WorldWideScience

Sample records for at-home welfare device

  1. Making Medical Devices Safer at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Making Medical Devices Safer at Home Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Tips for Consumers Patients and consumers are using medical devices more often at home—not just in health ...

  2. How parents of little children manage digital devices at home

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Sonia; Mascheroni, Giovanna; Dreier, Michael; CHAUDRON STEPHANE; LAGAE KAAT

    2015-01-01

    Despite being often ambivalent regarding the potential benefits and risks of digital media, parents begin thinking about, and finding ways to manage, the digital media use of their children when they are very young. Partly, they act out of already-established styles of parenting and family values, extending these to ICT uses at home as soon as these begin. Partly, they are already mediating the activities of their older children, and they adjust their approach to include their younger chil...

  3. Our experience of 200 patients: usage and maintenance of long-term oxygen therapy and non-invasive ventilation devices at home

    OpenAIRE

    Ülger, A Füsun; Poyraz, Barış; Gulec Balbay, Ege; Binay, Songül

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the patients’ attitudes about the devices, of which they use for long-term respiratory support at home. Method: 200 consecutive patients were questioned about the treatment and devices of respiratory support at home by face to face questionnaire. Their records were taken from the archives of Social Security Agency. Results: 123 (61.5%) of the patients were men and 77 (38.5%) were women. The mean age was 65.8 ± 11.9 (15-92) years. The most frequently prescribed device wa...

  4. Testing objective measures of motor impairment in early Parkinson's disease: Feasibility study of an at-home testing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Wolff, David; DeLeeuw, William; Bronte-Stewart, Helen; Elble, Rodger; Hallett, Mark; Nutt, John; Ramig, Lorraine; Sanger, Terence; Wu, Allan D; Kraus, Peter H; Blasucci, Lucia M; Shamim, Ejaz A; Sethi, Kapil D; Spielman, Jennifer; Kubota, Ken; Grove, Andrew S; Dishman, Eric; Taylor, C Barr

    2009-03-15

    We tested the feasibility of a computer based at-home testing device (AHTD) in early-stage, unmedicated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients over 6 months. We measured compliance, technical reliability, and patient satisfaction to weekly assessments of tremor, small and large muscle bradykinesia, speech, reaction/movement times, and complex motor control. relative to the UPDRS motor score. The AHTD is a 6.5'' x 10'' computerized assessment battery. Data are stored on a USB memory stick and sent by internet to a central data repository as encrypted data packets. Although not designed or powered to measure change, the study collected data to observe patterns relative to UPDRS motor scores. Fifty-two PD patients enrolled, and 50 completed the 6 month trial, 48 remaining without medication. Patients complied with 90.6% of weekly 30-minute assessments, and 98.5% of data packets were successfully transmitted and decrypted. On a 100-point scale, patient satisfaction with the program at study end was 87.2 (range: 80-100). UPDRS motor scores significantly worsened over 6 months, and trends for worsening over time occurred for alternating finger taps (P = 0.08), tremor (P = 0.06) and speech (P = 0.11). Change in tremor was a significant predictor of change in UPDRS (P = 0.047) and was detected in the first month of the study. This new computer-based technology offers a feasible format for assessing PD-related impairment from home. The high patient compliance and satisfaction suggest the feasibility of its incorporation into larger clinical trials, especially when travel is difficult and early changes or frequent data collection are considered important to document. PMID:19086085

  5. Feasibility study into self-administered training at home using an arm and hand device with motivational gaming environment in chronic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Nijenhuis, Sharon M; Prange, Gerdienke B; Amirabdollahian, Farshid; Sale, Patrizio; Infarinato, Francesco; Nasr, Nasrin; Mountain, Gail; Hermens, Hermie J.; Stienen, Arno H.A.; Buurke, Jaap H.; Rietman, Johan S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Assistive and robotic training devices are increasingly used for rehabilitation of the hemiparetic arm after stroke, although applications for the wrist and hand are trailing behind. Furthermore, applying a training device in domestic settings may enable an increased training dose of functional arm and hand training. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and potential clinical changes associated with a technology-supported arm and hand training system at home fo...

  6. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez; Paul A Camacho; Daniel D. Cohen; Katherine Rincón-Romero; Laura Alvarado-Jurado; Sandra Pinzón; John Duperly; Patricio López-Jaramillo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents fro...

  7. Exercise at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Lifestyle > Exercise > Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Exercise and staying active are an important part ... Below are some exercises you can do at home, but be sure to discuss any plans to ...

  8. At-home training with closed-loop augmented-reality cueing device for improving gait in patients with Parkinson disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Shukla, PhD; Alok Kumar Dwivedi, PhD; Yoram Baram, PhD; Alberto J. Espay, MD, MSc; Maureen Gartner, RN, MEd; Laura Gaines, BA, CCRC; Andrew P. Duker, MD; Fredy J. Revilla, MD

    2010-01-01

    Shuffling and freezing while walking can impair function in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Open-loop devices that provide fixed-velocity visual or auditory cues can improve gait but may be unreliable or exacerbate freezing of gait in some patients. We examined the efficacy of a closed-loop, accelerometer-driven, wearable, visual-auditory cueing device in 13 patients with PD with off-state gait impairment at baseline and after 2 weeks of twice daily (30 minute duration) at-home use. We ...

  9. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC, as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011, and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026 were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  10. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  11. A Career At Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Dai Ping, whose son is a first grader in a primary school in Beijing, has noticed a growing number of higher educated stay-at-home mothers around her community. Currently, 11 children in her son's 44-student class have stay-at-home mothers. Dai, a biology major, once worked at a research institute in the United States in the prime of her career before choosing to raise her son at home.

  12. At-home training with closed-loop augmented-reality cueing device for improving gait in patients with Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espay, Alberto J; Baram, Yoram; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Shukla, Rakesh; Gartner, Maureen; Gaines, Laura; Duker, Andrew P; Revilla, Fredy J

    2010-01-01

    Shuffling and freezing while walking can impair function in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Open-loop devices that provide fixed-velocity visual or auditory cues can improve gait but may be unreliable or exacerbate freezing of gait in some patients. We examined the efficacy of a closed-loop, accelerometer-driven, wearable, visual-auditory cueing device in 13 patients with PD with off-state gait impairment at baseline and after 2 weeks of twice daily (30 minute duration) at-home use. We measured gait velocity, stride length, and cadence using a validated electronic gait-analysis system. Subjects underwent standard motor assessment and completed a self-administered Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOGQ) (range 0-24; lower is better). After training, device use enhanced walking velocity (61.6 ± 20.1 cm/s to 72.6 ± 26.5 cm/s, p = 0.006) and stride length (74.3 ± 16.4 cm to 84.0 ± 18.5 cm, p = 0.004). Upon device removal, walking velocity (64.5 ± 21.4 cm/s to 75.4 ± 21.5 cm/s, p subjects improved by at least 20 percent in either walking velocity, stride length, or both. An overall improvement in gait was measured by the FOGQ (14.2 ±1.9 to 12.4 ± 2.5, p = 0.02). Although issues related to compliance and response variability render a definitive interpretation of study outcome difficult, devices using closed-loop sensory feedback appear to be effective and desirable nonpharmacologic interventions to improve walking in selected individuals with PD. PMID:20848370

  13. At-home training with closed-loop augmented-reality cueing device for improving gait in patients with Parkinson disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Shukla, PhD

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Shuffling and freezing while walking can impair function in patients with Parkinson disease (PD. Open-loop devices that provide fixed-velocity visual or auditory cues can improve gait but may be unreliable or exacerbate freezing of gait in some patients. We examined the efficacy of a closed-loop, accelerometer-driven, wearable, visual-auditory cueing device in 13 patients with PD with off-state gait impairment at baseline and after 2 weeks of twice daily (30 minute duration at-home use. We measured gait velocity, stride length, and cadence using a validated electronic gait-analysis system. Subjects underwent standard motor assessment and completed a self-administered Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOGQ (range 0-24; lower is better. After training, device use enhanced walking velocity (61.6 ± 20.1 cm/s to 72.6 ± 26.5 cm/s, p = 0.006 and stride length (74.3 ± 16.4 cm to 84.0 ± 18.5 cm, p = 0.004. Upon device removal, walking velocity (64.5 ± 21.4 cm/s to 75.4 ± 21.5 cm/s, p < 0.001 and stride length (79.0 ± 20.3 cm to 88.8 ± 17.7 cm, p = 0.003 exhibited a greater magnitude of change, suggesting immediate residual benefits. Also upon device removal, nearly 70 percent of subjects improved by at least 20 percent in either walking velocity, stride length, or both. An overall improvement in gait was measured by the FOGQ (14.2 ±1.9 to 12.4 ± 2.5, p = 0.02. Although issues related to compliance and response variability render a definitive interpretation of study outcome difficult, devices using closed-loop sensory feedback appear to be effective and desirable nonpharmacologic interventions to improve walking in selected individuals with PD.

  14. Health Begins at Home

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-30

    Clean and well-maintained homes can prevent many illnesses and injuries. This podcast discusses how good health begins at home.  Created: 3/30/2009 by Coordinating Center for Environmental Health and Injury Prevention (CCEHIP).   Date Released: 3/30/2009.

  15. Dying at Home

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, Stuart

    1983-01-01

    Terminal care at home should be more generally available, but is often not offered because hospital treatment is perceived as better, because active treatment is not stopped until it is too late to move the patient, because families do not have the necessary resources, or because they are not given the option. To help families cope, good contact with the hospital and the family physician is essential. The decision to stop active treatment must include the family physician's perspective. Famil...

  16. Alone at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Pääkkönen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been much public discussion about children spending long afternoons alone at home. It has been claimed that spending a lot of time alone makes children vulnerable to many kinds of risk behaviour, such as smoking, use of alcohol and drugs, depression and poor school performance. Concerns have also been voiced about children’s unsupervised television watching, playing of computer games and surfing on the Internet. Yet, do we actually know how long the times are that children do spend alone at home and what do they do during that time? The purpose of this paper is to study how much time youngsters in Finland spend alone at home, who are the youngsters who are alone and what do they do when they are alone. The research data are data relating to households from the 1999–2000 Time Use Survey of Statistics Finland. The data cover the shared days of fami-lies with children on which all family members aged 10 or over kept a time use diary. The respondents recorded into the diaries at 10-minute accuracy whether they were alone or together with children aged under 10 belong-ing to the same household, other members of the household, or with other people they knew. Besides the data concerning being alone or together with somebody, the paper also exploits diary information on whether other members of the household were at home at the time in question. The scope of the study is limited to school stu-dents aged from 10 to 18. The material contains data on 191 schooldays and 229 days off school.

  17. Welfare and housing in animal production: airquality evaluation and new experimental device in different species

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The research has been divided into two step: the first one concerning the evaluation of ventilation in cattle and broilers houses, the second one concerning the study of a new experimental device for pigs breeding. Ventilation flow in livestock buildings can determine the indoor climate and air quality and so it affects directly the welfare of the reared animals. The realization of the animal houses in many cases, has not allowed the correct activation of the plants caused by the objective...

  18. Comparisons of automated blood pressures in a primary health care setting with self-measurements at the office and at home using the Omron i-C10 device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Karkhi, Isam; Al-Rubaiy, Raad; Rosenqvist, Ulf; Falk, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to compare blood pressure (BP) levels recorded using the semiautomatic oscillometric Omron i-C10 BP device in patients with or without hypertension in three different settings: (a) when used by a doctor or a nurse at the office (OBP); (b) when used for self-measurement by the patient at the office (SMOBP); and (c) when used for 7 consecutive days at home (HBP). Materials and methods A total of 247 individuals were invited to participate, but 78 of these individuals declined and a further seven were excluded, leaving a final cohort of 162 participants. Results The mean OBP was higher than HBP (difference 8.1±14/3.1±8.8 mmHg, P<0.0001) and so was SMOBP compared with HBP (difference 7.0±13/4.2±7.3 mmHg, P<0.0001). Sixteen participants (9.9%) had at least 10 mmHg higher systolic SMOBP than OBP and 28 (17%) participants had at least 10 mmHg lower systolic SMOBP than OBP. Participants who were current smokers had a larger mean difference between systolic OBP and SMOBP than nonsmokers (OBP−SMOBP in smokers: 6.6±9.4 mmHg, OBP−SMOBP in nonsmokers: 0.5±9.2 mmHg, P=0.011 between groups). Conclusion Self-measurement of BP in the office does not preclude an increase in BP when levels in the individual patients are compared with HBP using the same equipment. Thus, SMOBP with a semiautomatic device does not lead to a reduction in the white-coat effect in the same manner as fully automatic devices. PMID:25341027

  19. At Home in the Countryside

    OpenAIRE

    A. Steenbekkers; Simon, C; V. Veldheer

    2006-01-01

    The Dutch countryside is in a state of flux. The decline of agriculture and the altered use of space are being studied extensively in research and in the media.  But what about the people living in the countryside? How are they doing? In the report Thuis op het platteland (At Home in the Countryside), of which this book is an abridged version, the focus is on the living situation of residents in the countryside. How is the current living situation of the rural population? Which social de...

  20. Medical Equipment at Home After the NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical equipment at home after the NICU Medical equipment at home after the NICU E-mail to ... care unit (NICU) don’t need special medical equipment, like monitors or feeding tubes, when they leave ...

  1. Ombuds’ corner: Work at home

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2013-01-01

    Just the word “telecommuter” is enough to make many managers start to sweat. When faced with the prospect of managing an employee they cannot even see, basic managerial knowledge often becomes hazy, resulting in a confusing arrangement for both manager and employee. As more and more of our world revolves around technology and an increasing number of jobs can be executed from an office at home , managers must learn how to adapt their leadership style to cater to both remote employees, and those working in the office.(1)   As the policy concerning working from home is described in the Operational Circular No 7(2), I will not describe it in detail but rather focus on the pros and cons of such a work arrangement, and most importantly on the discussion following a request and on the necessary mutual confidence between the manager and the employee. Of course, working from home is appropriate for some professions, but may not be possible for all of them. Some 500 studies(3) abou...

  2. Blood Pressure Monitoring at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cuff for the device has a built-in stethoscope, so you don't need to buy a separate stethoscope. It's also easier to manage this way. The ... need to listen to heart sounds through the stethoscope. What are the pros and cons of the ...

  3. Taking medicine at home - create a routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000613.htm Taking medicine at home - create a routine To use the ... teeth. Find Ways to Help You Remember Your Medicines You can: Set the alarm on your clock, ...

  4. At Home with MS: Adapting Your Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 | At Home with MS with books, articles, radio programs, television shows, and Websites, on living with ... the outside to be sure you aren’t advertising that someone with a disability lives there. Camouflage ...

  5. Common cold - how to treat at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000466.htm Common cold - how to treat at home To use the ... green snot, and sneezing Sore throat Treating your Cold Treating your symptoms will not make your cold ...

  6. [Nursing diagnoses of the elderly at home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Maria do Livramento Fortes; Luz, Maria Helena Barros Araújo; de Brito, Cleidiane Maria Sales; Sousa, Suéli Nolêto Silva; da Silva, Dâmaris Rebeca Soares

    2008-01-01

    The descriptive study, with quantitative approach, that has had as objective to do the characterization of ill elderly at home attended by the ESF teams of the Satellite's District in Teresina - PI and to collect Nursing Diagnoses and it respective interventions. This descriptive study was constituted by 50 seniors interviewed at home, the results showed that most of the women in age between of 60 and 79 years were ill at home for one or five years at least. There were eight Nursing Diagnoses (ND) prevalent, in which 98% of the seniors were identified with the ND - Inadequate Control of Therapeutic Regime, and in 72% the deambulation was prejudiced with mobility's limitation and, for all diagnoses were proposed nursing interventions objectifying the conquest of autonomy and independence of these seniors. PMID:18797782

  7. Designing for Active Place Presence at Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylirisku, Salu; Jylhä, Antti; Lehtiö, Anu; Ahmed, Imtiaj; Stewart, Craig; Sellen, Abigail; Harper, Richard; Jacucci, Giulio

    Technological support for augmenting the relationship that people establish with remote places has been studied fairly little as the primary focus in telepresence studies is the connection between people. This paper addresses the design challenge for supporting ‘active place presence’ at home. A...... prototype, Hole in Space, was created to explore the design challenge. A longitudinal study of how an urban couple appropriated the prototype was conducted over the duration of seven months. The paper elaborates on how the Web-mediated design influenced place presence and outlines several aspects that need...... to be considered when designing for active place presence at home....

  8. Caregiver Reports of Serious Injuries in Children Who Remain at Home After a Child Protective Services Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah Mccue

    2012-01-01

    The study objectives were to examine serious injuries requiring medical attention among children who remain at home after a child welfare/child protective services (CPS) maltreatment investigation in the US and to determine whether child/caregiver characteristics and ongoing CPS involvement are related to injuries requiring medical attention. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being, we analyzed data on the subsample of children who remained at home (N = 3,440). A multivar...

  9. Water Birth at Home: Two Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Angha, Amanda M.; Scaer, Roberta M.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, a grandmother, with a long history as an author and activist for normal birth, and her daughter, a new mother, offer their unique experiences of a water birth at home, attended by family members and midwives. Their unique perspectives demonstrate the trust in the normal birth process that is possible for every birth.

  10. Summer English Courses Abroad versus "at Home"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Raquel; Tragant, Elsa; Llanes, Àngels

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine two L2 learning contexts (study abroad versus EFL intensive instruction at home) in terms of language development and learners' characteristics (including students' initial predisposition to learn English and their experience in the programme they enrolled in). Two groups of teenagers were…

  11. Parenting at Home and Bullying at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stelios N.; Stavrinides, Panayiotis

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the relationship that may exist between specific parental practices at home and the child's bullying and victimization experiences at school. This study attempted to go beyond parental styles, a variable that most of the earlier studies have used and introduce three, relatively new parameters of bullying and…

  12. Distressing behaviour of schizophrenics at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, P S; Chaturvedi, S K

    1992-09-01

    The care of mentally ill people at home is being encouraged nowadays. As a result, the family members feel an increased burden of care and find it difficult to cope with the care of a schizophrenic patient at home. We interviewed the relatives of 62 schizophrenics systematically regarding the behaviour of the patients that was perceived to be distressful. This was done using the Scale for Assessment of Family Distress. It was noted that behaviours related to activity and self-care were perceived to be most distressful, and not aggressive or psychotic behaviour. Distress was more often reported by younger relatives and those with more education. The findings have implications in planning appropriate family intervention methods. PMID:1414410

  13. At Home in a Digital World

    OpenAIRE

    Jos de Haan; Frank Huysmans; Jan Steyaert

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Van huis uit digitaal. Young people grow up surrounded by digital media. Particularly at home, but increasingly at school as well, they have access to computers, the Internet and digital technology as well as information carriers such as video games and CD-ROMs. Some young people are more adept at using information and communication technology (ICT) than others. The growing amount of information and the increasing influence of ICT on people's daily lives have boosted the impor...

  14. 76 FR 79193 - Medicare Program; Independence at Home Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Independence at Home... establishing the Independence at Home (IAH) Demonstration. The IAH Demonstration will test a service...

  15. Predicting recovery at home after Ambulatory Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Guillermo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The correct implementation of Ambulatory Surgery must be accompanied by an accurate monitoring of the patient post-discharge state. We fit different statistical models to predict the first hours postoperative status of a discharged patient. We will also be able to predict, for any discharged patient, the probability of needing a closer follow-up, or of having a normal progress at home. Background The status of a discharged patient is predicted during the first 48 hours after discharge by using variables routinely used in Ambulatory Surgery. The models fitted will provide the physician with an insight into the post-discharge progress. These models will provide valuable information to assist in educating the patient and their carers about what to expect after discharge as well as to improve their overall level of satisfaction. Methods A total of 922 patients from the Ambulatory Surgery Unit of the Dr. Peset University Hospital (Valencia, Spain were selected for this study. Their post-discharge status was evaluated through a phone questionnaire. We pretend to predict four variables which were self-reported via phone interviews with the discharged patient: sleep, pain, oral tolerance of fluid/food and bleeding status. A fifth variable called phone score will be built as the sum of these four ordinal variables. The number of phone interviews varies between patients, depending on the evolution. The proportional odds model was used. The predictors were age, sex, ASA status, surgical time, discharge time, type of anaesthesia, surgical specialty and ambulatory surgical incapacity (ASI. This last variable reflects, before the operation, the state of incapacity and severity of symptoms in the discharged patient. Results Age, ambulatory surgical incapacity and the surgical specialty are significant to explain the level of pain at the first call. For the first two phone calls, ambulatory surgical incapacity is significant as a predictor for all

  16. Promoting respect at home and abroad

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    This week, I’d like to focus on respect, whether at home, at work or on the international scene. Last week, I had the opportunity to visit the SESAME laboratory in Jordan along with the new European Commissioner for Research, Carlos Moedas. Since taking up his post, Mr Moedas has attached great importance to the role science can play in diplomacy, and the visit was on his initiative.   Through the EU-funded CESSAMag project, CERN is coordinating the provision of magnets and power supplies for the SESAME main ring. The first are currently being tested at CERN by a team involving accelerator scientists from the SESAME members, and all are due to be delivered to SESAME in time for commissioning in the second half of 2016. SESAME, and CERN’s contribution to the project, are well documented in the pages of the Bulletin, but what really impresses when you visit the lab is the diversity of people working there and the degree of mutual respect they show to each other. SESAME will...

  17. FY1998 report on a survey related to joint utilization of welfare device development data using an international network; 1998 nendo kokusai network ni yoru fukushi kiki kaihatsu data no kyodo riyo ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey was made in relation with joint utilization of welfare device development data using an international network. Developing welfare devices requires data from ergonomic and medical systems, while the cope of the objects is wide, and the kinds are various. For proliferation of welfare devices, system compatibility evaluation including that on using environment is important, including living environments that are different by countries. The present survey has identified how data for aged, handicapped and help-needing persons are accumulated and utilized in research organizations in America and Europe for both of the ergonomic and medical areas. The survey also investigated major academic societies in overseas countries, and collected database and academic network information that support the advanced research and development. At the same time, investigations were also made on organizations and corporations who are moving forward the efficient data utilization. Welfare device and service information providing systems in Japan were investigated to compare them with the trends in other countries. Conceptions and methods were compiled to utilize data internationally and jointly. Database models for device development were considered, and a proposal was made on structuring a research and development supporting database, and the operation method thereof. (NEDO)

  18. Welfare economics

    OpenAIRE

    Baujard, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    This major three-volume work contains key papers which reflect the innovation and imagination that has characterised the field of welfare economics during the last 50 years. The selections range from literary treatments to the most advanced mathematical presentation. However, all readers, regardless of their mathematical sophistication or methodological predilections, will find a large number of the papers interesting and worthwhile in giving an overview of the present state of welfare econom...

  19. 42 CFR 494.100 - Condition: Care at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Proper waste storage and disposal procedures. (b) Standard: Home dialysis monitoring. The dialysis... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Care at home. 494.100 Section 494.100... Patient Care § 494.100 Condition: Care at home. A dialysis facility that is certified to provide...

  20. 4 Basic Steps to Food Safety at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    4 Basic Steps to Food Safety at Home 1. Clean Always wash your food, hands, counters and cooking tools. • Wash hands in warm soapy water for ... microwave • Marinate foods in the fridge. OVER 2012 Food Safety at Home Why should you care about food ...

  1. Time Students Spend Working at Home for School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Petra; Schober, Barbara; Spiel, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents three studies which deal with the time students spend working at home for school. In addition, the paper focuses on the distribution of time investment over the course of a week and on the relationship between academic achievement and time spent working at home for school. In sum, 824 students with an average age of 15 years…

  2. Come cambia il modello di welfare europeo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2006-01-01

    European welfare states are changing. All countries are witnessing demographic changes, and are experiencing the impact of globalization. These changes, it is expected, will have repercussions for the various welfare states. Against this background, this paper looks at how the welfare states...... in Europe have developed over the last 15-20 years, and, furthermore, discusses whether the trends we are witnessing will lead in the direction of convergence or divergence. This is done by using welfare state typologies as the structuring device....

  3. After Hip Replacement, Therapy At Home May Be Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157609.html After Hip Replacement, Therapy at Home May Be Enough Finding ... Surgeons often recommend outpatient physical therapy to help hip replacement patients get moving again, but researchers report ...

  4. Using oxygen at home - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000251.htm Using oxygen at home - what to ask your doctor To ... lungs or heart, you will need to use oxygen in your home. Below are questions you may ...

  5. Stopping the Spread of Germs at Home, Work and School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stopping the Spread of Germs at Home, Work & School Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... can help slow the spread of influenza. At School Resources for Schools, Childcare Providers and Parents Information ...

  6. Implementing and Evaluating a Wireless Body Sensor System for Automated Physiological Data Acquisition at Home

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chao; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2303

    2010-01-01

    Advances in embedded devices and wireless sensor networks have resulted in new and inexpensive health care solutions. This paper describes the implementation and the evaluation of a wireless body sensor system that monitors human physiological data at home. Specifically, a waist-mounted triaxial accelerometer unit is used to record human movements. Sampled data are transmitted using an IEEE 802.15.4 wireless transceiver to a data logger unit. The wearable sensor unit is light, small, and consumes low energy, which allows for inexpensive and unobtrusive monitoring during normal daily activities at home. The acceleration measurement tests show that it is possible to classify different human motion through the acceleration reading. The 802.15.4 wireless signal quality is also tested in typical home scenarios. Measurement results show that even with interference from nearby IEEE 802.11 signals and microwave ovens, the data delivery performance is satisfactory and can be improved by selecting an appropriate channe...

  7. Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…

  8. Practice Makes Perfect: Playing Musical Instruments at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremli, Jack; Gremli, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of considering individual students' learning styles when encouraging them to practice their musical instruments at home on a regular basis, focusing on how to accommodate learning style preferences related to: light; time of day; persistence; nutritional intake; furniture design; practicing in pairs or small groups;…

  9. Flipping the Classroom: Homework in Class, Lessons at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    One way to create more class time and not lose education time is to have students take notes at home and do the work in class. This article describes "flipping the classroom," a new instructional model that allows an educator to record a lesson plan on video in the same fashion it would be presented to students. The structure of the video is an…

  10. Teaching Strategy: Human Rights Around the World and at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Presents a lesson on human rights for middle and secondary school students in which they identify human rights, cite examples of human-rights abuses and affirmations, and relate actions to the articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Explains that students identify human-rights issues globally and at home. (CMK)

  11. Troubles with the Internet: The Dynamics of Help at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesler, Sara; Zdaniuk, Bozena; Lundmark, Vicki; Kraut, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the need for technical support during home computer Internet use focuses on a study that examined the conditions and consequences of acquiring technical support at home. Topics include the role of teenagers, family dynamics, and implications for support services and for research on technological change. (LRW)

  12. At Home in Maine: Gifted Children and Homeschooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Katheryn

    1984-01-01

    Parents of two gifted children are interviewed about their decision to teach their children at home. The parents describe their reasons for taking the children out of school and the benefits of home schooling and offer suggestions for other parents contemplating the idea. (CL)

  13. Budgeting: The Basics and Beyond. Learn at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska-Cue, Kathy; Sugden, Marilyn

    Designed as an at-home course to help users develop a realistic budget plan and set up a workable record-keeping system, these course materials provide practical tips, ideas, and suggestions for budgeting. The course begins with a nine-step budgeting process which emphasizes communicating among family members, considering personal or family…

  14. Can nurses in cardiology areas prepare patients for implantable cardioverter defibrillator implant and life at home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagney, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    This study explored nurses' confidence and competence in preparing patients for having an implantable cardioverter defibrillator implanted and for life at home after discharge. Whilst research has identified various physical and psychosocial effects to patients and their partners associated with device implant and subsequent lifestyle adjustments, no research has explored nurses' knowledge of the device or these effects. A survey was designed using a purposive sample of 152 nurses from cardiology areas in four large teaching hospitals and a 28-point postal questionnaire to explore knowledge of the device and its impact. Most subjects were not confident in their abilities to prepare patients for implant or life at home after implant. Knowledge of the device and its effects appeared poorly understood by all nurses, irrespective of additional qualifications, length of time since qualifying or area of work. Many participants were aware of the poor knowledge level of nurses and identified it as a weakness in current care practices. Lack of understanding may impair preparation of patients for implantation of or for living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator, and feasible strategies to change this situation will require careful consideration and further investment. PMID:15152752

  15. Animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  16. [Premature newborn: maternal support at home for care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Fabiane Ferreira; Praça, Neide de Souza

    2012-01-01

    This is a descriptive study with qualitative approach. The aim was to identify maternal support at home for the care of premature newborns egress of Neonatal Unit. It was conducted in 2008 by interviewing twelve mothers living in Sumaré, São Paulo, Brazil. The recorded reports were treated by the technique of the Collective Subject's Discourse (CSD). The results increase the nursing knowledge by the diversity of resources that have emerged and revealed the importance of integrate the mother in the Neonatal Unit; valued the Guide Book offered by the service, as well as highlighted the relevance of social support for the baby's care at home. It is recommended the inclusion of the family members in nursing plan to preterm infant discharge from the Neonatal Unit. PMID:22751704

  17. The Disadvantaged: Parental Involvement at Home and Low School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Kumar N Vellymalay

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the impact of parent‟s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child‟s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance-based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample was identified as low achievement students, based on the previous final year school examination results. A questionnaire was used by the researcher to obtain quantitative data from the stud...

  18. [Coordinating nursing interventions, the role of hospitalization at home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabadie, Anne; Pernin, Marie-Françoise

    2013-05-01

    Hospital-at-home is a form of hospitalisation in its own right, backed by health care institutions. General and polyvalent, this form of health care provision enables patients of all ages suffering from serious, acute or chronic pathologies, often multiple and progressive, to be cared for in their own home. It guarantees a quality of care identical to that provided by an in-patient health care institution. PMID:23785975

  19. A Review of Studies on Media Bias at Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛一丹

    2015-01-01

    Bias is widely existed nowadays.Domestic scholars have done a lot of research on the bias,especially the media bias.They studied the media bias from different perspectives,such as the bias on China image,the bias of a certain media FOX,the bias on the venerable group,the bias on women and so on.The author plans to give a review of the studies on media bias at home in this paper.

  20. Playing Educational Math Games at Home: The Monkey Tales Case

    OpenAIRE

    Derboven, Jan; Zaman, Bieke; Geerts, David; De Grooff, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    In research on educational games, the majority of studies have been executed in controlled school settings: the home as a context in which educational games are played, is still underexplored. However, the home context is becoming more important, as children are increasingly encouraged or even required to engage with learning content at home through educational games. In this article, we describe a study of Monkey Tales, an educational math game targeted at primary school children. Using a co...

  1. A Review of Studies on Media Bias at Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛一丹

    2015-01-01

    Bias is widely existed nowadays. Domestic scholars have done a lot of research on the bias, especially the media bias. They studied the media bias from different perspectives, such as the bias on China image,the bias of a certain media FOX, the bias on the venerable group, the bias on women and so on. The author plans to give a review of the studies on media bias at home in this paper.

  2. Methodology Behind the Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Jessica E.; Mancino, Lisa; Leibtag, Ephraim S.; Tripodo, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database (QFAHPD) was developed to provide market-level food prices that can be used to study how prices affect food choices, intake, and health outcomes. This report presents a detailed description of the methodology used to construct the QFAHPD. The database, constructed from 1999-2006 Nielsen Homescan data, includes quarterly observations on the mean price of 52 food categories for 35 market groups covering the contiguous United States. Data from 2006 indic...

  3. State Welfarism and Social Welfare in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indra P TIWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has analyzed and discussed the social welfare policies of the Asian countries—the responsibilities of international activist institutions and the State towards individuals in terms of state welfarism and social and economic protection, and the conventional family system, which was and still is the core responsible institution for the well-being of its members. The paper has presented economic and poverty indicators (19, demographic, social and economic indicators associated social welfarism (16, satisfaction related indicators (7, and funding related indicators that have association with social welfarism (9. This has also analyzed and discussed the gap between the international propaganda on social welfare, social policies of the Government and its actual delivery and the situation of vacuum being created due to the moribund family system of slothful state welfarism, in the new living context created by the notion of right-prone individualism. The study has identified along with their history of starting social security provisions the present state major workfare and welfare and welfare protection in the Asian countries, thereby explored countries falling into five levels of social welfare system by taking a combined state of poverty, vulnerable employment, and government expenditure on education, health and social protection, namely (i early stage of welfare system; (ii transition to take-off stage of welfare system; (iii take-off stage of welfare system; (iv transition to drive to maturity stage of welfare system; and (v the drive to maturity stage of welfare system. Finally, the paper has presented the critical areas for dialogue where the synergy of the propagandist international activism, state slothfulness, moribund family dynamics, and right-prone individualism interface for a reliable and sustainable social welfare with affection, protection, nurturance, and protection thereby live in peace and harmony with dignity.

  4. Family welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  5. "Infonomics" of working at home - for a (reference librarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Nemec-Pečjak

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress in information-communication technology (IT has made new ways of working at home possible, above ali teleworking. It is very important for a (reference librarian to consider (disadvantages of such working - but economics is of cruical importance to an employer, especially economics of IT which is professionally called "infonomics". The paper deals with given relations between employers (to support decision making and employees (to think about. The value analysis takes into consideration proportion of expences of the same kind for the real an virtual home office.

  6. Older widows' experience of living alone at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, E J

    1994-01-01

    Older widows' experience of living alone is described in this research. Based on Husserl's (1913/1962) philosophy, a phenomenological method was used. Prior to data-gathering, knowledge pertaining to older widows' experience was bracketed. During semi-structured, tape-recorded conversations, seven older widows described how they lived at home alone. From data pertaining to their actions, intentions and perceptions, four phenomena of the lived experience were developed: (a) making aloneness acceptable; (b) going my own way; (c) reducing my risks; and (d) sustaining myself. PMID:8200675

  7. Proportion and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home: Nationwide survey in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petek-Šter Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Home blood pressure monitoring has several advantages over blood pressure monitoring at a physician's office, and has become a useful instrument in the management of hypertension. Objective. To explore the rate and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home. Methods. A sample of 2,752 patients with diagnosis of essential arterial hypertension was selected from 12596 consecutive office visitors. Data of 2,639 patients was appropriate for analysis. The data concerning home blood pressure measurement and patients' characteristics were obtained from the patients' case histories. Results 1,835 (69.5% out of 2,639 patients measured their blood pressure at home. 1,284 (70.0% of home blood pressure patients had their own blood pressure measurement device. There were some important differences between these two groups: home blood pressure patients were more frequently male, of younger age, better educated, from urban area, mostly non-smokers, more likely to have diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease and had higher number of co-morbidities and were on other drugs beside antihypertensive medication. Using the logistic regression analysis we found that the most powerful predictors of home blood pressure monitoring had higher education level than primary school OR=1.80 (95% CI 1.37-2.37, non-smoking OR=2.16 (95% CI 1.40-3.33 and having a physician in urban area OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.02-1.71. Conclusion. Home blood pressure monitoring is popular in Slovenia. Patients who measured blood pressure at home were different from patients who did not. Younger age, higher education, non-smoking, having a physician in urban area and longer duration of hypertension were predictors of home blood pressure monitoring.

