4- and 5-year-olds demonstrating greater ToM abilities than 3-year-olds and girls passing more tasks than boys; there was no significant effect of modality. Both visual and auditory tasks formed a scalable set. These results indicate that there is considerable consistency in when children are able to use visual and auditory inputs to reason about various aspects of others' mental states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether background music had an influence on the scores of patients with Alzheimer's disease during the Mini Mental State Examination (MMS). Eighteen patients diagnosed with dementia from a day care center participated in the study. Eleven (experimental group) were examined 3 times, each time 1 month apart. The first examination, called pretest, served as a baseline and was done without background music. The second and third examinations (test and posttest) were done with background music. Seven people (control group) were examined 3 times, each time one-month apart. The three tests (pretest, test, posttest) were done without background music. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs test was used to compare the results within each group. No significant differences were found between the three tests for both groups. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the results between the experimental and control groups. No significant differences were found between these two groups. This suggests that background music used with persons affected by dementia at this second stage of the disease plays a neutral role during the MMS. Another suggestion is that perhaps people at this stage of the disease do not feel any stress or threat that may have an impact on their concentration during the MMS. Other suggestions are made for possible further research.
Wong, George Kwok Chu; Lam, Sandy Wai; Wong, Adrian; Ngai, Karine; Poon, Wai Sang; Mok, Vincent
Objective Cognitive deficits are common after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH), and clinical evaluation is important for their management. Our hypothesis was that the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa) is superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in screening for cognitive domain deficit in aSAH patients. Methods We carried out a prospective observational and diagnostic accuracy study on Hong Kong aSAH patients aged 21 to 75 years who had been admitted within 96 hours of ictus. The domain-specific neuropsychological assessment battery, the MoCA and MMSE were administered 2–4 weeks and 1 year after ictus. A cognitive domain deficit was defined as a cognitive domain z score ictus, the MoCA produced higher area under the curve scores for cognitive impairment than the MMSE (MoCA, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97 versus MMSE, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.83, p = 0.009). Interpretation Cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment in patients with aSAH can be screened with the MoCA in both the subacute and chronic phases. PMID:23573223
Nikolaev E. V.
Full Text Available The article discusses the changes of motivation and mental States, people on probation and parole in the age of from 18 up to 35 years, whose main reason for conviction – robbery, robbery, use of psychoactive substances. The selected audience is predominantly men. Describes a psychological study of the personalities of probation and parole citizens on the basis of the tests: CHOICE lusher, a Test questionnaire G. Shmishek and K. Leongard (a technique of accentuation of character and temperament, Neurotic personality traits (NL modification of L. I. Wasserman, B. V. Iovlev. The concept of development criminally-executive system of the Russian Federation until 2020 provides for the further development of alternatives to imprisonment. It is expected therefore making the activity of criminal-Executive inspection (UII social focus, providing for the re-socialization of convicts in close cooperation with civil society institutions. Most urgently today is the question of socio-psychological and educational work with convicts. The involvement of the public, rehabilitation centers and other organizations in the process of social adaptation and rehabilitation of convicted persons is in the spirit of the time and demand of the main provisions of the concept of development UIS the Russian Federation until 2020. The development provides for UII at the same time as the introduction of innovative technologies in the field of social, psychological and educational work with convicts, and to raise the level of professional training of their employees.
Hesson, Ashley M; Pichler, Heike
We investigate dementia patients' use of "I don't know" (IDK) in Mini-Mental State Exams (MMSEs) using objective linguistic indicators to differentiate IDK signalling lack of knowledge (LOK) from IDK used to hedge responses, affect exam progression etc. We hypothesize that increased proportional use of LOK-IDK correlates with worsening dementia severity. 189 IDK tokens were extracted from 72 MMSE interactions and coded for linguistic/social characteristics. A data-driven, discourse position/relation-based functional taxonomy for IDK in MMSE was developed and the resulting functional distribution was subjected to multiple logistic regression. Use of LOK-IDK (vs. non-LOK-IDK) is significantly correlated (p=0.01) with clinicians' subjective ratings of patients' dementia as 'severe' vs. 'mild'/'moderate', indicating that objective sociolinguistic criteria approximate physician judgments. 92% of 'severe' patients' IDKs signalled LOK, compared to only 68% of 'mild' patients', suggesting that uncritical interpretation of IDK as signalling LOK would result in 8-32% of IDK responses being mis-scored. LOK and non-LOK uses distinguished on the basis of reliable, objective usage patterns are differentially distributed among dementia severity groups. LOK-IDK serves as a supplemental indicator of dementia severity. Correct interpretation may improve diagnostic accuracy and allow clinicians to respond supportively during cognitive assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
da Costa, Amanda Lucas; Varela, Juliana Santos; Mazetti, Osmar; Restelatto, Luciane; Costa, Andry Fitterman; Godinho, Claudia; Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Picon, Paulo D.; Chaves, Márcia L.
