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Sample records for at-risk mental state

  1. Bias against disconfirmatory evidence in the 'at-risk mental state' and during psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenacher, Sarah; Rausch, Franziska; Mier, Daniela; Fenske, Sabrina; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Englisch, Susanne; Becker, Anna; Andreou, Christina; Moritz, Steffen; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2016-04-30

    Prior studies have confirmed a bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE) in schizophrenia which has been associated with delusions. However, its role in the pathogenesis of psychosis is yet unclear. The objective was to investigate BADE for the first time in subjects with an at-risk-mental-state for psychosis (ARMS), patients with a first episode of psychosis without antipsychotic treatment (FEP) and healthy controls (HC). A standard BADE test presenting written scenarios was employed. In addition, psychometric rating scales and a neuropsychological test battery were applied. A three-staged image was revealed. FEP-patients showed a significant BADE compared to the other groups. The performance of ARMS-patients lay in between HC and FEP-patients. A trend towards significance became evident for a bias against confirmatory evidence (BACE) in FEP-patients. Results were not attributable to antipsychotic or other medication or depressive symptoms. Correlations with delusions reached medium effect sizes but failed significance after Bonferroni-corrections. These results provide evidence for aberrations in evidence integration in the pathogenesis of psychosis and contribute to our knowledge of metacognitive functioning which can be used for (meta-)cognitive intervention in psychosis. PMID:27086240

  2. Observations of a Small Sample of Adolescents Experiencing an At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) for Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, Patrick; Tiffin, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Some commentaries express concern that the At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) designation can be stigmatizing and induce a lasting sense of personal fragility. However, no studies have actually explored the personal perspectives of those so categorized. The purpose of this study was to explore how adolescents with an ARMS label understand and experience their condition medically and personally. Six participants receiving an ARMS diagnosis were interviewed and the data analyzed using interpretative p...

  3. Criticism and Depression among the Caregivers of At-Risk Mental State and First-Episode Psychosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaie, Yumiko; Ohmuro, Noriyuki; Katsura, Masahiro; Obara, Chika; Kikuchi, Tatsuo; Ito, Fumiaki; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Expressed emotion (EE), especially criticism, is an important predictor of outcomes for the patient for a wide range of mental health problems. To understand complex links between EE and various relevant variables in early phase psychosis, this study examined criticism, distress of caregivers, other patients’, and caregivers’ variables, and links between criticism and these variables in those with at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis and first-episode psychosis (FEP). The participants were 56 patients (mean age 18.8 ± 4.2 years) with ARMS and their caregivers (49.4 ± 5.8 years) and 43 patients (21.7 ± 5.2 years) with FEP and their caregivers (49.3 ± 7.4 years). We investigated criticisms made by caregivers using the Japanese version of the Family Attitude Scale and caregiver depressive symptoms via the self-report Beck Depression Inventory. We also assessed psychiatric symptoms and functioning of the patients. Approximately one-third of caregivers of patients with ARMS or FEP had depressive symptoms, predominately with mild-to-moderate symptom levels, whereas only a small portion exhibited high criticism. The level of criticism and depression were comparable between ARMS and FEP caregivers. The link between criticism, caregivers’ depression, and patients’ symptoms were observed in FEP but not in ARMS caregivers. These findings imply that the interaction between criticism and caregivers’ and patients’ mental states may develop during or after the onset of established psychosis and interventions for the caregivers should be tailored to the patient’s specific stage of illness. Interventions for FEP caregivers should target their emotional distress and include education about patient’s general symptoms. PMID:26918629

  4. Criticism and Depression among the Caregivers of At-Risk Mental State and First-Episode Psychosis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Hamaie

    Full Text Available Expressed emotion (EE, especially criticism, is an important predictor of outcomes for the patient for a wide range of mental health problems. To understand complex links between EE and various relevant variables in early phase psychosis, this study examined criticism, distress of caregivers, other patients', and caregivers' variables, and links between criticism and these variables in those with at-risk mental state (ARMS for psychosis and first-episode psychosis (FEP. The participants were 56 patients (mean age 18.8 ± 4.2 years with ARMS and their caregivers (49.4 ± 5.8 years and 43 patients (21.7 ± 5.2 years with FEP and their caregivers (49.3 ± 7.4 years. We investigated criticisms made by caregivers using the Japanese version of the Family Attitude Scale and caregiver depressive symptoms via the self-report Beck Depression Inventory. We also assessed psychiatric symptoms and functioning of the patients. Approximately one-third of caregivers of patients with ARMS or FEP had depressive symptoms, predominately with mild-to-moderate symptom levels, whereas only a small portion exhibited high criticism. The level of criticism and depression were comparable between ARMS and FEP caregivers. The link between criticism, caregivers' depression, and patients' symptoms were observed in FEP but not in ARMS caregivers. These findings imply that the interaction between criticism and caregivers' and patients' mental states may develop during or after the onset of established psychosis and interventions for the caregivers should be tailored to the patient's specific stage of illness. Interventions for FEP caregivers should target their emotional distress and include education about patient's general symptoms.

  5. Neuroimaging and treatment evidence for clinical staging in psychotic disorders: from the at-risk mental state to chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen J; Yung, Alison R; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos

    2011-10-01

    A new approach to understanding severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia is to adopt a clinical staging model. Such a model defines the extent of the illness such that earlier and milder phenomena are distinguished from later, more impairing features. Specifically, a clinical staging model makes three key predictions. First, pathologic measures should be more abnormal in more severe stages. Second, patients who progress between the stages should show change in these same pathologic measures. Finally, treatment should be more effective in the earlier stages, as well as more benign. In this article, we review the evidence for these three predictions from studies of psychotic disorders, with a focus on neuroimaging data. For all three, the balance of evidence supports the predictions of the staging model. However, there are a number of alternative explanations for these findings, including the effects of medication and symptom heterogeneity. PMID:21762875

  6. A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delespaul Philippe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT in targeting cognitive biases that are involved in the formation of delusions in persons with an ultra-high risk for developing psychosis. A single blind randomised controlled trial compares CBT with treatment as usual in preventing or delaying the onset of psychosis. Method/design All help seeking patients aged 14 to 35 years referred to the mental health services in three regions in the Netherlands are pre-screened with the Prodromal Questionnaire during a period of two years. Patients with a score of 18 or more on the sub-clinical positive symptoms items (45 items in total will be assessed with the Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental State (CAARMS. In a different pathway to care model all referrals from the mental health services in Amsterdam to the specialized psychosis clinic of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam are also assessed with the CAARMS. The primary outcome is the transition rate to psychosis according to the CAARMS-criteria. Group differences will be analysed with chi-square tests and survival analyses. Discussion CBT is a highly tolerated treatment. The psycho-educational CBT approach may prove to be a successful strategy since most people with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS are distressed by odd disturbing experiences. Giving explanations for and normalising these experiences may reduce the arousal (distress and therefore may prevent people from developing a catastrophic delusional explanation for their odd experiences and thus prevent them from developing psychosis. Screening the entire help-seeking population referred to community mental health services with a two-stage strategy, as compared with traditional referral

  7. States at Risk: America's Preparedness Report Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, R. M. S.; Strauss, B.; Kulp, S. A.; Bronzan, J.; Rodehorst, B.; Bhat, C.; Dix, B.; Savonis, M.; Wiles, R.

    2015-12-01

    Many states are already experiencing the costly impacts of extreme climate and weather events. The occurrence, frequency and intensity of these events may change under future climates. Preparing for these changes takes time, and state government agencies and communities need to recognize the risks they could potentially face and the response actions already undertaken. The States at Risk: America's Preparedness Report Card project is the first-ever study that quantifies five climate-change-driven hazards, and the relevant state government response actions in each of the 50 states. The changing characteristics of extreme heat, drought, wildfires, inland and coastal flooding were assessed for the baseline period (around year 2000) through the years 2030 and 2050 across all 50 states. Bias-corrected statistically-downscaled (BCSD) climate projections (Reclamation, 2013) and hydrology projections (Reclamation, 2014) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) under RCP8.5 were used. The climate change response action analysis covers five critical sectors: Transportation, Energy, Water, Human Health and Communities. It examined whether there is evidence that the state is taking action to (1) reduce current risks, (2) raise its awareness of future risks, (3) plan for adaptation to the future risks, and (4) implement specific actions to reduce future risks for each applicable hazards. Results from the two analyses were aggregated and translated into a rating system that standardizes assessments across states, which can be easily understood by both technical and non-technical audiences. The findings in this study not only serve as a screening tool for states to recognize the hazards they could potentially face as climate changes, but also serve as a roadmap for states to address the gaps in response actions, and to improve climate preparedness and resilience.

  8. Support for At-Risk Girls: A School-Based Mental Health Nursing Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamshick, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    Mental health problems often go undiagnosed or unaddressed until a crisis or extreme event brings the problem to the forefront. Youth are particularly at risk for lack of identification and treatment in regard to mental health issues. This article describes an advanced nursing practice mental health initiative for at-risk teenage girls based on Hildegard Peplau's nursing theory, group process, and healing through holistic health approaches. A support group, RICHES, was developed with focus on core components of relationships, identity, communication, health, esteem, and support. The acronym RICHES was chosen as the name of the support group. Selected themes and issues addressed in this school-based support group are illustrated in case vignettes. Through a collaborative approach with the community and school, this practice initiative presents a unique healing process that extends knowledge in the realm of intervention with at-risk teenage girls. Further research is needed on the efficacy of support groups to modify risk factors and to address goals for primary prevention in at-risk teenage girls. PMID:25549962

  9. Effectiveness of psychoeducation in reducing sickness absence and improving mental health in individuals at risk of having a mental disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Labriola, Merete;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of psychoeducation on return to work as an adjunct to standard case management in individuals on sick leave at risk of having a mental disorder. The participants could have different diagnoses but were all at risk of having a mental...... disorder. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2014, 430 participants on sick leave were randomly allocated to either an intervention or control group. The psychoeducation consisted of 2-h sessions once a week for 6 weeks. The sessions focused on stress and work life and was based on problem-solving techniques and...... coping strategies. The main outcome, the relative risk (RR) of a full return to work based on register data from the job centres, was determined during the first 3 and 6 months after participation in the psychoeducation programme. At baseline and at 3 and 6 months after the intervention, the participants...

  10. Globalization at Risk: The Changing Preferences of States and Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Quirk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available After long, wide trends toward freer and more integratedmarkets, peoples and ideas, reluctance to subordinate the ideals of globalization to state interests shows signs of serious erosion. Recent examples include the breakdown of international institutions, the rise in state control over energy resources and their use as diplomatic leverage, and US abandonment of the principles of globalization. The sources of these changing preferences are both ideological and utilitarian. The result is that key elements of globalization are at risk, but with unpredictable consequences.

  11. Mental health symptoms identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders : prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoffen, Marieke F. A.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems are a leading cause of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Workers at risk of mental LTSA should preferably be identified before they report sick. The objective of this study was to examine mental health symptoms as predictors of future mental LTSA in non-sicklisted

  12. Mental states in communication

    OpenAIRE

    Tirassa, Maurizio

    1997-01-01

    Abstract. This paper is concerned with the mental processes involved in intentional communication. I describe an agent's cognitive architecture as the set of cognitive dynamics (i.e., sequences of mental states with contents) she may entertain. I then describe intentional communication as one such specific dynamics, arguing against the prevailing view that communication consists in playing a role in a socially shared script. The cognitive capabilities needed for such dynamics are midreading (...

  13. Mini mental state examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...

  14. A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rietdijk; S. Dragt; R. Klaassen; H. Ising; D. Nieman; L. Wunderink; P. Delespaul; P. Cuijpers; D. Linszen; M. van der Gaag

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy

  15. A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietdijk, J.; Dragt, S.; Klaassen, R.; Ising, H; Nieman, D.; Wunderink, L.; Delespaul, P.; Cuijpers, P.; Linszen, D.; Gaag, van der M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in t

  16. A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) trial

    OpenAIRE

    Delespaul Philippe; Wunderink Lex; Nieman Dorien; Ising Helga; Klaassen Rianne; Dragt Sara; Rietdijk Judith; Cuijpers Pim; Linszen Don; van der Gaag Mark

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in targeting cognitive biases that are involved in the formation of delusions in persons with an ultra-high risk for developing psychosis. A single blind randomised controlled trial compares CB...

  17. The effects of mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences among at-risk adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A.; Hunter, Sarah B; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Based on expectancy theory, adolescents at risk for mental health symptoms, such as those involved in the juvenile court system, may use marijuana due to the belief that use will attenuate anxiety and depressive symptoms. In a diverse sample of youth involved in the Santa Barbara Teen Court system (N = 193), we examined the association between mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences. In general, stronger positive expectancies and weaker negative exp...

  18. Psychoeducation to facilitate return to work in individuals on sick leave and at risk of having a mental disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Yde, Bjarne Frostholm;

    2014-01-01

    given by psychiatric nurses, a psychologist, a social worker, a physiotherapist and a person who had previously been on sick leave due to mental health problems. The sessions focused on stress and work life, and the purpose was to provide individuals on sick leave the skills to understand and improve......BACKGROUND: Sickness absence due to poor mental health is a common problem in many Western countries. To facilitate return to work, it may be important to identify individuals on sick leave and at risk of having a mental disorder and subsequently to offer appropriate treatment. Psychoeducation...... of having a mental disorder. The psychoeducation was a supplement to the various standard offers provided by the job centres.Methods/design: The study is a randomised controlled trial, in which individuals on sick leave either receive psychoeducation and standard case management or standard case...

  19. THE STRUCTURE OF MENTAL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshat Tavkil’evna Shavalieva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the peculiarities of structural and functional organization of mental states of three age groups’ respondents. Depending on the degree of exposure in primary school children, adolescents, and adults similar in nature mental states, but different in their stability and structure are observed. It was found that children with different levels of mental development of a completely different operating parameters of the statesmental proces-ses, physiological reactivity, feelings and behavior. The specifics of the states and the reliefs showed different levels of mental activity of children of three age groups. The structural and functional organization of mental states to identify the different structures of blocks, their interconnectivity, and they differ in the degree of involvement of the parameters of mental states to each other. Each group revealed a different level of mental activity. The differences in the mechanisms of perception of children of three age groups depending on the level of mental development.The aim is to study the features of mental conditions of «school age» children, their structural and functional organization of the perception of the artistic image «Before the Wedding» picture of the famous Russian artist F.S. Zhuravlev’s «Before the Wedding». Identification of the mechanisms of perception of the image and the features state structures of subjects.Method and methodology of work. Research carried out on the basis of a systematic methodology and the theory of activity developed by Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria and A. Brushlinskii subject approach, SL Rubinstein and also theoretical principles and provisions of the concept of mental conditions of the person (A.O. Prohorov and concepts of color (J.W. Go-ethe, P.V. Yanshin et al.. The material of the study served as a theoretical analysis of the general and special literature on the perception of color and artistic images

  20. Globalization at Risk: The Changing Preferences of States and Societies

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Quirk

    2008-01-01

    After long, wide trends toward freer and more integratedmarkets, peoples and ideas, reluctance to subordinate the ideals of globalization to state interests shows signs of serious erosion. Recent examples include the breakdown of international institutions, the rise in state control over energy resources and their use as diplomatic leverage, and US abandonment of the principles of globalization. The sources of these changing preferences are both ideological and utilitarian. The result i...

  1. Providing web-based mental health services to at-risk women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Meghan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the feasibility of providing web-based mental health services, including synchronous internet video conferencing of an evidence-based support/education group, to at-risk women, specifically poor lone mothers. The objectives of this study were to: (i adapt a face-to-face support/education group intervention to a web-based format for lone mothers, and (ii evaluate lone mothers' response to web-based services, including an online video conferencing group intervention program. Methods Participating mothers were recruited through advertisements. To adapt the face-to-face intervention to a web-based format, we evaluated participant motivation through focus group/key informant interviews (n = 7, adapted the intervention training manual for a web-based environment and provided a computer training manual. To evaluate response to web-based services, we provided the intervention to two groups of lone mothers (n = 15. Pre-post quantitative evaluation of mood, self-esteem, social support and parenting was done. Post intervention follow up interviews explored responses to the group and to using technology to access a health service. Participants received $20 per occasion of data collection. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Adherence to the intervention protocol was evaluated. Results Mothers participating in this project experienced multiple difficulties, including financial and mood problems. We adapted the intervention training manual for use in a web-based group environment and ensured adherence to the intervention protocol based on viewing videoconferencing group sessions and discussion with the leaders. Participant responses to the group intervention included decreased isolation, and increased knowledge and confidence in themselves and their parenting; the responses closely matched those of mothers who obtained same service in face-to-face groups. Pre-and post

  2. Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART in at risk individuals: A randomised double blind, sham controlled, longitudinal trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT and progressive resistance training (PRT on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART. Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. Methods SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk × 6 mo in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog, neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs. Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (fMRS. Discussion SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the

  3. Model minority at risk: expressed needs of mental health by Asian American young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E; Robinson, E Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery County, Maryland. We developed a moderator's guide with open-ended questions and used it to collect qualitative data. Using a software, we organized and identified emergent themes by major categories. Participants reported a several common sources of stress that affect the mental health of Asian American young adults including: pressure to meet parental expectations of high academic achievement and live up to the "model minority" stereotype; difficulty of balancing two different cultures and communicating with parents; family obligations based on the strong family values; and discrimination or isolation due to racial or cultural background. Young Asian Americans tend not to seek professional help for their mental health problems; instead they use personal support networks-close friends, significant others, and religious community. Participants suggested that Asian cultural norms that do not consider mental problems important, and associated stigma of seeking professional care might undermine their mental health help seeking behavior. Our findings support a need for delivering culturally appropriate programs to raise awareness of mental health and cultural training for health providers to deliver culturally appropriate care. PMID:18931893

  4. Model Minority at Risk: Expressed Needs of Mental Health by Asian American Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E.; Robinson, E. Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery ...

  5. Coping with stress, coping with violence: Links to mental health outcomes among at-risk youth

    OpenAIRE

    Boxer, Paul; Sloan-Power, Elizabeth; Schappell, Ignacio Mercado and Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Coping reactions to stressful events are important links between difficult experiences and the emergence of psychopathology. In this study we compared youths' negative coping with stress in general to their negative coping with violence in particular, and utilized a person-centered analytic approach to examine how patterns of coping relate to various mental health outcomes. We utilized survey interview measures to collect data from a sample of 131 youth (ages 11–14, 100% ethnic minority) resi...

  6. Learning Mental States from Biosignals

    OpenAIRE

    Kandemir, Melih

    2013-01-01

    As computing technology evolves, users perform more complex tasks with computers. Hence, users expect from user interfaces to be more proactive than reactive. A proactive interface should anticipate the user’s intentions and take the right action without requiring a user command. The crucial first step for such an interface is to infer the user’s mental state, which gives important cues about user intentions. This thesis consists of several case studies on inferring mental states of computer ...

  7. Gambling-Related Problems as a Mediator Between Treatment and Mental Health with At-Risk College Student Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisner, Irene Markman; Bowen, Sarah; Lostutter, Ty W; Cronce, Jessica M; Granato, Hollie; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-09-01

    Disordered gambling has been linked to increased negative affect, and some promising treatments have been shown to be effective at reducing gambling behaviors and related problems (Larimer et al. in Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012). The current study seeks to expand upon the findings of Larimer et al. (Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012) by examining the relationship between gambling-related problems and mental health symptoms in college students. Specifically, the three-group design tested the effects of two brief interventions for gambling—an individual, in-person personalized feedback intervention (PFI) delivered using motivational interviewing and group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, versus assessment only on mood outcomes. The mediating effect of gambling-related problems on mood was also explored. Participants (N = 141; 65% men; 60% Caucasian, 28% Asian) were at-risk college student gamblers [South Oaks Gambling Screen (Lesieur and Blume in Am J Psychiatry 144:1184-1188, 1987) ≥3], assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Gambling problems were assessed using the Gambling Problems Index (Neighbors et al. in J Gamb Stud 18:339-360, 2002). Mental health symptoms were assessed using the depression, anxiety, and hostility subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis in Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): administration, scoring, and procedures manual, National Computer Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, 1993). Results revealed that the PFI condition differentially reduced negative mood, and that reductions in gambling-related problems partially mediated this effect. Implications for intervention for comorbid mood and gambling disorders are discussed. PMID:24706331

  8. Cognitive Processes that Account for Mental Addition Fluency Differences between Children Typically Achieving in Arithmetic and Children At-Risk for Failure in Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Derek H.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether processing speed, short-term memory, and working memory accounted for the differential mental addition fluency between children typically achieving in arithmetic (TA) and children at-risk for failure in arithmetic (AR). Further, we drew attention to fluency differences in simple (e.g., 5 + 3) and complex (e.g., 16 +…

  9. Mental state talk by Danish preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Knüppel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen 4 to 6-year-old Danish children were video-recorded, while interacting spontaneously with their family in their homes. The mental state talk of the children was identified and analysed with respect to three mental domains: desire, feeling and cognition, and was compared to data from a similar study carried out with Canadian families (Jenkins et al., 2003. Our results suggest some cross-cultural differences in children’s mental state talk. First, Danish children produce a larger variation of mental state talk words than Canadian children do, and second, the distribution of mental state talk across the three domains differed for the two language groups. Semantic variation between Danish and English was identified in the study, which may partly explain the findings. Furthermore we present a usage-based approach to the investigation of children’s development of psychological categories in language as well as cross-linguistically.

  10. College Student Suicide: How Students at Risk Use Mental Health Services and Other Sources of Support and Coping

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Jennifer Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    College suicide rates are stable, but up to 10% of students experience suicidal ideation each year, and most do not access mental health services. Little is known about campus mental health service structure and delivery. In a mixed model, quantitative-to-qualitative design, this study examined the link between suicidal ideation, mental health service use, and suicide attempt using archival survey data of over 25,000 college students from 70 campuses, collected in 2006 by the UT Austin-based ...

  11. A Model of Mental State Transition Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hua; Jiang, Peilin; Xiao, Shuang; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Emotion is one of the most essential and basic attributes of human intelligence. Current AI (Artificial Intelligence) research is concentrating on physical components of emotion, rarely is it carried out from the view of psychology directly(1). Study on the model of artificial psychology is the first step in the development of human-computer interaction. As affective computing remains unpredictable, creating a reasonable mental model becomes the primary task for building a hybrid system. A pragmatic mental model is also the fundament of some key topics such as recognition and synthesis of emotions. In this paper a Mental State Transition Network Model(2) is proposed to detect human emotions. By a series of psychological experiments, we present a new way to predict coming human's emotions depending on the various current emotional states under various stimuli. Besides, people in different genders and characters are taken into consideration in our investigation. According to the psychological experiments data derived from 200 questionnaires, a Mental State Transition Network Model for describing the transitions in distribution among the emotions and relationships between internal mental situations and external are concluded. Further more the coefficients of the mental transition network model were achieved. Comparing seven relative evaluating experiments, an average precision rate of 0.843 is achieved using a set of samples for the proposed model.

  12. At-risk and problem gambling among Finnish youth: The examination of risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, mental health and loneliness as gender-specific correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgren Robert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN - Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822 were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484. The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score≥2 was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS - The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74 for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56 for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26 for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23 for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12 for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24 for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39 for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34 for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.

  13. Mental state decoding v. mental state reasoning as a mediator between cognitive and social function in psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Corvin, Aiden; Donohoe, Gary; Gill, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia have been parsed into mental state reasoning and mental state decoding components. We report that mental state decoding as measured by the `Eyes task? better predicted social function than mental state reasoning as measured by the `Hinting task? in 73 out-patients with chronic schizophrenia. Mental state decoding task performance also partly mediated the influence of basic neuropsychological performance on social function. We discuss these findings in ...

  14. INSTITUTIONALISED MENTALLY RETARDED IN A STATE MENTAL HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, O.; Papakumari, M.; V Jayanthini; Kumar, M Suresh

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY 298 institutionalised mentally retarded patients in Institute of Mental Health, Madras were studied for the aetiological factors, levels of intelligence, associated disorders and family structure and compared with 163 matched group of mentally retarded attending the outpatient services of the Institute of Mental Health. In 41% of the institutionalised the cause was unknown, 29.3% had infective aetiology, 18% formed the primary group and 6.4% were due to genetic and chromosomal factors...

  15. Guiding young adults at risk – effects and challenges in the Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Annette; Rasmussen, Palle;

    The paper discusses and analyses results from qualitative research on a Danish youth project named Youth in Development (Danish: “Unge i Vækst”). The project, financially supported by the EU and local authorities, was aimed at finding new ways in the guidance of young adults at risk of being...... of these young people can be understood with a reference to socialization and concepts such as habitus and social and cultural forms of capital. Based on collaboration between relevant local actors (vocational schools, labor marked authorities, business associations and others) a full-time course was organized......-structured interviews with participants, strongly indicates that it is possible to facilitate processes to improve self-confidence in these young people and develop the necessary social competencies to meet the demands of further education and work....

  16. Trait and State Anxiety: Relations to Executive Functioning in an at Risk Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Ursache, Alexandra; Raver, C. Cybele

    2013-01-01

    Prior research with adults suggests mixed evidence for the relations of state and trait anxiety to prefrontal executive functions. Trait anxiety is hypothesized to impair the efficiency of prefrontal areas and goal directed attention and has been largely associated with poorer performance on executive functioning tasks. Fewer studies have investigated state anxiety and findings have been mixed. As studies of these processes in children have been limited by small sample sizes and a focus on wo...

  17. Co-Occurring Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Firesetting Among At-Risk Adolescents: Experiences of Negative Life Events, Mental Health Problems, Substance Use, and Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Alicia; Hasking, Penelope; Martin, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors in adolescence typically marks more severe psychopathology and poorer psychosocial functioning than engagement in a single problem behavior. We examined the negative life events, emotional and behavioral problems, substance use, and suicidality of school-based adolescents reporting both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and repetitive firesetting, compared to those engaging in either behavior alone. Differences in NSSI characteristics among self-injurers who set fires, compared to those who did not, were also assessed. A total of 384 at-risk adolescents aged 12-18 years (58.8% female) completed self-report questionnaires measuring NSSI, firesetting, and key variables of interest. Results suggest that adolescents who both self-injure and deliberately set fires represent a low-prevalence but distinct high-risk subgroup, characterized by increased rates of interpersonal difficulties, mental health problems and substance use, more severe self-injury, and suicidal behavior. Implications for prevention and early intervention initiatives are discussed. PMID:26214360

  18. Fast mental states decoding in mixed reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eDe Massari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Brain-Computer Interface technology, allowing online monitoring and decoding of brain activity, with virtual and mixed reality systems may help to shape and guide implicit and explicit learning using ecological scenarios. Real-time information of ongoing brain states acquired through BCI might be exploited for controlling data presentation in virtual environments. In this context, assessing to what extent brain states can be discriminated during mixed reality experience is critical for adapting specific data features to contingent brain activity. In this study we recorded EEG data while participants experienced a mixed reality scenario implemented through the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM. The XIM is a novel framework modeling the integration of a sensing system that evaluates and measures physiological and psychological states with a number of actuators and effectors that coherently reacts to the user's actions. We then assessed continuous EEG-based discrimination of spatial navigation, reading and calculation performed in mixed reality, using LDA and SVM classifiers. Dynamic single trial classification showed high accuracy of LDA and SVM classifiers in detecting multiple brain states as well as in differentiating between high and low mental workload, using a 5 s time-window shifting every 200 ms. Our results indicate overall better performance of LDA with respect to SVM and suggest applicability of our approach in a BCI-controlled mixed reality scenario. Ultimately, successful prediction of brain states might be used to drive adaptation of data representation in order to boost information processing in mixed reality.

  19. Emotion understanding, parent mental state language, and behavior problems in internationally adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-05-01

    Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding. PMID:26612541

  20. Eye Movements Reveal Sustained Implicit Processing of Others' Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dana; Bayliss, Andrew P.; Becker, Stefanie I.; Dux, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to attribute mental states to others is crucial for social competency. To assess mentalizing abilities, in false-belief tasks participants attempt to identify an actor's belief about an object's location as opposed to the object's actual location. Passing this test on explicit measures is typically achieved by 4 years of age, but…

  1. Effects of user mental state on EEG-BCI performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eMyrden

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in psychological state have been proposed as a cause of variation in brain-computer interface performance, but little formal analysis has been conducted to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of three mental states - fatigue, frustration, and attention - on BCI performance. Twelve able-bodied participants were trained to use a two-class EEG-BCI based on the performance of user-specific mental tasks. Following training, participants completed three testing sessions, during which they used the BCI to play a simple maze navigation game while periodically reporting their perceived levels of fatigue, frustration, and attention. Statistical analysis indicated that there is a significant relationship between frustration and BCI performance while the relationship between fatigue and BCI performance approached significance. BCI performance was 7% lower than average when self-reported fatigue was low and 10% lower than average when self-reported frustration was low. A multivariate analysis of mental state revealed the presence of contiguous regions in mental state space where BCI performance was more accurate than average, suggesting the importance of moderate fatigue for achieving effortless focus on BCI control, frustration as a potential motivating factor, and attention as a compensatory mechanism to increasing frustration. Finally, a visual analysis showed the sensitivity of underlying class distributions to changes in mental state. Collectively, these results indicate that mental state is closely related to BCI performance, encouraging future development of psychologically adaptive BCIs.

  2. Predicting user mental states in spoken dialogue systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griol David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we propose a method for predicting the user mental state for the development of more efficient and usable spoken dialogue systems. This prediction, carried out for each user turn in the dialogue, makes it possible to adapt the system dynamically to the user needs. The mental state is built on the basis of the emotional state of the user and their intention, and is recognized by means of a module conceived as an intermediate phase between natural language understanding and the dialogue management in the architecture of the systems. We have implemented the method in the UAH system, for which the evaluation results with both simulated and real users show that taking into account the user's mental state improves system performance as well as its perceived quality.

  3. Predicting user mental states in spoken dialogue systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas, Zoraida; Griol, David; López-Cózar, Ramón

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we propose a method for predicting the user mental state for the development of more efficient and usable spoken dialogue systems. This prediction, carried out for each user turn in the dialogue, makes it possible to adapt the system dynamically to the user needs. The mental state is built on the basis of the emotional state of the user and their intention, and is recognized by means of a module conceived as an intermediate phase between natural language understanding and the dialogue management in the architecture of the systems. We have implemented the method in the UAH system, for which the evaluation results with both simulated and real users show that taking into account the user's mental state improves system performance as well as its perceived quality.

  4. Predicting user mental states in spoken dialogue systems

    OpenAIRE

    Griol David; Callejas Zoraida; López-Cózar Ramón

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we propose a method for predicting the user mental state for the development of more efficient and usable spoken dialogue systems. This prediction, carried out for each user turn in the dialogue, makes it possible to adapt the system dynamically to the user needs. The mental state is built on the basis of the emotional state of the user and their intention, and is recognized by means of a module conceived as an intermediate phase between natural language understanding a...

  5. Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health: United States-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlot, Lauren; Beasley, Joan B.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, research directed specifically at improving our understanding of the psychiatric assessment and treatment of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has grown, yet lags far behind efforts for typically developing children and adults. In the United States, a lack of a national approach to the mental health problems of…

  6. Seeing other minds: attributed mental states influence perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Christoph; Fletcher, Paul C; Davis, Greg

    2010-08-01

    A current consensus views social perception as a bottom-up process in which the human brain uses social signals to make inferences about another's mental state. Here we propose that, contrary to this model, even the most basic perceptual processing of a social stimulus and closely associated automatic responses are modulated by mental-state attribution. We suggest that social perception is subserved by an interactive bidirectional relationship between the neural mechanisms supporting basic sensory processing of social information and the theory-of-mind system. Consequently, processing of a social stimulus cannot be divorced from its representation in terms of mental states. This hypothesis has far-reaching implications for our understanding of both the healthy social brain and characteristic social failures in psychopathology. PMID:20576464

  7. [Dangerous states and mental health disorders: perceptions and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL

  8. Decoding subjective mental states from fMRI activity patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoding has emerged as a powerful tool to read out detailed stimulus features from multi-voxel brain activity patterns. Moreover, the method has been extended to perform a primitive form of 'mind-reading,' by applying a decoder 'objectively' trained using stimulus features to more 'subjective' conditions. In this paper, we first introduce basic procedures for fMRI decoding based on machine learning techniques. Second, we discuss the source of information used for decoding, in particular, the possibility of extracting information from subvoxel neural structures. We next introduce two experimental designs for decoding subjective mental states: the 'objective-to-subjective design' and the 'subjective-to-subjective design.' Then, we illustrate recent studies on the decoding of a variety of mental states, such as, attention, awareness, decision making, memory, and mental imagery. Finally, we discuss the challenges and new directions of fMRI decoding. (author)

  9. Maternal Mental State Talk and Infants' Early Gestural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Carpenter, Malinda

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-four infants were tested monthly for the production of imperative and declarative gestures between 0 ; 9 and 1 ; 3 and concurrent mother-infant free-play sessions were conducted at 0 ; 9, 1 ; 0 and 1 ; 3 (Carpenter, Nagell & Tomasello, 1998). Free-play transcripts were subsequently coded for maternal talk about mental states. Results…

  10. Employee Performance and State Mental Health Manpower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Paul M.

    A project explored the manpower issue termed "burnout" and the impact of this phenomenon on mental health service programs. (In the framework of this study burnout is defined as that state of non-productivity, non-motivation, and indifference which interferes with a worker's delivering services effectively.) Existing literature does not clearly…

  11. Towards a Physical Theory of Subjective Mental States

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Any complete theory of physical reality must allow for the ubiquitous phenomenon of subjective experience at some level, or risk being conceptually incoherent. However, as long as the ontological status of subjectivity itself remains unresolved, the topic will be seen as more within the purview of philosophy than of physics. Towards a resolution of this issue within empirically motivated physical theory, this article introduces an operational definition that ultilizes the general consensus that subjective mental states, whatever else is controversial about them, at least correlate in some way to physical states. It is shown here that implementing this underappreciated assumption within the framework of a physical theory in fact leads to wide-ranging consequences. In particular, a correlation requires there exist a well-defined mapping from a space of subjective mental states onto a space of information-bearing elements of some physical theory. Given the peculiar nature of subjective states as inherently priva...

  12. Mental States as Macrostates Emerging from EEG Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Allefeld, Carsten; Wackermann, Jiri

    2008-01-01

    Psychophysiological correlations form the basis for various disciplines, but the nature of the relation between mind and body has not yet been fully understood. We propose to understand the mental as ``emerging'' from neural processes in the precise sense that psychology and physiology provide two different descriptions of the same system. Stating the two descriptions in terms of coarser- and finer-grained system states, both descriptions may be equally adequate if the coarse-graining preserves the possibility to obtain a dynamical rule for the system. To test the empirical validity of our approach, we describe an algorithm to obtain a specific form of such a coarse-graining from empirical data. After illustrating the method using a simulated system, we apply the algorithm to electroencephalographic data, where we are able to identify states that correspond to mental states of the subject.

  13. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity

    OpenAIRE

    Gergelyfi, Mónika; Jacob, Benvenuto; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we meas...

  14. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-03-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  15. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims' mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  16. Property features and mental state university students of modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belykh S.I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of values and mental conditions of typical Ukrainian university students. It is shown that mental health - a state of psychic sphere. It is based on the general state of peace of mind, which gives adequate behavioral reaction. Moral health - a set of motivational characteristics, need and informative aspects of life. Its basis is determined by the system of values, attitudes and motivations of individual behavior. It is established that the existing level of organization of the educational process in physical education does not create the necessary framework for the effective development of physical culture of the students and getting them non-professional physical education, only partially solves the problem of their physical fitness and recreation.

  17. Brief mindfulness meditation improves mental state attribution and empathizing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy B G Tan

    Full Text Available The ability to infer and understand the mental states of others (i.e., Theory of Mind is a cornerstone of human interaction. While considerable efforts have focused on explicating when, why and for whom this fundamental psychological ability can go awry, considerably less is known about factors that may enhance theory of mind. Accordingly, the current study explored the possibility that mindfulness-based meditation may improve people's mindreading skills. Following a 5-minute mindfulness induction, participants with no prior meditation experience completed tests that assessed mindreading and empathic understanding. The results revealed that brief mindfulness meditation enhanced both mental state attribution and empathic concern, compared to participants in the control group. These findings suggest that mindfulness may be a powerful technique for facilitating core aspects of social-cognitive functioning.

  18. Spatial analysis of environment and population at risk of natural gas fracking in the state of Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingmin

    2015-05-15

    Hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking, has been increasing exponentially across the United States, which holds the largest known shale gas reserves in the world. Studies have found that the high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing process (HVHFP) threatens water resources, harms air quality, changes landscapes, and damages ecosystems. However, there is minimal research focusing on the spatial study of environmental and human risks of HVHFP, which is necessary for state and federal governments to administer, regulate, and assess fracking. Integrating GIS and spatial kernel functions, we study the presently operating fracking wells across the state of Pennsylvania (PA), which is the main part of the current hottest Marcellus Shale in US. We geographically process the location data of hydraulic fracturing wells, 2010 census block data, urbanized region data, railway data, local road data, open water data, river data, and wetland data for the state of PA. From this we develop a distance based risk assessment in order to understand the environmental and urban risks. We generate the surface data of fracking well intensity and population intensity by integrating spatial dependence, semivariogram modeling, and a quadratic kernel function. The surface data of population risk generated by the division of fracking well intensity and population intensity provide a novel insight into the local and regional regulation of hydraulic fracturing activities in terms of environmental and health related risks due to the proximity of fracking wells. PMID:25727517

  19. 75 FR 16325 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: At-Risk Afterschool Meals in Eligible States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reimbursed at the applicable free rates for meals and snacks. On March 27, 2008 (73 FR 16213), FNS published..., 2004 (69 FR 53501), provided State agencies with broad authority to impose limits on the duration of... related Notice published at 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983, this Program is included from the scope...

  20. Relation between neurophysiological and mental states: possible limits of decodability

    OpenAIRE

    Gierer, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Validity of physical laws for any aspect of brain activity and strict correlation of mental to physical states of the brain do not imply, with logical necessity, that a complete algorithmic theory of the mind-body relation is possible. A limit of decodability may be imposed by the finite number of possible analytical operations which is rooted in the finiteness of the world. It is considered as a fundamental intrinsic limitation of the scientific approach comparable to quantum indeterminacy a...

  1. Pathways between stigma and suicidal ideation among people at risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziyan; Müller, Mario; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Metzler, Sibylle; Dvorsky, Diane; Oexle, Nathalie; Walitza, Susanne; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Mental illness stigma may contribute to suicidality and is associated with social isolation and low self-esteem among young people at risk of psychosis. However, it is unclear whether mental illness stigma contributes to suicidality in this population. We therefore examined the associations of self-labeling and stigma stress with suicidality among young people at risk. Self-labeling as "mentally ill", stigma stress, social isolation, self-esteem, symptoms and suicidal ideation were assessed in 172 individuals at risk of psychosis. Self-labeling and stigma stress were examined as predictors of suicidality by path analysis. Increased self-labeling as "mentally ill" was associated with suicidality, directly as well as indirectly mediated by social isolation. More stigma stress was related to social isolation which in turn was associated with low self-esteem, depression and suicidal ideation. Social isolation fully mediated the link between stigma stress and suicidal ideation. Interventions to reduce the public stigma associated with risk of psychosis as well as programs to facilitate non-stigmatizing awareness of at-risk mental state and to reduce stigma stress among young people at risk of psychosis might strengthen suicide prevention in this population. PMID:26843510

  2. States Pass Diverse Slate of Mental Health Legislation in 2013. Mental Health: 2013 Legislative Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…

  3. Decoding the Large-Scale Structure of Brain Function by Classifying Mental States Across Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Poldrack, Russell A.; Halchenko, Yaroslav ,; Hanson, Stephen José

    2009-01-01

    Brain-imaging research has largely focused on localizing patterns of activity related to specific mental processes, but recent work has shown that mental states can be identified from neuroimaging data using statistical classifiers. We investigated whether this approach could be extended to predict the mental state of an individual using a statistical classifier trained on other individuals, and whether the information gained in doing so could provide new insights into how mental processes ar...

  4. Mini mental state examination. Validering af en ny dansk udgave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korner, E.A.; Lauritzen, L.; Nilsson, F.M.;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...... correlations to the global scales. However, there were considerable variations in mean score (+/-SD) as well as median score and range in relation to CGI and GDS values. The MMSE score is independent of sex and educational level. CONCLUSION: The MMSE also proved to be a robust scale in the present Danish...

  5. Knowledge as a mental state? A Study on Oxford Realism

    OpenAIRE

    Kohne, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Subject of this book is an epistemological consideration - a consideration which could be characterised as a main theme - maybe the main theme - of that part of philosophy we all know as epistemology: the nature of knowledge. But other than the most essays on the subject of knowledge, here I am going to deal with a largely overlooked account to try to find an answer to the epistemological question of knowledge. This is the mental state account of knowledge (Price in his 'Belief' the formulati...

