WorldWideScience

Sample records for at grade intersections

  1. Traffic Feasibility Study for a Grade Separator at a Busy Intersection in Vellore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha Kumar, S.; Gulati, Himanshu; Arora, Shivam

    2017-11-01

    One of the byproduct of urbanization is traffic congestion and before suggesting any solutions to reduce congestion, understanding the present context becomes very important. Study of traffic volumes at busy intersections to find the percentage composition of different vehicle types, directional distribution and peak hour traffic volume is a first step towards understanding the present context of traffic. Hence in the present study, one of the busy intersections in Vellore, namely, Gandhi nagar intersection in Vellore-Katpadi road was selected and traffic flow data was collected using video surveys. It was found that at the selected intersection, the two wheelers and three wheelers alone share 80% of the total traffic when compared to other vehicle types. Nearly 700 trucks and multi axle trailers were observed to pass through the intersection during the analysis period of five hours. That is, on an average 2 trucks/multi axle trailers were passing through the intersection in each minute. As like in other major cities, entry of trucks and other heavy vehicles such as multi axle trailers into the city needs to be banned during peak hours for smooth flow of traffic within city limits. A highest hourly volume of 6939 PCU’s was observed between 4 and 5 pm at the selected intersection. By assuming a 10% uniform traffic growth every year, it was found that after about 4 years, i.e., in 2019, the traffic volume at the intersection may reach 10,000 PCU’s and may warrant for a grade separator or interchange at the intersection.

  2. Optimizing Performance of at-grade Intersection with Bus Rapid Transit Corridor and Heterogeneous Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has emerged as a preferred mode of public transport in various countries all over the world for its cost effectiveness in construction as well as in operation and maintenance. The rapid transit feature of BRT is seen as a solution to many traffic problems in these countries. However, in developing countries like India, the right -of-way for most of the roads is restricted and traffic is heterogeneous in nature. Provision of BRT in existing right -of-way reduces the capacity available for other motorized traffic. As the buses travel with a certain frequency on dedicated bus- ways, the dedicated corridor remains unused for most of the period when other traffic on motorized vehicle (MV lanes suffers from congestion. The problem gets severe at intersections. However, if buses are operated in mixed traffic it is no more rapid transit. Hence, a solution is required to address this problem and optimize the performance of traffic as a whole. This paper presents the effect if dedicated bus-ways end at a reasonable distance before the stop line at a busy signalized at-grade intersection, and bus lanes (beyond that are made available to all the motorized vehicular traffic (heterogeneous traffic at intersection. The performance evaluation is done in terms of average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle, vehicle throughput, average speed in network and emission of Carbon monoxide CO, mono-nitrogen oxides NOx and Volatile organic compounds (VOC. It is observed that availability of bus lanes to other motorized traffic for a reasonable distance before intersection considerably reduces the average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle and emission per vehicle, while there is an increase in vehicle throughput and average speed of all the vehicles in the network. Thus it results in reduction of congestion and performance enhancement of at-grade intersections and network. Results of

  3. Traffic Control Models Based on Cellular Automata for At-Grade Intersections in Autonomous Vehicle Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wu; Yang Liu; Yue Xu; Quanlun Wei; Yi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous vehicle is able to facilitate road safety and traffic efficiency and has become a promising trend of future development. With a focus on highways, existing literatures studied the feasibility of autonomous vehicle in continuous traffic flows and the controllability of cooperative driving. However, rare efforts have been made to investigate the traffic control strategies in autonomous vehicle environment on urban roads, especially in urban intersections. In autonomous vehicle enviro...

  4. Comparing the effects of infrastructure on bicycling injury at intersections and non-intersections using a case–crossover design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M Anne; Reynolds, Conor C O; Winters, Meghan; Cripton, Peter A; Shen, Hui; Chipman, Mary L; Cusimano, Michael D; Babul, Shelina; Brubacher, Jeffrey R; Friedman, Steven M; Hunte, Garth; Monro, Melody; Vernich, Lee; Teschke, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the impact of transportation infrastructure at intersection and non-intersection locations on bicycling injury risk. Methods In Vancouver and Toronto, we studied adult cyclists who were injured and treated at a hospital emergency department. A case–crossover design compared the infrastructure of injury and control sites within each injured bicyclist's route. Intersection injury sites (N=210) were compared to randomly selected intersection control sites (N=272). Non-intersection injury sites (N=478) were compared to randomly selected non-intersection control sites (N=801). Results At intersections, the types of routes meeting and the intersection design influenced safety. Intersections of two local streets (no demarcated traffic lanes) had approximately one-fifth the risk (adjusted OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.66) of intersections of two major streets (more than two traffic lanes). Motor vehicle speeds less than 30 km/h also reduced risk (adjusted OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.92). Traffic circles (small roundabouts) on local streets increased the risk of these otherwise safe intersections (adjusted OR 7.98, 95% CI 1.79 to 35.6). At non-intersection locations, very low risks were found for cycle tracks (bike lanes physically separated from motor vehicle traffic; adjusted OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.59) and local streets with diverters that reduce motor vehicle traffic (adjusted OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.003 to 0.60). Downhill grades increased risks at both intersections and non-intersections. Conclusions These results provide guidance for transportation planners and engineers: at local street intersections, traditional stops are safer than traffic circles, and at non-intersections, cycle tracks alongside major streets and traffic diversion from local streets are safer than no bicycle infrastructure. PMID:23411678

  5. Watching Electrons at Conical Intersections and Funnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, David M.; Smith, Eric R.; Peters, William K.; Kitney, Katherine A.

    2009-06-01

    The electronic motion at conical intersections and funnels is probed after polarized excitation of aligned electronic wavepackets. The pulses have bandwidth sufficient to observe vibrations mainly through their effect on the electrons. Vibrational symmetry can be identified by the polarization anisotropy of vibrational quantum beats. The polarized transients show signatures of electronic wavepacket motion (due to the energy gaps) and of electron transfer between orbitals (due to the couplings) driven by the conical intersection. For a conical intersection in a four-fold symmetric symmetry silicon naphthalocyanine molecule, electronic motions on a 100 fs timescale are driven by couplings of 1 meV. In the lower symmetry free-base naphthalocyanine, the conical intersection may be missed or missing (conical funnel), and the motions are nearly as rapid, but electronic equilibration is incomplete for red-edge excitation. These experiments probe non-adiabatic electronic dynamics with near-zero nuclear momentum - the electronic motions are determined by the principal slopes of the conical intersection and the width of the vibrational wavepacket.

  6. Emerging Players at the Intersection of Chondrocyte Loss of Maturational Arrest, Oxidative Stress, Senescence and Low-Grade Inflammation in Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Minguzzi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Osteoarthritis (OA is increasing because of the progressive aging and unhealthy lifestyle. These risk factors trigger OA by removing constraints that keep the tightly regulated low turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM of articular cartilage, the correct chondrocyte phenotype, and the functionality of major homeostatic mechanisms, such as mitophagy, that allows for the clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria, preventing increased production of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and senescence. After OA onset, the presence of ECM degradation products is perceived as a “danger” signal by the chondrocytes and the synovial macrophages that release alarmins with autocrine/paracrine effects on the same cells. Alarmins trigger innate immunity in the joint, with important systemic crosstalks that explain the beneficial effects of dietary interventions and improved lifestyle. Alarmins also boost low-grade inflammation: the release of inflammatory molecules and chemokines sustained by continuous triggering of NF-κB within an altered cellular setting that allows its higher transcriptional activity. Chemokines exert pleiotropic functions in OA, including the recruitment of inflammatory cells and the induction of ECM remodeling. Some chemokines have been successfully targeted to attenuate structural damage or pain in OA animal models. This represents a promising strategy for the future management of human OA.

  7. Emerging Players at the Intersection of Chondrocyte Loss of Maturational Arrest, Oxidative Stress, Senescence and Low-Grade Inflammation in Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, Manuela; Cetrullo, Silvia; D'Adamo, Stefania; Silvestri, Ylenia; Flamigni, Flavio; Borzì, Rosa Maria

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of Osteoarthritis (OA) is increasing because of the progressive aging and unhealthy lifestyle. These risk factors trigger OA by removing constraints that keep the tightly regulated low turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of articular cartilage, the correct chondrocyte phenotype, and the functionality of major homeostatic mechanisms, such as mitophagy, that allows for the clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria, preventing increased production of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and senescence. After OA onset, the presence of ECM degradation products is perceived as a "danger" signal by the chondrocytes and the synovial macrophages that release alarmins with autocrine/paracrine effects on the same cells. Alarmins trigger innate immunity in the joint, with important systemic crosstalks that explain the beneficial effects of dietary interventions and improved lifestyle. Alarmins also boost low-grade inflammation: the release of inflammatory molecules and chemokines sustained by continuous triggering of NF- κ B within an altered cellular setting that allows its higher transcriptional activity. Chemokines exert pleiotropic functions in OA, including the recruitment of inflammatory cells and the induction of ECM remodeling. Some chemokines have been successfully targeted to attenuate structural damage or pain in OA animal models. This represents a promising strategy for the future management of human OA.

  8. Statistical modeling of total crash frequency at highway intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash M. Roshandeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intersection-related crashes are associated with high proportion of accidents involving drivers, occupants, pedestrians, and cyclists. In general, the purpose of intersection safety analysis is to determine the impact of safety-related variables on pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles, so as to facilitate the design of effective and efficient countermeasure strategies to improve safety at intersections. This study investigates the effects of traffic, environmental, intersection geometric and pavement-related characteristics on total crash frequencies at intersections. A random-parameter Poisson model was used with crash data from 357 signalized intersections in Chicago from 2004 to 2010. The results indicate that out of the identified factors, evening peak period traffic volume, pavement condition, and unlighted intersections have the greatest effects on crash frequencies. Overall, the results seek to suggest that, in order to improve effective highway-related safety countermeasures at intersections, significant attention must be focused on ensuring that pavements are adequately maintained and intersections should be well lighted. It needs to be mentioned that, projects could be implemented at and around the study intersections during the study period (7 years, which could affect the crash frequency over the time. This is an important variable which could be a part of the future studies to investigate the impacts of safety-related works at intersections and their marginal effects on crash frequency at signalized intersections.

  9. Design Of Overhead Roadway At Road Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This project deals with the Design of overhead-roadway located at CHALLENGE junction which is a T-junction. Analysis of the existing conditions was carried out to proffers solution to the cause of the problems occurring due to the vehicle competing for space at this intersection. Before carrying out the analysis a traffic surveys at peak hours for morning 0730 to 0830 am and afternoon 0300 to 0400 pm were conducted using 15 minutes interval. From the analysis it was found out that the peak hour factor and flow rate was 0.88 and 1656pcphpl respectively corresponding to LOS E. This implies that the capacity of the existing road is no longer able to accommodate the traffic flow hence overhead roadway was introduced to improve the efficiency of the intersection. The overhead-roadway is of 140 m length with 7 spans 20 m per span. It consists of a deck slab longitudinal girders cross girders deck beam pier foundation and retailing wall. All structural parts for this Flyover were designed using Staad professional software package and Manual method.

  10. The trend of road traffic crashes at urban signalised intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana Nasarrudin, Nurul; Razelan, Intan Suhana Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Road traffic crash is one of the main contributing factors for deaths in the world. Intersection is listed as the second road type which road crashes occurred frequently. Hence, the traffic light was installed to minimise the road crashes at intersection. However, the crashes are still occurring and arising. The objective of this study was to exhibit the trend of road crashes at the signalised intersections. The data of road crashes for the past 6 years were analysed using descriptive analysis. The results showed that the road traffic crashes at three- and four-legged signalised intersection recorded the increasing trend. In conclusion, this finding shows that the road traffic crashes for these types of signalised intersection in Malaysia is rising. It is also one the contributors to the increasing number of crashes in Malaysia. This finding will encourage the local authority to conduct awareness programs on the safety at the signalised intersection.

  11. Research on traffic flow characteristics at signal intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jun-Wei; Yu, Sen-Bin; Qian, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Xu-Ting; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Based on the cautious driving behavior and the principle of the vehicles at left-side having priority to pass in the intersection, a two-dimensional cellular automata model for planar signalized intersection (NS-STCA) is established. The different turning vehicles are regarded as the research objects and the effect of the left-turn probability, signal cycle, vehicle flow density on traffic flow at the intersection is investigated.