The aging of the population is a universal phenomenon with direct consequences upon the public health system. One of the main repercussions of the growth in this sector of the population is the increased prevalence of disorders such as dementia and depression which are very frequent among the elderly. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors, dementia and depression have been addressed in many recent investigations. Objectives To evaluate the relationship of cognitive performance and depressive symptoms with cardiovascular risk in the elderly. Methods 94 high cardiovascular risk elderly patients and 160 healthy community elderly were evaluated cross-sectionally. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) were used as the main measures. The cutoff for presence of depression was 6 on the GDS. Results The high cardiovascular risk elderly group showed significantly lower scores on the MMSE (p<0.001) and was significantly associated to depression (p<0.001), independently of education. The logistic regression analysis for depression as the dependent variable, age and group (healthy community or high cardiovascular risk elderly) were kept in the final equation. Higher age (Odds Ratio=0.92; 95% CI 0.86–0.98) and high cardiovascular risk elderly (OR=2.99; 95% CI 1.36–6.59) were associated to depression. Conclusions The present findings corroborate the different cognitive performance of elderly with high cardiovascular risk factors and the association of depressive symptoms with this group. PMID:29213588
Ramirez, Mildred; Teresi, Jeanne A; Holmes, Douglas; Gurland, Barry; Lantigua, Rafael
Various forms of differential item functioning (DIF) in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) have been identified. Items have been found to perform differently for individuals of different educational levels, racial/ethnic groups, and/or of groups whose first language is not English. The articles in this section illustrate the use of different methods to examine DIF in relation to English and Spanish language administration of the MMSE. The aim of this article is to provide a context for interpretation of the findings contained in the following set of papers examining DIF in the MMSE. The performance of the MMSE, when administered in English and Spanish, was reviewed. "Translation" has been discussed in the context of measurement bias, illustrating the variability in Spanish translations. Presented are the readability of the MMSE, description of the translation method, the study design and sample for the data set used, together with treatment of missing data, and model assumptions related to the analyses described in the accompanying set of papers examining DIF. The examination of item bias in cognitive impairment assessment instruments has practical and theoretical implications in the context of health disparities. Considerable DIF has been identified in the MMSE. A critical factor that may contribute to measurement bias is language translation and conversion. Once DIF has been established consistently in a measure, decisions regarding adjustments proceed. Perhaps the development of guidelines for appropriate adjustments for DIF correction in self-reported measures represents the next challenge in addressing measurement equivalence in crosscultural research.
Penna, Suzanne; Novack, Thomas A
To further evaluate the construct validity of bedside screening measures of orientation (Orientation Log [O-Log]) and cognition (Cognitive-Log [Cog-Log]) by examining the relationship between these measures and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Correlational analysis used to assess the degree of overlapping variance among the O-Log, Cog-Log, and MMSE. Qualitative item analysis used to assess strengths and weaknesses of the measures. Inpatient rehabilitation center affiliated with a large university medical school. Participants were 45 inpatients receiving neurorehabilitation. Not applicable. The O-Log, Cog-Log, and MMSE. The MMSE correlated significantly with both measures (O-Log, r=.65, P<.001; Cog-Log, r=.75, P<.001). The O-Log and C-Log were significantly related to each other (r=.75, P<.001). The results indicated good construct validity of the O-Log and Cog-Log. These measures may be better suited for a population with moderate to severe brain injury in a rehabilitation setting, compared with the MMSE, because scales were developed to give partial credit based on partially correct answers. Further, the O-Log and C-Log do not have a written component, allowing administration for persons with hemiparesis.