  6. Classification of EGC output and Mental State Transition Networkusing Self Organizing Map

    OpenAIRE

    Mera, Kazuya; Ichimura, Takumi

    2011-01-01

    Mental State Transition Network which consists of mental states connected one another is a basic concept of approximating to human psychological and mental responses. It can represent transition from an emotional state to other one with stimulus by calculating Emotion Generating Calculations method. However, this method ignores most of emotions except for an emotion which has the strongest effect although EGC can calculate the degree of 20 emotions in parallel. In this pa...

  7. Mental state language and quality of conversational experience in deaf and hearing children

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, G; Meristo, M.; Mann, W.; Hjelmquist, E; Surian, L.; Siegal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Deaf children from hearing parents show a protracted delay in their performance on standard ‘theory of mind’ measures that concern their knowledge of false beliefs and other reality incongruent mental states. Considerable evidence indicates that children’s early experience of adults’ mental state talk predicts their later social cognitive development. However, no previous study has analyzed access to conversation about mental states in very young deaf children. We compared the conversational ...

  8. School mental health services: signpost for out-of-school service utilization in adolescents with mental disorders? : a nationally representative United States cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Marion Tegethoff; Esther Stalujanis; Angelo Belardi; Gunther Meinlschmidt

    2014-01-01

    Background: School mental health services are important contact points for children and adolescents with mental disorders, but their ability to provide comprehensive treatment is limited. The main objective was to estimate in mentally disordered adolescents of a nationally representative United States cohort the role of school mental health services as guide to mental health care in different out-of-school service sectors. Methods: Analyses are based on weighted data (N = 6483) fro...

  9. The interdependence of mental health service systems: the effects of VA mental health funding on veterans' use of state mental health inpatient facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rani A.; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2000-06-01

    BACKGROUND: There are relatively few published data on how the financial structures of different health systems affect each other. With increasing financial restrictions in both public and private healthcare systems, it is important to understand how changes in one system (e.g. VA mental healthcare) affect utilization of other systems (e.g. state hospitals). AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study utilizes data from state hospitals in eight states to examine the relationship of VA per capita mental health funding and state per capita mental health expenditures to veterans' use of state hospitals, adjusting for other determinants of utilization. METHODS: This study utilized a large database that included records from all male inpatient admissions to state hospitals between 1984 and 1989 in eight states (n = 152541). Funding levels for state hospitals and VA mental health systems were examined as alternative enabling factors for veterans' use of state hospital care. Logistic regression models were adjusted for other determinants of utilization such as socio-economic status, diagnosis, travel distances to VA and non-VA facilities and the proportion of veterans in the population. RESULTS: The single strongest predictor of whether a state hospital patient would be a veteran was the level of VA mental healthcare funding (OR = 0.81 per $10 of funding per veteran in the population, p = 0.0001), with higher VA funding associated with less use of state hospitals by veterans. Higher per capita state funding, reciprocally, increased veterans' use of state hospitals. We also calculated elasticities for state hospital use with respect to VA mental healthcare funding and with respect to state hospital per capita funding. A 50% increase in VA per capita mental health spending was associated with a 30% decrease in veterans' use of state hospitals (elasticity of -0.6). Conversely, a 50% increase in state hospital per capita funding was associated with only an 11% increase in veterans' use of

  10. An Exploration of Secondary Students' Mental States When Learning About Acids and Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Hou, I.-Lin; Chiu, Houn-Lin; Treagust, David F.

    2014-02-01

    This study explored factors of students' mental states, including emotion, intention, internal mental representation, and external mental representation, which can affect their learning performance. In evaluating students' mental states during the science learning process and the relationship between mental states and learning achievement, valid, reliable, and scalable measures of students' mental states and learning achievement are needed. This paper presents the development of the Mental State Conceptual Learning Inventory (MSCLI) to identify students' mental states before and after learning about acids and bases. This instrument is time efficient and convenient and can be administered to large student samples so that teachers and researchers can gain profound insights into their students' learning of acids and bases in science class. The results of this study indicate that students' mental states are highly correlated with their achievement. As a whole, low-achieving students tended to have negative emotions and low intentions, were not good at internal visualization, and were unable to interpret graphics and draw pictures. In contrast, high-achieving students had positive emotions and intentions when learning life-related topics about acids and bases, and were good at internal visualization and drawing and interpreting graphics.

  11. Revealing Variations in Perception of Mental States from Dynamic Facial Expressions: A Cautionary Note

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Back; Timothy R Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Although a great deal of research has been conducted on the recognition of basic facial emotions (e.g., anger, happiness, sadness), much less research has been carried out on the more subtle facial expressions of an individual's mental state (e.g., anxiety, disinterest, relief). Of particular concern is that these mental state expressions provide a crucial source of communication in everyday life but little is known about the accuracy with which natural dynamic facial expressions of mental st...

  12. Theory of Mind and Mental State Discourse during Book Reading and Story-Telling Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Douglas K.; Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia; Roche, Jackie; Doyle, Emily

    2005-01-01

    This article presents three studies conducted in Canada and Australia that relate theory of mind (ToM) development to mental state discourse. In Study 1, mental state discourse was examined while parents and their 5-7-year-old children jointly read a storybook which had a surprise ending about the identity of the main character. Comments specific…

  13. Why Talk about Mental States? The Significance of Children's Conversations with Friends, Siblings, and Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jane R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined four-year olds' use of mental state terms in conversations. Found that more references to mental states were made in conversations with siblings and friends than with mothers. Frequent use of terms by both partners was related to cooperative interaction in child-friend and child-sibling dyads. Found associations with measures of language…

  14. Revealing variations in perception of mental states from dynamic facial expressions: a cautionary note.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Back

    Full Text Available Although a great deal of research has been conducted on the recognition of basic facial emotions (e.g., anger, happiness, sadness, much less research has been carried out on the more subtle facial expressions of an individual's mental state (e.g., anxiety, disinterest, relief. Of particular concern is that these mental state expressions provide a crucial source of communication in everyday life but little is known about the accuracy with which natural dynamic facial expressions of mental states are identified and, in particular, the variability in mental state perception that is produced. Here we report the findings of two studies that investigated the accuracy and variability with which dynamic facial expressions of mental states were identified by participants. Both studies used stimuli carefully constructed using procedures adopted in previous research, and free-report (Study 1 and forced-choice (Study 2 measures of response accuracy and variability. The findings of both studies showed levels of response accuracy that were accompanied by substantial variation in the labels assigned by observers to each mental state. Thus, when mental states are identified from facial expressions in experiments, the identities attached to these expressions appear to vary considerably across individuals. This variability raises important issues for understanding the identification of mental states in everyday situations and for the use of responses in facial expression research.

  15. Dissociation between mental fatigue and motivational state during prolonged mental activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergelyfi, Mónika; Jacob, Benvenuto; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Mental fatigue (MF) is commonly observed following prolonged cognitive activity and can have major repercussions on the daily life of patients as well as healthy individuals. Despite its important impact, the cognitive processes involved in MF remain largely unknown. An influential hypothesis states that MF does not arise from a disruption of overused neural processes but, rather, is caused by a progressive decrease in motivation-related task engagement. Here, to test this hypothesis, we measured various neural, autonomic, psychometric and behavioral signatures of MF and motivation (EEG, ECG, pupil size, eye blinks, Skin conductance responses (SCRs), questionnaires and performance in a working memory (WM) task) in healthy volunteers, while MF was induced by Sudoku tasks performed for 120 min. Moreover extrinsic motivation was manipulated by using different levels of monetary reward. We found that, during the course of the experiment, the participants' subjective feeling of fatigue increased and their performance worsened while their blink rate and heart rate variability (HRV) increased. Conversely, reward-induced EEG, pupillometric and skin conductance signal changes, regarded as indicators of task engagement, remained constant during the experiment, and failed to correlate with the indices of MF. In addition, MF did not affect a simple reaction time task, despite the strong influence of extrinsic motivation on this task. Finally, alterations of the motivational state through monetary incentives failed to compensate the effects of MF. These findings indicate that MF in healthy subjects is not caused by an alteration of task engagement but is likely to be the consequence of a decrease in the efficiency, or availability, of cognitive resources. PMID:26217203

  16. The State of Recorded Sound Preservation in the United States: A National Legacy at Risk in the Digital Age. CLIR Publication No. 148

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Rob; Brylawski, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive, national-level study of the state of sound recording preservation ever conducted in the U.S. The authors have produced a study outlining the web of interlocking issues that now threaten the long-term survival of the sound recording history. This study tells everyone that major areas of America's recorded sound…

  17. The Legacy of "A Nation at Risk"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Nearly thirty years after the Cold War era commission's report titled "A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform," educators and historians must evaluate its relevance and its contribution to the shifting educational paradigm in the United States.

  18. The FRIENDS Emotional Health Program for Minority Groups at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Cristina A.; Barrett, Paula M.; Gillies, Robyn; Cook, Clayton R.; Miller, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the existence of evidence-based interventions for promoting mental health in children, the number of children at risk remains high. One of the reasons is that such interventions are not reaching specific groups at risk such as low socioeconomic status and ethnic minority groups. This study evaluated an adaptation of a…

  19. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE in First Episode of Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Kazemi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Neurocognitive deficits are now recognized as part of the fundamental disturbances and are a major determinant of functional outcome in psychosis. A cross-sectional association between cognitive deficits and poor social and occupational outcomes has been demonstrated; and treatment of cognitive impairment at the time of the first episode may have the potential to change functional outcomes of the illness. We conducted this study to evaluate cognitive function in first episode of psychosis by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. "nMethod: Sixty two patients with first episode of psychosis were selected and underwent psychiatric interview and took MMSE test. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-18 software. "nResults: According to MMSE scale, 47 patients (75.8% showed definite cognitive impairment, 8(12.9% showed possible impairment ,and 7(11.3% showed no cognitive impairment. According to MMSE subscale, registration (69.4% and recall (77.3% were the most impaired cognitive areas.  "nConclusions:  The results of the current study indicate significant cognitive impairment in patients with first episode of psychosis. We recommend future studies with larger sample size and control group for further evaluation of cognitive function as early treatment of cognitive impairments may have important implications in the course of illness.

  20. Mental Development of Children with Non-epileptic Paroxysmal States in Medical History

    OpenAIRE

    Turovskaya N.G.,

    2015-01-01

    The author studied mental functions disorders in children with a history of paroxysmal states of various etiologies and compared mental development disorder patterns in patients with epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysms. Study sample were 107 children, aged 6 to 10 years. The study used experimental psychological and neuropsychological techniques. According to the empirical study results, non-epileptic paroxysms unlike epileptic much less combined with a number of mental functions disorders ...

  1. mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Dadalte Carniel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La reforma psiquiátrica posibilitó transformaciones en la atención a la salud mental y el acompañante terapéutico (AT hace parte de esas transformaciones. La finalidad de este estudio fue trabajar esta práctica con el portador de trastorno mental bajo tratamiento realizado por un equipo multiprofesional y, para eso, se utilizaron 16 sesiones de AT, que fueron registradas. Los resultados mostraron la contribución positiva de este tipo de modalidad terapéutica en la atención a este portador, posibilitándole el rescate de diversas cosas que le gustaba hacer y no más hacía, debido a la falta de estímulos, y a la influencia negativa de la institución en la evolución de este trastorno.

  2. The Role of Language Games in Children's Understanding of Mental States: A Training Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornaghi, Veronica; Brockmeier, Jens; Grazzani Gavazzi, Ilaria

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors investigated whether training preschool children in the use of mental state lexicon plays a significant role in bringing about advanced conceptual understanding of mental terms and improved performance on theory-of-mind tasks. A total of 70 participants belonging to two age groups (3 and 4 years old) were randomly…

  3. Migration and mental health in Europe (the state of the mental health in Europe working group: appendix 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoy Maria

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is a part of the work of the group that carried out the report "The state of the mental health in Europe" (European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2004 and deals with the mental health issues related to the migration in Europe. Methods The paper tries to describe the social, demographical and political context of the emigration in Europe and tries to indicate the needs and (mental health problems of immigrants. A review of the literature concerning mental health risk in immigrant is also carried out. The work also faces the problem of the health policy toward immigrants and the access to health care services in Europe. Results Migration during the 1990s has been high and characterised by new migrations. Some countries in Europe, that have been traditionally exporters of migrants have shifted to become importers. Migration has been a key force in the demographic changes of the European population. The policy of closed borders do not stop migration, but rather seems to set up a new underclass of so-called "illegals" who are suppressed and highly exploited. In 2000 there were also 392.200 asylum applications. The reviewed literature among mental health risk in some immigrant groups in Europe concerns: 1 highest rate of schizophrenia; suicide; alcohol and drug abuse; access of psychiatric facilities; risk of anxiety and depression; mental health of EU immigrants once they returned to their country; early EU immigrants in today disadvantaged countries; refugees and mental health Due to the different condition of migration concerning variables as: motivation to migrations (e.g. settler, refugees, gastarbeiters; distance for the host culture; ability to develop mediating structures; legal residential status it is impossible to consider "migrants" as a homogeneous group concerning the risk for mental illness. In this sense, psychosocial studies should be undertaken to identify those factors which may under

  4. Amygdala volume linked to individual differences in mental state inference in early childhood and adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rice

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of the amygdala in mental state inference in a sample of adults and in a sample of children aged 4 and 6 years. This period in early childhood represents a time when mentalizing abilities undergo dramatic changes. Both children and adults inferred mental states from pictures of others’ eyes, and children also inferred the mental states of others from stories (e.g., a false belief task. We also collected structural MRI data from these participants, to determine whether larger amygdala volumes (controlling for age and total gray matter volume were related to better face-based and story-based mentalizing. For children, larger amygdala volumes were related to better face-based, but not story-based, mentalizing. In contrast, in adults, amygdala volume was not related to face-based mentalizing. We next divided the face-based items into two subscales: cognitive (e.g., thinking, not believing versus affective (e.g., friendly, kind items. For children, performance on cognitive items was positively correlated with amygdala volume, but for adults, only performance on affective items was positively correlated with amygdala volume. These results indicate that the amygdala's role in mentalizing may be specific to face-based tasks and that the nature of its involvement may change over development.

  5. School mental health services: signpost for out-of-school service utilization in adolescents with mental disorders? A nationally representative United States cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Tegethoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School mental health services are important contact points for children and adolescents with mental disorders, but their ability to provide comprehensive treatment is limited. The main objective was to estimate in mentally disordered adolescents of a nationally representative United States cohort the role of school mental health services as guide to mental health care in different out-of-school service sectors. METHODS: Analyses are based on weighted data (N = 6483 from the United States National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (participants' age: 13-18 years. Lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed using the fully structured WHO CIDI interview, complemented by parent report. Adolescents and parents provided information on mental health service use across multiple sectors, based on the Service Assessment for Children and Adolescents. RESULTS: School mental health service use predicted subsequent out-of-school service utilization for mental disorders i in the medical specialty sector, in adolescents with affective (hazard ratio (HR = 3.01, confidence interval (CI = 1.77-5.12, anxiety (HR = 3.87, CI = 1.97-7.64, behavior (HR = 2.49, CI = 1.62-3.82, substance use (HR = 4.12, CI = 1.87-9.04, and eating (HR = 10.72, CI = 2.31-49.70 disorders, and any mental disorder (HR = 2.97, CI = 1.94-4.54, and ii in other service sectors, in adolescents with anxiety (HR = 3.15, CI = 2.17-4.56, behavior (HR = 1.99, CI = 1.29-3.06, and substance use (HR = 2.48, CI = 1.57-3.94 disorders, and any mental disorder (HR = 2.33, CI = 1.54-3.53, but iii not in the mental health specialty sector. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that in the United States, school mental health services may serve as guide to out-of-school service utilization for mental disorders especially in the medical specialty sector across various mental disorders, thereby

  6. Mental health needs in New York state following the september 11th attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Daniel; Felton, Chip; Susser, Ezra

    2002-01-01

    In October 2001, the New York State Office of Mental Health and the Department of Epidemiology of the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University conducted a rapid assessment of the nature and magnitude of mental health needs in the state resulting from the September 11th terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. This effort was carried out during a period of great turmoil and uncertaintyas New Yorkers responded to the shocking events of this unprecedented disaster. Using the li...

  7. What should be the roles of conscious states and brain states in theories of mental activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donelson E Dulany

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Answers to the title's question have been influenced by a history in which an early science of consciousness was rejected by behaviourists on the argument that this entails commitment to ontological dualism and "free will" in the sense of indeterminism. This is, however, a confusion of theoretical assertions with metaphysical assertions. Nevertheless, a legacy within computational and information-processing views of mind rejects or de-emphasises a role for consciousness. This paper sketches a mentalistic metatheory in which conscious states are the sole carriers of symbolic representations, and thus have a central role in the explanation of mental activity and action-while specifying determinism and materialism as useful working assumptions. A mentalistic theory of causal learning, experimentally examined with phenomenal reports, is followed by examination of these questions: Are there common roles for phenomenal reports and brain imaging? Is there defensible evidence for unconscious brain states carrying symbolic representations? Are there interesting dissociations within consciousness?

  8. What should be the roles of conscious States and brain States in theories of mental activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E

    2011-01-01

    Answers to the title's question have been influenced by a history in which an early science of consciousness was rejected by behaviourists on the argument that this entails commitment to ontological dualism and "free will" in the sense of indeterminism. This is, however, a confusion of theoretical assertions with metaphysical assertions. Nevertheless, a legacy within computational and information-processing views of mind rejects or de-emphasises a role for consciousness. This paper sketches a mentalistic metatheory in which conscious states are the sole carriers of symbolic representations, and thus have a central role in the explanation of mental activity and action-while specifying determinism and materialism as useful working assumptions. A mentalistic theory of causal learning, experimentally examined with phenomenal reports, is followed by examination of these questions: Are there common roles for phenomenal reports and brain imaging? Is there defensible evidence for unconscious brain states carrying symbolic representations? Are there interesting dissociations within consciousness? PMID:21694964

  9. What should be the roles of conscious states and brain states in theories of mental activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulany Donelson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Answers to the title′s question have been influenced by a history in which an early science of consciousness was rejected by behaviourists on the argument that this entails commitment to ontological dualism and "free will" in the sense of indeterminism. This is, however, a confusion of theoretical assertions with metaphysical assertions. Nevertheless, a legacy within computational and information-processing views of mind rejects or de-emphasises a role for consciousness. This paper sketches a mentalistic metatheory in which conscious states are the sole carriers of symbolic representations, and thus have a central role in the explanation of mental activity and action-while specifying determinism and materialism as useful working assumptions. A mentalistic theory of causal learning, experimentally examined with phenomenal reports, is followed by examination of these questions: Are there common roles for phenomenal reports and brain imaging? Is there defensible evidence for unconscious brain states carrying symbolic representations? Are there interesting dissociations within consciousness?

  10. Fostering Resilience in At-Risk High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepovich, Ann

    2012-01-01

    There is a large volume of literature that discusses the at-risk high school student. This literature tends to focus on the factors that create the at-risk student whether those are environmental factors or perhaps the failure of schools in general that create the at-risk problem in the United States. Although the causes are important to…

  11. Conversations about mental states and theory of mind development during middle childhood: A training study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Federica; Lecce, Serena; Banerjee, Robin

    2016-09-01

    Despite 30years of productive research on theory of mind (ToM), we still know relatively little about variables that influence ToM development during middle childhood. Recent experimental studies have shown that conversations about the mind affect ToM abilities, but they have not explored the mechanisms underlying this developmental effect. In the current study, we examined two potential mechanisms through which conversations about mental states are likely to influence ToM: an increased frequency of references to mental states when explaining behavior and an increased accuracy of mental-state attributions. To this aim, we conducted a training study in which 101 children were assigned to either an intervention condition or a control condition. The conversation-based intervention was made up of four sessions scheduled over 2weeks. Children completed a battery of assessments before and after the intervention as well as 2months later. The groups were equivalent at Time 1 (T1) for age, family affluence, vocabulary, and executive functions. The ToM group showed an improvement in ToM skills (as evaluated on both the practiced tasks and a transfer task). Mediation analyses demonstrated that the accuracy of mental-state attributions, but not the mere frequency of mental-state references, mediated the positive effect of conversations about the mind on ToM development. Our results indicate that conversational experience can enhance mental-state reasoning not by simply drawing children's attention to mental states but rather by scaffolding a mature understanding of social situations. PMID:26723472

  12. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995–2014

    OpenAIRE

    McGinty, Emma E.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-01-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995–2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overa...

  13. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

  14. Mental Development of Children with Non-epileptic Paroxysmal States in Medical History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turovskaya N.G.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author studied mental functions disorders in children with a history of paroxysmal states of various etiologies and compared mental development disorder patterns in patients with epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysms. Study sample were 107 children, aged 6 to 10 years. The study used experimental psychological and neuropsychological techniques. According to the empirical study results, non-epileptic paroxysms unlike epileptic much less combined with a number of mental functions disorders and intelligence in general. However, non-epileptic paroxysmal states as well as epileptic seizure associated with increasing activity exhaustion and abnormal function of the motor analyzer (dynamic and kinesthetic dyspraxia. Visual memory disorders and modal-nonspecific memory disorders have more pronounced importance in the mental ontogenesis structure in children with convulsive paroxysms compared to children with cerebral pathology without paroxysms history

  15. Mental Health of Survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake Living in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-16

    Thousands of survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake are currently living in the United States. This podcast features a brief non-disease-specific interview with Dr. Marc Safran, CDC's longest serving psychiatrist, about a few of the mental health challenges such survivors may face.  Created: 4/16/2010 by CDC Center of Attribution: Mental and Behavioral Health Team, 2010 CDC Haiti Earthquake Mission, CDC Emergency Operations Center.   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  16. At-Risk-of-Poverty Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táňa Dvornáková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC is a survey on households’ living conditions. The main aim of the survey is to get long-term comparable data on social and economic situation of households. Data collected in the survey are used mainly in connection with the evaluation of income poverty and determinationof at-risk-of-poverty rate. This article deals with the calculation of the at risk-of-poverty threshold based on data from EU-SILC 2009. The main task is to compare two approaches to the computation of at riskof-poverty threshold. The first approach is based on the calculation of the threshold for each country separately,while the second one is based on the calculation of the threshold for all states together. The introduction summarizes common attributes in the calculation of the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, such as disposable household income, equivalised household income. Further, different approaches to both calculations are introduced andadvantages and disadvantages of these approaches are stated. Finally, the at-risk-of-poverty rate calculation is described and comparison of the at-risk-of-poverty rates based on these two different approaches is made.

  17. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L.

    2016-01-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995–2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media’s continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. PMID:27269031

  18. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995-2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media's continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. PMID:27269031

  19. Primitive mental states and the body: a personal view of Armando B. Ferrari's concrete original object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Riccardo

    2002-04-01

    The author explores some psychoanalytic hypotheses about primitive mental states and their implications for a direct focus on body experience in clinical work. Some aspects of current clinical research about the patient's difficulty in achieving awareness of his emotional life as it emerges from object relations are presented, and this problem is viewed in connection with the relation of the analysand to his own body and to his capacity to pass through the different levels of mental elaboration, from motor discharge to abstraction. Ferrari's theories on the body-mind relationship are discussed and compared with the work of other authors. Ferrari calls the body the Concrete Original Object to indicate that it is the first source, differing from person to person, from which mental phenomena are generated and against which they are constantly measured. A clinical case serves as an illustration of the importance of the perception of the body for the birth of genuine, non-imitative mental activity. PMID:12040702

  20. Contagious yawning: the role of self-awareness and mental state attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Steven M; Critton, Samuel R; Myers, Thomas E; Gallup, Gordon G

    2003-07-01

    Contagious yawning is a common, but poorly understood phenomenon. We hypothesized that contagious yawning is part of a more general phenomenon known as mental state attribution (i.e. the ability to inferentially model the mental states of others). To test this hypothesis we compared susceptibility to contagiously yawn with performance on a self-face recognition task, several theory of mind stories, and on a measure of schizotypal personality traits. Consistent with the hypothesis, susceptibility to contagiously yawn was positively related to performance on self-face recognition and faux pas theory of mind stories, and negatively related to schizotypal personality traits. These data suggest that contagious yawning may be associated with empathic aspects of mental state attribution and are negatively affected by increases in schizotypal personality traits much like other self-processing related tasks. PMID:12880893

  1. Music Composition from the Brain Signal: Representing the Mental State by Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state and music emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between the mind world and the music. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics and structure were taken into consideration. With EEGs during various sleep stages as an example, the music generated from them had different patterns of pitch, rhythm, and tonality. 35 volunteers listened to the music pieces, and significant difference in music arousal levels was found. It implied that different mental states may be identified by the corresponding music, and so the music from EEG may be a potential tool for EEG monitoring, biofeedback therapy, and so forth.

  2. Music Composition from the Brain Signal: Representing the Mental State by Music

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Wu; Chaoyi Li; Yu Yin; Changzheng Zhou; Dezhong Yao

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state and music emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between the mind world and the music. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics...

  3. Pathways to psychosis : A comparison of the pervasive developmental disorder subtype multiple complex developmental disorder and the "At Risk Mental State"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, M.; Becker, H. E.; Schothorst, P. F.; Swaab, H.; Ziermans, T. B.; Dingemans, P. M.; Linszen, D.; van Engeland, I.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The comparison of high-risk populations with different developmental pathways to psychosis may lend more insight into the heterogeneity of the manifestation of the psychotic syndrome, and possible differing etiological pathways. Aim: To compare high-risk traits and symptoms in two popula

  4. Youth at Risk and the Family: Perspectives on Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas C.; Oles, Gordon

    1993-01-01

    This literature review addresses determinants of low behavior control in parenting adolescents at risk. The Barber and Belsky models are used to discuss parent developmental history, parent maturity, parent mental health, socioeconomic status, sources of stress (parent involvement, marital conflict, and job satisfaction), and child…

  5. Suicidal Ideation and Mental Health of Bhutanese Refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Trong; Shetty, Sharmila; Sivilli, Teresa; Blanton, Curtis; Ellis, Heidi; Geltman, Paul L; Cochran, Jennifer; Taylor, Eboni; Lankau, Emily W; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Refugee agencies noticed a high number of suicides among Bhutanese refugees resettled in the United States between 2009 and 2012. We aimed to estimate prevalence of mental health conditions and identify factors associated with suicidal ideation among Bhutanese refugees. We conducted a stratified random cross-sectional survey and collected information on demographics, mental health conditions, suicidal ideation, and post-migration difficulties. Bivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation. Prevalence of mental health conditions were: depression (21 %), symptoms of anxiety (19 %), post-traumatic stress disorder (4.5 %), and suicidal ideation (3 %), significant risk factors for suicidal ideation included: not being a provider of the family; perceiving low social support; and having symptoms of anxiety and depression. These findings suggest that Bhutanese refugees in the United States may have a higher burden of mental illness relative to the US population and may benefit from mental health screening and treatment. Refugee communities and service providers may benefit from additional suicide awareness training to identify those at highest risk. PMID:26711245

  6. Multifractal Value at Risk model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hojin; Song, Jae Wook; Chang, Woojin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper new Value at Risk (VaR) model is proposed and investigated. We consider the multifractal property of financial time series and develop a multifractal Value at Risk (MFVaR). MFVaR introduced in this paper is analytically tractable and not based on simulation. Empirical study showed that MFVaR can provide the more stable and accurate forecasting performance in volatile financial markets where large loss can be incurred. This implies that our multifractal VaR works well for the risk measurement of extreme credit events.

  7. Exploring mental-state reasoning as a social-cognitive mechanism for social loafing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bruce; Thornton, Bill

    2007-04-01

    The authors explored mental-state reasoning ability among 72 preschoolers (ages 3-5 years) as a possible developmental mechanism for the well-known social loafing effect: diminished individual effort in a collaborative task. The authors expected that older children would outperform young children on standard mental-state reasoning tests and that they would display greater social loafing than younger children. In addition, we hypothesized that the ability to infer the mental states of others would be predictive of social loafing, but that the ability to reason about one's own knowledge would not. The authors gave children three standard false-belief tasks and participated in a within-subjects balloon inflation task that they performed both individually and as part of a group. Results indicated that 3-year-olds performed significantly below older preschoolers on mental-state reasoning tasks. Only 4- and 5-year-olds displayed diminished individual effort. Multiple regression analysis indicated that only the ability to reason about others' false beliefs accounted for a significant amount of variance in social loafing; age (in months) and own false-belief reasoning did not. The authors discussed theoretical and pedagogical implications. PMID:17601078

  8. Theory of Mind: Children's Understanding of Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than three decades, theory of mind (ToM) has been one of the leading and prevalent issues in developmental psychology. ToM is the ability to ascribe mental states (e.g. beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge) to oneself and others as well as to recognise that others have beliefs, desires, and intentions that differ from…

  9. The Current Mental State of School Students in Online Learning Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalevskaya E.V.,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of a study of actual mental state of high school students who are active subjects of career self-determination in terms of interactive learning. There are four groups of methods of interactive training: psychological training, art therapy, cognitive, and game training. The main task, which is solved by a researcher in a formative experiment with the use of each of these methods, is to establish significant differences in health, activity and mood as the indicators of current mental state of students in the classroom. As a result, we found that the most significant improvements in the current mental state takes place when using art and game therapy, so these techniques should be used in groups of students with low motivation to work, as well as in the adverse psychological climate. Less significant was the improvement of the current mental state after psychological training due to the fact that this method allow to update and seek solutions to the most important intrapersonal issues and require the implementation of a deeper reflection

  10. Developing communicative competence: A longitudinal study of the acquisition of mental state terms and indirect requests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mulder, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The resu

  11. Mental Health of Two-Way Migrants: From Puerto Rico to the United States and Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.; Draguns, Juris G.

    The mental health needs of two-way migrants from Puerto Rico to the United States and back again are discussed in this paper. Four factors affecting Puerto Rican migrants are outlined. First, the relationship between migration and stress is considered. Often, it is noted, in migrating away from stressful economic conditions, the Puerto Rican…

  12. O papel dos estados na política de saúde mental no Brasil The role of States in mental health policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gabriela Simon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o papel dos estados na política de saúde mental no Brasil no período de 1990 a 2009. A metodologia incluiu a aplicação de questionário eletrônico nas coordenações estaduais de saúde mental de 24 estados brasileiros, revisão documental e análise de base de dados oficiais. Os resultados obtidos apontaram que os estados utilizam várias estratégias e instrumentos na condução da política de saúde mental, principalmente no monitoramento e na prestação de serviços. No entanto, percebeu-se que os estados ainda não desenvolvem de forma sistemática as funções de planejamento, coordenação federativa e coordenação da atenção. O financiamento em saúde mental representa um dos grandes desafios para a gestão dessa área nos estados. Os achados deste estudo sugerem que a superação dos desafios relacionados à condução estadual da política de saúde mental depende da articulação entre governo federal, estados e municípios na elaboração de políticas que atendam à especificidade de cada região, da promoção de um planejamento participativo e de investimentos para o setor.This article examines the role of States in mental health policy in Brazil from 1990 to 2009. The methods included the use of an electronic questionnaire on State coordination of mental health in 24 Brazilian States, document review, and analysis based on official data. The results showed that the States use various strategies and tools to conduct mental health policy, especially in monitoring and services delivery. However, the study showed that States have not developed systematic approaches to planning, coordination with other levels of government, or coordination of care. Funding poses a major challenge for management of mental health at the State level. The study suggests that overcoming the challenges in mental health policy depends on the relationship between the Federal government, States, and Municipalities in drafting

  13. Broadcast Media Intervention in Mental Health Challenge in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osakue Stevenson Omoera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available n most communities, especially in Africa, people with mental health challenges are denigrated; the society is not sympathetic with sufferers of mental illness. A lot of issues can trigger mental illness. These can be stress (economic stress, social stress, educational stress, etc; hereditary factors; war and aggression; rape; spiritual factors, to mention a few. Therefore, there is the need for understanding and awareness creation among the people as one of the ways of addressing the problem. Methodologically, this study deploys analytical, observation and interview techniques. In doing this, it uses the Edo State, Nigeria scenario to critically reflect, albeit preliminarily, on the interventionist role the broadcast media have played/are playing/should play in creating awareness and providing support systems for mentally challenged persons in urban and rural centres in Nigeria. The study argues that television and radio media are very innovative and their innovativeness can be deployed in the area of putting mental health issue in the public discourse and calling for action.

  14. What makes the dorsomedial frontal cortex active during reading the mental states of others?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki eIsoda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The dorsomedial frontal part of the cerebral cortex is consistently activated when people read the mental states of others, such as their beliefs, desires, and intentions, the ability known as having a theory of mind (ToM or mentalizing. This ubiquitous finding has led many researchers to conclude that the dorsomedial frontal cortex (DMFC constitutes a core component in mentalizing networks. Despite this, it remains unclear why the DMFC becomes active during ToM tasks. We argue that key psychological and behavioral aspects in mentalizing are closely associated with DMFC functions. These include executive inhibition, distinction between self and others, prediction under uncertainty, and perception of intentions, all of which are important for predicting others’ intention and behavior. We review the literature supporting this claim, ranging in fields from developmental psychology to human neuroimaging and macaque electrophysiology. Because perceiving intentions in others’ actions initiates mentalizing and forms the basis of virtually all types of social interaction, the fundamental issue in social neuroscience is to determine the aspects of physical entities that make an observer perceive that they are intentional beings and to clarify the neurobiological underpinnings of the perception of intentionality in others’ actions.

  15. What makes the dorsomedial frontal cortex active during reading the mental states of others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Masaki; Noritake, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    The dorsomedial frontal part of the cerebral cortex is consistently activated when people read the mental states of others, such as their beliefs, desires, and intentions, the ability known as having a theory of mind (ToM) or mentalizing. This ubiquitous finding has led many researchers to conclude that the dorsomedial frontal cortex (DMFC) constitutes a core component in mentalizing networks. Despite this, it remains unclear why the DMFC becomes active during ToM tasks. We argue that key psychological and behavioral aspects in mentalizing are closely associated with DMFC functions. These include executive inhibition, distinction between self and others, prediction under uncertainty, and perception of intentions, all of which are important for predicting others' intention and behavior. We review the literature supporting this claim, ranging in fields from developmental psychology to human neuroimaging and macaque electrophysiology. Because perceiving intentions in others' actions initiates mentalizing and forms the basis of virtually all types of social interaction, the fundamental issue in social neuroscience is to determine the aspects of physical entities that make an observer perceive that they are intentional beings and to clarify the neurobiological underpinnings of the perception of intentionality in others' actions. PMID:24367287

  16. Right Frontoinsular Cortex and Subcortical Activity to Infant Cry Is Associated with Maternal Mental State Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L.; Swain, James E.; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L.

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to examine neural correlates of a specific component of human caregiving: maternal mental state talk, reflecting a mother's proclivity to attribute mental states and intentionality to her infant. Using a potent, ecologically relevant stimulus of infant cry during fMRI, we tested hypotheses that postpartum neural response to the cry of “own” versus a standard “other” infant in the right frontoinsular cortex (RFIC) and subcortical limbic network would be associated with independent observations of maternal mental state talk. The sample comprised 76 urban-living, low socioeconomic mothers (82% African American) and their 4-month-old infants. Before the fMRI scan, mothers were filmed in face-to-face interaction with their infant, and maternal behaviors were coded by trained researchers unaware of all other information about the participants. The results showed higher functional activity in the RFIC to own versus other infant cry at the group level. In addition, RFIC and bilateral subcortical neural activity (e.g., thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, putamen) was associated positively with maternal mental state talk but not with more global aspects of observed caregiving. These findings held when accounting for perceptual and contextual covariates, such as maternal felt distress, urge to help, depression severity, and recognition of own infant cry. Our results highlight the need to focus on specific components of caregiving to advance understanding of the maternal brain. Future work will examine the predictive utility of this neural marker for mother–child function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The current study advances extant literature examining the neural underpinning of early parenting behavior. The findings highlight the special functional importance of the right frontoinsular cortex–thalamic–limbic network in a mother's proclivity to engage in mental state talk with her preverbal infant, a circumscribed aspect of maternal caregiving

  17. Effects of flotation therapy on relaxation and mental state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡佩诚; 苏英

    2004-01-01

    @@ Flotation therapy is one of the models of Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy (REST). It has been studied and used in clinics in western countries for many years. According to the research results, flotation therapy can be used effectively in many ways.1 Some of the research done in China showed that flotation therapy could be helpful in the treatment of hypertension2 as well as cerebral paraplegia. It has also been observed in clinics that flotation therapy can induce deep relaxation, improve emotional states and have beneficial effects on some kinds of neurosis and psychosomatic diseases. But the effect of flotation therapy on the basic psychological and physiological function of ordinary Chinese has not been studied systemically. And there is no objective research result that has demonstrated the benefits of flotation therapy in Chinese clinics.

  18. Incongruity, Incongruity Resolution, and Mental States: The Measure and Modification of Situational Awareness and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Peter L.; Gillikin, Lynn S.

    1997-01-01

    Cognition and emotion combine to define mental states. Situational awareness depends on both knowledge of the environment and the mood of the individual. Cognitive scientists from William James and Sigmond Freud to contemporary theorists in artificial intelligence and neuropsychology have acknowledged the critical role of subjective state in determining the efficiency and flexibility of information processing. One of the most explicit computational models of mental states to incorporate both knowledge and arousal has been described. Knowledge is carried in a typical neural net with categorical nodes and probabilistic links. Arousal determines the focus among these nodes and links. High arousal results in a restricted range of activation. Low arousal causes a wider range of stimulation and a broader linking of categories or "ideas." From this model Gerlernter generates "creativity" in problem solving from a network that is widely active and the possibility of "fixation" from a highly aroused system.

  19. New Architecture for Mental Health; New York State Health and Mental Hygiene Facilities Improvement Corporation - Report to the Governor, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Health and Mental Hygiene Facilities Improvement Corp., Albany.

    The accomplishments of The Health and Mental Hygiene Facilities Improvement Corporation during the past years in creating needed hospitals and health centers for the mentally disabled is documented. The new facilities show awareness of architectural trends and new objectives in design in order to better serve the needs of the patient. Pictures and…

  20. Fostering Resilience among Children at Risk of Educational Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Margaret C.

    The design and implementation of a broad-based intervention program for students at risk of school failure are described, and implications are drawn for efforts to improve the education of at risk children. The Learning City Program uses state-of-the-art research to create a facilitating environment in which the continuous development of children…

  1. The Importance of At-Risk Funding. Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Emily; Griffith, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, states and districts have moved toward making education more equitable. A key component of equity in education is providing additional funds for economically disadvantaged students, commonly referred to as "at-risk students." At-risk students are most often defined as students who qualify for free or reduced priced…

  2. State Responsibility for At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rexford

    1986-01-01

    To address the problem of high risk youth, policy makers must know the following: (1) trend data on risk categories; (2) what schools should do in relationship to what other agencies and institutions should do; (3) factors contributing to the success of present programs; and (4) results of past policies on behavior of risk groups. (PS)

  3. Minding the Gap: Narrative Descriptions about Mental States Attenuate Parochial Empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile G Bruneau

    Full Text Available In three experiments, we examine parochial empathy (feeling more empathy for in-group than out-group members across novel group boundaries, and test whether we can mitigate parochial empathy with brief narrative descriptions. In the absence of individuating information, participants consistently report more empathy for members of their own assigned group than a competitive out-group. However, individualized descriptions of in-group and out-group targets significantly reduce parochial empathy by interfering with encoding of targets' group membership. Finally, the descriptions that most effectively decrease parochial empathy are those that describe targets' mental states. These results support the role of individuating information in ameliorating parochial empathy, suggest a mechanism for their action, and show that descriptions emphasizing targets' mental states are particularly effective.