  8. Elucidating the Hemodynamic Origin of Ballistocardiographic Forces: Toward Improved Monitoring of Cardiovascular Health at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Abdul Qadir; Ashouri, Hazar; Tridandapani, Srini; Inan, Omer T

    2016-01-01

    The ballistocardiogram (BCG), a signal describing the reaction forces of the body to cardiac ejection of blood, has recently gained interest in the research community as a potential tool for monitoring the mechanical aspects of cardiovascular health for patients at home and during normal activities of daily living. An important limitation in the field of BCG research is that while the BCG signal measures the forces of the body, the information desired (and understood) by clinicians and caregivers, regarding mechanical health of the cardiovascular system, is typically expressed as blood pressure or flow. This paper aims to explore, using system identification tools, the mathematical relationship between the BCG signal and the better-understood impedance cardiography (ICG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveforms, with a series of human subject studies designed to asynchronously modulate cardiac output and blood pressure and with different magnitudes. With this approach, we demonstrate for 19 healthy subjects that the BCG waveform more closely maps to the ICG (flow) waveform as compared with the finger-cuff-based ABP (pressure) waveform, and that the BCG can provide a more accurate estimate of stroke volume ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) as compared with pulse pressure changes ([Formula: see text]). We also examined, as a feasibility study, for one subject, the ability to calibrate the BCG measurement tool with an ICG measurement on the first day, and then track changes in stroke volume on subsequent days. Accordingly, we conclude that the BCG is a signal more closely related to blood flow than pressures, and that a key health parameter for titrating care-stroke volume-can potentially be accurately measured with BCG signals at home using unobtrusive and inexpensive hardware, such as a modified weighing scale, as compared with the state-of-the-art ICG and ABP devices, which are expensive and obtrusive for use at home. PMID:27620621

  9. IMPLEMENTING AND EVALUATING A WIRELESS BODY SENSOR SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA ACQUISITION AT HOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pomalaza-Raez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in embedded devices and wireless sensor networks have resulted in new and inexpensive healthcare solutions. This paper describes the implementation and the evaluation of a wireless body sensorsystem that monitors human physiological data at home. Specifically, a waist-mounted triaxialaccelerometer unit is used to record human movements. Sampled data are transmitted using an IEEE802.15.4 wireless transceiver to a data logger unit. The wearable sensor unit is light, small, andconsumes low energy, which allows for inexpensive and unobtrusive monitoring during normal dailyactivities at home. The acceleration measurement tests show that it is possible to classify different humanmotion through the acceleration reading. The 802.15.4 wireless signal quality is also tested in typicalhome scenarios. Measurement results show that even with interference from nearby IEEE 802.11 signalsand microwave ovens, the data delivery performance is satisfactory and can be improved by selecting anappropriate channel. Moreover, we found that the wireless signal can be attenuated by housing materials,home appliances, and even plants. Therefore, the deployment of wireless body sensor systems at homeneeds to take all these factors into consideration.

  10. Human dignity at home and in public – introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits De Lange

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A genuine concern for human dignity fosters a public culture of human rights. A concern for  dignity contributes to equality, justice and respect in civil life. But how about dignity at home? The life people live privately in their intimate relationships, within their families, is mostly withheld from public debate. Though the relationships between men and women, parents and children are evidently unequal in power and vulnerability, and thereby susceptible for abuse, they are hardly subject of public evaluation. What about dignity at home? Families are thought to be places where human dignity feels ‘at home’. The image of home as a ‘safe haven’ however, is heavily disputed by the facts. Domestic violence is widespread. Home is a paradoxical environment: it is the place where new generations are nurtured and educated in human values, and where respect and love is practised. At the same time it is the place where the dignity of especially women and children is often contested and violated. There is no other place where people are living together so intimately, and so vulnerable. This hidden side of dignity was the theme of the conference “Dignity at home and in public” that the Protestant Theological University organised together with the Faculty of Theology of the Stellenbosch University, October 25- 26, 2010 at Kampen University, the Netherlands. A selection of the contributions are gathered in this volume. By engaging in intense, personal North-South and South-North dialogues around themes as the family in the Reformed tradition, vulnerability and autonomy, domestic violence, cultural shifts in the relationships between generations, and end of life decisions, the conference continued a five-year long partnership between the two theological faculties around the theme of human dignity. This volume explores from a

  11. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes univ...... of conditions with respect to political culture and ethnic homogeneity. The East Asian welfare regime resembles that of Southern Europe, characterized as it is by a high degree of informality regarding care for children, fragile elderly and the handicapped....

  12. Elementary girls' science reading at home and school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Danielle J.; Brickhouse, Nancy W.; Lottero-Perdue, Pamela; Kittleson, Julie

    2006-03-01

    Although reading is a critical part of science and science learning, it is no longer a part of many children's elementary science instruction. This is of concern because girls often develop strong identities as readers, but do not develop scientific identities with ease. In this study, we investigate girls' science reading to know (1) if science books were available to girls in homes and classrooms, (2) if girls were choosing to read them, and (3) what influences their choices. Forty-five third-grade girls, 29 of their families, and three of their teachers were interviewed to ascertain girls' preferences among various book genres, as well as to learn the ways in which families and teachers influence the choices girls make. We found that girls had access to science books at school, and teachers had strategies to encourage reading them. At home, parents encouraged reading, but were generally less directive than teachers as to what the girls read, and underestimated their daughters' science-related interests. The families studied rely largely on major bookstores as their primary source of books. Our findings suggest we need to understand better the way gender influences girls' engagement with science in a variety of contexts, particularly those in which girls exercise choice.

  13. At Home in Space The Late Seventies into the Eighties

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2012-01-01

    April 12, 2011, is the 50th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's pioneering journey into space. To commemorate this momentous achievement, Springer-Praxis is producing a mini series of books that reveals how humanity's knowledge of flying, working, and living in space has grown in the last half century. At Home in Space, the third book in the series, continues the story throughout the later Seventies and into the Eighties. It was a period of time characterised by great promise. Regular Soviet missions demonstrated that humanity could not only survive, but thrive, in a weightless environment, and the arrival of the Space Shuttle seemed to offer a more economical and routine means of accessing the heavens. Living in space became truly international as astronauts from many nations lived and worked together on Soviet space stations and aboard the Shuttle. At the same time, however, relations between two key players in this drive to conquer the high ground of space - the United States and the Soviet Union - steadily decl...

  14. At-home options. Enhancing care for AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, M R

    1993-05-01

    Mark is a 45-year-old man with advanced AIDS. His care partner, Gary, has a full-time job in the design industry. A home care aide visits Mark five days a week for 10 hours at a time to provide personal care while Gary is at work. A visiting nurse sees Mark weekly and has taught Gary how to prepare Mark's ganciclovir infusion. Every six weeks Mark meets with a nutritionist, who evaluates his dietary status and advises Gary on purchasing high-calorie foods for Mark. In May Gary must attend a conference out of town and he is worried:who will care for Mark for those three days? Gary calls the At Home Options (AHOP) nurse and explains the situation. She arranges for nighttime nursing coverage for those three days, and ensures that Mark's home care aide can stay for the weekend. Gary is able to attend his conference and concentrate on his work, secure in the knowledge that Mark will be well cared for and that scheduled respite care, although not a benefit with traditional insurance, is covered through the AHOP program. PMID:10125243

  15. Welfare Enhancing Capital Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Oda; Koji Shimomura; Ryuhei Wakasugi

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a model to consider the conditions under which an acceptance of foreign capital is welfare enhancing in a multi-commodity multi-factor framework. Contrary to the pessimistic conventional wisdom of capital imports and welfare, we provide a justification for the acceptance of foreign capital and the diversification of industrial structure in developing countries. A sufficient condition for the acceptance of foreign capital to be welfare enhancing is that all domestic factors...

  16. Acyclic social welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiri, Somdeb

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show that if the Pareto relation is acyclic then the set of all Pareto optimal social states coincides with chosen social states of acyclic Paretian social welfare relations. Subsequently we show that given an acyclic Paretian social welfare relations the set of all social states chosen by it coincides with the set of all states chosen by strict Paretian extensions whose strict extension is the given social welfare relation.

  17. Welfare in horse breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, M L H; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes hel...

  18. Immigration and native welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel J. Felbermayr; Kohler, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    We unify two approaches towards identifying native welfare effects of immigration, one emphasizing the immigration surplus (Borjas, 1995,1999), the other identifying a welfare loss due to terms-of-trade effects (Davis & Weinstein, 2002). We decompose the native welfare effect of immigration into the standard complementarity effect, augmented by a Stolper-Samuelson effect, and a terms-of-trade effect. Using a structural model with three skill-classes we derive propositions on the wage and nati...

  19. On Worlds of Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    J.M. Wildeboer Schut; Vrooman, J.C.; P.T. de Beer

    2001-01-01

    This book analyses the insitutions and effects of eleven modern welfare states (USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Germany, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark and Norway). Using quantitative data the authors first show that the institutional variety among these countries can be reduced to three main types. Next, they examine the impact of these three 'worlds of welfare': the effects on income redistribution, inequality, poverty and social welfare. The study makes clear that institutio...

  20. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and...

  1. Internalizing symptoms of Italian youth directly and vicariously victimized at school and at home

    OpenAIRE

    Baldry, A.C.; Winkel, F.W.

    2004-01-01

    Internalizing symptoms, such as depression, anxiety/withdrawal, as well as somatic complaints are indicators of maladjustment. Mental and physical complaints may be related to victimization at home and at school. In the present study we investigated the independent impact of direct victimization at home (parental severe scolding and physical harming) and at school (i.e. peers physical and verbal bullying) and that of indirect victimization at home (i.e. exposure to interparental violence), an...

  2. An Activity Monitoring System for Real Elderly at Home: Validation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zouba, Nadia; Bremond, François; Thonnat, Monique

    2010-01-01

    International audience Since the population of the elderly grows highly, the improvement of the quality of life of elderly at home is of a great importance. This can beachieved through the development of technologies for monitoring their activities at home. In this context, we propose an activity monitoring system which aims to achieve behavior analysis of elderly people. The proposed system consists of an approach combining heterogeneous sensor data to recognize activities at home. This a...

  3. Maltreatment and sexual abuse at home concerning schooling adolscents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuranis Ibeth Henríquez Santoya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio consistió en determinar la presencia del maltrato infantil y abuso sexual en el hogar en adolescentes escolarizados con edades comprendidas entre 14 y 16 años, matriculados a 2010 en colegios públicos de la de la ciudad de Santa Marta. Los participantes fueron 229 jóvenes. Las variables medidas fueron la edad, el tipo de maltrato y el género. Los resultados indican que la tendencia al maltrato psicológico fue de 29.3%, de maltrato físico 13.3% y de abuso sexual de 32.3%. Con relación al género se halló que las mujeres han sido objeto en mayor porcentaje de maltrato físico y abuso sexual que los hombres y éstos han sido objeto de mayor maltrato psicológico que las mujeres; respecto a la edad los jóvenes de 14 años presentaron mayor porcentaje de maltrato y abuso que en los otros rangos etarios. Se concluye que tres (3 de cada 10 estudiantes ha sido objeto de abuso sexual, tres ha sido objeto de maltrato psicológico y uno de maltrato físico. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 262 - 269AbstractThe present study was to determine the presence of child maltreatment and sexual abuse at home, concerning schooling adolescents, aged between 14 and 16 years enrolled in public schools belonging to the city of Santa Marta. Participants were 229 young persons. The variables were age, abuse and gender. The results point out: 29.3% for psychological abuse, 32.3% for sexual abuse, and 13.3% for physical abuse. Concerning the gender it was detected that women have been at a higher rate aim of physical mistreatment and sexual abuse than men, but on the other hand men are aim of psychological abuse. With regard to age, young people of 14 years, revealed a higher percentage of maltreatment than the elder ones. We conclude that three of each schooling boy has been object of sexual abuse; three of them have been injured of psychological mistreatment and one of physical abuse.Keywords: abuse; sexual abuse; maltreatment; gender; adolescents

  4. Power and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kaspar

    In the welfare provision of today, power takes both the shape of juridical sanctions and of attractive offers for self-development. When state institutions punish criminals, remove children at risk, or enforce sanctions upon welfare recipients the question of power is immediately urgent. It is less...... for students and researchers of social policy, sociology, anthropology, political science, education, nursing and social work....

  5. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both...

  6. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  7. Is Students' Computer Use at Home Related to Their Mathematical Performance at School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Jorg; Senkbeil, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has provided evidence that students' computer use at home is positively associated with their performance at school. However, most of the previous studies have failed to take into account the multiple determination of school performance and, in addition, to explain why using computers at home should benefit students' academic…

  8. [Quality of care and risk management in hospital at home services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzin-Garrec, Martine; Hoden, Romy

    2016-04-01

    Hospital at home structures are healthcare institutions in their own right, with the same obligations in terms of governance with regard to quality of care and risk management. However, hospital at home services are characterised by the remote management of the activity and the nursing staff, with specific constraints. PMID:27085929

  9. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public and...... private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  10. Automated Software Analysis of Fetal Movement Recorded during a Pregnant Woman's Sleep at Home.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Nishihara

    Full Text Available Fetal movement is an important biological index of fetal well-being. Since 2008, we have been developing an original capacitive acceleration sensor and device that a pregnant woman can easily use to record fetal movement by herself at home during sleep. In this study, we report a newly developed automated software system for analyzing recorded fetal movement. This study will introduce the system and compare its results to those of a manual analysis of the same fetal movement signals (Experiment I. We will also demonstrate an appropriate way to use the system (Experiment II. In Experiment I, fetal movement data reported previously for six pregnant women at 28-38 gestational weeks were used. We evaluated the agreement of the manual and automated analyses for the same 10-sec epochs using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK including quantitative indicators for prevalence and bias. The mean PABAK value was 0.83, which can be considered almost perfect. In Experiment II, twelve pregnant women at 24-36 gestational weeks recorded fetal movement at night once every four weeks. Overall, mean fetal movement counts per hour during maternal sleep significantly decreased along with gestational weeks, though individual differences in fetal development were noted. This newly developed automated analysis system can provide important data throughout late pregnancy.

  11. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare problems

  12. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market......According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...... access and consumer welfare will always be weakly compatible, in the sense that reforms based on each objective have the same signed effect on the other objective. For strong compatibility, whereby both objectives increase as a result of a locally optimal tariff reform, we derive both a necessary and...

  13. Welfare Undominated Groves Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Apt, Krzysztof R; Guo, Mingyu; Markakis, Evangelos

    2008-01-01

    A common objective in mechanism design is to choose the outcome (for example, allocation of resources) that maximizes the sum of the agents' valuations, without introducing incentives for agents to misreport their preferences. The class of Groves mechanisms achieves this; however, these mechanisms require the agents to make payments, thereby reducing the agents' total welfare. In this paper we introduce a measure for comparing two mechanisms with respect to the final welfare they generate. This measure induces a partial order on mechanisms and we study the question of finding minimal elements with respect to this partial order. In particular, we say a non-deficit Groves mechanism is welfare undominated if there exists no other non-deficit Groves mechanism that always has a smaller or equal sum of payments. We focus on two domains: (i) auctions with multiple identical units and unit-demand bidders, and (ii) mechanisms for public project problems. In the first domain we analytically characterize all welfare und...

  14. AP@home: The Artificial Pancreas Is Now at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lutz; Benesch, Carsten; DeVries, J Hans

    2016-07-01

    In the past years the development of an artificial pancreas (AP) has made great progress and many activities are ongoing in this area of research. The major step forward made in the last years was moving the evaluation of AP systems from highly controlled experimental conditions to daily life conditions at the home of patients with diabetes; this was also the aim of the European Union-funded AP@home project. Over a time period of 5 years a series of clinical studies were performed that culminated in 2 "final studies" during which an AP system was used by patients in their home environment for 2 or 3 months without supervision by a physician, living their normal lives. Two different versions of the AP system developed within this project were evaluated. A significant improvement in glycated hemoglobin was observed during closed-loop conditions despite the fact that during the control period the patients used the best currently available therapeutic option. In addition, a "single-port AP system" was developed within the project that combines continuous glucose monitoring and insulin infusion at a single tissue site. By using such a combined device the patients not only have to carry one less device around, the number of access points through the skin is also reduced from 2 to 1. In summary, close cooperation of 12 European partners, both academic centers and industry, enabled the development and evaluation of AP systems under daily life conditions. The next step is to develop these into products in cooperation with commercial partners. PMID:26888971

  15. Meanings of at-homeness at end-of-life among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarnio, Lotta; Boström, Anne-Marie; Gustavsson, Petter; Öhlén, Joakim

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining the well-being of older people who are approaching the end-of-life has been recognised as a significant aspect of well-being in general. However, there are few studies that have explicitly focused on at-homeness among older people. This study aims to illuminate meanings of at-homeness among older people with advancing illnesses. Twenty men and women, aged 85 or older, with advancing illnesses and who lived in their own homes, in nursing homes or in short-term nursing homes in three urban areas of Sweden were strategically sampled in the study. Data were generated in narrative interviews, and the analysis was based on a phenomenological hermeneutical method. After obtaining a naïve understanding and conducting structural analyses, two aspects of the phenomenon were revealed: at-homeness as being oneself and at-homeness as being connected. At-homeness as being oneself meant being able to manage ordinary everyday life as well as being beneficial to one's life. At-homeness as being connected meant being close to significant others, being in affirming friendships and being in safe dependency. Here, at-homeness is seen as a twofold phenomenon, where being oneself and being connected are interrelated aspects. Being oneself and being connected are further interpreted by means of the concepts of agency and communion, which have been theorised as two main forces of the human being. PMID:26058734

  16. Welfare in farmed fish

    OpenAIRE

    Damsgård, Børge; Juell, Jon-Erik; Braastad, Bjarne Olai

    2006-01-01

    The interest of fish welfare is increasing, both in Norway and internationally, leading to an increasing need for scientific knowledge about basic and applied questions related to how farmed fish are produced. The strategic institute programme (SIP) ”Welfare in farmed fish” was financed by the Research Council of Norway, for the five years period from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2005. The core partners in the SIP were the Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research (Fiskerifor...

  17. Income Mobility and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Tom; Krishna, Pravin; Maloney, William F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for the quantitative analysis of individual income dynamics, mobility and welfare. Individual income is assumed to follow a stochastic process with two (unobserved) components, an i.i.d. component representing measurement error or transitory income shocks and an AR(1) component representing persistent changes in income. We use a tractable consumption-saving model with labor income risk and incomplete markets to relate income dynamics to consumption and welfare,...

  18. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  19. The Swedish municipal food distribution service to the elderly living at home as experienced by the recipient's relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajalic, Zada

    2013-11-01

    The municipal Food distribution service (FD) to the elderly living at home is a part of the public social and care service in Sweden, The objective of this service is to ensure proper food intake for persons who are unable to do their own shopping, and prepare their own meals. The foremost reasons for the need of the FD service are in situations where there are illness related physical or psychological limitations.This means that the Swedish welfare system takes on the responsibility for its citizens when they have a legal social related need of care. Further, according to the Swedish social legislation, children or other relatives have no legal obligations to take care of their parents or elderly disabled relatives. This also means that the children or relatives of elderly people requiring social support have no legal right to be involved in the evaluation procedure of need assessment or the outcome of any social and care services granted by the Swedish social welfare system. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into how the relatives of elderly people living at home in Sweden experience the municipal service of ready-made meals distributed daily. The data was collected using in-depth interviews with relatives of elderly persons who use the municipal food distribution (FD) service (n=8). The transcribed interview material was analysed using the grounded theory method. The findings of this study revealed that the relatives of the municipal FD service recipients advocate for a food preparation service in the home of the recipient rather than the distribution of ready-made meals from a central kitchen. The results also revealed that the participating relatives felt frustrated by the legal limitations that make it impossible for them to influence the municipal FD service. The findings in this study also indicate that relatives should be considered as a resource in this matter and could actively participate, and have a positive influence on the quality of

  20. Family Dynamics of the Stay-at-Home Father and Working Mother Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Cassie; Powell, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    A phenomenological qualitative study was utilized to explore family dynamics in stay-at-home father and working mother households. A total of 20 working mothers were asked to describe family interactions and daily routines with regard to their stay-at-home father and working mother dynamic. All participants were married, heterosexual women with biological children ages 1 to 4 and who worked outside the home and the father stayed home as primary caretaker and did not contribute financially. The study indicated that the family dynamic of a working mother and stay-at-home father provided a positive parent-child relationship, enhanced parenting cohesion, and enhanced quality time. PMID:25204589

  1. Children left at home alone: the construction of a social problem

    OpenAIRE

    Calcraft, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    The question of when a child is old enough to be left at home alone, and under what circumstances, is a dilemma faced by many parents and professionals. Adopting a social constructionist perspective of social problems, this thesis explores professional perceptions and policy responses to the issue of children left at home alone since the passing of the Children Act in 1989. The law in England and Wales does not specify an age at which it is deemed safe to leave a child unsupervised at home, a...

  2. Post-Stroke Caregiving at Home Tops $11,000 a Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157341.html Post-Stroke Caregiving at Home Tops $11,000 a Year: ... News) -- The time spent caring for an older stroke survivor in the home totals about 22 hours ...

  3. Understanding the Relationship between Latino Students' Preferred Learning Styles and Their Language Spoken at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Torres, Sonia Enid

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between Latino students' learning styles and their language spoken at home. Results of the study indicated that students who spoke Spanish at home had higher means in the Active Experimentation modality of learning (M = 31.38, SD = 5.70) than students who spoke English (M = 28.08,…

  4. Peritonitis and catheter exit-site infection in patients on peritoneal dialysis at home

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Freire Abud; Luciana Kusumota; Manoel Antônio dos Santos; Flávia Fernanda Luchetti Rodrigues; Marta Maria Coelho Damasceno; Maria Lúcia Zanetti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the complications related to peritonitis and catheter exit-site infections, in patients on peritoneal dialysis at home. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional study, carried out with 90 patients on peritoneal dialysis at home, in a municipality in the Northeast region of Brazil. For data collection, it was used two structured scripts and consultation on medical records. Descriptive analysis and comparison tests among independent groups were used, considering p

  5. Unmet needs, quality of life and support networks of people with dementia living at home

    OpenAIRE

    Oomman Sabu; Galboda Kumari; Woods Bob; Miranda-Castillo Claudia; Olojugba Charles; Orrell Martin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There is lack of evidence about the unmet needs of people with dementia (PWD) living at home and the predictors of high levels of unmet needs. The main aim of this study was to identify the relationship between unmet needs, social networks and quality of life of PWD living at home. Methods One hundred and fifty two community dwelling PWD and 128 carers were interviewed about PWD's needs, social networks, quality of life and other functional and psychological factors. All t...

  6. The Demand for Food Consumed at Home and Away from Home

    OpenAIRE

    Lamm, R. McFall Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, consumers have spent a declining portion of their income on food for consumption at home, while the share of income spent on meals purchased at restaurants, cafeterias, and fast-food chains has held constant This article attempts to explain this phenomenon by estimating a 3-equation translog system of quarterly consumer demand for food consumed at home, purchased meals, and nonfood items An explicitly additive, nonlinear, nonhomothetic translog system is found to be th...

  7. The Effects of Stress at Work and at Home on Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Non, Amy L.; Rimm, Eric B; Kawachi, Ichiro; Rewak, Marissa A.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether stress at work and at home may be related to dysregulation of inflammation and endothelial function, two important contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease. In order to explore potential biological mechanisms linking stress with cardiovascular health, we investigated cross-sectional associations between stress at work and at home with an inflammation score (n's range from 406–433) and with two endothelial biomarkers (intercellular and vascular adhe...

  8. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

     The aim of this paper is to elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women's entrepreneurship because the benefits of these policies do not reflect in the numbers of female entrepreneurs. These are consistently similar to those in other countries that do not have a similar welfare model. Hence...... this article seeks to investigate the reasons underlying this apparent anomaly so that future policies in Scandinavia nd Europe may be tailored to suit the needs of female entrepreneurs. We are addressing this through the analytical lens of a gender regime model which shows that hierarchical gender...... patterns have proven remarkably resilient and that social context matters. The results of the analysis shows that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate   entrepreneurship and that in order to overcome the obstacles female entrepreneurs 'babystrap'....

  9. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The welfare states of Scandinavia have been regarded as pioneers of gender equality, but structural barriers to women’s participation in the labour market may inadvertently discriminate against women and create opportunity costs delimiting women’s career choices. Family policies are defined to...... include maternity/paternity leave, benefits, childcare and leave to take care of sick children. The aim of this paper is to increase awareness and elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women’s entrepreneurship because it may impact on women’s entrepreneurial behaviour. The paper investigates the...... granted that the initiation of public childcare would facilitate increased entrepreneurship among women. Our study shows that this is not necessarily so, that women utilize ‘babystrapping’ strategies, and that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate...

  10. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  11. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    destroyed but rather accumulated in the following centuries up till the universal welfare state of the 20th century. Focusing on the case of Denmark, our tentative argument is that social trust was not destroyed through five subsequent phases of state building but rather enhanced. Long-run political......The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably not...

  12. Welfare vs. "Cyberfare."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladjian, Gregory M.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that a new paradigm is needed in addressing welfare reform, and introduces "Cyberfare" as that paradigm. Cyberfare is described as an economic and social support system that addresses issues of the information and technology age, global economy, and the changing role of families and social institutions. Its use is deemed vital to solving…

  13. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  14. Welfare and Customs Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Carsten Kowalczyk

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes that Viner's celebrated trade diversion and trade creation terminology for the customs union problem be abandoned. As the alternative is offered a welfare calculus based upon the terms-of-trade and volume-of-trade taxonomy from the theory of tariffs. The paper discusses, by application of this calculus, the two outstanding controversies in the theory of customs unions.

  15. Family Smoking, Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home and Family Unhappiness in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jiu Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use adversely affects many aspects of well-being and is disliked by non-smokers. However, its association with family happiness is unknown. We investigated the associations of family unhappiness with smoking in family members and secondhand smoke (SHS exposure at home in Hong Kong children. In a school-based survey in 2012–2013, 1238 primary school students (mean age 8.5 years, standard deviation 0.9; 42.6% boys reported family smoking, SHS exposure at home and whether their families had any unpleasant experience caused by smoking or SHS in the past 30 days (tobacco-related unpleasant experience, and rated the overall level of happiness in their families (family unhappiness. Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the associations of tobacco-related unpleasant experience and family unhappiness with family smoking and SHS exposure at home. Tobacco-related unpleasant experience and family unhappiness were reported by 27.5% and 16.5% of students. Unpleasant experience was more strongly associated with family smoking than SHS exposure at home. Family unhappiness was associated with both family smoking (odds ratio 2.37; 95% confidence interval 1.51–3.71 and SHS exposure at home (1.82; 1.39–2.40. These results suggest a previously neglected possible impact of tobacco use on family happiness.

  16. Opportunities-to-Learn at Home: Profiles of Students With and Without Reaching Science Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Whitford, Melinda

    2011-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between opportunity-to-learn (OTL) at home and students' attainment of science proficiency. The data set used was the 2006 PISA science US national sample. Data mining was used to create patterns of association between home OTL variables and student attainment of science proficiency. It was found that students who failed to reach science proficiency are characterized by having fewer than 100 books at home; these students are also found to take out-of-school individual or group lessons with their teachers or with other teachers. On the other hands, students who reached science proficiency are characterized by having more than 100 books at home, not taking any out-of-school lessons, and having a highest parent level of graduate education. In addition to the above common characteristics, other home characteristics (e.g. computer and internet at home and language spoke at home) are also identified in profiles of students who have reached science proficiency. We explain the above findings in terms of current social-cultural theories. We finally discuss implications of the above findings for future studies and for improving science education policy and practice.

  17. Who cares about fish welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to assess how concerned Norwegians are about fish welfare; second, to investigate Norwegians’ willingness to pay for salmon filet made from welfare-assured farmed fish with high levels of welfare; and third, to examine Norwegian opinions...... about the appropriate way to pay for better welfare standards in fish production. Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of two focus group sessions, a survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to a representative sample of 2,147 Norwegian households via e-mail. Findings – Results showed...... that the Norwegian public is concerned about fish welfare and is willing to pay a price premium for products made from welfare-assured fish. Norwegian consumers do not, however, want to be the only ones paying for fish welfare, as the main responsibility for fish welfare lies with producers and the Government...

  18. Political Parties’ Welfare Image, Electoral Punishment and Welfare State Retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; Vis, Barbara; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2013-01-01

    parties of 14 OECD countries between 1970 and 2002, we show that most parties with a positive welfare image lose after they implemented cutbacks, whereas most parties with a negative welfare image do not. In addition, we show that positive welfare image parties in opposition gain votes, at the expense of...... those positive welfare image parties in government that implemented welfare state retrenchment. Comparative European Politics (2013) 11, 1-21. doi:10.1057/cep.2012.5; published online 11 June 2012...

  19. The Gentrification of Public Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattalo, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Notes that public welfare agencies are serving middle-class Americans. Examines six factors that may contribute to gentrification of public welfare agencies: growing demands for services from nontraditional clients; restructuring of public welfare's service delivery system; declining resources; increasing emphasis on child protective services;…

  20. Development of a Health Care Information System for the Elderly at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing population aging is a serious social problem in the world today. Accidental death at home is increasing because abnormal conditions can not be discovered in time, especially to the elderly who live alone. Besides, according to statistics, over 80 percent of the elderly need the service of home care in China. A health care information system for the elderly at home is developed to monitor the real–time state of the elderly remotely in this thesis. The system can show the current positions of the elderly in the house and judge whether they are in dangerous locations or have dangerous activities. In the case of emergency, the elderly can press the emergency button. The system also provides some help for the elderly’s daily life. The system offers the advantage for living at home more safely and more comfortably, and has better application prospect

  1. The European Welfare Model. Is Romania a Welfare State?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop-Radu, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the various interpretations of the social model and welfare regime concepts. In order to observe Romania’s position within the European welfare regimes, the paper presents a short analysis of the main characteristics of the welfare regimes identified in Europe – i.e. the corporatist welfare regime, the liberal welfare regime and the social democratic/Scandinavian welfare system. We analyze the dynamics of several indicators relevant for establishing the performance of the Romanian welfare regime. Using the results of this study, the current research might offer a new approach on proving that Romania’s case is a particular one among the CEE countries and its sustainability could become a model for other countries.

  2. A reassuring presence: An evaluation of Bradford District Hospice at Home service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daley Andrew

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the United Kingdom, a developing role for primary care services in cancer and palliative care has resulted in an increase in palliative home care teams. The provision of professional care in the home setting seeks to provide necessary services and enhanced choice for patients whose preference is to die at home. A mismatch between patient preference for home death and the actual number of people who died at home was identified within Bradford, the locality of this study. In response to this mismatch, and reflecting the policy environment of wishing to enhance community service provision, the four Primary Care Trusts (PCTs in the city sought to offer support to patients who wished to remain in their own homes through the final stages of a terminal illness. To offer this support they set up a dedicated hospice at home team. This would provide services and support for patients in achieving a dignified, symptom free and peaceful death, allowing families to maximise time spent together. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Bradford hospice at home service from the perspective of carers, nurses and General Practitioners. Methods Postal questionnaires were sent to carers (n = 289, district nurses (n = 508 and GP's (n = 444 using Bradford's hospice at home service. Resulting quantitative data was analysed using the Statical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS and qualitative data was analysed using grounded theory techniques. Results The data from carers, district nurses and GPs provide general support for the Bradford hospice at home service. Carers valued highly the opportunity to 'fulfil a promise' to the individual who wished to be cared for at home. District nurses and GPs cited the positive impact of access to specialist expertise. This was a 'reassuring presence' for primary healthcare teams and offered 'relief of carer anxiety' by providing prompt, accessible and sensitive care. Conclusion Carers and health

  3. Young children’s access to and use of ICT at home

    OpenAIRE

    KLEOPATRA NIKOLOPOULOU; VASILIOS GIALAMAS; MARIA BATSOUTA

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates young children’s access to and use of ICT at home. A questionnaire was completed by the parents of 147 children, aged 4-6,5. Young children have access to and use a wide range of technologies at home, involving domestic leisure technologies, electronic toys and computers. The variables gender, age and parents’ educational background had an occassional isolated impact on children’s use of ICT. More boys than girls use console games and programmable toys-robots. Parents’...

  4. Young children’s access to and use of ICT at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLEOPATRA NIKOLOPOULOU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates young children’s access to and use of ICT at home. A questionnaire was completed by the parents of 147 children, aged 4-6,5. Young children have access to and use a wide range of technologies at home, involving domestic leisure technologies, electronic toys and computers. The variables gender, age and parents’ educational background had an occassional isolated impact on children’s use of ICT. More boys than girls use console games and programmable toys-robots. Parents’ high educational background was linked to the use of educational software. Implications for early childhood teachers and links between home and kindergarten are discussed.

  5. The welfare of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, George K

    2007-05-01

    Our interactions with fish cover a wide range of activities including enjoying them as pets to consuming them as food. I propose that we confine the consideration of the welfare of fish to their physiology, and not join the discussion on whether fish can feel pain and suffering, as humans. A significant proportion of the papers on animal welfare center on whether non-human animals can feel pain, and suffer as humans. This is a question that never can be answered unequivocally. The premise of the present paper is that we have an ethical responsibility to respect the life and wellbeing of all organisms. Thus, we should concentrate on the behavioural, physiological, and cellular indicators of their well-being and attempt to minimize a state of stress in the animals that we have in our care or influence. PMID:17578254

  6. Nationalism, Gender and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    Feminist scholars have pointed out that constructions of gender and gender equality are embedded in national narratives and politics of belonging (Yuval-Davis 2011; Siim & Mokre 2013). This paper aims to explore gendered approaches to nationalism and to discuss how nationalism in Scandinavia is a...... migration and globalization would be to transcend methodological nationalism and the exclusive notions of solidarity tied to the nation state and formulate more inclusive notions of solidarity and justice....... associated with ‘social democratic’ perceptions of welfare and gender equality. Brochmann and Hagelund (2010) have pointed towards a specific form of Scandinavian welfare nationalism which is challenged by globalization and increased migration. We add that gender equality is a key aspect of the Scandinavian...

  7. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...... relevant objects of study. Innovation strategy and research traditionally regards innovation as a set of phases. The purpose of this paper is to enhance ‘phase’ models by adding to them a ‘driver’ model which may provide an appropriate strategy for studying and supporting the innovation potential...... in welfare professionals’ everyday work. The paper draws on empirical material from a multi-sited ethnographic field study of elderly care in Denmark. Based on pragmatic and situated notions of doing and knowing the paper illustrates the innovation potential in everyday practices of elderly care work. Based...

  8. Welfare-State Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    1996-01-01

    The goal in the present paper is twofold, to shed some light on endogenous dynamic of the welfare states, and to provide a procedure to select among several equilibria. To this end, a dynamic model is presented, in which private agents are assumed to be "locked" to current decisions for a while. If "frictions" are large enough, the economy might exhibit more than one stable Paretorankable stationary state. Equilibrium paths would then be determined by history. The economy might become "stuck"...

  9. Technologcal Literacy in welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter; Kondrup, Sissel

    be ‘welfare technological literate’ – both generally as well as within specific welfare professions. Secondly to support the development of a helpful educational framework that enables students to develop welfare technological literacy. This paper discusses some difficulties and preliminary findings......This paper present some reflections on an on-going research project, entitled “Welfare technology, Innovation, Care and Learning”. The project has a dual ambition. Firstly to develop a theoretical framework that enable educators of future welfare professionals in Denmark to examine what it means to...