  12. Self-Localization at Street Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Giovanni; Shen, Huiying; Coughlan, James M

    2014-05-01

    There is growing interest among smartphone users in the ability to determine their precise location in their environment for a variety of applications related to wayfinding, travel and shopping. While GPS provides valuable self-localization estimates, its accuracy is limited to approximately 10 meters in most urban locations. This paper focuses on the self-localization needs of blind or visually impaired travelers, who are faced with the challenge of negotiating street intersections. These travelers need more precise self-localization to help them align themselves properly to crosswalks, signal lights and other features such as walk light pushbuttons. We demonstrate a novel computer vision-based localization approach that is tailored to the street intersection domain. Unlike most work on computer vision-based localization techniques, which typically assume the presence of detailed, high-quality 3D models of urban environments, our technique harnesses the availability of simple, ubiquitous satellite imagery (e.g., Google Maps) to create simple maps of each intersection. Not only does this technique scale naturally to the great majority of street intersections in urban areas, but it has the added advantage of incorporating the specific metric information that blind or visually impaired travelers need, namely, the locations of intersection features such as crosswalks. Key to our approach is the integration of IMU (inertial measurement unit) information with geometric information obtained from image panorama stitchings. Finally, we evaluate the localization performance of our algorithm on a dataset of intersection panoramas, demonstrating the feasibility of our approach.

  13. Assessment at Al-Ameer signalized intersection in Samawa city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Hasan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate traffic performance of Al-Ameer signalized intersection in Samawa city, which fits with the prevailing conditions and geometric properties of the intersection. The technique of video recording has used for collection the traffic volume data for all approaches. These data are abstracted from video films. SYNCHRO 8 software was used to evaluate and analyze the intersection and choose the best suggestion. The evaluation process result showed that the intersection is operated with level of service (LOS F. By suggestion of several strategies which vary from signal optimization to geometric improvements. The best solution has been found by suggestion an overpass at the east-west direction, and the level of service has improved from (LOS F to (LOS C, this result is considered an acceptable and economical solution for the existing problems at intersection.

  14. Tracer Flux Balance at an Urban Canyon Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Robins, Alan G.

    2010-05-01

    Despite their importance for pollutant dispersion in urban areas, the special features of dispersion at street intersections are rarely taken into account by operational air quality models. Several previous studies have demonstrated the complex flow patterns that occur at street intersections, even with simple geometry. This study presents results from wind-tunnel experiments on a reduced scale model of a complex but realistic urban intersection, located in central London. Tracer concentration measurements were used to derive three-dimensional maps of the concentration field within the intersection. In combination with a previous study (Carpentieri et al., Boundary-Layer Meteorol 133:277-296, 2009) where the velocity field was measured in the same model, a methodology for the calculation of the mean tracer flux balance at the intersection was developed and applied. The calculation highlighted several limitations of current state-of-the-art canyon dispersion models, arising mainly from the complex geometry of the intersection. Despite its limitations, the proposed methodology could be further developed in order to derive, assess and implement street intersection dispersion models for complex urban areas.

  15. Disparities at the intersection of marginalized groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John W.; Williams, David R.; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2016-01-01

    Mental health disparities exist across several dimensions of social inequality, including race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and gender. Most investigations of health disparities focus on one dimension. Recent calls by researchers argue for studying persons who are marginalized in multiple ways, often from the perspective of intersectionality, a theoretical framework applied to qualitative studies in law, sociology, and psychology. Quantitative adaptations are emerging but there is little guidance as to what measures or methods are helpful. Here, we consider the concept of a joint disparity and its composition, show that this approach can illuminate how outcomes are patterned for social groups that are marginalized across multiple axes of social inequality, and compare the insights gained with that of other measures of additive interaction. We apply these methods to a cohort of males from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, examining disparities for black males with low early life SES vs. white males with high early life SES across several outcomes that predict mental health, including unemployment, wages, and incarceration. We report striking disparities in each outcome, but show that the contribution of race, SES, and their intersection varies. PMID:27531592

  16. Estimation of air quality improvement at road and street intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, P.G. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Traffic and Transport Planning

    1995-12-31

    There has always been a very great problem to quantify the detrimental exhaust air pollution related to the traffic flow, especially at road and street intersections. Until now model calculations have been developed mainly for the links between the intersections. In an attempt to remedy this situation the author has developed a method of estimating emissions on the micro level from motor vehicles at intersections as a help for infrastructural design related to improved environmental conditions. Very parsimonious knowledge exists regarding the deceleration and acceleration patterns at road- and street intersections. Not many surveys are done neither in Sweden nor within other countries. Evidently, the need for knowledge regarding deceleration and acceleration behaviour on the micro level has until now not been given priority. In traffic safety related research studies have been done describing the drivers` deceleration and acceleration behaviour and the vehicles` braking performance. Those results give deceleration data for extreme situations and are not useful for describing normal decelerations and accelerations at road- and street intersections. Environment related problems within the traffic flow analysis are now accentuating the need for the studying of special deceleration and acceleration behaviours in combination with an alternative design of the road and street infrastructure. There is a big difference in different vehicles` amount of emitted exhaust pollutions during the passing of intersections depending on the vehicles` speed levels related to their deceleration and acceleration levels. (author)

  17. Estimation of air quality improvement at road and street intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, P G [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Traffic and Transport Planning

    1996-12-31

    There has always been a very great problem to quantify the detrimental exhaust air pollution related to the traffic flow, especially at road and street intersections. Until now model calculations have been developed mainly for the links between the intersections. In an attempt to remedy this situation the author has developed a method of estimating emissions on the micro level from motor vehicles at intersections as a help for infrastructural design related to improved environmental conditions. Very parsimonious knowledge exists regarding the deceleration and acceleration patterns at road- and street intersections. Not many surveys are done neither in Sweden nor within other countries. Evidently, the need for knowledge regarding deceleration and acceleration behaviour on the micro level has until now not been given priority. In traffic safety related research studies have been done describing the drivers` deceleration and acceleration behaviour and the vehicles` braking performance. Those results give deceleration data for extreme situations and are not useful for describing normal decelerations and accelerations at road- and street intersections. Environment related problems within the traffic flow analysis are now accentuating the need for the studying of special deceleration and acceleration behaviours in combination with an alternative design of the road and street infrastructure. There is a big difference in different vehicles` amount of emitted exhaust pollutions during the passing of intersections depending on the vehicles` speed levels related to their deceleration and acceleration levels. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Red Light Camera Enforcement at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman AlJanahi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to find the effectiveness of adopting red light cameras in reducing red light violators. An experimental approach was adopted to investigate the use of red light cameras at signalized intersections in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The study locations were divided into three groups. The first group was related to the approaches monitored with red light cameras. The second group was related to approaches without red light cameras, but located within an intersection that had one of its approaches monitored with red light cameras. The third group was related to intersection approaches located at intersection without red light cameras (controlled sites. A methodology was developed for data collection. The data were then tested statistically by Z-test using proportion methods to compare the proportion of red light violations occurring at different sites. The study found that the proportion of red light violators at approaches monitored with red light cameras was significantly less than those at the controlled sites for most of the time. Approaches without red light cameras located within intersections having red light cameras showed, in general, fewer violations than controlled sites, but the results were not significant for all times of the day. The study reveals that red light cameras have a positive effect on reducing red light violations. However, these conclusions need further evaluations to justify their safe and economic use.

  19. Mitigating gas emissions at signalised intersections using wireless vehicle detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Kwasi Torkudzor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion on roads wastes travel times and increases fuel consumption as well as gas emissions which are dangerous to human health. This has led to growing concern about environmental protection and energy conservation and a number of studies to increase fuel economy and reduce gas emissions. To increase travel times so as to reduce fuel consumption and gas emissions, traffic signals at intersections must be well implemented. It is therefore necessary to employ the current technology of wireless sensor networks to enhance the optimisation of the signalised intersections so as to address such a concern. In this study, a vehicular traffic control model was developed to optimise a signalised intersection, using wireless vehicle detectors. Real-time traffic volume gathered were analysed to obtain the peak hour traffic volume causing congestion. The intersection was modelled and simulated in Synchro7 as an actuated signalised model using results from the analysed data. The model for morning peak and evening peak periods gave optimal cycle lengths which result in the reduction of gas emissions, fuel consumption and delay at the intersection.

  20. Research on Driver Behavior in Yellow Interval at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are often caught in dilemma zone when they approach signalized intersections in yellow interval. The existence of dilemma zone which is significantly influenced by driver behavior seriously affects the efficiency and safety of intersections. This paper proposes the driver behavior models in yellow interval by logistic regression and fuzzy decision tree modeling, respectively, based on camera image data. Vehicle’s speed and distance to stop line are considered in logistic regression model, which also brings in a dummy variable to describe installation of countdown timer display. Fuzzy decision tree model is generated by FID3 algorithm whose heuristic information is fuzzy information entropy based on membership functions. This paper concludes that fuzzy decision tree is more accurate to describe driver behavior at signalized intersection than logistic regression model.

  1. Traffic noise and vehicle movement at a controlled intersection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic noise at an intersection controlled by traffic lights shows noise level variations due to the alternating green and red lights for the different trafficstreams. Noise peaks caused by automobiles pulling up or passing by at highspeed may be quite annoying for people living near the

  2. Traffic noise monitoring at road intersections in urban settlement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic noise monitoring at road intersections in urban settlement: Case study of Ramat Park Benin City. ... bus drivers) were responsible for the noise emission while enforcement of traffic laws in the state and relocation of the motor park close to the square were recommended control measures for noise reduction.

  3. Exploring Driver Injury Severity at Intersection: An Ordered Probit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that intersections are the most hazardous locations; however, only little is known about driver injury severity in intersection crashes. Hence, the main goal of this study was to further examine the different factors contributing to driver injury severity involved in fatal crashes at intersections. Data used for the present analysis was from the US DOT-Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS crash database from the year 2011. An ordered probit model was employed to fit the fatal crash data and analyze the factors impacting each injury severity level. The analysis results displayed that driver injury severity is significantly affected by many factors. They include driver age and gender, driver ethnicity, vehicle type and age (years of use, crash type, driving drunk, speeding, violating stop sign, cognitively distracted driving, and seat belt usage. These findings from the current study are beneficial to form a solid basis for adopting corresponding measures to effectively drop injury severity suffering from intersection crash. More insights into the effects of risk factors on driver injury severity could be acquired using more advanced statistical models.

  4. At the cross-roads: an on-road examination of driving errors at intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristie L; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    A significant proportion of road trauma occurs at intersections. Understanding the nature of driving errors at intersections therefore has the potential to lead to significant injury reductions. To further understand how the complexity of modern intersections shapes behaviour of these errors are compared to errors made mid-block, and the role of wider systems failures in intersection error causation is investigated in an on-road study. Twenty-five participants drove a pre-determined urban route incorporating 25 intersections. Two in-vehicle observers recorded the errors made while a range of other data was collected, including driver verbal protocols, video, driver eye glance behaviour and vehicle data (e.g., speed, braking and lane position). Participants also completed a post-trial cognitive task analysis interview. Participants were found to make 39 specific error types, with speeding violations the most common. Participants made significantly more errors at intersections compared to mid-block, with misjudgement, action and perceptual/observation errors more commonly observed at intersections. Traffic signal configuration was found to play a key role in intersection error causation, with drivers making more errors at partially signalised compared to fully signalised intersections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved traffic control measures to prevent incorrect turns at highway-rail grade crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A number of injuries and fatal collisions have occurred at certain highway-rail grade crossings that are located immediately adjacent to highway intersections, driveways or interstate ramps. Some guide signage, pavement markings, and other traffic co...

  6. Modeling traffic accidents at signalized intersections in the city of Norfolk, VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-31

    This study was an attempt to apply a proactive approach using traffic pattern and signalized intersection characteristics to predict accident rates at signalized intersections in a citys arterial network. An earlier analysis of accident data at se...

  7. The Research of Vehicle Acceleration at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuk Bogdanović

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle acceleration is an important parameter used in planning various road elements, traffic signalization, geometric elements of an intersection, signal plans of traffic lights, etc. The knowledge of vehicle acceleration values is also necessary in using simulation softwares for more accurate analysis of the total situation at an intersection, on a road section or in a traffic network. In a lot of earlier studies, acceleration values were analysed and defined, mostly in optimal conditions for traffic functioning. However, values of almost all traffic flow parameters have been changed over time, due to changes in driving-dynamic vehicle characteristics, pneumatic tyres, material used for building road surface, etc. Besides, local environment influence and changes in drivers’ behaviour also significantly affect values of this parameter. According to HCM, it is advisable to perform local research for all values of the parameters recommended within the framework of this handbook, and to adapt their values to local conditions as well. The results of measuring the values of vehicles acceleration at signalized intersections in Novi Sad, Serbia, have been shown in this paper, using the procedure based on video recording processing.