Silverman, Michael J
Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions? Method: Participants (N = 169) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusion: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.
Michael J. Silverman
Full Text Available Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: Will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions?Method: Participants (N = 169 were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusions: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.
Demissie, Zewditu; Brener, Nancy
Background: Mental health conditions among youth are a major concern. Schools can play an important role in supporting students affected by these conditions. This study examined district-level school health policies related to mental health and social services to determine if they varied by district demographic characteristics. Methods: The School…
Goldmann, Emily; Galea, Sandro
We present in this review the current state of disaster mental health research. In particular, we provide an overview of research on the presentation, burden, correlates, and treatment of mental disorders following disasters. We also describe challenges to studying the mental health consequences of disasters and discuss the limitations in current methodologies. Finally, we offer directions for future disaster mental health research.
McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey
Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental
Høg, Esben; Tsiaras, Leonidas
The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values-at-Risk are c......The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values......-at-Risk are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting out-of-sample forecasts based on the simulations suggests that the GARCH method with implied volatility as explanatory variable captures the risk structure well....
The main focus of this thesis lies on description of Risk Management in context of Energy Trading. The paper will predominantly discuss Value at Risk and its modifications as a main overall indicator of Energy Risk.
... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Metabolic Syndrome after Kidney Transplantation: Are You at Risk? Print ... be talking with your physician about something called metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a condition where you have ...
... About 3% of women of childbearing age have trichomoniasis. 4 Many women with vaginal infections have no ... a yeast infection. 15 to 20 women have trichomoniasis. Who gets vaginitis and who is at risk? ...
Joseph A Schwartz
Full Text Available Recent violent attacks on college campuses in the United States have sparked discussions regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the perpetration of violence among college students. While previous studies have examined the potential association between mental health problems and violent behavior, the overall pattern of findings flowing from this literature remain mixed and no previous studies have examined such associations among college students.The current study makes use of a nationally representative sample of 3,929 college students from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC to examine the prevalence of seven violent behaviors and 19 psychiatric disorder diagnoses tapping mood, anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders. Associations between individual and composite psychiatric disorder diagnoses and violent behaviors were also examined. Additional analyses were adjusted for the comorbidity of multiple psychiatric diagnoses.The results revealed that college students were less likely to have engaged in violent behavior relative to the non-student sample, but a substantial portion of college students had engaged in violent behavior. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates indicated that more than 21% of college students reported at least one violent act. In addition, more than 36% of college students had at least one diagnosable psychiatric disorder. Finally, the prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders significantly increased the odds of violent behavior within the college student sample.These findings indicate that violence and psychiatric disorders are prevalent on college campuses in the United States, though perhaps less so than in the general population. In addition, college students who have diagnosable psychiatric disorders are significantly more likely to engage in various forms of violent behavior.
Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C
Recent violent attacks on college campuses in the United States have sparked discussions regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the perpetration of violence among college students. While previous studies have examined the potential association between mental health problems and violent behavior, the overall pattern of findings flowing from this literature remain mixed and no previous studies have examined such associations among college students. The current study makes use of a nationally representative sample of 3,929 college students from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine the prevalence of seven violent behaviors and 19 psychiatric disorder diagnoses tapping mood, anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders. Associations between individual and composite psychiatric disorder diagnoses and violent behaviors were also examined. Additional analyses were adjusted for the comorbidity of multiple psychiatric diagnoses. The results revealed that college students were less likely to have engaged in violent behavior relative to the non-student sample, but a substantial portion of college students had engaged in violent behavior. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates indicated that more than 21% of college students reported at least one violent act. In addition, more than 36% of college students had at least one diagnosable psychiatric disorder. Finally, the prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders significantly increased the odds of violent behavior within the college student sample. These findings indicate that violence and psychiatric disorders are prevalent on college campuses in the United States, though perhaps less so than in the general population. In addition, college students who have diagnosable psychiatric disorders are significantly more likely to engage in various forms of violent behavior.