  10. Reassessment of suicide attempters at home, shortly after discharge from hospital.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, B.; Waarde, J.A. van; Bozdag, M.A.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Beurs, E. de; Zitman, F.G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of suicide attempters in a general hospital may be influenced by the condition of the patient and the unfavorable circumstances of the hospital environment. AIMS: To determine whether the results of a reassessment at home shortly after discharge from hospital differ from the i

  11. “I’m Just Really Comfortable:” Learning at Home, Learning in Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Regalado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: While commuter students may use their college or university libraries, student centers, or other campus locations for academic work, as commuters they will likely also create and negotiate learning spaces in their homes. Our research with urban commuter undergraduates revealed that finding space for their academic work at home was difficult for many […

  12. Divorce and Children's Adjustment Problems at Home and School: The Role of Depressive/Withdrawn Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Repetti, Rena L.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined linkages between divorce, depressive/withdrawn parenting, and child adjustment problems at home and school. Middle class divorced single mother families (n=35) and 2-parent families (n=174) with a child in the fourth grade participated. Mothers and teachers completed yearly questionnaires and children were interviewed when they…

  13. Social disparities in children's exposure to second hand smoke at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is an important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. We hypothesised that there has been a growth in social inequality in children's exposure to SHS at home over time. The purpose of this study was to investigate temporal change in smoking in...

  14. Time Investment and Time Management: An Analysis of Time Students Spend Working at Home for School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Petra; Schober, Barbara; Spiel, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the time students spend working at home for school. In Study 1, we investigated amount and regulation of time. Study 2 serves to validate the results of Study 1 and, in addition, investigates the duration of the time units students used and their relation to scholastic success. In Study 1, the participants were 332 students…

  15. Age Effects in a Study Abroad Context: Children and Adults Studying Abroad and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, Angels; Munoz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of learning context and age on second language development by comparing the language gains, measured in terms of oral and written fluency, lexical and syntactic complexity, and accuracy, experienced by four groups of learners of English: children in a study abroad setting, children in their at-home school, adults in…

  16. Costs and financial benefits of video communication compared to usual care at home: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.M.; Mistiaen, P.; Francke, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of video communication in home care to provide insight into the ratio between the costs and financial benefits (i.e. cost savings). Four databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, COCHRANE LIBRARY, CINAHL) were searched for studies on video communication for patients living at home

  17. Learning English as a Foreign Language at Home: The Practices of Taiwanese Mothers and Their Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yi-Chen; Torr, Jane; Degotardi, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have indicated that many children from Asian countries have the experience of learning English prior to school at home or at private institutes. The Taiwanese government promotes informal and play-based teaching of English in the home if the parents would like their young children to learn English prior to formal instruction. This…

  18. "It does affect me” Disruptive behaviors in preadolescents directly and indirectly abused at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Aggressive and delinquent behaviors in preadolescents may be indicators of problems suffered at home from direct child abuse by one or both parents or indirect abuse, such as exposure to domestic violence. A total of 532 Italian preadolescents recruited in their schools took part in this study. They

  19. Patient Hand Hygiene at Home Predicts Their Hand Hygiene Practices in the Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Anna; Sethi, Ajay; Shulkin, Emily; Caniza, Rachell; Zerbel, Sara; Safdar, Nasia

    2014-01-01

    We examine factors associated with hand hygiene practices of hospital patients. Hygiene decreased compared to at home, and home practices were strongly associated with hospital practices. Understanding and leveraging the intrinsic value some patients associate with hand hygiene may be important for improving overall hospital hygiene and decreasing healthcare-associated infections.

  20. Selected Resources on Adult Children Living at Home: An Annotated Bibliography for Researchers, Educators, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Billie H.; Hayes, Kathleen C.

    The resources in this annotated bibliography were selected to help readers better understand what is known about adult children living at home. Data on this subject are scarce. The bibliography is a literature review--a State-of-the-Art report--which is applicable to many professionals and students in the social sciences. It was developed by…

  1. Dealing with New Multilingualism in Europe: Immigrant Minority Languages at Home and at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extra, Guus

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on immigrant minority languages in urban Western Europe. Both multidisciplinary and cross-national perspectives will be offered on two major domains in which language transmission occurs, i.e., the domestic domain and the public domain. Prototypical of these two domains are the home and the school, respectively. At home,…

  2. Internationalisation at Home: Exploiting the Potential of the Non-nationals' and Expatriates' Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Jaklič

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper explores the first-time internationalisation strategy and discusses whether firms could actually begin internationalisation at home without crossing the border by approaching the international expatriates’ community in the home city/market. Research Design & Methods: The concept of internationalisation at home is studied through the case study method. An example of a public company from the creative industry in the capital city from the Central and Eastern European region is studied. Findings: The expatriates’ community, so far often neglected market segment, has a rising potential in several European cites. The results highlight a positive impact on performance after approaching the expatriates’ community. Organisational learning effects result in improved and stabilised sales and strengthened firm-specific advantages. Implications & Recommendations: Internationalisation at home is disruptive innovation, especially appropriate for enterprises under high resource constraints. It is fast, cost efficient and has positive externalities. The international expatriates’ community in the home city/market offers fast organisational learning and a testing area for enterprises. Contribution & Value Added: Internationalisation at home adds to the existing understanding of internationalisation. The findings that firms could begin the organisational learning process of internationalisation before or even without the first foreign entry and proposals for the integrating expatriates’ community into the marketing strategy may influence future internationalisation paths.

  3. Mothers' Reading-Related Activities at Home and Learning to Read during Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Parrila, Rauno; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates how the reading-related activities of mothers at home relate to the development of reading skills among their kindergarten children. A total of 1,529 children (5-to-6-year-olds) were tested on word reading twice, once at the beginning and once at the end of a kindergarten year. The mothers of the children (n =…

  4. Representing Attitudes to Welfare Dependency: Relational Geographies of Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Pykett

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines the recent circulation of media images and discourse relating to characters pre-figured as ‘welfare dependents’ and reaction to Benefits Street. The article provides a brief overview of sociological analysis of such representations of apparently spiralling ‘cultures of dependency’ and proposes an alternative relational geography approach to understanding existing welfare dynamics. It describes a shift from putative welfare dependency, to dependency on geographica...

  5. A measure of welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P

    1979-10-01

    The Overseas Development Council has been seeking to perfect a new kind of measure for assessment of development strategies, for it has long been recognized that the Gross National Product is an inadequate measurement tool. The Physical Quality of Life Index, developed by the ODC over the past 3 years, scores nations on a scale of 0-100. It is calculated by averaging the countries' scores in 3 important fields of welfare -- adult literacy, infant mortality, and life expectancy at age 1. Although the PQLI data are averages also they do seem to be sensitive to the distribution of benefits. Results have been calculated for every country in the world, and they refute the arguments of conservative economists and political leaders who claim that basic human needs can only be met through rapid economic growth. Poor countries can achieve high levels of welfare for their population without waiting for growth in material wealth, and relatively high levels of national income can fail to guarantee that the mass of the population will have their basic needs met. In that their advance tends to slow down as countries approach the upper levels of the PQLI, the Overseas Development Council introduced a new concept -- the disparity reduction ratio -- for measuring changes in welfare. This is the annual rate at which each nation is closing the gap between its current score and the best expected score anywhere for the year 2000. The disparity reduction rate may permit exact targets to be established for progress in meeting basic needs. A worthwhile objective over the next 20 years might be for each country to halve the gap separating them from the best attainable. PMID:12261487

  6. The Role of Neighborhood Characteristics in the Adoption and Frequency of Working at Home: Empirical Evidence from Northern California

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Wei; Mokhtarian, Patricia L.; Handy, Susan L

    2008-01-01

    Working at home is widely viewed as a useful travel-reduction strategy, and partly for that reason, considerable research related to telecommuting and home-based work has been conducted in the last two decades. The contribution of this study is to examine the effect of residential neighborhood built environment (BE) factors on working at home. Using data from a survey of eight neighborhoods in Northern California, we develop a multinomial logit (MNL) model of work-at-home (WAH) frequency. Pot...

  7. Stereotypes and Welfare Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    What is the impact of a predominantly negative debate about social assistance on public and individual support for the social benefit? Over the course of a year the public debate about social assistance flared up twice in Denmark. The debates drew on classic stereotypes of the social assistance...... recipients lacking both the financial incentives and the will to work. According to theories of the impact of media on welfare attitudes, this had the potential to undermine public support. A two-wave panel survey, however, showed only a small drop in public support for spending on social assistance...

  8. Farmers on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ann-Christina

    In 2007 the farm subsidies of the European Union's common agricultural policy took over 40 percent of the entire EU budget. How did a sesctor of diminishing social and economic importance manage to maintain such political prominence? The conventional answer focuses on the negotiations among the...... Welfare is an important work that provides the most detailed account to date of the creation of the common agricultural policy. Employing newly tapped archival sources, Ann-Christina L. Knudsen challenges much of the received wisdom about the formation of the CAP and, in doing so, offers valuable insights...

  9. Social Welfare in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Koen

    The ‘Scientific Development Concept’, promulgated by Hu Jintao in 2007 articulated the increased eminence of social development in official ideology. The shift from political and economic objectives towards social factors can be explained by growing concerns over the current negative externalities...... market economy. Such a response must cover a wide array of social issues, ranging from provision of health, education and infrastructure, pension to unemployment insurance and poverty alleviation. The welfare issue is characterized by high degrees of complexity and interdependency between endogenous...

  10. The Danish Welfare Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2006-01-01

    on public services, and install economic incentives for the behaviour of private households. The paper then digs into the proposals of the commission that are broadly grouped into five policy target areas con-cerning (1) the ageing of the population, (2) the incentives for labour market participation, (3......, the paper focuses on the Danish Rational Economic Agents Model (DREAM) that have informed the commission’s analyses and proposals and concludes that inspired by the general equilibrium DREAM model the Welfare Commission is mainly interested in how to increase the supply of labour, restrain the demand...

  11. Feasibility, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, multi-centre trial of hand-held NB-UVB phototherapy for the treatment of vitiligo at home (HI-Light trial: Home Intervention of Light therapy)

    OpenAIRE

    Eleftheriadou, Viktoria; Thomas, Kim; Ravenscroft, Jane; Whitton, Maxine; Batchelor, Jonathan; Williams, Hywel

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand-held NB-UVB units are lightweight devices that may overcome the need to treat vitiligo in hospital-based phototherapy cabinets, allowing early treatment at home that may enhance the likelihood of successful repigmentation. The pilot Hi-Light trial examined the feasibility of conducting a large multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) on the use of such devices by exploring recruitment, adherence, acceptability, and patient education. Methods This was a feasibility, doubl...

  12. Welfare Dependency among Danish Immigrants.

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Kræn; Verner, Mette

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate determinants of the welfare dependency among immigrants in an assimilation framework. The duration of stay is a major determinant of welfare dependency. Also, assimilation patterns vary substantially across immigrants from developed and less devel-oped countries, respectively. The late arriving immigrants are relatively more dependent on transfers, explaining part of the general increase in welfare dependency during the latest years. This is partly attributed to ...

  13. The perspectives of bereaved family carers on dying at home: the study protocol of ‘unpacking the home: family carers’ reflections on dying at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne Sheila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent end of life care policy prioritises patient choice over place of care and in particular promotes dying at home. This policy is predicated on the assumption that there are family carers able and willing to provide care for the dying person. Through the accounts of bereaved family members, the ‘Unpacking the home’ study aims to gain an in-depth understanding of ‘home’ and the issues faced by family members caring for a dying older person at home; it also aims to examine the way the home is transformed in the process of providing end of life care, and offer a critical analysis of policies that aim to increase home deaths. This paper presents the protocol for this study. Methods/design A cross-sectional qualitative study has been designed to achieve the study aims. In-depth interviews will be conducted in the north and south of England with 50 bereaved family carers to elicit their accounts of witnessing the dying in the home of an older person (50+ years. All interviews will be subjected to thematic analysis, and narrative analysis will be undertaken on a subset of 30 interview transcripts. A final phase of integration and policy analysis will be conducted towards the end of the study. User involvement is integral to this study, with service users actively engaged at every stage. Discussion This study will seek to take a qualitative approach by explicitly recognising that family carers are central to the experience of dying at home for older people, and they have needs that may be amenable to support and anticipatory planning. The strengths of this study, which include its interdisciplinary and participatory approach, and in-depth data collection and analysis methods, will be explored. The limitations and challenges of this research will also be considered. This study seeks to make recommendations that will ensure that family carers receive appropriate and adequate support in caring for their loved ones at the end

  14. Rents in a welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......, but in a number of cases as described in this chapter, the rents are revealed. The implicit welfare coalition, defined as voters receiving their income from the public budget, is the majority, placing the median voter within the welfare coalition. Rents are created and protected by the welfare...

  15. MEDICATION ADHERENCE IN ELDERLY WITH POLYPHARMACY LIVING AT HOME: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF EXISTING STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelko, Erika; Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Tusek-Bunc, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    Background: We wanted to systematically review the available evidence to evaluate the drug adherence in elderly with polypharmacy living at home. Methods: We performed a literature search using MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, ProQuest, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Springer Link, Sage Journals and CINAHL. We used the following terms: Medication Adherence, Medication Compliance, Polypharmacy, and Elderly. The search was limited to English-language articles. We included only clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and cross-sectional studies. Results: A total of seven articles were included in this systematic review after applying the search strategy. Six studies dealt with the prevalence of medication adherence and its correlates in patients aged 65 years or more with polypharmacy. Two studies dealt with the effect of various interventions on medication adherence in patients aged 65 years or more with polypharmacy. Conclusion: The available literature on the polypharmacy and drug adherence in elderly living at home is scarce and further studies are needed.

  16. Peritonitis and catheter exit-site infection in patients on peritoneal dialysis at home1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abud, Ana Cristina Freire; Kusumota, Luciana; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Rodrigues, Flávia Fernanda Luchetti; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the complications related to peritonitis and catheter exit-site infections, in patients on peritoneal dialysis at home. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional study, carried out with 90 patients on peritoneal dialysis at home, in a municipality in the Northeast region of Brazil. For data collection, it was used two structured scripts and consultation on medical records. Descriptive analysis and comparison tests among independent groups were used, considering p<0.05 as level of statistical significance. Results: by comparing the frequency of peritonitis and the length of treatment, it was found that patients over two years of peritoneal dialysis were more likely to develop peritonitis (X²=6.39; p=0.01). The number of episodes of peritoneal catheter exit-site infection showed association with the length of treatment (U=224,000; p=0.015). Conclusion: peritonitis and catheter exit-site infection are associated with the length of treatment. PMID:26487141

  17. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W. Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Phillip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  18. Managing children's postural risk when using mobile technology at home: Challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Marina; Chen, Janice D; Vaz, Sharmila; Cordier, Reinie; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2015-11-01

    Maintaining the musculoskeletal health of children using mobile information and communication technologies (ICT) at home presents a challenge. The physical environment influences postures during ICT use and can contribute to musculoskeletal complaints. Few studies have assessed postures of children using ICT in home environments. The present study investigated the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) scores determined by 16 novice and 16 experienced raters. Each rater viewed 11 videotaped scenarios of a child using two types of mobile ICT at home. The Grand Scores and Action Levels determined by study participants were compared to those of an ergonomist experienced in postural assessment. All postures assessed were rated with an Action Level of 2 or above; representing a postural risk that required further investigation and/or intervention. The sensitivity of RULA to assess some of the unconventional postures adopted by children in the home is questioned. PMID:26154217

  19. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  20. Can we improve parents’ management of their children’s postoperative pain at home?

    OpenAIRE

    Chorney, Jill MacLaren; Twycross, Alison; Mifflin, Katherine; Archibald, Karen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thousands of children undergo surgery each year, and a shift toward same-day surgeries and decreased lengths of hospital stay results in parents being increasingly responsible for their child’s postoperative care. Recent studies have tested interventions designed to improve parent management of their children’s postoperative pain at home, but progress in this area has been limited by a lack of synthesis of these findings.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of interventions a...

  1. Costs and economic consequences of a help-at-home scheme for older people in England

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Annette; Knapp, Martin; Wistow, Gerald; Perkins, Margaret; King, Derek; Iemmi, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Solutions to support older people to live independently and reduce the cost of an ageing population are high on the political agenda of most developed countries. Help-at-home schemes offer a mix of community support with the aim to address a range of wellbeing needs. However, not much is currently known about the costs, outcomes and economic consequences of such schemes. Understanding their impact on individuals’ wellbeing and the economic consequences for local and central government can con...

  2. At Home With Entertainment. Changing uses, places and meanings of digital entertainment in family leisure

    OpenAIRE

    Tiilikainen, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    This study describes how the families studied use and domesticate digital entertainment technologies and services at home as a part of their practices. Data were collected using fieldwork and analyzed using grounded theory. A total of eight families with children were visited, for one weekday afternoon each. During the visits, each family member was interviewed and their use of entertainment was observed and photographed. Family members also completed some assignments. Motivations for us...

  3. Comparative research on decommissioning disposal effect of two uranium mines at home and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking two typical decommissioned uranium mines at home and abroad for an example, disposal means and effects of two uranium mines were compared and analyzed in three aspects of waste dump disposal, mine sealing treatment, and wastewater disposal. The results showed that two uranium mines were basically identical in the disposal standards and disposal means, but the works in the source survey, wastewater disposal and long-term supervision done by oversea uranium mine were more detailed than domestic uranium mine. (authors)

  4. Breast feeding and oral rehydration at home during diarrhoea to prevent dehydration.

    OpenAIRE

    Faruque, A S; Mahalanabis, D.; Islam, A.; Hoque, S. S.; A. Hasnat

    1992-01-01

    In a case-control study we evaluated the role of maternal behaviour, as reflected in maintenance of breast feeding and the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) at home during acute diarrhoea, in preventing dehydration in infants and young children. A systematic 5% sample was taken of all children aged 1-35 months attending the treatment centre of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, with acute watery diarrhoea of six days or less between August 1988 and Septe...

  5. Digital libraries at home and abroad for the needs of instruction in the school library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Verlič

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe some cases and indicate some possible uses of digital libraries (some of them can also be examples of their construction for educational purposes, at home and abroad. They have chosen examples of libraries that are appropriate (or designed for use by librarians, teachers, primary and secondary school students. The positive, as well as the negative characteristics of the use of digital libraries are presented. Qualitative properties of digital school libraries are also described in the article.

  6. Investigation of Frequency of Leftover Drugs at Home and Related Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Muharrem Ucar; Ercan Gocgeldi; Cengiz Han Acikel; Turker Turker; Metin Hasde; Adnan Atac

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this survey was to investigate the frequency of leftover drugs at homes and related factors regarding this problem. METHOD: This descriptive study was performed among 692 non-medical personnel servicing at two military bases in December 2006. Data were collected by using a questionnaire, which had been developed by the investigators. Frequencies and percents were used as descriptive statistics. Chi-square test was used to compare the frequencies of leftover drugs according...

  7. An Overall Review of English Textbook Evaluation at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辰

    2014-01-01

    Textbook evaluation is very important in both teaching and learning. The research of the English textbook evaluation in China develops relatively late, so study of the textbook evaluation theory is very important for the present college English teaching in China. The present study introduces some Influential textbook evaluation system and their theoretical characteristics at home and abroad, and points out researchers can detail the textbook evaluation theory in order to evaluate some special areas in English.

  8. Ecosystem and population health: the role of Canadian physicians at home and abroad.

    OpenAIRE

    Woollard, R F

    1995-01-01

    Seemingly intractable problems of overpopulation, ecologic degradation, diminishing resources and regional warfare are having a profound effect on global population health. Canadian physicians can assist in ameliorating these problems by helping to modify the overconsumption of natural resources at home and by participating in international health projects focused at the community level, where the health of individuals and that of their environment intersect. The author describes the work of ...

  9. Controlled-Release Oxycodone Versus Naproxen at Home After Ambulatory Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Stessel, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Paracetamol/CR oxycodone and paracetamol/naproxen are equally effective in treatment of acute postoperative pain at home after ambulatory surgery with comparable patient satisfaction level. We suggest paracetamol/CR oxycodone to be a valuable alternative for the current paracetamol/naproxen gold standard, particularly in patients with a contraindication for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02152592.

  10. The implementation of the functional task exercise programme for elderly people living at home

    OpenAIRE

    Fleuren Margot A H; Vrijkotte Susan; Jans Marielle P; Pin Renske; van Hespen Ariette; van Meeteren Nico L U; Siemonsma Petra C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The Functional Task Exercise programme is an evidence-based exercise programme for elderly people living at home. It enhances physical capacity with sustainable effects. FTE is provided by physiotherapists and remedial therapists. Although the intervention was found to be effective in a Randomised Controlled Trial, we may not assume that therapists will automatically supply the programme or that elderly people will automatically join the programme. This study protocol focu...

  11. Depression Care for Patients at Home (Depression CAREPATH): Home Care Depression Care Management Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Martha L; Raue, Patrick J.; Sheeran, Thomas; Reilly, Catherine; Pomerantz, Judith C.; Meyers, Barnett S.; Weinberger, Mark I.; Zukowski, Diane

    2011-01-01

    High levels of depressive symptoms are common and contribute to poorer clinical outcomes even in geriatric patients who are already taking antidepressant medication. The Depression CARE for PATients at Home (Depression CAREPATH) intervention was designed to meet the needs of medical and surgical patients who suffer from depression. The intervention’s clinical protocols are designed to guide clinicians in managing depression as part of routine home care.

  12. The implementation of the functional task exercise programme for elderly people living at home

    OpenAIRE

    Fleuren, M.A.H.; Vrijkotte, S.; Jans, M P; Pin, R.; Hespen, A. van; van Meeteren, N. L. U.; Siemonsma, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Functional Task Exercise programme is an evidence-based exercise programme for elderly people living at home. It enhances physical capacity with sustainable effects. FTE is provided by physiotherapists and remedial therapists. Although the intervention was found to be effective in a Randomised Controlled Trial, we may not assume that therapists will automatically supply the programme or that elderly people will automatically join the programme. This study protocol focuses on i...

  13. Internet access by minors at home: usage norms imposed by parents

    OpenAIRE

    Sureda-Negre, Jaume; Comas-Forgas, Ruben; Morey-López, Mercè

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines and discusses the rules and standards set by parents for their children on Internet usage at home. Data that supports the paper have been obtained by surveying a representative sample of children in the Balearic Islands aged between 6 and 16 years; the analysis dimensions are: access by minors to the Internet from home; location of the computer from which have online access; level of autonomy or accompaniment while surfing the Net; norms imposed by their parents; types of ...

  14. The meaning of being young with dementia and living at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Rostad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies that explore the subjective experiences of younger people with dementia living at home are rare. Therefore, the aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the lived experience of younger persons (<65 years who lived at home and suffered from earlyonset dementia, and the meanings that might be found in those experiences. The researchers conducted a qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected through narrative interviews with four informants. Two men and two women ages 55 to 62 participated. Three of the informants lived with their spouses, and one lived alone, close to his children. The informants’ subjective experiences revealed the following four key themes: entrapment by circumstances, loss of humanity, the preservation of hope and willpower, and the desire to ensure one’s quality of life. These themes provide a deeper understanding of the experiences of younger people with dementia who live at home. The theme of preserving hope and willpower rebuts prejudicial contentions that life with Alzheimer’s syndrome does not have anything more to offer and may be seen as diminishing a patient’s humanity. Patients’ autonomy and self-determination should not be ignored. In all phases of the progression of dementia, the person in charge of giving care to the relative with dementia should be ethically aware of and reflective to the progress of his/her illness.

  15. The nature of parent-child talk during the sharing of science trade books at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuis, Becky Anne

    This study examined the interactions between parents and their typically developing fourth grade children as they shared science trade books together at home. The aim of this research was to understand how parents and children make meaning together in this context and how parent-child talk related to children's developing scientific views. Four parent-child dyads ranging in information book sharing experiences were videotaped once a week for three weeks in their home during the reading of three science trade books. Both parents and children were interviewed about their interactive experiences following each reading. Parent-child talk was captured and characterized using an analytic framework for discourse, along with a typology of intertextuality and interview data. The results of this research provide preliminary evidence of the capacity of parent-child talk in the context of science books at home to support both children's inquiry skills and their active participation in their sense making behaviors, both of which are integral to their scientific literacy development. The present investigation provides tentative evidence of how parent-child talk about science books can support children's developing social language of science, as well as encourage the practice of science process skills. The results of this study shed light on the importance of older readers' continued access and experiences with science books, and the potential of parent-child talk about science books at home to positively influence children's developing scientific literacy. Keywords: parent-child tally sharing science books, inquiry, scientific literacy.

  16. The support needs of terminally ill people living alone at home: a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Samar M.; Breen, Lauren J.; Howting, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Context: The number of terminally ill people who live alone at home and without a caregiver is growing and exerting pressure on the stretched resources of home-based palliative care services. Objectives: We aimed to highlight the unmet support needs of terminally ill people who live alone at home and have no primary caregiver and identify specific models of care that have been used to address these gaps. Methods: We conducted a narrative review of empirical research published in peer-reviewed journals in English using a systematic approach, searching databases 2002–2013. This review identified 547 abstracts as being potentially relevant. Of these, 95 were retrieved and assessed, with 37 studies finally reviewed. Results: Majority of the studies highlighted the reduced likelihood of this group to be cared for and die at home and the experiences of more psychosocial distress and more hospital admissions than people with a primary caregiver. Few studies reported on the development of models of care but showed that the challenges faced by this group may be mitigated by interventions tailored to meet their specific needs. Conclusion: This is the first review to highlight the growing challenges facing community palliative care services in supporting the increasing number of people living alone who require care. There is a need for more studies to examine the effectiveness of informal support networks and suitable models of care and to provide directions that will inform service planning for this growing and challenging group. PMID:25750828

  17. En el seno del hogar. Experiencias familiares para desarrollar el alfabetismo (Right at Home. Family Experiences for Building Literacy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Merrily P.; Armstrong, Gloria

    This publication, a Spanish translation of "Right at Home," is a family involvement program in the form of easy-to-read cartoon-style letters to be used at home by parents or other family members with their preschool or kindergarten-age children. The book is designed to be used independently by parents, or to be reproduced and distributed to…

  18. A Statistical Portrait of Working at Home in the U.K.: Evidence from the Labour Force Survey. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Phizacklea, Annie; Walters, Sally

    The patterns, extent, and problems of working at home in the United Kingdom were examined through a multivariate analysis of data from the Labour Force Survey, which has questioned respondents about the location of their workplace since 1992. The numbers of people working "mainly" at home increased from 345,920 (1.5%) in 1981 to 680,612 (2.5%) in…

  19. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup;

    2007-01-01

    microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for a range of elasticity parameters. In most countries, because of large existing welfare programmes with high phase-out rates, increasing traditional welfare is undesirable unless the...

  20. Career Maturity of Welfare Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Carol M.

    To investigate the career maturity of welfare recipients, this thesis examines six independent variables: (1) race; (2) sex; (3) age; (4) level of formal education; (5) general intelligence; and (6) locus of control. Scales taken from the Career Maturity Inventory served as the dependent variables. The sample consisted of 83 welfare recipients who…

  1. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment on...... processor-owned estate farms is estimated using a maximum simulated likelihood estimator. Our results show positive welfare effects from participating in contract farming, but not from employment on processor-owned estate farms. The results imply that contract farming presents opportunities for economic...

  2. Periodic limb movements of sleep: empirical and theoretical evidence supporting objective at-home monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moro M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marilyn Moro,1 Balaji Goparaju,1 Jelina Castillo,1 Yvonne Alameddine,1 Matt T Bianchi1,2 1Neurology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Introduction: Periodic limb movements of sleep (PLMS may increase cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity. However, most people with PLMS are either asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms. Therefore, predicting elevated PLMS in the absence of restless legs syndrome remains an important clinical challenge.Methods: We undertook a retrospective analysis of demographic data, subjective symptoms, and objective polysomnography (PSG findings in a clinical cohort with or without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA from our laboratory (n=443 with OSA, n=209 without OSA. Correlation analysis and regression modeling were performed to determine predictors of periodic limb movement index (PLMI. Markov decision analysis with TreeAge software compared strategies to detect PLMS: in-laboratory PSG, at-home testing, and a clinical prediction tool based on the regression analysis.Results: Elevated PLMI values (>15 per hour were observed in >25% of patients. PLMI values in No-OSA patients correlated with age, sex, self-reported nocturnal leg jerks, restless legs syndrome symptoms, and hypertension. In OSA patients, PLMI correlated only with age and self-reported psychiatric medications. Regression models indicated only a modest predictive value of demographics, symptoms, and clinical history. Decision modeling suggests that at-home testing is favored as the pretest probability of PLMS increases, given plausible assumptions regarding PLMS morbidity, costs, and assumed benefits of pharmacological therapy.Conclusion: Although elevated PLMI values were commonly observed, routinely acquired clinical information had only weak predictive utility. As the clinical importance of elevated PLMI continues to evolve, it is likely that objective measures such as PSG or

  3. Periodic limb movements of sleep: empirical and theoretical evidence supporting objective at-home monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Marilyn; Goparaju, Balaji; Castillo, Jelina; Alameddine, Yvonne; Bianchi, Matt T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodic limb movements of sleep (PLMS) may increase cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity. However, most people with PLMS are either asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms. Therefore, predicting elevated PLMS in the absence of restless legs syndrome remains an important clinical challenge. Methods We undertook a retrospective analysis of demographic data, subjective symptoms, and objective polysomnography (PSG) findings in a clinical cohort with or without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from our laboratory (n=443 with OSA, n=209 without OSA). Correlation analysis and regression modeling were performed to determine predictors of periodic limb movement index (PLMI). Markov decision analysis with TreeAge software compared strategies to detect PLMS: in-laboratory PSG, at-home testing, and a clinical prediction tool based on the regression analysis. Results Elevated PLMI values (>15 per hour) were observed in >25% of patients. PLMI values in No-OSA patients correlated with age, sex, self-reported nocturnal leg jerks, restless legs syndrome symptoms, and hypertension. In OSA patients, PLMI correlated only with age and self-reported psychiatric medications. Regression models indicated only a modest predictive value of demographics, symptoms, and clinical history. Decision modeling suggests that at-home testing is favored as the pretest probability of PLMS increases, given plausible assumptions regarding PLMS morbidity, costs, and assumed benefits of pharmacological therapy. Conclusion Although elevated PLMI values were commonly observed, routinely acquired clinical information had only weak predictive utility. As the clinical importance of elevated PLMI continues to evolve, it is likely that objective measures such as PSG or at-home PLMS monitors will prove increasingly important for clinical and research endeavors. PMID:27540316

  4. 职业福利功能之争%Debates on the Function of Occupational Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁学娜

    2015-01-01

    The functional judgment or positioning of occupational welfare determines the direction,strength and ways or methods of public policies in occupational welfare development,and its cooperation mechanism with public welfare. Scholars at home and abroad study their own or world countries within the scope of public welfare and occupational welfare function relationship,find that the complementary theory,substitution theory and the welfare pluralism theory have made a different judgment to the function of the occupational welfare. However,due to the functional equivalence principle of various welfare suppliers and the ability of welfare supplies besides the state to replace the government on the aspect of welfare supply,substitution theory and the welfare pluralism theory lack wide support. Therefore,supplementary function theory becomes the functional orientation of occupational welfare worldwide. Nevertheless,to give full play to supplementary function,occupational welfare still needs to be further studied as itself with high complexity.%对职业福利功能的判断或定位,决定了在职业福利发展及其与公共福利的合作机制方面的政府政策引导方向、力度、方式或方法。国内外学者对本国或世界范围内公共福利与职业福利作用关系的实际考察发现:补充理论、替代理论和福利多元主义理论对职业福利的功能做出了不同的判断。由于对各福利供给主体功能等价原则以及国家之外的福利供给主体对国家的替代能力的质疑,替代理论和福利多元主义理论缺少广泛支持;对公共福利的补充功能成为世界范围内职业福利的功能定位。然而,职业福利本身具有高度复杂性,要使职业福利充分发挥补充功能,仍需对其本身进行深入研究。

  5. Support for elderly clients to live at home via Caring TV

    OpenAIRE

    Achale, Helen; Akeme, Victorine

    2010-01-01

    ‎The purpose of this study is to find out how healthcare professionals support elderly clients to live ‎at home via caring TV. The Caring TV project is an interactive technology developed by Laurea ‎University of applied sciences, TDC Song and Videra Oy and Espoo city. This program provides a ‎learning environment for various sub-projects seeking to develop supportive services according to a ‎client–driven methodological approach. The aim of the study is to find out how Caring TV is used as ‎...

  6. Preparing for the First Birth: Mothers' Experiences at Home and in Hospital in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlen, Hannah G; Barclay, Lesley M; Homer, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the experiences of a group of first-time mothers who had given birth at home or in hospital in Australia. Data were generated from in-depth interviews with 19 women and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. One of the categories to emerge from the analysis, “Preparing for Birth,” is discussed in this article. Preparing for Birth consisted of two subcategories, “Finding a Childbirth Setting” and “Setting Up Birth Expectations,” which were mediated b...

  7. Hospital-admitted COPD patients treated at home using telemedicine technology in The Virtual Hospital Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anna Svarre; Laursen, Lars C; Østergaard, Birte;

    2013-01-01

    Recent reviews suggest that telemedicine solutions for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may prevent hospital readmissions and emergency room visits and improve health-related quality of life. However, the studies are few and only involve COPD patients who are in a stable...... phase or in-patients who are ready for discharge. COPD patients hospitalized with an acute exacerbation may also benefit from telemedicine solutions. The overall aim is to investigate a telemedicine-based treatment solution for patients with acute exacerbation of COPD at home as compared to conventional...

  8. Cooperation versus Coordination: Using Real-time Telemedicine for Treatment at Home of Diabetic Footulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Jane; Larsen, Simon Bo

    2007-01-01

    In conventional treatment the patient with a diabetic foot ulcer travels to hospital for consultations with the experts. We conducted an organizational analysis of the cooperation taking place when telemedicine was used for treatment at home instead. In a pilot study, five patients were offered...... hospital and the visiting nurse; there were other benefits as well. However, this new organization required increased efforts for coordination and may have incurred extra costs in the case of delays. Thus when designing telemedicine systems, the goal should be to facilitate the coordination and lower the...

  9. Trapped at Home: The Effect of Mothers' Temporary Labor Market Exits on their Subsequent Work Career

    OpenAIRE

    Drange, Nina; Rege, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how mothers' decision to stay at home with young children affects their subsequent work careers. Identification is based on the introduction of the Cash-for-Care program in Norway in 1998, which increased mothers' incentives to withdraw from the labor market when their child was one and two years old. Our estimates demonstrate that the program had effects on earnings and full-time employment even when the child was no longer eligible for Cash-for-Care at ages four and ...

  10. A Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database for the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Jessica E.; Mancino, Lisa; Leibtag, Ephraim S.; Tripodo, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the methodology used to construct ERS’s Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database (Q-FAHPD). As the name suggest, these data provide quarterly observations on the mean price of 52 food categories for specific U.S. markets. We provide a description of the Nielsen Homescan data that was used to create this database, the methodology used to classify foods into food groups, how we determined the appropriate the level of aggregation (sub-regional markets)...

  11. Post-Communist Welfare Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerami, Alfio; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    This collection adopts novel theoretical approaches to study the diverse welfare state pathways that have evolved across Central and Eastern Europe since the fall of communism in 1989. Going beyond existing path dependency and neo-institutionalist explanations, it highlights the role of explanatory...... factors such as micro-causal mechanisms, ideas, discourses, path departures, power politics, and elite strategies. This book includes contributions from leading international Experts such as Claus Offe, Robert Kaufman, Stefan Haggard, Tomasz Inglot, and Mitchell Orenstein, to examine welfare in specific...... lie ahead for welfare state regimes in Central and Eastern Europe. Praise and reviews “'In this conceptually-sophisticated, richly-informed volume, Cerami and Vanhuysse bring together an exceptional group of scholars to debate path dependence and institutional transformation in CEE welfare states. The...