  8. Failure at Frame-Stringer Intersections in PRSEUS Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2012-01-01

    NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and The Boeing Company have worked to develop new low-cost, light-weight composite structures for aircraft. A Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept has been developed which offers advantages over traditional metallic structures. In this concept a stitched carbon-epoxy material system has been developed with the potential for reducing the weight and cost of transport aircraft structure by eliminating fasteners, thereby reducing part count and labor. By adding unidirectional carbon rods to the top of stiffeners, the panel becomes more structurally efficient. This combination produces a more damage tolerant design. This study focuses on the intersection between the rod-stiffener and the foam-filled frame in a PRSEUS specimen. Compression loading is considered, which induces stress concentrations at the intersection point that can lead to failures. An experiment with accompanying analysis for a single-frame specimen is described, followed by a parametric study of simple reinforcements to reduce strains in the intersection region.

  9. Stresses at the intersection of two cylindrical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, M.D.; Chen, W.; Hwang, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    The stress analysis based on the theory of a thin shell is carried out for two normally intersecting cylindrical shells with a large diameter ratio. Instead of the Donnell shallow shell equation, the modified Morley equation, which is applicable to ρ 0 (R/T) 1/2 XXXX1, is used for the analysis of the shell with cut-out. The solution in terms of displacement function for the nozzle with a non-planar end is based on the Love equation. The boundary forces and displacements at the intersection are all transformed from Gaussian coordinates (α,β) on the shell, or Gaussian coordinates (ζ,θ) on the nozzle into three-dimensional cylindrical coordinates (ρ,θ,z). Their expressions on the intersecting curve are periodic functions of θ and expanded in Fourier series. Every harmonics of Fourier coefficients of boundary forces and displacements are obtained by numerical quadrature.The results obtained are in agreement with those from the finite element method and experiments for d/D≤0.8. ((orig.))

  10. Safety Impacts of the Actuated Signal Control at Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyuk Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To reduce travel time, the actuated signal controls have been implemented at urban intersections. However, the safety impacts of actuated signal controls thus far have rarely been examined. In this assessment of the safety impact of urban intersections with semi-actuated signal controls, the safety performance functions and EB approaches were applied. The semi-actuated signal controls have increased injuries and total crashes in all crash types by around 5.9% and 3.8%, respectively. Regarding the most common crash types, such as angle, sideswipe & rear-end, and head-on crashes, semi-actuated signal controls have been seen to decrease injuries by 7.7%. Total crashes have been reduced by over 9.2% through the use of semi-actuated signal controls. This may be result of optimal signal timings considering traffic conditions during peak time periods. In conclusion, safety impact factors which have been established in this study can be used to improve safety and minimize travel times using semi-actuated signal controls.

  11. Turning movements, vehicle offsets and ageing drivers driving behaviour at channelized and unchannelized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaisung; Tay, Richard; Kim, Sangyoup; Jeong, Seungwon

    2017-11-01

    Ageing drivers experience a higher risk of intersection crashes because of their decrease in driving efficiency, including the decline in cognitive ability, head and neck flexibility, and visual acuity. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with ageing driver crashes at intersections, little research has been conducted to examine the differences in the factors related to ageing drivers' turning paths and intersection geometric features. This study aims to improve the safety of ageing drivers at intersections by identifying the maneuvers that are risky for them and tracking their turning movements at selected intersections. We find that ageing drivers experience more crashes at intersections than younger drivers, especially crashes involving turning movements. Furthermore, ageing drivers experience more crashes at unchannelized intersections compared to channelized intersections. In addition, this study finds that ageing drivers exhibit greater and more inconsistent offsets during turning movements compared to those of younger drivers at both channelized and unchannelized intersections. Ageing drivers also tend to make relatively sharper or tighter turns than younger drivers. Hence, transportation engineers and road safety professionals should consider appropriate countermeasures to reduce the risks of crashes involving ageing drivers at intersections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender inequalities at the intersection of discriminatory mecha-nisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Hurubean

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to present less visible facet of discrimination by identifying social and cultural mechanisms that generate and maintain multiple forms of discrimination, the intersection of which gender has a central position, because he combine with all other criteria of discrimination (race, ethnicity, nationality, religion, social class, age, disability, multiplying the effect of discriminatory behavior. This paper highlights the gender inequalities, the disparities between women and men, boys and girls who are socially constructed which are produced in the process of education and differential gender socialization, asymmetric and hierarchical, correlated with educational and professional orientation and also with labor market access and situation. The fact that gender inequalities exist at a structural level and they are deeply rooted in social practices and collective mental lead to situations where discriminatory behavior manifested without being noticed and as less as sanctioned.

  13. Predicting crash-relevant violations at stop sign-controlled intersections for the development of an intersection driver assistance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, John M; Sherony, Rini; Gabler, Hampton C

    2016-09-01

    Intersection crashes resulted in over 5,000 fatalities in the United States in 2014. Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) are active safety systems that seek to help drivers safely traverse intersections. I-ADAS uses onboard sensors to detect oncoming vehicles and, in the event of an imminent crash, can either alert the driver or take autonomous evasive action. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a predictive model for detecting whether a stop sign violation was imminent. Passenger vehicle intersection approaches were extracted from a data set of typical driver behavior (100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study) and violations (event data recorders downloaded from real-world crashes) and were assigned weighting factors based on real-world frequency. A k-fold cross-validation procedure was then used to develop and evaluate 3 hypothetical stop sign warning algorithms (i.e., early, intermediate, and delayed) for detecting an impending violation during the intersection approach. Violation detection models were developed using logistic regression models that evaluate likelihood of a violation at various locations along the intersection approach. Two potential indicators of driver intent to stop-that is, required deceleration parameter (RDP) and brake application-were used to develop the predictive models. The earliest violation detection opportunity was then evaluated for each detection algorithm in order to (1) evaluate the violation detection accuracy and (2) compare braking demand versus maximum braking capabilities. A total of 38 violating and 658 nonviolating approaches were used in the analysis. All 3 algorithms were able to detect a violation at some point during the intersection approach. The early detection algorithm, as designed, was able to detect violations earlier than all other algorithms during the intersection approach but gave false alarms for 22.3% of approaches. In contrast, the delayed detection algorithm sacrificed

  14. Evolving Norms at the Intersection of Health and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, Jeffrey; Lencucha, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing tension at the intersection of health and economic policymaking as global governance has increased across sectors. This tension has been particularly evident between tobacco control and trade policy, as the international norms that frame them – particularly the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the World Trade Organization (WTO) – have continued to institutionalize. Using five case studies of major tobacco-related trade disputes from the principal multilateral system of trade governance – the WTO/General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade – we trace the evolution of these interacting norms over nearly 25 years. Our analytic framework particularly focuses on the actors that advance, defend and challenge these norms. We find that an increasingly broad network, which includes governments, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations and members of the epistemic community, is playing a more active role in seeking to resolve these tensions. Moreover, key economic actors are beginning to incorporate health more actively in their messaging and activities. We also demonstrate that the most recent resonant messages reflect a more nuanced integration of the two norms. The tobacco control example has direct relevance to related policy areas, including environment, safety, access to medicines, diet, and alcohol. PMID:24603086

  15. Molecular players at the intersection of obesity and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Granados, Nuria; Palou, Andreu

    2011-12-01

    Obesity and degenerative joint disease (osteoarthritis, OA) are two multifactorial pathologies that are becoming major medical issues with the aging of the world population. The relationship of OA with obesity is complex, involving both biomechanical and metabolic links. Dysregulated production of adipose tissue-derived inflammatory mediators, hyperlipidemia, and increased systemic oxidative stress are conditions frequently associated with obesity that may favor joint degeneration. In addition, it is remarkable that many regulatory factors have been implicated in the development, maintenance and function of both adipose tissues and cartilage and other articular joint tissues. Disturbances in these factors may underlie additional links between obesity and OA. In this review, molecular players at the intersection of adipose tissue and joint cell biology - including differentiation signals and transcription factors, extracellular matrix components and remodelers, joint cell- and adipose tissue cell-derived mediators (cytokines, adipokines), hypoxia inducible transcription factors, lipids, advanced glycation end products and miRNAs - are reviewed, with emphasis on their dysregulation in obesity and OA. Knowledge of these factors may illuminate a novel, adipocentric avenue for the pathogenesis and therapy of OA and other joint diseases.

  16. Mixed Vehicle Flow At Signalized Intersection: Markov Chain Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertsbakh Ilya B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We assume that a Poisson flow of vehicles arrives at isolated signalized intersection, and each vehicle, independently of others, represents a random number X of passenger car units (PCU’s. We analyze numerically the stationary distribution of the queue process {Zn}, where Zn is the number of PCU’s in a queue at the beginning of the n-th red phase, n → ∞. We approximate the number Yn of PCU’s arriving during one red-green cycle by a two-parameter Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD. The well-known fact is that {Zn} follow an infinite-state Markov chain. We approximate its stationary distribution using a finite-state Markov chain. We show numerically that there is a strong dependence of the mean queue length E[Zn] in equilibrium on the input distribution of Yn and, in particular, on the ”over dispersion” parameter γ= Var[Yn]/E[Yn]. For Poisson input, γ = 1. γ > 1 indicates presence of heavy-tailed input. In reality it means that a relatively large ”portion” of PCU’s, considerably exceeding the average, may arrive with high probability during one red-green cycle. Empirical formulas are presented for an accurate estimation of mean queue length as a function of load and g of the input flow. Using the Markov chain technique, we analyze the mean ”virtual” delay time for a car which always arrives at the beginning of the red phase.

  17. Delays at signalised intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under Heavy Traffic (HT) conditions,

  18. Delays at signalized intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under heavy traffic (HT) conditions.

  19. Delays at signalised intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under heavy traffic (HT) conditions.

  20. A novel approach to modeling and predicting crash frequency at rural intersections by crash type and injury severity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Safety at intersections is of significant interest to transportation professionals due to the large number of : possible conflicts that occur at those locations. In particular, rural intersections have been recognized as : one of the most hazardous l...

  1. Agent-based game theory modeling for driverless vehicles at intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This report presents three research efforts that were published in various journals. The first research effort presents a reactive-driving agent based algorithm for modeling driver left turn gap acceptance behavior at signalized intersections. This m...

  2. Using Cellular Automata to Investigate Pedestrian Conflicts with Vehicles in Crosswalk at Signalized Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The operational efficiency and safety of pedestrian flows at intersections is an important aspect of urban traffic. Particularly, conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles in crosswalk are one of the most influential factors for intersection safety. This paper presents a cellular automata model that simulates pedestrian and vehicle crossing behaviors at signalized intersections. Through the simulation, we investigate the effects of different pedestrian signal timing and crosswalk widths on the crosswalk capacity, the number of traffic conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles, and pedestrian delay due to the conflicts. The simulation results indicate that the cellular automata is an effective simulation platform for investigating complex pedestrian-related traffic phenomenon at signalized intersections.

  3. Empirical Analysis and Modeling of Stop-Line Crossing Time and Speed at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshuang Tang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In China, a flashing green (FG indication of 3 s followed by a yellow (Y indication of 3 s is commonly applied to end the green phase at signalized intersections. Stop-line crossing behavior of drivers during such a phase transition period significantly influences safety performance of signalized intersections. The objective of this study is thus to empirically analyze and model drivers’ stop-line crossing time and speed in response to the specific phase transition period of FG and Y. High-resolution trajectories for 1465 vehicles were collected at three rural high-speed intersections with a speed limit of 80 km/h and two urban intersections with a speed limit of 50 km/h in Shanghai. With the vehicle trajectory data, statistical analyses were performed to look into the general characteristics of stop-line crossing time and speed at the two types of intersections. A multinomial logit model and a multiple linear regression model were then developed to predict the stop-line crossing patterns and speeds respectively. It was found that the percentage of stop-line crossings during the Y interval is remarkably higher and the stop-line crossing time is approximately 0.7 s longer at the urban intersections, as compared with the rural intersections. In addition, approaching speed and distance to the stop-line at the onset of FG as well as area type significantly affect the percentages of stop-line crossings during the FG and Y intervals. Vehicle type and stop-line crossing pattern were found to significantly influence the stop-line crossing speed, in addition to the above factors. The red-light-running seems to occur more frequently at the large intersections with a long cycle length.

  4. Intersectionality at Work: Determinants of Labor Supply among Immigrant Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2014-06-01

    This article borrows from the intersectionality literature to investigate how legal status, labor market position, and family characteristics structure the labor supply of immigrant Latinas in Durham, NC, a new immigrant destination. The analysis takes a broad view of labor force participation, analyzing the predictors of whether or not women work; whether and how the barriers to work vary across occupations; and variation in hours and weeks worked among the employed. I also explicitly investigate the extent to which family constraints interact with other social characteristics, especially legal status, in shaping women's labor market position. Results highlight that immigrant Latinas experience multiple, interrelated constraints on employment owing to their position as low-skill workers in a labor market highly segregated by gender and nativity, to their status as members of a largely undocumented population, and as wives and mothers in an environment characterized by significant work-family conflict.