  4. Here, There and Everywhere: Emotion and Mental State Talk in Different Social Contexts Predicts Empathic Helping in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eDrummond

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature suggests that parents socialize early-emerging prosocial behavior across varied contexts and in subtle yet powerful ways. We focus on discourse about emotions and mental states as one potential socialization mechanism given its conceptual relevance to prosocial behavior and its known positive relations with emotion understanding and social-cognitive development, as well as parents’ frequent use of such discourse beginning in infancy. Specifically, we ask how parents’ emotion and mental state talk with their toddlers relates to toddlers’ helping and how these associations vary by context. Children aged 18- to 30-months (n=38 interacted with a parent during book reading and joint play with toys, two everyday contexts that afford parental discussion of emotions and mental states. Children also participated in instrumental and empathic helping tasks. Results revealed that although parents discuss mental states with their children in both contexts, the nature of their talk differs: during book reading parents labeled emotions and mental states significantly more often than during joint play, especially simple affect words (e.g. happy, sad and explanations or elaborations of emotions; whereas they used more desire talk and mental state words (e.g. think, know in joint play. Parents’ emotion and mental state discourse related to children’s empathic, emotion-based helping behavior; however, it did not relate to instrumental, action-based helping. Moreover, relations between parent talk and empathic helping varied by context: children who helped more quickly had parents who labeled emotion and mental states more often during joint play and who elicited this talk more often during book reading. As emotion and mental state talk both varies between contexts and exhibits context-specific associations with empathic prosocial behavior early in development, we conclude that such discourse may be a key form of socialization

  5. Effect Of Single And Short-Term Aerobics On Selected Mental State Parametres In Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the degree of the influence of aerobic program on mental state of the trainees after a single and short-term application. We tried to find out the positive effects of an aerobics on the selected parameters of mental state of women that performed aerobics recreationally. Twenty-two healthy women (age 35 ± 5 years were involved in the specific aerobic program with mini trampolines (jumping over the period of 5 weeks. To measure the psychological parameters a modified questionnaire of type X-STAI was distributed before and after the single work out at the beginning of the study and after the 5 weeks period. Chi-quadrat analysis was used to evaluate the data. The greatest and statistically the most significant differences were recorded in the parameters ´enthusiastic´, ´boosted by energy´ and ´relaxed´, in comparison with the emotions at the beginning and at the end of the lesson in initial measuring. Comparison of changes after the 5 weeks period at the beginning and at the end of the lesson shows statistical significance in all parameters, except ´tired´. No statistical changes occurred at either the beginning or the end of the lesson comparing initial and final phases. Based on the results, we can conclude that specialized aerobic training provokes immediate changes in psychological state of the trainees via increase of their positive and decrease of negative emotions right after the lesson and when compared to its beginning. This leads to a better mental stability and a greater resistance to the influences of outer environment on mental state.

  6. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT STYLES OF MUSIC ON YOUNG PEOPLE’S MENTAL STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Yerkinbekova, Meyrim; Kasumova, Roza; Shagurbaeva, Mentay; Sametova, Fauzya

    2014-01-01

    Currently one of the most important differentiating and integrating factors, young people are the musical preferences that affect the formation of associations of fans of those or other performers. Among modern youth popular musical subcultures distinguish reivers, rockers; hip-hop-representatives of these subcultures would be considered in the work. The relevance of studying the impact of different contemporary styles of music (electronic music, rock, RAP) on the mental state of the people, ...

  7. Criminal responsibility, abnormal mental states, and the functions of expert medico-psychological evidence

    OpenAIRE

    James, Hazel

    2005-01-01

    This thesis exammes the interaction of law and medico-psychology in homicide cases, where the defences of insanity and diminished responsibility in particular are raised. If the defendant's mental state is subject to scrutiny through the defences, then expert medico-psychological evidence is required, yet law and medico-psychology have very different understandings on the mind and very different roles with regard to assessing individuals. Expert medico-psychological evidence can be submitted ...

  8. Decline in Mentalising Ability with Healthy Aging: Evidence from Mental State Decoding and Reasoning Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Koegel, LaKrista, M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether individuals constituting an older population would display deficits in tasks assessing aspects of ToM compared to younger participants; secondary goals were to evaluate whether older participants would be differentially affected on cognitive versus affective aspects of the tasks and/or differentially affected on mental state decoding versus reasoning tasks, as well as to asses the role that executive functioning has on thes...

  9. Bivariate value-at-risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Arbia

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the concept of Value-at-risk (VaR to bivariate return distributions in order to obtain measures of the market risk of an asset taking into account additional features linked to downside risk exposure. We first present a general definition of risk as the probability of an adverse event over a random distribution and we then introduce a measure of market risk (b-VaR that admits the traditional b of an asset in portfolio management as a special case when asset returns are normally distributed. Empirical evidences are provided by using Italian stock market data.

  10. School Mental Health: The Impact of State and Local Capacity-Building Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a growing number of collaborative partnerships between schools and community-based organizations to expand school mental health (SMH service capacity in the United States, there have been relatively few systematic initiatives focused on key strategies for large-scale SMH capacity building with state and local education systems. Based on a framework of ten critical factors for capacity building, as well as existing best practices, two case studies were utilized to develop a replicable capacity-building model to advance interagency SMH development. Seventy education and mental health stakeholders from two selected states participated in baseline assessments of skill com-petency and critical factor implementation followed by two-day trainings (one in each state; 29 (41% of the participants also completed a six month follow-up assessment. Targeted competencies increased significantly for participants from both states, with large effect sizes (d = 2.05 and 2.56, from pre- to post-training. Participant reports of critical factor implementation increased significantly for one of the two states (t[15] = -6.40, p < .001, d = 1.77. Results inform specific training recommendations for stakeholders and collaborative teams, as well as policy implications to support future development of SMH service capacity.

  11. Using fiction to assess mental state understanding: a new task for assessing theory of mind in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dodell-Feder

    Full Text Available Social functioning depends on the ability to attribute and reason about the mental states of others--an ability known as theory of mind (ToM. Research in this field is limited by the use of tasks in which ceiling effects are ubiquitous, rendering them insensitive to individual differences in ToM ability and instances of subtle ToM impairment. Here, we present data from a new ToM task--the Short Story Task (SST--intended to improve upon many aspects of existing ToM measures. More specifically, the SST was designed to: (a assess the full range of individual differences in ToM ability without suffering from ceiling effects; (b incorporate a range of mental states of differing complexity, including epistemic states, affective states, and intentions to be inferred from a first- and second-order level; (c use ToM stimuli representative of real-world social interactions; (d require participants to utilize social context when making mental state inferences; (e exhibit adequate psychometric properties; and (f be quick and easy to administer and score. In the task, participants read a short story and were asked questions that assessed explicit mental state reasoning, spontaneous mental state inference, and comprehension of the non-mental aspects of the story. Responses were scored according to a rubric that assigned greater points for accurate mental state attributions that included multiple characters' mental states. Results demonstrate that the SST is sensitive to variation in ToM ability, can be accurately scored by multiple raters, and exhibits concurrent validity with other social cognitive tasks. The results support the effectiveness of this new measure of ToM in the study of social cognition. The findings are also consistent with studies demonstrating significant relationships among narrative transportation, ToM, and the reading of fiction. Together, the data indicate that reading fiction may be an avenue for improving ToM ability.

  12. Identification of visual evoked response parameters sensitive to pilot mental state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, G. L.

    1988-01-01

    Systems analysis techniques were developed and demonstrated for modeling the electroencephalographic (EEG) steady state visual evoked response (ssVER), for use in EEG data compression and as an indicator of mental workload. The study focused on steady state frequency domain stimulation and response analysis, implemented with a sum-of-sines (SOS) stimulus generator and an off-line describing function response analyzer. Three major tasks were conducted: (1) VER related systems identification material was reviewed; (2) Software for experiment control and data analysis was developed and implemented; and (3) ssVER identification and modeling was demonstrated, via a mental loading experiment. It was found that a systems approach to ssVER functional modeling can serve as the basis for eventual development of a mental workload indicator. The review showed how transient visual evoked response (tVER) and ssVER research are related at the functional level, the software development showed how systems techniques can be used for ssVER characterization, and the pilot experiment showed how a simple model can be used to capture the basic dynamic response of the ssVER, under varying loads.

  13. Who Is at Risk for Coronary Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for Coronary Heart Disease? In the United States, coronary heart disease (CHD) ... type of fat. Other Risks Related to Coronary Heart Disease Other conditions and factors also may contribute to ...

  14. The brain on silent: mind wandering, mindful awareness, and states of mental tranquility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, David R; Zeidan, Fadel

    2016-06-01

    Mind wandering and mindfulness are often described as divergent mental states with opposing effects on cognitive performance and mental health. Spontaneous mind wandering is typically associated with self-reflective states that contribute to negative processing of the past, worrying/fantasizing about the future, and disruption of primary task performance. On the other hand, mindful awareness is frequently described as a focus on present sensory input without cognitive elaboration or emotional reactivity, and is associated with improved task performance and decreased stress-related symptomology. Unfortunately, such distinctions fail to acknowledge similarities and interactions between the two states. Instead of an inverse relationship between mindfulness and mind wandering, a more nuanced characterization of mindfulness may involve skillful toggling back and forth between conceptual and nonconceptual processes and networks supporting each state, to meet the contextually specified demands of the situation. In this article, we present a theoretical analysis and plausible neurocognitive framework of the restful mind, in which we attempt to clarify potentially adaptive contributions of both mind wandering and mindful awareness through the lens of the extant neurocognitive literature on intrinsic network activity, meditation, and emerging descriptions of stillness and nonduality. A neurophenomenological approach to probing modality-specific forms of concentration and nonconceptual awareness is presented that may improve our understanding of the resting state. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27398642

  15. Mindfulness Based Programs Implemented with At-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlett, Kristen; Scrandis, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This review examines studies on mindfulness based programs used with adolescents at-risk for poor future outcomes such as not graduating from high school and living in poverty. Method: The keywords used include mindfulness, at-risk and adolescents in each database to search CINAHL (10 items: 2 book reviews, 3 Dissertations, and 5 research articles), Medline EBSCO (15 research articles), and PubMed (10 research articles). Only primary research articles published between 2009- 2015 in English on mindfulness and at-risk adolescents were included for the most current evidence. Results: Few studies (n= 11) were found that investigate mindfulness in at-risk adolescents. These studies used various mindfulness programs (n = 7) making it difficult to generalize findings for practice. Only three studies were randomized control trials focusing mostly on male students with low socioeconomic status and existing mental health diagnoses. Conclusion: There is a relationship between health behaviors and academic achievement. Future research studies on mindfulness based interventions need to expand to its effects on academic achievement in those youth at-risk to decrease problematic behaviors and improve their ability to be successful adults. PMID:27347259

  16. Who Is at Risk for Atrial Fibrillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Is at Risk for Atrial Fibrillation? Explore Atrial Fibrillation What Is... Types Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Arrhythmia ...

  17. Contraceptive Use Among Nonpregnant and Postpartum Women at Risk for Unintended Pregnancy, and Female High School Students, in the Context of Zika Preparedness - United States, 2011-2013 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Sheree L; D'Angelo, Denise V; Morrow, Brian; Zapata, Lauren; Berry-Bibee, Erin; Rivera, Maria; Ellington, Sascha; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Frey, Meghan; Williams, Tanya; Goldberg, Howard; Warner, Lee; Harrison, Leslie; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Barfield, Wanda; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Kroelinger, Charlan D

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1,2). Since 2015, Zika virus has been spreading through much of the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas, including U.S. territories. Zika virus is spread through the bite of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, by sex with an infected partner, or from a pregnant woman to her fetus during pregnancy.* CDC estimates that 41 states are in the potential range of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (3), and on July 29, 2016, the Florida Department of Health identified an area in one neighborhood of Miami where Zika virus infections in multiple persons are being spread by bites of local mosquitoes. These are the first known cases of local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission in the continental United States.(†) CDC prevention efforts include mosquito surveillance and control, targeted education about Zika virus and condom use to prevent sexual transmission, and guidance for providers on contraceptive counseling to reduce unintended pregnancy. To estimate the prevalence of contraceptive use among nonpregnant and postpartum women at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually active female high school students living in the 41 states where mosquito-borne transmission might be possible, CDC used 2011-2013 and 2015 survey data from four state-based surveillance systems: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, 2011-2013), which surveys adult women; the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS, 2013) and the Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA, 2013), which surveys women with a recent live birth; and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS, 2015), which surveys students in grades 9-12. CDC defines an unintended pregnancy as one that is either unwanted (i.e., the pregnancy occurred when no children, or no more children, were desired) or mistimed (i.e., the pregnancy occurred earlier than desired). The proportion of

  18. Public Stigma of Mental Illness in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Parcesepe, Angela M.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2013-01-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental...

  19. Consumption of alcohol in mental health services in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Prado Kantorski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcoholism has been a major concern of public health worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, approximately 76.3 million people presented problems of alcohol abuse in 2004. Therefore, the risks arising from the association of psychiatric disorders with alcohol consumption should also be considered in the context of mental health services. Objective: This study aimed to analyze alcohol consumption by the users of Therapeutic Residential Services- SRT and Psychosocial Care Centers- CAPS in five municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methodology: The present study is part of a research entitled Rehabilitation Networks - REDESUL, carried out from September to December 2009 in five municipalities of the aforementioned Brazilian state. The total sample comprised 392 users: 143 from the SRT and 270 from the CAPS services, with intersection of 21 members. Results: The results showed that of the 392 care service users, only 29 had consumed alcohol during the four weeks prior to the survey. The majority of these 29 users were between 31 and 59 years old, male, single, and only n = 13 (48.28% reported being aware of their psychiatric disorders, with prevalence of schizophrenia n = 7 (24.13% followed by bipolar disorders n = 3 (10.34%. Conclusion: It is necessary that the mental health teams are also trained to work with alcohol users, regardless of the type of mental health service they work for, and that they develop actions in relation to guidance on alcohol consumption, treatment adherence, rehabilitation, and integration of users to the community.

  20. Second-order Mental State Attribution in Children with Intellectual Disability: Cognitive Functioning and Some Educational Planning Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Alevriadou; Stergiani Giaouri

    2011-01-01

    Second-order mental state attribution in two groups of children with non-specific intellectual disability andDown syndrome was investigated. The children were compared to overall mental age-matched group of typicallydeveloping children. The aim of the present study was to determine the specificity of the theory of mind deficitto different groups of children with intellectual disability. The results clearly showed that children with Downsyndrome performed more poorly than the children with non...

  1. Value-At-Risk Optimal Policies for Revenue Management Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, M; Meissner, J

    2010-01-01

    Consider a single-leg dynamic revenue management problem with fare classes controlled by capacity in a risk-averse setting. The revenue management strategy aims at limiting the down-side risk, and in particular, value-at-risk. A value-at-risk optimised policy offers an advantage when considering applications which do not allow for a large number of reiterations. They allow for specifying a confidence level regarding undesired scenarios. We state the underlying problem as a Markov decision pro...

  2. Effects of Exercise in Immersive Virtual Environments on Cortical Neural Oscillations and Mental State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Tobias; Herpers, Rainer; Askew, Christopher D; Scherfgen, David; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality environments are increasingly being used to encourage individuals to exercise more regularly, including as part of treatment those with mental health or neurological disorders. The success of virtual environments likely depends on whether a sense of presence can be established, where participants become fully immersed in the virtual environment. Exposure to virtual environments is associated with physiological responses, including cortical activation changes. Whether the addition of a real exercise within a virtual environment alters sense of presence perception, or the accompanying physiological changes, is not known. In a randomized and controlled study design, moderate-intensity Exercise (i.e., self-paced cycling) and No-Exercise (i.e., automatic propulsion) trials were performed within three levels of virtual environment exposure. Each trial was 5 minutes in duration and was followed by posttrial assessments of heart rate, perceived sense of presence, EEG, and mental state. Changes in psychological strain and physical state were generally mirrored by neural activation patterns. Furthermore, these changes indicated that exercise augments the demands of virtual environment exposures and this likely contributed to an enhanced sense of presence. PMID:26366305

  3. Self-knowledge and attribution of mental states in Theory of Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skidelsky, Liza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many philosophers consider that self-knowledge reflects the particularity that we can know what we think, believe, desire, in a different way in which we know the mental states of other people. This is the claim of an asymmetry between first and third person. Several approaches han been offered in the epistemological literature in order to account for this asymmetry. Nonetheless, unlike the expected compatibility between adjacent fields, the literature related to the attribution and self-attribution of mental states or, in general, what is called Theory of Mind, does not seem either to preserve this asymmetry or the attempt to preserve it undermines the fundamental role of the different Theory of Mind proposals. This paper will show this in two parts. Firstly, it addresses how the asymmetry thesis han been defended in the epistemological literature. The aim of this section is to offer a geography of the different approaches. Secondly, two proposals in Theory of Mind, the theory theory and simulation theory, will be evaluated in order to show why they do not account for the asymmetry thesis, and some of the consequences that would be gather from the attempt to conciliate these Theory of Mind proposals with the epistemological approaches that defend the asymmetry thesis will be analized.

  4. Effects of Exercise in Immersive Virtual Environments on Cortical Neural Oscillations and Mental State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Vogt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality environments are increasingly being used to encourage individuals to exercise more regularly, including as part of treatment those with mental health or neurological disorders. The success of virtual environments likely depends on whether a sense of presence can be established, where participants become fully immersed in the virtual environment. Exposure to virtual environments is associated with physiological responses, including cortical activation changes. Whether the addition of a real exercise within a virtual environment alters sense of presence perception, or the accompanying physiological changes, is not known. In a randomized and controlled study design, moderate-intensity Exercise (i.e., self-paced cycling and No-Exercise (i.e., automatic propulsion trials were performed within three levels of virtual environment exposure. Each trial was 5 minutes in duration and was followed by posttrial assessments of heart rate, perceived sense of presence, EEG, and mental state. Changes in psychological strain and physical state were generally mirrored by neural activation patterns. Furthermore, these changes indicated that exercise augments the demands of virtual environment exposures and this likely contributed to an enhanced sense of presence.

  5. Smoking and mental illness: results from population surveys in Australia and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrou Francis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking has been associated with a range of mental disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression. People with mental illness have high rates of morbidity and mortality from smoking related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and cancer. As many people who meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders do not seek treatment for these conditions, we sought to investigate the relationship between mental illness and smoking in recent population-wide surveys. Methods Survey data from the US National Comorbidity Survey-Replication conducted in 2001–2003, the 2007 Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, and the 2007 US National Health Interview Survey were used to investigate the relationship between current smoking, ICD-10 mental disorders and non-specific psychological distress. Population weighted estimates of smoking rates by disorder, and mental disorder rates by smoking status were calculated. Results In both the US and Australia, adults who met ICD-10 criteria for mental disorders in the 12 months prior to the survey smoked at almost twice the rate of adults without mental disorders. While approximately 20% of the adult population had 12-month mental disorders, among adult smokers approximately one-third had a 12-month mental disorder – 31.7% in the US (95% CI: 29.5%–33.8% and 32.4% in Australia (95% CI: 29.5%–35.3%. Female smokers had higher rates of mental disorders than male smokers, and younger smokers had considerably higher rates than older smokers. The majority of mentally ill smokers were not in contact with mental health services, but their rate of smoking was not different from that of mentally ill smokers who had accessed services for their mental health problem. Smokers with high levels of psychological distress smoked a higher average number of cigarettes per day. Conclusion Mental illness is associated with both higher rates of smoking and higher

  6. Amicus Curiae Brief for the United States Supreme Court on Mental Health Issues Associated with "Physician-Assisted Suicide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Gordon, Judith R.

    2002-01-01

    After providing background material related to the Supreme Court cases on "physician-assisted suicide" (Washington v. Glucksberg, 1997, and Vacco v. Quill, 1997), this article presents the amicus curiae brief that was submitted to the United States Supreme Court by 2 national mental health organizations, a state psychological association, and an…

  7. Mental Health Facilities, Licensed Mental Health Hospitals, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of California - Office of the State Chief Information Officer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Mental Health Facilities dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  8. Mental health of refugees following state-sponsored repatriation from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, Voluntary Assisted Return Programmes (VARPs have received increasing funding as a potential way of reducing the number of refugees in EU member states. A number of factors may affect the mental well-being of returnees. These include adjustment to the home country following return, difficult living conditions, and long-term effects resulting from the severe traumatic stress that had originally driven the affected out of their homes. Little is known about the extent to which these and other factors may promote or inhibit the willingness of refugees to return to their country of origin. The present pilot study investigated refugees who returned to their country of origin after having lived in exile in Germany for some 13 years. Methods Forty-seven VARP participants were interviewed concerning their present living conditions, their views of their native country, and their attitudes towards a potential return prior to actually returning. 33 participants were interviewed nine months after returning to their country of origin. Mental health and well-being were assessed using the questionnaires Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS and EUROHIS and the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.. Our objectives were to examine the mental health status of refugees returning to their home country following an extended period of exile. We also aimed to assess the circumstances under which people decided to return, the current living conditions in their home country, and retrospective returnee evaluations of their decision to accept assisted return. Results Prior to returning to their home country, participants showed a prevalence rate of 53% for psychiatric disorders. After returning, this rate increased to a sizeable 88%. Substantial correlations were found between the living situation in Germany, the disposition to return, and mental health. For two thirds of the participants, the decision

  9. Mental states as part of countertransference responses in psychotherapists facing reports of traumatic events of mourning and sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, Patricia; Terra, Luciana; Abuchaim, Claudio; Sordi, Anne; Wiethaeuper, Daniela; Bouchard, Marc-Andrè; Mardini, Victor; Baumgardt, Rosana; Lauerman, Marta; Ceitlin, Lúcia Helena

    2008-09-01

    The study aims to compare the mental states and countertransference responses of 92 psychodynamically oriented psychotherapists, male and female, experienced and inexperienced, facing written reports of real patients who experienced traumatic events. Two vignettes were presented: one of a sexual violence, the other the sudden death of a significant person. The Mental States Rating System (MSRS; Bouchard, Picard, Audet, Brisson, & Carrier, 1998), the MSRS Self-Report (Goldfeld & Bouchard, 2004), and the Inventory of Countertransference Behavior (ICB; Friedman & Gelso, 2000) were used. Results showed that the mourning vignette led to more reflective responses (MSRS) and the rape case was associated with more negative countertransference reactions (ICB). Female participants were more reflective (MSRS); male therapists used less mentalized states (MSRS Self-Report) and expressed more negative reactions (ICB) for both scenarios. Experienced therapists showed more positive reactions on the ICB. The construct validity of the instruments is discussed in relation to the findings. PMID:18816003

  10. New measures of mental state and behavior based on data collected from sensors, smartphones, and the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Tasha; Monteith, Scott

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid and ubiquitous acceptance of new technologies, algorithms will be used to estimate new measures of mental state and behavior based on digital data. The algorithms will analyze data collected from sensors in smartphones and wearable technology, and data collected from Internet and smartphone usage and activities. In the future, new medical measures that assist with the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of psychiatric disorders will be available despite unresolved reliability, usability, and privacy issues. At the same time, similar non-medical commercial measures of mental state are being developed primarily for targeted advertising. There are societal and ethical implications related to the use of these measures of mental state and behavior for both medical and non-medical purposes. PMID:25308392

  11. The British welfare state and mental health problems: the continuing relevance of the work of Claus Offe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David

    2012-09-01

    It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism. PMID:22530616

  12. Congruencies in Increased Mortality Rates, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Causes of Death Among Public Mental Health Clients in Eight States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig W. Colton, PhD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mortality rates are used as global measures of a population’s health status and as indicators for public health efforts and medical treatments. Elevated mortality rates among individuals with mental illness have been reported in various studies, but very little focus has been placed on interstate comparisons and congruency of mortality and causes of death among public mental health clients. Methods Using age-adjusted death rates, standardized mortality ratios, and years of potential life lost, we compared the mortality of public mental health clients in eight states with the mortality of their state general populations. The data used in our study were submitted by public mental health agencies in eight states (Arizona, Missouri, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, and Virginia for 1997 through 2000 during the Sixteen-State Study on Mental Health Performance Measures, a multistate study federally funded by the Center for Mental Health Services in collaboration with the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors. Results In all eight states, we found that public mental health clients had a higher relative risk of death than the general populations of their states. Deceased public mental health clients had died at much younger ages and lost decades of potential life when compared with their living cohorts nationwide. Clients with major mental illness diagnoses died at younger ages and lost more years of life than people with non-major mental illness diagnoses. Most mental health clients died of natural causes similar to the leading causes of death found nationwide, including heart disease, cancer, and cerebrovascular, respiratory, and lung diseases. Conclusion Mental health and physical health are intertwined; both types of care should be provided and linked together within health care delivery systems. Research to track mortality and primary care should be increased to provide information for additional

  13. Acculturation and Self-Rated Mental Health Among Latino and Asian Immigrants in the United States: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Elif; Gayman, Matthew D

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses variations in acculturation experiences by identifying distinct acculturation classes, and investigates the role of these acculturation classes for self-rated mental health among Latino and Asian immigrants in the United States. Using 2002-2003 the National Latino and Asian American Study, Latent Class Analysis is used to capture variations in immigrant classes (recent arrivals, separated, bicultural and assimilated), and OLS regressions are used to assess the link between acculturation classes and self-rated mental health. For both Latinos and Asians, bicultural immigrants reported the best mental health, and separated immigrants and recent arrivals reported the worst mental health. The findings also reveal group differences in acculturation classes, whereby Latino immigrants were more likely to be in the separated class and recent arrivals class relative to Asian immigrants. While there was not a significant group difference in self-rated mental health at the bivariate level, controlling for acculturation classes revealed that Latinos report better self-rated mental health than Asians. Thus, Latino immigrants would actually have better self-rated mental health than their Asian counterparts if they were not more likely to be represented in less acculturated classes (separated class and recent arrivals) and/or as likely to be in the bicultural class as their Asian counterparts. Together the findings underscore the nuanced and complex nature of the acculturation process, highlighting the importance of race differences in this process, and demonstrate the role of acculturation classes for immigrant group differences in self-rated mental health. PMID:26250609

  14. 'Void existence' as against 'annihilation existence': Differentiating two qualities in primitive mental states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdarsky, Irit Hameiri

    2015-10-01

    This paper attempts to distil out a particular quality of psychic (non)existence, which I call here 'void existence', from the quality predominantly explored in the psychoanalytic discourse on primitive mental states, which I call 'annihilation existence'. Achieving this phenomenological differentiation may make it easier to identify and work through extreme states in the analytic situation, when the patient is under the dominance of 'void existence'. I suggest that it is, as it were, a one-dimensional existence, in an infinite contour-less void, lacking any substantial internal object, lacking any substantial sense of psychic and/or somatic occurrences, and lacking any live representation of this very state of being. Hence, it lacks distress and anxiety, as well as calmness and peace. One might say that it is the inorganic within the organic; a quality of non-alive-ness within life. 'Annihilation existence' is existence in a two- or three-dimensional hollowed world, with flat and/or partial representations of self and object, which attracts acute distress and annihilation anxiety. It is a sort of existence on the brink of non-life, on the brink of the void; where a sense of catastrophic danger is brought on by the never-ending potentiality of the annihilation's realization. Both these psychic qualities can be encapsulated within neurotic and personality disorders, and the dominance of each can serve as defence against the dominance of the other. The theoretical discussion is supported by excerpts from an analysis. PMID:26298559

  15. At-Risk Youth: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn, Leslie

    This select bibliography lists books, articles, and reports, almost all of which were published since 1980, on at-risk youth. The following areas are included: (1) general; (2) dropouts; (3) drug and alcohol abusers; (4) youth offenders; (5) teen parents; (6) young children at risk; and (7) unemployed youth. For each item the following information…

  16. Stress Coping Levels and Mental States of Police Vocational School of Higher Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Yildirim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY AIM: This study was planned and carried out with the objective of determining stress coping levels and mental state of students attending Police Vocational Schools of Higher Education, in addition to factors effecting these. MATERIAL and METHOD: This desciptive and cross-sectional study consisted of 300 male students enrolled in the 2005-2006 academic year, at Police Vocational School of Higher Education, located in central Erzincan, Turkey. In this study, instead of random sampling, 281 (93.7% students who were present at the school at the time of the study and accepted to partipate in it were included. Data for this study was collected using a desciptive form created by the researchers, Rosenbaum’s Learned Resourcefulness Scale (RLRS and The Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R. During the data analysis, frequency distributions, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA were used; and for analysis of independent groups, t-test was used. RESULTS: Among the students, it was determined that 54.8% were 1. grade, 90.7% had their parents living together, 43.5% had a father and 60.5% had a mother who graduated from elementary school, fathers of 23.5% of students were retired, 93.6% of them had mothers who were home makers. In addition, it was found out that 78.6% of students chose their profession willingly, the average family income of 71.5% of students were at medium levels, 82.9% always believed in themselves and 63.3% of students did not smoke. Based on the results obtained, it was observed that second grade students, those with mothers who are highly educated and those who trusted themselved all the time had significantly high stress coping levels; students who chose their own profession, believed in themselves and did not smoke had significantly low levels of mental symptom indications. CONCLUSION: In this study, the students were determined to posess averge levels of stress coping skills and they were found

  17. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  18. "Do" Sweat It: Using a Fitness Session as an Introduction to Research on the Relationship between Physical and Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Amy L.; Hrivnak, George A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a hands-on experiential exercise session in a fitness center is presented as a teaching tool for management instructors to facilitate a theoretically based discussion about the connection between individuals' physical and mental states. Before discussing the components of the exercise session itself, a rationale for integrating…

  19. Screening for Early Alzheimer's Disease: Is There Still a Role for the Mini-Mental State Examination?

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Aaron D.; Slavin, Melissa J; Tran, Thanh-Thu; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Doraiswamy, P. Murali

    2005-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) total score as well as item scores in separating 4 groups of elderly (55–85 years of age) subjects—normal controls, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), subjects with mild Alzheimer's disease, and subjects with depression.

  20. How Do Use and Comprehension of Mental-State Language Relate to Theory of Mind in Middle Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzani, Ilaria; Ornaghi, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between mental-state language and theory of mind in primary school children. The participants were 110 primary school students (mean age = 9 years and 7 months; SD = 12.7 months). They were evenly divided by gender and belonged to two age groups (8- and 10-year-olds). Linguistic, metacognitive and cognitive…

  1. Maternal Discussions of Mental States and Behaviors: Relations to Emotion Situation Knowledge in European American and Immigrant Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N.; Wang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the…

  2. Mental health first aid training for the Bhutanese refugee community in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, Parangkush; Li, Changwei; Gurung, Ashok; Bizune, Destani; Dogbey, M Christina; Johnson, Caroline C; Yun, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for Bhutanese refugee community leaders in the U.S. We hypothesized that training refugee leaders would improve knowledge of mental health problems and treatment process and decrease negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Methods One hundred and twenty community leaders participated in MHFA training, of whom 58 had sufficient English proficiency to complete pre- and post-t...

  3. Delineating organs at risk in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Cèfaro, Giampiero Ausili; Perez, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Defining organs at risk is a crucial task for radiation oncologists when aiming to optimize the benefit of radiation therapy, with delivery of the maximum dose to the tumor volume while sparing healthy tissues. This book will prove an invaluable guide to the delineation of organs at risk of toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy. The first and second sections address the anatomy of organs at risk, discuss the pathophysiology of radiation-induced damage, and present dose constraints and methods for target volume delineation. The third section is devoted to the radiological anatomy of orga

  4. Extreme Value Theory and Value at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Fernandez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is a measure of the maximum potential change in value of a portfolio of financial assets with a given probability over a given time horizon. VaR became a key measure of market risk since the Basle Committee stated that banks should be able to cover losses on their trading portfolios over a ten-day horizon, 99 percent of the time. A common practice is to compute VaR by assuming that changes in value of the portfolio are normally distributed, conditional on past in-formation. However, assets returns usually come from fat-tailed distri-butions. Therefore, computing VaR under the assumption of conditional normality can be an important source of error. We illustrate this point with Chilean and U.S. returns series by resorting to extreme value theory (EVT and GARCH-type models. In addition, we show that dynamic estimation of empirical quantiles can also give more accurate VaR estimates than quantiles of a standard normal.

  5. Towards a system-paced near-infrared spectroscopy brain-computer interface: differentiating prefrontal activity due to mental arithmetic and mental singing from the no-control state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah D.; Kushki, Azadeh; Chau, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has recently been investigated as a non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) for individuals with severe motor impairments. For the most part, previous research has investigated the development of NIRS-BCIs operating under synchronous control paradigms, which require the user to exert conscious control over their mental activity whenever the system is vigilant. Though functional, this is mentally demanding and an unnatural way to communicate. An attractive alternative to the synchronous control paradigm is system-paced control, in which users are required to consciously modify their brain activity only when they wish to affect the BCI output, and can remain in a more natural, 'no-control' state at all other times. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a system-paced NIRS-BCI with one intentional control (IC) state corresponding to the performance of either mental arithmetic or mental singing. In particular, this involved determining if these tasks could be distinguished, individually, from the unconstrained 'no-control' state. Deploying a dual-wavelength frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, we interrogated nine sites around the frontopolar locations (International 10-20 System) while eight able-bodied adults performed mental arithmetic and mental singing to answer multiple-choice questions within a system-paced paradigm. With a linear classifier trained on a six-dimensional feature set, an overall classification accuracy of 71.2% across participants was achieved for the mental arithmetic versus no-control classification problem. While the mental singing versus no-control classification was less successful across participants (62.7% on average), four participants did attain accuracies well in excess of chance, three of which were above 70%. Analyses were performed offline. Collectively, these results are encouraging, and demonstrate the potential of a system-paced NIRS-BCI with one IC state corresponding to

  6. Preventive Intervention in Families at Risk: The Limits of Liberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snik, Ger; De Jong, Johan; Van Haaften, Wouter

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing call for preventive state interventions in so-called families at risk - that is, interventions before any overt harm has been done by parents to their children or by the children to a third party, in families that are statistically known to be liable to harm children. One of the basic principles of liberal morality, however,…

  7. Common Mental Disorders at the Time of Deportation: A Survey at the Mexico-United States Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Aguilera, Rosa M; Ramírez, Jacobo; Cerecero, Diego; Mejía, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Deportations from the Unites States (US) to Mexico increased substantially during the last decade. Considering deportation as a stressful event with potential consequences on mental health, we aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) among deported migrants; and (2) explore the association between migratory experience, social support and psychological variables, and CMD in this group. In repatriation points along the border, a probability sample of deportees responded to the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). The prevalence of CMD was 16.0% (95% CI 12.3, 20.6). There was a U-shaped association between time in the US and SRQ score. Times returned to Mexico, having a spouse in the US, number of persons in household, less social support, anxiety as a personality trait, and avoidant coping style were directly associated with SRQ score. Public health policies should address the need for mental health care among deported migrants. PMID:25118675

  8. The long-term mental health effects of nuclear trauma in recent Russian immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rosemarie Perez

    2002-10-01

    The long-term mental health sequelae (15 years) of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster in the former Soviet Union (FSU) were assessed in survivors migrated to the United States, as part of an ongoing study. Using a retrospective, cross-sectional design with standardized Russian mental health measures, a sample of 261 Russians residing in the New York tristate area were tested for multiple domains of mental health functioning. Multivariate analyses pointed to aspects of the accident and its negative repercussions as reliable predictors of current psychological distress. Russians who had lived closer to the disaster, and had greater exposure to it, currently experience higher levels of anxiety (p Israel (Remennick, 2002), as well as those remaining in the FSU (Havenaar et al., 1997). Implications of long-term traumatic sequelae, especially in the complex perimigration context, are discussed. PMID:15792035

  9. Mental State Inferences Abilities Contribution to Verbal Irony Comprehension in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaudreau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 30 healthy control (HC subjects. Method. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Results. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. Conclusion. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing.

  10. Theory of Mind: Understanding Young Children's Pretence and Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than two decades, research has focused on the understanding of pretence as an important means for young children to conceptualise the mind. Many use the phrase "mental representation" to a mental model of some entity or concept, which describes what is inside the minds of young children in relation to a real-world situation or…

  11. Mental State Inferences Abilities Contribution to Verbal Irony Comprehension in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, G.; Monetta, L.; Macoir, J.; Poulin, S.; Laforce, R. Jr.; Hudon, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects. Method. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Results. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. Conclusion. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing. PMID:26199459

  12. Challenge of COPD: Am I at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Challenge of COPD Am I at Risk? Past Issues / Fall 2014 ... or the American Lung Association's COPD information section. COPD Learn More Breathe Better ® Program The COPD Learn ...

  13. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Who's at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Who's at Risk? More ... explore this possibility Related Links Disability and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Print page View page in: Español (Spanish) ...

  14. SCREENING FOR POSTSTROKE COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT VIA MINI MENTAL STATE EXAMINATION AND MONTREAL COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirena Valkova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study is to examine cognitive performance after mild stroke via Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA and to compare the results.Material and methods: We examined 54 patients with mild stroke (aged 52 to 72 (mean 63.17, SD 5.96; 34 males and 20 females and 54 controls, adjusted by age, sex and education level. All subjects were tested via MMSE (Bulgarian version and MoCa (Bulgarian version. Data was collected in the single step model at the 90th day after stroke incident for patients and at the day of obtaining informed consent for controls. Results: Patients have poorer performance on both MMSE and MoCa than controls. MoCa has comparatively good discriminative validity and sensitivity.Conclusions: Although MMSE is one of the classical screening tools for cognitive impairment widely used in Bulgaria, other screening tools should not be ignored. On the basis of our results, MoCa is also a good screening instrument, especially for poststroke cognitive impairment.

  15. Child and mother mental-state talk in shared pretense as predictors of children's social symbolic play abilities at age 3.

    OpenAIRE

    Osório, Ana Alexandra Caldas; Meins, Elizabeth; Martins, Carla; Martins, Eva Costa; Soares, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated relations between mother and child (N = 49) mental-state talk during shared pretense and children’s social symbolic play at age 3. Social symbolic play was not related to mothers’ mental-state talk. In contrast, children’s own use of desire-state talk in shared pretense was a better predictor of social symbolic play than their general use of mental-state talk, even after accounting for general verbal ability as well as mothers’ use of desires terms. Conclusion: These r...

  16. Family Culture in Mental Health Help-Seeking and Utilization in a Nationally Representative Sample of Latinos in the United States: The NLAAS

    OpenAIRE

    Villatoro, Alice P.; Morales, Eduardo S.; Mays, Vickie M

    2014-01-01

    Considering the central role of familismo in Latino culture, it is important to assess the extent to which familismo affects mental health help-seeking. This study examined the role of behavioral familismo, the level of perceived family support, in the use of mental health services of Latinos in the United States. Data come from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), a representative household survey examining the prevalence of mental disorders and services utilization among La...

  17. Marching to a Different Beat: A Bibliography of Materials about Children at Risk because of Disabilities and/or Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Betty Jo

    This annotated bibliography covers materials about children at risk because of disabilities and/or abilities. The bibliography includes approximately 560 entries. The following categories are addressed: autism; gifted; handicapped--general and multiple; hearing impaired/deaf; learning disabilities; mental illness; mentally handicapped/brain…

  18. HIV Testing Among Adults with Mental Illness in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Yehia, Baligh R.; Cui, Wanjun; Thompson, William W; Zack, Matthew M.; McKnight-Eily, Lela; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Rose, Charles E.; Blank, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital ...

  19. Health related quality of life and mental distress after PCI: restoring a state of equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Sipötz, Johann; Friedrich, Oliver; Höfer, Stefan; Benzer, Werner; Chatsakos, Thomas; Gaul, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient self reported measures for Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and mental distress are frequently used to evaluate outcome of therapeutic strategies in cardiac patients. Our study aims to describe changes in HRQOL and mental distress after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) focusing on temporal pattern of change and interdependences between both outcome measures. Method 163 PCI patients recruited at 7 cardiovascular care units in Austria answered MacNew Health Rela...

  20. Mental health state and quality of life questionnaire in low vision assessment: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Rokiah; Rahman, Mohd Harimi Abd; Knight, Victor Feizal; Mustaphal, Mushawiahti; Mohammed, Zainora

    2014-01-01

    Background Vision impairment associated with diabetic retinopathy, is well known and low vision rehabilitation is always recommended. In this report, the importance of objective measure of mental health and quality of life screening in diabetic retinopathy low-vision assessment is discussed. Case presentation We describe the case of a 43-year-old Asian female who has mild vision impairment due to tractional retinal detachment secondary to diabetic retinopathy and how mental health screening a...

  1. When will Little Red Riding Hood become scared? Children's attribution of mental states to a story character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfard, Samuel; Harris, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    As children listen to a simple action-based narrative, they construct a dynamic representation of the protagonist's movements, visual perspective, and goal-directed thoughts. We examined children's representations of more complex narratives in which the protagonist will encounter an unexpected outcome upon reaching his or her goal. Three studies involving 105 children between 3 and 6 years of age showed that children shifted in the mental states they attributed depending on the distance of the protagonist from the unexpected outcome. Even though children consistently recognized that the protagonist did not know about the surprise at any point, they increasingly attributed feelings and thoughts consistent with the surprise. The studies highlight the degree to which children's mental state attributions are dynamic rather than fixed by their current theory of mind. PMID:23688172

  2. O desempenho de idosas institucionalizadas no miniexame do estado mental El desempeño de adultas mayores institucionalizadas en el mini examen del estado mental Institutionalized elder women's performance in the mini-mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Lenardt

    2009-10-01

    ás avanzadas se correlacionaron con una menor puntuación.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate institutionalized elder women's performance in the mini-mental state examination. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 34 elder women who were residents in a long term facility in Curitiba, PR. Data were collected with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE and analyzed with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 79.82 ± 8.23 and their overall mean score on the MMSE was 16.62 ± 5.60. The mean score of performance among illiterates and literate participants were 14.90 and 19.75 points, respectively. The mean score of performance among participants aged 65 to 79 and participants aged 80 and over were 18 and 15.65 points, respectively. CONCLUSION: There were a large number of elder women (26.5% with cognitive impairment. Lower educational level and advanced age were associated with lower scores on the mini-mental status examination.