Review of psychiatric hospital discharge summaries for 247 individuals with mental retardation and psychiatric disorders found that 39 had a seizure diagnosis. The only difference between the groups with and without seizures was level of mental retardation. No differences existed concerning length of stay, transfer to state hospital, psychiatric…
Graham, Sonia, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Barnett, Jon, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Fincher, Ruth, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Hurlimann, Anna, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Architecture and Planning Building, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Mortreux, Colette, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Waters, Elissa, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia)
Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies.
Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.
Objective The internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling amongst adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the internet. Method Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut high-school-student gamblers were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results At-risk/problem gambling was found more frequently in adolescent internet gamblers than in non-internet gamblers. As compared to at-risk/problem gambling in the non-internet gambling group, at-risk/problem gambling in the internet gambling group was more strongly associated with poor academic performance and substance use (particularly current heavy alcohol use; odds ratio=2.99; p=0.03) and less strongly associated with gambling with friends (odds ratio=0.32; p=0.0003). At-risk/problem gambling in both the internet and non-internet gambling groups, respectively, was associated at pgambling, particularly as adolescent at-risk/problem internet gambling appears specifically associated with non-peer involvement, heavy alcohol use and poor academic functioning. PMID:21241952
Hernandez, Maria Y; Organista, Kurt C
While depression is prevalent among immigrant Latinas, mental health literacy is low. Culturally tailored health narratives can improve mental health literacy and are now increasingly featured in Spanish language fotonovelas (i.e., booklets in a comic book format with posed photographs and dialogue bubbles). The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore why a depression literacy fotonovela proved effective with Latina immigrants at risk for depression in a quantitative randomized control study. This study is the qualitative companion of the previously published quantitative piece of a mixed methods study, the latter revealing posttest improvements in depression knowledge, self-efficacy to identify the need for treatment, and decreased stigma towards mental health care (Hernandez and Organista in Am J Community Psychol 2013. doi: 10.1007/s10464-013-9587-1 ). Twenty-five immigrant Latinas participated in structured interviews, in the current qualitative study, 3 weeks after participating in the quantitative study. Results suggest depression literacy improved because participants evidenced high recall of the storyline and characters, which they also found appealing (e.g., liked peer and professional support offered to depressed main character). Further, identification with the main character was reflected in participants recalling similar circumstances impacting their mental health. Despite some improvement, stigma related to depression and its treatment remained for some women. Future research for the improvement of health literacy tools is discussed.
Gold, Christian; Saarikallio, Suvi; Crooke, Alexander Hew Dale; McFerran, Katrina Skewes
Music forms an important part of the lives and identities of adolescents and may have positive or negative mental health implications. Music therapy can be effective for mental disorders such as depression, but its preventive potential is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether group music therapy (GMT) is an effective intervention for young people who may be at risk of developing mental health problems, as indicated via unhealthy music use. The main question was whether GMT can reduce unhealthy uses of music and increase potentials for healthy uses of music, compared to self-directed music listening (SDML). We were also interested in effects of GMT on depressive symptoms, psychosocial well-being, rumination, and reflection. In an exploratory cluster-randomized trial in Australian schools, 100 students with self-reported unhealthy music use were invited to GMT (weekly sessions over 8 weeks) or SDML. Changes in the Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale (HUMS) and mental health outcomes were measured over 3 months. Both interventions were well accepted. No effects were found between GMT and SDML (all p > 0.05); both groups tended to show small improvements over time. Younger participants benefited more from GMT, and older ones more from SDML (p = 0.018). GMT was associated with similar changes as SDML. Further research is needed to improve the processes of selecting participants for targeted interventions; to determine optimal dosage; and to provide more reliable evidence of effects of music-based interventions for adolescents.
Xie, Jun; Xu, Guanghua; Luo, Ailing; Li, Min; Zhang, Sicong; Han, Chengcheng; Yan, Wenqiang
As a spatial selective attention-based brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigm, steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) BCI has the advantages of high information transfer rate, high tolerance to artifacts, and robust performance across users. However, its benefits come at the cost of mental load and fatigue occurring in the concentration on the visual stimuli. Noise, as a ubiquitous random perturbation with the power of randomness, may be exploited by the human visual system to enhance higher-level brain functions. In this study, a novel steady-state motion visual evoked potential (SSMVEP, i.e., one kind of SSVEP)-based BCI paradigm with spatiotemporal visual noise was used to investigate the influence of noise on the compensation of mental load and fatigue deterioration during prolonged attention tasks. Changes in α, θ, θ + α powers, θ/α ratio, and electroencephalography (EEG) properties of amplitude, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and online accuracy, were used to evaluate mental load and fatigue. We showed that presenting a moderate visual noise to participants could reliably alleviate the mental load and fatigue during online operation of visual BCI that places demands on the attentional processes. This demonstrated that noise could provide a superior solution to the implementation of visual attention controlling-based BCI applications.