  5. The Contribution to the Procedure of Capacity Determination at Unsignalized Priority-controlled Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Tolazzi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of minor vehicles crossing or merging into themajor stream at unsignalized priority-controlled intersections iswell-known. Numerous solutions involve various assumptionsconcerning the major headway distributions, number of majorlanes, critical gap distributions, etc. Such cases can be dividedinto two main groups: intersections with two streams (one majorand one minor stream and intersections with more thantwo streams (more than one major stream and one minorstream. At roundabouts, also at single-lane roundabouts,there are similar problems like the ones at other unsignalizedpriority-controlled intersections. A vehicle at the roundaboutapproach can only cross the pedestrian crossing when a sufficienttime-gap between two pedestrians (or cyclists is provided.A vehicle at the roundabout entries can only merge into the majorstream when a sufficient gap between the two vehicles in themajor stream is provided. Because of that, single-lane roundaboutscan also be treated as unsignalized intersections withtwo major lanes: the first one in its circulatory roadway and thesecond one on the pedestrian crossing.

  6. Effects of countdown timers on driver behavior after the yellow onset at Chinese intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kejun; Han, Lee D; Yang, Qiang

    2011-10-01

    Few studies have focused on the effect of countdown timers at signalized intersections in China, where such timers are widely deployed for their perceived benefits of increased safety and capacity. This study examines the effect of countdown timers on driver behavior during the yellow interval. Signal phasing and traffic operations were videotaped at 4 comparable signalized intersections under normal conditions. Microscopic details were extracted manually at 25 Hz to yield 24 h of data on onset time of the yellow, onset time of the red, driver location and actions after the onset of the yellow, red light-running violations, etc. For comparable intersections with and without countdown timers, driver behavior measured by driver decision (stop or go) and vehicle entry time (when the vehicle crosses the stop line) were analyzed using binary logistical regression (BLR) and a nonparametric test, respectively. The results suggest that countdown timers can indeed influence driver behaviors, in terms of decisions to stop or cross the intersection as well as the distribution of vehicle entry times. There was a strong correlation between the presence of countdown timers and an increase in red light violations. Countdown timers may lead to increased entrance into the intersection during the later portions of the yellow and even the red. This alarming finding calls for further research as well as for serious consideration before the field deployment of countdown timers.

  7. Estimation of fuel loss due to idling of vehicles at a signalized intersection in Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha Kumar, S.; Gulati, Himanshu; Arora, Shivam

    2017-11-01

    The vehicles while waiting at signalized intersections are generally found to be in idling condition, i.e., not switching off their vehicles during red times. This phenomenon of idling of vehicles during red times at signalized intersections may lead to huge economic loss as lot of fuel is consumed by vehicles when they are in idling condition. The situation may even be worse in countries like India as different vehicle types consume varying amount of fuel. Only limited studies have been reported on estimation of fuel loss due to idling of vehicles in India. In the present study, one of the busy intersections in Chennai, namely, Tidel Park Junction in Rajiv Gandhi salai was considered. Data collection was carried out in one approach road of the intersection during morning and evening peak hours on a typical working day by manually noting down the red timings of each cycle and the corresponding number of two-wheelers, three-wheelers, passenger cars, light commercial vehicles (LCV) and heavy motorized vehicles (HMV) that were in idling mode. Using the fuel consumption values of various vehicles types suggested by Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), the total fuel loss during the study period was found to be Rs. 4,93,849/-. The installation of red timers, synchronization of signals, use of non-motorized transport for short trips and public awareness are some of the measures which government need to focus to save the fuel wasted at signalized intersections in major cities of India.

  8. Study on Determination of Preceding Vehicle Motion State at the Traffic Lights Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailin Wu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the security of automotive safety systems and reduce traffic accidents in traffic lights intersection, In view of this, it is proposed to apply the distance measurement technology of binocular vision ranging in determination of preceding vehicle motion state at the traffic lights intersection, We study the determination of preceding vehicle motion state at the traffic lights intersection based on binocular vision. The system, which is divided into four steps, adopts the theory combining the binocular stereo vision principle and the triangulation principle. First of all, from different angles, image information with preceding vehicles and traffic lights, collected by two CCD cameras, is processed and positioned. Next, two pairs of corresponding feature matching points is obtained by using the stereo matching method. Furthermore, the distance between the cameras and the preceding vehicle, and the distance between the cameras and the traffic lights are determined, according to the camera calibration technique, the parallax disparity principle and the triangulation principle. Finally, the determination about the motion state of traffic lights intersection is determined according to the distance difference principle. Experimental results show that the design, with high measurement accuracy and application value, realize the determination of preceding vehicle’s motion state at traffic lights intersection.

  9. Vehicular traffic flow at an intersection with the possibility of turning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulaadvand, M Ebrahim; Belbasi, Somayyeh

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a Nagel-Schreckenberg cellular automata model for describing a vehicular traffic flow at a single intersection. A set of traffic lights operating in a fixed-time scheme controls the traffic flow. An open boundary condition is applied to the streets each of which conducts a unidirectional flow. Streets are single lane and cars can turn upon reaching to the intersection with prescribed probabilities. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to find the model flow characteristics. In particular, we investigate the flow dependence on signalization parameters, turning probabilities and input rates. It is shown that for each set of parameters, there exists a plateau region inside which the total outflow from the intersection remains almost constant. We also compute total waiting time of vehicles per cycle behind red lights for various control parameters.

  10. Intersection Group Dynamic Subdivision and Coordination at Intraregional Boundaries in Sudden Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciyun Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at the traffic flow agglomeration effect characteristics and rapid evacuation requirement in sudden disaster; operation time of intraregional boundaries traffic signal coordination was presented firstly. Then intraregional boundaries intersection group dynamic subdivision and consolidation method based on relative similarity degree and similarity coefficient of adjacent intersections was put forward. As to make the traffic control strategy adapt to traffic condition of different intraregional boundaries intersection groups, this paper proposes an intraregional boundaries traffic signal coordination and optimization technology based on organic computing theory. Finally, this paper uses Delphi 7.0, MapX, and Oracle developing a software package, combined with Paramics V6 Simulator to validate the methods of this paper. The result shows that it can obviously improve disaster affected regional traffic signal control efficiency which reduces average traffic delay by 30–35%, decreases vehicle queue by more than 20% and reduces evacuation time more than 13.06%.

  11. Older driver failures of attention at intersections: using change blindness methods to assess turn decision accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, Jeff K; Edwards, Christopher J; Creaser, Janet I; Horrey, William J

    2005-01-01

    A modified version of the flicker technique to induce change blindness was used to examine the effects of time constraints on decision-making accuracy at intersections on a total of 62 young (18-25 years), middle-aged (26-64 years), young-old (65-73 years), and old-old (74+ years) drivers. Thirty-six intersection photographs were manipulated so that one object (i.e., pedestrian, vehicle, sign, or traffic control device) in the scene would change when the images were alternated for either 5 or 8 s using the modified flicker method. Young and middle-aged drivers made significantly more correct decisions than did young-old and old-old drivers. Logistic regression analysis of the data indicated that age and/or time were significant predictors of decision performance in 14 of the 36 intersections. Actual or potential applications of this research include driving assessment and crash investigation.

  12. Resisting Exile in the "Land of the Free:" Indigenous Groundwork at Colonial Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. Anthony Tyeeme; Powell, Malea

    2008-01-01

    The guest editorialists argue in this introduction that the phrase "indigenous groundwork at colonial intersections" identifies versatile cultural, historical, and social processes that fundamentally--at times devastatingly--shape relations among differently situated life forms on this planet. In short, Indigenous groundwork marks Indigenous…

  13. Estimating rear-end accident probabilities at signalized intersections: a comparison study of intersections with and without green signal countdown devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ying; Li, Keping

    2014-01-01

    Rear-end accidents are the most common accident type at signalized intersections, because the diversity of actions taken increases due to signal change. Green signal countdown devices (GSCDs), which have been widely installed in Asia, are thought to have the potential of improving capacity and reducing accidents, but some negative effects on intersection safety have been observed in practice; for example, an increase in rear-end accidents. A microscopic modeling approach was applied to estimate rear-end accident probability during the phase transition interval in the study. The rear-end accident probability is determined by the following probabilities: (1) a leading vehicle makes a "stop" decision, which was formulated by using a binary logistic model, and (2) the following vehicle fails to stop in the available stopping distance, which is closely related to the critical deceleration used by the leading vehicle. Based on the field observation carried out at 2 GSCD intersections and 2 NGSCD intersections (i.e., intersections without GSCD devices) along an arterial in Suzhou, the rear-end probabilities at GSCD and NGSCD intersections were calculated using Monte Carlo simulation. The results suggested that, on the one hand, GSCDs caused significantly negative safety effects during the flashing green interval, especially for vehicles in a zone ranging from 15 to 70 m; on the other hand, GSCD devices were helpful in reducing rear-end accidents during the yellow interval, especially in a zone from 0 to 50 m. GSCDs helped shorten indecision zones and reduce rear-end collisions near the stop line during the yellow interval, but they easily resulted in risky car following behavior and much higher rear-end collision probabilities at indecision zones during both flashing green and yellow intervals. GSCDs are recommended to be cautiously installed and education on safe driving behavior should be available.

  14. Evaluation of j-turn intersection design performance in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Research shows that a high percentage of crashes that take place on high-speed rural expressways occur at intersections with : minor roads. One low-cost alternative design for improving the safety of at-grade intersections on such expressways is the ...

  15. Estimation of left-turning vehicle maneuvers for the assessment of pedestrian safety at intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael K.M. Alhajyaseen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving pedestrian safety at intersections remains a critical issue. Although several types of safety countermeasures, such as reforming intersection layouts, have been implemented, methods have not yet been established to quantitatively evaluate the effects of these countermeasures before installation. One of the main issues in pedestrian safety is conflicts with turning vehicles. This study aims to develop an integrated model to represent the variations in the maneuvers of left-turners (left-hand traffic at signalized intersections that dynamically considers the vehicle reaction to intersection geometry and crossing pedestrians. The proposed method consists of four empirically developed stochastic sub-models, including a path model, free-flow speed profile model, lag/gap acceptance model, and stopping/clearing speed profile model. Since safety assessment is the main objective driving the development of the proposed model, this study uses post-encroachment time (PET and vehicle speed at the crosswalk as validation parameters. Preliminary validation results obtained by Monte Carlo simulation show that the proposed integrated model can realistically represent the variations in vehicle maneuvers as well as the distribution of PET and vehicle speeds at the crosswalk.

  16. The accuracy and timing of pedestrian warnings at intersections: the acceptance from drivers and their preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Josine; Chaziris, Antonios; Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Bie, Jing; van Arem, Bart; Abadi, A.; Bauer e.a., D.

    2010-01-01

    The safety of vulnerable road users at traffic intersections is critical. Driver assistance systems can improve safety but have to rely on accurate detection of hazardous situations. Given the complexity of pedestrian movement, detection of pedestrian presence and prediction of their behaviour are

  17. Pedestrian Choice Behavior at Shopping Mall Intersections in China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitgood, Stephen; Davey, Gareth; Huang, Xiaoyi; Fung, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian navigation through public spaces reflects the nature of interaction between behavior and environment. This study compared pedestrian choice behavior at shopping mall intersections in China and the United States. The study found that in both countries (a) pedestrians chose movement patterns that involved the fewest steps and (b) there…

  18. Vehicle speed guidance strategy at signalized intersection based on cooperative vehicle infrastructure system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyuan JIA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce stopping time of vehicle at a signalized intersection, aiming at the difficulty, even the impossibility to obtain real-time queue length of intersection in third and fourth-tier cities in China sometimes, a speed guidance strategy based on cooperative vehicle infrastructure system is put forward and studied. For validating the strategy, the traffic signal timing data of the intersection at Hengshan Road and North Fengming Lake Road in Wuhu is collected by a vehicular traffic signal reminder system which is designed. The simulation experiments using the acquired data are done by software VISSIM. The simulation results demonstrate that the strategy under high and low traffic flow can effectively decrease the link travel-time, reducing average ratio is 9.2 % and 13.0 %, respectively, and the effect under low traffic flow is better than that under high traffic flow. The strategy improves efficiency of traffic at a signalized intersection and provides an idea for the application of vehicle speed guidance based on cooperative vehicle infrastructure system.

  19. Safety Evaluation of Destination Lighting at Stop-Controlled Cross Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Unlit or inadequately lit intersections reduce the ability of drivers to recognize upcoming intersections during nighttime hours. Drivers also face difficulty in properly negotiating the intersection because lack of adequate lighting increases the li...