  3. Mental health and substance abuse parity: a case study of Ohio's state employee program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Goldman, William; McCulloch, Joyce

    1998-10-01

    BACKGROUND: In the United States, insurance benefits for treating alcohol, drug abuse and mental health (ADM) problems have been much more limited than medical care benefits. To change that situation, more than 30 states were considering legislation that requires equal benefits for ADM and medical care ("parity") in the past year. Uncertainty about the cost consequences of such proposed legislation remains a major stumbling block. There has been no information about the actual experience of implementing parity benefits under managed care or the effects on access to care and utilization. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Document the experience of the State of Ohio with adopting full parity for ADM care for its state employee program under managed care. Ohio provides an unusually long time series with seven years of managed behavioral health benefits, which allows us to study inflationary trends in a plan with unlimited ADM benefits. METHODS: Primarily a case study, we describe the implementation of the program and track utilization, and costs of ADM care from 1989 to 1997. We use a variety of administrative and claims data and reports provided by United Behavioral Health and the state of Ohio. The analysis of the utilization and cost effect of parity and managed care is pre-post, with a multiyear follow-up period. RESULTS: The switch from unmanaged indemnity care to managed carve-out care was followed by a 75% drop in inpatient days and a 40% drop in outpatient visits per 1000 members, despite the simultaneous increase in benefits. The subsequent years saw a continuous decline in inpatient days and an increased use of intermediate services, such as residential care and intensive outpatient care. The number of outpatient visits stabilized in the range of 500-550 visits per 1000. There was no indication that costs started to increase during the study period; instead, costs continued to decline. A somewhat different picture emerges when comparing utilization under HMOs with

  4. The modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is more predictive of memory abilities than the Mini Mental State Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Duff, Kevin; Tometich, Danielle; Dennett, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Although not as popular as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) has some distinct advantages when screening cognitive functioning in older adults. The current study compared these two cognitive screening measures in their ability to predict performance on a memory composite (i.e., delayed recall of verbal and visual information) in a cohort of 121 community-dwelling older adults, both at baseline and after one year. Both the M...

  5. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Moogala; Sahitya Sanivarapu; Ramanarayana Boyapati; Narasimha Swamy Devulapalli; Swarna Chakrapani; Laxmikanth Kolaparthy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and m...

  6. The role of second person narration in representing mental states in Sylvia Plath’s Smith Journal

    OpenAIRE

    Demjen, Zsofia

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at instances of second person narration in the first journal published in The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath (Kukil, 2000) in order to determine the potential that second person narration can have for the linguistic representation of mental states. The contributions of different disciplines (narratology, linguistics, psychology) to the study of second person narration are considered and their findings are re-applied to a non-fictional text. In a corpus-informed comparati...

  7. Effects of acute organophosphate ingestion on cognitive function, assessed with the mini mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Jayasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Chronic damage to the central nervous system resulting in cognitive impairment has been shown with repeated, low doses of organophosphorus (OP exposure over month or years. Aim: The study aimed to find out whether there is any cognitive impairment following acute OP exposure that could be detected by a simple screening instrument, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, in clinical settings. Settings and Design: A cohort study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with matched controls. Consecutive patients admitted to the hospital with acute ingestion of OP were recruited. Cognitive function was assessed with the MMSE, digit span test, test of long-term memory function and concentration. Patients were assessed twice: at 1 and 6 weeks of exposure. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were analyzed with the paired and unpaired T-tests. Non-normally distributed data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Discrete variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Results: There were 60 patients and 61 controls. The mean age (SD of the patients and controls was 31.5 (11.6 and 31.3 (11.8 years, respectively. Forty-two patients turned up for the second assessment. Significant impairment of cognitive function was seen in the total score of MMSE (95% CI -2.5 to -0.3, orientation (95% CI -1 to -0.2 and language (95% CI -0.9 to -0.1 domains of MMSE, digit span test (95% CI 0.1-1.7 and test of long-term memory function (95% CI 0.3-2.3 in the first assessment compared with the controls. When the results of the second assessment were compared with the controls, no significant differences were seen. Conclusion: Although there was a slight transient cognitive impairment detected with the screening tests following acute OP ingestion, no long-term cognitive defects was detected.

  8. Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Modified Mini Mental State Examination in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaycee M. Sink

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sparse data limit the interpretation of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores, particularly in minority populations. Additionally, there are no published data on how MoCA scores compare to the widely used Modified Mini Mental State Examination (3MSE. We provide performance data on the MoCA in a large cohort of African Americans and compare 3MSE and MoCA scores, providing a “crosswalk” for interpreting scores. Methods. Five hundred and thirty African Americans with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in African American-Diabetes Heart Study-MIND, a cross-sectional study of cognition and structural and functional brain imaging. After excluding participants with possible cognitive impairment (n=115, mean (SD MoCA and 3MSE scores are presented stratified by age and education. Results. Participant mean age was 58.2 years (range: 35-83; 61% were female; and 64.9% had >12 years of education. Mean (SD 3MSE and MoCA scores were 86.9 (8.2 and 19.8 (3.8, respectively. 93.5% of the cohort had a “positive” screen on the MoCA, scoring <26 (education-adjusted, compared with 47.5% on the 3MSE (cut-point < 88. A 3MSE score of 88 corresponded to a MoCA score of 20 in this population. Conclusion. The present data suggest the need for caution when applying proposed MoCA cutoffs to African Americans.

  9. Seeing emotions in the eyes – Inverse priming effects induced by eyes expressing mental states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eWagenbreth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAutomatic emotional processing of faces and facial expressions gain more and more of relevance in terms of social communication. Among a variety of different primes, targets and tasks, whole face images and facial expressions have been used to affectively prime emotional responses. This study investigates whether emotional information provided solely in eye regions that display mental states can also trigger affective priming.MethodsSixteen subjects answered a lexical decision task (LDT coupled with an affective priming paradigm. Emotion-associated eye regions were extracted from photographs of faces and acted as primes, whereas targets were either words or pseudo-words. Participants had to decide whether the targets were real German words or generated pseudo-words. Primes and targets belonged to the emotional categories fear, disgust, happiness and neutral.ResultsA general valence effect for positive words was observed: Responses in the LDT were faster for target words of the emotional category happiness when compared to other categories. Importantly, pictures of emotional eye regions preceding the target words affected their subsequent classification. While we show a classical priming effect for neutral target words - with shorter RT for congruent compared to incongruent prime-target pairs- , we observed an inverse priming effect for fearful and happy target words - with shorter RT for incongruent compared to congruent prime-target pairs. These inverse priming effects were driven exclusively by specific prime-target pairs.ConclusionReduced facial emotional information is sufficient to induce automatic implicit emotional processing. The emotional-associated eye regions were processed with respect to their emotional valence and affected the performance on the LDT.

  10. Neighbors at Risk : A Quantitative Study of Civil War Contagion

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Erika

    2009-01-01

    While previous research shows that civil wars can spread to neighboring states, we do not know why certain neighbors are more at risk than others. To address this research gap, this dissertation proposes a contagion process approach that can identify the most likely targets of contagion effects from an ongoing conflict. Using data with global coverage, theoretical expectations about why and where civil wars would have contagion effects, are examined in a series of statistical analyses. Paper ...

  11. Prevalence of Mental Disorders, Psychological Distress, and Mental Health Services Use Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Susan D; Sullivan, J. Greer; Mays, Vickie M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent estimates of mental health morbidity among adults reporting same-gender sexual partners suggest that lesbians, gay men, and bisexual individuals may experience excess risk for some mental disorders as compared with heterosexual individuals. However, sexual orientation has not been measured directly. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 2,917 midlife adults, the authors examined possible sexual orientation-related differences in morbidity, distress, and mental health se...

  12. Substance Use, Mental Disorders and Physical Health of Caribbeans at-Home Compared to Those Residing in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krim K. Lacey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the health conditions of domestic Caribbeans with those living in the United States to explore how national context and migration experiences might influence substance use (i.e., alcohol or drug and other mental and physical health conditions. The study is based upon probability samples of non-institutionalized Caribbeans living in the United States (1621, Jamaica (1216 and Guyana (2068 18 years of age and over. Employing descriptive statistics and multivariate analytic procedures, the results revealed that substance use and other physical health conditions and major depressive disorder and mania vary by national context, with higher rates among Caribbeans living in the United States. Context and generation status influenced health outcomes. Among first generation black Caribbeans, residing in the United States for a longer length of time is linked to poorer health outcomes. There were different socio-demographic correlates of health among at-home and abroad Caribbeans. The results of this study support the need for additional research to explain how national context, migratory experiences and generation status contribute to understanding substance use and mental disorders and physical health outcomes among Caribbean first generation and descendants within the United States, compared to those remaining in the Caribbean region.

  13. O processo de trabalho do militar estadual e a saúde mental Working process of military police state officers and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurivan Batista da Silva

    2008-12-01

    relate it to mental health. We tried to contextualize the purposes of public safety services through a brief history of the state police, its division and how it has been used against daily violence. Based on labor psychology view, we made use of techniques and concepts based on the Ergonomics of the Activity and on Labor Psychodynamics; observing the work process, document research, individual and collective interviews. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that military officers are in the center of a link of forces coming from work organization, the precariousness of the work and, finally, from the contemporary society. The ways these relationships of forces are joined contribute to harmful implications to the mental health of professionals, favoring the increase in psychological suffering and it can lead to alcoholism, depression, and even suicide. Data from Medical Council of João Pessoa, (2003 to 2005, show an average of 489 military officers who retired from work on medical grounds. These are worrisome figures in an area of public service that is essential to the population. These figures would be higher if the leaves granted in the workplace were also included. Procedures for granting internal leaves occur in an attempt to mediate the possible long period of health treatment.

  14. Mental Health Treatment Program Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... County or Zip By Name Other Links State Mental Health Agencies Frequently Asked Questions Links Comments or Questions ... a Facility in Your State To locate the mental health treatment programs nearest you, find your State on ...

  15. Length of Stay of Pediatric Mental Health Emergency Department Visits in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Sarah D.; Case, Brady G.; Olfson, Mark; Linakis, James G.; Laska, Eugene M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare pediatric mental health emergency department visits to other pediatric emergency department visits, focusing on length of stay. Method: We analyzed data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a nationally representative sample of US emergency department visits from 2001 to 2008, for patients aged less than…

  16. Value at risk, Equity and Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Broll, Udo; Wahl, Jack E.

    2006-01-01

    The value at risk measure attempts to summarize in a single number market value risk of a portfolio of financial assets.The paper focuses on the interaction between the solvency probability of a bank, on one hand, and the diversification potential of its portfolio, on the other hand, when optimum endowment of equity capital is to be determined. Given the necessity to achieve some confidence level of solvency we demonstrate that diversification pays when optimizing the use of the equity resource.

  17. Audit Sampling Microfinance Portfolio-at-Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Schreiner

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a statistical sample design to measure portfolio- at-risk in microfinance. It applies the design to the microfinance portfolio of Banco do Nordeste in Brazil. Statistical audit sampling requires no special knowledge of statistics and is useful for due- diligence inspections by possible creditors, possible owners, or in preparation for the possible securitization of a portfolio. The sample design here stratifies by branch and by loan officer because errors in the record of...

  18. Diabetic Osteopathy: Who is at Risk?

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİR, Serap

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of osteopathy in diabetic patients, who are at risk of developing osteopathy, and clarify the relationship between osteopathy and other complications of diabetes mellitus. Thirty-four type I and 66 type II diabetic patients admitted to the endocrinology clinic between 1996 and 1997 and 30 nondiabetic subjects as a control group were studied. Bone scintigraphy (Tc 99m methylene diphosphonate) was used for the diagnosis of osteopathy. The body...

  19. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Moogala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. Results: In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Conclusion: Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement.

  20. Art Therapy Programs with At-Risk Students in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varallo, Patrick A.

    2012-01-01

    Educating and meeting the multiple needs of students at risk of low academic achievement has been a growing concern for public schools in the United States. Many at-risk students require alternative school-based interventions. This study examined the operation, premise, and objectives of art therapy integrated in 14 school districts across the…

  1. At-Risk Students' Perceptions of Traditional Schools and a Solution-Focused Public Alternative School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana-Riordan, Christine; Aguilar, Jemel P.; Franklin, Cynthia; Streeter, Calvin L.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Hopson, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent trends in education have drawn attention to students at risk of school failure and dropout in the United States. Alternative schools are one method for preventing the severe and long-lasting consequences of underachievement and dropout. Few research studies have sought the opinions and perceptions of the at-risk students who attend…

  2. Effects of Exercise in Immersive Virtual Environments on Cortical Neural Oscillations and Mental State

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Vogt; Rainer Herpers; Askew, Christopher D.; David Scherfgen; Strüder, Heiko K.; Stefan Schneider

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality environments are increasingly being used to encourage individuals to exercise more regularly, including as part of treatment those with mental health or neurological disorders. The success of virtual environments likely depends on whether a sense of presence can be established, where participants become fully immersed in the virtual environment. Exposure to virtual environments is associated with physiological responses, including cortical activation changes. Whether the addit...

  3. Discrimination and Mental Health Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bostwick, Wendy B.; Boyd, Carol J.; HUGHES, TONDA L.; West, Brady

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities among sexual minority groups, particularly mental health disparities, are well-documented. Numerous studies have demonstrated heightened prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual groups as compared to heterosexuals. Some authors posit that these disparities are the result of the stress that prejudice and perceived discrimination can cause. The current study extends previous research by examining the associations between multiple types o...

  4. A review of translations and adaptations of the Mini-Mental State Examination in languages other than English and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steis, Melinda R; Schrauf, Robert W

    2009-07-01

    This article provides a systematic review of linguistically and culturally adapted versions (translations) of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in languages other than English and Spanish. Adapted versions were found via database search (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts). Source information (where available) is provided for each instrument. To facilitate comparison of the instruments, we developed an assessment framework that provides an organizational structure for the assessment of the quality of translation (linguistic and cultural), psychometric properties, educational considerations, and quality of field testing. The search resulted in 20 articles reporting on 15 language versions of the MMSE. PMID:20078011

  5. Risk Factors for Possible Dementia Using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Xiao, Shifu; Rahardjo, Tri Budi; Hogervorst, Eef

    2015-01-01

    Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM) in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of subjective memory complaints (SMC) were significantly predictive of DEM. The presence of ≥3 out of four of the above mentioned risk factors can effectively discriminate DEM cases from non-DEM subjects. PMID:26854166

  6. Exploratory case study of students' main explanatory approaches to science concepts and their states of mental engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicdao-Quita, Maria Isabel T.

    This study explored students' dominant ways of operating in science; the types of structuring that is evident, not in terms of ideas, but in terms of how the students think about, imagine, and relate to the physical processes. As the study progressed, the investigation of the students' ideas went beyond their prior knowledge; other significant dimensions emerged as these students interacted with the heating process. The students demonstrated rich and dynamic pictures of the heating process, and from these images, a larger picture of the mental entities and processes dominant in their understanding of the physical phenomenon. Four Filipino students studying in the United States were individually observed in their science classes, were visited at home, and were interviewed about water being heated. The analysis of each student's data led to the two constructs, the main explanatory approach and the students' states of mental engagement (SOME), while the student was cognitively and affectively connected with the phenomenon. The features of the main explanatory approach include an explanatory element and an affective element that pervade the students' thinking about the phenomenon. It is common to and dominant in students' thinking across time. It is the approach of the student taken as a holistic organization within the student when he or she starts dealing with the phenomenon. One of the assumptions behind dealing with the main explanatory approach is that it is much more connected with what kind of person the student is and with the state of mental engagement (SOME) the student is in. SOME refers to the personal energy of a student as he or she relates to and becomes involved with the physical process--there is absorption into the object of study. SOME is related to energizing the main explanatory approach. The interconnectedness of these two constructs can be viewed as a different level of abstraction or interpretation of the students' ways of thinking about the

  7. Differentiated approach to improving the mental and physical state freshmen higher education sector as a problem of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukavenko A.V.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The state issues related to implementation of the differentiated and individual approach to first-year institutions of higher learning in the process of improving their mental and physical state of the means of physical education. Analysis of scientific literature revealed that such a state of the vast majority of students below this, and adaptation to the training activities carried out by the irrational. In this connection it is necessary to improve student performance marked by using one of the most effective means - exercise, and taking into account their interests, needs, motives. One solution to this problem is the differentiation of the content of exercise on the basis of features, which are characterized by the representatives of different somatotype. At the same time, research in this area are rare, hence the need to address this problem.

  8. Estimation of value at risk and conditional value at risk using normal mixture distributions model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzzaman, Zetty Ain; Isa, Zaidi

    2013-04-01

    Normal mixture distributions model has been successfully applied in financial time series analysis. In this paper, we estimate the return distribution, value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR) for monthly and weekly rates of returns for FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (FBMKLCI) from July 1990 until July 2010 using the two component univariate normal mixture distributions model. First, we present the application of normal mixture distributions model in empirical finance where we fit our real data. Second, we present the application of normal mixture distributions model in risk analysis where we apply the normal mixture distributions model to evaluate the value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR) with model validation for both risk measures. The empirical results provide evidence that using the two components normal mixture distributions model can fit the data well and can perform better in estimating value at risk (VaR) and conditional value at risk (CVaR) where it can capture the stylized facts of non-normality and leptokurtosis in returns distribution.

  9. Safe spaces for youth "At Risk"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Kromann; Wistoft, Karen

    The paper will discuss how farm based empowerment programs directed at youth "at risk" through the construction of "safe spaces" around farming, cooking and different workshops, and with a critical approach to the food system can provide a framework for transformative learning. Data in the research...... learning, democratic participation and citizenship education through farming and gardening. Keywords: Food Systems, Transformative Learning, Youth Empowerment Stream: Food Policies, Politics and Cultures Presentation Type: Paper Presentation in a Themed Session in English Paper: A paper has not yet been...... submitted...

  10. Banking Firm, Equity and Value at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Broll

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the interaction between the solvency probability of a banking firm and the diversification potential of its asset portfolio when determining optimal equity capital. The purpose of this paper is to incorporate value at risk (VaR into the firm-theoretical model of a banking firm facing the risk of asset return. Given the necessity to achieve a confidence level for solvency, we demonstrate that diversification reduces the amount of equity. Notably, the VaR concept excludes a separation of equity policy and asset-liability management.

  11. Scaling up evidence-based practices for children and families in New York State: toward evidence-based policies on implementation for state mental health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Olin, S Serene; Horwitz, Sarah; McKay, Mary; Cleek, Andrew; Gleacher, Alissa; Lewandowski, Eric; Nadeem, Erum; Acri, Mary; Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Kuppinger, Anne; Burton, Geraldine; Weiss, Dara; Frank, Samantha; Finnerty, Molly; Bradbury, Donna M; Woodlock, Kristin M; Hogan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Dissemination of innovations is widely considered the sine qua non for system improvement. At least two dozen states are rolling out evidence-based mental health practices targeted at children and families using trainings, consultations, webinars, and learning collaboratives to improve quality and outcomes. In New York State (NYS) a group of researchers, policymakers, providers, and family support specialists have worked in partnership since 2002 to redesign and evaluate the children's mental health system. Five system strategies driven by empirically based practices and organized within a state-supported infrastructure have been used in the child and family service system with more than 2,000 providers: (a) business practices, (b) use of health information technologies in quality improvement, (c) specific clinical interventions targeted at common childhood disorders, (d) parent activation, and (e) quality indicator development. The NYS system has provided a laboratory for naturalistic experiments. We describe these initiatives, key findings and challenges, lessons learned for scaling, and implications for creating evidence-based implementation policies in state systems. PMID:24460518

  12. Fiscal Equity for At-Risk Students A Quanitative Analysis of the At-Risk Index Component of the New Mexico Public School Funding Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Rebecca Grace

    2005-01-01

    This quantitative research has been designed to investigate fiscal equity for at-risk students in the State of New Mexico. This empirical data analysis compared equity indices before the At-Risk Index was implemented in the New Mexico public school funding formula in FY 1996-97 and after the At-Risk Index was included for FY 1997-98. Formula options based on the premise of vertical equity were reviewed. This research was selected as the 2001 New Scholars Program Award sponsored by the America...

  13. Quantile uncertainty and value-at-risk model risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Carol; Sarabia, José María

    2012-08-01

    This article develops a methodology for quantifying model risk in quantile risk estimates. The application of quantile estimates to risk assessment has become common practice in many disciplines, including hydrology, climate change, statistical process control, insurance and actuarial science, and the uncertainty surrounding these estimates has long been recognized. Our work is particularly important in finance, where quantile estimates (called Value-at-Risk) have been the cornerstone of banking risk management since the mid 1980s. A recent amendment to the Basel II Accord recommends additional market risk capital to cover all sources of "model risk" in the estimation of these quantiles. We provide a novel and elegant framework whereby quantile estimates are adjusted for model risk, relative to a benchmark which represents the state of knowledge of the authority that is responsible for model risk. A simulation experiment in which the degree of model risk is controlled illustrates how to quantify Value-at-Risk model risk and compute the required regulatory capital add-on for banks. An empirical example based on real data shows how the methodology can be put into practice, using only two time series (daily Value-at-Risk and daily profit and loss) from a large bank. We conclude with a discussion of potential applications to nonfinancial risks. PMID:22594633

  14. Estimated mental retardation and school dropout in a sample of students from state public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tramontina Silzá

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between estimated Mental Retardation (MR and school dropout in a sample of students of the third and fourth grades at state schools in Porto Alegre, the capital of the southernmost state of Brazil. METHOD: In this case - control study, students that dropped out from schools (n=44 and a control group who continued attending schools (n=44 had their intelligence quotient (IQ determined by the vocabulary and cubes subtests of the Wescheler Intelligence Scale fraction three-quarters third edition (WISCfraction three-quartersIII. Students with IQ lower than 70 were considered as potential cases of MR. Other prevalent mental disorders in this age range were assessed in both groups using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Schoolfraction three-quarters Age Children, Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E. RESULTS: The prevalence of potential MR was significantly higher in the dropped out group than in the control group (p<0.001. Odds ratio for school dropout was significantly higher in the presence of MR even after controlling for potentially confounding factors (age, conduct disorder, grade repetition, family structure and income (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Children with IQ lower than 70 (potential MR were at higher risk for school dropout. These children need to be identified at school and specific educational strategies should be implemented to assure their inclusion in the learning process.

  15. The impact of familism on physical and mental health among Hispanics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiria Perez, Giselle; Cruess, Dean

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly expanding number of Hispanics living in USA has increased the need for their inclusion in research on physical and mental health. Current studies that have explored health outcomes among Hispanics have often noted an 'epidemiological paradox', in which there is a discrepancy between their minority status and positive health outcomes when compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Certain socio-cultural variables, in particular the value placed on family, have been largely implicated in these findings. This review will provide a summary of the literature exploring familism within the structure of the Hispanic family and its potential impact on health. We will focus on research exploring the plausible impact that family and familism values may have on the physical health (particularly within the HIV, diabetes, and breast cancer literature) and also on health behaviours of Hispanics, as well as its effect on mental health (particularly related to acculturative stress and caregiver stress). Throughout the review, we highlight some of the potential mechanisms by which familism may impact on the health status of Hispanics. We conclude the review by noting some of the clinical and ethical implications of this research, and by offering suggestions for future work in this area. PMID:25053010

  16. The influence of several changes in atmospheric states over semi-arid areas on the incidence of mental health disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackerson, Naomy S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Todder, Doron; Kaplan, Zeev

    2011-05-01

    The incidence of suicide attempts [Deliberate Self Harm (DSH); ICD-10: X60-X84] and psychotic attacks (PsA; ICD-10, F20-F29) in association with atmospheric states, typical for areas close to big deserts, was analyzed. A retrospective study is based on the 4,325 cases of DSH and PsA registered in the Mental Health Center (MHC) of Ben-Gurion University (Be'er-Sheva, Israel) during 2001-2003. Pearson and Spearman test correlations were used; the statistical significance was tested at p 0.1). Correlation coefficients between N SU and N PS and speed WS of westerly wind reaches 0.3 ( p 0.09). Variations in easterly wind direction WD influence N SU and N PS values ( p 0.3). Obviously ,in transition areas located between different regions ,the main role of air streams in meteorological-biological impact can scarcely be exaggerated. An unstable balance in the internal state of a weather-sensitive person is disturbed when the atmospheric state is changed by specific desert winds, which can provoke significant perturbations in meteorological parameters. Results indicate the importance of wind direction, defining mainly the atmospheric situation in semi-arid areas: changes in direction of the easterly wind influence N SU and N PS , while changes in WS are important for mental health under westerly air streams. Obviously, N SU and N PS are more affected by the disturbance of weather from its normal state, for a given season, to which the local population is accustomed, than by absolute values of meteorological parameters.

  17. Associations among Family Environment, Attention, and School Readiness for At-Risk Children

    OpenAIRE

    Razza, Rachel A.; Anne Martin; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the developmental pathways from children’s family environment to school readiness within an at-risk sample (N = 1,701). Measures of the family environment (maternal parenting behaviors and maternal mental health) across early childhood were related to children’s observed sustained attention as well as to academic and behavioral outcomes at age 5 years. Results suggest specificity in the associations among attention and its correlates. Maternal parenting behaviors but not m...

  18. Mental health of returnees: refugees in Germany prior to their state-sponsored repatriation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many refugees live for years in exile. The combination of stress in the host country, together with long-term effects resulting from traumatic stress usually experienced in the home country may affect mental health. Little is known, to what extent these and other factors promote or stall the willingness to return to the country of origin. Here, we investigate, as an example, refugees who will return to their country of origin after having lived in exile in Germany for some 11 years. Objective What is the mental health status of returnees before the actual return who have been living in exile for an extended period? We also asked, what are the current living conditions in Germany and what are the motives for and reasons against a voluntary return to the country of origin? Methods Forty-seven participants of programs for assisted voluntarreturn were interviewed about their present living situation, their view regarding their home country and voluntary return. These findings were compared to a group of 53 refugees who had decided to remain in Germany (stayers. Participants were recruited by means of advertisements posted in refugee centres, language schools, at doctors' offices and in organisations involved in the management of voluntary return in Germany. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among respondents was tested using the structured interview M.I.N.I. The Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS was used to assess PTSD in more detail and EUROHIS was applied to measure the subjective quality of life of participants. Results We found a prevalence rate of 44% psychiatric disorders in the group of returnees and a rate of 78% in the group of stayers. We also recorded substantial correlations between the living situation in Germany, disposition to return and mental health. In almost two thirds of the participants the decision to return was not voluntary but strongly influenced by immigration authorities. The most

  19. California's Vulnerability to Volcanic Hazards: What's at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, M.; Wood, N. J.; Dinitz, L.

    2015-12-01

    California is a leader in comprehensive planning for devastating earthquakes, landslides, floods, and tsunamis. Far less attention, however, has focused on the potentially devastating impact of volcanic eruptions, despite the fact that they occur in the State about as frequently as the largest earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault Zone. At least 10 eruptions have occurred in the past 1,000 years—most recently in northern California (Lassen Peak 1914 to 1917)—and future volcanic eruptions are inevitable. The likelihood of renewed volcanism in California is about one in a few hundred to one in a few thousand annually. Eight young volcanoes, ranked as Moderate to Very High Threat [1] are dispersed throughout the State. Partially molten rock (magma) resides beneath at least seven of these—Medicine Lake Volcano, Mount Shasta, Lassen Volcanic Center, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, Long Valley Volcanic Region, Coso Volcanic Field, and Salton Buttes— causing earthquakes, toxic gas emissions, hydrothermal activity, and (or) ground deformation. Understanding the hazards and identifying what is at risk are the first steps in building community resilience to volcanic disasters. This study, prepared in collaboration with the State of California Governor's Office of Emergency Management and the California Geological Survey, provides a broad perspective on the State's exposure to volcano hazards by integrating mapped volcano hazard zones with geospatial data on at-risk populations, infrastructure, and resources. The study reveals that ~ 16 million acres fall within California's volcano hazard zones, along with ~ 190 thousand permanent and 22 million transitory populations. Additionally, far-field disruption to key water delivery systems, agriculture, utilities, and air traffic is likely. Further site- and sector-specific analyses will lead to improved hazard mitigation efforts and more effective disaster response and recovery. [1] "Volcanic Threat and Monitoring Capabilities

  20. Processing deficits in monitoring analog and digital displays: Implications for attentional theory and mental-state estimation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, David G.; Gunther, Virginia A. L.

    1988-01-01

    Subjects performed short term memory tasks, involving both spatial and verbal components, and a visual monitoring task involving either analog or digital display formats. These two tasks (memory vs. monitoring) were performed both singly and in conjunction. Contrary to expectations derived from multiple resource theories of attentional processes, there was no evidence that when the two tasks involved the same cognitive codes (i.e., either both spatial or both verbal/linguistics) there was more of a dual task performance decrement than when the two tasks employed different cognitive codes/processes. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for theories of attentional processes and also for research in mental state estimation.

  1. Relationship between weak central coherence and mental states understanding in children with Autism and in children with ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Filippello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The central coherence involves the processes of perceptual coding and attention mechanisms, highly deficient in children with ADHD (Booth & Happé, 2010. According to this theory, also children with autism are overly focused on details to the expense of a global perspective, and this negatively affects their ability to integrate environmental stimuli into a coherent whole (Happé, Booth, Charlton, Hughes, 2006. The aim of this study was to determine differences in central coherence of children with high functioning autism (ASD; n=10, children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=10 and typically developing peers (n=10. Individuals with ADHD exhibit significant deficits in perceptual skills and problem solving, failing also in mental states understanding tasks. While the children with autism spectrum disorder show impairments in making pragmatic inferences. Future research should therefore concentrate on the investigation of the cognitive and psychological mechanisms underlying these effects.

  2. Risk Factors for Possible Dementia Using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of <19 and a MMSE cut-off score of <24, a total of 69 DEM cases were identified. Risk factors, such as advanced age (≥68 years, low education (no or primary level, self-reported history of hypertension, and self-reported subjective memory complaints (SMC were significantly predictive of DEM. The presence of ≥3 out of four of the above mentioned risk factors can effectively discriminate DEM cases from non-DEM subjects.

  3. The organizational social context of mental health services and clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice: a United States national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarons Gregory A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based practices have not been routinely adopted in community mental health organizations despite the support of scientific evidence and in some cases even legislative or regulatory action. We examined the association of clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice with organizational culture, climate, and other characteristics in a nationally representative sample of mental health organizations in the United States. Methods In-person, group-administered surveys were conducted with a sample of 1,112 mental health service providers in a nationwide sample of 100 mental health service institutions in 26 states in the United States. The study examines these associations with a two-level Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM analysis of responses to the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS at the individual clinician level as a function of the Organizational Social Context (OSC measure at the organizational level, controlling for other organization and clinician characteristics. Results We found that more proficient organizational cultures and more engaged and less stressful organizational climates were associated with positive clinician attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practice. Conclusions The findings suggest that organizational intervention strategies for improving the organizational social context of mental health services may contribute to the success of evidence-based practice dissemination and implementation efforts by influencing clinician attitudes.

  4. Promotion of mental health in children of parents with a mental disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Verrocchio; Alessandra Ambrosini; Mario Fulcheri

    2013-01-01

    Mental disorders are associated with many difficulties in the activities of daily living, work, relationships and family, and they determine high social and economic costs that represent an important public health problem. The literature has shown that children of parents with mental disorders grow up in environments that are potentially harmful to their mental health and are at risk of neglect and maltreatment. Interventions to prevent mental disorders and psychological symptoms of children ...

  5. Beyond Trauma: Post-resettlement Factors and Mental Health Outcomes Among Latino and Asian Refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Isok

    2016-08-01

    War-related traumas impact refugees' mental health. Recent literature suggests that structural and sociocultural factors related to the resettlement also become critical in shaping refugees' mental health. So far, there is limited empirical evidence to support this claim among resettled refugees. Resettlement contextual factors that influence mental health outcomes were examined using Latino and Asian refugees (n = 656) from a nationally representative survey. Linear and logistic regressions predicted factors associated with the study's outcomes (self-reported mental health, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders). Post-resettlement traumas were significantly associated with mental health outcomes, but pre-resettlement traumas were not. Unemployment, everyday discrimination, and limited English were significantly associated with mental health outcomes among both Latino and Asian refugees. The outcomes indicate that resettlement contextual factors have a significant association with refugees' mental health. Therefore, future studies with refugees must pay closer attention to structural and sociocultural factors after resettlement. PMID:26169507

  6. Stigma and suicidal ideation among young people at risk of psychosis after one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziyan; Mayer, Benjamin; Müller, Mario; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Dvorsky, Diane; Metzler, Sibylle; Oexle, Nathalie; Walitza, Susanne; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2016-09-30

    Suicidality is common among individuals at risk of psychosis. Emerging findings suggest that mental illness stigma contributes to suicidality. However, it is unclear whether stigma variables are associated with suicidality among young people at risk of psychosis. This longitudinal study assessed perceived public stigma and the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor (stigma stress) as predictors of suicidal ideation among individuals at risk of psychosis over the period of one year. One hundred and seventy-two participants between 13 and 35 years of age were included who were at high or ultra-high risk of psychosis or at risk of bipolar disorder. At one-year follow-up, data were available from 73 completers. In multiple logistic regressions an increase of stigma stress (but not of perceived stigma) over one year was significantly associated with suicidal ideation at one-year follow-up, controlling for age, gender, symptoms, comorbid depression and suicidal ideation at baseline. Interventions to reduce public stigma and stigma stress could therefore improve suicide prevention among young people at risk of psychosis. PMID:27419651

  7. Comparing complete and partial classification for identifying customers at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Brijs, T.; Vanhoof, K.; Swinnen, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates complete versus partial classification for the problem of identifying customers at risk. We define customers at risk as customers reporting overall satisfaction, but these customers also possess characteristics that are strongly associated with dissatisfied customers. This defin

  8. Communal Riots in Gujarat: The State at Risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffrelot, Christophe

    2003-01-01

    Violence between Hindus and Muslims is a structural given of Indian society. One finds its traces very early in the country’s history, a fact that can drive the analyst to explain the phenomenon by referring to the incompatibility of Hindu and Muslim cultures. However, those historians interested in the phenomenon have always emphasized the economic dimension of the rivalry between Hindus and Muslims, which springs from territorial conflicts or commercial competition. Among sociologists and p...

  9. Sociocultural approaches to trajectories of youth at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Sociocultural approaches to children and youth at risk are lacking. This paper presentation uses the notion of recognition and trajectory of participation in order to explain the participation of youth at risk while at residential care......Sociocultural approaches to children and youth at risk are lacking. This paper presentation uses the notion of recognition and trajectory of participation in order to explain the participation of youth at risk while at residential care...

  10. Arrests, Recent Life Circumstances, and Recurrent Job Loss for At-Risk Young Men: An Event-History Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data from 202 at-risk young men to examine effects of arrests, prior risk factors, and recent life circumstances on job loss across a 7-year period in early adulthood. Repeated failure-time continuous event-history analysis indicated that occurrence of job loss was primarily related to prior mental health problems,…

  11. Neural correlate of the projection of mental states on the not-structured visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Massimiliano; Cecchini, Marco; Altavilla, Daniela; Palumbo, Letizia; Aceto, Paola; Ruggeri, Giuseppe; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Lai, Carlo

    2014-06-24

    Projection is a spontaneous and complex mental activity responsible for the subjective meaning attribution. The hypotheses of this study were that the neural correlate of projection may involve frontal, parietal, and temporal brain areas, and that alexithymia may be negatively associated with intensities in limbic and paralimbic areas during projection. EEG data were recorded continuously at 250 Hz using NetStation 4.5.1 with 256-channels HydroCel Geodesic Sensor Net in 20 healthy subjects during the presentation of structured and not-structured visual stimuli. The tasks were paying attention to the stimuli and thinking about the possible meaning of each image. Event related potential (ERP) components and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLoreta) were analyzed. Participants were administered the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale before stimulus presentation. Source analyses (sLORETA) showed a greater activated source in the left primary somatosensory cortex (BA1) compared to all the others BA in both conditions through all the ERP components. An involvement of the frontal (right-BA4, left- and right-BA9, left-BA11) and parietal (left and right-BA2 and left-BA7) areas was found in projective response to not-structured visual stimuli. Alexithymia levels were negatively correlated with the anterior (right-BA32) and posterior (left-BA29) cingulate cortex. Findings show the relevance of fronto-parieto circuits during projection, where the internally generating somatosensory representations could drive an intermodal meaning attribution during the task. Moreover, high alexithymia levels were associated with a reduced activation of the cingulated cortex. PMID:24831184

  12. Leadership Strategies Used to Equitably Educate At-Risk Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Jacqueline Smith

    2012-01-01

    Trying to adequately and equally educate the at-risk populace has been and is still a challenge for school administrators and teachers. Students considered at-risk of academic failure is of overwhelming concern to educators who are accountable for ensuring the academic success of the at-risk populace. Considerable interests of educators connect…

  13. Predictors of Unsafe Sex among At-Risk Heterosexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elifson, Kirk W; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E

    2010-12-01

    Despite widespread intervention efforts to curtail the spread of HIV, heterosexual transmission of HIV continues to drive the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States, especially among women. Research has shown that knowledge about HIV and AIDS is relatively great, even among persons who engage in high rates of risky sexual behaviors. This begs the question: What characteristics underlie and are predictive of involvement in unprotected sex? The objective of this paper is to examine the factors that are associated with engaging in unprotected sex in a population of urban, at-risk, heterosexually-active women. Conceptually, the research is guided by the notion of understanding risk and, theoretically, by the Theory of Gender and Power. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with 178 sexually active adult at-risk heterosexual women in Atlanta, Georgia. Street outreach efforts were used to identify potential study participants, and ethnographic mapping and targeted sampling procedures guided the recruitment process. Using a multivariate path analysis approach, three factors-marital status, having two drug-abusing parents, and negative attitudes toward condom use-were identified as predictors of unsafe sex. Further exploration of the latter measure yielded two factors that were statistically-significant multivariate predictors of attitudes toward using condoms: age and self-esteem level. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the fit of a risk-prediction model containing all of these measures, and it was shown to be supported quite strongly by the data. PMID:23626486

  14. Therapeutic product disposition in at-risk populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an emergency situation, such as a chemical, biological, radionuclide, nuclear or explosion (CBRNE) event, all patient populations are at increased risk of serious adverse events. Therapeutic product (TP) safety and efficacy depend on the disposition of the product through absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The ability of a patient to benefit from or merely tolerate a TP can be modified by many factors, including but not limited to culture, diet, disease, environmental contaminants, genetic predisposition, stress and socioeconomic status and recent life experiences. Metabolism is considered to have the greatest effect on safety and efficacy, as chemicals not metabolised can accumulate to toxic levels. Inter-individual variances in most drug metabolism enzymes may range up to greater than 1000-fold. The fetus, neonates, infants, individuals with hormonal change, infection or prior exposure to licit or illicit products and the elderly are more susceptible to increased risk of serious adverse health effects. The critically ill are the most at risk. The at-risk populations for a serious adverse event are dependent then on the CBRNE event, their physical and cognitive states and the inter-individual intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect TP disposition. (authors)

  15. Therapeutic product disposition in at-risk populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Brian C

    2009-06-01

    In an emergency situation, such as a chemical, biological, radionuclide, nuclear or explosion (CBRNE) event, all patient populations are at increased risk of serious adverse events. Therapeutic product (TP) safety and efficacy depend on the disposition of the product through absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The ability of a patient to benefit from or merely tolerate a TP can be modified by many factors, including but not limited to culture, diet, disease, environmental contaminants, genetic predisposition, stress and socioeconomic status and recent life experiences. Metabolism is considered to have the greatest effect on safety and efficacy, as chemicals not metabolised can accumulate to toxic levels. Inter-individual variances in most drug metabolism enzymes may range up to greater than 1000-fold. The fetus, neonates, infants, individuals with hormonal change, infection or prior exposure to licit or illicit products and the elderly are more susceptible to increased risk of serious adverse health effects. The critically ill are the most at risk. The at-risk populations for a serious adverse event are dependent then on the CBRNE event, their physical and cognitive states and the inter-individual intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect TP disposition. PMID:19423636

  16. Human rights and mental health among Latin American women in situations of state-sponsored violence. Bibliographic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykes, M B; Brabeck, M M; Ferns, T; Radan, A

    1993-12-01

    The Task Force of the American Psychological Association Division 35, Psychology of Women, conducted a literature review of resources from Latin America to examine the social dimensions of state-sponsored violence in Latin America, their effects on socialization and community, and some responses of women surviving these experiences. It limited its review to works of women's groups, progressive organizations, and individual women exploring the effects of war and state-sponsored violence on women's mental health. Recurring emergent themes included the false dichotomy of violence committed against women in public versus that committed in private, silencing of women accompanies state imposed terror, collective resistance to such terror. The resources addressed 3 types of women's experiences of violence: exile within and beyond one's national borders; torture--an extreme form of state-sponsored violence; and nontraditional, culturally appropriate interventions--alternatives to Western models. This review motivated the Task Force to call on their colleagues to contribute to the on-going documentation of state-sponsored violence. Task Force members identified several areas for collaborative research and/or theory development. Psychologists should question the validity of clinical neutrality and examine the particular meanings of non-neutrality within different cultures. For example, some Latin American psychologists reject diagnoses of intrapsychic syndromes (e.g., post-traumatic stress syndrome) and propose concepts that center on the nexus of individuals and social life. The Task Force sees great opportunities for US psychologists to network and to form solidarity-based relationships with Latin American women. It has identified many women's groups working in Latin America. Human rights organizations (e.g., Americas Watch) have formed women's projects. Further work should be done to improve resource exchanges. PMID:12288466

  17. Readers' Responses When Characters Act on Completed Goals: Impact of Characters' Mental States and Readers' Task Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jeffrey E.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that readers track the objective status of characters' goals (i.e., whether the goals have been completed). We suggest that readers also use characters' subjective representations--characters' mental states with respect to goals--to comprehend actions. We explored circumstances in which local information…

  18. Mental State Verb Production in the Oral Narratives of English- and Spanish-Speaking Preadolescents: An Exploratory Study of Lexical Diversity and Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuste-Herrmann, Belinda; Silliman, Elaine R.; Bahr, Ruth H.; Fasnacht, Kyna S.; Federico, Jeanne E.