  12. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most...

  13. Uniform pricing and social welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoletti, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    We re-examine the case for uniform pricing in a monopolistic third-degree price-discrimination setting by introducing differentiated costs. A profit-maximizing monopolist could then use price differentiation to reduce the production of the more costly goods, thereby decreasing average cost and increasing welfare. Indeed, monopolistic price differentiation can improve welfare and also aggregate consumer surplus even if, as in the benchmark linear case, total output does not increase. According...

  14. ABOUT WELFARE IN CULTURAL CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to briefly analyze the research efforts on measuring welfare indices in terms of cultural relativism. It presents the limitations of GDP and some of the proposed alternatives over time, to understand the wideness and interest in this topic, but also the consequences of imposing a certain type of indicators to reflect the progress and welfare of a country. To provide a coherent overview on the proposed subject, the approach starts with the presentation of general acceptation ...

  15. The welfare of dairy buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Winckler; Fabio Napolitano; Corrado Pacelli; Fernando Grasso; Giuseppe De Rosa

    2010-01-01

    The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behavioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animalrelated indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening assessed with Body Condition Score (BCS) systems; cleanliness (the presence of mud may be conside...

  16. Time Limits and Welfare Use

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Grogger

    2000-01-01

    Time limits are a central component of recent welfare reforms and represent a substantial departure from previous policy. However, several recent studies suggest that they have had no effect on welfare use. In this paper I attempt to reconcile those findings with results from Grogger and Michalopoulos, who find time limits to have substantial effects that vary by the age of the youngest child in the family. Using data from the Current Population Survey, I obtain results similar to those of pr...

  17. A twentieth-century triangle trade: selling black beauty at home and abroad, 1945–1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Malia

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the careers of African American beauty culturists as they worked in the United States, Europe, and Africa between 1945 and 1965. Facing push back at home, African American beauty entrepreneurs frequently sought out international venues that were hospitable and receptive to black Americans in the years following World War II. By strategically using European sites that white Americans regarded as the birthplace of Western fashion and beauty, African American entrepreneurs in the fields of modeling, fashion design, and hair care were able to win accolades and advance their careers. In gaining support abroad, particularly in Europe, these beauty culturists capitalized on their international success to establish, legitimize, and promote their business ventures in the United States. After importing a positive reputation for themselves from Europe to the United States, African American beauty entrepreneurs then exported an image of themselves as the world's premier authorities on black beauty to people of color around the globe as they sold their products and marketed their expertise on the African continent itself. This essay demonstrates the important role that these black female beauty culturists played, both as businesspeople and as race leaders, in their generation's struggle to gain greater respect and opportunity for African Americans both at home and abroad. In doing so it places African American beauty culturists within the framework of transatlantic trade networks, the Black Freedom Movement, Pan-Africanism, and America's Cold War struggle. PMID:21114069

  18. Fall Risk Assessment and Early-Warning for Toddler Behaviors at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mau-Tsuen Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Accidental falls are the major cause of serious injuries in toddlers, with most of these falls happening at home. Instead of providing immediate fall detection based on short-term observations, this paper proposes an early-warning childcare system to monitor fall-prone behaviors of toddlers at home. Using 3D human skeleton tracking and floor plane detection based on depth images captured by a Kinect system, eight fall-prone behavioral modules of toddlers are developed and organized according to four essential criteria: posture, motion, balance, and altitude. The final fall risk assessment is generated by a multi-modal fusion using either a weighted mean thresholding or a support vector machine (SVM classification. Optimizations are performed to determine local parameter in each module and global parameters of the multi-modal fusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can assess fall risks and trigger alarms with an accuracy rate of 92% at a speed of 20 frames per second.

  19. Relationship between Caregivers’ Smoking at Home and Urinary Levels of Cotinine in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of different smoking behaviors of caregivers on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in children aged 5–6 years in Changsha, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, random digit-dial telephone survey of caregivers (n = 543 between August and October 2013. Caregivers’ smoking behaviors were collected by a questionnaire. Exposure assessment was based upon determination of urinary cotinine levels in children employing gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. Results: In children not living with a smoker, children living with one smoker, and children living with more than one smoker at home, median urinary cotinine concentrations (ng/mL were 0.72, 2.97, and 4.46, respectively. For children living with one smoker, median urinary cotinine levels of children exposed to ETS were associated with caregiver smoking behaviors, i.e., if a caregiver consumed more cigarettes (>20 compared with ≤10; 7.73 versus 2.29 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The magnitude of ETS exposure in children is correlated with the smoking behaviors of the caregiver. Counseling for smoking cessation and educational interventions are needed urgently for smoking caregivers to increase their awareness about ETS exposure and to encourage smoking cessation at home or to take precautions to protect children’s health.

  20. Make Yourself At Home! Adolescents in Search of the Queer Spaces of Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokkola, Lydia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Home is often assumed to be a safe place, a place to which children can return after their adventures Away. For many gay and lesbian teens, both fictional and in real life, however, the space they share with their family of origin is not a place where they can feel at home. The heterosexual family home is often so hostile to queerly desiring teens that they are forced to leave in search of a place where they can feel at home. The queer spaces they enter in their search are usually considered risky spaces – public spaces, urban spaces, the bar and the street – unhomely spaces. In these temporary, in-between spaces, the queerly desiring teens in the novels examined in this paper form new family structures. Although all the Anglophone novels discussed in this article end on moments of up-lift and hope for the future, the association of the queerly desiring youngster with risky spaces suggests that the queer teens are themselves unheimlich (uncanny..

  1. Exile at Home: Alienation in Rehman Rashid’s A Malaysian Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoe Pik Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A Malaysian Journey served as a novel which detailed and recorded Malaysia’s journey as a country from its pre-independence era until the time of the novel’s publication in 1993. But more than that, it was a novel of Rashid’s personal journey as he rediscovered his country and his own identity. As such, it was a highly personal memoir which reflected Rashid’s state of mind, his condition, and the problems which he faced through the years. Alienation was one of the problems that Rashid encountered throughout his life. This sense of alienation may be manifested in many forms, which could be through his ethnicity, language, religion as well as location. This alienation could occur due to the isolation that others forcefully impose on him, or it could be from his rejection towards his contemporaries. Rashid’s sense of alienation only further fueled his condition as both an external and internal exile of his country, whereby he was unable to feel at home wherever he was. It was only after he discarded his foreign view of the country, casting off his state of mind as an exile at the end of the story that he was able to finally feel at home without being plagued by thoughts of alienation.Keywords: Bumiputra status, Malay ethnicity, personal memoir, post-colonial literature, unhomed 

  2. Erosion and abrasion on dental structures undergoing at-home bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarquinio SBC

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Flávio Fernando Demarco1, Sônia Saeger Meireles2, Hugo Ramalho Sarmento1, Raquel Venâncio Fernandes Dantas1, Tatiana Botero3, Sandra Beatriz Chaves Tarquinio11Graduate Program in Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil; 2Department of Operative Dentistry, Federal University of Paraíba, Brazil; 3Cariology, Restorative Science, and Endodontics Department, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, MI, USAAbstract: This review investigates erosion and abrasion in dental structures undergoing at-home bleaching. Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition that may be idiopathic or caused by a known acid source. Some bleaching agents have a pH lower than the critical level, which can cause changes in the enamel mineral content. Investigations have shown that at-home tooth bleaching with low concentrations of hydrogen or carbamide peroxide have no significant damaging effects on enamel and dentin surface properties. Most studies where erosion was observed were in vitro. Even though the treatment may cause side effects like sensitivity and gingival irritation, these usually disappear at the end of treatment. Considering the literature reviewed, we conclude that tooth bleaching agents based on hydrogen or carbamide peroxide have no clinically significant influence on enamel/dentin mineral loss caused by erosion or abrasion. Furthermore, the treatment is tolerable and safe, and any adverse effects can be easily reversed and controlled.Keywords: peroxide, tooth bleaching, enamel, dentin, erosion, abrasion

  3. Risk and the welfare state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Gooby, P; Dean, H; Munro, M; Parker, G

    1999-06-01

    The British welfare state developed as a state-centred response to the problem of handling the risks encountered in a typical life-course. The influential work of Giddens and others implies that the traditional welfare state is under attack from two directions: a changing international politico-economic environment limits the freedom of national governments to pursue independent policies involving relatively high taxation to finance social spending. At the same time, changes in the experience of risk and declining confidence in the expertise of welfare state planners and professionals undermine support for state-centred solutions. This approach fails to acknowledge that available non-state services are often inadequate to meet many everyday life risks and that the authority of private sector advisers, insurers and professionals is also increasingly open to question. This article discusses whether people reject welfare state solutions to problems of risk in the context of research on the perceptions and behaviour of people buying or selling their homes, considering provision for long-term care needs and defrauding social security carried out by the ESRC's Economic Beliefs and Behaviour programme. Individual responses endorse the continued provision of state welfare in order to meet unprovided risks alongside disenchantment with the record of both state and private professionals and planners and awareness that state retrenchment requires greater individual responsibility for meeting one's own needs. The theory of risk society requires development to recognize that citizens are not necessarily alienated from state welfare. PMID:15260022

  4. School and pupil effects on secondary pupils’ feelings of safety in school, around school, and at home

    OpenAIRE

    Mooij, Ton; Fettelaar, Daan

    2012-01-01

    Mooij, T., & Fettelaar, D. (2013). School and pupil effects on secondary pupils’ feelings of safety in school, around school, and at home. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(6), 1240-1265. doi:10.1177/0886260512468242

  5. The impact of the residential built environment on work at home adoption frequency: An example from Northern California

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Wei; Mokhtarian, Patricia L.; Handy, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    Working at home is widely viewed as a useful travel-reduction strategy, and it is partly for that reason that considerable research related to telecommuting and home-based work has been conducted in the last two decades. This study examines the effect of residential neighborhood built environment (BE) factors on working at home. After systematically presenting and categorizing various relevant elements of the BE and reviewing related studies, we develop a multinomial logit (MNL) model of work...

  6. What Accounts for the Onerous Care Burden at Home in Japan? Evidence from Household Data(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizutani, Satoshi; NOGUCHI Haruko

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important purposes of Japan's introduction of public long-term care insurance in 2000 was to diminish the care burden at home, which traditionally depends heavily on women. This study takes advantage of unique micro-level information to examine whether the care burden has decreased for the first time. Moreover, we investigate what factors determine the care burden in individual households. Our empirical findings suggest that total care hours of the main caregiver at home sligh...

  7. Improving Animal Welfare in Livestock Operations

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, animal welfare has been increasingly recognized in importance in commercial livestock operations. Governments, academic institutions, and animal welfare professionals are addressing animal welfare at different points in the agricultural supply chain, while consumers are demanding higher standards for food safety and animal welfare. Meanwhile, regional and global initiat...

  8. Shall We Keep Highly Skilled at Home? The Optimal Income Tax Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Trannoy, Laurent Simula and

    2009-01-01

    We examine how allowing individuals to emigrate to pay lower taxes abroad changes the optimal non-linear income tax scheme in a Mirrleesian economy. An individual emigrates if his domestic utility is less than his utility abroad net of migration costs, utilities and costs both depending on productivity. Three average social criteria are distinguished – national, citizen and resident – according to the agents whose welfare matters. A curse of the middle-skilled occurs in the first-best and it ...

  9. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Edward Sage; Melanie Sage

    2016-01-01

    The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of socia...

  10. Immigrants on Welfare: Assimilation and Benefit Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Ekhaugen, Tyra

    2005-01-01

    Non-western immigrants in Norway are shown to rely heavily on welfare transfers for several years after immigration. While refugee immigrants assimilate slightly out of welfare, other non-western immigrants assimilate rapidly into welfare. Re-migration is selective for both non-western and western immigrants, insofar as the probability of re-migration correlates negatively with the probability of receiving welfare. We argue that previous studies may have reached biased estimates of welfare as...

  11. Promoting Parents' Use of Non-Pharmacological Methods and Assessment of Children's Postoperative Pain at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyyssönen S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents have reported challenges in assessing their child's postoperative pain at home.Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the parental use of the Parents' Postoperative Pain Measure -tool (PPPM on 1-3 -year-old children's non-pharmacological pain alleviation at home.Methodology: This was a non-randomized, prospective study with two parallel groups, where the parents in the intervention group were provided with PPPM in addition to a pain diary consisting of a verbal pain scale. The data were collected from 50 parents whose children had undergone day surgery in three Finnish university hospitals between January 2006 and June 2007. Parents completed questionnaires consisting of background information, verbal pain rating scale and a sub-scale measuring parents' use of non-pharmacological methods in children's postoperative pain alleviation.Results: Most children had mild postoperative pain after discharge, but in some children pain was moderate or severe. Non-pharmacological interventions were used commonly for pain alleviation in both groups, including holding the child in lap, comforting the child and spending time with the child more than usual during the recovery period after discharge. However, the use of non-pharmacological pain alleviation methods was 15% more common in the intervention group than in the control group. Parents of the intervention group had carried the child (p=0.04 and used distraction (p=0.05 more commonly than parents in control group. No group differences were found in parental assessments of the helpfulness of non-pharmacological pain alleviation methods.Conclusions: Children's pain remains under-treated and their pain alleviation can be promoted by providing the parents pain assessment tools, such as PPPM, to be used at home. The results can be utilized to further improve children's pain alleviation. More parental education is needed to promote their skills to alleviate the

  12. Developmental Outcomes of Foster Children: A Meta-Analytic Comparison With Children From the General Population and Children at Risk Who Remained at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goemans, Anouk; van Geel, Mitch; van Beem, Merel; Vedder, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Foster care is often preferred to other placement options for children in the child welfare system. However, it is not clear how the developmental outcomes of foster children relate to children in other living arrangements. In this study, a series of meta-analyses are performed to compare the cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral functioning of children placed in foster care (n = 2,305) with children at risk who remained with their biological parents (n = 4,335) and children from the general population (n = 4,971). A systematic literature search in PsycINFO, Medline, ERIC, and ProQuest identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion (N = 11,611). Results showed that foster children had generally lower levels of functioning than children from the general population. No clear differences were found between foster children and children at risk who remained at home, but both groups experienced developmental problems. Improving the quality of foster care and future research to identify which children are best served by either foster care or in-home services are recommended. PMID:27481915

  13. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  14. Advances in research of land surface evapotranspiration at home and abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Land surface evapotranspiration (ET) is an important part of the hydrologic cycle and energy balances.With the development of remote sensing technology,research on monitoring and estimating of evapotranspiration has made important progress.This paper summarizes advances in measuring and estimating regional evapotranspiration at home and abroad based on traditional methods and remote sensing.This summary includes such methods as Bowen,Gradient,Penman-Monteith,Water Balance,Eddy Correlation,SPAC,Energy Balance and Remote Sensing.Also,the evapotranspiration achievements in the Heihe River Basin are also discussed.Finally,the existing problems in regional evapotranspiration research and future development prospects are also discussed at the conclusion of this paper.

  15. Review of Researches on Agricultural Industry Chain at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge; SONG; Taiyan; YANG; Jianhui; LIU

    2014-01-01

    Management of agricultural industry chain is the main form of modern agricultural industrialization. Integration and optimization of agricultural chain have great significance in deepening the reform in the countryside,quickening the development of agricultural modernization and establishing new system of agricultural management. Based on the theory sources and contents of agricultural chain as well as the current researches at home and abroad,this paper hackles and concludes information technology,logistics management and food safety and quality in foreign agricultural chain as well as the organization model,operation mechanism,integration and optimization,promotion and extension,financing and risk prevention,influencing factors as well as performance evaluation in domestic agricultural chain and offers relevant review in order to provide further reference for future researches.

  16. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel about Charging Their EV at Home?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Key Observations from the Survey of the EV Project Participants; In June 2013, 72% of EV Project participants were very satisfied with their home charging experience; 21% of participants relied totally on home charging for all of their charging needs; Volt owners relied more on home charging than Leaf owners, who reported more use of away-from-home charging; 74% of participants reported that they plug in their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) every time they park at home. Others plugged in as they determined necessary to support their driving needs; 40% of participants reported that they would not have or are unsure that in June 2013 whether they would have purchased an alternating current (AC) Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) for home charging if it had not been provided by The EV Project; and 61% of participants reported that The EV Project incentive was very important or important in their decision to obtain a PEV.

  17. Paid carers' experiences of caring for mechanically ventilated children at home: implications for services and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Christina; Pontin, David

    2013-06-01

    UK survival rates for long-term mechanically ventilated children have increased and paid carers are trained to care for them at home, however there is limited literature on carers' training needs and experience of sharing care. Using a qualitative abductive design, we purposively sampled experienced carers to generate data via diaries, semi-structured interviews, and researcher reflexive notes. Research ethics approval was granted from NHS and University committees. Five analytical themes emerged - Parent as expert; Role definition tensions; Training and Continuing Learning Needs; Mixed Emotions; Support Mechanisms highlighting the challenges of working in family homes for carers and their associated learning needs. Further work on preparing carers to share feelings with parents, using burnout prevention techniques, and building confidence is suggested. Carers highlight the lack of clinical supervision during their night-working hours. One solution may be to provide access to registered nurse support when working out-of-office hours. PMID:23711491

  18. Managing occupations in everyday life for people with advanced cancer at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peoples, Hanne; Brandt, Åse; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen;

    Background: People with advanced cancer are increasingly able to live for extended periods of time. Advanced cancer influences the ability to manage occupations in the everyday life. Although studies have showed that people with advanced cancer experience occupational difficulties, there are...... limited research that more specifically explore how these are managed. The objective was to describe and explore how people with advanced cancer manage occupations at home. Material and methods: A qualitative descriptive design was applied. 73 participants were consecutively recruited from a Danish...... “Everyday life under change” and two sub-categories 1) Appling strategies to manage occupations in everyday life and 2) Preserving a meaningful everyday life. Significance: The findings suggest that people with advanced cancer, to a greater extent, should be supported in exploring familiar as well as new...

  19. Investigation of Frequency of Leftover Drugs at Home and Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Ucar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this survey was to investigate the frequency of leftover drugs at homes and related factors regarding this problem. METHOD: This descriptive study was performed among 692 non-medical personnel servicing at two military bases in December 2006. Data were collected by using a questionnaire, which had been developed by the investigators. Frequencies and percents were used as descriptive statistics. Chi-square test was used to compare the frequencies of leftover drugs according to certain variables. RESULTS: Of the total participants 78,8% were males, 72,8% aged between 18 to 39, and 29,6% were unmarried. The findings revealed that 61,3% of the participants had leftover drugs at their homes. Participants living with together 2 to 4 family members had higher frequencies of leftover drugs at homes. When we looked at the frequencies of leftover drugs according to drug use behaviors; the frequency of leftover drug was determined higher among those who stated; the recipe was not explained sufficiently, he did not use drugs as directed, he kept drugs until due time when did not use all of the drugs, he kept drugs in a box or bag, he visited a health center in order to have a recipe (p<0,05. CONCLUSION: It was determined leftover drugs were kept at nearly two third of the participants’ homes. Regarding incompleteness of treatment, the intoxication risk for children, and drug waste, this frequency of drug leftover was high, and all responsible professions in the chain of rationale drug use particularly physicians should be awaked on this issue. The use of drugs in a recipe should be explained to patients clearly. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(2.000: 113-118

  20. Unmet needs, quality of life and support networks of people with dementia living at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oomman Sabu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is lack of evidence about the unmet needs of people with dementia (PWD living at home and the predictors of high levels of unmet needs. The main aim of this study was to identify the relationship between unmet needs, social networks and quality of life of PWD living at home. Methods One hundred and fifty two community dwelling PWD and 128 carers were interviewed about PWD's needs, social networks, quality of life and other functional and psychological factors. All the interviews with PWD were carried out at their homes. Interviews with carers were undertaken either at PWD's home, their own home or at the health centre. Whenever possible, PWD and carers were interviewed separately. The data collection took place between November 2005 and July 2007. The majority of participants (129, 84.9% were recruited from National Health Services (NHS and the rest (23, 15.1% were recruited from other organisations such as social services and voluntary organizations in the UK. Results The most frequent unmet needs for PWD were daytime activities (77, 50.7%, company (60, 39.5%, and help with psychological distress (47, 30.9%. Higher number of behavioural and psychological symptoms, low-community involvement social networks, having a younger carer and higher carer's anxiety were found to be predictors of higher unmet needs in PWD. Social networks and behavioural and psychological symptoms had an indirect effect on PWD's self-rated quality of life through unmet needs. Conclusions Interventions aiming to reduce unmet needs, through the treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms and the involvement of PWD in the community, would potentially improve PWD's quality of life.

  1. Trace elements in wines produced at home in the Tikvesh area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of the geochemical research of the presence of trace elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn) in the wines produced at home in the Tikveš area with the application of the methods of ICP-AES and (ETAAS) are shown. The paper also presents the correlations made on the basis the presence of certain trace elements in the soil on which the specified variety of grape wine is grown and the same elements in the wine which is produced from that type of grape. The correlations basically point to the fact that there is no great correlation between the presence of the determined trace elements in the soil and wine produced at home. Namely, these correlations for the determined geochemical pairs are the following: Al soil/Al vine (0.04); As soil/As vine (0.11); Ba soil/Ba vine (0.23); Ca soil/Ca vine (0.02); Cd soil/Cd vine(–0.06); Co soil/C ovine (–0.26); Cr soil/Cr vine (– 0.04); Cu soil/Cu vine (0.04); Mg soil/Mg vine (–0.30); Mn soil/Mn vine (–0.40); Na soil/Na vine (0.11); Ni soil/Ni vine (0.03); Pb soil/Pb vine (0.27); The lack of significant correlations between the given geochemical pairs is a result of a few moments such as: (1) the presence of trace elements in the soil is determined up to the depth of 30 cm. (2) trace elements in soils are present mainly in the silicate matrix from which the elements are not easily excreted into aqueous solutions. (3) the root system of the grape vine is at a much greater depth of 30 cm. (Author)

  2. EnergySavers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's consumer guide to saving money and energy at home and on the road. It consists of the following articles: (1) Save Money and Energy Today - Get started with things you can do now, and use the whole-house approach to ensure that your investments are wisely made to save you money and energy; (2) Your Home's Energy Use - Find out how your home uses energy, and where it's losing the most energy so you can develop a plan to save in the short and long term; (3) Air Leaks and Insulation - Seal air leaks and insulate your home properly so your energy dollars don't seep through the cracks; (4) Heating and Cooling - Use efficient systems to heat and cool your home, and save money and increase comfort by properly maintaining and upgrading equipment; (5) Water Heating - Use the right water heater for your home, insulate it and lower its temperature, and use less water to avoid paying too much; (6) Windows - Enjoy light and views while saving money by installing energy-efficient windows, and use strategies to keep your current windows from losing energy; (7) Lighting - Choose today's energy-efficient lighting for some of the easiest and cheapest ways to reduce your electric bill; (8) Appliances - Use efficient appliances through-out your home, and get greater performance with lower energy bills; (9) Home Office and Electronics - Find out how much energy your electronics use, reduce their out-put when you're not using them, and choose efficient electronics to save money; (10) Renewable Energy - Use renewable energy at home such as solar and wind to save energy dollars while reducing environmental impact; (11) Transportation - Choose efficient transportation options and drive more efficiently to save at the gas pump; and (12) References - Use our reference list to learn more about energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  3. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    After the golden age of welfare state development in Europe, the glorious thirty years from 1945 to 1974, perceptions changed and the welfare state was interpreted to be in crisis. One solution to the crisis was a neo-liberal approach emphasizing privatization and retrenchment. And at least...... identifying retrenchment even if parts of the literature do argue for such a perspective. This seeming contradiction within the scholarly community calls for a more precise definition of all three import concepts: What should be understood by neo-liberal reform or a neo-liberal approach? Which welfare...... policies are in question? And what parts of Europe are being investigated? Furthermore, the time perspective is crucial. From the perspective of the late 2000s this paper argues first that neo-liberalism in the form of the so-called Washington consensus is no longer promoted by international organizations...

  4. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    It is commonplace to refer to the Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland as a distinctive and homogenous welfare regime. As far as social housing is concerned, however, the institutional heritage of the respective countries significantly frames the ways in which social...... housing is understood, regulated and subsidized, and, in turn, how housing regimes respond to the general challenges to the national welfare states. The paper presents a historical institutionalist approach to understanding the diversity of regime responses in the modern era characterized by increasing...... marketization, welfare criticism and internationalization. The aim is to provide outside readers a theoretically guided empirical insight into Scandinavian social housing policy. The paper first lines up the core of the inbuilt argument of historical institutionalism in housing policy. Secondly, it briefly...

  5. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore...

  6. Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmenegger, Patrick; Kvist, Jon; Marx, Paul;

    2015-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue, we review the various debates spurred by Esping-Andersen’s The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Tracing its impact since the book’s publication in 1990, we show that Three Worlds continues to be the point of reference for comparative welfare state...... research. A content analysis of articles in the Journal of European Social Policy citing the book indicates that Three Worlds may even have obtained a paradigmatic status and that its claims and findings are often taken for granted rather than challenged. We conclude that Three Worlds has become a classic...

  7. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  8. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  9. Incentives in the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with economic incentives and welfare-state arrangements in OECD countries; it also offers some lessons for would-be welfare states. These arrangements differ, of course, among OECD countries. In particular, there is wide variation in the extent to which countries rely on four basic institutions - the state, the firm, the family and the market. Countries also differ in their reliance on (i) a common safety net, often in the form of flat-rate benefits tied to specific contingen...

  10. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...... and Wacquant’s concept of state, with the key concept being ‘state-crafting’. The article contributes knowledge about the imaginaries, and the manufacturing and managing of ‘the public good’ – understood as a referent for modern governing – of the English welfare state. The article concludes that the...

  11. Finnish Mothers’ Assessments of the Harmfulness of Childcare at Home on Occupational Careers: A Comparison of Twelve European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirpa Weckström

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that long periods of childcare at home deteriorate mothers’ occupational careers. This study examined mothers’ experiences regarding negative career consequences of full-time care of children at home, and of part-time work due to childcare. The focus was on Finland, a country that provides all mothers a financially compensated, longer-term childcare leave linked with unrestricted access to day care services. Experiences of Finnish mothers were compared with experiences of mothers in 11 other European countries. The data were based on European Social Survey (ESS round 2, conducted in 2004 and 2005. In all of the studied countries, the majority of mothers assessed that taking care of children at home had not harmed their occupational careers. There was, however, a clear cross-country variation. Perceived career consequences for both types of care at home were least common in Finland. In most of the investigated countries, longer times spent with children at home increased the probability to perceive negative career consequences. In Finland, the difference was relatively small. Thus, as long as the focus is on mothers’ perceptions, the longer-term childcare leave does not seem to markedly deteriorate Finnish mothers’ careers.

  12. The characteristics of advanced cancer patients followed at home, but admitted to the hospital for the last days of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Masedu, Francesco; Valenti, Marco; Mercadante, Alessandro; Aielli, Federica

    2016-08-01

    Information regarding advanced cancer patients followed at home who are admitted to the hospital in the last days of life are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of patients who were hospitalized in the last days of life after being assisted by a home palliative care team. The secondary outcome was to identify possible risk factors for hospitalization. The charts were analyzed of a consecutive sample of advanced cancer patients admitted to hospital wards in the last days of life after being followed at home by a palliative care team. Of 550 consecutive patients followed at home, 138 (25.1 %) were admitted to the hospital. Younger patients were more likely to die in the hospital. In a logistic risk analysis adjusted for age, patients with lung and head-neck cancer were more likely to die in the hospital. Patients having a female relative or a female consort as a caregiver were more likely to die at home. CAGE-positive patients (7.25 %), and patients with a shorter period of home assistance were more likely transported to hospital before dying (p = 0.00 and p risk factors of hospitalization at the end of life for advanced cancer patients followed at home. PMID:26895033

  13. The institutional logic of welfare attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2008-01-01

    Why are people who live in liberal welfare regimes so reluctant to support welfare policy? And why are people who live in social democratic welfare regimes so keen to support welfare policy? The article seeks to give an institutional account of these cross-national differences. Previous attempts to...... combining the literature on deservingness criteria and the welfare regime theory. The basic ideas is that three regime characteristics 1) the degree of universalism in welfare policy, 2) the differences in economic resources between ‘the bottom’ and ‘the majority’, and 3) the degree of job opportunities...

  14. The institutional logic of welfare attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    Why are people who live in liberal welfare regimes so reluctant to support welfare policy? And why are people who live in social democratic welfare regimes so keen to support welfare policy? The books seeks to give an institutional account of these cross-national differences. Previous attempts to...... combining the literature on deservingness criteria and the welfare regime theory. The basic ideas is that three regime characteristics 1) the degree of universalism in welfare policy, 2) the differences in economic resources between ‘the bottom’ and ‘the majority’, and 3) the degree of job opportunities...

  15. Child Care as Welfare Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Working for Change, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Part of a series from the Child Care Law Center, this issue of "Working for Change" discusses the need for quality, affordable child care as a support for working parents trying to break out of welfare dependency. This report details the current realities of poor parents who struggle to find and pay for child care while they work and those who…

  16. Faces of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2012-01-01

    The paper is a short presentation of a central theme in my PhD thesis, which revolves around the way the welfare State is approached as dangerous by parents struggling to keep their family from falling apart. The thesis is an excavation of the risks and dangers they navigate in relation to both t...

  17. STRESS AND ANIMAL-WELFARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEPKEMA, PR; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1993-01-01

    When individual vertebrates loose grip on their life conditions stress symptoms appear and their welfare becomes problematic. Present day research supports the view that stress can originate when an organism experiences a substantial reduction of predictability and/or controllability (P/C) of releva

  18. Time Limits and Welfare Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Time limits represent a substantial departure from previous welfare policy. Theory suggests that their effects should vary according to the age of the youngest child of the family. I test this prediction using data from the Current Population Survey and find that time limits indeed have larger effects on families with younger children. I further…

  19. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  20. Jobs and welfare in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam; Tarp, Finn

    Mozambique has achieved remarkable macroeconomic success over recent decades, boasting one of the world’s highest rates of GDP growth. However, absolute poverty remains persistent, spilling over into social unrest. To better understand the link between aggregate growth and household welfare, this...

  1. Air quality and human welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, J. M.; Pacyna, E. G.

    2009-02-01

    Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA), Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA) or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA). By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  2. Intercultural Health Care and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen har fokus på undervisning, planlægning, udvikling og evaluering af et internationalt tværfagligt valgfag Intercultural Health Care and Welfare, der udbydes på Det Sundhedsfaglige og Teknologiske Fakultet på Professionshøjskolen Metropol. Ifølge den tysk-amerikanske professor Iris Varner og...

  3. High welfare en high containment

    OpenAIRE

    Gaag, van der, N.A.; Bos, A.P.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Middels het proces van Reflexief Interactief Ontwerpen zijn haalbare en acceptabele oplossingen ontwikkeld voor het verbeteren van dierenwelzijn van varkens in high containment proefdierfaciliteiten.By the approach Reflexive Interactive Design (RIO) feasible and acceptable solutions to improve animal welfare are constructed for the high containment animal facilities of CVI.

  4. Monotonicity of social welfare optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    (with at least three members) and its participation constraint if and only if the aggregate income to that coalition is always maximized. An impossibility result demonstrates that there is no welfare maximizing allocation method in which agents' individual incomes monotonically increase in society...

  5. The implementation of the functional task exercise programme for elderly people living at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleuren Margot A H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Functional Task Exercise programme is an evidence-based exercise programme for elderly people living at home. It enhances physical capacity with sustainable effects. FTE is provided by physiotherapists and remedial therapists. Although the intervention was found to be effective in a Randomised Controlled Trial, we may not assume that therapists will automatically supply the programme or that elderly people will automatically join the programme. This study protocol focuses on identifying determinants of implementation, developing implementation strategies and studying the effects of the implementation in daily practice. Methods/Design Phase 1: The systematic identification of determinants of the implementation of FTE among therapists and the elderly. A questionnaire study was conducted in a random sample of 100 therapists, and interviews took place with 23 therapists and 8 elderly people (aged 66 to 80 years. The determinants were broken down into four categories: the characteristics of the environment, the organisation, the therapists, and the training programme. Phase 2: Developing and applying strategies adapted to the determinants identified. Fifteen physiotherapists will be trained to provide FTE and to recruit elderly people living at home. The therapists will then deliver the 12-week programme to two groups of elderly, each consisting of six to twelve people aged 70 years or older. Phase 3: Study of implementation and the impact. To study the actual use of FTE: 1 therapists record information about the selection of participants and how they apply the key features of FTE, 2 the participating elderly will keep an exercise logbook, 3 telephone interviews will take place with the therapists and the elderly and there will be on-site visits. The effects on the elderly people will be studied using: 1 the Patient-Specific Questionnaire, the Timed Up and Go test and a two performance tests. All tests will be performed at

  6. Final model of multicriterionevaluation of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Botreau, R; Bracke, MBM;

    One major objective of Welfare Quality® is to propose harmonized methods for the overall assessment of animal welfare on farm and at slaughter that are science based and meet societal concerns. Welfare is a multidimensional concept and its assessment requires measures of different aspects. Welfare...... Quality® proposes a formal evaluation model whereby the data on animals or their environment are transformed into value scores that reflect compliance with 12 subcriteria and 4 criteria of good welfare. Each animal unit is then allocated to one of four categories: excellent welfare, enhanced welfare......, acceptable welfare and not classified. This evaluation model is tuned according to the views of experts from animal and social sciences, and stakeholders....