  20. Safety Impacts of Push-Button and Countdown Timer on Nonmotorized Traffic at Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the random parameters negative binominal model to investigate safety impacts of push-button and countdown timer on pedestrians and cyclists at urban intersections. To account for possible unobserved heterogeneity which could vary from one intersection to another, random parameters model is introduced. A simulation-based maximum likelihood method using Halton draws is applied to estimate the maximum likelihood of random parameters in the model. Dataset containing pedestrians’ and cyclists’ crash data of 1,001 intersections from Chicago is utilized to establish the statistical relationship between crash frequencies and potential impact factors. LIMDEP (Version 9.0 statistical package is utilized for modeling. The parameter estimation results indicate that existence of push-button and countdown timer could significantly reduce crash frequencies of pedestrians and cyclists at intersections. Increasing number of through traffic lanes, left turn lanes, and ratio of major direction AADT to minor direction AADT, tend to increase crash frequencies. Annual average daily left turn traffic has a negative impact on pedestrians’ safety, but its impact on cyclists’ crash frequency is statistically insignificant at 90% confidence level. The results of current study could provide important insights for nonmotorized traffic safety improvement projects in both planning and operational levels.

  1. Evaluation of the dispersion effect in through movement bicycles at signalized intersection via cellular automata simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hang; Ma, Yongjian; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Guozhou; Wang, Dongwei

    2018-05-01

    At signalized intersection areas, bicycle traffic presents a dispersion feature which may influence the movements of vehicles during peak period. The primary objective of this study is to simulate the dispersion effect in through-movement bicycle traffic at intersection areas and evaluate its influence on through-movement traffic. A cellular automata (CA) model is developed and validated to simulate the operations of through-movement bicycle traffic departing from two types of intersection approaches. Simulation results show that bicycles benefit from the dispersion effect when they depart from the approach with an exclusive right-turn vehicle lane. But when bicycles travel from the approach with a shared right-turn and through vehicle lane, the dispersion effect will result in friction interference and block interference on through-movement vehicles. Bicycle interferences reduce the vehicle speed and increase the delay of through-movement vehicles. The policy implications in regard to the dispersion effect from two types of approaches are discussed to improve the performance of through-movement traffic operations at signalized intersections.

  2. Wave function continuity and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction at conical intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Garrett A; Levine, Benjamin G

    2016-05-14

    We demonstrate that though exact in principle, the expansion of the total molecular wave function as a sum over adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer (BO) vibronic states makes inclusion of the second-derivative nonadiabatic energy term near conical intersections practically problematic. In order to construct a well-behaved molecular wave function that has density at a conical intersection, the individual BO vibronic states in the summation must be discontinuous. When the second-derivative nonadiabatic terms are added to the Hamiltonian, singularities in the diagonal BO corrections (DBOCs) of the individual BO states arise from these discontinuities. In contrast to the well-known singularities in the first-derivative couplings at conical intersections, these singularities are non-integrable, resulting in undefined DBOC matrix elements. Though these singularities suggest that the exact molecular wave function may not have density at the conical intersection point, there is no physical basis for this constraint. Instead, the singularities are artifacts of the chosen basis of discontinuous functions. We also demonstrate that continuity of the total molecular wave function does not require continuity of the individual adiabatic nuclear wave functions. We classify nonadiabatic molecular dynamics methods according to the constraints placed on wave function continuity and analyze their formal properties. Based on our analysis, it is recommended that the DBOC be neglected when employing mixed quantum-classical methods and certain approximate quantum dynamical methods in the adiabatic representation.

  3. Comparison of proposed countermeasures for dilemma zone at signalized intersections based on cellular automata simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Ding, Yaoxian; Jia, Bin; Shi, Qi; Yan, Xuedong

    2018-07-01

    The Type II dilemma zone describes the road segment to a signalized intersection where drivers have difficulties to decide either stop or go at the onset of yellow signal. Such phenomenon can result in an increased crash risk at signalized intersections. Different types of warning systems have been proposed to help drivers make decisions. Although the warning systems help to improve drivers' behavior, they also have several disadvantages such as increasing rear-end crashes or red-light running (RLR) violations. In this study, a new warning system called pavement marking with auxiliary countermeasure (PMAIC) is proposed to reduce the dilemma zone and enhance the traffic safety at signalized intersections. The proposed warning system integrates the pavement marking and flashing yellow system which can provide drivers with better suggestions about stop/go decisions based on their arriving time and speed. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed warning system, this paper presents a cellular automata (CA) simulation study. The CA simulations are conducted for four different scenarios in total, including the typical intersection without warning system, the intersection with flashing green countermeasure, the intersection with pavement marking, and the intersection with the PMAIC warning system. Before the specific CA simulation analysis, a logistic regression model is calibrated based on field video data to predict drivers' general stop/go decisions. Also, the rules of vehicle movements in the CA models under the influence by different warning systems are proposed. The proxy indicators of rear-end crash and potential RLR violations were estimated and used to evaluate safety levels for the different scenarios. The simulation results showed that the PMAIC countermeasure consistently offered best performance to reduce rear-end crash and RLR violation. Meanwhile, the results indicate that the flashing-green countermeasure could not effectively reduce either rear

  4. Delay-based Passenger Car Equivalent at Signalized Intersections in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Nassiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to their different sizes and operational characteristics, vehicles other than passenger cars have a different influence on traffic operations especially at intersections. The passenger car equivalent (PCE is the parameter that shows how many passenger cars must be substituted for a specific heavy vehicle to represent its influence on traffic operation. PCE is commonly estimated using headway-based methods that consider the excess headway utilized by heavy vehicles. In this research, the PCE was estimated based on the delay parameter at three signalized intersections in Tehran, Iran. The data collected were traffic volume, travel time for each movement, signalization, and geometric design information. These data were analysed and three different models, one for each intersection, were constructed and calibrated using TRAF-NETSIM simulation software for unsaturated traffic conditions. PCE was estimated under different scenarios and the number of approach movements at each intersection. The results showed that for approaches with only one movement, PCE varies from 1.1 to 1.65. Similarly, for approaches with two and three movements, the PCE varies from 1.07 to 1.99 and from 0.76 to 3.6, respectively. In addition, a general model was developed for predicting PCE for intersections with all of the movements considered. The results obtained from this model showed that the average PCE of 1.5 is similar to the value recommended by the HCM (Highway Capacity Manual 1985. However, the predicted PCE value of 1.9 for saturated threshold is closer to the PCE value of 2 which was recommended by the HCM 2000 and HCM 2010.

  5. Split Field magnet at the I4 ISR intersection

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The Split-Field Magnet (SFM) at I4 had an unconventional topology, consisting of two dipole magnets of opposite polarity. It formed the heart of the first general facility at the ISR. It had a useful magnetic field volume of 28 m3 and a field in the median plane of 1.14 T. With a gap height of 1.1 m and length of 10.5 m, the magnet weighed about 1000 t. The SFM spectrometer featured the first large-scale application of MWPCs (about 70,000 wires), which filled the main magnet, visible here in 1974, and the two large compensator magnets.

  6. Noise emission corrections at intersections based on microscopic traffic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coensel, B.de; Vanhove, F.; Logghe, S.; Wilmink, I.; Botteldooren, D.

    2006-01-01

    One of the goals of the European IMAGINE project, is to formulate strategies to improve traffic modelling for application in noise mapping. It is well known that the specific deceleration and acceleration dynamics of traffic at junctions can influence local noise emission. However, macroscopic

  7. Ways of knowing at the intersection of culture and rhetoric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    As the internet becomes increasingly embedded in society (Woolgar 2002), the impact of information available on the Web implies an increasing capacity to reflect and affect common knowledge in a given society. Looking at the question of the role writing plays as communities engage in technological......, and combining it with Wenger's (definition for communities of practice which relies on participation and reification occurring in conjunction with written documents, we can understand Internet texts as reifications in an ongoing social action of producing knowledge. This study looks at the use of web presences...... and social change in local and increasingly global contexts, writing is approached from a knowledge communication perspective--situating writing as a reification of knowledge processes in discourse communities. Working from Bazerman(1988) and Miller's (1986) definition of writing as social action...

  8. A search for quarks at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bott-Bodenhausen, M; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Gruhn, Charles R; Peak, L S; Rochester, L S; Sauli, Fabio; Stierlin, U; Tirler, R; Winstein, B; Zahniser, D

    1972-01-01

    No quark candidates have been seen among 0.6*10/sup 9/ charged particles at the ISR. The corresponding cross section limit for charge /sup 1///sub 2/(/sup 2///sub 3/) is

  9. Rapid Convergence and Subduction at the Intersections of Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Asaro, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    An array of 300 surface drifters drogued to follow the top 0.6m of the ocean were deployed in the northern Gulf of Mexico near the Deep Water Horizon spill site in January of 2016. As expected, the array spread from its initial 15x15km scale with the second moment increasing at a rate roughly consistent with historical dispersion curves. More surprisingly, a large fraction of the drifters accumulated within a km-scale submesoscale eddy and grouped into clusters often only a few meters apart. This occurred due to surface convergence, as opposed to purely confluence, with convergence rates of many f feeding downward-going subduction zones with vertical velocities of a few centimeters per second. These convergences preferentially occurred at density fronts and in particular at junctions of density fronts on the periphery of submesoscale eddies. These observations complement the traditional view of lateral dispersion of surface particles by mesoscale eddies with a competing submesocale convergence and provide direct observations of the strong vertical exchanges associated with submesoscale eddies and fronts.

  10. Drivers' smart advisory system improves driving performance at STOP sign intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available STOP signs are often physically blocked by obstacles at the corner, forming a safety threat. To enhance the safety at an un-signalized intersection like a STOP sign intersection, a radio frequency identification (RFID based drivers smart advisory system (DSAS was developed, which provides drivers with an earlier warning message when they are approaching an un-signalized intersection. In this research, a pilot field test was conducted with the DSAS alarm on an approach towards a STOP sign intersection in a residential area in Houston, Texas. The designed test route covers all turning movements, including left turn, through movement, and right turn. GPS units recorded test drivers' driving behaviors. A self-developed MATLAB program and statistically significant difference t-test were applied to analyze the impacts of the DSAS messages on drivers' driving performance, in terms of approaching speed profile, acceleration/deceleration rates, braking distance, and possible extra vehicle emissions induced by the introduction of the DSAS message. Drivers' preference on the DSAS was investigated by a designed survey questionnaire among test drivers. Results showed that the DSAS alarm was able to induce drivers to drive significantly slower to approach a STOP sign intersection, perform smaller fluctuation in acceleration/deceleration rates, and be more aware of a coming STOP sign indicated by decelerating earlier. All test drivers preferred to follow the DSAS alarm on roads for a safety concern. Further, the DSAS alarm caused the reduction in emission rates through movement. For a general observation, more road tests with more participants and different test routes were recommended.

  11. An overall view of intersection I-8 at the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    (See Annual Report 1979 p. 114, Fig. 1.) At the extreme left are the liquid argon calorimeters of experiment R806, withdrawn to allow access to the outer half of the R807 central drift chamber. In the centre is the circular pole of the Open Axial Field Magnet (OAFM) with par of the supporting structure for the uranium calorimeter above it. To the right can be seen the high-pressure Cerenkov counter, the wall of proportional chambers and the atmospheric pressure Cerenkov counters (extreme right).