Plackett, Timothy P; Ton-That, Hieu H; Mueller, Jeanne; Grimley, Karen M; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Esposito, Thomas J
A blood alcohol level above 0 g/dL is found in up to 50% of patients presenting with traumatic injuries. The presence of alcohol in the blood not only increases the risk of traumatic injury, but it is also associated with worse outcomes and trauma recidivism. In light of these risks, the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma advocates screening for at-risk drinking. Although many institutions use blood alcohol levels to determine at-risk drinking in trauma patients, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) offers a cheap and easy alternative. Few direct comparisons have been made between these 2 tests in trauma patients. To compare the utility of blood alcohol level and AUDIT score as indicators of at-risk drinking in trauma patients. Records for all trauma patients aged 18 years or older who were admitted to a level I trauma center from May 2013 through June 2014 were reviewed in this retrospective cohort study. Inclusion criteria required patients to have undergone both blood alcohol level testing and AUDIT on admission. A blood alcohol level greater than 0 g/dL and an AUDIT score equal to or above 8 were considered positive for at-risk drinking. Performance of both tests was indexed against the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) criteria for at-risk drinking. Of 750 patients admitted for trauma, 222 records (30%) contained data on both blood alcohol level and AUDIT score. The patients were predominantly male (178 [80%]) and had a mean (SD) age of 40.1 (16.7) years. Most patients (178 [80%]) had sustained blunt trauma. Ninety-seven patients (44%) had a positive blood alcohol level, 70 (35%) had a positive AUDIT score, and 54 (24%) met NIAAA criteria for at-risk drinking. The sensitivity and specificity of having a positive blood alcohol level identify at-risk drinking were 61% and 62%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of having a positive AUDIT score identify at-risk drinking were 83% and 81
David Sloan Wilson
Full Text Available Improving the academic performance of at-risk high school students has proven difficult, often calling for an extended day, extended school year, and other expensive measures. Here we report the results of a program for at-risk 9th and 10th graders in Binghamton, New York, called the Regents Academy that takes place during the normal school day and year. The design of the program is informed by the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation and learning, in general and for our species as a unique product of biocultural evolution. Not only did the Regents Academy students outperform their comparison group in a randomized control design, but they performed on a par with the average high school student in Binghamton on state-mandated exams. All students can benefit from the social environment provided for at-risk students at the Regents Academy, which is within the reach of most public school districts.
Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: presentar un Estado del Arte sobre el contenido de las políticas públicas de salud mental vigentes en Suramérica, con el propósito de establecer un panorama de los alcances y limitaciones de la normatividad sobre el tema en la región. Metodología: Estudio documental de enfoque hermenéutico mediante el cual se interpretó y explicó las relaciones entre los contenidos de las políticas públicas de salud mental y el contexto de los países suramericanos. Para el análisis se incluyeron documentos normativos de los países, tales como Acuerdos, Resoluciones y Leyes. Igualmente, se utilizaron publicaciones académicas en el periodo comprendido entre 2003 a 2013, que posibilitaron la descripción y el análisis del tema de investigación. Resultados: países como Colombia, Argentina, Paraguay, Brasil, Perú, Ecuador y Uruguay cuentan con disposiciones normativas vigentes (acuerdos, resoluciones y leyes que sustentan el contenido de las políticas públicas en materia de salud mental. Por otra parte, Chile, Bolivia y Venezuela fundamentan sus políticas en mecanismos administrativos (programas, planes y proyectos sin apelar a la norma de obligatorio cumplimiento. Conclusión: la noción de salud mental que subyace a cada Política Nacional hace énfasis en la promoción de la salud y la prevención de la enfermedad, desde una concepción positiva del bienestar que resalta el papel activo de los sujetos y poblaciones, las capacidades y libertades disponibles; sin embargo, los recursos, estrategias, acciones y metas están orientados sobre la base de un modelo biomédico que prioriza el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de trastornos mentales. / Abstract Objective: to present the state of the art regarding the content of the public mental health policies currently in force in South America in order to establish an overview of the scope and limitations of the regulations on the subject in the region. Methodology: a documentary study
Mojtabai, Ramin; Jorm, Anthony F