  7. Original article Psychological and socio-demographic correlates of women’s decisions to give birth at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Domańska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Some women decide to give birth at home. They treat their home as a safe place to do so, are against medicalization of natural labour or value activity and autonomy during labour. They are also characterized by good knowledge of their own bodies and about labour in general (including labour at home. Psychological studies have revealed a correlation between labour (including the derived satisfaction and the levels of dispositional optimism, perception of efficacy, and coping with pain. Analysis of the available demographic data shows that the decision to give birth at home is correlated with a certain socio-demographic profile of women. Participants and procedures One hundred thirty five mothers took part in the study. Among them 72 had given birth at home and 63 in a hospital. The following were assumed as important psychological determinants: dispositional optimism, sense of self-efficacy, strategies for coping with pain and their effectiveness. The LOT-R Test, GSES Scale, CSQ Questionnaire as well as a demographic questionnaire were used in the study. Results Women who gave birth at home were characterised by significantly higher levels of optimism and sense of self-efficacy in comparison with the other women. Women giving birth at home reinterpreted the sensations of pain more frequently than the others, who were more likely to catastrophise and pray/hope. The level of conviction about having control over pain was much higher in the experimental group. The relationship between choice of place to give birth and the level of education, marital status, area of residence as well as age is weak. Correlations between the place of birth and income, number of children as well as membership of religious communities are moderate and statistically significant. Conclusions It is important to see and meet the different expectations of the two distinct groups of women. Today’s phenomenon of homebirth requires systematic interdisciplinary

  8. Acoustic confort at home: Noise emitted by house installations. Recommendations in order to avoid such noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Santiago

    2002-11-01

    The present survey consists of the analysis and the study of the solutions used at present in the installations of water supply and elevators. It has been carried out from the acoustic point of view. In order to achieve a thorough study a pilot plant was built in the Laboratory of Acoustics of the School of Industrial Engineering of Terrassa. This pilot plant reproduced different kinds of installations of the water supply in houses. And it has allowed us to systematize the measures and also to determine the optimum solutions from the acoustic perspective. In accordance with the objectives and the process of the survey, the solutions regularly employed in the facilities of water supply and elevators in houses have been analyzed, and levels of noise associated to these facilities have been also presented. A summary of the results obtained in the plant has been included, according to diverse variables. Both the conclusions of the analysis of the data obtained in the laboratory and those of the installations of the houses have been also compared, which has allowed us to describe a series of suggestions with the purpose of reducing the acoustic emission of this type of installations, and increase the acoustic comfort at home. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  9. An analysis of at-home demand for ice cream in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C G; Blayney, D P; Yen, S T; Cooper, J

    2009-12-01

    Ice cream has been manufactured commercially in the United States since the middle of the 19th century. Ice cream and frozen dessert products comprise an important and relatively stable component of the United States dairy industry. As with many other dairy products, ice cream is differentiated in several dimensions. A censored translog demand system model was employed to analyze purchases of 3 ice cream product categories. The objective of this study was to determine the effect that changes in retail prices and consumer income have on at-home ice cream consumption. The analysis was based on Nielsen 2005 home scan retail data and used marital status, age, race, education, female employment status, and location in the estimations of aggregate demand elasticities. Results revealed that price and consumer income were the main determinants of demand for ice cream products. Calculated own-price elasticities indicated relatively elastic responses by consumers for all categories except for compensated bulk ice cream. All expenditure elasticities were inelastic except for bulk ice cream, and most of the ice cream categories were substitutes. Ongoing efforts to examine consumer demand for these products will assist milk producers, dairy processors and manufacturers, and dairy marketers as they face changing consumer responses to food and diet issues. PMID:19923626

  10. Dealing with chemotherapy-related symptoms at home: a qualitative study in adult patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbrandt, A; Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Wildiers, H; Aertgeerts, B; Van der Elst, E; van Achterberg, T; Milisen, K

    2016-01-01

    Given that chemotherapy treatments are done mostly in an outpatient setting, patients with cancer must deal with treatment-related symptoms mainly at home. Evidence suggests that they often feel left alone or unprepared to do so. This qualitative study explores how patients deal with chemotherapy-related symptoms in their home, which factors and ideas influence their self-management and what role professional caregivers play. One-off, semi-structured interviews were held with 28 adult patients with cancer being treated with chemotherapy. Using a Grounded Theory approach, we cyclically collected and analysed data to come to a thorough understanding of the major conceptual themes and their interconnections. Dealing with chemotherapy-related symptoms involves a process of experiencing and learning how side effects unfold over time and how to deal with them. Patients express very personal symptom experiences and symptom-management styles, which are shaped by personal factors (e.g. coping with cancer and cancer treatment, perceived level of control) and environmental factors (e.g. professionals' attitude, information resources). Improving symptom self-management support requires active exploration of the personal symptom experience and symptom-management style. Professional care should be tailored to the patient's perspective and should address personal and environmental determinants of their behaviour. PMID:25752741

  11. [At-home music therapy intervention using video phone (Skype) for elderly people with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Miyako; Iizuka, Mieko; Nakamura, Michikazu; Aiba, Ikuko; Saito, Yufuko; Kubota, Masakazu; Urabe, Mie; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2014-12-01

    There are various nonpharmacological therapies available for elderly people with dementia, and these can improve quality of life and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) that appear throughout the progression of the disease. Since a substantial number of effects have been reported for music therapy, we focused on this nonpharmacological intervention. Generally, musical therapy is provided collectively in facilities. However, the music used in this context may not consider the preferences and music abilities of each person. Therefore, in this study we created made-to-order music CDs that accounted for each participant's musical preferences and abilities. Utilizing the CDs, we conducted an intervention study of music therapy using a video phone (Skype) that elderly people with dementia can use at home. An advantage of conducting music therapy for individuals with dementia using a video phone is that those who have difficulty going to the hospital or participating in dementia-related therapy groups can participate in therapy in a familiar place. The results of this intervention showed that participants demonstrated signs of improvement as measured by the smile degree(Smile scan)and Behavior Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease (BEHAVE-AD) scale. PMID:25595076

  12. Prevalence of and risk factors for violent disciplinary practices at home in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Claudia; Dam, Hang

    2014-02-01

    Data on parenting practices and the use of violence in child rearing remain scarce worldwide, hindering prevention efforts. This study examines disciplinary methods used on children at home in Viet Nam. It is based on data collected from 2010 to 2011 through the fourth round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4)-a household survey program supported by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) that focuses on women and children in low- and middle-income countries. Respondents in the survey were asked 11 questions relating to disciplinary measures used in the preceding month on one randomly selected child (2-14 years old) in each household. A final question about attitudes probed adults' views on the need for physical punishment in child rearing. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of violent and nonviolent forms of discipline, and to identify risk factors associated with violent punishment. Results showed that three in four children in Viet Nam are disciplined through violent means. The exposure of Vietnamese children to violent forms of discipline was significantly associated with varied characteristics of both children and their caregivers. Moreover, the use of violent disciplinary practices on children was strongly associated with positive attitudes toward corporal punishment. Risk factors for violent child discipline identified in this study can inform future interventions to promote positive practices and to protect Vietnamese children against violence in the home. PMID:24162756

  13. Single stance stability and proprioceptive control in older adults living at home: gender and age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Dario; Mamo, Carlo; Fanì, Mara; Saccavino, Patrizia; Rocca, Flavio; Momenté, Manuel; Fratta, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    In developed countries, falls in older people represent a rising problem. As effective prevention should start before the risk becomes evident, an early predictor is needed. Single stance instability would appear as a major risk factor. Aims of the study were to describe single stance stability, its sensory components, and their correlation with age and gender. A random sample of 597 older adults (319 men, 278 women) living at home, aged 65-84, was studied. Stability tests were performed with an electronic postural station. The single stance test showed the impairment of single stance stability in older individuals (75-84 yrs). The significant decline of stability in the older subjects may be explained by the impairment of proprioceptive control together with the decrease in compensatory visual stabilization and emergency responses. Younger subjects (65-74 yrs) exhibited better, but still inadequate, proprioceptive control with compensatory visual stabilization. Gender differences appeared in older subjects: women were significantly less stable than men. The measurement of the sensory components of single stance stability could aid in the early detection of a decay in antigravity movements many years before the risk of falling becomes evident. Adequate proprioceptive control could mitigate the effects of all other risks of falling. PMID:23984068

  14. Novel exposure units for at-home personalized testing of electromagnetic sensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Anke; Murbach, Manuel; van Moorselaar, Imke; Kuster, Niels; van Strien, Rob; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Slottje, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Previous experimental studies on electromagnetic hypersensitivity have been criticized regarding inflexibility of choice of exposure and of study locations. We developed and tested novel portable exposure units that can generate different output levels of various extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF; 50 Hz field plus harmonics) and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Testing was done with a group of healthy volunteers (n = 25 for 5 ELF-MF and n = 25 for 5 RF-EMF signals) to assess if units were indeed able to produce double-blind exposure conditions. Results substantiated that double-blind conditions were met; on average participants scored 50.6% of conditions correct on the ELF-MF, and 50.0% on the RF-EMF unit, which corresponds to guessing probability. No cues as to exposure conditions were reported. We aim to use these units in a future experiment with subjects who wish to test their personal hypothesis of being able to sense or experience when being exposed to EMF. The new units allow for a high degree of flexibility regarding choice of applied electromagnetic signal, output power level and location (at home or another environment of subjects' choosing). PMID:26661464

  15. At-home vital bleaching: a comparison of hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berga-Caballero, Amparo; Forner-Navarro, Leopoldo; Amengual-Lorenzo, José

    2006-01-01

    Tray bleaching of vital teeth performed at home by the patient under the dentist s supervision, whether alone or in combination with any of the in-office techniques, provides an interesting alternative to other methods employed in this type of dental treatment. This bleaching procedure applies low-concentration peroxides to the enamel by means of a custom-made mouth tray specifically designed for this purpose. The aim of this study is to examine and compare two commercially-available bleaching products, at equivalent concentrations, for use in this technique: VivaStyle (Vivadent) and FKD (Kin); the former is a 10% carbamide peroxide and the latter a 3.5% hydrogen peroxide formulation. It examines the parameters that must be monitored during the application of this type of procedure and presents 6 cases (3 treated with one of the above-mentioned products and the other 3 with the other), establishing the bleaching power of the products and the appearance and intensity of post-operatory hypersensitivity. The results obtained show that both products are effective for the purpose for which they were designed. In general, dental hypersensitivity was minimal. PMID:16388304

  16. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling guidelines for conserving energy at home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The idea of passive solar is simple, but applying it effectively does require information and attention to the details of design and construction. Some passive solar techniques are modest and low-cost, and require only small changes in remodeler's typical practice. At the other end of the spectrum, some passive solar systems can almost eliminate a house's need for purchased heating (and in some cases, cooling) energy -- but probably at a relatively high first cost. In between are a broad range of energy-conserving passive solar techniques. Whether or not they are cost-effective, practical and attractive enough to offer a market advantage to any individual remodeler depends on very specific factors such as local costs, climate, and market characteristics. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling Guidelines For Conserving Energy At Homes is written to help give remodelers the information they need to make these decisions. Passive Solar Design Strategies is a package in three basic parts: The Guidelines contain information about passive solar techniques and how they work, and provides specific examples of systems which will save various percentages of energy; The Worksheets offer a simple, fill-in-the-blank method to pre-evaluate the performance of a specific design; The Worked Example demonstrates how to complete the worksheets for a typical residence.

  17. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling guidelines for conserving energy at home. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The idea of passive solar is simple, but applying it effectively does require information and attention to the details of design and construction. Some passive solar techniques are modest and low-cost, and require only small changes in remodeler`s typical practice. At the other end of the spectrum, some passive solar systems can almost eliminate a house`s need for purchased heating (and in some cases, cooling) energy -- but probably at a relatively high first cost. In between are a broad range of energy-conserving passive solar techniques. Whether or not they are cost-effective, practical and attractive enough to offer a market advantage to any individual remodeler depends on very specific factors such as local costs, climate, and market characteristics. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling Guidelines For Conserving Energy At Homes is written to help give remodelers the information they need to make these decisions. Passive Solar Design Strategies is a package in three basic parts: The Guidelines contain information about passive solar techniques and how they work, and provides specific examples of systems which will save various percentages of energy; The Worksheets offer a simple, fill-in-the-blank method to pre-evaluate the performance of a specific design; The Worked Example demonstrates how to complete the worksheets for a typical residence.

  18. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal ...

  19. The Globalization-welfare State Nexus Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Meinhard; Niklas Potrafke

    2011-01-01

    Two hypotheses relate to the globalization-welfare state nexus: The efficiency hypothesis predicts that globalization reduces government sector size and governments’ capacity to finance the welfare state. The compensation hypothesis, in contrast, predicts that globalization induces a higher demand for social insurance which results in an extended welfare state. Empirical evidence on the globalization-welfare state nexus is mixed. We re-examine the evidence by investigating a yearly panel data...

  20. Advertising and Consumer Welfare: Scaling versus Translating

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Chalfant, James A.; Piggott, Nicholas E.

    1997-01-01

    Controversy has surrounded the welfare effects of advertising, mainly concerning the consumer welfare effects. Unfortunately, the measures of consumer welfare effects in most studies have been ad hoc and incorrect. The consumer welfare consequences of advertising can be measured consistently when consumer demand equations are derived from an expenditure function. This is illustrated using the Almost Ideal demand system, which is popular in econometric estimation of food demand systems. An emp...

  1. Full Employment and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    2012-01-01

    The modern welfare state and full-employment policies have common intellectual roots. In the 1930s and 1940s, Keynesian visions of full employment and Beveridge-inspired ideas of a universal welfare state grew up in about the same intellectual environment. Both ideas emphasized a government’s responsibility for the welfare of its citizens. The two ideas were also projected by approximately the same individuals. From the very beginning, welfare-state arrangements and full-employment policies w...

  2. Health and welfare of organic livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Animal health and welfare are important principles of organic animal husbandry. In the Netherlands organic animal husbandry has proven to perform better than the conventional sector on many aspects of animal welfare. The Dutch organic animal husbandry sector has recognised animal health and welfare as crucial and maintains a strong focus on further improvement. Dutch scientists are working to advance the health and welfare of organically kept animals. Additionally, they focus on innovations a...

  3. Cross-border merger and domestic welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Arijit Mukherjee

    2006-01-01

    We consider the welfare effect of cross-border merger in presence of international R&D competition. Cross-border merger increases domestic welfare if the bargaining power of the foreign firm and the slope of the marginal cost of R&D are sufficiently low. Otherwise, domestic welfare is lower under cross-border merger.

  4. Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    2000-01-01

    Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

  5. The Paradigmatic Struggle for Legitimacy of the Danish Welfare State regarding the Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Nielsen, Anna Lyneborg; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2014-01-01

    The Danish welfare state constitutes a paradigmatic case of the welfare struggle of modern welfare states. Taking care of vulnerable children and youths is used as a case study here, to illustrate the efforts of the welfare state to acquire legitimacy as a body of public administration. That is, ...

  6. Result of R and D of medical welfare equipment technology in 1994. Part 5. Next-generation dental product engineering system; Iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu 1994 nendo seika hokokusho. 5. Jisedai oraru device engineering system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The R and D of a method to computer-aidedly design/make (CAD/CAM) the denture were made to heighten the conformability and productivity of its manufacture. To prepare the configurational measurement apparatus, the software was developed to measure the configuration of abutting tooth and opposed tooth, and their occlusal surface, and transmit their data on position coordinates to the CAD part. The prototype of this apparatus realized the measurement accuracy within 15 micron m in Cartesian system. However, it is problematic that an error is produced by the laser beams` reflection which is caused by the bubbles. To develop the CAD, it was made clinically more precise by adding the movement simulation of chin to the software to design the single crown. To develop the device-working apparatus, a single crown-working apparatus numerically controlled with five shafts was prototypically prepared with an edged tool which moves right and left, before and behind, and up and down to cut the objective piece, being revolved and controlled. As for the development of pieces to be cut, resin type materials gave a better result than composite resin type ones commercially sold for the filling use. The removal of microscopic defect was studied for the ceramic type material.

  7. Studies on the radiation exposure and protection at the X-ray radiography in the medical care at home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since there are scarce studies on the exposure and protection at the radiography in the medical care at home, authors performed such studies as comparison of doses from self-rectifying and inverter tubes, exposure and protection to patients and nursing persons and actual measurement (October, 1997) at home in Tohno city, Iwate prefecture, of scattering radiation dose at radiography. Apparatuses used were: Portable X-ray equipments; self-rectifying types (Toshiba TR-20 and Medisonacoma PX 30N) and an inverter type (Medisonacoma PX-15HF), Kyoto Kagaku WAC water phantom, X-ray analyzer Model 200 of Kasei Optonics, and Dosimeters (Victoreen Radocon ionization dosimeter and Aloka ICS-301 ionization chamber survey meters). Radiation qualities, surface doses and scattering doses of the equipments under various conditions were compared by the half value layer and effective energy measured with the analyzer. Actual measurement of scattering dose was done at home for 4 patients at chest radiography. Annual dose in monthly ordinary radiography at home, when the distance was >200 cm far from the flux center, was found about 1/100 of 1 mSv (the annual public dose limit), thus securing the safety of nurses. (K.H.)

  8. Parents' Responses to a Kindergarten-Classroom Lending-Library Component Designed to Support Shared Reading at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lori E.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Yu, SeonYeong; Favazza, Paddy C.; Mouzourou, Chryso; van Luling, Lisa; Park, Hyejin

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often recommend that families engage their children in shared book reading to support literacy learning at home. When teachers purposefully provide families with home literacy activities there are benefits for everyone involved. The purpose of this article is to report the findings of a study that examined parental participation and…

  9. Locating Mothers: How Cultural Debates about Stay-at-Home versus Working Mothers Define Women and Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillaway, Heather; Pare, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Most women must decide whether to work for pay while mothering or make mothering their sole social role. Often this decision is portrayed in terms of whether they will be "stay-at-home" and presumably "full-time" mothers, or "working mothers" and therefore ones who prioritize paid work over caregiving. Inferred within this construction is women's…

  10. The labour market intentions and behaviour of stay-at-home mothers in Western and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauthier, A.H.; Emery, T.; Bartova, A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent increases in female labour force participation across Europe, a non-negligible proportion of women continue to remain out of the labour force for short or longer periods of time. Among the six countries included in this paper, stay-at-home mothers represent on average 33% of all mothe

  11. Personal, family and school influences on secondary pupils’ feelings of safety at school, in the school surroundings, and at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2012). Personal, family and school influences on secondary pupils’ feelings of safety at school, in the school surroundings, and at home. Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, 18(2), 129-157. doi:10.1080/13540602.2012.632270

  12. Experimenting with Photoelectrochemical Cells in Drinking Straws: Practical Aids for Learning about Solar Energy in School or at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical cells using dye-sensitized ZnO with a Cu[superscript 2+]/Fe[superscript 2+]/Fe[superscript 3+] electrolyte can be easily made at home or in a school classroom with household chemicals and other readily available materials. The cells, which are made with wire housed within plastic drinking straws, have open-circuit voltages of…

  13. Content of heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pork, beef and chicken barbecued at home by Danish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslyng, Margit D.; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Jensen, Kirsten; Meinert, Lene

    2013-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that, when meat is barbecued, several harmful components, including heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), may be formed. The aim of this study was to determine the HCA and PAH content in meat (pork, chicken and beef) when barbecued at home by...

  14. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hyun Hwang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13–18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21–1.32 more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001. Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations.

  15. Do Parents and Best Friends Influence the Normative Increase in Adolescents' Alcohol Use at Home and Outside the Home?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Burk, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study explored the possible impact of parental supervision of adolescents' alcohol use and drinking with parents on concurrent and prospective associations between adolescents' drinking at home and drinking outside the home. The impact of drinking with their best friend, paren

  16. Personal, Family and School Influences on Secondary Pupils' Feelings of Safety at School, in the School Surroundings and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Different types of variables seem to influence school safety and a pupil's feelings of safety at school. The research question asks which risk and promotive variables should be integrated in a theoretical model to predict a pupil's feelings of safety at school, in the school surroundings and at home; what the outcomes are of an empirical check of…

  17. School and Pupil Effects on Secondary Pupils' Feelings of Safety in School, around School, and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton; Fettelaar, Daan

    2013-01-01

    In line with fear of crime research, schools should be secure places where pupils feel safe in order to function well. Various types of risk and promotive variables at school and pupil level may differently influence a pupil's feelings of safety in school, the school surroundings, and at home. The aim is to elaborate and test a theoretical…

  18. Individual Heterogeneity and Average Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Hausman; Whitney Newey

    2014-01-01

    Individual heterogeneity is an important source of variation in demand. Allowing for general heterogeneity is needed for correct welfare comparisons. We consider general heterogenous demand where preferences and linear budget sets are statistically independent. Only the marginal distribution of demand for each price and income is identified from cross-section data where only one price and income is observed for each individual. Thus, objects that depend on varying price and/or income for an i...

  19. Individual heterogeneity and average welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Hausman, Jerry A.; Newey, Whitney K.

    2013-01-01

    Individual heterogeneity is an important source of variation in demand. Allowing for general heterogeneity is needed for correct welfare comparisons. We consider general heterogenous demand where preferences and linear budget sets are statistically independent. Only the marginal distribution of demand for each price and income is identified from cross-section data where only one price and income is observed for each individual. Thus, objects that depend on varying price and/or income for an i...

  20. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsey Horvath; Dario Angeletti; Giuseppe Nascetti; Claudio Carere

    2013-01-01

    While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as...

  1. Tax Havens, Growth, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Hsun; Lai, Ching-Chong; Cheng, Chu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an endogenous growth model featuring tax havens, and uses it to examine how the existence of tax havens affects the economic growth rate and social welfare in high-tax countries. We show that the presence of tax havens generates two conflicting channels in determining the growth effect. First, the public investment effect states that tax havens may erode tax revenues and in turn decrease the government’s infrastructure expenditure, thereby reducing growth. Second, the t...

  2. Welfare Dynamics Under Time Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Grogger; Charles Michalopoulos

    1999-01-01

    Among the most important changes brought about by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) is the imposition of time limits. In this paper, we analyze a simple model in which a potential welfare recipient chooses how to allocate her time-limited endowment of benefits so as to maximize her expected lifetime utility. Not surprisingly, the model reveals that time limits provide an incentive for the consumer to conserve, or bank, her benefits. More inte...

  3. Education, Preferences, and Household Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Shilpi, Forhad

    2011-01-01

    Using census data from Nepal, we examine how the marginal effects of male and female education on various household welfare indicators vary with education levels. Parental education is associated with better household outcomes, but marginal effects vary with education level. Higher child survival for instace, is associated with higher primary education for mothers and higher secondary education for fathers. We calculate conditional marginal effects that correct for assortative matching of ...

  4. Corporate welfare: the third stage of welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, D

    1986-01-01

    Corporate involvement in social welfare represents a third stage in the evolution of welfare institutions in the United States, following the voluntary sector and the welfare state. An examination of the largest health and welfare corporations reveals rapid growth and consolidation in all markets--nursing homes, hospital management, health maintenance organizations, child care, and home care. The author considers the implications of continued expansion of corporate welfare for social workers and their clients. PMID:10277801

  5. Trust relationships between children, social welfare professionals and the organisations of welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkney, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The chapter considers the dynamic relations of trust between children and young people, welfare professionals and the institutions of welfare. It uses three levels of analysis including individual relationships between children and welfare professionals, the organizations and institutions of welfare and wider social cultural attitudes towards children. The narrative of trust within managerialist driven welfare organizations is explored to assess the way this impacts on the dynamics of trust ...

  6. Welfare Quality® project: from scientific research to on farm assessment of animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Keeling; Elisabetta Canali

    2010-01-01

    Welfare Quality® is the acronym of the European research project “Integration of ani- mal welfare in the food quality chain: from public concern to improved welfare and transparent quality”. This European project is focused on the integration of animal welfare in the food quality chain. Italian researchers from University of Milan, Naples, Padua, Parma and Pisa are involved in different tasks of this project. The second sub-project of Welfare Quality® aims to develop asses...

  7. Immigrant Assimilation And Welfare Participation: Do Immigrants Assimilate Into Or Out Of Welfare?

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jörgen; Lofstrom, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses differences in welfare utilization between immigrants and natives in Sweden using a large panel data set, LINDA, for the years 1990 to 1996. Both welfare expenditures and immigration increased substantially in Sweden in the 1990's. We find that immigrants use welfare to a greater extent than natives and that non-refugee immigrants utilize social assistance less than refugee immigrants. Differences in welfare participation and number of months on welfare between immigrants ...

  8. Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent; Kvist, Jon

    2011-01-01

    schemes - collective and individual - supplementing public schemes is well documented, scant attention has focused on more recent developments in other areas of the welfare state. This article shows how the multi-tiered welfare state spread in the 2000s to policies for families, the unemployed and the...... sick. Although Denmark still offers universal coverage in core welfare state areas, the increased use of occupational and fiscal welfare as well as changes in public schemes has gradually transformed the nation into a multi-tiered welfare state that is more dualistic and individualistic, with...

  9. The welfare of dairy buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Winckler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behavioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animalrelated indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening assessed with Body Condition Score (BCS systems; cleanliness (the presence of mud may be considered positively, whereas a thick and compact layer of dung may be regarded negatively; health status (lameness, hoof overgrowth, injuries, etc.; social, aggressive, oral abnormal behaviours; animal-human relationship (avoidance distance at manger; positive indicators (qualitative assessment of behaviour, etc.; housing factors. The indicators are discussed on the basis of their validity (meaningful with respect to animal welfare, reliability (reflecting the tendency to give the same results on repeated measurements and feasibility (concerning time and money consumed. For some aspects, the differences between buffalo and dairy cattle are also highlighted.

  10. Preliminary report on a breathing coaching and assessment system for use by patients at home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Respiratory-gated radiotherapy requires consistent breathing. Therefore, we developed a system that will assess breathing consistency and allow patients to train themselves at home. Real-time feedback is to be provided visually to patients against a reference breathing track derived from their own breathing pattern. The system would need to generate the reference track and to use this reference track for coaching. The system should be simple, robust and affordable, without complex setup. Results The system uses a net book with a USB connected data acquisition module (DAQ). The patient's breathing is sampled by the DAQ, measuring intra-nasal pressure through nasal prongs. Software was written in collaboration with the Victorian eResearch Strategic Initiative (YERSi). The system is used to collect a patient reference breathing track. This track is processed to generate a 'golden breathing cycle' (GBC), normalised in both amplitude and duration, containing the shape of the breathing cycle. After training, the patient takes the system home for a number of sessions of coaching and assessment. In coaching mode the patient is asked to maintain a graphic representation of their current state of breathing in close correlation to the golden breathing cycle as it moves across the screen. Displayed GBC amplitude and duration respond dynamically to the patient's breathing rhythm. Statistics are collected measuring the patient's ability to conform to the GBC and may be used to decide suitability for gated therapy. Conclusion The DAQ hardware is completed, and software is approaching completion. Sample data has been collected from volunteers.

  11. Postoperative analgesia at home after ambulatory hand surgery: a controlled comparison of tramadol, metamizol, and paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, N; Allvin, R; Amilon, A; Ohlsson, T; Hallén, J

    2001-02-01

    2-3 days, and there is a need for both better education before the procedure and oral analgesic therapy at home. PMID:11159230

  12. Exergames for unsupervised balance training at home: A pilot study in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diest, M; Stegenga, J; Wörtche, H J; Verkerke, G J; Postema, K; Lamoth, C J C

    2016-02-01

    Exercise videogames (exergames) are gaining popularity as tools for improving balance ability in older adults, yet few exergames are suitable for home-based use. The purpose of the current pilot study was to examine the effects of a 6-week unsupervised home-based exergaming training program on balance performance. Ten community dwelling healthy older adults (age: 75.9 ± 7.2 years) played a newly developed ice skating exergame for six weeks at home. In the game, the speed and direction of a virtual ice skater on a frozen canal were controlled using lateral weight shifts, which were captured using Kinect. Sway characteristics during quiet standing in eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC) and dual task (DT) conditions were assessed in time and frequency domain before, and after two, four and six weeks of training. Balance was also evaluated using the narrow ridge balance test (NRBT). Multilevel modeling was applied to examine changes in balance ability. Participants played 631 (± 124)min over the intervention period and no subjects dropped out. Balance in terms of sway characteristics improved on average by 17.4% (EO) and 23.3% (EC) after six weeks of training (p<0.05). Differences in rate of improvement (p<0.05) were observed between participants. No intervention effects were found for quiet standing in DT conditions and on the NRBT. In conclusion, the pilot study showed that unsupervised home-based exergaming is feasible in community dwelling older adults, but also that participants do not benefit equally from the program, thereby emphasizing the need for more personalized exergame training programs. PMID:27004651

  13. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p Study subjects with more siblings also tended to have higher blood lead levels (p home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity. PMID:25015713

  14. Authenticated Wireless Roaming via Tunnels: Making Mobile Guests Feel at Home

    OpenAIRE

    Manulis, M.; Leroy, D.; Koeune, F; Bonaventure, O; Quisquater, J-J

    2009-01-01

    In wireless roaming a mobile device obtains a service from some foreign network while being registered for the similar service at its own home network. However, recent proposals try to keep the service provider role behind the home network and let the foreign network create a tunnel connection through which all service requests of the mobile device are sent to and answered directly by the home network. Such Wireless Roaming via Tunnels (WRT) offers several (security) benefits but states also ...

  15. Parsnip webworms and host plants at home and abroad: trophic complexity in a geographic mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, May R; Zangerl, Arthur R

    2006-12-01

    exists despite the comparatively high probability of parasitism associated with this host plant and may reflect the overall lower furanocoumarin content of H. sphondylium. The interaction of parsnip webworms and wild parsnips at home and away demonstrates clearly the potential for rapid contemporary evolution of chemical traits upon re-association with a coevolved enemy, a potential evolutionary outcome that should be considered in the design and implementation of future weed biological control programs. PMID:17249232

  16. Global Change science in Latin America: How can we get more scientists doing it at home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbagy, E. G.; Pineiro, G.

    2007-05-01

    insertion at home. Financial support programs that foster their international connection and their start-up process have already demonstrated a strong potential to overcome the scientific constrains of the region.

  17. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While it is...... possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare of...

  18. Advertising, welfare economics and ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Steedman, Ian

    2011-01-01

    It is a fact of life that economic resources are used to alter other's preferences over commodities. Yet this is seldom taken into account in basic economic theory, explanatory or normative. It is shown here how a certain type of advertising is readily allowed for in the Edgeworth exchange box, in the small country foreign trade model, etc.. It is found, in welfare terms, that exchange/trade with advertising can involve some agents gaining at the expense of others; there need not be mutual ga...

  19. Gender and Welfare Regimes Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    China and Denmark could hardly be more different cases for comparison: a huge developing one-party state set against a small post-industrial plural state. Despite these significant and categorical differences, however, both states are faced with similar challenges when it comes to changing...... and generation. Both states are in principle fully committed to the wellbeing of all citizens through universal welfare state protection, but in reality both rely very much on market and civil society solutions, which leaves the population strongly differentiated and polarized, not only when it comes...

  20. Social Welfare Activism in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marie Juul

    interest tends to focus on secular organisations and institutions, overlooking religious ones, although these make up a large part of Jordanian civil society. Particularly interesting are the country's many Muslim social welfare organisations, engaged in activities such as education, health care and...... financial assistance to the poor. This brief asks whether these organisations can be considered potential agents of democratic change or rather as preservers of the status quo. Moreover, do they employ Islam as a means of control or empowerment? Attempting to answer these questions, the brief discusses the...

  1. Simple & Secure: Attitude and behaviour towards security and usability in internet products and services at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, R.; Broenink, E.G.; Fransen, F.; Schultz, S.; Vries, A. de

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the result of research on the security perception of users in ICT services and equipment. We analyze the rationale of users to have an interest in security and to decide to change security parameters of equipment and services. We focus on the home environment, where more and more devic

  2. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440493

  3. European Integration between Equity, Efficiency and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marchis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this article I tried to highlight the path for improving the Europeans standards ofliving. Poverty, inequality and efficiency are the key concepts of the welfare economic. Similar to many otherarticles about equity, efficiency and welfare, this article offers an account of the challenges facing theEuropean Union welfare in a context of global economy assessing the ability of different components of thewelfare governance to respond to these challenges. The welfare of European Union is analyzed under themultidimensional aspects of integration, such as: internal versus external integration and multilevelintegration. Aging, changes in the labor market, increased mobility are particular aspects that characterize EUand under the fundamental reform of Europe 2020 Strategy, welfare economic becomes a priority even if thepolitical integration comes first to the economic one. As Europe grows more diverse, the welfare economictranslates from desire to necessity.

  4. Globalization and Conflict: Welfare, Distribution,and Political Unrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranveig Gissinger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of globalization for the development of a more peaceful world remain highly controversial. This article seeks to clarify the impact that the globalization of the economy may have on civil war and political instability. Liberals argue that countries heavily dependent on the global economy (whether measured by trade or investment are likely to experience higher economic growth, greater affluence, more democracy, and increasingly peaceful conditions at home and abroad. In stark contrast, most dependency theorists argue that high levels of trade and investment tend to generate greater economic inequality. Relative deprivation theory suggests that such inequality will increase the risk of political instability. From these two broad perspectives, a set of hypotheses is developed and tested on a global dataset for the period 1965-93. The consequences of an open economy prove to be quite complex. A high level of trade does generate more domestic peace; at the same time, direct foreign investment also creates conditions conducive to political instability. However, the consequences of trade are dependent on what is being exported. Exports of manufactured goods create high levels of welfare and equality, while exports of agricultural products promote poverty and inequality. Inequality emerges as but one of many factors which lead to political instability.

  5. Home-based Self-care: Understanding and Designing Pervasive Technology to Support Care Management Work at Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo

    -clinical settings. As such, sustaining daily care activities in the home (or other non-clinical settings) is challenging as they are becoming more and more intertwined into people’s everyday life. Thus, this dissertation is concerned about one major challenge in Pervasive Healthcare: the design of technology that......Demographic changes are challenging healthcare systems as well as societies around the world due to an increasing aging population and rapid propagation of chronic diseases. To deal with the consequences of these changes, more and more long-term care services are being implemented including home...... self-care management work at home. People need to know which care activities to perform, when to perform them, how to proceed and why these are important. While at home, an active lifestyle and comorbidity not only challenge self-care activities but also the use of self-care technologies in non...

  6. Research summary of meme at home and abroad%国内模因论研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干映锋

    2013-01-01

    模因论开启了人们对文化进化规律的新思索和研究,它的学术价值和应用价值值得关注。它在国外发展了三十年,在国内发展约十年,本文旨对国内模因研究进行综述,以期有助于推动模因论在中国研究和发展。%Memetics enlightened people to think about the rule of cultural evolution in a new perspective. Its academic and application value deserves our attention. Memetics has been developing for thirty years abroad, and nearly ten years at home. This paper aims to summarize the current trend and situation on Meme research by analyzing and discussing the meme research at home and contribute to the further development of meme research.

  7. [Measurement of activities of daily living in patients with dementia living at home: development of a questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunisse, S; Derix, M M

    1991-04-01

    In clinical practice and for scientific research a method is needed for the assessment of changes in functioning in daily life of dementia patients living at home. As existing methods have their limitations, a questionnaire was developed (the Interview for Deterioration in Daily life in Dementia: IDDD), to be answered by caregivers. The questionnaire concerns self-care and complex activities, that are usually performed by men as well as women. Attention is paid to the difference between lack of initiative and impaired performance itself. Caregivers are interviewed in a structured interview. A study among 30 caregivers of dementia patients living at home, showed the relevance and usefulness of the questions. The questionnaire shows high internal consistency, which may be the result of our structured interview technique. PMID:2042235

  8. Evaluation of Parameter Related to Preventative Measures on the Child Injuries at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatamabadi HR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The harms resulted from home injuries are a major factor in child mortality. The current study aims to evaluate the factors associated with the knowledge and performance level of mothers in terms of adopting preventive behaviors to avoid home injuries. Materials and Methods: The target population of this descriptive - analytical study is all mothers of preschool children suffering from home injuries referring to Imam Hossein and Haft-E-Tir hospitals. Mothers’ data were collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire. After dividing the knowledge level and the status of mothers’ preventive behaviors into two groups, the relationship between factors was assessed by using Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression and the status of mothers preventive behaviors were studied as well. Results: Finally, 230 mothers (mean age 5.2 ± 29.4 were studied. 75.0 of them had good awareness, and 56.0 % also had a good performance. Mother's absence for at least 8 hours per day (0.12 = OR, increase of the number of preschool children (0.03 = OR and employed mother (0.01 = OR are the things that hinder preventive behaviors in home injuries. While the history of home injuries during the past 3 weeks (13.3 = OR, mother’s appropriate awareness of preventive behaviors (28.9 = OR and high-income families (2.4 = OR lead to the adoption of preventive behaviors by mothers. Conclusion: Awareness is the only modifiable factor and it can be improved by educational interventions. Support of assistance and social welfare agencies for employed mothers can improve the current status of preventive behaviors in home injuries. Keywords: Preventive Behaviors, Awareness, Effective Factors

  9. A New App for At-Home Cognitive Training: Description and Pilot Testing on Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tacchino, Andrea; Pedullà, Ludovico; Bonzano, Laura; Vassallo, Claudio; Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Mancardi, Gianluigi; Bove, Marco; Brichetto, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is common in people with neurological diseases and severely affects their social and professional life. It has been shown that intensive and personalized cognitive rehabilitation (CR), based on working memory exercises, leads to improved cognitive status of healthy and cognitive-impaired subjects. New technologies would help to promote accessible, at-home, and self-managed CR interventions. Objective The aim of this paper is to describe the design of Cognitive ...