    2006-01-01

    As a preface to future studies on language impairment in bilingual children, an exploratory analysis of lexical diversity and depth in the production of mental state verbs was conducted on the oral narratives of 9- and 11-year-old children who differed by language status. English-only (EO), bilingual (Spanish-English), and Spanish-only (SO)…

  19. Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Federal Agencies Could Play a Stronger Role in Helping States Reduce the Number of Children Placed Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Child welfare directors in 19 states and juvenile justice officials in 30 counties estimated that in fiscal year 2001 parents placed over 12,700 children into the child welfare or juvenile justice systems so that these children could receive mental health services. Neither the child welfare nor the juvenile justice system was designed to serve…

  20. The Effect of Bicycle Ergometer Exercise at Varying Intensities on the Heart Rate, EMG and Mood State Responses to a Mental Arithmetic Stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Colleen R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the effect of bicycle ergometer exercise at varying metabolic intensities upon the heart rate, electromyographic (EMG), and mood state responses to a timed mental arithmetric stressor of 12 adult males. Exercise influenced heart rate and EMG but not physiological and psychological responses to the arithmetic stressor.…

  1. Individual and Social Factors Related to Mental Health Concerns among Bisexual Men in the Midwestern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Reece, Michael; Martinez, Omar; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Research has not yet explored the potential impact of social stress, biphobia, and other factors on the mental health of bisexual men. In-depth interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 75 men who engaged in bisexual behavior within the past six months. Interviewers explored potential mental health stressors and supports. Many participants reported personal and social challenges associated with bisexuality, which in turn influenced their mental health. Reported instances of stigma to...

  2. Studies on the Mental Processes in Translation Memory-assisted Translation – the State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on the mental translation processes involved in translation memory-assisted translation. First, based on recent developments in cognitive science the article provides a working definition of mental TM research. Next the article analyses a selection of mental TM studies...... is needed which takes into account the recent developments within TM technology and looks into both internal and external translation processes....

  3. Telling the Story of Theory of Mind: Deaf and Hearing Children's Narratives and Mental State Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia P.

    2006-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) was examined in late-signing deaf children in two studies by using standard tests and measures of spontaneous talk about inner states of perception, affect and cognition during storytelling. In Study 1, there were 21 deaf children aged 6 to 11 years and 13 typical-hearing children matched with the deaf by chronological age. In…

  4. Cumulative Violence Exposure, Emotional Nonacceptance, and Mental Health Symptoms in a Community Sample of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sundermann, Jane M.; Chu, Ann T.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2013-01-01

    Women exposed to more types of violence (e.g., emotional, physical, or sexual violence) – referred to here as cumulative violence exposure – are at risk for more severe mental health symptoms compared to women who are exposed to a single type of violence or no violence. Women exposed to violence may also experience greater emotional nonacceptance compared to women with no exposure to violence. Emotional nonacceptance refers to an unwillingness to experience emotional states, including cogniti...

  5. Features of the mental state of patients with myocardial infarction at a sanatorium stage of rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putrov S.Yu.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available It is analysed the results of a research of psychological state defining of patients with myocardial infarction at a sanatorium stage of rehabilitation. It is identified a positive dynamics in the integrated application of means and methods of physical rehabilitation, and psychotherapeutic factors. The features of physical rehabilitation of patients are exposed by the heart attack of myocardium that is making program of rehabilitation on the sanatorium stage. It is certain that the program of physical rehabilitation is based on the complex of such measures as a morning hygienical gymnastics, medical gymnastics, medical dosed walking, training walking by steps.

  6. Classification model of arousal and valence mental states by EEG signals analysis and Brodmann correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Rodriguez Aguinaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology to perform emotional states classification by the analysis of EEG signals, wavelet decomposition and an electrode discrimination process, that associates electrodes of a 10/20 model to Brodmann regions and reduce computational burden. The classification process were performed by a Support Vector Machines Classification process, achieving a 81.46 percent of classification rate for a multi-class problem and the emotions modeling are based in an adjusted space from the Russell Arousal Valence Space and the Geneva model.

  7. Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR: a flow-like mental state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Barratt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response (ASMR is a previously unstudied sensory phenomenon, in which individuals experience a tingling, static-like sensation across the scalp, back of the neck and at times further areas in response to specific triggering audio and visual stimuli. This sensation is widely reported to be accompanied by feelings of relaxation and well-being. The current study identifies several common triggers used to achieve ASMR, including whispering, personal attention, crisp sounds and slow movements. Data obtained also illustrates temporary improvements in symptoms of depression and chronic pain in those who engage in ASMR. A high prevalence of synaesthesia (5.9% within the sample suggests a possible link between ASMR and synaesthesia, similar to that of misophonia. Links between number of effective triggers and heightened flow state suggest that flow may be necessary to achieve sensations associated with ASMR.

  8. [Economic restructuring and impacts on health and mental distress: the case of a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Sérgio; Pinheiro, Tarcísio Márcio Magalhães; Sakurai, Emília

    2007-12-01

    Restructuring of the Brazilian financial sector was consolidated through the combination of mass lay-offs, automation, and outsourcing, in addition to business re-engineering with leveling of hierarchical echelons, labor casualization, and multi-function jobs. In order to comply and deal with the new demands, bank employees had to increase their schooling, become multi-functional and expert sales attendants, and submit to substandard conditions in the workplace, increased workload, overtime, and low wages. The purpose of the current study was to examine the restructuring process in a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and its impacts on workers' health. The study also analyzes absenteeism rates from 1998 to 2003, when there was an increase in diseases such as repetitive stress injury (RSI)/work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD) and mental/behavioral disorders, accounting for 56% and 19% of sick leaves. The process has continued to the present, with a restrictive recruitment policy. Further study is needed to confirm the results. PMID:18157337

  9. The modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is more predictive of memory abilities than the Mini Mental State Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin; Tometich, Danielle; Dennett, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Although not as popular as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) has some distinct advantages when screening cognitive functioning in older adults. The current study compared these two cognitive screening measures in their ability to predict performance on a memory composite (i.e., delayed recall of verbal and visual information) in a cohort of 121 community-dwelling older adults, both at baseline and after one year. Both the MMSE and mTICS significantly correlated with the memory composite at baseline (r’s of 0.41 and 0.62, respectively) and one year (r’s of 0.36 and 0.50, respectively). At baseline, stepwise linear regression indicated that the mTICS and gender best predicted the memory composite score (R2=0.45, p<.001), and the MMSE and other demographic variables did not significantly improve the prediction. At one year, the results were very similar. Despite its lesser popularity, the mTICS may be a more attractive option when screening for cognitive abilities in this age range. PMID:25722349

  10. 'Yes' ifs, ands or buts: examining performance and correlates of the repetition task in the mini-mental state examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, P; Heinik, J; Lin, R; Bleich, A

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the type of sentence used in the repetition task included in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) affected performance in a group of 79 demented and 19 non-demented Hebrew-speaking elderly persons. The cognitive functioning of the participants was assessed using the MMSE and CAMCOG examinations. The performance of the repetition task was evaluated by using three sentences: the literal translation of the English language expression used in the original MMSE; a well-known Hebrew proverb consisting of monosyllabic words and rhythmic effects; and another well-known Hebrew proverb without such attributes. Only a third of the participants successfully repeated the literally translated expression. It showed low predictive value and was highly affected by education. The well-known Hebrew monosyllabic proverb showed moderate predictive value but no discriminatory ability. The other well-known Hebrew proverb performed the best. The translation of the repetition task in the MMSE to other languages is problematic. Strict adherence to the original language proved to be the least desirable choice. PMID:10479742

  11. O processo de trabalho do militar estadual e a saúde mental Working process of military police state officers and mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Maurivan Batista da Silva; Sarita Brazão Vieira

    2008-01-01

    A Polícia Militar está balizada em dois pilares fundamentais: a disciplina e a hierarquia. O que a faz uma organização complexa com feixes de interesses que obstam a capacidade de resistência à mudança. Identificar como essa organização se estrutura e, sobretudo, relacioná-la com a saúde mental é o objetivo deste artigo. Buscamos contextualizar as finalidades dos serviços de segurança pública via breve histórico da polícia estadual, sua divisão e aplicabilidade frente à violência cotidiana. A...

  12. Mentalizacja. Cz. 1: Wprowadzenie do zagadnienia, wymiary mentalizacji [Mentalization. Part 1: Introduction, dimensions of mentalization

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczyk, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a review of a construct of mentalization as it is developed by P. Fonagy and his collaborators. Mentalizing is the process of making sense of mental states in oneself and other persons in terms of subjective states (e.g. wishes, desires, beliefs) and mental processes. The concept of mentalization is rooted in the attachment theory and theory of mind (ToM). Mentalization is assessed by the measure of the reflective function.

  13. Mentalizacja. Cz. 1: Wprowadzenie do zagadnienia, wymiary mentalizacji [Mentalization. Part 1: Introduction, dimensions of mentalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczyk, Leszek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author presents a review of a construct of mentalization as it is developed by P. Fonagy and his collaborators. Mentalizing is the process of making sense of mental states in oneself and other persons in terms of subjective states (e.g. wishes, desires, beliefs and mental processes. The concept of mentalization is rooted in the attachment theory and theory of mind (ToM. Mentalization is assessed by the measure of the reflective function.

  14. Early maladaptive schema-related impairment and co-occurring current major depressive episode-related enhancement of mental state decoding ability in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoka, Zsolt Szabolcs; Fogd, Dóra; Seres, Imola; Kéri, Szabolcs; Csukly, Gábor

    2015-04-01

    Disturbed interpersonal relationships specific to borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest biased processing of social information. The goal of this study was to examine alterations in mental state decoding (MSD) and their associations with early maladaptive schemas (EMS) that may lead to the misinterpretation of incoming information. In addition, the authors' aim was to evaluate the effects of a co-occurring current major depressive episode (MDE) on the MSD performance of BPD patients. Seventy-eight BPD patients (34 with MDE) and 76 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed for Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the level of EMS. The authors found that impairment in the total RMET performance, as well as specific impairment regarding the recognition of positive and neutral items, was associated with EMS, and enhanced vigilance to negative mental states was characteristic to BPD with MDE. Results suggest that MSD ability is altered in two independent ways in BPD. PMID:24932871

  15. Political violence, psychosocial trauma, and the context of mental health services use among immigrant Latinos in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Lisa R.; Porche, Michelle V.; Alegria, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We present the prevalence of political violence (PV) of immigrant Latinos in the US, and perceived need for and correlates of mental health services use among this population. Methods We use the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), a nationally representative epidemiological survey of US Latinos, including a probability sample of 1630 immigrant Latinos. We use a conceptual framework that assumes a strong role of social and cultural factors in understanding the risk for psychopathology and mental health service use. Results Eleven percent of all immigrant Latinos reported PV exposure and 76% described additional lifetime traumas. Among those with a history of PV, an increased likelihood of using mental health services was associated with female gender, English language proficiency, experiencing personal assaults, higher perceived discrimination, and having an anxiety or substance disorder. Specific subgroups of Latinos, including men and Mexican immigrants, were less likely to access mental health services after experiencing PV. Perceived need for mental health services use is the strongest correlate of any lifetime and last 12 months service use. Conclusions The strong consequences of PV suggest the need for systematic screening and referral strategies. Specific outreach interventions focused on perceptions of need could be helpful for subgroups of Latinos including men who are particularly underrepresented in mental health services but who exhibit significant trauma histories. PMID:18850369

  16. Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, F; Ogston, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive.

  17. Children at risk in history : A story of expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Looking at children at risk in history, one of the most striking changes over time is the relative and absolute growth of the number of at-risk children. Although this is not a linear development, the need for intervention and prevention in the 1970s being much weaker than before and after that peri

  18. Freshman Transition for At-Risk Students: Living with HEART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Glade T.; Hirth, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study examines the impact of a freshmen transition program for at-risk students at a large urban high school. The overall experiences of the participants affirmed that transition programs for at-risk students must provide a sense of belonging, teachers must be able to build strong relationships with students, and life-skills…

  19. Strengthening At-Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Debra; Vaulton, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Initiative, funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, aims to improve the housing, health, and development of homeless and at-risk young families. This article describes the services provided in four program sites (Pomona, CA; Antelope Valley, CA; Minneapolis, MN; and Chicago, IL)…

  20. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  1. Perbandingan Akurasi Diagnostik Antara Cognitive Performance Scale Dan Mini Mental State Examination Terhadap General Practioner Assessment Of Cognition Untuk Menilai Fungsi Kognitif Pada Usia Lanjut

    OpenAIRE

    Sibarani, Rita Magda Helena

    2014-01-01

    Background : The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) (Folstein et al., 1975) is probably the most widely used screening measure of cognitive functioning. In the past, the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) corresponded closely with scores generated by the MMSE. However, no standard diagnostic accuracy study, comparing both CPS and MMSE with a gold standard, is yet available. Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the CPS and the MMSE for the detection of...

  2. On the Existence of Quantum Wave Function and Quantum Interference Effects in Mental States: An Experimental Confirmation during Perception and Cognition in Humans

    CERN Document Server

    Conte, Elio; Todarello, Orlando; Federici, Antonio; Zbilut, Joseph P

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the quantum theoretical formulation to determine a posteriori, if existing, the quantum wave functions and to estimate the quantum interference effects of mental states. Such quantum features are actually found in the case of an experiment involving the perception and the cognition in humans. Also some specific psychological variables are introduced and it is obtained that they characterize in a stringent manner the quantum behaviour of mind during such performed experiment.

  3. Altered transfer of momentary mental states (ATOMS as the basic unit of psychosis liability in interaction with environment and emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna T W Wigman

    Full Text Available Psychotic disorders are thought to represent altered neural function. However, research has failed to map diagnostic categories to alterations in neural networks. It is proposed that the basic unit of psychotic psychopathology is the moment-to-moment expression of subtle anomalous experiences of subclinical psychosis, and particularly its tendency to persist from moment-to-moment in daily life, under the influence of familial, environmental, emotional and cognitive factors.In a general population twin sample (n = 579 and in a study of patients with psychotic disorder (n = 57, their non-psychotic siblings (n = 59 and unrelated controls (n = 75, the experience sampling paradigm (ESM; repetitive, random sampling of momentary mental states and context was applied. We analysed, in a within-person prospective design, (i transfer of momentary anomalous experience at time point (t-1 to time point (t in daily life, and (ii moderating effects of negative affect, positive affect, daily stressors, IQ and childhood trauma. Additionally, (iii familial associations between persistence of momentary anomalous experience and psychotic symptomatology were investigated. Higher level of schizotypy in the twins (but not higher level of psychotic symptoms in patients predicted more persistence of momentary anomalous experience in daily life, both within subjects and across relatives. Persistence of momentary anomalous experience was highest in patients, intermediate in their siblings and lowest in controls. In both studies, persistence of momentary anomalous experience was moderated by higher levels of negative affect, daily stressors and childhood trauma (only in twins, and by lower levels of positive affect. The study of alterations in the moment-to-moment transfer of subtle anomalous experience of psychosis, resulting in their persistence, helps to explain why psychotic and emotional dysregulation tend to cluster in a single phenotype such as

  4. Inferences about mental states

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    Human social cognition relies on an ability to predict what others will think, feel or do in novel situations. Research in social neuroscience has consistently observed several brain regions that contribute ubiquitously to these abilities, including medial prefrontal cortex and aspects of lateral and medial parietal cortex. Interestingly, parallel work has suggested that this same network of regions subserves several seemingly distinct phenomena—notably, the abilities to remember the past, im...

  5. Mentalization based treatment for borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Mentalizing is the process by which we make sense of each other and ourselves, implicitly and explicitly, in terms of subjective states and mental processes. It is a profoundly social construct in the sense that we are attentive to the mental states of those we are with, physically or psychologically. Given the generality of this definition, most mental disorders will inevitably involve some difficulties with mentalization, but it is the application of the concept to the tre...

  6. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act ... handle stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  7. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  8. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  9. Histórias infantis: um recurso para a compreensão dos estados mentais Children's storybooks: a resource to the understanding of mental states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Cosenza Rodrigues

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo examinou uma amostra de 100 livros de histórias infantis nacionais para crianças pré-escolares de quatro a seis anos de idade quanto à ocorrência de termos/expressões referentes a estados mentais a partir de três eixos de análise: via palavras e expressões no texto; via figuras; e via presença de ironia e crença falsa na narrativa. A análise dos termos mentais foi realizada por um grupo de três avaliadores. Foi encontrado que 92% dos livros analisados apresentavam termos denotando estados mentais, 12% apresentavam ironia situacional, 11% continham crença falsa e que as figuras representavam o estado mental expresso no texto. Os resultados sugerem que os livros infantis nacionais podem ser utilizados como recurso para promover o desenvolvimento sociocognitivo das crianças.This study examined a sample of 100 national children's storybooks directed to pre-school children aged four to six years to identify words/utterances that denote mental states according to three views of analysis: via words and expressions in the text; via the pictures; and via presence of irony or false beliefs in the narrative. The analysis of mental words was realized by a group of tree people. It was found that 92% of the analyzed books contained internal state language, 12% contained situational irony, 11% contained false belief and the pictures represented the mental state concepts expressed in the text. The results point out that the national children's storybooks can be used as a resource to promote socio-cognitive development of clildren.

  10. Forecasting Value-at-Risk for Crude-Oil Exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben; Tsiaras, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values-at-Risk are c......The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values...

  11. Weight perceptions of parents with children at risk for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Eva M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes among African American, Latino American, and Native American children in the United States has led to increasing focus on strategies for prevention. However, little is known about the perceptions toward weight, nutrition, and physical activity among these youth. This pilot study explored the perceptions of body weight among overweight and obese children and their parents. Results Thirty eight children, ages 8-16 years who were enrolled in a diabetes prevention study were surveyed to assess their perception of their weight. Nearly all (84% of the children were obese. When asked whether they considered themselves to be overweight, African-American children were less likely to report that they were overweight than other children (33% vs. 80% of other children, p = 0.01. The parents of these children (n = 29 were also surveyed to assess their perception of their child's weight. The parents of two-thirds (65% of the children reported that the child was overweight, while the rest reported their child was underweight or the right weight. African-American parents were less likely to report that their child's weight was unhealthy compared to other parents (46% vs. 77%, p = 0.069. Conclusions This study's findings indicate that future intervention efforts should assess children's and parents' awareness of obesity and diabetes risk and these factors should be considered when developing prevention interventions for families with youth at risk for diabetes in underserved communities.

  12. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios C Tsikliras

    Full Text Available The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W, central (C and eastern (E Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS, with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures.

  13. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C; Dinouli, Anny; Tsiros, Vasileios-Zikos; Tsalkou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W), central (C) and eastern (E) Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS), with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures. PMID:25793975

  14. Substance Use Prevention among At-Risk Rural Youth: Piloting the Social Ecological "One Life" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Barnes, Jeremy T.; Holman, Thomas; Hunt, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Substance use among youth is a significant health concern in the rural United States, particularly among at-risk students. While evidence-based programs are available, literature suggests that an underdeveloped rural health prevention workforce often limits the adoption of such programs. Additionally, population-size restrictions of national…

  15. Mapping at-risk-of-poverty rates, household employment, and social spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Vandenbroucke; R. Diris

    2014-01-01

    As a first step stylized facts are presented concerning at-risk-of-poverty rates for the non-elderly population, household employment (a concept introduced in this chapter) and social spending in European welfare states. The chapter provides a first exploration of a central theme of the book, which

  16. Writing Performance of At-Risk Learners in Online Credit Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Online credit recovery is becoming a popular choice for students needing to recover lost graduation credit due to course failure. The problem is that high school students who take online credit recovery classes in order to gain writing credit for graduation are failing the writing section on the state merit exam (MME). At-risk students and…

  17. Learning Communities for University Students At-Risk of School Failure: Can They Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Terri J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of learning communities on the academic success of university students at-risk of academic failure. The effects of learning communities (LC) at Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) on cumulative GPAs, retention rates, and earned cumulative hours of students with ACT sub-scores of 17 or 18 in math who were…

  18. Improving Test-Taking Performance of Secondary At-Risk Youth and Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tachelle; Eaton, India

    2014-01-01

    Preparing at-risk youth and students with mild disabilities for state and district tests is important for improving their test performance, and basic instruction in test preparation can significantly improve student test performance. The article defines noncognitive variables that adversely affect test-taker performance. The article also describes…

  19. Investigation of the cerebral blood flow of an Omani man with supposed ‘spirit possession’ associated with an altered mental state : a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Azri Faisal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The view that spirits may possess humans is found in 90% of the world population, including Arab/Islamic societies. Despite the association between possessive states and various neurological and psychiatric disorders, the available literature has yet to correlate possessive states with functional brain imaging modalities such as single-photon-emission computed tomography. Case presentation This paper describes the clinical case of a 22-year-old male Omani patient who presented to us with an altered state of consciousness that his caregiver attributed to possession. We examined whether the patient's mental state correlated with neuro-imaging data. The patient's distress was invariably associated with specific perfusion in the left temporal lobe and structural abnormality in the left basal ganglia. Conclusion We discuss the case in the context of possession as a culturally sanctioned idiom of distress, and highlight the importance of studying cross-cultural presentations of altered states of consciousness within biomedical models.

  20. Mental health counseling in third-party reproduction in the United States: evaluation, psychoeducation, or ethical gatekeeping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Andrea Mechanick

    2015-09-01

    The role of mental health professionals (MHPs) in third-party reproduction has grown and evolved in service to patient care and the needs of medical infertility practices. The need for mental health evaluation and psychoeducation has increased as the psychosocial considerations for the stakeholders and families created through gamete donation and surrogacy are increasingly understood and considered. The conflicting definitions of these roles of evaluation and psychoeducation often leave MHPs in the role of de facto ethical gatekeepers in third-party reproduction. Both the medical team and the MHP need to clarify their role effectively, for themselves, as well as any intended parent. PMID:26171997

  1. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Clennin, Morgan N.; Payne, Jonathan P.W.; Rienzi, Edgardo G.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.; Sui, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in populations at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD. Methods Patient data records from 2002–2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed ...

  2. Who Is at Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis? Explore Deep Vein Thrombosis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  3. Value at Risk models for Energy Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis lies on description of Risk Management in context of Energy Trading. The paper will predominantly discuss Value at Risk and its modifications as a main overall indicator of Energy Risk.

  4. Evaluation models for contaminated sites – biological system at risk

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the different methods that can be used correspond to three types of approaches, testing, monitoring, and modeling: experimental models, in situ indicators and mathematical models, and choice of model for contaminated sites – biological system at risk.

  5. J-Educators Must Deal with "A Nation at Risk."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J. Robert

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that mass communication educators need to interpret the literacy called for in "A Nation at Risk" to include media literacy: responsible awareness of media effects, media criticism and ethics, nontraditional media technologies, and media issues and problems. (HTH)

  6. Who Is at Risk for a Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for a Heart Attack? Certain risk factors make it more likely that ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  7. [Perioperative disorders of mental functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonković, Dinko; Adam, Visnja Nesek; Kovacević, Marko; Bogović, Tajana Zah; Drvar, Zeljko; Baronica, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Mental disorders are characterized by disturbances of thought, perception, affect and behavior, which occur as a result of brain damage. Recognizing and treating these conditions is necessary not only for psychiatrists but for all physicians. Disorder of mental function is one of the most common associated conditions in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, disturbances of mental function often remain unrecognized. In ICU patients, different types of mental function disorders may develop. They range from sleep disorders, severe depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to cognitive disorders including delirium. The causes of mental dysfunction in ICU patients can be divided into environmental and medical. Cognitive disorders are related to mental processes such as learning ability, memory, perception and problem solving. Cognitive disorders are usually not prominent in the early postoperative period and in many cases are discovered after hospital discharge because of difficulties in performing everyday activities at home or at work. The etiology of postoperative cognitive impairment is unclear. Older age, previous presence of cognitive dysfunction, severity of disease, and polypharmacy with more than four drugs are some of the risk factors identified. Delirium is a multifactorial disorder. It is an acute confusional state characterized by alteration of consciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention. It is considered as the most common form of mental distress in ICU patients. Nearly 30% of all hospitalized patients pass through deliriant phase during their hospital stay. Delirium can last for several days to several weeks. Almost always it ends with complete withdrawal of psychopathological symptoms. Sometimes it can evolve into a chronic brain syndrome (dementia). The causes are often multifactorial and require a number of measures to ease the symptoms. Delirious patient is at risk of complications of immobility and

  8. Bullying at School--An Indicator of Adolescents at Risk for Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rimpela, Matti; Rantanen, Paivi; Rimpela, Arja

    2000-01-01

    Surveys Finnish adolescents about bullying and victimization in relations to psychosomatic symptoms, depression, anxiety, eating disorders and substance use. Anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic symptoms were most frequent among bully-victims and equally common among bullies and victims. Argues that bullying should be seen as an indicator of…

  9. Value at Risk: Implementing a Risk Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Marshall; Michael Siegel

    1996-01-01

    In the wake of recent failures of risk management, there has been a widespread call for improved quantification of the financial risks facing firms. At the forefront of this clamor has been Value at Risk. Previous research has identified differences in models, or Model Risk, as an important impediment to developing a Value at Risk standard. By contrast, this paper considers the divergence in a model's implementation in software and how it too, affects the establishment of a risk measurement s...

  10. The psychosocial characteristics of at-risk high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, G D; Parish, T S

    1992-01-01

    This study examined differences between high school students who were at risk for school failure and a control group of peers. Statistically significant differences were found with respect to locus of control, self-concept, and personal styles of learning. Implications focused upon approaches and suggestions regarding the use of such knowledge in facilitating improved adjustment and achievement in at-risk students. PMID:1621573

  11. ALTERNATIVE VALUE-AT-RISK MODELS FOR OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Lehar

    2000-01-01

    Risk management has become an important issue for banks and corporations, not only because of regulation but also because of risk adjusted performance measurement. Value-at-risk has become an industry standard in risk measurement. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of different value-at-risk models and find out the driving factors of model performance. While most previous studies focus on linear positions, this paper investigates the suitability of alternative approaches for...

  12. Mindfulness Based Programs Implemented with At-Risk Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlett, Kristen; Scrandis, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This review examines studies on mindfulness based programs used with adolescents at-risk for poor future outcomes such as not graduating from high school and living in poverty. Method: The keywords used include mindfulness, at-risk and adolescents in each database to search CINAHL (10 items: 2 book reviews, 3 Dissertations, and 5 research articles), Medline EBSCO (15 research articles), and PubMed (10 research articles). Only primary research articles published between 2009- 2015 i...

  13. Forecasting Value at Risk in Emerging Arab Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    C. Guermat; K. Hadri; C. C. Kucukozmen

    2003-01-01

    The economic and political instability of most of the Arab countries may lead to the assumption that Arab stock markets are riskier and less predictable than stock markets in developed countries. Value at Risk (VaR) measures risk exposure at a given probability level and is very important for risk management. In this paper extreme value theory with volatility updating is used to forecast Value at Risk in three emerging Arab stock markets and the US stock market. Several forecast accuracy crit...

  14. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies

  15. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.graham@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Barnett, Jon, E-mail: jbarn@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Fincher, Ruth, E-mail: r.fincher@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Hurlimann, Anna, E-mail: anna.hurlimann@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Architecture and Planning Building, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Mortreux, Colette, E-mail: colettem@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Waters, Elissa, E-mail: elissa.waters@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies.

  16. Copenhagen Infant Mental Health Project (CIMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; von Wowern, Rie Krondorf;

    Introduction: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and childhood stress has life-long consequences for the affected children. One in five Danish families is at risk of inadequate parenting resources and child neglect. There is a lack of knowledge on best...... practice in screening for and preventing adverse infant mental health risks. Aims: The overall aim of CIMHP is to test the feasibility of an infant mental health screening and indicated prevention system and its capacity to (1) detect children at risk of longer term mental health adversities and (2) alter...... these risks in a cost effective way in a general population. Methods: In a period of 20 months 8.800 mothers and infants in Copenhagen are screened (at 2, 4 and 8 months) using two standardized screening instruments: 1) Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) in detecting infant social withdrawal and 2) Edinburg...

  17. Comparison between equally weighted sukuk portfolio's value at risk and equally weighted turkish eurobond portfolio's value at risk

    OpenAIRE

    SEVİNÇ, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to determinate the differerence of value at risk between the bond issued according to islamic principal called Sukuk and the bond issued as a convencional aspect by Turkish Goverment. The market for sukuk has grown in recent years. Especially sukuk has overspread in Malaysia after appearing in the Middle East. According to this paper aims equally weighted portfolio has been created both from sukuk and Turkish goverment's eurobonds. Afterwards value at risk of those portfolio's...

  18. Performance of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in long-stay patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders in a psychiatric institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui Lin; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Wang, Peizhi; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Lee, Siau Pheng; Shafie, Saleha; Seow, Esmond; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-07-30

    Studies have found that age and education were associated with cognition in older adults. However, little is known how clinical factors (e.g. age of illness onset, length of hospital stay, type of antipsychotic medications, and duration of illness) are associated with cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to examine the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors on cognitive domains measured using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders residing in a psychiatric institute in Singapore. A single-phase interview was conducted at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH) in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (n=110). MMSE was administered to all participants. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, alcohol consumption, and medical history were collected. Age, gender, and level of education were significantly associated with MMSE scores. After adjusting for all socio-demographic correlates, longer length of hospital stay remained significant in predicting lower MMSE scores. Length of hospital stay was independently associated with cognitive functioning. Early interventions for cognition such as physical and mental exercises should be implemented for better prognosis. PMID:27203153

  19. Trauma history and psychopathology in war-affected refugee children referred for trauma-related mental health services in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Layne, Christopher M; Kim, Soeun; Steinberg, Alan M; Ellis, Heidi; Birman, Dina

    2012-12-01

    There is an increasing need to deliver effective mental health services to refugee children and adolescents across the United States; however, the evidence base needed to guide the design and delivery of services is nascent. We investigated the trauma history profiles, psychopathology, and associated behavioral and functional indicators among war-affected refugee children presenting for psychological treatment. From the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's Core Data Set, 60 war-affected refugee children were identified (51.7% males, mean age = 13.1 years, SD = 4.13). Clinical assessments indicated high rates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (30.4%), generalized anxiety (26.8%), somatization (26.8%), traumatic grief (21.4%), and general behavioral problems (21.4%). Exposure to war or political violence frequently co-occurred with forced displacement; traumatic loss; bereavement or separation; exposure to community violence; and exposure to domestic violence. Academic problems and behavioral difficulties were prevalent (53.6% and 44.6%, respectively); however, criminal activity, alcohol/drug use, and self-harm were rare (all mental health interventions for refugee children and adolescents. Given the difficulties associated with access to mental health services for refugees, both preventive and community-based interventions within family, school, and peer systems hold particular promise. PMID:23225034

  20. Integrating physical and mental health promotion strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Jessica Anne

    2010-01-01

    While health is defined as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’, physical and mental health have traditionally been separated. This paper explores the question: How can physical and mental health promotion strategies be integrated and addressed simultaneously? A literature review on why physical and mental health are separated and why these two areas need to be integrated was conducted. A conceptual framework for how to integrate physical and mental health promotion st...

  1. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon; Roh, Sungwon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods: This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organiza...

  2. The concise cognitive test for dementia screening: Reliability and effects of demographic variables as compared to the mini mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Srikanth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE is widely used for dementia screening but has several shortcomings such as prominent ceiling effects, inadequate sensitivity to mild cognitive impairment, and uneven sampling of the major cognitive domains. Aims: In this study, we pilot a new dementia screening test - the Concise Cognitive Test (CONCOG - designed to overcome the above short comings and describe the reliability measures and age, education, and gender effects. The CONCOG has a total score of 30, and has subtests for orientation, naming, registration, free recall and recognition of four words, semantic verbal fluency and copying. Patients and Methods: Participants were screened to exclude those with any neurological or psychiatric disease, simultaneously administered the CONCOG, and a Hybrid Mini Mental State Examination (HMMSE adapted from Folstein′s MMSE and Ganguli′s Hindi Mental State Examination. Results: The study sample had 204 subjects over the age of 60 years with a mean of 73 years and education level of 8 (4.5 years. Internal consistency for the CONCOG (Cronbach′s alpha was 0.74, inter-rater reliability (Kendall′s tau-b was 0.9, and the one-month test-retest reliability (Kendall′s tau-b was 0.7. Age and education level, but not gender, significantly influenced performance on both scales. Although the influence of age on the two scales was to a similar degree, the HMMSE was more affected by education than the CONCOG. Of 204 subjects, only 12 (5.7% subjects obtained the maximum score on the CONCOG compared with 30 (14.1% subjects on the HMMSE. The CONCOG took less than 10 minutes to complete in this sample. Age and education stratified norms are presented for the CONCOG. Conclusions: The CONCOG is a reliable cognitive screening measure. It has negligible ceiling effects, is less influenced by education compared with the HMMSE, and offers subscale scores for the major cognitive domains.

  3. Promotion of mental health in children of parents with a mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Verrocchio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mental disorders are associated with many difficulties in the activities of daily living, work, relationships and family, and they determine high social and economic costs that represent an important public health problem. The literature has shown that children of parents with mental disorders grow up in environments that are potentially harmful to their mental health and are at risk of neglect and maltreatment. Interventions to prevent mental disorders and psychological symptoms of children of parents with mental disorders are effective but supporting these families is a complex task which requires both cooperation between departments and an interdisciplinary knowledge. A greater knowledge of the responses provided to assist families with dependent children and a mentally ill parent, could stimulate reflections on critical issues and government actions aimed at promoting and protecting the mental health of children.

  4. Mimicking family like attributes to enable a state of personal recovery for persons with mental illness in institutional care settings

    OpenAIRE

    Gopikumar, Vandana; Easwaran, Kamala; Ravi, Mrinalini; Jude, Nirmal; Bunders, Joske

    2015-01-01

    Background The convergence between mental ill health and homelessness is well documented, but critical events that precipitate the downward spiral into homelessness, and promote personal recovery remain only partially explored in India. Aims To explore causative factors of the descent into homelessness, and gain insight into creative and innovative approaches that promote personal recovery, specifically in institutional care settings. Methods This qualitative study used focus group discussion...

  5. Mental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moreira

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The mental models subject is presented particularly in the light of Johnson-Laird’s theory. Views from different authors are also presented but the emphasis lies in Johson-Laird’s approach, proposing mental models as a third path in the images x propositions debate. In this perspective, the nature, content, and typology of mental models are discussed, as well as the issue of conciousness and computability. In addition, the methodology of research studies are provided. Essentially, the aim of the paper is to provide an introduction to the mental models topic, having science education research in mind.

  6. The Relationship of Level of Positive Mental Health with Current Mental Disorders in Predicting Suicidal Behavior and Academic Impairment in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Corey L. M.; Eisenberg, Daniel; Perry, Geraldine S.; Dube, Shanta R.; Kroenke, Kurt; Dhingra, Satvinder S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether level of positive mental health complements mental illness in predicting students at risk for suicidal behavior and impaired academic performance. Participants: A sample of 5,689 college students participated in the 2007 Healthy Minds Study and completed an Internet survey that included the Mental Health…

  7. Incident venous thromboembolic events in the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Ian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous thromboembolic events (VTE, including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are common in older age. It has been suggested that statins might reduce the risk of VTE however positive results from studies of middle aged subjects may not be generalisable to elderly people. We aimed to determine the effect of pravastatin on incident VTE in older people; we also studied the impact of clinical and plasma risk variables. Methods This study was an analysis of incident VTE using data from the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pravastatin in men and women aged 70-82. Mean follow-up was 3.2 years. Risk for VTE was examined in non-warfarin treated pravastatin (n = 2834 and placebo (n = 2865 patients using a Cox's proportional hazard model, and the impact of other risk factors assessed in a multivariate forward stepwise regression analysis. Baseline clinical characteristics, blood biochemistry and hematology variables, plasma levels of lipids and lipoproteins, and plasma markers of inflammation and adiposity were compared. Plasma markers of thrombosis and hemostasis were assessed in a nested case (n = 48 control (n = 93 study where the cohort was those participants, not on warfarin, for whom data were available. Results There were 28 definite cases (1.0% of incident VTE in the pravastatin group recipients and 20 cases (0.70% in placebo recipients. Pravastatin did not reduce VTE in PROSPER compared to placebo [unadjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval 1.42 (0.80, 2.52 p = 0.23]. Higher body mass index (BMI [1.09 (1.02, 1.15 p = 0.0075], country [Scotland vs Netherlands 4.26 (1.00, 18.21 p = 0.050 and Ireland vs Netherlands 6.16 (1.46, 26.00 p = 0.013], lower systolic blood pressure [1.35 (1.03, 1.75 p = 0.027] and lower baseline Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE score [1.19 (1.01, 1.41 p = 0.034] were associated with an

  8. The Starting Early Starting Smart Integrated Services Model: Improving Access to Behavioral Health Services in the Pediatric Health Care Setting for At-Risk Families with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E.; Mansoor, Elana; Hanson, K. Lori; Vogel, April L.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Genatossio, Carolyn Seval; Windham, Amy; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS) national initiative to integrate behavioral health services (parenting, mental health, and drug treatment) into the pediatric health care setting for families with young children. Data are presented from five pediatric care (PC) sites, drawing from families at risk due to demographic and…

  9. Does Parentification Place Mexican-Heritage Youth At Risk for Substance Use? Identifying the Intervening Nature of Parent-Child Communication about Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, YoungJu; Hecht, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Past research on parentification suggests that adopting adult responsibilities to the point at which the child plays a parental role places children at risk for poor mental and behavioral health outcomes. Since family relations are particularly important in Mexican culture, two hypotheses were posed to examine the indirect effects of…

  10. Mental activity during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Igino

    2002-08-01

    Since remote antiquity humankind has believed in the supernatural origin of dreaming. The scientific approach to mental activity during sleep dates back to the eighteenth century. One hundred years ago, psychoanalysis introduced dream analysis for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Only 50 years ago psychophysiology made it possible to collect mental sleep activity by means of experimental awakenings while monitoring physiological variables; this approach encouraged investigation into the relationship between the features of sleep activity and sleep state (REM versus NREM). Advances in neurophysiology, in neurochemistry, and recently in brain imaging techniques, have shed light on the roles played by the different cerebral structures in determining specific characteristics of mental activity during sleep. The development of cognitive psychology has enabled investigation of dream generation in terms of output from a complex multilevel system of information processing. In addition to sleep state, other factors, such as the time of the night and the sequence of the NREM-REM cycles, have been shown to influence the characteristics of mental activity. The usefulness of investigation of mental sleep activity as a clinical tool is controversial. The psychophysiological approach to mental sleep activity in clinical contexts has enabled the exploration of adaptation processes and contributed to neuropsychological studies on focal and systemic brain pathology. PMID:12531134

  11. Value at Risk application to FSD portfolio efficiency testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopa, Miloš

    Ostrava: VŠB-Technická univerzita Ostrava, Ekonomická fakulta, 2012, s. 320-325. ISBN 978-80-248-2835-0. [Managing and modeling of financial risks 2012. Ostrava (CZ), 10.09.2012-11.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Value at Risk * first order stochastic dominance * portfolio efficiency Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kopa-value at risk application to fsd portfolio efficiency testing.pdf

  12. On some models for value-at-risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, S.; Yu, PLH; Li, WK

    2010-01-01

    The idea of statistical learning can be applied in financial risk management. In recent years, value-at-risk (VaR) has become the standard tool for market risk measurement and management. For better VaR estimation, Engle and Manganelli (2004) introduced the conditional autoregressive value-at-risk (CAViaR) model to estimate the VaR directly by quantile regression. To entertain the nonlinearity and structural change in the VaR, we extend the CAViaR idea using two approaches: the threshold GARC...