There has been an increase in the use of mental health services in a number of industrialized countries over the past two decades with little impact on mental health status of the populations. Few studies, however, have examined recent trends in mental health status in the US. Using data from three large general annual population surveys in the US-the National Health Interview Survey, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and National Survey on Drug Use and Health-we examined temporal trends in non-specific psychological distress, depressive episodes and mental health treatment seeking over the 2001-2012 period. Prevalence of past-month significant psychological distress and past-year depressive symptoms changed little over time. However, a larger percentage of participants reported poor mental health for ≥15 days or 30 days in the past month in 2011-2012 (8.7% and 5.7%, respectively) than in 2001-2002 (6.6% and 4.6%). A larger percentage of participants in the later period also reported receiving mental health treatments. Possible changes in mental health status may have been missed due to the limited scope of assessments or the small magnitude of changes. Potential reciprocal influences between service use and mental health status could not be investigated because of cross-sectional data. Despite increasing use of mental health treatments in the US in the first decade of this century, there is no evidence of decrease in prevalence of psychological distress or depression. Poor match between need for treatment and actual treatments received in usual care settings may partly explain the findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Unoka, Zsolt Szabolcs; Fogd, Dóra; Seres, Imola; Kéri, Szabolcs; Csukly, Gábor
Disturbed interpersonal relationships specific to borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest biased processing of social information. The goal of this study was to examine alterations in mental state decoding (MSD) and their associations with early maladaptive schemas (EMS) that may lead to the misinterpretation of incoming information. In addition, the authors' aim was to evaluate the effects of a co-occurring current major depressive episode (MDE) on the MSD performance of BPD patients. Seventy-eight BPD patients (34 with MDE) and 76 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed for Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the level of EMS. The authors found that impairment in the total RMET performance, as well as specific impairment regarding the recognition of positive and neutral items, was associated with EMS, and enhanced vigilance to negative mental states was characteristic to BPD with MDE. Results suggest that MSD ability is altered in two independent ways in BPD.
Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Golan, Yael
Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have difficulties recognizing others' emotions. Research has mostly focused on basic emotion recognition, devoid of context. This study reports the results of a new task, assessing recognition of complex emotions and mental states in social contexts. An ASC group (n = 23) was compared to a general population control group (n = 24). Children with ASC performed lower than controls on the task. Using task scores, more than 87% of the participants were allocated to their group. This new test quantifies complex emotion and mental state recognition in life-like situations. Our findings reveal that children with ASC have residual difficulties in this aspect of empathy. The use of language-based compensatory strategies for emotion recognition is discussed.
Saechao, Fay; Sharrock, Sally; Reicherter, Daryn; Livingston, James D; Aylward, Alexandra; Whisnant, Jill; Koopman, Cheryl; Kohli, Sarita
This study examined stressors and barriers to using mental health services among first-generation immigrants in San Jose, California. Focus groups for 30 immigrants from Cambodia, Eastern Europe, Iran, Iraq, Africa, and Vietnam were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed. Two researchers coded the data and identified themes pertaining to mental health stressors and barriers. Six primary stressors were identified: economic, discrimination, acculturation due to language differences, enculturation, parenting differences, and finding suitable employment. Primary barriers included: stigma, lack of a perceived norm in country of origin for using mental health services, competing cultural practices, lack of information, language barriers, and cost. A conceptual model is presented that may be used to inform the design and implementation of mental health services for this population.
Christensen, Tina Paulsen
with a view to discovering their aims, data, methods and results. In doing so, the paper attempts to find out what we know by now about the mental aspects of translation memory-assisted translation. The analysis suggests fruitful avenues for future research and concludes that particularly more research......This article reviews research on the mental translation processes involved in translation memory-assisted translation. First, based on recent developments in cognitive science the article provides a working definition of mental TM research. Next the article analyses a selection of mental TM studies...... is needed which takes into account the recent developments within TM technology and looks into both internal and external translation processes....
Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Ongaratto, Lia Lopes; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches
In normal aging, the decrease in the syntactic complexity of written production is usually associated with cognitive deficits. This study was aimed to analyze the quality of older adults' textual production indicated by verbal fluency (number of words) and grammatical complexity (number of ideas) in relation to gender, age, schooling, and cognitive status. From a probabilistic sample of community-dwelling people aged 65 years and above (n = 900), 577 were selected on basis of their responses to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) sentence writing, which were submitted to content analysis; 323 were excluded as they left the item blank or performed illegible or not meaningful responses. Education adjusted cut-off scores for the MMSE were used to classify the participants as cognitively impaired or unimpaired. Total and subdomain MMSE scores were computed. 40.56% of participants whose answers to the MMSE sentence were excluded from the analyses had cognitive impairment compared to 13.86% among those whose answers were included. The excluded participants were older and less educated. Women and those older than 80 years had the lowest scores in the MMSE. There was no statistically significant relationship between gender, age, schooling, and textual performance. There was a modest but significant correlation between number of words written and the scores in the Language subdomain. Results suggest the strong influence of schooling and age over MMSE sentence performance. Failing to write a sentence may suggest cognitive impairment, yet, instructions for the MMSE sentence, i.e. to produce a simple sentence, may limit its clinical interpretation.
Yakushiji, Yusuke; Horikawa, Etsuo; Eriguchi, Makoto; Nanri, Yusuke; Nishihara, Masashi; Hirotsu, Tatsumi; Hara, Hideo
The distribution of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores by age and educational level was investigated in subjects that underwent comprehensive brain examinations. This cross-sectional study included 1,414 adults without neurological disorders who underwent health-screening tests of the brain, referred to as the "Brain Dock," in our center. The MMSE scores were compared between age groups (40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, or ≥70 years) and educational levels [the low education level group (6-12 years) and the high education level group (≥13 years)]. The median age was 59 years, and 763 (54%) were women. There was no significant difference in the MMSE total score between women and men. The stepwise method of the multiple linear regression analysis confirmed that a higher age [β value, -0.129; standard error (S.E.), 0.020; p<0.001], low education level (6-12 years) (β value, -0.226; S.E., 0.075; p=0.003), and women (β values, 0.148; S.E., 0.066; p=0.024) was significantly associated with decreased MMSE score. In general, both the percentile scores and mean scores decreased with aging and were lower in the low education level group than in the high education level group. The degree of decrement in scores with age was stronger in the low education level group than in the high education level group. The provided data for age- and education-specific reference norms will be useful for both clinicians and investigators who perform comprehensive brain examinations to assess the cognitive function of subjects.
George Kwok Chu Wong
Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are common after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH, and clinical evaluation is important for their management. Our hypothesis was that the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa is superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE in screening for cognitive domain deficit in aSAH patients.We carried out a prospective observational and diagnostic accuracy study on Hong Kong aSAH patients aged 21 to 75 years who had been admitted within 96 hours of ictus. The domain-specific neuropsychological assessment battery, the MoCA and MMSE were administered 2-4 weeks and 1 year after ictus. A cognitive domain deficit was defined as a cognitive domain z score <-1.65 (below the fifth percentile. Cognitive impairment was defined as two or more cognitive domain deficits. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov of the US National Institutes of Health (NCT01038193.Both the MoCA and the MMSE were successful in differentiating between patients with and without cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment at both assessment periods. At 1 year post-ictus, the MoCA produced higher area under the curve scores for cognitive impairment than the MMSE (MoCA, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97 versus MMSE, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.83, p = 0.009.Cognitive domain deficits and cognitive impairment in patients with aSAH can be screened with the MoCA in both the subacute and chronic phases.