  12. Biophysics at the intersection of health science and nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, D. [Brock Univ., Dept. of Physics, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada); Alsop, R.J.; Rheinstadter, M.C. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Harroun, T.A. [Brock Univ., Dept. of Physics, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    We're all on a quest for improved heart health, but what do we really know about it? A daily regimen of aspirin can help some people with heart disease. We need to lower our cholesterol, and increase our intake of omega fatty acids. There is simply no health benefit to taking extra vitamin E, and it's not known why. Apart from cardiac tests with radiopharmaceuticals, what role does nuclear technology play in this story? It turns out that cold and thermal neutrons are important tools for the biophysicists studying these topics. We will review some recently published studies that are advancing our understanding of how cholesterol, vitamin E, and aspirin all work at the molecular level, inside the membrane of our cells. These insights could not have been learned without access to research reactor neutron beams such as those at the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, and how this new knowledge has really engaged the broader health science community into new ways of thinking about these molecules. (author)

  13. Biophysics at the intersection of health science and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquardt, D.; Alsop, R.J.; Rheinstadter, M.C.; Harroun, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    We're all on a quest for improved heart health, but what do we really know about it? A daily regimen of aspirin can help some people with heart disease. We need to lower our cholesterol, and increase our intake of omega fatty acids. There is simply no health benefit to taking extra vitamin E, and it's not known why. Apart from cardiac tests with radiopharmaceuticals, what role does nuclear technology play in this story? It turns out that cold and thermal neutrons are important tools for the biophysicists studying these topics. We will review some recently published studies that are advancing our understanding of how cholesterol, vitamin E, and aspirin all work at the molecular level, inside the membrane of our cells. These insights could not have been learned without access to research reactor neutron beams such as those at the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, and how this new knowledge has really engaged the broader health science community into new ways of thinking about these molecules. (author)

  14. Biophysics at the intersection of health science and nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, D., E-mail: thad.harroun@brocku.ca [Brock Univ., Dept. of Physics, St. Catherines, Ontario (Canada); Alsop, R.J.; Rheinstadter, M.C. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Harroun, T.A. [Brock University, Dept. of Physics, St. Catherines, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    We're all on a quest for improved heart health, but what do we really know about it? A daily regimen of aspirin can help some people with heart disease. We need to lower our cholesterol, and increase our intake of omega fatty acids. There is simply no health bene t to taking extra vitamin E, and it's not known why. Apart from cardiac tests with radiopharmaceuticals, what role does nuclear technology play in this story? It turns out that cold and thermal neutrons are important tools for the biophysicists studying these topics. We will review some recently published studies that are advancing our understanding of how cholesterol, vitamin E, and aspirin all work at the molecular level, inside the membrane of our cells. These insights could not have been learned without access to research reactor neutron beams such as those at the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, and how this new knowledge has really engaged the broader health science community into new ways of thinking about these molecules. (author)

  15. Biophysics at the intersection of health science and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquardt, D.; Alsop, R.J.; Rheinstadter, M.C.; Harroun, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    We're all on a quest for improved heart health, but what do we really know about it? A daily regimen of aspirin can help some people with heart disease. We need to lower our cholesterol, and increase our intake of omega fatty acids. There is simply no health bene t to taking extra vitamin E, and it's not known why. Apart from cardiac tests with radiopharmaceuticals, what role does nuclear technology play in this story? It turns out that cold and thermal neutrons are important tools for the biophysicists studying these topics. We will review some recently published studies that are advancing our understanding of how cholesterol, vitamin E, and aspirin all work at the molecular level, inside the membrane of our cells. These insights could not have been learned without access to research reactor neutron beams such as those at the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, and how this new knowledge has really engaged the broader health science community into new ways of thinking about these molecules. (author)

  16. Shocked materials at the intersection of experiment and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzana, H. E.; Belak, J. F.; Bradley, K. S.; Bringa, E. M.; Budil, K. S.; Cazamias, J. U.; El-Dasher, B.; Hawreliak, J. A.; Hessler, J.; Kadau, K.; Kalantar, D. H.; McNaney, J. M.; Milathianaki, D.; Rosolankova, K.; Swift, D. C.; Taravillo, M.; Van Buuren, T. W.; Wark, J. S.; de la Rubia, T. Diaz

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the dynamic lattice response of solids under the extreme conditions of pressure, temperature and strain rate is a scientific quest that spans nearly a century. Critical to developing this understanding is the ability to probe and model the spatial and temporal evolution of the material microstructure and properties at the scale of the relevant physical phenomena-nanometers to micrometers and picoseconds to nanoseconds. While experimental investigations over this range of spatial and temporal scales were unimaginable just a decade ago, new technologies and facilities currently under development and on the horizon have brought these goals within reach for the first time. The equivalent advancements in simulation capabilities now mean that we can conduct simulations and experiments at overlapping temporal and spatial scales. In this article, we describe some of our studies which exploit existing and new generation ultrabright, ultrafast x-ray sources and large scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the real-time physical phenomena that control the dynamic response of shocked materials.

  17. Shocked materials at the intersection of experiment and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadau, Kai [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic lattice response of solids under the extreme conditions of pressure, temperature and strain rate is a scientific quest that spans nearly a century. Critical to developing this understanding is the ability to probe and model the spatial and temporal evolution of the material microstructure and properties at the scale of the relevant physical phenomena -- nanometers to micrometers and picoseconds to nanoseconds. While experimental investigations over this range of spatial and temporal scales were unimaginable just a decade ago, new technologies and facilities currently under development and on the horizon have brought these goals within reach for the first time. The equivalent advancements in simulation capabilities now mean that we can conduct simulations and experiments at overlapping temporal and spatial scales. In this article, we describe some of our studies which exploit existing and new generation ultrabright, ultrafast x-ray sources and large scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the real-time physical phenomena that control the dynamic response of shocked materials.

  18. Personality change at the intersection of autonomic arousal and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Daniel; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    We hypothesized that personality change in children can be predicted by the interaction of family risk with susceptibility to autonomic arousal and that children characterized by both high-risk families and highly reactive autonomic nervous systems tend to show maladaptive change. This hypothesis was tested in a 6-year longitudinal study in which personality-type prototypicality, problem behavior, and negative emotional intensity were measured at 2-year intervals. The results indicated that children who both had exaggerated skin conductance responses (a measure of autonomic reactivity) and were living in families with multiple risk factors were most likely to develop an undercontrolled personality type and to exhibit increases in problem behavior and negative emotional intensity. The implications of the results for understanding personality change are discussed.

  19. TURKEY AT THE INTERSECTION OF ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has made in the last 4 decades a remarkable growth in economy. The energy industry is represented mainly by the coal industry (especially lignite and coal, located in northwest Anatolia. The electricity is produced in the hydro and thermal power plants. Turkey has the world's 17th largest nominal GDP, and 15th largest GDP by PPP. The country is a founding member of the OECD (1961 and the G-20 major economies (1999. Since December 31, 1995, Turkey is also a part of the EU Customs Union. While many economies have been unable to recover from the recent global financial recession, the Turkish economy expanded by 9.2% in 2010, and 8.5 percent in 2011, thus standing out as the fastest growing economy in Europe, and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Hence, Turkey has been meeting the “60 percent EU Maastricht criteria” for public debt stock since 2004. Similarly, from 2002 to 2011, the budget deficit decreased from more than 10 percent to less than 3 percent, which is one of the EU Maastricht criteria for the budget balance. As of 2012, the main trading partners of Turkey are Germany, Russia and Iran. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase industrial production for exports, while benefiting from EU – origin foreign investment into the country. Turkey is also a source of foreign direct invest-ment in central and eastern Europe and the CIS, with more than $1.5 billion invested. 32% has been invested in Russia, primarily in the natural resources and construction sector, and 46% in Turkey’s Black Sea neighbours, Bulgaria and Romania. Turkish companies also have sizable FDI stocks in Poland, at about $100 million. The construction and contracting companies have been significant players, such as Enka, Tekfen, Gama, and Üçgen İnşaat, as well as the three industrial groups, Anadolu Efes Group, ŞişeCam Group and Vestel Group. The exports reached $115.3 billion in

  20. Traffic signal phasing at intersections to improve safety for alcohol-affected pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenné, Michael G; Corben, Bruce F; Stephan, Karen

    2007-07-01

    Alcohol-affected pedestrians are among the highest-risk groups involved in pedestrian casualty crashes. This paper investigates the opportunities to use a modified form of traffic signal operation during high-risk periods and at high-risk locations to reduce alcohol-affected pedestrian crashes and the severity of injuries that might otherwise occur. The 'Dwell-on-Red' treatment involves displaying a red traffic signal to all vehicle directions during periods when no vehicular traffic is detected, so that drivers approach high-risk intersections at a lower speed than if a green signal were displayed. Vehicle speed data were collected before and after treatment activation at both a control and treatment site. Speed data were collected both 30 m prior to and at the intersection stop line. The treatment was associated with a reduction in mean vehicle speeds of 3.9 kph (9%) and 11.0 kph (28%) at 30 m and stop line collection points, respectively, and substantial reductions in the proportion of vehicles travelling at threatening speeds with regard to the severity of pedestrian injury. Other important road safety concerns may also benefit from this form of traffic signal modification, and it is recommended that other areas of application be explored, including the other severe trauma categories typically concentrated around signalised intersections.

  1. Effects of turning and through lane sharing on traffic performance at intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Turning vehicles strongly influence traffic flows at intersections. Effective regulation of turning vehicles is important to achieve better traffic performance. This paper studies the impact of lane sharing and turning signals on traffic performance at intersections by using cellular automata. Both right-turn and left-turn lane sharing are studied. Interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are considered. The transportation efficiency, road safety and energy economy are the traffic performance metrics. Extensive simulations are carried out to study the traffic performance indices. It is observed that shared turning lanes and permissive left-turn signal improve the transportation efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption in most cases, but the safety is usually sacrificed. It is not always beneficial for the through vehicles when they are allowed to be in the turning lanes.

  2. Experimental and numerical studies on the mixing at the intersection of millimetric channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etcheverry, F; Cachile, M [LIA-Grupo de Medios Porosos, Facultad de Ingenieria, UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gomba, J M [Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco, UNCPBA, Tandil (Argentina); Wolluschek, C, E-mail: mcachil@fi.uba.ar [Mecanica de Fluidos e Ingenieria Termica, Centro tecnologico Cemitec, Noain, Navarra (Spain)

    2011-05-01

    In this work, experimental and numerical results on the effect of diffusion and geometrical dispersion on the mixing of confluent flows are presented. Two channels with an internal diameter D{sub h} = 4 mm intersect with an angle {alpha} = 30,60,90,120,150,180{sup 0}. The experimental setup allows to accurately control the flow rate and assures a constant flow at both inlets. The mixing properties are studied by injecting pure water in one inlet and colored water at the other. The effects of the inlet flow and the intersection angle on the diffusion of ink is analyzed. We observed that the mixing by convection is only important for {alpha} = 180{sup 0}. For other angles, diffusion is the main mechanism for mixing.

  3. Experimental and numerical studies on the mixing at the intersection of millimetric channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etcheverry, F; Cachile, M; Gomba, J M; Wolluschek, C

    2011-01-01

    In this work, experimental and numerical results on the effect of diffusion and geometrical dispersion on the mixing of confluent flows are presented. Two channels with an internal diameter D h = 4 mm intersect with an angle α = 30,60,90,120,150,180 0 . The experimental setup allows to accurately control the flow rate and assures a constant flow at both inlets. The mixing properties are studied by injecting pure water in one inlet and colored water at the other. The effects of the inlet flow and the intersection angle on the diffusion of ink is analyzed. We observed that the mixing by convection is only important for α = 180 0 . For other angles, diffusion is the main mechanism for mixing.

  4. Development of Evaluation Technology for Detection of Axial Crack at Eggcrate Intersection of Steam Generator Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myung Sik; Hur, Do Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Han, Jung Ho; Lee, Deok Hyun; Song, Myung Ho

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of outer diameter (OD) axial stress corrosion crack at egg crate intersection of steam generator tube in operating power plant is inspected primarily by the eddy current test using bobbin coil probe. Therefore, the characteristics of the bobbin coil signal from the axial crack at egg crate intersection of steam generator tube should be understood for the accurate and earlier detection of the crack. In this study, the mockup assembly simulating the steam generator tube with OD axial stress corrosion crack and tube support egg crate was manufactured, and the characteristics of bobbin coil eddy current signal was examined in order to extract the improved evaluation technique for the detection of the crack

  5. Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Priest, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115), we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys) and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept) across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed. PMID:26505623

  6. Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Priest, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115), we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys) and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept) across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed.

  7. Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Bécares

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115, we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed.

  8. Radiocarbon (14C) Concentration of Local Pollution in Street Trees Located at Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Daisuke

    2018-01-01

    At large intersections, vehicles consume and generate a large amount of fossil fuel. Carbon derived from fossil fuels that do not contain radioactive carbon (14C), i.e., dead carbon, is released in large amounts in the roadside air environment. By means of photosynthesis, street trees along the roadside assimilate both dead carbon, not containing radioactive carbon (14C), and contemporary carbon, which includes radioactive carbon (14C). Therefore, the concentration of radioactive carbon (14C)...

  9. Safety impacts of red light cameras at signalized intersections based on cellular automata models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, C; Wong, Y D; Lum, K M

    2015-01-01

    This study applies a simulation technique to evaluate the hypothesis that red light cameras (RLCs) exert important effects on accident risks. Conflict occurrences are generated by simulation and compared at intersections with and without RLCs to assess the impact of RLCs on several conflict types under various traffic conditions. Conflict occurrences are generated through simulating vehicular interactions based on an improved cellular automata (CA) model. The CA model is calibrated and validated against field observations at approaches with and without RLCs. Simulation experiments are conducted for RLC and non-RLC intersections with different geometric layouts and traffic demands to generate conflict occurrences that are analyzed to evaluate the hypothesis that RLCs exert important effects on road safety. The comparison of simulated conflict occurrences show favorable safety impacts of RLCs on crossing conflicts and unfavorable impacts for rear-end conflicts during red/amber phases. Corroborative results are found from broad analysis of accident occurrence. RLCs are found to have a mixed effect on accident risk at signalized intersections: crossing collisions are reduced, whereas rear-end collisions may increase. The specially developed CA model is found to be a feasible safety assessment tool.