  10. Quality of life assessment in advanced cancer patients treated at home, an inpatient unit, and a day care center

    OpenAIRE

    Leppert, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Wojciech Leppert,1 Mikolaj Majkowicz,2 Maria Forycka,1 Eleonora Mess,3 Agata Zdun-Ryzewska2 1Department of Palliative Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2Department of Quality of Life Research, Gdansk Medical University, Gdansk, Poland; 3Palliative Care Nursing Department, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Aim of the study: To assess quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients treated at home, at an in-patient palliative care unit (PCU), and at a day care...

  11. Supplier-Induced Demand in Japan's At-home Care Industry: Evidence from Micro-level Survey on Care Receivers

    OpenAIRE

    NOGUCHI Haruko; SATOSHI Shimizutani

    2005-01-01

    We observed a remarkable increase in elderly care expenses in Japan after the introduction of public elderly care insurance in 2000. This study explores the possibility that a greater number of care providers under the deregulation of the entry policy stimulated care utilization. We take advantage of an original household-level survey data on care receivers to address the existence of supplier-induced demand in Japan's elderly at-home care market, by distinguishing between demand for care rec...

  12. School and pupil effects on secondary pupils' feelings of safety in school, around school, and at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton; Fettelaar, Daan

    2013-04-01

    In line with fear of crime research, schools should be secure places where pupils feel safe in order to function well. Various types of risk and promotive variables at school and pupil level may differently influence a pupil's feelings of safety in school, the school surroundings, and at home. The aim is to elaborate and test a theoretical two-level model on risk and promotive variables by using national data from an Internet-based survey in all types of Dutch secondary education. The cross-sectional research involves 71,560 pupils from 185 schools. Confirmatory factor analysis and multilevel logistic regression analysis including latent variables are used to analyze the data. The results demonstrate that school size, pupil attainment level in education, and intactness of a pupil's family have positive effects on a pupil's feelings of safety in and around school and at home; overall negative effects concern the school's curricular differentiation and a pupil's playing truant and not feeling most at home in the Netherlands. A school's social, teaching, and instructional qualities and a pupil's being older, being a boy, and being baptized positively affect the feelings of safety in and around school. A school's safety policy and rules of conduct have no effects. Attending a church or mosque has negative effects on a pupil's feelings of safety around school and at home. The findings confirm part of the two-level model. The Internet-based data collection and feedback procedure enable each school to longitudinally assess and evaluate own results at school level; in addition, cross-sectional comparison of school results with national benchmarks is possible. PMID:23248356

  13. Finding a Book for Jamal: Recommending Text Types for At-Home Reading of Beginning Readers Who Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrofi, Amma K.; Swafford, Jeanne; Janisch, Carole

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what types of texts would best support the at-home reading for a first grader who struggled with reading. Results of running records for 12 books of varying text types indicated he used visual cues, picture cues, and his schema as he attempted to read. Ten of 12 of the texts were hard for him to read.…

  14. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Secondhand Smoke Exposure at Home and at Work in Fifteen Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar, GP; Lee, JT; Arora, M.; Millett, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In high-income countries, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is higher among disadvantaged groups. We examine socioeconomic inequalities in SHS exposure at home and at workplace in 15 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from 15 LMICs participating in Global Adult Tobacco Survey (participants ≥ 15 years; 2008–2011) were used. Country-specific analyses using regression-based methods were used to estimate the magnitude of socio...

  15. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Secondhand Smoke Exposure at Home and at Work in 15 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar, Gaurang P.; Lee, John Tayu; Arora, Monika; Millett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In high-income countries, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is higher among disadvantaged groups. We examine socioeconomic inequalities in SHS exposure at home and at workplace in 15 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from 15 LMICs participating in Global Adult Tobacco Survey (participants ≥ 15 years; 2008–2011) were used. Country-specific analyses using regression-based methods were used to estimate the magnitude of socio...

  16. The politics of welfare state retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Welfare state retrenchment is widely seen as a highly unpopular endeavour and, therefore, as politically difficult to pursue. This assumption has underpinned most of the political science research on this issue, notably Paul Pierson's seminal contributions about the 'new politics of the welfare s...... as their combination - remains the most promising way forward in the study of welfare state politics. © 2006 The Author(s) Journal Compilation © 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd....

  17. Market barriers to welfare product innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P. T. M.

    2006-01-01

    New products that are based on higher animal welfare standards encounter several barriers on the road to market acceptance. The authors focus on the Dutch poultry sector and distinguish between retailer and consumer barriers. Retailer barriers include the powerful position of retailers, the price competition, and the price-orientation of decision-makers. At the consumer level, potential barriers are: involving the consumer in animal welfare, making him understand the welfare benefits, convinc...

  18. Rawlsian justice and welfare-state capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Ho-yin; 袁浩然

    2014-01-01

    Rawls emphasizes in his later writings that his theory of justice as fairness is not a defense of welfare-state capitalism. He argues that welfare-state capitalism cannot be an acceptable regime for justice as fairness because its ideal institutional description fails to satisfy the two principles of justice in various ways. Against Rawls, I argue in this thesis that his rejection of welfare-state capitalism is not justified. I begin by clarifying an ambiguity regarding what arrangements...

  19. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region. PMID:25000776

  20. Animal welfare in a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Wereldwijd overzicht van dierenwelzijnswetgeving, praktijken en percepties, met voorbeeldstudies over kippenvlees uit Brazilië en Thailand, eieren uit India en de Verenigde Staten, welzijnswetgeving voor kweekvis en welzijnsaspecten van (vermeende) overpopulatie van wilde dieren.Global survey of animal-welfare regulations, practices and perceptions, with case studies on poultry meat from Brazil and Thailand, eggs from India and the USA, welfare regulations of farmed fish and welfare aspects r...

  1. Terrorism in the Worlds of Welfare Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Krieger; Daniel Meierrieks

    2009-01-01

    This contribution investigates the link between welfare policies and domestic terrorism for 15 Western European countries during 1984-2003. We argue that welfare policies improve national socio-economic conditions and thus increase the opportunity costs of terrorism. We investigate whether spending in certain policy fields translates into a reduction of terrorism, and whether certain worlds of welfare capitalism [Esping-Andersen (1990)] are more resistant to the threat of domestic terrorism. ...

  2. What Characterise the Nordic Welfare State Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bent Greve

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the main distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare states. These include, for example, full employment, high degree of equality, a high level of taxes and a high level of public spending on welfare. The article further presents data, which enables the reader to a comparison with welfare states in Europe and to analyse whether we are witnessing convergence in Europe and/or the withering away of the Nordic Model. The conclusion being that the Nordic Model is here t...

  3. Exploring differences in referrals to a hospice at home service in two socio-economically distinct areas of Manchester, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Malcolm; Grande, Gunn; Wilson, Charlotte; Caress, Ann-Louise; Roberts, Dai

    2010-06-01

    In order to provide equitable access to hospice at home palliative care services, it is important to identify the socio-economic factors associated with poorer access. In this population-based study we aimed to test the inverse care law by exploring how socio-economic status and other key demographic indicators were associated with referral rates in two distinct areas (Salford and Trafford) served by the same service. Secondary data from the UK National Census 2001, North West Cancer Intelligence Service (2004) and hospice at home service referral data (2004-06) was collated for both areas. Descriptive analysis profiled electoral ward characteristics whilst simple correlations and regression modelling estimated associations with referral rates. Referral rates were lower and cancer mortality higher in the most deprived areas (Salford). Referral rates were significantly associated with deprivation, particularly multiple deprivation, but not significantly associated with cancer mortality (service model and resources available were held constant). At the population level, the socio-economic characteristics of those referred to hospice at home rather than service provision strongly predicted referral rates. This has implications for the allocation and targeting of resources and contributes important findings to future work exploring equitable access at organizational and professional levels. PMID:20015917

  4. Fruit of plant diversity at home-garden of Jabon Mekar village, subdistrict of Parung, Bogor regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUDI PRASETYO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Jabon Mekar village is well-known as the central of fruit supplayer at subdistrict of Parung. Many kinds of fruit were planted and developed in this area. Durian ‘lai-mas’ or durian jabon’s cultivar is the superior product of fruit. However it was estimated as a buffer zone of Jakarta and subject of the urban development. Due to the increasing number of the urbant development in Jakarta, it is concerned that this will have an effect to the function of home-garden.The aim of the research is to study the potential riches and fruit plant diversity at home-garden of community in the village of Jabon Mekar. The methods used for vegetation analysis were the quadratic method. The result of the research found 57 species of fruit plants from 41 genus, 23 families and 30 local cultivars. From all fruit of plants, there are 7 species as the main compositer of the community at home-garden i.e. Musa sp., Durio zibethinus, Nephelium lappaceum, Cocos nucifera, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Sandoricum koetjape, Carica papaya. It was found also that the diversity of plant species at home-garden was at the high level. While all fruit of plant species found a tendency SDR value under 50%, means that none of the plant species dominant toward other fruit of plants species.

  5. Trotter welfare's protection: A legislative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passantino, Annamaria; Giannetto, Claudia; Passantino, Letizia; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    The Council of Europe's activities in the field of animal welfare are particularly noteworthy and comprise the elaboration of several norms for the protection of animals. Concerning the specific European Directive, Regulations or Convention for the protection of animals, the Authors underline the missing of specifics recommendations concerning the welfare of sport horses and especially of trotters. Guidelines are reported by regulation of equestrian sports. The paper's purpose is to give practical elements to individuate the welfare state and to promote a clear regulation on welfare, care and protection of trotters. PMID:27047109

  6. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    integrationist visions in their quest to protect immigrants’ and refugees’ fundamental wellbeing and status as human beings with equal rights, group life and history. These opposing elements generate ambiguity and contradiction within integrationist welfare work. The ambition of the presentation is to enquire......In this presentation I will discuss the ways in which welfare workers addressing immigrants and refugees (re)produce integrationist visions, symbolizing society as an integrated whole and immigrants/refugees as a distraction to that whole. Paradoxically, welfare workers also oppose these......, nurses and more) addressing immigrants and refugees and their families and descendants in the Danish welfare nation-state....

  7. Measuring the consumer benefits of improving farm animal welfare to inform welfare labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Kehlbacher, Ariane; Bennett, Richard; Balcombe, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Policy makers in the European Union are envisioning the introduction of a community farm animal welfare label which would allow consumers to align their consumption habits with their farm animal welfare preferences. For welfare labelling to be viable the market for livestock products produced to higher welfare standards has to be sufficiently segmented with consumers having sufficiently distinct and behaviourally consistent preferences. The present study investigates consumers’ preferences...

  8. Quality of life assessment in advanced cancer patients treated at home, an inpatient unit, and a day care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leppert W

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wojciech Leppert,1 Mikolaj Majkowicz,2 Maria Forycka,1 Eleonora Mess,3 Agata Zdun-Ryzewska2 1Department of Palliative Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2Department of Quality of Life Research, Gdansk Medical University, Gdansk, Poland; 3Palliative Care Nursing Department, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Aim of the study: To assess quality of life (QoL in cancer patients treated at home, at an in-patient palliative care unit (PCU, and at a day care center (DCC. Patients and methods: QoL was assessed in advanced cancer patients at baseline and after 7 days of symptomatic treatment using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 15-Palliative Care (EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL, the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS, and the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS scale. Results: A total of 129 patients completed the study, with 51 patients treated at home, 51 patients treated at the PCU, and 27 patients at DCC. In the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL, improvement in functional and symptom scales was observed except in physical functioning and fatigue levels; patients at DCC had a better physical functioning, global QoL, appetite, and fatigue levels. In the ESAS, improvement in all items was found except for drowsiness levels, which was stable in patients treated at DCC and deteriorated in home and PCU patients. Higher activity, better appetite and well-being, and less drowsiness were observed in patients treated at DCC. KPS was better in DCC patients compared to those treated at home and at the PCU; the latter group deteriorated. Conclusions: QoL improved in all patient groups, with better results in DCC patients and similar scores in those staying at home and at the PCU. Along with clinical assessment, baseline age, KPS, physical and emotional functioning may be considered when assigning patients to care at a DCC, PCU, or at home. Keywords: oncology, patient care

  9. Preliminary evaluation of a prototype welfare monitoring system for sows and piglets (Welfare Quality (R) project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Edwards, S.A.; Gu, J.H.; Wijhe-Kiezebrink, van M.C.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Welfare Quality(R) project aims to develop a European on-form welfare assessment standard for pigs, amongst other species. A prototype monitoring system was developed for sows and piglets using predominantly animal-based measures of behaviour, health and physiology to assess welfare. The prototy

  10. Welfare Quality assessment protocol for laying hens = Welfare Quality assessment protocol voor leghennen

    OpenAIRE

    Niekerk, van, M.; H. Gunnink; Reenen, van, A Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Results of a study on the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for laying hens. It reports the development of the integration of welfare assessment as scores per criteria as well as simplification of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol. Results are given from assessment of 122 farms.

  11. Overall animal welfare assessment reviewed. Welfare assessment based on needs and supported by expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Welfare concerns that matter to animals is their state of need. Satisfaction and frustration of needs are associated with emotional states, the subjective experience of which directly determines the welfare status of an animal. Because emotional states are difficult to assess, overall welfare assess

  12. Societal Factors Impacting Child Welfare: Validating the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Charles; Zeitlin, Wendy; Augsberger, Astraea; McGowan, Brenda G.; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This research examines the psychometric properties of the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale (PCWS). This instrument is designed to assess child welfare workers' understanding of how society views their role and their work. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was utilized to analyze data on 538 child welfare workers. Results:…

  13. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  14. Welfare Reform and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status. PMID:25533889

  15. Welfare of sea lions in travelling circuses

    OpenAIRE

    Hopster, H.; Jong, de, T.

    2014-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van de wetenschappelijke literatuur en opinies van deskundigen over het welzijn van zeeleeuwen in reizende circussen. Dit als basis voor beleidsontwikkeling.This report describes the scientific literature and expert views concerning the welfare of sea lions in travelling circuses with respect to Dutch animal welfare policy making.

  16. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  17. Marketization of welfare services in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole Helby; Hjelmar, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Scandinavian welfare states are undergoing a gradual transformation towards a more market-based mode of public service delivery. The results of these marketization reforms are, however, insufficiently documented in terms of their consequences for the price and quality of welfare services. This ar...

  18. Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…

  19. Flexible Employment, Risk and the Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P.S. Dekker (Fabian)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In most developed countries, the welfare state provides some form of protection for its citizens. The provision of social arrangements differs substantially between countries but, on the basis of institutional characteristics such as the level of spending on welfare pro

  20. Family Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2000-01-01

    Examines consequences of family poverty for child development, noting evidence that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood adversely affects children's ability and achievement. Argues that although the 1996 welfare reforms spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some…

  1. Phantom Welfare: Public Relief for Corporate America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Daniel D.; Johnson, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes and quantifies major types of federal subsidies to American businesses, calling subsidies important policies that directly affect more traditional welfare programs. Notes that policies responsible for "phantom welfare state" represent major redistribution of wealth that partially accounts for growing gap between rich and poor. Discusses…

  2. The Climate of Child Welfare Employee Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalane, Helen; Sites, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes differences in perceptions of the child welfare work environment among Title IV-E educated individuals who remain within public child welfare and those who sought employment elsewhere after fulfilling a legal work commitment. Job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were predictive of staying…

  3. The context of child welfare performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Samples, Mark; Lawson, Jennifer; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States seeks to improve the outcomes achieved by public agencies through performance measurement strategies. In child welfare policy, a federally mandated performance measurement system has evolved since the 1980s, establishing the federal Child and Family Services Review which uses a series of performance indicators for evaluating the child welfare system. This article reviews the literature on performance measurement and performance management in the public sector in order to develop a conceptual framework for examining the federal child welfare performance measurement system. It briefly summarizes the evolution of federal policy related to performance measurement in child welfare. The framework is then used to guide an analysis of the debate surrounding the establishment of the current child welfare performance measurement system, concluding with recommendations for consideration in future reform efforts. PMID:23705647

  4. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Edward Sage

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of social media use. It is recommended that agencies provide guidance on ethical decision-making for using social media as a work-related tool. Agencies should also provide policy clearly defining social media use and misuse.

  5. Trade liberalisation, resource sustainability and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has warned that liberalising trade in capture fish products originating from inefficiently managed fisheries might cause over-exploitation, reduced fish stocks and thereby a reduced steady-state of welfare. This paper qualifies the warning in a case study of the East Baltic cod...... market by developing an age-structured bio-economic supply model combined with basic theory of trade between two countries. Welfare effects of trade liberalisation are identified taking fishing quotas, input limitations, mesh-size regulations and shared ownership of stocks into account. It is shown that...... even though liberalising trade in products supplied by such a fishery might cause steady-state welfare reductions in the supplier countries, these welfare reductions are small compared to the welfare gains from a hypothetical change to optimal management. Hence, the introduction of better fisheries...

  6. Pressure-relieving devices and it's arrangement for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are four types of PWR pressure-relieving devices: direct acting safety valve, pilot-operated pressure relief valve, power-operated pressure relief valve and safety valve with auxiliaries. The principle of operation, characteristics, arrangement of the pressure-relieving devices for PWR recently used at home and abroad, confidence of discharge, experience in service and developing trend of the devices are introduced. The first and second type of the devices are emphasised

  7. Development and validation of a screening instrument to assess the types and quality of foods served at home meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulkerson Jayne A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is growing interest in assessing the home food environment, no easy-to-use, low cost tools exist to assess the foods served at home meals, making it difficult to assess the meal component of the food environment. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a user-friendly screener to assess the types of foods served at home meals. Methods Primary food preparing adults (n = 51 participated in a validation study in their own homes. Staff and participants independently completed a screener as participants cooked dinner. The screener assessed the types of foods offered, method(s of preparation, and use of added fats. Two scale scores were created: 1 to assess offerings of foods in five food groups (meat and other protein, milk, vegetables, fruit, grains, 2 to assess the relative healthfulness of foods based on types offered, preparation method, and added fats. Criterion validity was assessed comparing staff and participant reports of individual foods (kappa (k and scale scores (Spearman correlations. Results Criterion validity was high between participants' and staffs' record of whether major food categories (meat and other protein, bread and cereal, salad, vegetables, fruits, dessert were served (k = 0.79-1.0, moderate for reports of other starches (e.g., rice being served (k = 0.52, and high for the Five Food Group and Healthfulness scale scores (r = 0.75-0.85, p Conclusions This new meal screening tool has high validity and can be used to assess the types of foods served at home meals allowing a more comprehensive assessment of the home food environment.

  8. Quality of life assessment in advanced cancer patients treated at home, an inpatient unit, and a day care center

    OpenAIRE

    Leppert, Wojciech; Majkowicz, Mikolaj; Forycka, Maria; Mess, Eleonora; Zdun-Ryzewska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study To assess quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients treated at home, at an in-patient palliative care unit (PCU), and at a day care center (DCC). Patients and methods QoL was assessed in advanced cancer patients at baseline and after 7 days of symptomatic treatment using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 15-Palliative Care (EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL), the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS), and the Karnofsky Perfor...

  9. The Quality and Efficiency of At-Home Long-term Care in Japan: Evidence from Micro-level Data

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizutani, Satoshi; Suzuki, Wataru

    2002-01-01

    This paper evaluates the quality and efficiency of the at-home long-term care market in Japan, a market in which for-profit enterprises were allowed to enter after the introduction of the long-term care insurance in Spring of 2000. We take advantage of data from a unique self-conducted survey to compare the quality of services and efficiency of various types of providers with different ownerships, including for-profits, nonprofits and public-owned providers, and different lengths of operation...

  10. Policing Welfare: Risk, Gender and Criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarlet Wilcock

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, welfare states across the West have embraced a host of new technologies and initiatives in the name of fighting welfare abuse and fraud (see Cook 1989, 2006; Wacquant 2001, 2009. Increasingly, these practices of ‘welfare policing’ are graduated according to risk; particular welfare populations considered at greater risk of welfare fraud are subject to more intense scrutiny. Drawing on interview research with compliance staff from the Australian Department of Human Services, this paper critically explores how the rationality of risk figures in the process of welfare surveillance in Australia. It pays particular attention to the ways in which risk formulations are embedded in gender and class politics, and how this has led to the characterisation of single mothers and unemployed recipients as more ‘risky’ than the general welfare population, a point that is often overlooked in the literature. But, far from being immutable, this paper also considers how the politics of risk are open to reformulation with often unexpected results.

  11. Gentling and welfare of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muscio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional sheep production systems, lambs are suckled by their mothers and then gradually weaned at 35 days of age. However, the increased size of intensive dairy sheep flocks to obtain greater amounts of ovine milk for cheese making, is promoting the diffusion of artificial rearing programs involving early separation of lambs from their mothers. Maternal deprivation soon after birth can have detrimental effects on lamb immune functions, and lead to altered cortisol secretion and behavioural responses to isolation (Napolitano et al., 1995. Human-animal interactions have been documented to play a role in sustaining the welfare and production of domestic animals (Hemsworth, 2003. In addition, gentled animals are less difficult to be handled and less susceptible to the stress induced by management practices involving human contacts (Lensink et al., 2000. The aim of the present trial was to investigate the effects of gently handling newborn lambs on their behavioural, immune and endocrine responses, and on their growth rate when mothered or artificially reared.

  12. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  13. What Works in Education and Social Welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on Foucauldian genealogy, the article maps major sources and trajectories of the evidence discourse. This enables scrutiny of the current struggle about evidence for What Works in education and social welfare. Evidence discourse is identified as emerging from the medical field as a bottom......-up professional strategy. It is subsequently reworked and launched into education and social welfare in moves that largely bypass professionals to serve policy-maker and market needs to enable evidence-based choices among public services. From this perspective, the author argues that education and social welfare...

  14. What works in education and social welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Foucauldian genealogy, the article maps major sources and trajectories of the evidence discourse. This enables scrutiny of the current struggle about evidence for What Works in education and social welfare. Evidence discourse is identified as emerging from the medical field as a bottom......-up professional strategy. It is subsequently reworked and launched into education and social welfare in moves that largely bypass professionals to serve policy-maker and market needs to enable evidence-based choices among public services. From this perspective, the author argues that education and social welfare...

  15. Cigarettes vs. e-cigarettes: Passive exposure at home measured by means of airborne marker and biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballbè, Montse [Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Institut Català d' Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Cancer Prevention and Control Group, Institut d' Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge – IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Addictions Unit, Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona – IDIBAPS, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Clinical Sciences, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M., E-mail: jmmartinez@iconcologia.net [Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Institut Català d' Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Cancer Prevention and Control Group, Institut d' Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge – IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Biostatistics Unit, Department of Basic Sciences, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); Sureda, Xisca; Fu, Marcela [Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Institut Català d' Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Cancer Prevention and Control Group, Institut d' Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge – IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Clinical Sciences, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2014-11-15

    Background: There is scarce evidence about passive exposure to the vapour released or exhaled from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) under real conditions. The aim of this study is to characterise passive exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes' vapour and conventional cigarettes' smoke at home among non-smokers under real-use conditions. Methods: We conducted an observational study with 54 non-smoker volunteers from different homes: 25 living at home with conventional smokers, 5 living with nicotine e-cigarette users, and 24 from control homes (not using conventional cigarettes neither e-cigarettes). We measured airborne nicotine at home and biomarkers (cotinine in saliva and urine). We calculated geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviations (GSD). We also performed ANOVA and Student's t tests for the log-transformed data. We used Bonferroni-corrected t-tests to control the family error rate for multiple comparisons at 5%. Results: The GMs of airborne nicotine were 0.74 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=4.05) in the smokers’ homes, 0.13 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=2.4) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.02 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=3.51) in the control homes. The GMs of salivary cotinine were 0.38 ng/ml (GSD=2.34) in the smokers’ homes, 0.19 ng/ml (GSD=2.17) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.07 ng/ml (GSD=1.79) in the control homes. Salivary cotinine concentrations of the non-smokers exposed to e-cigarette's vapour at home (all exposed ≥2 h/day) were statistically significant different that those found in non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke ≥2 h/day and in non-smokers from control homes. Conclusions: The airborne markers were statistically higher in conventional cigarette homes than in e-cigarettes homes (5.7 times higher). However, concentrations of both biomarkers among non-smokers exposed to conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes’ vapour were statistically similar (only 2 and 1.4 times higher, respectively). The levels of airborne

  16. Cigarettes vs. e-cigarettes: Passive exposure at home measured by means of airborne marker and biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: There is scarce evidence about passive exposure to the vapour released or exhaled from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) under real conditions. The aim of this study is to characterise passive exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes' vapour and conventional cigarettes' smoke at home among non-smokers under real-use conditions. Methods: We conducted an observational study with 54 non-smoker volunteers from different homes: 25 living at home with conventional smokers, 5 living with nicotine e-cigarette users, and 24 from control homes (not using conventional cigarettes neither e-cigarettes). We measured airborne nicotine at home and biomarkers (cotinine in saliva and urine). We calculated geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviations (GSD). We also performed ANOVA and Student's t tests for the log-transformed data. We used Bonferroni-corrected t-tests to control the family error rate for multiple comparisons at 5%. Results: The GMs of airborne nicotine were 0.74 μg/m3 (GSD=4.05) in the smokers’ homes, 0.13 μg/m3 (GSD=2.4) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.02 μg/m3 (GSD=3.51) in the control homes. The GMs of salivary cotinine were 0.38 ng/ml (GSD=2.34) in the smokers’ homes, 0.19 ng/ml (GSD=2.17) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.07 ng/ml (GSD=1.79) in the control homes. Salivary cotinine concentrations of the non-smokers exposed to e-cigarette's vapour at home (all exposed ≥2 h/day) were statistically significant different that those found in non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke ≥2 h/day and in non-smokers from control homes. Conclusions: The airborne markers were statistically higher in conventional cigarette homes than in e-cigarettes homes (5.7 times higher). However, concentrations of both biomarkers among non-smokers exposed to conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes’ vapour were statistically similar (only 2 and 1.4 times higher, respectively). The levels of airborne nicotine and

  17. Descriptions by General Practitioners and Nurses of Their Collaboration in Continuous Sedation Until Death at Home: In-Depth Qualitative Interviews in Three European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Anquinet (Livia); J.A.C. Rietjens (Judith); N. Mathers (Nigel); J. Seymour (Jane); A. van der Heide (Agnes); L. Deliens (Luc)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContext: One palliative care approach that is increasingly being used at home for relieving intolerable suffering in terminally ill patients is continuous sedation until death. Its provision requires a multidisciplinary team approach, with adequate collaboration and communication. Howeve

  18. AN IN-DEPTH, LONGITUDINAL EXAMINATION OF THE DAILY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF A PATIENT WITH HEART FAILURE USING A NINTENDO WII AT HOME: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Klompstra, L; Jaarsma, T; Strömberg, A

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of the Nintendo Wii on the daily physical activity of a patient with chronic heart failure at home. METHODS: A 74-year-old Swedish patient with heart failure had access to a Nintendo Wii at home for 12 weeks. Exercise motivation, exercise self-efficacy and exercise capacity were assessed before and after the intervention. Data on perceived physical effort, global well-being and expended energy were collected every day during the intervention. RESULTS: Durin...

  19. The Nordic welfare model and welfare services - Can we maintain acceptable standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    income elasticity, and thus demands rise alongside improved material living standards (Wagner effects). The same implies to leisure, implying that tax bases may be eroded. In short, expenditures are on an upward drift and revenues on a downward trend, challenging the financial viability of the welfare...... model. This seems to leave a conundrum for the welfare state in the sense that the success of the model in improving living standards tends to undermine the possibility of attaining key objectives of the welfare state. It is argued that although the welfare state will be financially strained, these......A key feature of the Nordic welfare model is provision of welfare services like care, education and health. They are individual entitlements, and collectively financed. It is a prerequisite that contemporary standards of services are provided; thus the public solution is not a second rate solution...

  20. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much in anthropomor...... in anthropomorphism leads to better research/testing. Current trends in toxicity testing will result in tests involving more sophisticated techniques, better quality of laboratory animals, and eventually the use of fewer animals.......The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...

  1. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, V; Alessandrini, B; Dalla Villa, P; Del Papa, S

    2005-08-01

    Effective implementation and enforcement of legislation is essential to ensure animal welfare. In the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) European Region the well-established body of national and European Union laws in existence is growing continuously. The growth is due to various factors, such as new technology in animal farming and experimentation, exploitation of wildlife, new understanding of animal needs, and increasing public awareness and concern. The latter, in particular, determines the need for new animal welfare legislation to regulate and discipline the 'use' of animals for different purposes, such as food production, companionship, work and leisure. This paper intends to provide an overview of the more relevant activities carried out by the Council of Europe and the European Union in the field of animal welfare. The authors identify eLearning as a tool to harmonise the interpretation and the implementation of animal welfare legislation. PMID:16358508

  2. Immune responses to improving welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghman, L R

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between animal welfare and the immune status of an animal has a complex nature. Indeed, the intuitive notion that "increased vigilance of the immune system is by definition better" because it is expected to better keep the animal healthy, does not hold up under scrutiny. This is mostly due to the fact that the immune system consists of 2 distinct branches, the innate and the adaptive immune system. While they are intimately intertwined and synergistic in the living organism, they are profoundly different in their costs, both in terms of performance and wellbeing. In contrast to the adaptive immune system, the action of the innate immune system has a high metabolic cost as well as undesirable behavioral consequences. When a pathogen breaches the first line of defense (often a mucosal barrier), that organism's molecular signature is recognized by resident macrophages. The macrophages respond by releasing a cocktail of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin-1 and -6) that signal the brain via multiple pathways (humoral as well as neural) of the ongoing peripheral innate immune response. The behavioral response to the release of proinflammatory cytokines, known as "sickness behavior," includes nearly all the behavioral aspects that are symptomatic for clinical depression in humans. Hence, undesired innate immune activity, such as chronic inflammation, needs to be avoided by the industry. From an immunological standpoint, one of the most pressing poultry industry needs is the refinement of our current veterinary vaccine arsenal. The response to a vaccine, especially to a live attenuated vaccine, is often a combination of innate and adaptive immune activities, and the desired immunogenicity comes at the price of high reactogenicity. The morbidity, albeit limited and transient, caused by live vaccines against respiratory diseases and coccidiosis are good examples. Thankfully, the advent of various post-genomics technologies, such as DNA

  3. Animal-based measures for welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare assessment can’t be irrespective of measures taken on animals. Indeed, housing parametersrelatedtostructures, designandmicro-environment, evenifreliable parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment, even if reliable and easier to take, can only identify conditions which could be detrimental to animal welfare, but can’t predict poor welfare in animals per se. Welfare assessment through animal-based measures is almost complex, given that animals’ responses to stressful conditions largely depend on the nature, length and intensity of challenges and on physiological status, age, genetic susceptibility and previous experience of animals. Welfare assessment requires a multi-disciplinary approach and the monitoring of productive, ethological, endocrine, immunological and pathological param- eters to be exhaustive and reliable. So many measures are needed, because stresses can act only on some of the mentioned parameters or on all of them but at different times and degree. Under this point of view, the main aim of research is to find feasible and most responsive indicators of poor animal welfare. In last decades, studies focused on the following parameters for animal wel- fare assessment indexes of biological efficiency, responses to behavioral tests, cortisol secretion, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte proliferation, production of antigen specific IgG and cytokine release, somatic cell count and acute phase proteins. Recently, a lot of studies have been addressed to reduce handling and constraint of animals for taking measures to be used in welfare assessment, since such procedures can induce stress in animals and undermined the reliability of measures taken for welfare assessment. Range of animal-based measures for welfare assessment is much wider under experimental condition than at on-farm level. In welfare monitoring on-farm the main aim is to find feasible measures of proved validity and reliability

  4. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Mitchell M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an...

  5. Animal Welfare: A Dilemma for Japanese CSR?

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuta, Wakako

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper seeks to analyse whether animal welfare issues can be one of concerns for Japanese companies to formulate CSR strategy. Today, the subject of animal welfare is becoming one of important global issues since European Union regulates the issues and its regulations are becoming stricter. Japanese companies would face on the issues in the EU and global market. However, since there is distinct public concern for the issues in Japan, it is questionable if and how Japanese com...

  6. Bordering practices in the UK welfare system

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, S.; Lukes, S; Stanton, R; Vollmer, BA; Wilding, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers how chauvinistic welfare policies operate as a bordering practice. Taking the UK as an example, it examines a process in which welfare provisions have increasingly been withdrawn from a group of people designated as undeserving. It points out a close link between chauvinism based on ethnicity and based on class. This relation is explored in detail for the case of social housing culminating in today’s “social housing for local people” approach. A second case, access t...

  7. Fear of Floating and Social Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Demosthenes N. Tambakis

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the welfare implications of financial stability and inflation stabilization as distinct monetary policy objectives. Introducing asymmetric aversion to exchange rate depreciation in the Barro-Gordon model mitigates inflation bias due to credibility problems. The net welfare impact of fear of floating depends on the economy's recent track record, the credibility of monetary policy, and the central bank's discount factor. It is shown that fear of floating is more appropriate f...

  8. Market Integration, Choice of Technology and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2010-01-01

    technologies. Market integration may induce a technological restructuring where firms either diversify their technologies or switch to a homogeneous technology. In general, market integration improves welfare. However, a small decrease of trade costs which induces a switch from heterogeneous technologies to a...... homogeneous technology may locally reduce global welfare. The model also shows that productivity differences lead to intra-industry firm heterogeneity in size and exports similar to the "new-new" trade models with monopolistic competition....

  9. Toward a New Welfare Foundation for Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Gowdy, John M.

    2004-01-01

    The debate over various definitions of sustainability has for the most part been conducted within the framework of traditional welfare economics. Discussion has centered on technical issues imbedded within the functional forms of various optimization models, especially the coefficient of the elasticity of substitution and the social discount rate. A more basic problem is that intractable theoretical difficulties within welfare economics call into question the results of traditional models of ...

  10. Welfare Reform, Work Requirements, and Employment Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Meara; Richard Frank

    2006-01-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act imposed work requirements on welfare recipients. Using 1999-2001 data from Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, we compared the labor market and welfare experience of women with four employment barriers: poor mental health, moderate to heavy drug and alcohol use, a child with a behavior problem, and a child under the age of 3. Women with poor mental health and drug and alcohol users were much less likely to move into work than o...

  11. Animal Welfare: eine empirische Analyse landwirtschaftlicher Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Deimel, Ingke; Franz, Annabell; SPILLER, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Nach den aktuellen Erkenntnissen der nutztierwissenschaftlichen Forschung rekurriert das Verständnis von Animal Welfare auf vier Kriterien: Haltungssystem, Management, Tiergesundheit und Tierverhalten (KEELING und KJ™RNES, 2009). Es ist jedoch unklar, inwieweit sich dieses Verständnis auch in der landwirtschaftlichen Praxis wiederfindet. In der vorliegenden empirischen Studie wird erstmals mit Hilfe einer Faktorenanalyse das Animal-Welfare-Verständnis konventioneller deutscher Schweinemäster ...

  12. Employee-driven Innovation in Welfare Services

    OpenAIRE

    Wihlman, Thomas; Hoppe, Magnus; Wihlman, Ulla; Sandmark, Helene

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in both employee-driven innovation (EDI) and innovation in welfare services, but a lack of empirical studies addressing innovation from the employee perspective. Accordingly, this study was designed to contribute with well-grounded empirical knowledge, aiming to explore the barriers to and opportunities for participation in innovation experienced by employees of the Swedish welfare services. In order to reach the aim, a qualitative thematic analysis of 27 semi-stru...