Johanna T W Wigman
Full Text Available Psychotic disorders are thought to represent altered neural function. However, research has failed to map diagnostic categories to alterations in neural networks. It is proposed that the basic unit of psychotic psychopathology is the moment-to-moment expression of subtle anomalous experiences of subclinical psychosis, and particularly its tendency to persist from moment-to-moment in daily life, under the influence of familial, environmental, emotional and cognitive factors.In a general population twin sample (n = 579 and in a study of patients with psychotic disorder (n = 57, their non-psychotic siblings (n = 59 and unrelated controls (n = 75, the experience sampling paradigm (ESM; repetitive, random sampling of momentary mental states and context was applied. We analysed, in a within-person prospective design, (i transfer of momentary anomalous experience at time point (t-1 to time point (t in daily life, and (ii moderating effects of negative affect, positive affect, daily stressors, IQ and childhood trauma. Additionally, (iii familial associations between persistence of momentary anomalous experience and psychotic symptomatology were investigated. Higher level of schizotypy in the twins (but not higher level of psychotic symptoms in patients predicted more persistence of momentary anomalous experience in daily life, both within subjects and across relatives. Persistence of momentary anomalous experience was highest in patients, intermediate in their siblings and lowest in controls. In both studies, persistence of momentary anomalous experience was moderated by higher levels of negative affect, daily stressors and childhood trauma (only in twins, and by lower levels of positive affect. The study of alterations in the moment-to-moment transfer of subtle anomalous experience of psychosis, resulting in their persistence, helps to explain why psychotic and emotional dysregulation tend to cluster in a single phenotype such as
Taniguchi, Yu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Amano, Hidenori; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Yokota, Isao; Seino, Satoshi; Nofuji, Yu; Nishi, Mariko; Yokoyama, Yuri; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji
The present prospective study used repeated measures analysis to identify potential Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score trajectories and determine whether MMSE trajectory was associated with incident disabling dementia among community-dwelling older Japanese adults. A total of 1724 non-demented adults (mean age 71.4 years [SD 5.7]; 56.7% women) aged 65-90 years participated in annual geriatric health assessments during the period from June 2002 through July 2014. The total number of observations was 6755, and the average number of follow-up assessments was 3.9. A review of municipal databases in the Japanese public long-term care insurance system showed that 205 (11.9%) participants developed disabling dementia through December 2014. We identified three distinct MMSE score trajectory patterns (high, middle and low) in adults aged 65-90 years. After adjusting for important confounders, participants with middle (42.8%) and low (5.1%) MMSE trajectories had hazard ratios of 2.46 (95% confidence interval 1.64-3.68) and 10.73 (95% confidence interval 4.91-23.45), respectively, for incident disabling dementia, as compared with those in the high (52.1%) trajectory group. Approximately half of the participants were classified as having a high MMSE trajectory, whereas 43% and 5% had middle and low MMSE trajectories, respectively, in this population. Individuals with middle and low MMSE trajectories had a higher risk for incident disabling dementia, which suggests that a high-risk approach to dementia prevention should target people with mild and more rapid cognitive decline. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Zhu, Liangjia; Gao, Yi; Mohan, Vandana; Stillman, Arthur; Faber, Tracy; Tannenbaum, Allen
The determination of myocardial volume at risk distal to coronary stenosis provides important information for prognosis and treatment of coronary artery disease. In this paper, we present a novel computational framework for estimating the myocardial volume at risk in computed tomography angiography (CTA) imagery. Initially, epicardial and endocardial surfaces, and coronary arteries are extracted using an active contour method. Then, the extracted coronary arteries are projected onto the epicardial surface, and each point on this surface is associated with its closest coronary artery using the geodesic distance measurement. The likely myocardial region at risk on the epicardial surface caused by a stenosis is approximated by the region in which all its inner points are associated with the sub-branches distal to the stenosis on the coronary artery tree. Finally, the likely myocardial volume at risk is approximated by the volume in between the region at risk on the epicardial surface and its projection on the endocardial surface, which is expected to yield computational savings over risk volume estimation using the entire image volume. Furthermore, we expect increased accuracy since, as compared to prior work using the Euclidean distance, we employ the geodesic distance in this work. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach on pig heart CTA datasets.
SS Mazloomy Mahmoudabad
Results: On the whole, using the MBI subscale, we found low levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and high levels of reduced sense of personal accomplishment in frequency . The wo variables of burnout and poor mental health were related significantly(p<0.001. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is a strong correlation between poor mental health and burnout to show that care should be taken to ameliorate the stressful conditions that cashiers face