  13. Mental Health and Students with Disabilities: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Julie M.; Jarvis, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Students with disabilities are at increased risk of experiencing mental health difficulties, but may not be recognised as an at-risk population in the design of school-based prevention and intervention efforts. Understanding the link between disability and mental health is important for school psychologists and guidance counsellors, teachers, and…

  14. Innovations in mental health services implementation: a report on state-level data from the U.S. Evidence-Based Practices Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnabosco Jennifer L

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Evidence-Based Practice (EBP Project has been investigating the implementation of evidence-based mental health practices (Assertive Community Treatment, Family Psychoeducation, Integrated Dual Diagnosis Treatment, Illness Management and Recovery, and Supported Employment in state public mental health systems in the United States since 2001. To date, Project findings have yielded valuable insights into implementation strategy characteristics and effectiveness. This paper reports results of an effort to identify and classify state-level implementation activities and strategies employed across the eight states participating in the Project. Methods Content analysis and Greenhalgh et al's (2004 definition of innovation were used to identify and classify state-level activities employed during three phases of EBP implementation: Pre-Implementation, Initial Implementation and Sustainability Planning. Activities were coded from site visit reports created from documents and notes from key informant interviews conducted during two periods, Fall 2002 – Spring 2003, and Spring 2004. Frequency counts and rank-order analyses were used to examine patterns of implementation activities and strategies employed across the three phases of implementation. Results One hundred and six discreet implementation activities and strategies were identified as innovative and were classified into five categories: 1 state infrastructure building and commitment, 2 stakeholder relationship building and communications, 3 financing, 4 continuous quality management, and 5 service delivery practices and training. Implementation activities from different categories were employed at different phases of implementation. Conclusion Insights into effective strategies for implementing EBPs in mental health and other health sectors require qualitative and quantitative research that seeks to: a empirically test the effects of tools and methods used to implement EBPs

  15. What a sentence can tell you about cognitive decline and mortality : an investigation using the sentence writing component of the Mini Mental State Exam and the 1921 Lothian Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Samantha

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated a number of aspects of written sentences and their relationship to overall cognitive ability and mortality. There were 197 subjects from the 1921 Lothian Birth cohort whom had sat a mental ability test at age 11 and a number of other tests relating to intelligence, health and cognitive ability, including the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) at a later testing in 1997 or later. Following McCarthy et al’s (2004) experiment, sentence length, polarity, l...

  16. Deficits in Mental State Attributions in Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome)

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Jennifer S.; Radoeva, Petya D.; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Chow, Carolyn; Hopkins, Jessica; Tran, Wen-Ching; Mehta, Ami; Enrique, Nicole; Gilbert, Chelsea; Antshel, Kevin M.; Fremont, Wanda; Kates, Wendy R.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) results from a genetic mutation that increases risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We compared Theory of Mind (ToM) skills in 63 individuals with VCFS (25% with an ASD diagnosis) and 43 typically-developing controls, and investigated the relationship of ToM to reciprocal social behavior. We administered a video-based task to assess mentalizing at two sites (UCLA and SUNY Upstate Medical University). The videos depicted interac...

  17. Suicide Interventions Targeted toward At-Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.; McCullars, Adrianne

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is currently the third leading cause of death among youth; it has been named a public health concern. A number of programs have been developed to prevent suicide; many of these involve intervening with youth who are known to be at-risk because of their depression, expressed suicide ideation, or previous suicide attempts. This paper serves…

  18. Overcoming Learned Helplessness in At-Risk Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Joan Develin; Hoffman, Dianne M.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a program for at-risk sixth grade students designed to address their learned helplessness and enable them to view themselves as competent, capable learners. Suggests using question response cues, double entry/response journals, and self-evaluation to give students some control over their learning. (RS)

  19. Reaching Out to Students at Risk of School Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Henry L.

    Representing a school-based intervention strategy, the plan presented within this document was designed to help build a student's self-concept and to provide positive interactions between a student having difficulty succeeding at school and school personnel. While the plan is not intended to be a recipe for success with at risk students, it does…

  20. Instructional Alternatives: Rescue Strategies for At-Risk Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wircenski, Jerry L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An instructional plan to rescue at-risk students must be based on a curriculum intended to serve all students. The creation of a functional curriculum, the promotion of employability skills, and an emphasis on improving study skills are instructional patterns that seem to be effective in reducing the number of student dropouts. Two alternatives…

  1. Reciprocal Disconnectedness: Computer Games, Schooling and Boys at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Colin; Taylor, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Ethnomethodology is the analytical frame used here to recover embedded cultural discursive phenomena in the language of "at risk" middle-school boys as they talk about "computer games" and "schooling". What emerges is a rich picture of myths and heroes, identities of participation where member values and a discernible moral order are part of the…

  2. Students "At Risk": Stereotypes and the Schooling of Black Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how stereotypes operate in the social construction of African Canadian males as "at risk" students. Cultural analysis and critical race theory are used to explain how the stereotypes of the youth as immigrant, fatherless, troublemaker, athlete, and underachiever contribute to their racialization and marginalization that in…

  3. Gun Safety Management with Patients at Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Robert I.

    2007-01-01

    Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person…

  4. Social Support and Personal Agency in At-Risk Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Rodrigo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated: a mothers´ use and satisfaction with informal and formal supports in at-risk psychosocial contexts, and b the relationships between satisfaction with help and the mothers´ perception of their role (personal agency. Self-report data about the use and satisfaction with sources of help, and levels of internal control, self-efficacy, couple agreement, role difficulty and motivation for change were obtained from 519 mothers referred by Social Services and 519 non-referred mothers. Results indicated that at-risk mothers relied less upon close informal support and more on formal support than non atrisk mothers. They were also more satisfied with the formal sources of support and had lower levels of personal agency. There were beneficial effects of satisfaction with informal help and school support on several aspects of personal agency for both groups. However, satisfaction with school and social services support had a detrimental effect on couple agreement in the at-risk group. Implications of the results for providing social support to at-risk families are discussed.

  5. Educators and Programs Reaching Out to At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. Linda

    1990-01-01

    Presents examples of how using technology can help raise self-esteem and improve academic performance for students who are identified as being at-risk. Topics discussed include the use of computer labs, filmstrips, and videos to strengthen academic skills, and to deal with such social issues as drop-outs, alcoholism, pregnancy, and suicide. Two…

  6. Value at risk, bank equity and credit risk

    OpenAIRE

    Broll, Udo; Wahl, Jack E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the implications of the value at risk concept for the bank's optimum amount of equity capital under credit risk. The market value of loans is risky and lognormally distributed. We show that the required equity capital depends upon managerial and market factors. Furthermore, the bank's equity and asset/liability management has to be addressed simultaneously by bank managers.

  7. Correlates of At-Risk/Problem Internet Gambling in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined Internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling in adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the Internet. Method: Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut…

  8. A Stress Management Curriculum for At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, S. A.; Arnold, A. R.; Solomon, S.; Rubin, R. I.; Holland, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Project KICK (Kids in Cooperation with Kids) is a delinquency prevention program for at-risk youth that uses nontraditional approaches to stress management. Twelve African American children who were taught physical, cognitive, and experiential models of stress reduction and management reported that they enjoyed the program, and they demonstrated…

  9. Serving At-Risk Populations in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helge, Doris

    1988-01-01

    This article describes prevention and treatment factors that can assist rural students at risk for learning difficulties to develop self-esteem and lead useful lives. Factors include social change, teacher education, community-business-school partnerships, family involvement, community education, interdisciplinary approaches to assessment, school…

  10. Predictors of Academic Performance among At-Risk Romanian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Elena ANGHEL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Many Romanian adolescents experience life situations that they find difficult to cope with. Prior research has suggested that the youth who obtained academic results despite being exposed to risk factors were academically resilient. In this context, understanding the factors that predict academic achievement is very important in the process of counselling and improving at-risk students’ performance. Purpose of the Study: The main objective of this study is to investigate personal and family factors that predict academic performance for at-risk youth, as well as to investigate coping mechanisms associated with academic resilience. Methods: Data was collected from a final representative sample of 329 ninth through twelfth grade urban Romanian adolescents (mean age = 16.1 years, 62.6% females and 37.4% males. The variables measured were: the personality factors openness and consciousness – previously associated with academic achievement; coping mechanisms; the stressful events experienced within the last two years; parents’ education and involvement in extracurricular activities. Results: The statistical analysis indicated that at-risk students have significantly lower academic performances, suggesting that the stress associated with the risk factors influences their achievement. A linear regression analysis identified that the academic performance of at-risk adolescents is largely predicted by family factors – the mother’s education, and personal factors – sex, age and two coping mechanisms with a negative association: deletion of concurrent activities and negativism. Contrary to expectation, the majority of the assessed personality characteristics or coping mechanisms did not influence academic achievement. Conclusions: These findings have implications for understanding how academic success can be promoted in at-risk adolescents. Educational counselling suggestions are discussed.

  11. Mental health in primary care for adolescent parents

    OpenAIRE

    LePlatte, Dayna; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa; Stanton, Emily; Miller, Nicole; Muzik, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Mental health care is important for everyone, especially teenagers. However, seeking mental health services may be challenging for teenagers, particularly when they are also parents. Offering mental health care in a safe, attractive and easily accessible manner, such as primary care, increases the chances that teenage parents will receive help. Comprehensive care models need to be established to address the many needs that at-risk young mothers and their children face. There are a number of p...

  12. [GAZING INTO A CRYSTAL BALL AND DETECTING SUBJECTS AT RISK FOR DEVELOPING CUTANEOUS MELANOMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Hermanns-Lê, T; Piérard, S L

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is the deadliest skin cancer showing an increasingly growing incidence in white populations of Europe and United States. Intensive research in recent years has begun to unlock its molecular pathogenesis. Screening the neoplasm at an early stage remains primordial. Hence, targeting populations at risk is likely efficient. In such an attempt, the regular clinical examination benefits from a series of non invasive procedures such as skin surface biopsies, in vivo confocal microscopy, dermoscopy and specular fluorescent light reflectance. PMID:26638445

  13. Serum acute phase reactants hallmark healthy individuals at risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    OpenAIRE

    Borlak, Jürgen; Chatterji, Bijon; Londhe, Kishor B; Watkins, Paul B

    2013-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic. However, its use is associated with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). It is a prominent cause of acute liver failure, with APAP hepatotoxicity far exceeding other causes of acute liver failure in the United States. In order to improve its safe use this study aimed to identify individuals at risk for DILI prior to drug treatment by searching for non-genetic serum markers in healthy subjects susceptible to APAP-induced liver injury (...

  14. Recovery and recurrence of mental sickness absence among production and office workers in the industrial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norder-Kuper, Giny; Bultmann, Ute; Hoedeman, Rob; de Bruin, Johan; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manual workers in the public sector have previously been found to be at risk of mental sickness absence (SA). As the impact of mental illness differs across economic sectors, this study investigated mental SA in the industrial sector, differentiating between office and production workers

  15. Hospital contact for mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, Jeanette; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;

    2013-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at risk for long-term physical and mental effects. However, little is known about how cancers can affect mental health in the siblings of these patients. We aimed to assess the long-term risks of mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and...

  16. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can be diagnosed and begin in childhood. Mental disorders among children are described ...

  17. Health Care, Family, and Community Factors Associated with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders in Early Childhood - United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsko, Rebecca H; Holbrook, Joseph R; Robinson, Lara R; Kaminski, Jennifer W; Ghandour, Reem; Smith, Camille; Peacock, Georgina

    2016-03-11

    Sociodemographic, health care, family, and community attributes have been associated with increased risk for mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders (MBDDs) in children (1,2). For example, poverty has been shown to have adverse effects on cognitive, socio-emotional, and physical development (1). A safe place to play is needed for gross motor development, and accessible health care is needed for preventive and illness health care (3). Positive parenting and quality preschool interventions have been shown to be associated with prosocial skills, better educational outcomes, and fewer health risk behaviors over time (2). Protective factors for MBDDs are often shared (4) and conditions often co-occur; therefore, CDC considered MBDDs together to facilitate the identification of factors that could inform collaborative, multidisciplinary prevention strategies. To identify specific factors associated with MBDDs among U.S. children aged 2-8 years, parent-reported data from the most recent (2011-2012) National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) were analyzed. Factors associated with having any MBDD included inadequate insurance, lacking a medical home, fair or poor parental mental health, difficulties getting by on the family's income, employment difficulties because of child care issues, living in a neighborhood lacking support, living in a neighborhood lacking amenities (e.g., sidewalks, park, recreation center, and library), and living in a neighborhood in poor condition. In a multivariate analysis, fair or poor parental mental health and lacking a medical home were significantly associated with having an MBDD. There was significant variation in the prevalence of these and the other factors by state, suggesting that programs and policies might use collaborative efforts to focus on specific factors. Addressing identified factors might prevent the onset of MBDDs and improve outcomes among children who have one or more of these disorders. PMID:26963052

  18. An "At-Risk" Curriculum for "At-Risk" Students? Special Educational Needs and Disability in the New "Australian Curriculum"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Philip; Forbes, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    The number of students who are "at risk" including those with special education needs and or disabilities is increasing rapidly worldwide in all schools. This has prompted widespread debate regarding the impact of initiatives in Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting for this group of students. Teachers, parents and administrators need to…

  19. Reflections on psychiatry and international mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Herrman

    2013-01-01

    Achieving adequate support for mental health in any country requires a unified approach. Strong links between psychiatrists, community leaders and patients and families that are based on negotiation and respect, are vital for progress. When strong partnerships exist, they can contribute to community understanding and advancement of psychiatry. This is the first step towards scaling up good quality care for those living with mental illnesses, preventing illnesses in those at risk, and promoting mental health through work with other community sectors. Partnerships are needed to support education and research in psychiatry, and improvements in quality of care wherever psychiatry is practiced, including primary health and community mental health services, hospitals and private practice. There are important roles for psychiatry in building the strength of organisations that champion the advocacy and support roles of service users and family carers, and encouraging partnerships for mental health promotion in the community.

  20. News media framing of serious mental illness and gun violence in the United States, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel W; Jarlenski, Marian; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-03-01

    Recent mass shootings by persons seemingly afflicted with serious mental illness (SMI) have received extensive news media coverage and prompted national dialogue about the causes of, and policy responses to, mass shootings. News media framing of SMI as a cause of gun violence may influence public attitudes about persons with SMI and support for gun violence prevention proposals. We analyzed the content of a 25% random sample of news stories on SMI and gun violence published in 14 national and regional news sources from 1997 to 2012. Across the study period, most news coverage occurred in the wake of mass shootings, and "dangerous people" with SMI were more likely than "dangerous weapons" to be mentioned as a cause of gun violence. PMID:24432874

  1. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and phobias Bipolar disorder Depression Mood disorders Personality disorders Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history ...

  2. Attitudes towards the mental disorder and towards the search of professional psychological support. A systematic revision of studies in Europe, United States, Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Yovany Álvarez Ramírez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study had the intention to review like a systematicmethod the studies carried out in countries of Europe, United States,Latin America, and the Caribbean about attitudes towards the mentaldisorder and the search of professional support in case of mentalsdisorders, its convergences, divergences, limitations, tendenciesand profits. The systematic revision followed the methodology ofdocumentary investigation. The search of studies was carried outfrom 1962 to 2006, in the data bases Ebsco and Proquest using thekey words: “attitudes about mental illness”, “perceptions and beliefsabout mental disorders”, “psychological help-seeking attitudes” and“attitudes toward seeking psychological help”. The strategy searchthrew 160 articles; 38 articles finally fulfilled the criteria to be considered in the revision, of these, 21 was in base Proquest and the rest in Ebsco. The revision puts in evidence the use of nonprobabilistic designs of sampling, limitations for the generalization of the findings,poor man information on the sociodemographic characteristics of thesamples, instruments very varied that make difficult the comparison.Predominantly favorable attitudes were specially towards the mentalupheaval and the search of professional aid in urban women of zone. There was predominance of the studies with population of great urban centers in comparison with countryside.

  3. Dual language intervention for bilinguals at risk for language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2015-05-01

    Selecting the initial language of intervention for bilingual children at risk for language impairment is challenging for clinicians, as both the home and academic languages are important for children's successful communication. In this project, six Spanish-English bilingual first graders at risk for language impairment participated in an 8-week intervention program targeting vocabulary, morphosyntax, narrative, and literacy skills in both Spanish and English. Children completed 24 small-group sessions (three times a week). One group received Spanish intervention first, then English, and another group received English first, then Spanish. The systematic use of both languages in intervention resulted in overall gains in vocabulary and narrative skills in this short-term intervention. Language condition groups differed in performance on oral narratives and semantics. Clinical recommendations for selecting the initial language of intervention are discussed. PMID:25922998

  4. Psychic pathology of anthropogenic accidents at risk enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literary data on the clinic and pathogenesis distinctions of traumatic and posttraumatic stress following the accidents are analyzed. The inner contradictory character of the Chernobyl NPP operators reaction to psychodraumatic situation is revealed. A number of concepts liable to discussion is given: inner contradiction of the reactions to traumatic stress on account of accidents at risk cuterprises puts forward the way for psychology evolution in process, besides, posttraumatic stress may be considered as one of the stages of such evolution; the misuse of spirits by the persons with traumatic stress appeared on account of accidents at risk enterprises puts forward the way for the subsequent evolution towards psychic degeneration; the prevailing effect of the reality denial among the personnel of the risk enterprises may form a muthcreative attitude to technical sphere and play a certain role in the emergence of anthropogenic accidents at these enterprises. 22 refs

  5. Value at Risk in the Presence of the Power Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to determine the Value at Risk (VaR) of the portfolio consisting of several long positions in risky assets. We consider the case when the tail parts of distributions of logarithmic returns of these assets follow the power law of the same degree and the lower tail of associated copula C follows the power law of degree 1. We provide the asymptotic formula for Value at Risk and determine the optimal portfolio. We show that the part of the capital invested in the i-th asset should be equal to the conditional probability that the drop of the value of the i-th asset will be smaller than the others under the condition that the value of the all assets will be smaller than c times their initial value (c <<1). (author)

  6. Early somatosensory processing in individuals at risk for developing psychoses

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Hagenmuller; Susanne Walitza; Helene Haker; Wulf Rössler

    2014-01-01

    Human cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) allow an accurate investigation of thalamocortical and early cortical processing. SEPs reveal a burst of superimposed early (N20) high-frequency oscillations around 600 Hz. Previous studies reported alterations of SEPs in patients with schizophrenia. This study addresses the question whether those alterations are also observable in populations at risk for developing schizophrenia or bipolar disorders. To our knowledge to date, this is the...

  7. Identifying and treating pregnant patients at risk from alcohol.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosett, H. L.; Weiner, L

    1981-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy has been associated with retardation of fetal growth and abnormal fetal development. Pregnant women whose offspring are at risk because of alcohol abuse can be identified and counselled by health professional providing prenatal care. Offspring born to women who had been drinking heavily and subsequently abstained from or reduced their intake of alcohol before the third trimester demonstrated improvements in growth and in regulation of sleep-awake sta...

  8. Back testing multi asset value at risk : Norwegian data

    OpenAIRE

    Råheim, Gudmund

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to e stimate Value At Risk (VaR) for a multi asset Norwegian portfolio, using some of the most popular estimation methods , Variance Covariance Method, Historical Simulation and Monte Carlo Simulation . The Variance Covariance Method is applied with both time varying and constant volatility . Each VaR estimation method ’ s accurac y is tested , using Kupiec’s univariate test ing framework , for multipl...

  9. Telephone consultation for improving health of people living with or at risk of HIV: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H M M T van Velthoven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low cost, effective interventions are needed to deal with the major global burden of HIV/AIDS. Telephone consultation offers the potential to improve health of people living with HIV/AIDS cost-effectively and to reduce the burden on affected people and health systems. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of telephone consultation for HIV/AIDS care. METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Two authors independently screened citations, extracted data and assessed the quality of randomized controlled trials which compared telephone interventions with control groups for HIV/AIDS care. Telephone interventions were voice calls with landlines or mobile phones. We present a narrative overview of the results as the obtained trials were highly heterogeneous in design and therefore the data could not be pooled for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The search yielded 3321 citations. Of these, nine studies involving 1162 participants met the inclusion criteria. The telephone was used for giving HIV test results (one trial and for delivering behavioural interventions aimed at improving mental health (four trials, reducing sexual transmission risk (one trial, improving medication adherence (two trials and smoking cessation (one trial. Limited effectiveness of the intervention was found in the trial giving HIV test results, in one trial supporting medication adherence and in one trial for smoking cessation by telephone. CONCLUSIONS: We found some evidence of the benefits of interventions delivered by telephone for the health of people living with HIV or at risk of HIV. However, only limited conclusions can be drawn as we only found nine studies for five different interventions and they mainly took place in the United States. Nevertheless, given the high penetration of low-cost mobile phones in countries with high HIV endemicity, more evidence is needed on how telephone consultation

  10. Residências terapêuticas: experiência dos residentes de saúde mental do programa da universidade do estado da Bahia (Therapeutic residency: the experience of mental health residents at the state university of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josenaide Engrácia dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo é produto da experiência dos residentes do Núcleo de Saúde Mental da Residência Multiprofi ssional em Saúde da Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB, na Residência Terapêutica (RT do distrito sanitário de Itapagipe, localizado em Salvador-Bahia. Essa experiência teve inicio com a inserção dos residentes no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial - CAPS II do referido distrito, que, no planejamento das ações desenvolvidas no território, priorizou a residência terapêutica como lugar para desenvolver cuidado, por considerá-la dispositivo com possibilidade de reinvenção do existir do sujeito na comunidade. A escuta, o vínculo, o corpo, a música e a rua foram os principais recursos utilizados no processo de aproximação entre os atores envolvidos. Apesar de enigmática, na medida em que suscitou vários problemas sem respostas, a experiência na RT mostrou-se um terreno fértil para promover a cidadania e autonomia. Foi também reveladora, porque sinalizou possibilidades de reinvenção da vida, considerando todas as controvérsias da estratégia utilizada.Abstract:The present paper is the outcome of the experience of residents of the multi professional residency program from the Mental Health Nucleus at the University of the State of Bahia (UNEB, specifi cally in the residency program in therapeutics, implemented in the health district of Itapagipe, Salvador, Bahia. The experience began at the Center for Psychosocial Healthcare (CAPS II in the aforementioned district, which, in planning the actions to be developed, gave priority to the use of the residential program as a means of developing a strategy of care, since it was considered that an initiative of this type would successfully redefi ne the existence of the individual in the community. The main resources used in the process of approximating the actors involved included listening, bonding, and the use of body language, music and the streets. The

  11. Mini-Mental State Examination norms in a community-dwelling sample of elderly with low schooling in Brazil Normas do Mini-Exame do Estado Mental para uma amostra de idosos com baixa escolaridade residentes na comunidade no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerson Laks

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess Mini-Mental State Examination norms of a functionally normal sample of community-dwelling elderly. Illiterate and low-educated subjects who scored less than 5 on the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (PFAQ [n = 397; female = 269; mean age = 72.15 (SD = 7.24 years] had the 5th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles calculated according to age (65-74; 75-84 years. Overall MMSE score was 21.97 (SD = 4.48. Mean MMSE for illiterate younger individuals was 19.46 (SD = 3.47, and the quartile distribution was 14, 17, 19, and 21. MMSE of subjects with 1-8 years of schooling was 23.90 (3.87, and the distribution was 15, 22, 24, and 27. MMSE of older illiterate subjects was 18.11 (SD = 3.63, and the distribution of scores was 13, 16, 18, and 20, whereas subjects with 1-8 years of schooling scored 23.81 (SD = 4.01 and the distribution was 15, 22, 24, and 27. These MMSE normative data may help improve the detection of cognitive impairment in Brazil, mainly in the primary clinical setting.Avaliar normas do Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM de acordo com a idade e escolaridade de idosos vivendo na comunidade. Calcularam-se os quartis do MEEM para idosos com 65 a 74 e 75 a 84 anos, analfabetos e com 1-8 anos de escolaridade, com pontuação menor que cinco no Questionário de Atividades Funcional de Pfeffer (QAF [n = 397; feminino = 269; idade = 72,15 (dp = 7,24 anos].O MEEM total foi 21,97 (dp = 4,48. Nos indivíduos mais jovens, o MEEM entre analfabetos foi 19 (3,47 com quartis de 14, 17, 19, 21. O MEEM dos com 1-8 anos de escolaridade foi 23,90 (dp = 3,87, e a distribuição foi 15, 22, 24, 27. O MEEM dos analfabetos mais idosos foi 18,11 (dp = 3,63 com quartis de 13, 16, 18, 20, enquanto a pontuação dos sujeitos com 1-8 anos foi 23,81 (dp = 4,01, quartis de 15, 22, 24, 27. Os dados de normatização do MEEM podem ajudar o reconhecimento de distúrbios cognitivos no Brasil, principalmente no atendimento primário.

  12. NIMH Support of Rural Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutner, Michael; Windle, Charles

    1991-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) aims to improve mental health services by funding research projects and research centers. NIMH also supports state planning, protection of and advocacy for the mentally ill, disaster relief, professional training, and public information programs. (DM)

  13. Mental Health Counseling: A Stakeholder's Manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Edward S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the original dreams of the founders of the American Mental Health Counselors Association; looks at history and comments on the state of mental health counseling as it has struggled to evolve as a profession. Urges those in the counseling profession to consider an acquisitions and mergers corporate mentality to ensure and enhance the…

  14. Giving Voice to Emotion: Voice Analysis Technology Uncovering Mental States is Playing a Growing Role in Medicine, Business, and Law Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Summer

    2016-01-01

    It's tough to imagine anything more frustrating than interacting with a call center. Generally, people don't reach out to call centers when they?re happy-they're usually trying to get help with a problem or gearing up to do battle over a billing error. Add in an automatic phone tree, and you have a recipe for annoyance. But what if that robotic voice offering you a smorgasbord of numbered choices could tell that you were frustrated and then funnel you to an actual human being? This type of voice analysis technology exists, and it's just one example of the many ways that computers can use your voice to extract information about your mental and emotional state-including information you may not think of as being accessible through your voice alone. PMID:27187541

  15. Sex differences moderate the relationship between adolescent language and mentalization

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Helena J.V.; Wareham, Justin D.; Vrouva, Ioanna; Mayes, Linda C.; Fonagy, Peter; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Mentalization refers to the ability to infer mental states of self and others, and this capacity facilitates social interactions. Advances in mentalization theory have proposed that there are both explicit and implicit mentalizing capacities and language may be identified as being an important factor in differentiating these two components of mentalization. Moreover, given apparent sex differences in language and mentalization, we hypothesized that sex may moderate the relationship between la...

  16. Arrests, Recent Life Circumstances, and Recurrent Job Loss for At-Risk Young Men: An Event-History Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesner, Margit; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data from 202 at-risk young men to examine effects of arrests, prior risk factors, and recent life circumstances on job loss across a 7-year period in early adulthood. Repeated failure-time continuous event-history analysis indicated that occurrence of job loss was primarily related to prior mental health problems, recent arrests, recent drug use, and recent being married/cohabitation. It is argued that long-term effects of criminal justice contact on employment o...

  17. Effect of Memo®, a natural formula combination, on Mini-Mental State Examination scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoot M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Yakoot,1 Amel Salem,2 Sherine Helmy3 1Green Clinic and Research Center, 2Mabarrah Clinics, 3Pharco Pharmaceutical Industries, Alexandria, Egypt Background: Mild cognitive impairment encompasses the clinical continuum between physiologic age-related cognitive changes and dementia. A variety of medications, including herbal preparations (in particular Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng, have been advocated as treatments for cognitive impairment in the elderly. In this study, we investigated the effect of an already marketed dietary supplement (Memo® combining 750 mg of lyophilized royal jelly with standardized extracts of G. biloba 120 mg and P. ginseng 150 mg on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Methods: Sixty-six subjects presenting with forgetfulness and satisfying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR clinical criteria for mild cognitive impairment were randomly divided into an experimental group treated with one Memo capsule before breakfast daily for 4 weeks and a control group who took placebo. The mean change in MMSE score from baseline and reported adverse effects were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean change in MMSE score in the group treated with Memo for 4 weeks was significantly greater than in the control group (+2.07 versus +0.13, respectively by the Student’s t-test (t = 6.485, P < 0.0001. This was also true after adjusting for age as a covariate and educational level as a factor nested within the treatment groups in a general linear model (analysis of covariance, F = 9.675 [corrected model], P < 0.0001. Conclusion: This combined triple formula may be beneficial in treating the cognitive decline that occurs during the aging process as well as in the early phases of pathologic cognitive impairment typical of insidious-onset vascular dementia and in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Larger

  18. Mental health diagnoses and counseling among pilots of remotely piloted aircraft in the United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Jean L; Webber, Bryant J

    2013-03-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), also known as drones, have been used extensively in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although RPA pilots in the U.S. Air Force (USAF) have reported high levels of stress and fatigue, rates of mental health (MH) diagnoses and counseling in this population are unknown. We calculated incidence rates of 12 specific MH outcomes among all active component USAF RPA pilots between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2011, and by various demographic and military variables. We compared these rates to those among all active component USAF manned aircraft (MA) pilots deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan during the same period. The unadjusted incidence rates of all MH outcomes among RPA pilots (n=709) and MA pilots (n=5,256) were 25.0 per 1,000 person-years and 15.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.1, 95% confidence interval=0.9-1.5; adjusted for age, number of deployments, time in service, and history of any MH outcome). Th ere was no significant difference in the rates of MH diagnoses, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders between RPA and MA pilots. Military policymakers and clinicians should recognize that RPA and MA pilots have similar MH risk profiles. PMID:23550927

  19. Mental health state of female prisoners%女性服刑人员的心理健康状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李力

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental health is the most important internal resource that individual can depend on and also an important factor which affects the existence and development of individual. But there are few studies on the level and characteristics of mental health of female prisoners during serving a sentence.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the level and characteristics of mental health of the female prisoners in Shandong Province.DESIGN: Retrospective, cross sectional,multi-variable and sampling survey based on female prisoners.SETTING: Department of Technology in Shandong Police College.PARTICIPANTS: The investigation was completed in the Shandong Police College frotm January 2002 to March 2002.Totally 393 female prisoners from the Shandong Female Prison were selected with the grouping-sampling method to give the questionnaire and attend the investigation voluntarily,and the persons with definite mental disease were excluded.METHODS: The mental health items of female prisoners,including 9 factors such as somatization, obsessive-compulsion,sensitivity of human relations, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobia anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychosis,were explored with Symptom Checklist 90(SCL-90), and the judging standard of psychologic obstacle was whether the total scores of positive symptoms were 2 standard deviations more than those of the norm or not.And combined with the archives of the female prisoners and the questionnaire of self-editing item,relative data were collected. The uniform instructional words and the methods of filling in were explained to the female prisoners firstly,and then the answers of the questionnaire were written collectively.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The mental health level and the psychological characteristics of female prisoners.RESULTS: 393 questionnaires were provided.There were 15 questionnaires excluded because more than 5 questions were missed in the paper or responsion consistency deviation appeared obviously after callback.378

  20. Mental Byomdannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tina Vestermann; Boye, Anne Mette; Borchmann, Inger Haarup; Jørgensen, Anne Lærke

    Formålet med publikationen er at præsentere metoden "Mental byomdannelse". Metoden viser, hvordan man via midlertidig brug af grunde kan undersøge et steds potentialer, tage et område i brug tidligt i en byomdannelsesproces og derved bidrage til at opbygge en ny identitet for området. Mental...... byomdannelse går ud på at skabe bevidsthed om et byudviklingsområde overfor byens borgere, kommende beboere og fremtidige brugere af området allerede mens den fysiske omdannelse er i gang. I publikationen præsenteres en værktøjskasse, som giver redskaber og ideer til, hvordan man kan sætte en mental...... byomdannelsesproces i gang i byens rum. Publikationen udgør en afrapportering fra et støttet forsøgsprojekt hvor metoden ”Mental byomdannelse” er udviklet ved at afprøve ideerne om mental byomdannelse i to cases i Ålborg Kommune, hhv. i Østre Havn og Nibe by. Formålet med at anvende metoden i de to cases har været at...

  1. At-Risk/Problematic Shopping and Gambling in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Sarah W; Mei, Songli; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen J; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-12-01

    Elevated levels of both pathological gambling (PG) and problem shopping (PS) have been reported among adolescents, and each is associated with a range of other negative health/functioning measures. However, relationships between PS and PG, particularly during adolescence, are not well understood. In this study, we explored the relationship between different levels of problem-gambling severity and health/functioning characteristics, gambling-related social experiences, gambling behaviors and motivations among adolescents with and without at-risk/problematic shopping (ARPS). Survey data from Connecticut high school students (n = 2,100) were analyzed using bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling. Although at-risk/problematic gambling (ARPG) was not increased among adolescents with ARPS, adolescents with ARPG (vs non-gamblers) were more likely to report having experienced a growing tension or anxiety that could only be relieved by shopping and missing other obligations due to shopping. In comparison to the non-ARPS group, a smaller proportion of respondents in the ARPS group reported paid part-time employment, whereas a greater proportion of respondents reported excessive gambling by peers and feeling concerned over the gambling of a close family member. In general, similar associations between problem-gambling severity and measures of health/functioning and gambling-related behaviors and motivations were observed across ARPS and non-ARPS adolescents. However, associations were weaker among ARPS adolescents for several variables: engagement in extracurricular activities, alcohol and caffeine use and gambling for financial reasons. These findings suggest a complex relationship between problem-gambling severity and ARPS. They highlight the importance of considering co-occurring risk behaviors such as ARPS when treating adolescents with at-risk/problem gambling. PMID:25117852

  2. At-Risk Populations for Osteosarcoma: The Syndromes and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George T. Calvert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone. Most cases are sporadic without a known genetic or environmental cause. Heritable genetic predisposition syndromes are associated with a small percentage of osteosarcomas. Study of these rare disorders has provided insight into the molecular pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. Screening of at-risk families and surveillance of affected individuals for these syndromes may permit earlier diagnosis and more effective treatment of osteosarcoma in these populations. This paper reviews the genetic and clinical features of the known osteosarcoma predisposition syndromes.

  3. Managing market risk with VaR (Value At Risk)

    OpenAIRE

    Angelovska, Julijana

    2013-01-01

    Market risk estimates the uncertainty of future earnings, due to the changes in market conditions. Value at Risk has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. For estimating risk, the issue is that different ways to estimate volatility can lead to very different VaR calculations. The performance of SMA with rolling windows of 100 and EWMA using 0.94 (proposed by RiskMetrics) as smoothing constant λ and rolling window of 100 days, perhaps the most widely ...

  4. Cash-Flow-at-Risk and Debt Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Jankensgård, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    Cash Flow-at-Risk (CFaR) is a risk measure that conveys information on the shortfall in cash flow, associated with a certain probability, a firm could experience over a certain time period. However, to provide information on outcomes that are identified as costly by the risk management literature, in particular underinvestment due to financing constraints, a risk measure needs to make explicit reference to the firm’s presumed access to external sources of funding. What is called for is thus a...

  5. Children at risk of allergic development: the parents' dyadic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleide, A O; Galtung, V K; Unger, S; Watten, R G

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes a study of parents' dyadic interaction in high-/low-risk families (n = 161) with children at risk of asthmatic/allergic development. The high-risk couples tend to consist of a mother who denies negative affects and a dissatisfied father. The high-risk mothers tend to overrate the agreement especially on affective expression. There were no significant differences in dyadic interaction in low-risk couples. The results are discussed according to family communication patterns, repressed conflicts and possible immunological consequences of chronic emotional stress, learned coping and emotional expression styles. PMID:3237973

  6. Empirical likelihood-based evaluations of Value at Risk models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Value at Risk (VaR) is a basic and very useful tool in measuring market risks. Numerous VaR models have been proposed in literature. Therefore, it is of great interest to evaluate the efficiency of these models, and to select the most appropriate one. In this paper, we shall propose to use the empirical likelihood approach to evaluate these models. Simulation results and real life examples show that the empirical likelihood method is more powerful and more robust than some of the asymptotic method available in literature.

  7. A Bayesian Confidence Interval for Value-at-Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Patricio; Bhattacharjee, Arnab

    2003-01-01

    This study assesses the accuracy of the value-at-risk estimate (VaR). On the basis of posterior distributions of the unknown population parameters, we develop a confidence interval for VaR that reflects the genuine information available about the portfolios for which the VaR is calculated. This approach is more accurate than that in Dowd (2000) as it avoids explaining the behaviour of the population parameters on the basis of distributions of sample parameters. We find that the accurac...

  8. Value at Risk Disclosures: The Case of Canada Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhub, Hala

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on the empirical analysis that has been conducted by (Pérignon, Deng and Wang, 2007), to test whether the Royal bank of Canada (RBC) and the Bank of Montreal (BMO) are overstating their Value at Risk (VaR). This study is based on non-anonymous data of the daily VaR and P&L for both banks within the period starting from the year 2001 till the year 2010. The paper exhibits results contradicting those of (Pérignon, Deng and Wang, 2007) , it shows that RBC and BMO do not overs...

  9. Brief Alcohol Intervention Among At-Risk Drinkers with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E. Ramsey

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight patients with diabetes who screened positive for at-risk drinking were assigned to brief alcohol intervention (BAI (n = 14 or standard care (SC (n = 14 treatment conditions. All participants completed a baseline interview and one-, three, and six-month follow-up interviews. Across the six-month follow-up period, there was a significantly greater reduction in quantity of alcohol consumed in the BAI group. At the six-month follow-up, the BAI group had a greater reduction in quantity of alcohol consumed, percentage of heavy drinking days, and frequency of drinking. Reductions in alcohol use were associated with improved adherence in certain components of diabetes self-care behavior. The results of this study suggest that brief alcohol interventions are efficacious in reducing alcohol use among at-risk drinkers with diabetes and that reductions in alcohol use may result in some improvements in adherence to diabetes self-care behavior.

  10. Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  11. Definition of the planning target volume of organs at risk (planning organ at risk volume, PRV) in case of radiotherapy of the ORL sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a study which aimed at quantifying anatomic variations of organs at risk and their dosimetric impact, and at computing appropriate margins around organs at risk to generate planning target volumes of organs at risk, representative of the dose delivered to organs at risk. Nine patients have been treated for a locally advanced ORL cancer by a concomitant combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, with weekly scanographies during the radiotherapy. Registration has been successfully performed according to three bone references. Volume modifications and motions have been computed to define the margins around three organs at risk. Short communication

  12. Mental EEG Analysis Based on Infomax Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUXiao-pei; GuoXiao-jing; ZANGDao-xin; SHENQian

    2004-01-01

    The patterns of EEG will change with mental tasks performed by the subject. In the field of EEG signal analysis and application, the study to get the patterns of mental EEG and then to use them to classify mental tasks has the significant scientific meaning and great application value. But for the reasons of different artifacts existing in EEG, the pattern detection of EEG under normal mental states is a very difficult problem. In this paper, Independent Component Analysisis applied to EEG signals collected from performing different mental tasks. The experiment results show that when one subject performs a single mental task in different trials, the independent components of EEG are very similar. It means that the independent components can be used as the mental EEG patterns to classify the different mental tasks.

  13. Leadership and School Success: The Practices and Behaviors of Principals in Successful At-risk Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Susan Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Students in many at-risk schools are not achieving at the same academic levels as their counterparts in middle-class schools. Many live in poverty, lack background experiences that would help them be successful, have parents who have not completed high school and may not speak English as their first language. The challenge for educators is how to ensure these students are successful despite these obstacles. This is even more critical today due to the rigid standards set by both state and fe...

  14. High-sulfur coal: tonnage and money at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 286 million tons of coal exceeds the Phase I standard i.e. 2.5 lb SO2 per mmBtu, of the US Clean Air Act (1990). 85 mmtpy goes to currently scrubbed or unaffected (i.e. small) units. This leaves 201 mmtpy of high-sulphur coal at risk. 129 mmtpy of this is moving on a spot basis or is shipped under contracts that expire by 1995. This leaves about 72 mmtpy of captive and longterm contracts which many utility fuel buyers assume will be cancelled or renegotiated at a lower price. The legal position remains uncertain. However, the massive cancellation and/or renegotiation of existing contracts will have a tremendous economic impact on the coal industry. The resultant price change will in turn influence decisions to scrub or switch to low sulphur coals. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.001) and......Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...... Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...