  13. Animal welfare: neuro-cognitive approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Morgante; Giorgio Vallortigara

    2010-01-01

    Many people maintain a naive belief that non-human animals consciously experience pain and suffering in similar ways to humans. Others tend to assume a more sceptical or agnostic attitude. Drawing on recent advances in research on animal cognition and neuroscience, the science of animal welfare is now beginning to address these issues empirically. We describe recent advances that may contribute to the main questions of animal welfare, namely whether animals are conscious and how we can assess...

  14. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much in...... anthropomorphism leads to better research/testing. Current trends in toxicity testing will result in tests involving more sophisticated techniques, better quality of laboratory animals, and eventually the use of fewer animals....

  15. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    OpenAIRE

    Castellini, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, ...

  16. Regional restriction, strategic delegation, and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Matsushima, Noriaki

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effects of restricting locations of firms into Hotelling duopoly models. In the standard location-price models, the equilibrium distance between firms is too large from the viewpoint of consumer welfare. Thus, restricting locations of firms and reducing the distance between firms improve consumer welfare, through lower prices and smaller transportation costs for consumers. We introduce strategic reward contracts into the location-price models. We find that in contrast to th...

  17. Does Tax Competition Raise Voter Welfare?

    OpenAIRE

    Besley, Timothy J.; Smart, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Economists who believe that government is essentially benevolent tend to regard inter-governmental competition as a source of negative externalities that lower welfare. In contrast the public choice perspective, particularly that motivated by the Leviathan model, sees such competition as potentially beneficial. This Paper considers a world consisting of politicians of both kinds – self-interested and welfare maximizing. Imperfect information prevents identification of the latter. We model the...

  18. Essays on Nonlinear Pricing and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Tommy

    2004-01-01

    Problems associated with monopoly power have received considerable attention in economic literature. It is well known that a firm exercising monopoly power over a given market can raise its price above the competitive price. This leads to a dead-weight welfare loss for society. In order to reduce the welfare loss that is caused by the pricing behavior of the monopoly, several alternative suggestions have been presented in the literature. One recommendation is to regulate the monopoly in the s...

  19. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molomo, M; Mumba, T

    2014-04-01

    Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade. PMID:25000777

  20. Welfare effects of financial integration

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Philipp; Grüner, Hans Peter; Fecht, Falko

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares four forms of inter-regional financial risk sharing: (i) segmentation, (ii) integration trough the secured interbank market, (ii) integration trough the unsecured interbank market, (iv) integration of retail markets. The secured interbank market is an optimal risk-sharing device when banks report liquidity needs truthfully. It allows diversification without the risk of cross-regional financial contagion. However, free-riding on the liquidity provision in this market restra...

  1. Longitudinal Effects of Domestic Violence on Employment and Welfare Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Oxford, Monica; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

    2007-01-01

    This study uses longitudinal data spanning 13 years from a study of 234 adolescent mothers to evaluate the effects of cumulative domestic violence on employment and welfare use before and after welfare reform. Domestic violence increased the odds of unemployment after welfare reform, but not before; domestic violence had no effect on welfare use…

  2. Improving the outcome of infants born at <30 weeks' gestation - a randomized controlled trial of preventative care at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orton Jane

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early developmental interventions to prevent the high rate of neurodevelopmental problems in very preterm children, including cognitive, motor and behavioral impairments, are urgently needed. These interventions should be multi-faceted and include modules for caregivers given their high rates of mental health problems. Methods/Design We have designed a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a preventative care program delivered at home over the first 12 months of life for infants born very preterm ( Discussion This paper presents the background, study design and protocol for a randomized controlled trial in very preterm infants utilizing a preventative care program in the first year after discharge home designed to improve cognitive, motor and behavioral outcomes of very preterm children and caregiver mental health at two-years' corrected age. Clinical Trial Registration Number ACTRN12605000492651

  3. Experimenting with photoelectrochemical cells in drinking straws: practical aids for learning about solar energy in school or at home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoelectrochemical cells using dye-sensitized ZnO with a Cu2+/Fe2+/Fe3+ electrolyte can be easily made at home or in a school classroom with household chemicals and other readily available materials. The cells, which are made with wire housed within plastic drinking straws, have open-circuit voltages of 0.5–0.7 V and short-circuit currents of about 0.5–2.5 mA cm−2. Step-by-step instructions are provided on how to construct the photoelectrochemical cells, as are suggestions about how to use the cells to explore some concepts associated with utilizing solar energy

  4. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-02-01

    The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13-18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations. PMID:26907314

  5. Online behavior from desktop and mobile devices are connected

    OpenAIRE

    Nylander, Stina

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones and other mobile devices are used to access the Internet even at home and at work where computers are easily available. They are no longer a mere backup to the computer. This means that it makes little sense to study Internet access from mobile devices separate from other Internet access. We need new methods that encompass online behavior from desktop computers and mobile devices as well as stationary and mobile online behavior.

  6. Parental Perceptions of Quality of Life in Children on Long-Term Ventilation at Home as Compared to Enterostomy Tubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Redouane

    Full Text Available Health related quality of life (HRQL of children using medical technology at home is largely unknown. Our aim was to examine the HRQL in children on long-term ventilation at home (LTHV in comparison to a cohort using an enterostomy tube.Participants were divided into three groups: 1 LTHV without an enterostomy tube (LTHV cohort; 2 Enterostomy tube (GT cohort; 3 LTHV with an enterostomy tube (LTHV+GT cohort. Caregivers of children ≥ 5 years and followed at SickKids, Toronto, Canada, completed three questionnaires: Health Utilities Index 2/3 (HUI2/3, Caregiver Priorities Caregiver Health Index (CPCHILD, and the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL. The primary outcome was the difference in utility (HUI2/3 scores between the cohorts.One hundred and nineteen children were enrolled; 47 in the LTHV cohort, 44 in the GT cohort, and 28 in the LTHV+GT cohort. In univariate analysis, HUI2 mean (SE scores were lowest for the GT cohort, 0.4 (0.04 followed by the LTHV+GT, 0.42 (0.05 and then the LTHV cohort, 0.7 (0.04, p = 0.001. A similar trend was seen for the HUI3 mean (SE scores: GT cohort, 0.1 (0.06, followed by the LTHV +GT cohort, 0.2 (0.08 and then the LTHV cohort, 0.5 (0.06, p = 0.0001. Technology cohort, nursing hours and the severity of health care needs predicted HRQL as measured by the HUI2/3.The HRQL of these children is low. Children on LTHV had higher HRQL than children using enterostomy tubes. Further work is needed to identify modifiable factors that can improve HRQL.

  7. Parental Perceptions of Quality of Life in Children on Long-Term Ventilation at Home as Compared to Enterostomy Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redouane, Brahim; Cohen, Eyal; Stephens, Derek; Keilty, Krista; Mouzaki, Marialena; Narayanan, Unni; Moraes, Theo; Amin, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Objective Health related quality of life (HRQL) of children using medical technology at home is largely unknown. Our aim was to examine the HRQL in children on long-term ventilation at home (LTHV) in comparison to a cohort using an enterostomy tube. Study Design Participants were divided into three groups: 1) LTHV without an enterostomy tube (LTHV cohort); 2) Enterostomy tube (GT cohort); 3) LTHV with an enterostomy tube (LTHV+GT cohort). Caregivers of children ≥ 5 years and followed at SickKids, Toronto, Canada, completed three questionnaires: Health Utilities Index 2/3 (HUI2/3), Caregiver Priorities Caregiver Health Index (CPCHILD), and the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). The primary outcome was the difference in utility (HUI2/3) scores between the cohorts. Results One hundred and nineteen children were enrolled; 47 in the LTHV cohort, 44 in the GT cohort, and 28 in the LTHV+GT cohort. In univariate analysis, HUI2 mean (SE) scores were lowest for the GT cohort, 0.4 (0.04) followed by the LTHV+GT, 0.42 (0.05) and then the LTHV cohort, 0.7 (0.04), p = 0.001. A similar trend was seen for the HUI3 mean (SE) scores: GT cohort, 0.1 (0.06), followed by the LTHV +GT cohort, 0.2 (0.08) and then the LTHV cohort, 0.5 (0.06), p = 0.0001. Technology cohort, nursing hours and the severity of health care needs predicted HRQL as measured by the HUI2/3. Conclusion The HRQL of these children is low. Children on LTHV had higher HRQL than children using enterostomy tubes. Further work is needed to identify modifiable factors that can improve HRQL. PMID:26914939

  8. "Fighting the system": Families caring for ventilator-dependent children and adults with complex health care needs at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Erik W

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of individuals with complex health care needs now receive life-long and life-prolonging ventilatory support at home. Family members often take on the role of primary caregivers. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of families giving advanced care to family members dependent on home mechanical ventilation. Methods Using qualitative research methods, a Grounded Theory influenced approach was used to explore the families' experiences. A total of 15 family members with 11 ventilator-dependent individuals (three children and eight adults were recruited for 10 in-depth interviews. Results The core category, "fighting the system," became the central theme as family members were asked to describe their experiences. In addition, we identified three subcategories, "lack of competence and continuity", "being indispensable" and "worth fighting for". This study revealed no major differences in the families' experiences that were dependent on whether the ventilator-dependent individual was a child or an adult. Conclusions These findings show that there is a large gap between family members' expectations and what the community health care services are able to provide, even when almost unlimited resources are available. A number of measures are needed to reduce the burden on these family members and to make hospital care at home possible. In the future, the gap between what the health care can potentially provide and what they can provide in real life will rapidly increase. New proposals to limit the extremely costly provision of home mechanical ventilation in Norway will trigger new ethical dilemmas that should be studied further.

  9. A comparison of the effectiveness of the team-based learning readiness assessments completed at home to those completed in class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Carbrey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The readiness assurance process (RAP of team-based learning (TBL is an important element that ensures that students come prepared to learn. However, the RAP can use a significant amount of class time which could otherwise be used for application exercises. The authors administered the TBL-associated RAP in class or individual readiness assurance tests (iRATs at home to compare medical student performance and learning preference for physiology content. Methods: Using cross-over study design, the first year medical student TBL teams were divided into two groups. One group was administered iRATs and group readiness assurance tests (gRATs consisting of physiology questions during scheduled class time. The other group was administered the same iRAT questions at home, and did not complete a gRAT. To compare effectiveness of the two administration methods, both groups completed the same 12-question physiology assessment during dedicated class time. Four weeks later, the entire process was repeated, with each group administered the RAP using the opposite method. Results: The performance on the physiology assessment after at-home administration of the iRAT was equivalent to performance after traditional in-class administration of the RAP. In addition, a majority of students preferred the at-home method of administration and reported that the at-home method was more effective in helping them learn course content. Conclusion: The at-home administration of the iRAT proved effective. The at-home administration method is a promising alternative to conventional iRATs and gRATs with the goal of preserving valuable in-class time for TBL application exercises.

  10. A comparison of the effectiveness of the team-based learning readiness assessments completed at home to those completed in class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbrey, Jennifer M.; Grochowski, Colleen O’Connor; Cawley, Joseph; Engle, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The readiness assurance process (RAP) of team-based learning (TBL) is an important element that ensures that students come prepared to learn. However, the RAP can use a significant amount of class time which could otherwise be used for application exercises. The authors administered the TBL-associated RAP in class or individual readiness assurance tests (iRATs) at home to compare medical student performance and learning preference for physiology content. Methods: Using cross-over study design, the first year medical student TBL teams were divided into two groups. One group was administered iRATs and group readiness assurance tests (gRATs) consisting of physiology questions during scheduled class time. The other group was administered the same iRAT questions at home, and did not complete a gRAT. To compare effectiveness of the two administration methods, both groups completed the same 12-question physiology assessment during dedicated class time. Four weeks later, the entire process was repeated, with each group administered the RAP using the opposite method. Results: The performance on the physiology assessment after at-home administration of the iRAT was equivalent to performance after traditional in-class administration of the RAP. In addition, a majority of students preferred the at-home method of administration and reported that the at-home method was more effective in helping them learn course content. Conclusion: The at-home administration of the iRAT proved effective. The at-home administration method is a promising alternative to conventional iRATs and gRATs with the goal of preserving valuable in-class time for TBL application exercises. PMID:26101402

  11. Welfare inequality, regionalisation, and welfare policy : measurement and analysis for Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadrado, L.

    1999-01-01

    This study is focused on the changes in regional inequality in Spain over the last four decades, with emphasis on regional welfare. The two most important items of welfare in Spain are, health and education, and so these are the main focus of this study. Attention is paid to the levels and trends in

  12. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T;

    2013-01-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been...... studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality (R......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than...

  13. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.;

    2011-01-01

    All systems of scoring animal units (groups, farms, slaughter plants, etc.) according to the level of the animals’ welfare are based inevitably on normative decisions. Similarly, all methods of labelling, in terms of acceptability, are based on choices reflecting ethical values. The evaluative...... dimension of scoring and labelling does not mean that we should reject them, but it does mean that we need to make the normative and ethical background explicit. The Welfare Quality® scoring system is used as a case study in order to highlight the role of underlying value-based decisions. In this scoring...... level of welfare) were set, but the rules governing the assignment of an animal unit to a category take into account what had been observed on European farms. The scientists behind Welfare Quality® are keen to make the value-based choices underlying assessments of animal welfare transparent. This is...

  14. Standardized Welfare Terms for the Zebrafish Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Natasha A.; Blackledge, Samuel; Clark, Bradley; Keeble, Rosemary; Kovacs, Ceri; Murray, Katrina N.; Price, Michael; Thompson, Peter; Bussell, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Managing the welfare of laboratory animals is critical to animal health, vital in the understanding of phenotypes created by treatment or genetic alteration and ensures compliance of regulations. Part of an animal welfare assessment is the requirement to record observations, ensuring all those responsible for the animals are aware of their health status and can act accordingly. Although the use of zebrafish in research continues to increase, guidelines for conducting welfare assessments and the reporting of observations are considered unclear compared to mammalian species. To support the movement of zebrafish between facilities, significant improvement would be achieved through the use of standardized terms to ensure clarity and consistency between facilities. Improving the clarity of terminology around welfare not only addresses our ethical obligation but also supports the research goals and provides a searchable description of the phenotypes. A Collaboration between the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and Cambridge University (Department of Medicine-Laboratory of Molecular Biology) has led to the creation of the zebrafish welfare terms from which standardization of terminology can be achieved. PMID:27096380

  15. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  16. Cotton price change and welfare in Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anani Nourredine Mensah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the evaluation of net benefit ratios applied to survey data on households to appreciate the effects of international price of cotton on the welfare of producers in Togo. It needs first to trace the difference between international prices and those paid to domestic producers. Furthermore, given that households are producers of these goods, we use a revenue function that depends on the remuneration of labor, other earnings and profit that in turn depends on the price paid to producers and land ownership. For estimates, the effect of welfare, which is captured by the compensating variation, is the result of the share of the average cotton income in average total income multiplied by the change in the price of cotton. Our results with QUIBB 2006 and 2011 survey data reveal that the impact of a price change on the compensating variation gives a welfare change relatively higher for poor households. However, this effect remains low, considering whether a change in producer prices or in international price. A simulation of a potential effect of the change in the producer price of 50% of the differential of the two prices, and the positive impact on social welfare that results appears stronger. This positive change in welfare is reversely associated to the wealth of households.

  17. Social welfare expenditures, fiscal year 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnik, A M; Dales, S R

    1977-01-01

    In 1976, for the second fiscal year in a row, public expenditures for social welfare purposes expanded at an abnormally high rate. Even after adjusting the 16-percent increase in aggregate expenditures for price and population changes, the 8-percent real growth rate proves to be the highest since 1971. The $45 billion rise in social welfare expenditures to a total of $331 billion reflects the effects of both recession and inflation. Benefits for the needy and the unemployed continued to expand at the same time that higher prices triggered cost-of-living adjustments in cash benefit programs and helped swell the cost of furnishing other social welfare services. A further reflection of this growth is the rise in the proportion of the Nation's gross national product devoted to social welfare expenditures from 19.7 percent in 1975 to 20.6 percent in 1976. The latter proportion becomes 27.5 percent when private social welfare spending is included. PMID:403620

  18. Some aspects of chicken behavior and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world leader in broiler production and export. It achieved this position mainly to its excellent supply chain structure and climate, which favor poultry and grain production throughout its territory. Although Brazilian egg production is not as important as broiler production, this segment presents great potential of increasing its share in the global market. However, as elsewhere in the world, Brazilian poultry production faces the challenge to balance two elements within its supply chain: cruelty and productivity. The consumers of the European Union (EU are very concerned with animal welfare issues. In order to increase its share in the European market, and eventually in the world market, Brazilian poultry producers must understand the effects of production systems on poultry welfare, and try to develop systems that are suited for its climate and other production conditions. There is a consensus that the natural behaviors performed by poultry in intensive production systems allow better welfare. This objective of this review is to present scientific research studies that relate different behaviors to chicken welfare. Poultry behavior is a reflex of their welfare status at a particular moment, and it is related to internal (physiological and external (environmental factors. Several natural behaviors that favor welfare, as well as undesirable behaviors, may be stimulated by environmental enrichment. The correct interpretation of the behaviors expressed by poultry, including their frequency, duration, and sequence, may be used to estimate their welfare. Animal production is an import sector of Brazilian economy. It significantly contributes to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, in terms of products destined both to domestic consumption and exports. New technologies applied to products and management practices have been developed for field application, aiming at improving producers' productivity and profitability. In order to comply

  19. IV treatment at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 24 hours a day. If there is a problem with the IV, you can call your home health care agency for help. If the IV comes out of ... bleeding stops. Then call the home health care agency or the doctor right away.

  20. FOOD SAFETY AT HOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Griglio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumers nowadays play a critical role in the prevention of food poisoning. For this reason, the present research was planned to collect data on how aware about food safety consumers are. A questionnaire considering food labelling, hygiene, transport, storage, preparation and kitchen hygiene was designed and submitted to consumers (health district ASL TO5. After questionnaire analysis, a training course was prepared to address specific problems. Kitchens of consentient participants were visited and data on hygiene (check-lists, samples from equipment and fridge surfaces, and fridge temperatures were collected. Questionnaires showed a lack of knowledge on correct food storage, handling, and kitchen hygiene. Households visits showed fridge temperatures above 4°C, highly contaminated washing sponges, and the presence of Listeria spp. in a fridge of a high risk consumer. These results evidence the role of consumer training in reducing foodborne diseases incidence.

  1. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  2. Eldercare at Home: Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... naproxen are examples of medicines called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are also available without ... dealing with common caregiving problems. © 2016 Health in Aging. All rights reserved. Feedback • Site Map • Privacy Policy • ...

  3. Eldercare at Home: Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cold/flu/allergy tablets? Diuretics or water pills Anti-hypertensives (medications for blood pressure) Some medicines can ... dealing with common caregiving problems. © 2016 Health in Aging. All rights reserved. Feedback • Site Map • Privacy Policy • ...

  4. Environmental protection at home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primer for households clarifies in a popular scientific form, how environmental protection can be practised in the domestic family circle. It is pointed out to the fact in how for a first step to the reduction of water and energy consumption can be made through a critical self control. Important hinds are given for waste avoidance and waste reutilization. It can be achieved through information and deliberation that the environment conscious household keeps away from products and arises endangering the health and impacting the environment. (orig./BBR)

  5. Eldercare at Home: Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reaching the toilet easier. Encourage bladder training and Kegel exercises. Encourage changes in diet and fluid intake. ... drinking 2-3 hours before bedtime. Encourage doing Kegel or pelvic muscle exercises. These can be useful ...

  6. Using oxygen at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen - home use; COPD - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive airways disease - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive lung disease - home oxygen; Chronic bronchitis - home oxygen; Emphysema - home oxygen; Chronic respiratory ...

  7. Digital Living at Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille Viktoria Kathja; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2013-01-01

    Does living with digital technology inevitably lead to digital living? Users talking about a digital home control system, they have had in their homes for eight years, indicate that there is more to living with digital technology than a functional-operational grip on regulation. Our analysis of...... these user voices has directed us towards a ‘home-keeping’ design discourse, which opens new horizons for design of digital home control systems by allowing users to perform as self-determined controllers and groomers of their habitat. The paper concludes by outlining the implications of a ‘home...

  8. At Home in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s manned space station ambitions take shape with the launch of a prototype module CHINA’S first unmanned space module Tiangong-1,or Heavenly Palace-1,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China’s Gansu Province on September 29."The successful launch of the 8.5-ton prototype space laboratory has opened the gates for China’s deep space exploration program,"said Qi Faren,former chief designer of China’s Shenzhou space-

  9. Eldercare at Home: Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice, applesauce, mashed potatoes, dry toast, crackers, eggs, fish, poultry, cottage cheese, and yogurt. These foods are ... him or her what has been done to deal with the diarrhea. If diarrhea is not severe ...

  10. History Begins at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, George E.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that high school history can be more interesting and useful if students are taught to formulate, evaluate, and use historical statements on the basis of evidence available in primary sources. Outlines a curriculum based on this thesis. (AV)

  11. Cruelty begins at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parens, H

    1987-01-01

    The abuse of children is presumed by most mental health professionals to occur at the hands of parents who were themselves harshly traumatized by abuse or neglect. A 14-month-old child is presented who was well treated by his family and developed well until 6.5 months of age, after which, due to traumatization of his mother, the child became neglected and physically abused. In a therapeutic-observational environment, as the child recovered from his massive depression, much explosive destructive behavior not seen in him before was observed. From his past studies and those of other psychoanalysts, the author presents the collectively advanced hypothesis that excessive unpleasure mobilizes hostility in humans and suggests that this hypothesis may be fruitfully applied to explain why the abused become abusers. The hypothesis may also serve to guide the treatment of abused children so as to prevent their becoming tomorrow's abusers. Furthermore, the hypothesis suggests that strategies can be proposed toward preventing child abuse. PMID:3676889

  12. Using oxygen at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... home. They will restore power sooner to your house or neighborhood if the power goes out. Keep ... nervous than usual Your lips or fingernails are blue You feel drowsy or confused Your breathing is ...

  13. Managing migraines at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley’s Neurology in Clinical Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society. Neurology . 2012;78: ...

  14. Cruelty Begins at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parens, Henri

    1987-01-01

    A 14-month-old was well-treated by his family until 6.5 months old, when his young mother was traumatized, and the child became neglected and physically abused. Explosive destructive behavior not seen in him before was then observed, supporting the hypothesis that the abused become abusers due to excessive unpleasure, which mobilizes their…

  15. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations -- at least one on ...

  16. FOOD SAFETY AT HOME

    OpenAIRE

    Griglio, B; S. Lomonaco; Nucera, D; M.A. Grassi

    2011-01-01

    Consumers nowadays play a critical role in the prevention of food poisoning. For this reason, the present research was planned to collect data on how aware about food safety consumers are. A questionnaire considering food labelling, hygiene, transport, storage, preparation and kitchen hygiene was designed and submitted to consumers (health district ASL TO5). After questionnaire analysis, a training course was prepared to address specific problems. Kitchens of consentient participants were vis...

  17. Managing migraines at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Headache Society. Neurology . 2012;78( ...

  18. Eldercare at Home: Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feel angry because their lives have been turned upside down by taking on caregiving responsibilities. These feelings ... person you are caring for, are also under stress. People react in different ways to stressful events ...

  19. At Home with Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anita

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects the methodological challenges presented in the research process, where the principle of 'following the field’ means that the researcher must also follow students engaged in online activities in their own homes. The ethnographic studies are a part of a PhD project on...... “NETeducation,” a full-scale development project in nursing education (Lyngsø, 2014). With a focus on online professional education as the starting point, the process of research will follow the shifting learning process, through phases in the virtual classroom and in the students’ own homes. Research in online...

  20. Theories of the welfare state: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, I

    1978-01-01

    The article considers three major non-Marxist explanations of the modern welfare state: functionalist sociological theories, economic theories of government policy, and pluralist theories of democracy. Each is subjected to a critique and all are found wanting, in that none can satisfactorily explain the observable similarities and differences in state welfare intervention within advanced capitalist countries. Functionalist theories can explain the dominant trends at work within all countries, but not the immense diversity in state policies which still persists. Economic and pluralist theories can explain the diversity but not the determinant trends. This failing is related to the separation objective and subjective aspects in historical explanation: the first school objectifies history, the second subjectifies it. The article concludes by asserting, but not arguing, that a Marxist approach offers a more fruitful way of understanding the welfare state, insofar as it rejects this separation. PMID:631962

  1. Animal welfare: a social networks perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhappel, Tanja K; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-01-01

    Social network theory provides a useful tool to study complex social relationships in animals. The possibility to look beyond dyadic interactions by considering whole networks of social relationships allows researchers the opportunity to study social groups in more natural ways. As such, network-based analyses provide an informative way to investigate the factors influencing the social environment of group-living animals, and so has direct application to animal welfare. For example, animal groups in captivity are frequently disrupted by separations, reintroductions and/or mixing with unfamiliar individuals and this can lead to social stress and associated aggression. Social network analysis ofanimal groups can help identify the underlying causes of these socially-derived animal welfare concerns. In this review we discuss how this approach can be applied, and how it could be used to identify potential interventions and solutions in the area of animal welfare. PMID:27120815

  2. Welfare and the regulation of network sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the title subject concerns the development of a framework to assess the optimal regulation of network sectors from a welfare perspective. The assessment concerns the external organization of the network sector, the competition modality within the sector, ownership relations, additional regulations, and a method to regulate tariffs. The assessment framework can be used to realize an optimal combination of fore-mentioned aspects of the organization of the market. The framework is operationalized applying two instruments: indicators and a social cost-benefit analysis. The indicators provide insight into the impacts of the re-organization of a sector on welfare, while the cost-benefit analysis shows the actual effects. The set of indicators refers to causes of the effects on welfare

  3. Market Behavior in the Welfare State:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; christensen, bjarke

    2016-01-01

    The “consumerist citizen” is a type of citizen who develops his or her public and political commitments on the basis of market-like principles. For this citizen the important thing is the possibility to make individual choices in public contexts. In this article the implications of the consumerist...... consumerist citizen, and finally we suggest its implications for the welfare state. The dissemination of consumerist identity represents a serious change in the relationship between citizens and the welfare state. The rise of a public acting on the basis of market-logic is a serious change taking place in...... relation to citizenship. Regardless of whether this development is perceived as positive or negative, it will inevitably influence the ways in which the public sector is perceived. The rise of the consumerist citizen can be seen as a factor erosive of the basic solidary principles of the welfare state. If...

  4. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...... conclude that while trust facilitates welfare state policies that may reduce net inequality, this decrease in inequality does not increase trust....

  5. Active Social Policy meets Welfare Professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    -level bureaucrats’ (accountability)(Lipsky 1980, Friedson 2001). The gap between actual welfare practices and the policy intentions is often explained with reference to professional norms in general or with reference to information asymmetry between welfare professions (Roberts & Dietrich 1999). However, this paper...... client capacities and the doctor’s specialized focus on physical deviations. As such, the paper is an empirically informed contribution to understanding what happens when new forms of New Public Management meet front-line workers such as social workers and doctors who use both rules and professional...

  6. Welfare Commonsense, Poverty Porn and Doxosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Tracey Jensen

    2014-01-01

    This article critically examine how Benefits Street – and the broader genre of poverty porn television – functions to embed new forms of ‘commonsense’ about welfare and worklessness. It argues that such television content and commentary crowds out critical perspectives with what Pierre Bourdieu (1999) called ‘doxa', making the social world appear self-evident and requiring no interpretation, and creating new forms of neoliberal commonsense around welfare and social security. The art...

  7. Behavior analysis and farm animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, T. Mary; Temple, William; Poling, Alan

    1997-01-01

    This article demonstrates that there is a role for behavior-analytic techniques in the area of farm animal welfare and provides examples of the kinds of work that can be done. Behavior-analytic procedures, specifically those used in the study of psychophysics, preference, and demand, can provide answers to three questions people concerned with the welfare of farm animals are likely to ask: What can the animals detect? What do they like and dislike? What will they work to attain or preserve? S...

  8. [Sled dog racing and animal welfare aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schminke, A; Möbius, G

    1998-03-01

    Transport, housing and the dimensions of strain during training and race are important aspects of animal welfare. The race veterinarian has a great responsibility. He is responsible for the treatment of injured dogs and he has to give advice on all medical and animal welfare questions. The presence of the veterinarian during the entire race is very important. These veterinarians should have special knowledge of small animals and of sled dogs in particular. There should be health checks of sled dogs before and after racing similar to horse sport tournaments. PMID:9581387

  9. Local Governments Tax Autonomy, Lobbying, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Brusco; Luca Colombo; Umberto Galmarini

    2010-01-01

    What degree of tax autonomy should be granted to a regional government on a local tax base? Although the regional policy maker aims at maximizing social welfare, her tax policy may be distorted by the lobbying activity of local taxpayers. In this political environment we characterize the conditions under which social welfare can be increased by restricting the set of tax instruments available to the local policy maker, i.e. the degree of local tax autonomy. We show that full tax autonomy is l...

  10. Postcolonial perspectives on the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on law and regulations within loopholes of exception; that is, sovereign power in the dialectics between law and moral disorder in the realm of a liberal, democratic welfare state. The analysis is based on one year of ethnographic fieldwork in the largest suburban immigrant...... neighborhood in Denmark, Gellerupparken. The case focuses on the local implications of power that unfold in spatial and social political regulations on immigrant families. I argue that the Danish welfare state uses excessive power to “conquest” the moral order of marginal communities while enhancing and...

  11. Psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30 among older people living at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bjørg Dale, Ulrika Söderhamn, Olle SöderhamnCentre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, NorwayIntroduction: The incidence and prevalence of mental problems among older people are difficult to map because the causes are often complex and the symptoms manifest in a range of ways. Therefore, there is a need for robust and useful instruments for screening mental problems in this group. One instrument used in Norway and around the world is the 30-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30. Nevertheless, studies testing reliability and validity of the Norwegian version are scarce.Aim: The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties, by means of reliability and construct validity, of the Norwegian version of the GHQ-30 in a sample of older people living at home.Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. A postal questionnaire including background variables and a range of health related questions, including the GHQ-30, was mailed to 6033 older people (age 65 years or more who lived in their own homes in southern Norway. A final sample of 2106 persons (34.9% responded to and returned the questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically regarding reliability and construct validity of the GHQ-30.Results: The reliability of the instrument, reflecting its homogeneity, was shown in a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.93 and in significant item-to-total correlations. Construct validity was supported as the GHQ-30 demonstrated robustness in separating groups with known mental problems. Construct validity was also demonstrated in a logical four factor solution, which accounted for 50.0% of the variance in the study group. The factor structure supported previous testing studies of the instrument.Conclusion: The GHQ-30 showed satisfactory psychometric properties regarding reliability and construct validity in this study group, which may indicate that the

  12. El "peixet": La experiencia de parir en casa The "peixet": The experience of giving birth at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Rodríguez Feijóo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El relato biográfico que nos ocupa, se basa en la experiencia vivida por una pareja (Elia y Daniel que quería vivir el parto de su primera hija (Illary de la forma más natural posible, por eso decidieron que naciera en casa. Su acceso a instituciones o profesionales (matronas que los ayudaran a realizar su deseo, fue relativamente fácil, al vivir en una comunidad autónoma (Cataluña en la que la oferta con respecto al parto en casa es superior a otras comunidades, dentro de la escasez existente en tal ámbito. Tras informarse del proceso y de la oferta existente, se decidieron por una asociación especializada, de la que formaba parte la matrona que finalmente los atendió (se omiten nombres reales. El título dado a esta historia, el peixet (traducido al castellano significa el pececillo, se debe a ser este el apodo cariñoso dado por estos padres a su hija, al producirse el nacimiento en el agua. Su valoración final del parto es positiva, deseando repetirla, a pesar del coste económico y de la falta de apoyo y comprensión social.Interview that occupies to us, bases on experience lived by pair (Elia and Daniel who wanted to live the childbirth of their first daughter (Illary of the possible most natural form, for that reason decided that it was born at home. Their access to institutions or professionals (midwives who helped them to make their desire, it was relatively easy to live in an autonomous community (Cataluña in which the supply with respect to the childbirth at home is superior to other communities within the existing shortage in such scope. After inquiring into the process and the existing supply, they were decided by a specialized association, which was part or the midwife comprised that finally took care of them (real name are omitted. The title given to this history, peixet (translated the Castilian it means the small fish, is due to this being the affectionate nickname given by these parents to their daughter, when taking

  13. Transformation of theoretical-methodological approaches and methodical tools of the individual and territory welfare diagnostics. Part 1. From spreading to the alternative diagnostics approaches (background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Kuklin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an evolution of theoretical and methodological approaches to the welfare study. Existing theories of wellbeing are grouped according to accounted method of goods and resources distribution among society members. As a welfare future as a category we highlight objective (measured and subjective (estimated components. Based on the analysis of scientific literature we determine the ratio of individual and social welfare. The main differences between the categories of “ welfare” and “wealth” are given. The main difference consists in multidirectional changes of welfare and wealth for an increase (decrease in income of the individual (country. In this article we present an analysis of modern approaches to the definition of welfare: state, institutional and expendable approach. The welfare level estimation is complicated due to the need to consider the subjective component. The article provides an analysis of existing approaches to quantitative welfare evaluation ranging from the most common techniques (HDI, GDP to alternative techniques (Happy Planet Index.Methodological devices are structured by levels of welfare assessment objects (world, country, region, people. Based on the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of methods we can conclude that the most reliable method is a comprehensive approach, which includes economic, environmental, social, vital and infrastructure indicators. The author’s approach to the formation of a complex methodological tool for individual and territory welfare estimation is presented in this article.

  14. Investigational research on welfare equipment needs/seeds adaptation; Fukushi kiki needs seeds tekigo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    At the advent of the aging society, investigated are images of welfare equipment to be developed. In the range where the use of welfare equipment is to be studied, the following are included: self care, excretion, transfer, and support of work other than care, as assistance to daily life; exercise function, communication function, and environment arrangement, as assistance to social participation. Of the images of the welfare equipment classified by the overall evaluation, the following are cited as what supports daily life: a lift usable even in the existing houses, a bump remover by which bumps in the house are removed without making large repairs, a urine collector for females, a training device to prevent urinary incontinence, reduction in the bed-fast elderly, a device to prevent bedsore, a system for safely watching demented old people, a system in which clothes are automatically washed, dried, and hanged on a hanger, etc. What supports social participation are a system for sports experience by virtual reality, sound user interface, etc. For the aged to be healthy physically and mentally, it is essential to be taken good care of and create things to live for by participating the society. For this, it is necessary that the government establish the public policies and that a people be conscious of welfare. 9 figs., 33 tabs.

  15. Screening of selected indicators of dairy cattle welfare in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav Radeski; Aleksandar Janevski; Vlatko Ilieski

    2015-01-01

    The welfare state of cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia has never been assessed previously. The objective of this study was to perform screening analysis of dairy cows welfare and to test the practical implementation of the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia. In ten small scale and large scale tie stall farms 23 measures were recorded related to 9 welfare criteria of 4 welfare principles (WP) described in the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for da...