  10. Saturation flow versus green time at two-stage signal controlled intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boumediene

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intersections are the key components of road networks considerably affecting capacity. As flow levels and experience have increased over the years, methods and means have been developed to cope with growing demand for traffic at road junctions. Among various traffic control devices and techniques developed to cope with conflicting movements, traffic signals create artificial gaps to accommodate the impeded traffic streams. The majority of parameters that govern signalised intersection control and operations such as a degree of saturation, delays, queue lengths, the level of service etc. are very sensitive to saturation flow. Therefore, it is essential to reliably evaluate saturation flow for correctly setting traffic signals to avoid unnecessary delays and conflicts. Generally, almost all guidelines support the constancy of saturation flow irrespective of green time duration. This paper presents the results of field studies carried out to enable the performance of signalised intersections to be compared at different green time durations. It was found that saturation flow decreased slightly with growing green time. Reduction corresponded to between 2 and 5 pcus/gh per second of green time. However, the analyses of the discharge rate during the successive time intervals of 6-seconds showed a substantial reduction of 10% to 13% in saturation flow levels after 36 seconds of green time compared to those relating to 6–36 seconds range. No reduction in saturation flow levels was detected at the sites where only green periods of 44 seconds or less were implemented.

  11. Modeling Left-Turn Driving Behavior at Signalized Intersections with Mixed Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, mixed traffic is the most common type of urban transportation; traffic of this type faces many major problems in traffic engineering, such as conflicts, inefficiency, and security issues. This paper focuses on the traffic engineering concerns on the driving behavior of left-turning vehicles caused by different degrees of pedestrian violations. The traffic characteristics of left-turning vehicles and pedestrians in the affected region at a signalized intersection were analyzed and a cellular-automata-based “following-conflict” driving behavior model that mainly addresses four basic behavior modes was proposed to study the conflict and behavior mechanisms of left-turning vehicles by mathematic methodologies. Four basic driving behavior modes were reproduced in computer simulations, and a logit model of the behavior mode choice was also developed to analyze the relative share of each behavior mode. Finally, the microscopic characteristics of driving behaviors and the macroscopic parameters of traffic flow in the affected region were all determined. These data are important reference for geometry and capacity design for signalized intersections. The simulation results show that the proposed models are valid and can be used to represent the behavior of left-turning vehicles in the case of conflicts with illegally crossing pedestrians. These results will have potential applications on improving traffic safety and traffic capacity at signalized intersections with mixed traffic conditions.

  12. Waiting Endurance Time Estimation of Electric Two-Wheelers at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Huan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed a model for estimating waiting endurance times of electric two-wheelers at signalized intersections using survival analysis method. Waiting duration times were collected by video cameras and they were assigned as censored and uncensored data to distinguish between normal crossing and red-light running behavior. A Cox proportional hazard model was introduced, and variables revealing personal characteristics and traffic conditions were defined as covariates to describe the effects of internal and external factors. Empirical results show that riders do not want to wait too long to cross intersections. As signal waiting time increases, electric two-wheelers get impatient and violate the traffic signal. There are 12.8% of electric two-wheelers with negligible wait time. 25.0% of electric two-wheelers are generally nonrisk takers who can obey the traffic rules after waiting for 100 seconds. Half of electric two-wheelers cannot endure 49.0 seconds or longer at red-light phase. Red phase time, motor vehicle volume, and conformity behavior have important effects on riders’ waiting times. Waiting endurance times would decrease with the longer red-phase time, the lower traffic volume, or the bigger number of other riders who run against the red light. The proposed model may be applicable in the design, management and control of signalized intersections in other developing cities.

  13. Waiting endurance time estimation of electric two-wheelers at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Mei; Yang, Xiao-bao

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposed a model for estimating waiting endurance times of electric two-wheelers at signalized intersections using survival analysis method. Waiting duration times were collected by video cameras and they were assigned as censored and uncensored data to distinguish between normal crossing and red-light running behavior. A Cox proportional hazard model was introduced, and variables revealing personal characteristics and traffic conditions were defined as covariates to describe the effects of internal and external factors. Empirical results show that riders do not want to wait too long to cross intersections. As signal waiting time increases, electric two-wheelers get impatient and violate the traffic signal. There are 12.8% of electric two-wheelers with negligible wait time. 25.0% of electric two-wheelers are generally nonrisk takers who can obey the traffic rules after waiting for 100 seconds. Half of electric two-wheelers cannot endure 49.0 seconds or longer at red-light phase. Red phase time, motor vehicle volume, and conformity behavior have important effects on riders' waiting times. Waiting endurance times would decrease with the longer red-phase time, the lower traffic volume, or the bigger number of other riders who run against the red light. The proposed model may be applicable in the design, management and control of signalized intersections in other developing cities.

  14. Travel Time Model for Right-Turning Vehicles of Secondary Street at Unsignalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The travel time of right-turning vehicles on secondary street at unsignalized intersection is discussed in this paper. Under the assumption that the major-street through vehicles’ headway follows Erlang distribution and secondary-street right-turning vehicles’ headway follows Poisson distribution. The right-turning vehicles travel time model is established on the basis of gap theory and M/G/1 queue theory. Comparison is done with the common model based on the assumption that the major-street vehicles’ headway follows Poisson distribution. An intersection is selected to verify each model. The results show that the model established in this paper has stronger applicability, and its most relative error is less than 15%. In addition, the sensitivity analysis has been done. The results show that right-turning flow rate and major-street flow rate have a significant impact on the travel time. Hence, the methodology for travel time of right-turning vehicles at unsignalized intersection proposed in this paper is effective and applicable.

  15. Cellular automata model for traffic flow at intersections in internet of vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Han-Tao; Liu, Xin-Ru; Chen, Xiao-Xu; Lu, Jian-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Considering the effect of the front vehicle's speed, the influence of the brake light and the conflict of the traffic flow, we established a cellular automata model called CE-NS for traffic flow at the intersection in the non-vehicle networking environment. According to the information interaction of Internet of Vehicles (IoV), introducing parameters describing the congestion and the accurate speed of the front vehicle into the CE-NS model, we improved the rules of acceleration, deceleration and conflict, and finally established a cellular automata model for traffic flow at intersections of IoV. The relationship between traffic parameters such as vehicle speed, flow and average travel time is obtained by numerical simulation of two models. Based on this, we compared the traffic situation of the non-vehicle networking environment with conditions of IoV environment, and analyzed the influence of the different degree of IoV on the traffic flow. The results show that the traffic speed is increased, the travel time is reduced, the flux of intersections is increased and the traffic flow is more smoothly under IoV environment. After the vehicle which achieves IoV reaches a certain proportion, the operation effect of the traffic flow begins to improve obviously.

  16. Real-time bicycle detection at signalized intersections using thermal imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaert, Robin

    2013-02-01

    More and more governments and authorities around the world are promoting the use of bicycles in cities, as this is healthy for the bicyclist and improves the quality of life in general. Safety and efficiency of bicyclists has become a major focus. To achieve this, there is a need for a smarter approach towards the control of signalized intersections. Various traditional detection technologies, such as video, microwave radar and electromagnetic loops, can be used to detect vehicles at signalized intersections, but none of these can consistently separate bikes from other traffic, day and night and in various weather conditions. As bikes should get a higher priority and also require longer green time to safely cross the signalized intersection, traffic managers are looking for alternative detection systems that can make the distinction between bicycles and other vehicles near the stop bar. In this paper, the drawbacks of a video-based approach are presented, next to the benefits of a thermal-video-based approach for vehicle presence detection with separation of bicycles. Also, the specific technical challenges are highlighted in developing a system that combines thermal image capturing, image processing and output triggering to the traffic light controller in near real-time and in a single housing.

  17. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Air Flow at an Urban Canyon Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Robins, Alan G.; Baldi, Sandro

    2009-11-01

    In this experimental work both qualitative (flow visualisation) and quantitative (laser Doppler anemometry) methods were applied in a wind tunnel in order to describe the complex three-dimensional flow field in a real environment (a street canyon intersection). The main aim was an examination of the mean flow, turbulence and flow pathlines characterising a complex three-dimensional urban location. The experiments highlighted the complexity of the observed flows, particularly in the upwind region of the intersection. In this complex and realistic situation some details of the upwind flow, such as the presence of two tall towers, play an important role in defining the flow field within the intersection, particularly at roof level. This effect is likely to have a strong influence on the mass exchange mechanism between the canopy flow and the air aloft, and therefore the distribution of pollutants. This strong interaction between the flows inside and outside the urban canopy is currently neglected in most state-of-the-art local scale dispersion models.

  18. Management challenges at the intersection of public policy environments and strategic decision making in public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort B

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities.

  19. Effective spectral densities for system-environment dynamics at conical intersections: S{sub 2}-S{sub 1} conical intersection in pyrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinazzo, Rocco [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milan, Via Golgi 19, 20122 Milan (Italy); Hughes, Keith H. [School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Martelli, Fausto [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milan, Via Golgi 19, 20122 Milan (Italy); Departement de Chimie, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Burghardt, Irene, E-mail: irene.burghardt@ens.fr [Departement de Chimie, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2010-11-25

    Graphical abstract: The effect of high-dimensional environments on conical intersections can be described by hierarchies of approximate spectral densities, which translate to truncated effective-mode chains in the time domain. Abstract: A recently developed effective-mode representation is employed to characterize the influence of a multi-dimensional environment on the S{sub 2}-S{sub 1} conical intersection in pyrazine, taken as a paradigm case of high-dimensional dynamics at a conical intersection. We consider a simplified model by which four modes are strongly coupled to the electronic subsystem while a number of weakly coupled tuning modes, inducing energy gap fluctuations, are sampled from a spectral density. The latter is approximated by a series of simplified spectral densities which can be cast into a continued-fraction form, as previously demonstrated in Hughes et al. (K.H. Hughes, C.D. Christ, I. Burghardt, J. Chem. Phys. 131 (2009) 124108). In the time domain, the hierarchy of spectral densities translates to truncated effective-mode chains with a Markovian or quasi-Markovian (Rubin type) closure. A sequential deconvolution procedure is employed to generate this chain representation. The implications for the ultrafast dynamics and its representation in terms of reduced-dimensional models are discussed.

  20. Analysis and methods of improvement of safety at high-speed rural intersections : appendix B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Since 2006, INDOT has been preparing an annual fivepercent report that identifies intersections and segments on Indiana state roads that require attention due to the excessive number and severity of crashes. Many of the identified intersections ar...

  1. L'intersectionnalité contre l'intersection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chauvin, S.; Jaunait, A.

    2015-01-01

    Intersectionality against intersection. Is the notion of intersectionality doomed to being part of the problem it designates? Intersectionality theory was not developed to merely point at intersections but to capture subject positions made invisible by dominant systems of normative representation.

  2. Beauty physics at the ultrahigh energies of the ELOISATRON [Euroasiatic Long Intersecting Superconducting Accelerator Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1988-02-01

    The potential for experimentally studying B physics at the proposed INFN 100 TeV ELOISATRON (Euroasiatic Long Intersecting Superconducting Accelerator Synchrotron) is compared with possibilities at 40 TeV at the Superconducting Super Collider. The effect of the increase in center of mass energy on the production and decay of B mesons has been investigated, particularly with respect to the accummulation of large samples of B hadron decays necessary for the detection of CP violating effects. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  3. Developing a short range vehicle to infrastructure communication system to enhance the safety at STOP sign intersections : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Stop sign controlled unsignalized intersections raise a public safe concern. Even though various strategies, such as engineering, education, and policy, have been applied in practice, there are a number of fatal crashes occurred at unsignalized inter...

  4. Study of chi production properties at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourkoumelis, C.; Resvanis, L.K.; Filippas, T.A.; Fokitis, E.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fields, T.; Fowler, E.; Lissauer, D.; Mannelli, I.; Mouzourakis, P.; Nappi, A.; Willis, W.J.; Goldberg, M.

    1979-01-01

    The inclusive production of electron pairs with and without additional photons was measured at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). The investigation of J/psi particles with associated photons indicated that 47 +- 8% of the J/psi were produced via the photonic decay of one of the chi(3.5) states. The upper limit of the production cross-section ratio times the branching ratio into electron pairs of psi' relative to J/psi was found to be 2% at centre-of-mass energy of √s = 62 GeV. (Auth.)

  5. Chevron defect at the intersection of grain boundaries with free surfaces in Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radetic, T.; Lancon, F.; Dahmen, U.