  16. Anybody can do Value at Risk: A Nonparametric Teaching Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Powell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR has become a benchmark methodology among investors and banks for measuring market risk. Commercially available modelling packages can be both expensive and inflexible, thereby restricting their use by academic researchers and teachers. Usingnonparametric methodology, this paper provides a step-by-step teaching study on how to use Excel to construct a VaR spreadsheet for an individual asset as well as for a portfolio. This can benefit financial modelling teachers by providing them with a readily useable teaching study on how to model VaR, as well as benefit researchers by showing them how to construct an inexpensive and flexible VaR model.

  17. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving......Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...... individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.001) and...

  18. Multiple zone power forwards. A value at risk framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the 1990s, deregulated power markets in New-England provided zones with fluctuating spot prices. Such prices have a notoriously high volatility, owing to the difficulty of storing electrical energy and the delays needed to adjust generation levels. In this context, forward contracts have become increasingly popular and understanding their dynamic is a problem facing many market players. This paper proposes a parsimonious parametric model, based on the price series of all n-month forward contracts (n = 1,2,3..), encompassing multiple zones. The model is then used for value at risk forecasts, which are backtested and compared with the ones in use by the risk management unit of an important electricity producer. Extensions to include natural gas and power-relevant oil-based future markets are discussed. (author)

  19. Limitations of the planning organ at risk volume (PRV) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Previously, we determined a planning target volume (PTV) margin recipe for geometrical errors in radiotherapy equal to MT = 2Σ + 0.7σ, with Σ and σ standard deviations describing systematic and random errors, respectively. In this paper, we investigated margins for organs at risk (OAR), yielding the so-called planning organ at risk volume (PRV). Methods and Materials: For critical organs with a maximum dose (Dmax) constraint, we calculated margins such that Dmax in the PRV is equal to the motion averaged Dmax in the (moving) clinical target volume (CTV). We studied margins for the spinal cord in 10 head-and-neck cases and 10 lung cases, each with two different clinical plans. For critical organs with a dose-volume constraint, we also investigated whether a margin recipe was feasible. Results: For the 20 spinal cords considered, the average margin recipe found was: MR = 1.6Σ + 0.2σ with variations for systematic and random errors of 1.2Σ to 1.8Σ and -0.2σ to 0.6σ, respectively. The variations were due to differences in shape and position of the dose distributions with respect to the cords. The recipe also depended significantly on the volume definition of Dmax. For critical organs with a dose-volume constraint, the PRV concept appears even less useful because a margin around, e.g., the rectum changes the volume in such a manner that dose-volume constraints stop making sense. Conclusion: The concept of PRV for planning of radiotherapy is of limited use. Therefore, alternative ways should be developed to include geometric uncertainties of OARs in radiotherapy planning

  20. Social support for schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanauskiene V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a wider concept than poverty and includes not only material conditions but also inability to participate in economic, social, political and cultural life. The essence of social exclusion is social relationships (more exactly breaking off relationships, which may mean not only pushing away some members of the society, but also breaking off relationships with the society from the side of a person himself/herself. The reasons of origin of social exclusion may be legal, political, economical, social and cultural. Nowadays social exclusion is predetermined by social-economic factors. According to Poviliūnas (2001, the problems of children’s social exclusion may be solved ensuring proper education, care of public health, safety and minimal life standard. Growing aggression and violence of schoolchildren and their social exclusion are nowadays an important issue of political debate and media reports. Often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during the period of adolescence. The risk also depends on the social status of their family in the society and the relationship of the family members. The aim of the article is to identify characteristic features of schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion and analyze social support provided for them. A quantitative research was carried out to achieve the aim. The method of data collection is a questionnaire. 105 teachers working in 3 secondary schools in Lithuania participated in the research. The research results revealed that most often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during adolescence period. They are characterized as incommunicative, unsociable, passive, and shy, do not trust others, are vulnerable, have learning problems and avoid collaborative activities. These schoolchildren usually come from families of social risk or single parent families. The support provided at school by teachers to schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion

  1. Seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies among populations at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Baki Abdullah Al-Robasi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed to assess the Leptospira IgG antibodies seroprevalence among populations at risk in Hodeida Governorate, Yemen. Methods: A total of 200 subjects (136 males and 64 females participated in this study during June and December 2012.They represented 10 sewage workers, 22 butchers, 16 construction workers, 108 agriculture workers, 20 hospital sanitary workers and 24 blood donors. Predesigned questionnaires and consent were taken from each individual. Blood samples were collected from subjects, and the sera were tested by ELISA to detect the presence of leptospira IgG antibodies. The possible related factors for seropositivity were evaluated. Results: Leptospira IgG antibodies were found positive in 42% of the participants. The highest seroprevalence level was detected in sewage workers (80%, followed by hospital sanitary workers (60%, construction workers (37.5% and farmers (37%. The lowest of antibodies was in butchers (36.4%. Seroprevalence among blood donors was 25% which was comparatively less than of the populations at risk. Seropositivity of Leptospira IgG antibodies was found higher among males than females (42.6% vs. 34.4%. The highest Leptospira antibodies seropositivity was among elderly participants (81.8%. The seropositivity of antibodies in population live in rural and urban areas was not significant differences. As for closely contacting with animals, the highest antibodies were discovered in people who had goats (80% and sheep (60.9%. Conclusion: Individuals engaged in risk activities are often exposed to leptospiral infection. Therefore, control and prevention policy toward these people are necessary. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(1: 1-4

  2. 初产妇围生期心理状态及其影响因素%Perinatal mental state of primiparas and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任秀琼

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the perinatal mental state of primiparas and its influenc-ing factors.Methods HAD scale was applied for 148 primiparas,and the results of evaluation a-mong primiparas with different ages,education levels,gestational diseases and history of natural abortion were compared.Results Scores of anxiety and depression as well as positive rate of HAD score were high in 148 primiparas,and the scores of anxiety and depression and positive rate of HAD score in primiparas with lower education levels,gestational diseases and history of natural abortion were significantly higher than those in primiparas with higher education levels and without gestational diseases and history of natural abortion (P 0.05).Conclusion Expressions of bad perinatal mental states in primiparas are significant,and the lower education levels,gestational diseases and history of natural abortion are the bad influencing factors.%目的:探讨初产妇围生期心理状态及其影响因素。方法对本院的148例初产妇采用 HAD 量表进行评估,并对其中不同年龄段、文化层次及妊娠期疾病、自然流产史者的评估结果进行比较。结果148例初产妇 HAD 量表中焦虑和抑郁评分与阳性率均较高,且其中低文化层次及伴发妊娠期疾病、有自然流产史者评分与阳性率均高于高文化层次及无妊娠期疾病、自然流产史者(P 均<0.05);不同年龄段者比较无显著差异(P 均>0.05)。结论初产妇围生期的不良心理表现较为明显,且低文化层次、伴发妊娠期疾病及有自然流产史均为不利因素。

  3. Caracterização e análise do estado mental e funcional de idosos institucionalizados em instituições públicas de longa permanência Analysis and characterization of functional capacity and mental state in residents in old folk’s home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Estelita Rojas Converso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo objetivou caracterizar os idosos institucionalizados residentes em três instituições de longa permanência para idosos, quanto a sua capacidade funcional e seu estado mental, e verificar se existe correlação entre ambas. MÉTODOS: Para isso foram utilizados três instrumentos: um formulário de identificação, o Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM e o Índice de Barthel. Foram utilizados como tratamento estatístico a Correlação de Person e o Teste da ANOVA. RESULTADOS: A população avaliada consistiu de 115 idosos com idades entre 62 e 104 anos, sendo 40,66% do sexo feminino e 59,13% do sexo masculino. São alfabetizados 49,56% e analfabetos 50,43%, quanto ao estado civil predominaram os solteiros (46,65% e viúvos (21,8%. Quanto ao estado mental e funcional, houve alta taxa de idosos apresentando déficit cognitivo (76,72% e de idosos independentes funcionalmente (75,65%. CONCLUSÕES: De acordo com os resultados observa-se que existe correlação significativa entre o Índice de Barthel e o MEEM (r = 0,441; p BACKGROUND: This study had as objective to characterize the institutionalized elderly residents in three long-term care facilities, about their functional capacity and mental state, and to evaluate if there is a correlation between both. METHODS: To do so, three instruments were used: an identification form, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and Barthel’s Index. For statistical analysis the Person’s Correlation and ANOVA Test were used. RESULTS: The population studied consisted of 115 elders with ages between 62 and 104 years old, 40.66% females and 59.13% males. 49.56% are literate and 50.43% illiterate. Regarding the marital status, singles (46.65% and widows (21.8% were predominant. About the mental and functional state, there was a high rate of elders showing cognitive decline (76.72% and functionally independent (75.65%. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results, one can notice that there is a mild

  4. Integration of Schools and Mental Health Systems: An Overview of the State Grants from the U.S. Department of Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Department of Education implemented a grant program for the Integration of Schools and Mental Health Systems. As described on the Department's website, "this program provides grants to SEAs, LEAs, and Indian tribes for the purpose of increasing student access to quality mental health care by developing innovative programs that…

  5. The differences of movement between children at risk of developmental coordination disorder and those not at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Agricola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD is a syndrome unexplained by medical condition, which is marked by defects in the development of motor coordination. Children with this impairment are more dependent on visual information to perform movements than their typically developing (TD peers. Objective: The main aim of the research was to create a checklist for the evaluation of the head and limb movement while walking. After that, based on this tool, to find differences in the movement of various body segments in children at risk of DCD (DCDr compared to typically developing children under different visual conditions. Methods: A total of 32 children aged 8.7 ± 1.1 years participated in this study. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2nd edition (MABC-2 was used to make a classification of motor competence level of the participants. PLATO goggles were used to make four different visual conditions. All trials were recorded. Based on the video analysis we completed a qualitative checklist. Results: The analysis between the children from the DCDr group and TD children showed significant differences in the head (p = .023 and the arm (p = .005 movements, in body position (p = .002 and total summary score (p = .001. The main effects of visual conditions showed significant differences in all cases; in the head (p = .015, with the arm (p = .006, trunk (p =  .009, leg (p = .001 movements, in body position (p = .001 and also in the total summary score (p = .001. The interaction between groups and visual conditions was significant in leg movements (p = .007 and body position (p = .002. Conclusions: This study has shown which movements of body segments are most affected by different visual conditions and how children at risk of DCD are dependent on visual perception.

  6. Smartphone Applications for Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D

    2016-07-01

    Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based. PMID:27428034

  7. Field test of the feasibility and validity of using the Hoosier Assurance Plan Instrument for Adults in a state mental health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Frederick L; McGrew, John; Deliberty, Richard N

    2009-08-01

    The current paper reports on the feasibility of using the HAPI-A, an instrument designed to assess a person's level of functioning in the community: (1) to help determine eligibility to receive behavioral health services, (2) to assign reimbursement case rates; and (3) to provide data for a service provider report card. A 3-year field study of the use of the instrument across an entire state mental health system explored the effectiveness of methods to enhance data accuracy, including annual training and a professional clinical record audit, and the ability of the test to detect differences in improvement rates within risk-adjusted groupings. The combination of training and auditing produced statistically significant, cumulative reductions in data errors across all 3 years of the field test. The HAPI-A also was sensitive in detecting differences among service providers in outcome improvements for six of six risk-adjusted groups rated at the moderate level of impairment and for five of six groups rated at the mild level of impairment, but was inconsistent in detecting outcome differences for persons rated at the severe level of impairment. PMID:19551504

  8. Total Mini-Mental State Examination score and regional cerebral blood flow using Z score imaging and automated ROI analysis software in subjects with memory impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is considered a useful supplementary method to diagnose dementia and evaluate the severity of cognitive disturbance. However, the region of the cerebrum that correlates with the MMSE score is not clear. Recently, a new method was developed to analyze regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using a Z score imaging system (eZIS). This system shows changes of rCBF when compared with a normal database. In addition, a three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest (ROI) template (3DSRT), fully automated ROI analysis software was developed. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between rCBF changes and total MMSE score using these new methods. The association between total MMSE score and rCBF changes was investigated in 24 patients (mean age±standard deviation (SD) 71.5±9.2 years; 6 men and 18 women) with memory impairment using eZIS and 3DSRT. Step-wise multiple regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis, with the total MMSE score as the dependent variable and rCBF change in 24 areas as the independent variable. Total MMSE score was significantly correlated only with the reduction of left hippocampal perfusion but not with right (P<0.01). Total MMSE score is an important indicator of left hippocampal function. (author)

  9. Caregiver Mental Health and Potentially Harmful Caregiving Behavior: The Central Role of Caregiver Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Gordon; Kosberg, Jordan I.; Durkin, Daniel W.; Dooley, W. Keith; DeCoster, Jamie; Williamson, Gail M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Caregivers feeling stress and experiencing mental health problems can be at risk for engaging in abusive acts against elderly care recipients. Potentially harmful behavior (PHB) was used as a measure of caregivers' engagement in, or fear of engagement in, behavior that places dependent care recipients at risk of physical and/or…

  10. Is the human nasal cavity at risk from inhaled radionuclides?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a series of three life-span studies in which beagle dogs inhaled relatively soluble forms of beta-emitting radionuclides, a number of cancers of the nasal cavity have arisen at long times after the inhalation exposure. No such cancers were observed in the control dogs. Data obtained in other studies involving serial sacrifice of dogs that received these radionuclides in similar forms have shown that high local concentrations of the radionuclides can persist in nasal turbinates for long periods of time, depending on the physical half-life of the radionuclide inhaled. Several nasal carcinomas have also been observed in dogs injected with 137CsCl in which the relative concentrations of beta activity in the turbinate region were not as pronounced as in the above studies. Similar risks of sinonasal cancer were calculated for dogs in each of these studies regardless of differences in radionuclide, dosimetry, and route of administration. Since sinonasal cancers have occurred in people exposed to alpha-emitting radionuclides, it is reasonable to assume this could occur with beta emitters as well. Radiation protection guidelines should account for the sinonasal region being at risk. 23 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  11. ESTIMASI NILAI CONDITIONAL VALUE AT RISK MENGGUNAKAN FUNGSI GAUSSIAN COPULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERLINA HIDAYATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Copula is already widely used in financial assets, especially in risk management. It is due to the ability of copula, to capture the nonlinear dependence structure on multivariate assets. In addition, using copula function doesn’t require the assumption of normal distribution. There fore it is suitable to be applied to financial data. To manage a risk the necessary measurement tools can help mitigate the risks. One measure that can be used to measure risk is Value at Risk (VaR. Although VaR is very popular, it has several weaknesses. To overcome the weakness in VaR, an alternative risk measure called CVaR can be used. The porpose of this study is to estimate CVaR using Gaussian copula. The data we used are the closing price of Facebook and Twitter stocks. The results from the calculation using 90%  confidence level showed that the risk that may be experienced is at 4,7%, for 95% confidence level it is at 6,1%, and for 99% confidence level it is at 10,6%.

  12. Don’t put your family at risk

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    How easy is it to fall into the trap of cyber-criminals? Get one’s online banking password stolen? Lose photos to third parties? It's easier than you think. One single click to open a malicious attachment or a malicious web page is sufficient to put your family at risk.   Sometimes adversaries even call you in order to get their malicious job done. Once their malware is installed on your home computer, it records all your activity, monitors your online banking activities, steals your passwords, activates your computer’s microphone and camera, and sends all that data back to the adversary. This person can now do whatever they want: take money from your bank account, order books with your Amazon password, deface your Facebook profiles, send strange messages to your peers, or post the captured images of your daughter in front of the computer on dodgy web sites. Not only can you lose (lots of!) money, but having strange messages sent on your b...

  13. Psychometric Testing of the Method of Generations’ Mentality Type Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Vlada I. Pishchik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the mentality phenomenon in psychology and states the lack of clear, definite positions, concerning mentality, presents author's concept of mentality system, including nuclear and peripheral elements. On this basis, the initial survey, helping to develop the method of mentality measurement was conducted. The article presents author's method of generations’ mentality type measurement, carries out psychometric testing of method paragraphs. The paragraphs were tested on reli...

  14. Cognitive function of 320 people over 65 years from longevous areas in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region:Feasibility of the mini-mental state examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeguang Wu; Bin Wei; Xiaoming Zhang; Guobing Zhang; Chunlin Zhang; Zhibin Li; Chenghan Wei; Jinchao Chen; Donglan Huang; Rong Zhao; Jinrui Huang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) of Chinese version has been widely used to survey cognitive function of elder people; especially, it shows a good reliability and validity for elder people in city.However, whether it is beneficial to measure cognitive function of elder people in countries in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region should be further studied.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility, reliability and validity of the cognitive function among the elderly people aged over 65 years from Jiazhuan in Bama County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region by using the MMSE of Chinese version.DESIGN: Prevalence survey.SETTING: Department of Psychology, Nanjing Municipal Social Welfare Hospital; Department of Psychology,Yizhou Municipal Jiulong Railroad Hospital; Long Life's Institute of Bama County.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 320 old persons over 65 years old were sampled on the basis of the unit of village of Jiazhuan in Bama County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from the 12th to 28th, March 2004. All the subjects provided the confirmed consents.METHODS: ① Mental Health Questionnaire of long life's old man was adopted including demographic data and international standardized MMSE in Chinese. The survey of MMSE was divided into two phases: In the first phase, every case was examined by MMSE. The positive result was decided by the education level. Illiterate group, who was educated less than one year, then his MMSE scores must be less than 17; primary school group, who was educated from 1 to 6 years, then his MMSE must be less than 20; middle school group, who was educated more than 7 years, then his MMSE must be less than 24. In the second phase, these cases with positive MMSE score were given the neuro-psycho and mental health examination to confirm the dementia types after diagnosis. The content of the questionnaire was revised properly without changing the meaning of the questionnaire. The interclass correlation coefficient of MMSE was 0.89.

  15. Clinical survey on the mental state of infertile women%不孕症妇女心理状态调查以及护理干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小娟; 高翠萍

    2013-01-01

    目的:调查不孕症妇女心理状态并探讨其护理干预措施.方法:选取我院诊治的113例不孕症妇女为观察组,另选113例在我院接受体检的正常育龄期妇女为对照组.所有研究对象均填写焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)评估其心理状态,同时对不孕症妇女进行心理疏导、建立良好的医患关系、积极进行健康宣教、提供辅助生殖技术信息、鼓励夫妻同治、构建和谐人际关系及指导健康生活习惯等心理护理干预,比较护理前后评分变化.结果:观察组患者焦虑评分(60.7±3.8)及抑郁评分(61.5±4.9)均显著高于对照组(P<0.01);113例不孕症妇女中,有83.2%(94例)处于焦虑状态,有81.4%(92例)处于抑郁状态,且焦虑、抑郁程度随患者年龄、不孕时间、治疗周期、经济收入的增加和受教育程度的降低而增加,家庭不和睦患者焦虑及抑郁状态比家庭和睦患者严重(P<0.05);经心理护理干预后,观察组患者焦虑及抑郁评分均显著下降(P<0.01).结论:临床诊疗中应重视不孕症患者心理健康问题并采取相应心理护理措施.%Objectives: To investigate infertile women's psyehologieal status and to provide proper practical care interventions for them. Methods: 113 cases of infertile women were selected as the observation group, another 113 normal women of childbearing age as the control group. Patients from both groups filled in anxiety self - rating scale (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) to get their mental state assessed. Psychological nursing interventions were given to infertile women at the same time and score changes before and after care were evaluated. Results:The observation group with an anxiety score of (60. 7 ±3.8) and a depression scores of (61.5 ±4.9) were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0. 01 ) ; among 113 cases of infertile women, 83.2% (94 patients) were in the anxiety state, 81.4% (92 cases) in a state

  16. How Many People Are Affected or At Risk for Lactose Intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many people are affected or at risk for lactose intolerance? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... lactose do not get symptoms. 1 Who gets lactose intolerance and who is at risk for it? Lactose ...

  17. Cognitive impairment among children at-risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Hannah; Cullen, Alexis E; Reichenberg, Abraham; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Campbell, Desmond D; Morris, Robin G; Laurens, Kristin R

    2014-03-01

    Adults with schizophrenia present cognitive impairments, as do individuals at ultra-high risk for the disorder, youth with relatives with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and children with antecedents of schizophrenia. The present study aimed to determine if impairments in childhood differed depending on the definition of risk and/or on the degree of relatedness to an affected individual, and if impairments were explained by IQ. Four groups of children aged 9-12 years were studied: (1) 13 children with ≥1 first-degree or ≥2 second-degree affected relatives (high familial loading: FHx(H)); (2) 14 with ≥1 affected second-degree relative (lower familial loading: FHx(L)); (3) 32 with well-replicated antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz); and (4) 45 typically-developing (TD) children with neither a positive family history nor antecedents. Compared to TD children, both FHx(H) and ASz children exhibited significantly poorer verbal comprehension, scholastic achievement, and verbal working memory, while FHx(H) children additionally displayed significantly lower full-scale IQ, and verbal memory and executive function impairments. After adjusting statistical analyses for IQ, group differences were attenuated. Relative to TD children, FHx(L) children showed no significant differences in performance. The results imply that impairments in verbal comprehension, scholastic achievement, and verbal working memory may index vulnerability for schizophrenia among children with affected relatives with the disorder and among those with multiple antecedents of the disorder who have no affected relatives. More accurate identification of children at-risk for schizophrenia and the specific deficits that they present provides opportunities for interventions such as cognitive remediation that may impact the development of the illness. PMID:24373930

  18. Youth at risk of physical inactivity may benefit more from activity-related support than youth not at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalz Dorothy L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background This study examines whether associations between activity-related support and adolescents' physical activity differ for adolescents at high versus low risk of physical inactivity. Methods: Participants included 202 middle-school-aged girls (N = 92 and boys (N = 110. Physical activity was assessed using three self-report questionnaires. Activity-related support from mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was assessed using the Activity Support Scale. Perceived sport competence was assessed using the Physical Activity Self Description Questionnaire. Participants' height and weight were measured and used to calculate their age- and sex-adjusted Body Mass Index percentile. Participants were classified as being at high risk for physical inactivity if they fulfilled two of the following three criteria: (1 overweight; (2 female; or (3 having low perceived sport competence. Results: Activity-related support from all sources was associated with higher levels of physical activity among adolescents. A stronger association between activity support and physical activity was found for adolescents at high risk for physical inactivity in comparison to adolescents at low risk. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that the activity-related support from family and friends may be an effective tool in promoting physical activity among youth at risk of physical inactivity.

  19. Staying on track: behavioral engagement of at-risk and non-at-risk students in post-secondary vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Elffers

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral disengagement from school is a proximal predictor of dropout. Therefore, the enhancement of behavioral engagement is a useful point of entry for dropout prevention. In this study, we examine the behavioral engagement of at-risk and non-at-risk students in Dutch senior vocational education

  20. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retailer independence at risk. 6.152 Section 6.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... which put retailer independence at risk. The practices specified in this section put retailer independence at risk. The practices specified here are examples and do not constitute a complete list of...

  1. 27 CFR 10.52 - Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... buyer independence at risk. 10.52 Section 10.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Practice which puts trade buyer independence at risk. The practice specified in this section is deemed to place trade buyer independence at risk within the description of exclusion in § 10.51: Industry...

  2. Towards a Typology of At-Risk Students: A Case Study in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobele, Angela R.; Kopanidis, Foula; Gangemi, Michael; Thomas, Stuart; Janssen, Rabea; Blasche, Rose E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine at-risk students and the reasons they give to explain their poor academic performance, with a view to developing a typology of at-risk students. A case study methodology was used to investigate the total population of at-risk students for Semester 2, 2008 studying at the Singapore campus of an…

  3. French Immersion Experience and Reading Skill Development in At-Risk Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Richard S.; Reynolds, Kristin A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We tracked the developmental influences of exposure to French on developing English phonological awareness, decoding and reading comprehension of English-speaking at-risk readers from Grade 1 to Grade 3. Teacher-nominated at-risk readers were matched with not-at-risk readers in French immersion and English language programs. Exposure to spoken…

  4. Using Robots to Motivate At-Risk Learners in Science over the Ninth Grade Hurdle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerge, Dora

    The ninth grade is a pivotal year in an adolescent's academic career; however, educators have failed to find a remedy for the high failure and dropout rates at this grade level. Students who lack basic skills and support as they enter high school can experience repeated failures, which often lead to a decrease in motivation and dropping out of school. Up to 15% of all ninth graders repeat ninth grade and 36% of all U. S. dropouts are ninth graders. It is imperative that researchers and educators find new ways to motivate at-risk students and augment basic skills in order to mitigate the dropout problem at this grade level. Robot teachers could be a viable solution to increase student motivation and achievement. However, before such strategies could be recommended for implementation, information about their efficacy in a high school setting is needed. The purpose of this quantitative, two-group experimental, pretest-posttest study was to determine the effects of a robot teacher/instructor on science motivation and science achievement in ninth grade at-risk learners. Approximately 40 at-risk, repeating ninth graders, ranging in age from 13 to 17 years old from one high school in the United States Virgin Islands, participated in the study. Half of the students received a robot teacher/instructor manipulation whereby a robot taught a science lesson for physical science assessments (experimental group), and the other half received the same instruction from a human teacher (control group). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare the science achievement posttest scores, as measured by test scores, and science motivation posttest scores, as measured by the SMTSL, between the experimental and the control groups, while controlling for the pretest scores (covariate). The results demonstrated that posttest motivation and achievement scores in the human teacher condition were not significantly different than posttest motivation scores in the robot teacher

  5. Combining work and family in the Netherlands : Blessing or burden for one's mental health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, Shirley; Geurts, Sabine; Scheepens, Peer

    2007-01-01

    In this article we study which characteristics of combining work and family put people at risk for mental illness. Two alternative perspectives on the impact of multiple social roles on mental health are tested: the role accumulation perspective and the role strain perspective. Both perspectives are

  6. Combining work and family in the Netherlands: Blessing or burden for one's mental health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, S.; Geurts, S.; Scheepers, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we study which characteristics of combining work and family put people at risk for mental illness. Two alternative perspectives on the impact of multiple social roles on mental health are tested: the role accumulation perspective and the role strain perspective. Both perspectives are

  7. The Influence of Family Environment on Mental Health Need and Service Use among Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard; Lindsey, Michael A.; English, Diana J.; Hawley, Kristin M.; Lambert, Sharon; Browne, Dorothy C.

    2007-01-01

    Children in child welfare are especially likely to have unmet mental health needs. The role of family factors in children's use of mental health services was examined in a longitudinal sample of 1,075 maltreated or at-risk children. Vulnerable family environment (poor family functioning, low social support, and caregiver psychological distress) is…

  8. Mindfulness Training Assists Individuals with Moderate Mental Retardation to Maintain Their Community Placements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Adkins, Angela D.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Ashvind N.

    2007-01-01

    The mindfulness procedure "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet" can help individuals with mild mental retardation control aggressive behavior. In this study, our aim was to teach this mindfulness technique, using a multiple baseline design, to 3 individuals with moderate mental retardation who were at risk of losing their community placements…

  9. 42 CFR 456.201 - UR plan required for inpatient mental hospital services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false UR plan required for inpatient mental hospital... inpatient mental hospital services. (a) The State plan must provide that each mental hospital furnishing...'s need for the services that the mental hospital furnishes him. (b) Each written mental hospital...

  10. Laptop Use, Interactive Science Software, and Science Learning Among At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Binbin; Warschauer, Mark; Hwang, Jin Kyoung; Collins, Penelope

    2014-08-01

    This year-long, quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of the use of netbook computers and interactive science software on fifth-grade students' science learning processes, academic achievement, and interest in further science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) study within a linguistically diverse school district in California. Analysis of students' state standardized science test scores indicated that the program helped close gaps in scientific achievement between at-risk learners (i.e., English learners, Hispanics, and free/reduced-lunch recipients) and their counterparts. Teacher and student interviews and classroom observations suggested that computer-supported visual representations and interactions supported diverse learners' scientific understanding and inquiry and enabled more individualized and differentiated instruction. Finally, interviews revealed that the program had a positive impact on students' motivation in science and on their interest in pursuing science-related careers. This study suggests that technology-facilitated science instruction is beneficial for improving at-risk students' science achievement, scaffolding students' scientific understanding, and strengthening students' motivation to pursue STEM-related careers.

  11. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  12. Good Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and to address the stigma associated with mental health. It provides information on the signs and symptoms of mental illness and solutions for preventing and coping with mental illness. Insomnia Fact Sheet - This fact sheet provides information on ...

  13. Teen Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

  14. National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS), 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) is designed to collect information from all specialty mental health facilities in the United States, both public...

  15. Epistemological implications of near-death experiences and other non-ordinary mental expressions: Moving beyond the concept of altered state of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Enrico; Agrillo, Christian; Greyson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    During the last decades an increasing interest has developed in the so-called altered state of consciousness (ASCs); among these, near-death experiences (NDEs) are one of the most intriguing and debated examples. NDEs are deep and universal experiences with a clear phenomenology and incidence, while some of their features challenge the current views of human consciousness (focused on neural circuits and based on the concept of mind as a byproduct of brain circuitry) with relevant epistemological and historical implications. The origin of the ruling mechanist-reductionist paradigm can be traced back to Descartes' radical separation of res cogitans and res extensa and the conflict between the nascent science and the Inquisition; this led to removing the subjective properties of mind from the field of scientific interest, relegating them to philosophy and theology in order to enable the development of modern science. However, the physics of the 20th century has eventually moved beyond the classical paradigm, permitting a profound renewal of scientific interest in the mind. Modern research on NDEs has contributed to reopening the debate surrounding the Cartesian separation, the mind-brain relationship and the nature of consciousness. It is now time to reappraise the relevance, strengths, and weaknesses of the available scientific interpretations of NDEs, their relationship with other ASCs, as well as the very concept of ASC; the latter looks to be ill-founded, suggesting the need for: (a) a revision of the conventional approach to subjective phenomena, including both the third- and first-person perspective; and (b) a deep reflection on the possible links between different non-ordinary mental expression, as regards both their phenomenology and mechanisms from a non-pathological perspective. PMID:25892488

  16. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is superior to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in detection of Korsakoff's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudman, Erik; Postma, Albert; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Appelhof, Britt; Wijnia, Jan W; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2014-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) are brief screening instruments for cognitive disorders. Although these instruments have frequently been used in the detection of dementia, there is currently little knowledge on the validity to detect Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) with both screening instruments. KS is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder associated with profound declarative amnesia after thiamine deficiency. A representative sample of 30 patients with KS and 30 age-, education-, gender- and premorbid-IQ-matched controls was administered the MoCA and MMSE. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated in addition to the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for various cut-off points on the MoCA and MMSE. Compared with the MMSE, the MoCA demonstrated consistently superior psychometric properties and discriminant validity--AUC: MoCA (1.00 SE .003) and MMSE (0.92 SE .033). When applying a cut-off value as suggested in the manuals of both instruments, the MMSE (< 24) misdiagnosed 46.7% of the patients, while the MoCA (< 26) diagnosed all patients correctly. As a screening instrument with the most optimal cut-offs, the MoCA (optimal cutoff point 22/23, 98.3% correctly diagnosed) was superior to the MMSE (optimal cutoff point 26/27, 83.3% correctly diagnosed). We conclude that both tests have adequate psychometric properties as a screening instrument for the detection of KS, but the MoCA is superior to the MMSE for this specific patient population. PMID:25249353

  17. Incidence of Brain Atrophy and Decline in Mini-Mental State Examination Score After Whole-Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With Brain Metastases: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of brain atrophy and dementia after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases not undergoing surgery. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients underwent WBRT to 40 Gy in 20 fractions with or without a 10-Gy boost. Brain magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were performed before and soon after radiotherapy, every 3 months for 18 months, and every 6 months thereafter. Brain atrophy was evaluated by change in cerebrospinal fluid-cranial ratio (CCR), and the atrophy index was defined as postradiation CCR divided by preradiation CCR. Results: Of 101 patients (median age, 62 years) entering the study, 92 completed WBRT, and 45, 25, and 10 patients were assessable at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Mean atrophy index was 1.24 ± 0.39 (SD) at 6 months and 1.32 ± 0.40 at 12 months, and 18% and 28% of the patients had an increase in the atrophy index by 30% or greater, respectively. No apparent decrease in mean MMSE score was observed after WBRT. Individually, MMSE scores decreased by four or more points in 11% at 6 months, 12% at 12 months, and 0% at 18 months. However, about half the decrease in MMSE scores was associated with a decrease in performance status caused by systemic disease progression. Conclusions: Brain atrophy developed in up to 30% of patients, but it was not necessarily accompanied by MMSE score decrease. Dementia after WBRT unaccompanied by tumor recurrence was infrequent

  18. Integration of mental healthcare into primary healthcare in Lagos, Nigeria: the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele O. Coker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Lagos State Ministry of Health recently launched its Mental Health Policy aimed at addressing the mental health needs the residents of the State. The policy also aimed at reducing the mental disorders treatment gap in the state by integrating mental healthcare into the primary healthcare in order to make mental healthcare services closer and accessible for residents of the State. This paper therefore critically reviews the rationale for the integration, magnitude of problems in Lagos State with regards to mental healthcare services, available resources, challenges in providing mental healthcare services, recommendations for successful integration, the necessary advocacy needed to implement the integration and benefits of the integration.

  19. Peptides from adipose tissue in mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Zając, Andrzej; Pilecki, Maciej; Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that is essential to regulation of metabolism in humans. A new approach to mental disorders led to research on involvement of adipokines in the etiology of mental disorders and mood states and their impact on the health status of psychiatric patients, as well as the effects of treatment for mental health disorders on plasma levels of adipokines. There is evidence that disturbances in adipokine secretion are important in the pathogenesis, clinical pr...

  20. Integration of mental healthcare into primary healthcare in Lagos, Nigeria: the way forward

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodele O. Coker; Olufemi B. Olugbile; Olufemi Oluwatayo

    2015-01-01

    The Lagos State Ministry of Health recently launched its Mental Health Policy aimed at addressing the mental health needs the residents of the State. The policy also aimed at reducing the mental disorders treatment gap in the state by integrating mental healthcare into the primary healthcare in order to make mental healthcare services closer and accessible for residents of the State. This paper therefore critically reviews the rationale for the integration, magnitude of problems in Lagos Stat...

  1. Ultima Ratio, Is the Principle at Risk?: Editors’ Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultima ratio as a normative principle, or a constellation of principles, would be a hermeneutic pre-understanding or pre-interpretative concept to the effect that the definition of a certain socially relevant conduct as a crime and the consequent infliction of a penal sanction on the perpetrator of such conduct is a serious matter to be handled with caution and not to be abused. Similarly, the emergence of new definitions of "European" crimes is a matter of concern. The risk referred to in the rhetoric question of the Workshop “Is the ultima ratio principle at risk?” lies in the non-observance of the principle of minimal intervention, the tendency to criminalise and to bring all or any socially – even politically – undesirable actions under the criminal law, and to use the criminal definition and sanction for purposes and situations other than the strictly necessary – principle of necessity – and universally shared – principle of deep social consensus. Ultima ratio como un principio normativo, o una constelación de principios, sería un concepto heurístico, una comprensión o pre-interpretación hermenéutica, a fin de que la definición como “delito” de determinada conducta socialmente relevante, y la consecuente imposición de una sanción penal al causante de dicha conducta es un asunto serio que debe tratarse con cautela, y del que no se debiera abusar. El “riesgo” mencionado en la pregunta retórica del seminario “¿Está el principio de ultima ratio en riesgo?” se encuentra en la falta de observación del principio de intervención mínima del derecho penal, en la tendencia a criminalizar y a reconducir las acciones socialmente, incluso políticamente, indeseables bajo el derecho penal, y a abusar de la definición penal o tipificación y de la sanción penal cubriendo finalidades y situaciones diferentes de las estrictamente necesarias, principio de necesidad, y de las universalmente compartidas, principio de

  2. What Is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. Mental illness usually strike individuals in the prime of their lives, often during adolescence and young ... Illness page. Get more Mental Illness: Facts and Numbers from NAMI's Fact Sheet . Back

  3. Health Problems of Mentally Disabled Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yildirim Sari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mentally disabled individuals are at risk of health problems. In fact, health problems are more frequent in mentally disabled individuals than in the general population and mentally disabled individuals less frequently use health care facilities. It has been shown that mentally disabled individuals frequently have nutritional problems. They may suffer from low weight, malnutrition, high weight, pica, iron and zinc deficiencies and absorption and eating disorders. Activities can be limited due to motor disability and restricted movements. Depending on insufficient liquid intake and dietary fiber, constipation can be frequent. Another problem is sleep disorders such as irregular sleep hours, short sleep, waking up at night and daytime sleepiness. Visual-hearing losses, epilepsy, motor disability, hepatitis A infection and poor oral hygiene are more frequent in mentally disabled children than in the general population. The mentally disabled have limited health care facilities, poorer health status than the general population and difficulties in demanding for health care and expressing health problems. Therefore, they should be provided with more health promotion services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 145-150

  4. Residências terapêuticas: experiência dos residentes de saúde mental do programa da universidade do estado da Bahia (Therapeutic residency: the experience of mental health residents at the state university of Bahia)

    OpenAIRE

    Josenaide Engrácia dos Santos; Noêmia Aragão Casais; Miriam Santos Alves

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: O presente artigo é produto da experiência dos residentes do Núcleo de Saúde Mental da Residência Multiprofi ssional em Saúde da Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), na Residência Terapêutica (RT) do distrito sanitário de Itapagipe, localizado em Salvador-Bahia. Essa experiência teve inicio com a inserção dos residentes no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial - CAPS II do referido distrito, que, no planejamento das ações desenvolvidas no território, priorizou a residência terapêutica com...

  5. Characteristics of successful technological interventions in mental resilience training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakili, V.; Brinkman, W.P.; Morina, N.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, several effective virtual reality-based interventions for anxiety disorders have been developed. Virtual reality interventions can also be used to build resilience to psychopathology for populations at risk of exposure to traumatic experiences and developing mental disorders

  6. Mental health in Nicaragua : with special reference to psychological trauma and suicidal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Caldera Aburto, José Trinidad

    2004-01-01

    This thesis explores mental health problems relating to war and natural disaster and suicidal behaviour in the Nicaraguan population. The more specific aims of the study were to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of mental disorder in a community-based study during time of war (Paper I), to assess the mental health impact of Hurricane Mitch in 1998 (Paper II), to assess the incidence of hospitalized parasuicide cases and groups at risk (Paper III), and to examine suicide in...

  7. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan N Clennin

    Full Text Available To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD.Patient data records from 2002-2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed a submaximal exercise test. During the evaluation, participants also completed the SF-36, a HRQoL measure comprised of eight dimensions that are summarized by physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS, respectively. ANCOVA was used to examine the relationship between HRQoL dimensions and CRF. Logistic regression was then used to compare the odds of having a HRQoL component score above the norm across CRF. All analyses were performed separately for males and females with additional stratified analyses across age and BMI conducted among significant trends.A total of 2,302 subjects were included in the analysis. Among females, a significant relationship was observed between CRF and vitality, physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, and general health dimensions. However, for males the only dimension found to be significantly associated with CRF was physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant linear trend (p<0.001 for PCS scores above the norm across CRF levels was observed for females only.Among females with one or more risk factors for developing CVD, higher levels of CRF were positively associated with the vitality and physical dimensions of HRQoL, as well as the overall PCS. However, among males the only dimension associated with CRF was physical functioning. Future studies should examine this relationship among populations at risk for developing CVD in more detail and over time.