  16. Is attendant at delivery associated with the use of interventions to prevent postpartum hemorrhage at home births? The case of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Prata, Ndola; Bell, Suzanne; Holston, Martine; Quaiyum, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality in Bangladesh, the majority of which is due to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), blood loss of 500 mL or more. Many deaths due to PPH occur at home where approximately 77% of births take place. This paper aims to determine whether the attendant at home delivery (i.e. traditional birth attendant (TBA) trained on PPH interventions, TBA not trained on interventions, or lay attendant) is associated with the use of interventions to preven...

  17. Differential market entry determinants for for-profit and non-profit at-home care providers in large Japanese cities

    OpenAIRE

    Nakazawa, Katsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Japan’s long-term care insurance system requires that for-profit and non-profit at-home care service providers provide the same services at the same prices. Both types of providers compete on completely equal terms, though they may have different determinants of entry. This study considers market entry determinants for both for-profit and non-profit at-home long-term care providers in large Japanese cities. The estimation results show that potential for-profit entrants were sensitive to issue...

  18. Did the 2007 Welfare Reforms for Low Income Parents in Australia Increase Welfare Exits?

    OpenAIRE

    Fok, Yin King; Mcvicar, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of recent Australian welfare to work reforms for low income parents of school-aged children who had been in receipt of Parenting Payment for at least one year. Specifically, the reforms introduced a requirement to engage in at least 15 hours of work-related activity per week from the youngest child’s seventh birthday. We find large positive impacts on the hazard rates for exiting welfare and for switching between welfare payments. As a consequence, over the fir...

  19. Effects of a parent training program on the behavior of a boy with ADHD at home and at school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Kaymak Özmen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the best researched disorders in childhood and adolescents (Petermann & Hampel, 2009. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a parent training program in a seven year-old boy with ADHD by applying a single-case design. It was monitored, to what extent the child would be able to develop the favored target behavior within the context of home and school. Measurement of change was conducted by using rating scales with the boy’s mother and teacher. The results indicated that the training was obviously able to trigger a positive behavior change at home. Effects were still present after a four week follow-up period. The improvements were detectable in the school setting, as well, where they also stayed stable. This study is to be viewed as an indication that a parent training program can have significant implications on the problem behavior of children with ADHD in different areas of live.

  20. Patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease feel safe when treated at home: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ying

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design of new interventions to improve health care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD requires knowledge about what patients with an acute exacerbation experience as important and useful. The objective of the study was to explore patients’ experiences of an early discharge hospital at home (HaH treatment programme for exacerbations in COPD. Methods Six exacerbated COPD patients that were randomised to receiving HaH care and three patients randomised to receiving traditional hospital care were interviewed in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Four spouses were present during the respective patients’ interviews. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed by a four-step method for systematic text condensing. Results Despite limited assistance from the health care service, the patients and their spouses experienced the HaH treatment as safe. They expressed that information that was adapted to specific situations in their daily lives and given in a familiar environment had positive impact on their self-management of COPD. Conclusion The results contribute to increased knowledge and awareness about what the patients experienced as important aspects of a HaH treatment programme. How adapted input from health services can make patients with exacerbation of COPD feel safe and better able to manage their disease, is important knowledge for developing new and effective health services for patients with chronic disease.

  1. Robotic Services at Home: An Initialization System Based on Robots’ Information and User Preferences in Unknown Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Safwati Mohd Nor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One important issue in robotic services is the construction of the robotic system in the actual environment. In other words, robots must perform environment sensing or have information on real objects, such as location and 3D dimensions, in order to live together with humans. It is crucial to have a mechanism to create an actual robotic system (intelligent space such that there is no initialization framework for the objects in the environment, or we have to perform SLAM and object recognition as well as mapping to generate a useful environmental database. In intelligent space research, normally the objects are attached to various sensors in order to extract the necessary information. However, that approach will highly depend on sensor accuracy and the robotic system will be burdened if there are too many sensors in an environment. Therefore, in this paper we present a system in which a robot can obtain information about an object and even create the furniture layout map for an unknown environment. Our approach is intended to improve home-based robotic services by taking into account the user or individual preferences for the Intelligent Space (IS. With this information, we can create an informational map of the home-based environment for the realization of robot assistance of humans in their daily activities at home, especially for disabled people. The result shows the system design and development in our approach by using model-based system engineering.

  2. Substance Use, Mental Disorders and Physical Health of Caribbeans at-Home Compared to Those Residing in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krim K. Lacey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the health conditions of domestic Caribbeans with those living in the United States to explore how national context and migration experiences might influence substance use (i.e., alcohol or drug and other mental and physical health conditions. The study is based upon probability samples of non-institutionalized Caribbeans living in the United States (1621, Jamaica (1216 and Guyana (2068 18 years of age and over. Employing descriptive statistics and multivariate analytic procedures, the results revealed that substance use and other physical health conditions and major depressive disorder and mania vary by national context, with higher rates among Caribbeans living in the United States. Context and generation status influenced health outcomes. Among first generation black Caribbeans, residing in the United States for a longer length of time is linked to poorer health outcomes. There were different socio-demographic correlates of health among at-home and abroad Caribbeans. The results of this study support the need for additional research to explain how national context, migratory experiences and generation status contribute to understanding substance use and mental disorders and physical health outcomes among Caribbean first generation and descendants within the United States, compared to those remaining in the Caribbean region.

  3. Cluster Analysis of Polyphenols and Organic Acids in 11 Different Brand Cigarette Samples at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan MI; Bilong DAI; Yu QIN; Wenjun ZHANG; Zhen XIONG; Yanhong WANG; Ting ZHU

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the differences between local cigarette and foreign cigarette and supplied a base for improving the quality of cigarette. Different kinds of polyphenols and organic acids in 11 different brand cigarette samples at home and abroad were classified by the method of cluster analysis. The results indicated that the 11 samples could be classified into 2 class-es. Suyan, Furongwang, Chinese, Baisha, Dihao, Yunyan, Hongtashan belonged to type 1; foreign cigarettes that represented by Marboro, Blue pacific and Brazil cigarette belonged to type 2. The content of malic acid and citric acid in type 1 was higher than type 2, the content of malonic acid was higher in type 2, and there is no difference between the type 1 and type 2 about the content of polyphe-nols. In conclusion, the content of malic acid and citric in Chinese cigarettes was higher than foreign, but the content of malonic acid was lower than foreign. There is no difference between Chinese cigarettes and foreign cigarettes about the content of polyphenols.

  4. Coping strategies of relatives when an adult next-of-kin is recovering at home following critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ingrid; Fridlund, Bengt; Hildingh, Cathrine

    2004-10-01

    The trend within the Swedish healthcare system is to reduce the duration of hospital care. This means that a patient who is discharged to their home after critical illness is highly likely to be functionally impaired, and therefore, requires care-giving assistance from a family member. The aim of this study was to generate a theoretical model with regard to relatives' coping when faced with the situation of having an adult next-of-kin recovering at home after critical illness. The design incorporated grounded theory methodology. Four coping strategies exhibiting different characteristics were identified: volunteering, accepting, modulating and sacrificing. Factors determining the choice of coping strategy were the physical and psychological status of the relative, previous experience of ICU-care and the psychological status of the patient. The theoretical model described in this article can contribute to expanding healthcare professionals' understanding of the coping strategies of relatives during recovery, but also provide inspiration for social action to be taken. PMID:15450617

  5. Collaboration and involvement of persons with lived experience in planning Canada's At Home/Chez Soi project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Geoffrey; Macnaughton, Eric; Curwood, Susan Eckerle; Egalité, Nathalie; Voronka, Jijian; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Kirst, Maritt; Flowers, Linsay; Patterson, Michelle; Dudley, Michael; Piat, Myra; Goering, Paula

    2016-03-01

    Planning the implementation of evidence-based mental health services entails commitment to both rigour and community relevance, which entails navigating the challenges of collaboration between professionals and community members in a planning environment which is neither 'top-down' nor 'bottom-up'. This research focused on collaboration among different stakeholders (e.g. researchers, service-providers, persons with lived experience [PWLE]) at five project sites across Canada in the planning of At Home/Chez Soi, a Housing First initiative for homeless people with mental health problems. The research addressed the question of what strategies worked well or less well in achieving successful collaboration, given the opportunities and challenges within this complex 'hybrid' planning environment. Using qualitative methods, 131 local stakeholders participated in key informant or focus group interviews between October 2009 and February 2010. Site researchers identified themes in the data, using the constant comparative method. Strategies that enhanced collaboration included the development of a common vision, values and purpose around the Housing First approach, developing a sense of belonging and commitment among stakeholders, bridging strategies employed by Site Co-ordinators and multiple strategies to engage PWLE. At the same time, a tight timeline, initial tensions, questions and resistance regarding project and research parameters, and lack of experience in engaging PWLE challenged collaboration. In a hybrid planning environment, clear communication and specific strategies are required that flow from an understanding that the process is neither fully participatory nor expert-driven, but rather a hybrid of both. PMID:25689287

  6. Skill level, Cognitive Ability, Unemployment and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of that workers may not be ableto estimate their true costs of acquiring skills. Consequently, too fewworkers may acquire skills. This allows for the possibility that subsidizingeducation is welfare improving. Furthermore, if the presence of skill-biasedtechno...

  7. Assuring the welfare of food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Laura

    2013-12-14

    There is a plethora of schemes for assuring the welfare of food animals but, with each having different standards and with incomplete coverage of all livestock sectors, consumers are confused about what they all mean. A debate at this year's BVA Congress highlighted the problem, and considered how it might be addressed at a farm and consumer level. Laura Honey reports. PMID:24337085

  8. General versus program-specific welfare chauvinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2016-01-01

    similarity across programs. The Danish welfare chauvinist attitudes are in general fuelled by lack of shared identity with migrants and sociotropic concerns about the economic burden of migration. The article finds little evidence of narrow self-interest effects; with a notable exception of disability...

  9. Animal welfare: neuro-cognitive approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Morgante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people maintain a naive belief that non-human animals consciously experience pain and suffering in similar ways to humans. Others tend to assume a more sceptical or agnostic attitude. Drawing on recent advances in research on animal cognition and neuroscience, the science of animal welfare is now beginning to address these issues empirically. We describe recent advances that may contribute to the main questions of animal welfare, namely whether animals are conscious and how we can assess good and bad welfare in animals. Evidence from psychology is described which demonstrate that many complex actions in humans can be carried out quite unconsciously and that human patients with certain sorts of brain damage can behave and manipulate objects properly while at the same time o consciously denying experience of them. The relevance of these findings with respect to the issue of animal consciousness is discussed. Evidence from animal cognition is described concerning the possibility that animals monitor the state of their own memories, show episodic-like knowledge and exhibit self-medication. Evidence from neuroscience concerning brain lateralization in non-human animals and its relevance to animal welfare is described. It is argued that in animals raised for economic purposes (milk and meat production differences in cognitive abilities and brain lateralization can affect adaptive behavioural, physiological and immune responses to environmental stressors.

  10. Reciprocity, Materialism and Welfare: An Evolutionary Model

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We analyze preference evolution in a simple bargaining situation. Preferences for reciprocity, who sustain a conflict-free outcome, may be viable if players have enough information about the opponent's preferences. However, depending on the initial starting point preference evolution can in general both enhance and reduce welfare, relative to the situation where all players have materialistic perferences.

  11. Welfare of sea lions in travelling circuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.; Jong, de I.C.

    2014-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van de wetenschappelijke literatuur en opinies van deskundigen over het welzijn van zeeleeuwen in reizende circussen. Dit als basis voor beleidsontwikkeling.This report describes the scientific literature and expert views concerning the welfare of sea lions in travell

  12. Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated an

  13. Multiple-Father Families and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhouse, Eirik; Reilly, Siobhan

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, multipartnered fertility (MPF) has become commonplace. This study provides the first nationally representative measures of women's MPF, across multiple years, using the U.S. Census Bureau's Surveys of Income and Program Participation. Because welfare rules contain strong incentives for MPF, and because MPF is especially…

  14. European welfare regimes: Political orientations versus poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register, however, as significant when considering poverty rates after social spending. With respect to the first set of results, we advance two key explanations. First, we note a longer period of time is necessary in order to observe actual effects of political orientation on market generated poverty. Second, political parties with their respective programs do not register as influential enough to solve social problems related to income distribution when taken alone. Influences register as indirect and are expressed through changes in employment rates and social spending. The second set of results support the hypothesis that a selected political regime does indeed contribute to poverty reduction. In sum, political orientation and political regime does indeed affect poverty through welfare state institutions, as well as through labour market institutions.

  15. Health and Welfare IT Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a university design class focused on the design of systems intended to solve problems faced by health care professionals, patients and systems that support welfare or extended independence for older people. The students worked in groups for 10 weeks...

  16. Welfare state: Convergence: Downward versus upward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute, in the theoretical and empirical sense, to better understanding the challenges of the EU welfare regimes and how particular regimes react on them. Despite significant differences among the EU welfare regimes, it is real to expect that they will converge because of the common challenges confronting them. In this paper, using the model of sigma and beta convergence, we are trying to predict the possible direction of convergence in the sense that Europe will go toward to more or less generosity or in other words it will converge downward or upward. The downward convergence means the strengthen competition among existing welfare regimes, in order to maintain and/or attract capital, that could reduce the social spending generosity. On the other hand, the upward convergence above involves the strengthening of coordination among existing welfare regimes according to the values of solidarity and social justice, which characterise not only the most developed EU countries but also the supranational European social model. .

  17. Welfare Financing : Grant Allocation and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda; Allers, Maarten A.

    2014-01-01

    Welfare is often administered locally, but financed through grants from the central government. This raises the question how the central government can prevent local governments from spending more than necessary. We analyze block grants used in The Netherlands, which depend on exogenous spending nee

  18. Mental Health Practice Guidelines for Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The guidelines and supporting rationale presented in this paper were developed from the October 2007 "Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference" sponsored by Casey Family Programs, the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the REACH Institute (REsource for Advancing Children's Health). The purpose of the conference was to…

  19. Welfare Triangles and Economic Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the concepts of consumer's surplus and producer's surplus can be related to basic welfare economics. Provides illustrations of the ways in which these concepts can be applied in introductory economics courses. Examines the social cost of monopoly, the tax burden, free trade, tariffs, and the English Channel Tunnel. (KO)

  20. Income Risk, Income Mobility and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Tom; Krishna, Pravin; Maloney, William F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for the quantitative analysis of individual income dynamics, mobility and welfare. Individual income is assumed to follow a stochastic process with two (unobserved) components, component representing measurement error or transitory income shocks and an Autoregressive (AR(1)) component representing persistent changes in income. The analysis uses a tractable c...

  1. What Characterise the Nordic Welfare State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The main distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare states are presented. These include full employment, high degree of equality, a high level of taxes and public sector spending. The Nordic countries are compared to other European countries. The conclusion being that the Nordic Model is...

  2. Welfare monitroing system : assessment protocol for horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the protocol for horses in more detail. For the development of the protocol the Welfare Quality® framework was used. For each measure there is a description how to assess the measure including the method of classification.

  3. Adoption and Child Welfare Protection in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Rosset, Dominique-Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the French Child Protection system, which is managed by Child Welfare of the local authorities (Aide Sociale a l'Enfance) and by Judicial Juvenile Protection depending on the central government (Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse) Children's judges are involved in child protection. The majority of children in care live in…

  4. Work and Welfare: A Reevaluation of AFDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jan; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reviews policy development and research trends relating to work, welfare, and AFDC. Examines the persistence over time of the values of capitalism, liberalism, and positivism, which have resulted in the work ethic and influenced the AFDC. Outlines a research agenda to counter these influences. (Author/JAC)

  5. Global Perspectives on Child Welfare. Preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the effects of a global perspective on awareness of issues affecting child welfare worldwide, including warfare, land mines, AIDS, child labor, child sexual exploitation, and immigration. Considers programs and policies from other countries, including nongovernmental organizations, that can be replicated worldwide to better children's…

  6. Model to evaluate welfare in dairy cow farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Calamari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of herd welfare is a scientific discipline that is rapidly developing. The scientific community plays an important role in delivering appropriate, repeatable, valid and feasible models for this assessment. Unfortunately, there are different feelings regarding the welfare of animals and it is imperative for its assessment that certain agreement on the meaning of animal welfare is accepted. Then it is necessary to look at the goals of the models of welfare assessment because different goals require a different combination of welfare indicators. The different models for welfare assessment can be categorized broadly into research, legislative requirements, certification systems, and advisory/management tools. These models may have various goals: quantification of welfare, provision of welfare assurance or welfare management. However, it is widely accepted that welfare is best assessed with multiple different measures; therefore, a welfare assessment model for a livestock herd can include two types of measure: a description of the housing system and management (indirect indicators and data recording on how the animals react to the system (direct indicators. The first type provides information on risk factors for welfare problems. Direct measures on the animals provide information on their response to the environment and are more direct measures of welfare than their counterparts, but direct welfare indicators alone do not point out the causes of impaired welfare. Because welfare is a complex construct, different approaches for the aggregation of the different aspects of welfare have been proposed, although the aggregation in an overall welfare value is not sufficient. The thresholds between acceptable and unacceptable welfare levels have to be included in the model of welfare assessment but it seems useful to set certain minimum standards for each single welfare aspect. Afterward, judging the validity of a common welfare assessment

  7. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  8. Challenges of welfare-to-work programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Governmental expectations of placement outcomes were often high given the severity of work barriers that were present in disabled welfare recipients in the United States [11]. The purpose of this article is to identify challenges that were inherent in welfare-to-work programs and solutions to these challenges. Although rich with opportunity, welfare-to-work programs presented the challenge of employing large numbers of difficult-to-employ individuals before their public assistance benefits expired\\cite{5}. Many clients also had symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) secondary to childhood physical or sexual abuse (59%) or severe domestic violence (55%) [8]. Few funds were available for work training and education. Instead, the employment-first model was expected even though most consumers did not have a high school diploma, had not worked in years, and were fearful and resistant about returning to work [3]. Performance based payment systems presented a challenge because the program's future depended on the compliance of its consumers. There was an impetus for substance abusers to return to work even if they were still using drugs, which contradicted the teachings of many recovery models. This paper presents possible solutions to each of these problems and reports outcomes of one particular welfare-to-work program. By examining the challenges of welfare-to-work programs, by identifying solutions, and by realizing that these solutions are inherent in the basic principles of rehabilitation, this article provides therapists with tools and motivation to make unique contributions to this area of practice. PMID:21248419

  9. EU Country Rankings' Sensitivity to the Choice of Welfare Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar

    2015-01-01

    particularly volatile for countries in the middle of the ranking distribution, while countries with either high or low welfare generally have lower volatility. A multidimensional poverty index has the highest correlation with the latent welfare measure. It is concluded that the observed rankings do not tell a......Ranking of countries with respect to some welfare measure is highly popular and takes places with high frequency. Ranking of a country can change over time given the same welfare measure is applied. Rankings can also change depending on which welfare measure is applied in a given year. To what...... extent do we see ranking changes and which existing welfare measures best captures an unobserved, yet existing, notion of welfare in society? To investigate this we apply seven welfare indicators for fifteen EU countries covering the years from 2005 until 2011. The results indicate that rankings are...

  10. Broiler welfare index based on slaughter-house variables

    OpenAIRE

    Tuunainen, P.; Valaja, J.; Valkonen, E.; Hepola, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a welfare index which is suitable for Finnish broiler production. Animal welfare problems in broiler production are connected to fast growth and production environment.

  11. Citizen Participation in the Context of Rural Local Welfare Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kattilakoski, Mari; Rantamäki, Niina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we focus on citizen participation in the field of welfare services. More specifically, we concentrate on the role of citizens and civic organisations as part of the local welfare systems in Finnish rural areas.

  12. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment. PMID:27029609

  13. Study of the welfare cost of infl ation in China

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN Yanbin; Ma, Lili

    2007-01-01

    Inflation is always an important indicator to measure whether economy is stable and healthy. This paper provides a substantive survey of the research on the welfare cost of inflation, and uses the methods of consumer's surplus and neo-classical general equilibrium models respectively to estimate the welfare cost of inflation in China. The results show that high inflation will cause huge welfare cost in China, so keeping low inflation is beneficial to the entire economic welfare of China.

  14. Albanian consumer’s perception towards animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    KASTRIOT BELEGU; PЁLLUMB ZALLA; MAJLINDA BELEGU; DRITAN LAÇI; ENKELEDA OZUNI; EGON ANDONI

    2014-01-01

    This study is the result of subsequent of previous survey conducted by the author regarding animal welfare during transportation and destined for meat consumption or to be breed for milk. The strategy of European Union for Animal Protection and Welfare 2012-2015 focusing on animal’s breed for economic purposes aims to increase or guarantee animal welfare during breeding, transportation and to the butchery. Thus, its purpose is to guarantee the welfare of agricultural and domestic animals, who...

  15. The impact of management on dairy calf welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Ellingsen-Dalskau, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    No universal definition of animal welfare exists. However, an animal allowed expression of natural, innate behaviours, showing good biological functioning and having a positive affective state is generally viewed as having a high level of welfare. Animal welfare challenges exist across all countries and species. This thesis is focused on dairy calves and the impact that management has on their level of welfare. Organic production has several prerequisites which should allow for...

  16. Financing the Welfare State and the Politics of Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Morel, Nathalie; Palme, Joakim

    2012-01-01

    In an era of 'permanent austerity' (Pierson, 2001) and financial crisis, the issue of financing welfare state provision is topical. Moreover, the future of welfare state funding in countries with ageing populations is no doubt raising increasing interest in scholarly as well as policy circles. Yet the financing side of welfare provision has traditionally been given little attention and remains somewhat of a black box of the welfare state. The fact that some of the financing mechanisms have re...

  17. Enhancing collaboration in the UK animal welfare research community

    OpenAIRE

    Michael T Mendl; Bennett, Richard; Collins, Lisa; Anna C Davies; Flecknell, Paul; Green, Laura E; Hurst, Jane; Lawrence, Alistair; Statham, Poppy T E; Turnbull, James

    2016-01-01

    THE UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) has funded a new Animal Welfare Research Network (AWRN) to bring together animal welfare researchers, those working in related fields and other professionals with an interest in animal welfare, including representatives from industry, charities and government. The core aims of the AWRN are to foster enhanced collaboration within the UK animal welfare research community and other relevant disciplines to: facilitate mentoring...

  18. The East Asian welfare regime: reality or fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Kuypers

    2014-01-01

    Recently the debate on the existence of a homogeneous East Asian welfare regime gained prominence because the region is experiencing changes in the fundamentals of its welfare system. Although the majority of the literature builds upon the assumption that there is indeed a fourth welfare type in the region, few empirically investigate whether these countries could formally be regarded as actual ‘Confucian’, ‘productivist’ or ‘developmental’ welfare states. In a detailed, but yet encompassing,...

  19. A Multi-Criteria Decision Framework for Animal Welfare Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hellstrom, J.; Bicknell, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Policy decisions aimed at improving farm animal welfare involve balancing several competing objectives. Not only do such decisions involve tradeoffs between social, ethical, economic and welfare considerations, animal welfare itself is a multi-dimensional concept and some husbandry practices may satisfy some welfare needs but fail to satisfy others. Multi-criteria decision analysis is a decision theoretic tool that has been used to inform decision making in fields such as environmental policy...

  20. A new animal welfare concept based on allostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, S. Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2007-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasing issue of public concern and debate. As a result, many countries are reconsidering the way animal welfare is embedded in the legislation and rules for housing and care of animals. This requires general agreement of what animal welfare is. Unfortunately, the current science of animal welfare is less scientific than what has been claimed. In our view, it is overly guided by anthropocentric thinking about how animals ought to be handled and neglects the latest conc...

  1. CAN MOTHERS CARE FOR ACUTE DIARRHOEAL DISEASE OF THEIR UNDER FIVE CHILDREN EFFECTIVELY AT HOME? A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN SLUM COMMUNITY IN BANKURA

    OpenAIRE

    Eashin; Aniket; Rakesh,; Aditya Prasad; Subhra Samujjwal; Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in under - five children in developing world like India. WHO & Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness ( IMNCI) diarrheal management guidelines encourage mothers and caretakers to treat diarrhoea at home by giving ORS and oral rehydration therapy (ORT) to reduce the duration , severity , hospitalization , overa...

  2. Children's Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides at Home: A Review of Data Collected in Published Exposure Measurement Studies Conducted in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides are frequently used to control insects in residential and agriculture settings in the United States and worldwide. As a result, children can be potentially exposed to pyrethroid residues in food and at home. This review summarizes data reported in 15 publi...

  3. Alcohol-specific parenting and adolescents’ alcohol-related problems: The interacting role of alcohol availability at home and parental rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Mheen, H. van de; Vet, R.; Vermulst, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The first aim of this study was to gain more insight into the bi-directionality between alcohol-specific parental factors (i.e., parents' alcohol use, alcohol availability at home, parental rule setting, and frequency and quality of communication about alcohol) and adolescents' alcohol in

  4. Child, Caregiver, and Family Characteristics Associated with Emergency Department Use by Children Who Remain at Home after a Child Protective Services Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine emergency department (ED) use among children involved with child protective services (CPS) in the US but who remain at home, and to determine if ED use is related to child, caregiver and family characteristics as well as receipt of CPS services. Method: We analyzed data on 4,001 children in the National Survey of Child and…

  5. Home Away from Home: Acclimatization of Filipino Elderly from Being Home to a Sense of Being "at Home" in an Elderly Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Guevara, Katrina Illyana J.; Guiang, Frances Jane B.; Gutierez, Anton Lorenzo I.; Habaluyas, Alayne S.; Hizon, Marc Alison P.; Idanan, Shalaine G.

    2012-01-01

    This grounded study examined the process of acclimatization or the process of changing perspectives of a person so as to get used to or feel "at home" among a select group of Filipino elderly in a nursing care facility. As institutionalization of the elderly is not typical in the Philippine context, varied responses were analyzed to understand the…

  6. Effects of At-Home Reading Activities and Parental Involvement on Classroom Communication Arts Assessments: Focus on the High School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, George

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation was written collaboratively by Cynthia Warren, Linetta Carter, and George Edwards with the exception of chapter 4 which is the individual effort of the aforementioned researchers. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of at-home reading activities and parental involvement on classroom communication arts assessments…

  7. Asistencia ventilatoria no invasiva domiciliaria nocturna en Pediatría PEDIATRIC NOCTURNAL NONINVASIVE VENTILATION ASSISTANCE AT HOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISO PRADO A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La asistencia ventilatoria no invasiva domiciliaria nocturna (AVNIDN se indica en insuficiencia respiratoria crónica (IRC, síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño (SAOS y ocasionalmente por hipoventilación central y fibrosis quística. Se hace una revisión retrospectiva de 10 pacientes sometidos a esta técnica de soporte ventilatorio no invasivo durante un periodo de 6 años (1996-2002, describiendo las indicaciones, tipo de AVNIDN y el seguimiento. Sus edades fluctuaron entre 1 a 13 años; 6 mujeres y 4 hombres. Seis pacientes tenían enfermedad neuromuscular; 3 parálisis cerebral y uno Arnold Chiari tipo II. Nueve presentaban xifoescoliosis. Las indicaciones fueron: IRC estable 3 pacientes; posterior a IRC descompensada 1; luego de insuficiencia respiratoria aguda en enfermos neuromusculares sin diagnóstico claro de IRC, 2 pacientes. SAOS secundaria a faringomalacia en 3 y por hipoventilación central uno. Dos presentaban restricción pulmonar moderada a severa y presiones máximas de vía aérea subnormales. Seis pacientes recibieron CPAP y 4 Bipap. El tiempo de hospitalización previo al alta fue de 3 a 90 días y la duración promedio del seguimiento fue 2 años. Tres recibieron entrenamiento muscular respiratorio. No hubo mortalidad; un paciente fue traqueostomizado. Nueve mejoraron, 5 no tuvieron rehospitalizaciones y 4 las disminuyeron. Cinco pacientes asisten al colegio. Un paciente con miopatía congénita y artrodesis mejoró sus pruebas funcionales respiratorias y la distancia recorrida en 6 minutos. Dos usaron irregularmente la AVNIDN y dos suspendieron tratamiento luego de un año. En nuestra experiencia, la AVNID minimizó las hospitalizaciones y promovió la reinserción social y escolar. La modalidad Bipap fue útil en patologías restrictivas y el CPAP en obstrucción de vía aérea superior/SAOSThe nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NNIV at home is often used in chronic respiratory failure (CRF and obstructive sleep

  8. "Strength at Home" Intervention for Male Veterans Perpetrating Intimate Partner Aggression: Perceived Needs Survey of Therapists and Pilot Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Allison R; Morland, Leslie A; Menez, Ursula; Taft, Casey; MacDonald, Alexandra; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne

    2015-08-01

    Veteran and active duty populations evidence higher rates of intimate partner aggression (IPA) than comparable civilian groups, perhaps due in part to their unique service-related experiences. IPA offender treatment programs that take military background into consideration are not widely available, and it is unclear to what extent there is a perceived need for them among clinicians who serve service members and Veterans. Strength at Home (SAH) is a promising 12-session cognitive-behavioral group intervention designed to address IPA perpetration in military populations. While clinical support for SAH is emerging, the extent to which service members and Veterans find it appropriate and helpful is not yet known. Goals of the current study were threefold: (a) assess the perceived need for a military-specific IPA program among Veterans Administration and community domestic violence (DV) program providers; (b) conduct a pilot study to examine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of SAH in a sample drawn from a diverse, multicultural community; and (c) conduct focus groups to obtain participant feedback on the SAH protocol. Findings from the provider survey suggested a need for specialty programs to treat military personnel who perpetrate IPA of mildtomoderate severity. Results of the SAH pilot study (n = 6) indicated decreased psychological aggression and increased anger control from baseline to 6-month follow-up. Focus group feedback indicated participants found the program to be helpful and appropriate across a wide variety of ethno-cultural variables. As more service members and Veterans of the Iraq/Afghanistan war era reintegrate into our communities, it will become increasingly important for providers in both private and public sectors of care to understand the unique needs of this treatment population, and to have access to effective IPA treatment programs. PMID:25381270

  9. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How can they predict students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

    2012-09-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.

  10. Energy, Sustainability, Collaboration: Learning it, Teaching it, and Living it -- At Cal Poly, in Guatemala, and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Pete

    2012-11-01

    Three questions have become important to me: *``What is the future of our energy dilemma, and how can I participate toward a solution?'' Since 2007, I have been teaching ``Energy, Society, and the Environment'' at Cal Poly as well as developing and analyzing renewable energy technologies. In the process I have learned as much as my students. This interest was initially sparked by making ``sustainable'' changes to my home and lifestyle, and has since fueled constant domestic experimentation. *The above question extends to ``Environmental Justice'', which is essentially a question of ``who benefits and who suffers as a result of our societal choices?'' For the past three years, I've developed and directed a collaborative (Guatemalan/Cal Poly) appropriate technology field school. Students from both countries learn together during the two-month summer program in a small mountain village in Guatemala (www.guateca.com). *``What happens to learning efficacy when students become friends?'' For the past three years, I've been actively engaged with a group of Cal Poly instructors in a quest to create community in the learning environment (www.sustainslo.org). Additionally, I've begun to teach all my classes ``inside out'', consistent with the advice of Physics Nobel Prize Laureate Carl Weiman (Science, 13 May 2011, VOL 332 862 -- 864). Students learn the material at home by reading or watching videos available on the web. This opens up class time for guided discussion, experimentation, and calculations. The Guateca field school provides an extreme example of this principle, as all the students do become friends. with very interesting results.

  11. Predictors of dying at home for patients receiving nursing services in Japan: A retrospective study comparing cancer and non-cancer deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikegami Naoki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combined effects of the patient's and the family's preferences for death at home have in determining the actual site of death has not been fully investigated. We explored this issue on patients who had been receiving end-of-life care from Visiting Nurse Stations (VNS. In Japan, it has been the government's policy to promote end-of-life care at home by expanding the use of VNS services. Methods A retrospective national survey of a random sample of 2,000 out of the 5,224 VNS was made in January 2005. Questionnaires were mailed to VNS asking the respondents to fill in the questionnaire for each patient who had died either at home or at the hospital from July to December of 2004. Logistic regression analysis was respectively carried out to examine the factors related to dying at home for cancer and non-cancer patients. Results We obtained valid responses from 1,016 VNS (50.8%. The total number of patients who had died in the selected period was 4,175 (cancer: 1,664; non-cancer: 2,511. Compared to cancer patients, non-cancer patients were older and had more impairment in activities of daily living (ADL and cognitive performance, and a longer duration of care. The factor having the greatest impact for dying at home was that of both the patient and the family expressing such preferences [cancer: OR (95% CI = 57.00 (38.79-83.76; non-cancer: OR (95% CI = 12.33 (9.51-15.99]. The Odds ratio was greater compared with cases in which only the family had expressed such a preference and in which only the patient had expressed such a preference. ADL or cognitive impairment and the fact that their physician was based at a clinic, and not at a hospital, had modest effects on dying at home. Conclusions Dying at home was more likely when both the patient and the family had expressed such preferences, than when the patient alone or the family alone had done so, in both cancer and non-cancer patients. Health care professionals should try to

  12. Pupil Welfare in Finnish Schools -- Communal or Falling Apart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Teija; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    The need for pupil welfare has increased in schools as has the need to renew the traditional teacher's work. The purpose of this article is to find out how committed the teachers are to pupil welfare work and how the school organisation supports pupil welfare work structurally and practically. The original research was carried out in northern…

  13. A new animal welfare concept based on allostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S. Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2007-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasing issue of public concern and debate. As a result, many countries are reconsidering the way animal welfare is embedded in the legislation and rules for housing and care of animals. This requires general agreement of what animal welfare is. Unfortunately, the current sci

  14. The idea of animal welfare - developments and tensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on developments and tensions within the idea of animal welfare. There is divergence among those who believe in the idea of animal welfare. First, we discuss what it takes for farm animal welfare to be good enough. How far should society go beyond the starting point of the Bramb...

  15. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent’s personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes. PMID:26554361

  16. Impacts of toxic plants on the welfare of grazing livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in farm animal welfare has been increasing for several decades. Animal health is an integral part of animal welfare, but the concept of animal welfare has evolved from an emphasis on physical health, and coping ability to a greater sensitivity to and recognition of animals’ experiences of...

  17. Work, poverty and welfare reform: welfare-to-work programmes for lone parents in depressed local labour markets

    OpenAIRE

    Casebourne, Joanna Jane

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of welfare reform on the work and poverty of lone parents living on welfare in depressed local labour markets. It uses a comparative approach to compare supply-side welfare-to-work programmes in Sheffield, UK and Buffalo, USA, and draws on current debates in geography, the social sciences and feminist scholarship to examine the connections between work, poveliy and welfare. It is based on a detailed evaluation of the circumstances of sixty lone parents...

  18. Features of the development of a welfare system for visually disabled people in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    ophthalmology, formalizid welfare for blind and partially sighted people, laws and help towards welfare, obligations to visually disabled people......ophthalmology, formalizid welfare for blind and partially sighted people, laws and help towards welfare, obligations to visually disabled people...

  19. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  20. Labor, Welfare and Coping with the Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The aim of this paper is to raise a number of questions on the impacts and responses of the crisis in a comparative perspective with focus on the Nordic experience and ROK. It asks the following questions: Where have the Nordic approach versus the Korean models delivered strong results, and what...... the crisis on the economies, and discusses core examples of state intervention in the socio-economic sectors such as labor markets and social welfare in the Nordic as well as Korean contexts. The final section discusses some tentative conclusions about the resilience of the Nordic and ROK models and...... are the weaknesses? What are the human costs and collateral damage in the context of new types of regulation of labor markets and social welfare in the broadest sense and what are the differences and similarities between the models in general specifically with regard to crisis management? The approach...