  8. Neurophysiological Correlates of Various Mental Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo eHinterberger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A common view of consciousness is that our mind presents emotions, experiences and images in an internal mental (re-presentation space which in a state of wakefulness is triggered by the world outside. Consciousness can be defined as the observation of this inner mental space. We propose a new model, in which the state of the conscious observer is defined by the observer’s mental position and focus of attention. The mental position of the observer can either be within the mental self (intrapersonal space, in the mental outer world (extrapersonal space or in an empathic connection, i.e. within the intrapersonal space of another person (perspective taking. The focus of attention can be directed towards the self or towards the outside world. This mental space model can help us to understand the patterns of relationships and interactions with other persons as they occur in social life.To investigate the neurophysiological correlates and discriminability of the different mental states, we conducted an EEG experiment measuring the brain activity of 16 subjects via 64 electrodes while they engaged in different mental positions (intrapersonal, extrapersonal, perspective taking with different attentional foci (self, object. Compared to external mental locations, internal ones showed significantly increased alpha2 power, especially when the observer was focusing on an object. Alpha2 and beta2 were increased in the empathic condition compared to the extrapersonal perspective. Delta power was significantly higher when the attentional focus was directed towards an object in comparison to the participant’s own self. This exploratory study demonstrates highly significant differences between various mental locations and foci, suggesting that the proposed categories of mental location and intra- and interpersonal attentional foci are not only helpful theoretical concepts but are also physiologically relevant and therefore may relate to basic brain processing

  9. Projecting Month of Birth for At-Risk Infants after Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Johansson, Michael A.; Valencia, Diana; Simeone, Regina M.; Hills, Susan L.; Polen, Kara; Jamieson, Denise J.; Petersen, Lyle R.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    The marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in Brazil after a 2015 outbreak of Zika virus (Zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. To project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in Bahia State, Brazil, we incorporated data on reported Zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. We projected that these births would occur through February 2016. Applying similar projections to a hypothetical location at which Zika virus transmission started in November, we projected that full-term infants at risk for Zika virus infection would be born during April–September 2016. We also developed a modifiable spreadsheet tool that public health officials and researchers can use for their countries to plan for deliveries of infants to women who were infected with Zika virus during different pregnancy trimesters. PMID:27088494

  10. Projecting Month of Birth for At-Risk Infants after Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reefhuis, Jennita; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Johansson, Michael A; Valencia, Diana; Simeone, Regina M; Hills, Susan L; Polen, Kara; Jamieson, Denise J; Petersen, Lyle R; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-05-01

    The marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in Brazil after a 2015 outbreak of Zika virus (Zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. To project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in Bahia State, Brazil, we incorporated data on reported Zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. We projected that these births would occur through February 2016. Applying similar projections to a hypothetical location at which Zika virus transmission started in November, we projected that full-term infants at risk for Zika virus infection would be born during April-September 2016. We also developed a modifiable spreadsheet tool that public health officials and researchers can use for their countries to plan for deliveries of infants to women who were infected with Zika virus during different pregnancy trimesters. PMID:27088494

  11. Parenting and Family Support for Families 'at risk' - Implications from Child Abuse Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Marie Halpenny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of family experiences on children’s development and wellbeing has been widely documented. Yet, recent reports generated by inquiries into child abuse and neglect in the Irish context raise disturbing questions with regard to how the severe maltreatment of children can occur within the family context. It is imperative that the messages generated from these inquiries can effectively inform policy and practice in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support to families at-risk. The present paper draws together key issues for parenting and family support for families ‘at risk’ based on the Roscommon and Monageer inquiries with a view to gaining insight into key issues which need to be addressed in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support for parents experiencing adversity. A number of implications arising from these reports are outlined and discussed. Specifically, the need to amplify the focus on support for parenting in the context of poverty and substance abuse is highlighted with a particular emphasis on developing sensitive screening and assessment for parents who may be difficult to engage with due to chronic mental health issues. The importance of accessing the voice of children within the provision of family support is also underlined in these findings. A key recommendation from these reports is that the needs, wishes and feelings of each child must be considered as well as the totality of the family situation. Moreover, the need for staff in child welfare and protection services to have access to ongoing training and professional development to meet the complex and changing needs of the children and families they are working with is also highlighted. Specifically, ongoing training for frontline staff in understanding the effects of drug and alcohol dependency, and, in particular, the effects on parenting and parent-child relationships is underscored in findings from these reports.

  12. Using Lean in the Flipped Classroom for At Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flumerfelt, Shannon; Green, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Schools are working to improve achievement through the examination of instructional practice and the use of instructional technology. This article provides informed commentary on the state of school reform and the need for continuous improvement, instructional improvement and instructional technology improvement. It also presents advocacy for the…

  13. Residential Education as an Option for At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beker, Jerome, Ed.; Magnuson, Douglas, Ed.

    Residential treatment centers have always steered a course between bureaucracy and anarchy. The conventional professional wisdom in the United States holds that residential group care programs for children and youth are intrinsically flawed. This volume seeks to remedy this perception by making a case for the adoption of Israeli and European…

  14. Relationship between Freshmen's Mental Health State and Academic Achievement in the First Year%大一新生心理健康状况与第一学年成绩的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜巧玲; 朱千; 伍露阳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between the freshmen's academic achievement and mental health state. Methods UPI was employed to evaluate 2783 freshmen's mental health state. The correlation between the academic achievements and their mental health state was studied. Results ①About 17. 75% freshmen were abnormal mental health state,the ratio of normal or abnormal mental health state between male and female students was significantly different(P<0. 01 or P<0.001);The average score of the students of UPI second category were significantly better than those students of UPI first and third categories. ②The major factors of UPI that correlated to the freshmen's academic achievements were psychosis(r=0. 83,P<0. 01),depression(r= 0. 73,P<0. 01), neurosis (r=0. 97,P<0. 01) ;The mental health state of those students who had excellent performances in academic achievements was worse sand the differences between male or female students and the only children or not were significant in several factors of UPI. Furthermore,gender,factors of neurosis and Somatic symptoms of UPI had some prediction to freshmen's academic achievements. Conclusion There are significant correlations between the academic achievements and mental health state,and the correlation was different in different groups.%目的 探讨大一新生入学心理健康状况与第一学年成绩之间的关系.方法 采用大学生人格问卷(UPI),对某二级本科院校2783名大一新生入学时的心理健康状况测试结果与第一学年学业成绩(包括平均成绩和班级排名)进行统计分析.结果 ①大一新生中有17.75%的学生心理异常,男女学生在心理健康状况和学业成绩上都有显著差异(P<0.01或0.001),UPI第二类学生的平均成绩显著优于第一类和第三类学生;②UPI的精神分裂、抑郁症、神经症与学业成绩之间存在显著相关(r=0.83,0.73,0.97;P均<0.01),成绩越优秀的学生在UPI多项因子上更容易出现问题,这

  15. Environmental Quality Index and Childhood Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...

  16. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  17. Poverty and Mental Retardation: A Causal Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Rodger L.

    The incidence of mental retardation among the poor and the reasons for such high prevalence are the focus of the text which is based largely on the state of New Jersey. Mental retardation is viewed as a social pathology which thrives in the ghetto; the effects of poverty and racial prejudice are explored as are the assessment of intelligence and…

  18. Five Keys for Teaching Mental Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, James R.

    2015-01-01

    After studying the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and brain-based learning research, James Olsen believes mental math instruction in secondary school mathematics (grades 7-12) and in teacher education programs needs increased attention. The purpose of this article is to share some keys for teaching mental math. Olsen also…

  19. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: a longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa E; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia M; Dunn, Erin C; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W; Jellinek, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life (SFL)], has been operating on a national scale in Chile for 15 years. SFL's activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL's data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students' academic outcomes. PMID:24771270

  20. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: A longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J. Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia; Dunn, Erin C.; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W.; Jellinek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The world’s largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life, SFL], has been operating at a national scale in Chile for fifteen years. SFL’s activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL’s data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students’ academic outcomes. PMID:24771270

  1. Risk of Pre-and Post-Operative Delirium and the Delirium Elderly At Risk (DEAR) Tool in Hip Fracture Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freter, Susan; Dunbar, Michael; Koller, Katalin; MacKnight, Chris; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Delirium is common after hip fracture. Previous work has shown that a simple delirium risk factor tool, the Delirium Elderly At Risk instrument (DEAR), has a high inter-rater reliability in this population. Little research has looked at the ability of risk factor screening tools to identify patients at high risk of pre-operative delirium. This study investigates the ability of the DEAR to identify patients at high risk of pre-operative delirium, as well as reporting its performance in a post-operative validation sample. Associations between delirium risk factors and pre-operative delirium are explored. Methods This prospective cohort study took place on an orthopedic in-patient service at a University-affiliated tertiary care hospital. Patients aged 65 and older who were admitted for surgical repair of hip fracture (N = 283) were assessed pre-operatively for 5 delirium risk factors (cognitive impairment, sensory impairment, functional dependence, substance use, age) using the DEAR. Patients were assessed for delirium using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Confusion Assessment Method pre-operatively and on post-operative days 1, 3 and 5. Characteristics of patients who developed delirium were compared with the characteristics of those who did not. Results Delirium was present in 58% (95% CI = 52–63%) of patients pre-operatively and 42% (95% CI = 36–48%) post-operatively. Individually, sensory impairment (χ2 = 21.7, p = .0001), functional dependence (χ2 = 24.1, p = .0001), cognitive impairment (χ2 = 55.5, p = .0001) and substance use (χ2 = 7.5, p = .007) were significantly associated with pre-operative delirium, as was wait-time for surgery (t = 3.1, p = .003) and length of stay (t = 2.8, p =.03). In multivariate modeling, the strongest association with pre-operative delirium was cognitive impairment. Conclusions The DEAR, a simple, delirium risk factor screening tool, can be used to identify hip fracture patients at risk of

  2. The Development of Mental State Attributions in Women with X-Monosomy, and the Role of Monoamine Oxidase B in the Sociocognitive Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K.; Jones, A.; Oreland, L.; Spektor, D.; Mandy, W.; Campbell, R.; Skuse, D.

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that women with Turner syndrome (45,X) with a single X-chromosome inherited from their mother may show mentalizing deficits compared to women of normal karyotype with two X-chromosomes (46,X). Simple geometrical animation events (two triangles moving with apparent intention in relation to each other) which usually elicit…

  3. Positive mental health and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Heather

    2014-09-01

    Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health. PMID:25229895

  4. Ist der Euro gefährdet? Is the European currency euro put at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Rohde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to high national debt in several member states of the Euro-Currency-Area which led to huge relief programmes the single European currency Euro seems to be at risk. Bur neither inflation rates nor exchange rate movements of the Euro since 1999 up to 2011 give reasons to believe that an up to now success story of the Euro will come to a sudden end in shortness. On the other hand it often had been argued that increasing national debt will inevitably lead to higher inflation rates and will endanger a currency by permanent devaluation. But the institutional and legal framework of the European monetary policy, if used correctly, will give sufficient protection against inflation pressure due to increasing national debt. The most danger for the European currency or for the European-Currency-Area can be seen in drifting apart of national competiveness between the member states of the Euro- Area, especially due to an existing lack of coordination in wage policy. Different wage policies in the member states of the Euro-Area in the past had led to different national inflation rates and had caused calculated real exchange rate movements which had lasting influence on national competiveness, which hamper international trade in the case of real appreciation or which promote international trade in the case of real depreciation..

  5. At-Risk Students and Academic Achievement: The Relationship Between Certain Selected Factors and Academic Success

    OpenAIRE

    Worley, Catherine Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This research study examines the relationship between academic achievement and at-risk students. Many issues today affect the achievement gap and the ability for at-risk students to succeed. Most data, as revealed in the studies included in this review, conclude the factors identifying at-risk students do have significant impact on the academic achievement of individual students and schools. Most often, these students are not successful and eventually drop out of school or pursue a GED. D...

  6. Asian American Mental Health: A Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley; Cheng, Janice Ka Yan; Saad, Carmel S.; Chu, Joyce P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General's report "Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) was arguably the best single scholarly contribution on the mental health of ethnic minority groups in the United States. Over 10 years have now elapsed…

  7. Saúde mental e trabalho interdisciplinar: a experiência do "Cândido Ferreira"em Campinas Mental health and interdisciplinary work: the experience in "Candido Ferreira", in Campinas, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Souza Queiroz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o processo de reforma psiquiátrica a partir de um foco dirigido ao trabalho interdisciplinar dos profissionais de nível superior do serviço de saúde Dr. Cândido Ferreira, em Campinas. Trata-se de uma instituição filantrópica que contribui expressivamente com a rede de assistência à saúde mental deste município. Embora integrada à rede de assistência de saúde mental desta cidade, o serviço apresenta certa independência financeira, administrativa e gerencial em relação à ela, o que lhe permite implementar algumas experiências terapêuticas e inovações gerenciais. Mais especificamente, este artigo focaliza o processo de tomada de decisão da equipe interdisciplinar, envolvendo diagnóstico e processo terapêutico. Também aborda a organização do serviço no processo de desospitalização, como o remanejamento de pacientes em residências fora da parte central do serviço, a manutenção dessas unidades, o gerenciamento das oficinas de trabalho na instituição, que preveem um rendimento financeiro para o paciente, e a implementação de um programa de três anos de residência em psiquiatria na instituição. A abordagem metodológica da pesquisa é essencialmente qualitativa, constituindo-se de entrevistas e observação participante relacionados com os profissionais desse serviço de saúde.This article analyses the process on the psychiatric reform, with a focus on the interdisciplinary work developed by the health professionals from the health service "Dr. Candido Ferreira"in Campinas, Brazil. This is a philanthropic institution which contributes significantly to public mental health network in this city. Even though the service is integrated to the Unified Heath System (SUS, it presents a financial, administrative and managerial independence, which allows implementing some therapeutic experiences and managerial innovations. More specifically, this article focuses on the process of decision making by

  8. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    de Menil Victoria; Wood Sarah K; Raja Shoba; Mannarath Saju C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key inf...

  9. Internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction of at-risk black male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, J M; Howerton, D L; Cobbs, C R

    1994-06-01

    We investigated the relationship between three factors--internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction--for at-risk Black male adolescents in the United States. Forty-two male students in Grades 6, 7, and 8 who had been identified by their teachers as being at risk completed the Locus of Control Scale for Children (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973), the Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967), and the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (Blake, 1991). A moderate positive relationship found between self-esteem and parental verbal interaction was consistent with a previous finding for White high school students. A moderate negative relationship found between locus of control and self-esteem differed from a previous finding of no significant relationship for Black elementary children. A weak, yet significant, negative relationship was found between locus of control and parental verbal interaction. PMID:8057628

  10. A profession at risk: A time for new imperatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After many decades of unprecedented expansion in medical care services in the United States, many of the premises underlying national health policies are being challenged. The major controversies are rooted in a context of commonly accepted assumptions about the overriding importance of maximum access to ever-rising levels of scientific medicine and the central place of medical care in individual and national health. The impact of these conditions on radiologic technology needs to be addressed. The broad implications for education in radiologic technology can be drawn from the trends and probable future needs in health services and settings. Educators and administrators in radiologic technology programs would be wise to foster flexibility and adaptability to changing requirements, exposing students to varied practice environments and orienting them toward comprehensive care. If education, human resource development, organization skills, and information management techniques in radiologic technology are developed and maintained in tandem with the newly instituted changes, the future could hold unlimited expansion for radiologic technology in its health care role and management responsibility

  11. Forensic Considerations of HIV Infected and Those at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available While HIV infection is considered protected information in most parts of the world, it is clear that if a health care provider knows, that the patient is infected or is likely to be infected, then either the patient or those responsible for making their medical decisions must be informed of the infection or likelihood of infection. If not, the liability exposure of the health care provider, like the virus itself, will spread to more and more people. It must be remembered that despite the existence of a confidential patient-physician relationship, a health care provider has a duty to warn a clearly identifiable third party of possible serious harm. This reliance suggests that states may eventually extend provider liability to “significant others” and individuals with whom the provider knows, or has reason to believe, the infected individual is engaged in activity which may spread this virus. The focus by the courts reinforces the need for health care providers to stay current with local reporting requirements and their legal obligations.

  12. Physical victimization in prison: The role of mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Blitz, Cynthia L.; Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2008-01-01

    This study compares prison physical victimization rates (inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate) for people with mental disorder to those without mental disorder in a state prison system. Inmate subjects were drawn from 14 adult prisons operated by a single mid-Atlantic State. A sample of 7528 subjects aged 18 or older (7221 men and 564 women) completed an audio-computer administered survey instrument. Mental disorder was based on self-reported mental health treatment ever for particular mental...

  13. People at risk - nexus critical infrastructure and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Micha; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Strategic infrastructure networks include the highly complex and interconnected systems that are so vital to a city or state that any sudden disruption can result in debilitating impacts on human life, the economy and the society as a whole. Recently, various studies have applied complex network-based models to study the performance and vulnerability of infrastructure systems under various types of attacks and hazards - a major part of them is, particularly after the 9/11 incident, related to terrorism attacks. Here, vulnerability is generally defined as the performance drop of an infrastructure system under a given disruptive event. The performance can be measured by different metrics, which correspond to various levels of resilience. In this paper, we will address vulnerability and exposure of critical infrastructure in the Eastern Alps. The Federal State Tyrol is an international transport route and an essential component of the north-south transport connectivity in Europe. Any interruption of the transport flow leads to incommensurable consequences in terms of indirect losses, since the system does not feature redundant elements at comparable economic efficiency. Natural hazard processes such as floods, debris flows, rock falls and avalanches, endanger this infrastructure line, such as large flood events in 2005 or 2012, rock falls 2014, which had strong impacts to the critical infrastructure, such as disruption of the railway lines (in 2005 and 2012), highways and motorways (in 2014). The aim of this paper is to present how critical infrastructures as well as communities and societies are vulnerable and can be resilient against natural hazard risks and the relative cascading effects to different compartments (industrial, infrastructural, societal, institutional, cultural, etc.), which is the dominant by the type of hazard (avalanches, torrential flooding, debris flow, rock falls). Specific themes will be addressed in various case studies to allow cross

  14. Mental health parity legislation: much ado about nothing?

    OpenAIRE

    Pacula, R L; Sturm, R.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether state-level parity legislation has led to an increase in utilization of mental health services. DATA SOURCES: Healthcare For Communities (HCC), a multi-site nationally representative study sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation that tracks health care system changes for mental health and substance abuse treatment. Information on state-level parity legislation was provided by state offices of the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI); local and ...

  15. Changes in disability, physical/mental health states and quality of life during an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ignacio Cuesta-Vargas

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of an 8-week multimodal physiotherapy programme (MPP, integrating physical land-based therapeutic exercise (TE, adapted swimming and health education, as a treatment for patients with chronic non-specific neck pain (CNSNP, on disability, general health/mental states and quality of life.175 CNSNP patients from a community-based centre were recruited to participate in this prospective study.60-minute session (30 minutes of land-based exercise dedicated to improving mobility, motor control, resistance and strengthening of the neck muscles, and 30 minutes of adapted swimming with aerobic exercise keeping a neutral neck position using a snorkel. Health education was provided using a decalogue on CNSNP and constant repetition of brief advice by the physiotherapist during the supervision of the exercises in each session.primary: disability (Neck Disability Index; secondary: physical and mental health states and quality of life of patients (SF-12 and EuroQoL-5D respectively. Differences between baseline data and that at the 8-week follow-up were calculated for all outcome variables.Disability showed a significant improvement of 24.6% from a mean (SD of 28.2 (13.08 at baseline to 16.88 (11.62 at the end of the 8-week intervention. All secondary outcome variables were observed to show significant, clinically relevant improvements with increase ranges between 13.0% and 16.3% from a mean of 0.70 (0.2 at baseline to 0.83 (0.2, for EuroQoL-5D, and from a mean of 40.6 (12.7 at baseline to 56.9 (9.5, for mental health state, at the end of the 8-week intervention.After 8 weeks of a MPP that integrated land-based physical TE, health education and adapted swimming, clinically-relevant and statistically-significant improvements were observed for disability, physical and mental health states and quality of life in patients who suffer CNSNP. The clinical efficacy requires verification using a randomised controlled study

  16. Recovering Pacific Rockfish at Risk: The economic valuation of management actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keldi eForbes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over thirty five species of rockfish are found along Canada’s Pacific coast, some of which have been considered for listing under Canada’s Species at Risk Act. We estimate Canadians’ welfare for recovery of a representative Pacific rockfish species using referendum-style stated preference methods administered to a sample of the Canadian public via an internet panel. Hypothetical recovery programs were presented as options to a baseline of current management measures. The programs resulted in varying long term outcomes distinguished by species’ future population projections. An increase in household taxes for a fixed ten year period was employed as the proposed payment mechanism. The econometric analysis found positive and significant welfare measures for all management programs, as well as sensitivity to scope. Willingness to pay ranged from $48 - $180 per year per household depending on the recovery program valued. Welfare measures were found to differ significantly between those who believed their responses to be consequential and those who did not. The former provided measures that were significantly higher than the latter. We conclude with a discussion of the findings in relation to recent literature on consequentiality and incentive compatibility of stated preference questions.

  17. The Effects of the Interactive Strategies Approach on At-Risk Kindergartners' Spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hwa; Scanlon, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on examining the effects of early literacy intervention on the emergence and development of at-risk kindergartners' spelling. Spelling data were selected from Scanlon et al.'s (2005) study which demonstrated the efficacy of reading intervention in reducing the incidence of at-risk children who show reading difficulties…

  18. Autonomy and Responsibility: Online Learning as a Solution for At-Risk High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S.; Whiteside, A.; Garrett Dikkers, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this three-year, mixed methods case study, the benefits and challenges of online learning for at-risk high school students were examined. A key finding was that at-risk students identify the benefits and challenges of online learning to be the same. While students appreciate the opportunity to work ahead and study at their own pace, they see it…

  19. An Examination of the Impact of Early Intervention on Learning Outcomes of At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Fei, Qiang; Quddus, Munir; Davis, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the effectiveness of early intervention on academic success for at-risk students. An intervention program is implemented in a minority serving public university by providing counseling and advising to academically at-risk students. Student performance is monitored and evaluated to explore whether early intervention impacts…

  20. At Risk Policy and Early Intervention Programmes for Underperforming Students: Ensuring Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobele, Angela R.; Gangemi, Michael; Kopanidis, Foula; Thomas, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine a University's at risk program and ask is the intervention strategy working? The program seeks to assist at risk students who may be experiencing difficulties transitioning, for example from school into university. The program also seeks to identify problems and suggest remediation strategies before…

  1. Parental Enabling Attitudes and Locus of Control of At-Risk and Honors Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Shirley; Hurford, David P.; Cole, AmyKay

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the Lynch Enabling Survey for Parents (LESP), and determines the scale to be reliable and valid. Also examines the differences between at-risk and honors students and their parents' LESP scores. Results reveal that the LESP scores of parents of at-risk students were significantly more enabling than were the responses of parents of honors…

  2. Implementation of Music Activities to Increase Language Skills in the At-Risk Early Childhood Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Elissa

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term effects of a music education intervention on the receptive language skills of students in an at-risk early childhood program. The target population was nine students ages 3, 4, and 5 in an at-risk, inclusive classroom in a Chicago public school. The problem of language delay is indicated in…

  3. Remain or React: The Music Education Profession's Responses to "Sputnik" and "A Nation at Risk"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapalka Richerme, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The 1957 launch of "Sputnik" and the 1983 publication of "A Nation at Risk" shifted national education policy. Music educators promoted an "intrinsic value" of music philosophy following "Sputnik" and music advocacy through politics and public performances following "A Nation at Risk." Examining the history of both the intrinsic value philosophy…

  4. The Synergy Program: Reframing Critical Reading and Writing for At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, April

    2006-01-01

    In this description of a learning community for "at-risk" and basic writing students at the University of Wyoming, I outline the reasons our students resist academic writing prior to their entry into college--reasons largely unrelated to typical perceptions of at-risk students as "lazy" or intellectually less capable. For students who come from…

  5. Who Is at Risk for Persistent Mathematics Difficulties in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed two nationally representative, longitudinal data sets of U.S. children to identify risk factors for persistent mathematics difficulties (PMD). Results indicated that children from low socioeconomic households are at elevated risk of PMD at 48 and 60 months of age, as are children with cognitive delays, identified developmental delays…

  6. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  7. Mental Health Stigma about Serious Mental Illness among MSW Students: Social Contact and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Irene; Han, Meekyung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the attitudes toward and beliefs about serious mental illness (SMI) held by a group of graduate social work students in the northwestern United States were examined. Mental health stigma was examined with relation to the following factors: participants' level of social contact with SMI populations, adherence to stereotypes about SMI…

  8. Women and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience symptoms of mental disorders at times of hormone change, such as perinatal depression , premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and perimenopause-related depression. When it comes to other mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder , research has not found differences ...

  9. Mental toughness in soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diment, Gregory Michael

    2014-01-01

    a systematic observation checklist of mental toughness behavior in professional soccer. Consistent with existing studies, the results created a systematic observation instrument containing 15 mental toughness behaviors. Practical implications include goal-setting, game analysis and self-modeling interventions...

  10. Mental Health and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues Wellness Programs MyHealtheVet Nutrition Quitting Smoking ...

  11. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues Wellness Programs MyHealtheVet Nutrition Quitting Smoking ...

  12. REVIEW ON TUBERCULOSIS AND MENTAL DISORDERS COMMON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleide Santos de Araújo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite having vaccine and treatment , TB remains a public health problem . Publications have described high proportion of TB among people with anxiety , depression and mental disorders . This study aimed to identify publications on the association between common mental disorders and tuberculosis and describe the state of the art . This is a literature review with keywords tuberculosis,common mental disorders , anxiety and depression , we excluded studies of extra- pulmonary tuberculosis and animals. 09 articles, only on a specific common mental disorders , comparing the proportion of these in tuberculosis cases ( 46.7 % and tuberculosis infected by the human immunodeficiency virus ( 63.7 % , there are few studies concerning the topic were elected , the most specific problems of anxiety and depression , are from countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is high, ethodological strategies have low analytical power and do not investigate the causal mechanisms underlying the relationship between mental health and tuberculosis.

  13. 心理护理对肺尘埃沉着症患者心理状态的影响%Effects of mental nursing on psychological state of patients with pnemnoconiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁美霞; 温尔雅; 庄静英

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察心理护理对肺尘埃沉着症患者心理状态的影响.方法 选取160例肺尘埃沉着症患者,随机分为8组,每组20例,观察心理护理前和心理护理后15,30,60 d的心理特征,并比较青年、中年和老年组心理护理60 d后肺尘埃沉着症患者存在4种或以上心理特征病例数;另选取320例同类患者,随机分为两方面心理护理组和全方面心理护理组各160例,记录2组心理护理前和心理护理60 d后的心理特征.统计明显存在4种或以上心理特征的患者数.结果 心理护理15d后明显存在4种或者以上肺尘埃沉着症患者心理特征病例数有所减少;心理护理30,60 d后病例数进一步减少,与15 d后比较差异显著;且60 d较30 d减少更显著.两方面心理护理组和多方面心理护理组在进行60 d心理护理后,病例数明显减少,差异显著;多方面心理护理组减少更显著.经60 d心理护理后,青年组病例数减少最显著,与中年组、老年组相比差异显著;而中年组、老年组间比较无显著差异.结论 对肺尘埃沉着症患者的心理护理过程是一个长期的、循序渐进的过程,而且全面的心理护理对改善肺尘埃沉着症患者心理状态有极大影响;心理护理对于不同年龄层次患者的影响存在较大差异.%Objective To investigate effects of mental nursing on psychological state of patients with pneumoconiosis. Methods 160 pneumoconiosis patients were divided into 8 groups randomly,and 20 patients were included in each group. Psychological characteristics were observed before mental nurs-ing, and 15, 30 and 60 days after mental nursing. The numbers of the youth, the middle-aged and the el-derly patients who demonsrated four or more kinds of psychological characteristics after 60 days mental nursing were compared.320 patients of the same kind were divided into the two aspects of mental nursing group and all aspects of mental nursing group, the number of patients

  14. PHA urges parents to get 'at risk' children vaccinated against seasonal flu

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    The Public Health Agency is urging Northern Ireland parents to make sure children in 'at risk' groups get their flu vaccine early.The message has been issued to parents and carers of children as the PHA's seasonal flu vaccination programme gets underway for 2011/12.It is very important that children with any condition that puts them more at risk of the complications of flu get the vaccine.These 'at risk' conditions include:chronic lung conditions such as asthma;chest infections that have requ...

  15. A climate change vulnerability assessment of California's at-risk birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gardali

    Full Text Available Conservationists must develop new strategies and adapt existing tools to address the consequences of anthropogenic climate change. To support statewide climate change adaptation, we developed a framework for assessing climate change vulnerability of California's at-risk birds and integrating it into the existing California Bird Species of Special Concern list. We defined climate vulnerability as the amount of evidence that climate change will negatively impact a population. We quantified climate vulnerability by scoring sensitivity (intrinsic characteristics of an organism that make it vulnerable and exposure (the magnitude of climate change expected for each taxon. Using the combined sensitivity and exposure scores as an index, we ranked 358 avian taxa, and classified 128 as vulnerable to climate change. Birds associated with wetlands had the largest representation on the list relative to other habitat groups. Of the 29 state or federally listed taxa, 21 were also classified as climate vulnerable, further raising their conservation concern. Integrating climate vulnerability and California's Bird Species of Special Concern list resulted in the addition of five taxa and an increase in priority rank for ten. Our process illustrates a simple, immediate action that can be taken to inform climate change adaptation strategies for wildlife.

  16. Measuring the risk of an Iranian banking system using Value at Risk (VaR Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring risk of financial institutes and banks plays an important role on managing them. Recent financial turmoil in United States banking system has motivated banking industry to monitor risk factors more closely. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the risk of some private banks in Iran called Bank Mellat using Value at Risk (VaR method. The proposed study collects the necessary information for the fiscal year of 2010 and analyses them using regression analysis. The study divides the financial data into two groups where the financial data of the first half of year is considered in the first group and the remaining information for the second half of year 2010 is considered in the second group. The implementation of VaR method indicates that financial risks increase during the time horizon. The study also uses linear regression method where independent variable is time, dependent variable is the financial risk, and the results confirm what we have found in the previous part of the survey.

  17. School-related risk and protective factors associated with truancy among urban youth placed at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L; Huizinga, David H

    2007-11-01

    Truancy is a serious concern in the United States. Its negative effects are so pervasive that in 2003 the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention named truancy prevention a national priority. Effective prevention of truancy requires a thorough understanding of the characteristics that describe truant youth as well as factors that may put them at risk for truancy. Unfortunately, surprisingly little is known about the correlates and/or causes of truancy. In this paper we explore associations between truancy and several salient school-related risk and protective factors among a sample of youth who grew up in socially disorganized neighborhoods of Denver, CO. We demonstrate that several school-related risk and protective factors are associated with truancy. Perhaps most importantly, we identify that the two most robust predictors are school performance and involvement with delinquent peers, and that these two variables form a synergistic relationship in which the relationship between delinquent peer association and truancy is mitigated among students who perform well in school. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors use data from a large probability sample drawn from neighborhoods with high crime rates to identify key correlates of truancy. They also draw attention to the dearth of efficacious truancy prevention efforts in spite of the magnitude of the problem. PMID:18004658

  18. You Can't Look Forward to Tomorrow, While Holding on to Yesterday: Rural Education and the At-Risk Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Larry D.

    Like urban America, rural America faces problems with drugs, crime, unemployment, poverty, inadequate health care, teenage pregnancy, suicide, etc. Almost three quarters of all public schools in the United States are in rural areas. At least 30 percent of America's current school-age children are at risk and have become educationally…

  19. Communicating Science to Officials and People at Risk During a Slow-Motion Lava Flow Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. A.; Babb, J.; Brantley, S.; Kauahikaua, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    From June 2014 through March 2015, Kīlauea Volcano's Púu ´Ō´ō vent on the East Rift Zone produced a tube-fed pāhoehoe lava flow -the "June 27th flow" - that extended 20 km downslope. Within 2 months of onset, flow trajectory towards populated areas in the Puna District caused much concern. The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) issued a news release of increased hazard on August 22 and began participating in public meetings organized by Hawai`i County Mayor and Civil Defense two days later. On September 4, HVO upgraded the volcano alert level to WARNING based on an increased potential for lava to reach homes and infrastructure. Ultimately, direct impacts were modest: lava destroyed one unoccupied home and one utility pole, crossed a rural roadway, and partially inundated a waste transfer station, a cemetery, and agricultural land. Anticipation that lava could reach Pāhoa Village and cross the only major access highway, however, caused significant disruption. HVO scientists employed numerous methods to communicate science and hazard information to officials and the at-risk public: daily (or more frequent) written updates of the lava activity, flow front locations and advance rates; frequent updates of web-hosted maps and images; use of the 'lines of steepest descent' method to indicate likely lava flow paths; consistent participation in well-attended community meetings; bi-weekly briefings to County, State, and Federal officials; correspondence with the public via email and recorded phone messages; participation in press conferences and congressional briefings; and weekly newspaper articles (Volcano Watch). Communication lessons both learned and reinforced include: (1) direct, frequent interaction between scientists and officials and at-risk public builds critical trust and understanding; (2) images, maps, and presentations must be tailored to audience needs; (3) many people are unfamiliar with maps (oblique aerial photographs were more effective); (4

  20. The Effects of Romantic Love on Mentalizing Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the human pair-bonded state of “romantic love” on cognitive function remain relatively unexplored. Theories on cognitive priming suggest that a state of love may activate love-relevant schemas, such as mentalizing about the beliefs of another individual, and may thus improve mentalizing abilities. On the other hand, recent functional MRI (fMRI) research on individuals who are in love suggests that several brain regions associated with mentalizing may be “deactivated” during the...

  1. Zambia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba

    2004-01-01

    This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is

  2. Mental health reform, economic globalization and the practice of citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Marina

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on research conducted in British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec it is argued that tension exists between mental health reforms born out of concern for the well-being and care of people and those that are being driven by cost-containment and efficiency. Contributing to this tension are competing discourses about mental health and mental illness. It is argued that progressive change requires the meaningful engagement of mental health care recipients in policy decision-making processes and ongoing analysis about the interconnections between economic globalization, social welfare state restructuring and mental health reform. PMID:16138645

  3. Determinants of mental health service use in the national mental health survey of the elderly in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kua Ee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite high prevalence of mental health problems, only a minority of elderly people seek treatment. Although need-for-care factors are primary determinants of mental health service use, personal predisposing or enabling factors including health beliefs are important but are not well studied. Method In the National Mental Health Survey of Elderly in Singapore, 2003, 1092 older adults aged 60 and above were interviewed for diagnosis of mental disorders (using Geriatric Mental State and treatment, and their health beliefs about the curability of mental illness, embarrassment and stigma, easiness discussing mental problems, effectiveness and safety of treatment and trust in professionals. Results The prevalence of mental disorders was 13%, but only a third of mentally ill respondents had sought treatment. Increased likelihood of seeking treatment was significantly associated with the presence of a mental disorder (OR = 5.27, disability from mental illness (OR = 79.9, and poor or fair self-rated mental health (OR = 2.63, female gender (OR = 2.25, and formal education (OR = 2.40. The likelihood of treatment seeking was lower in those reporting financial limitations for medical care (OR = 0.38, but also higher household income (OR = 0.31. Negative beliefs showed no meaningful associations, but the positive belief that 'to a great extent mental illness can be cured' was associated with increased mental health service use (OR = 6.89. The availability of family caregiver showed a negative association (OR = 0.20. Conclusion The determinants of mental health service use in the elderly included primary need factors, and female gender and socioeconomic factors. There was little evidence of influences by negative health beliefs, but a positive health belief that 'mental illness can be cured' is a strongly positive determinant The influence of family members and care-givers on senior's use of mental health service should be further explored.

  4. Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... for oral cancer and the importance of early detection. Multimedia: Video: Are You at Risk for Oral ...

  5. How Many Women Are Affected by or at Risk of Preeclampsia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women are affected by or at risk of preeclampsia? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... severe preeclampsia or eclampsia. 3 Risk Factors for Preeclampsia Preeclampsia occurs primarily in first pregnancies. Other factors ...

  6. 1 in 10 Alzheimer's Patients At Risk for Avoidable Hospital Stays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160057.html 1 in 10 Alzheimer's Patients at Risk for Avoidable Hospital Stays Study ... July 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Some people with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias may often land in ...

  7. How Many People Are Affected by or at Risk for Endometriosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people are affected by or at risk for endometriosis? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... menstruates. Factors that May Increase the Risk of Endometriosis Studies show that women are at higher risk ...

  8. The role of the teacher in remediating at-risk medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winston, K.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous work identified complex ingredients of a remediation programme for at-risk medical students: mandatory, stable, facilitated small groups promote both cognitive and affective developments, with improved self-regulation, metacognition and reflection resulting in significant perfor

  9. How Many People Are Affected by or at Risk for Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people are affected by or at risk for Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... ethnicity. 4 , 5 Maternal Age and Risk for Down Syndrome Because the likelihood that an egg will contain ...

  10. Encouraging the Disuse of Illicit Drugs Among At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum

    2016-05-01

    Youth at risk of illicit drug abuse and other delinquent acts are the target of social work services. Preventing or discouraging the use of illicit drugs among at-risk youth is a long-standing practical and research concern. For this reason, the preventive function of courage is a research gap the present study seeks to fill. The study collected data from 169 at-risk youths and their social workers with two-wave panel surveys. Results show that courage in Wave 1 presented a strong negative effect on illicit drug use in Wave 2 in the youth, controlling for illicit drug use in Wave 1 and background characteristics. Moreover, the negative effect was stronger when Wave 1 drug use was more likely. These results imply the helpfulness of encouraging at-risk youth to gather courage to resist the temptation to use illicit drugs. PMID:25472992

  11. [Psychophysiological mechanisms involved in the affective regulation and food restriction of women at risk of suffering from bulimia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sonia; Mata, José Luis; Moreno, Silvia; Fernández, Maria Carmen; Vila, Jaime

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effect of visualizing food images under different mood states and food restriction conditions on the emotional modulation of two defense reflexes (startle reflex and cardiac defense). 72 women at risk of suffering from bulimia nervosa were assigned to two groups: 1) a group under induced positive, neutral, or negative mood state and, 2) a 6-hour-food-deprived group or a non-deprived group. Second-by-second heart rate and electromyogram activity from the orbiculari oculi region were recorded after the auditory stimulus. The results showed that, while viewing food images, non-deprived women under negative mood state potentiated the cardiac defense response and the startle motor reflex. Results are discussed in the context of emotional eating theories and Peter Lang's motivational priming model. PMID:17295980

  12. 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

  13. Estimation of the value-at-risk parameter: Econometric analysis and the extreme value theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Zorica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different aspects of value-at-risk estimation are considered. Daily returns of CISCO, INTEL and NASDAQ stock indices are analyzed for period: September 1996 - September 2006. Methods that incorporate time varying variability and heavy tails of the empirical distributions of returns are implemented. The main finding of the paper is that standard econometric methods underestimate the value-at-risk parameter if heavy tails of the empirical distribution are not explicitly taken into account. .

  14. An Interactive Psychoeducational Intervention for Women at Risk of Developing an Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabinski, Marion F.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Calfas, Karen J.; Winzelberg, Andrew J.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated a synchronous Internet-delivered intervention (chat room) for improving eating habits and body image in college-age women at risk for developing an eating disorder. Sixty at-risk women (mean age = 18.9, SD = 2.4; 65.0% Caucasian, 19% Latino/Hispanic, 8% Asian/Pacific Islander, 3% African American, 5% other; mean body mass…

  15. Reducing Stereotype Threat in Academically At-Risk African-Americans Students: A Self-

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Crystal Marie

    2011-01-01

    AbstractReducing Stereotype Threat in Academically At-Risk African- Americans Students: A Self- Affirmation InterventionbyCrystal Marie SimmonsDoctor of Philosophy in EducationUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Frank C. Worrell, ChairIn this study, I examined the effectiveness of a self-affirmation intervention (Cohen et al., 2006) with a sample of African American high school students who were at risk for academic failure. Participants consisted of 47 African-American students from ...

  16. A shortcut to sign Incremental Value-at-Risk for risk allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Tasche; Luisa Tibiletti

    2002-01-01

    Approximate Incremental Value-at-Risk formulae provide an easy-to-use preliminary guideline for risk allocation. Both the cases of risk adding and risk pooling are examined and beta-based formulae achieved. Results highlight how much the conditions for adding new risky positions are stronger than those required for risk pooling. Key words: Incremental Value-at-Risk (IVaR); Risk pooling; Risk adding.

  17. The Lack of Help Seeking Among At-Risk Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    James, Nicole E.

    2003-01-01

    Large classes are becoming inevitable at large research Universities. The sociology department at Virginia Tech University routinely offers a course with approximately 600 students. Each year approximately a sixth of those students fail the first exam. To increase the performance of at-risk students a mentoring program was created, but many did not participate. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that contribute to at-risk students choosing not to take advantage of the academi...

  18. Success Against the Odds: The Experience of At-Risk Students Who Graduate Fom Postseconday Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Felecia Moore

    2000-01-01

    Over the years, dramatic changes in retention and attrition rates have given rise to extensive studies on the academically at-risk college student (Nisbet, Ruble, and Schurr 1982; Levin and Levin, 1991, White & Salacek, 1986). Yet, most of these studies have focused on statistical measures identifying predictors of success using traditional quantitative methodology, with only sparse attention given to the amorphous phenomenon of the "student's experience." Against the odds, some at-risk s...

  19. Multi scale risk measurement in electricity market:a wavelet based value at risk approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guu; Sy-Ming; Lai; Kin; Keung

    2008-01-01

    Value at risk (VaR) is adopted to measure the risk level in the electricity market. To estimate VaR at higher accuracy and reliability, the wavelet variance decomposed approach for value at risk estimates (WVDVaR) is proposed. Empirical studies conduct in five Australian electricity markets, which evaluate the performances of both the proposed approach and the traditional ARMA-GARCH approach using the Kupiec backtesting procedure. Experimental results suggest that the proposed approach measures electricity ...

  20. Becoming at-risk: transitioning into a communications classroom; a phenomenological study

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Robert Douglas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the lived experience of high school students as they transitioned into the at-risk label of a Communications 11 student. This research focused on those students who were designated at-risk for non-diagnostic reasons. Four students were interviewed about their experiences and the transcriptions were confirmed by them to ensure authenticity. A composite description of these cases was created in order to gain an understanding of the in...