    2002-01-01

    We have identified a new defect at the intersection between grain boundaries and surfaces in Au using atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy. At the junction line of 90 deg. tilt grain boundaries of (110)-(001) orientation with the free surface, a small segment of the grain boundary, about 1 nm in length, dissociates into a triangular region with a chevronlike stacking disorder and a distorted hcp structure. The structure and stability of these defects are confirmed by atomistic simulations, and we point out the relationship with the one-dimensional incommensurate structure of the grain boundary

  6. The CERN intersecting storage rings and strong interactions at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Cocconi, Giuseppe

    1973-01-01

    The coming into operation of the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) at the European Centre of Nuclear Research (CERN), near Geneva, has made it possible in the past two years to study the behaviour of matter at the highest densities ever obtained artificially, hundreds of times greater than the density of matter in nuclei and even in the densest stars. An account is given of some of the results obtained thus far; this is followed by a brief discussion of possible future developments. (17 refs).

  7. Tectonics of ridge-transform intersections at the Kane fracture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karson, J. A.; Dick, H. J. B.

    1983-03-01

    The Kane Transform offsets spreading-center segments of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge by about 150 km at 24° N latitude. In terms of its first-order morphological, geological, and geophysical characteristics it appears to be typical of long-offset (>100 km), slow-slipping (2 cm yr-1) ridge-ridge transform faults. High-resolution geological observations were made from deep-towed ANGUS photographs and the manned submersible ALVIN at the ridge-transform intersections and indicate similar relationships in these two regions. These data indicate that over a distance of about 20 km as the spreading axes approach the fracture zone, the two flanks of each ridge axis behave in very different ways. Along the flanks that intersect the active transform zone the rift valley floor deepens and the surface expression of volcanism becomes increasingly narrow and eventually absent at the intersection where only a sediment-covered ‘nodal basin’ exists. The adjacent median valley walls have structural trends that are oblique to both the ridge and the transform and have as much as 4 km of relief. These are tectonically active regions that have only a thin (young volcanics passes laterally into median valley walls with a simple block-faulted character where only volcanic rocks have been found. Along strike toward the fracture zone, the youngest volcanics form linear constructional volcanic ridges that transect the entire width of the fracture zone valley. These volcanics are continuous with the older-looking, slightly faulted volcanic terrain that floors the non-transform fracture zone valleys. These observations document the asymmetric nature of seafloor spreading near ridge-transform intersections. An important implication is that the crust and lithosphere across different portions of the fracture zone will have different geological characteristics. Across the active transform zone two lithosphere plate edges formed at ridge-transform corners are faulted against one another. In the non

  8. Growing up at the intersection of the genomic era and the information age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessnack, Martha

    2009-06-01

    Children actively seek to make sense of their worlds based on the information they receive and their experience. For children growing up at the intersection of genomic era and information age, the array of information and experience continues to expand. This article highlights the importance of exploring these early contexts for learning, including the children's exposure to books and mass media, and the impact of early learning on later health literacy and behaviors. This article presents a case study discussing the inheritance of cystic fibrosis using the Harry Potter book series.

  9. Building Theory at the Intersection of Ecological Sustainability and Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borland, Helen; Ambrosini, Véronique; Lindgreen, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This article builds theory at the intersection of ecological sustainability and strategic management literature—specifically, in relation to dynamic capabilities literature. By combining industrial organization economics–based, resource-based, and dynamic capability–based views, it is possible...... to develop a better understanding of the strategies that businesses may follow, depending on their managers’ assumptions about ecological sustainability. To develop innovative strategies for ecological sustainability, the dynamic capabilities framework needs to be extended. In particular, the sensing...... sustainability. Finally, this approach offers opportunities for managers and academics to identify, categorize, and exploit business strategies for ecological sustainability....

  10. MATHEMATICA APPLICATION FOR GRAPH COLORING AT THE INTERSECTION OF JALAN PANGERAN ANTASARI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwarno Suwarno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research examines about graph coloring using Welch-Powell algorithm. This research begins by trying to understand about graph coloring and its algorithm. The case study was conducted at the intersection of Pangeran Antasari Street. In the formation of graph obtained 12 vertices as traffic flow and 16 edges as traffic path. The results of this study obtained 4 chromatic numbers which describes 4 stages of traffic light arrangement. This paper also explains the application of Mathematica software in graph coloring.

  11. Signal treatments to reduce heavy vehicle crash-risk at metropolitan highway intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Jeffery; Young, William

    2009-05-01

    Heavy vehicle red-light running at intersections is a common safety problem that has severe consequences. This paper investigates alternative signal treatments that address this issue. A micro-simulation analysis approach was adopted as a precursor to a field trial. The simulation model emulated traffic conditions at a known problem intersection and provided a baseline measure to compare the effects of: an extension of amber time; an extension of green for heavy vehicles detected in the dilemma zone at the onset of amber; an extension of the all-red safety-clearance time based on the detection of vehicles considered likely to run the red light at two detector locations during amber; an extension of the all-red safety-clearance time based on the detection of potential red-light runners during amber or red; and a combination of the second and fourth alternatives. Results suggested safety improvements for all treatments. An extension of amber provided the best safety effect but is known to be prone to behavioural adaptation effects and wastes traffic movement time unnecessarily. A green extension for heavy vehicles detected in the dilemma zone and an all-red extension for potential red-light runners were deemed to provide a sustainable safety improvement and operational efficiency.

  12. Groundwater mixing at fracture intersections triggers massive iron-rich microbial mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, O.; Le Borgne, T.; Bethencourt, L.; Aquilina, L.; Dufresne, A.; Pédrot, M.; Farasin, J.; Abbott, B. W.; Labasque, T.; Chatton, E.; Lavenant, N.; Petton, C.

    2017-12-01

    While most freshwater on Earth resides and flows in groundwater systems, these deep subsurface environments are often assumed to have little biogeochemical activity compared to surface environments. Here we report a massive microbial mat of iron-oxidizing bacteria, flourishing 60 meters below the surface, far below the mixing zone where most microbial activity is believed to occur. The abundance of microtubular structures in the mat hinted at the prevalence of of Leptothrix ochracea, but metagenomic analysis revealed a diverse consortium of iron-oxidizing bacteria dominated by unknown members of the Gallionellaceae family. This deep biogeochemical hot spot formed at the intersection of bedrock fractures, which maintain redox gradients by mixing water with different residence times and chemical compositions. Using measured fracture properties and hydrological conditions we developed a quantitative model to simulate the reactive zone where such deep hot spots could occur. While seasonal fluctuations are generally thought to decrease with depth, we found that meter-scale changes in water table level moved the depth of the reactive zone hundreds of meters because the microaerophilic threshold for ironoxidizers is highly sensitive to changes in mixing rates at fracture intersections. These results demonstrate that dynamic microbial communities can be sustained deep below the surface in bedrock fractures. Given the ubiquity of fractures at multiple scales in Earth's subsurface, such deep hot spots may strongly influence global biogeochemical cycles.

  13. Evaluation of a Risk Awareness Perception Training Program on Novice Teen Driver Behavior at Left-Turn Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Kandadai, Venk; Loeb, Helen; Seacrist, Thomas; Lee, Yi-Ching; Bonfiglio, Dana; Fisher, Donald L; Winston, Flaura K

    Collisions at left turn intersections are among the most prevalent types of teen driver serious crashes, with inadequate surveillance as a key factor. Risk awareness perception training (RAPT) has shown effectiveness in improving hazard anticipation for latent hazards. The goal of this study was to determine if RAPT version 3 (RAPT-3) improved intersection turning behaviors among novice teen drivers when the hazards were not latent and frequent glancing to multiple locations at the intersection was needed. Teens aged 16-18 with ≤180 days of licensure were randomly assigned to: 1) an intervention group (n=18) that received RAPT-3 (Trained); or 2) a control group (n=19) that received no training (Untrained). Both groups completed RAPT-3 Baseline Assessment and the Trained group completed RAPT-3 Training and RAPT-3 Post Assessment. Training effects were evaluated on a driving simulator. Simulator ( gap selection errors and collisions ) and eye tracker ( traffic check errors) metrics from six left-turn stop sign controlled intersections in the Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA) were analyzed. The Trained group scored significantly higher in RAPT-3 Post Assessment than RAPT-3 Baseline Assessment (psign controlled intersections where the hazards were not latent. Our findings point to further research to better understand the challenges teens have with left turn intersections.

  14. A PREDICTIVE STUDY: CARBON MONOXIDE EMISSION MODELING AT A SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY WEE LIANG KHO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available CAL3QHC dispersion model was used to predict the present and future carbonmonoxide (CO levels at a busy signalized intersection. This study attempted to identify CO “hot-spots” at nearby areas of the intersection during typical A.M. and P.M. peak hours. The CO concentration “hot-spots” had been identified at 101 Commercial Park and the simulated maximum 1-hour Time-Weighted Average (1-h TWA ground level CO concentrations of 18.3 ppm and 18.6 ppm had been observed during A.M. and P.M. peaks, respectively in year 2006. This study shows that there would be no significant increment in CO level for year 2014 although a substantial increase in the number of vehicles is assumed to affect CO levels. It was also found that CO levels would be well below the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guideline of 30 ppm (1-h TWA. Comparisons between the measured and simulated CO levels using quantitative data analysis technique and statistical methods indicated that CAL3QHC dispersion model correlated well with measured data.

  15. Safety effectiveness of pavement design treatment at intersections: Left turning vehicles and pedestrians on crosswalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Iasmin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users as they are more exposed than other road users. Pedestrian safety at road intersections still remains the most vital and yet unsolved issue. One of the critical points in pedestrian safety is the occurrence of accidents between left-turning vehicle and pedestrians on crosswalks at signalized intersections. A crosswalk is a place designated for pedestrians and cyclists to cross vehicular roads safely. Drivers are expected to give priority to pedestrians or cyclists during interactions between them on the crosswalk. If a driver exhibits non-yielding behavior, the interaction will turn into a collision. This study examined the safety effect of three crosswalks designed with different materials such as red-colored material or brick pavement based on a safety performance study. The safety performance study considered left-turning driver's gap acceptance behavior and the severity of traffic conflict events between left-turning vehicles and pedestrians. The results of the study indicates that using brick pavement on a crosswalk increases the safety level of the crosswalk. Drivers at such crosswalks are more acquiescent to the priority rule.

  16. Two innovative healthcare technologies at the intersection of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahnam, Sheryl; Brooks, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    Using game technologies and digital media for improving physical and mental health and for the therapeutic benefit and well-being of a wide range of people is an area of study that is rapidly expanding. Much research in this emerging field is centered at the intersection of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy. In this paper the authors describe their transdisciplinary work at this intersection: i) an integrative system of psychotherapy technologies called MyPsySpace currently being prototyped in Second Life with the aim of offering new and virtual translations of traditional expressive therapies (virtual sandplay, virtual drama therapy, digital expressive therapy, and virtual safe spaces) and ii) a mature body of research entitled SoundScapes that is exploring the use of interactive video games and abstract creative expression (making music, digital painting, and robotic device control) as a supplement to traditional physical rehabilitation intervention. Aside from introducing our work to a broader audience, our goal is to encourage peers to investigate ideas that reach across disciplines-to both risk and reap the benefits of combining technologies, theories, and methods stemming from multiple disciplines.

  17. Contributory factors to traffic crashes at signalized intersections in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S C; Sze, N N; Li, Y C

    2007-11-01

    Efficient geometric design and signal timing not only improve operational performance at signalized intersections by expanding capacity and reducing traffic delays, but also result in an appreciable reduction in traffic conflicts, and thus better road safety. Information on the incidence of crashes, traffic flow, geometric design, road environment, and traffic control at 262 signalized intersections in Hong Kong during 2002 and 2003 are incorporated into a crash prediction model. Poisson regression and negative binomial regression are used to quantify the influence of possible contributory factors on the incidence of killed and severe injury (KSI) crashes and slight injury crashes, respectively, while possible interventions by traffic flow are controlled. The results for the incidence of slight injury crashes reveal that the road environment, degree of curvature, and presence of tram stops are significant factors, and that traffic volume has a diminishing effect on the crash risk. The presence of tram stops, number of pedestrian streams, road environment, proportion of commercial vehicles, average lane width, and degree of curvature increase the risk of KSI crashes, but the effect of traffic volume is negligible.

  18. Safety surrogate histograms (SSH): A novel real-time safety assessment of dilemma zone related conflicts at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanipoor Machiani, Sahar; Abbas, Montasir

    2016-11-01

    Drivers' indecisiveness in dilemma zones (DZ) could result in crash-prone situations at signalized intersections. DZ is to the area ahead of an intersection in which drivers encounter a dilemma regarding whether to stop or proceed through the intersection when the signal turns yellow. An improper decision to stop by the leading driver, combined with the following driver deciding to go, can result in a rear-end collision, unless the following driver recognizes a collision is imminent and adjusts his or her behavior at or shortly after the onset of yellow. Considering the significance of DZ-related crashes, a comprehensive safety measure is needed to characterize the level of safety at signalized intersections. In this study, a novel safety surrogate measure was developed utilizing real-time radar field data. This new measure, called safety surrogate histogram (SSH), captures the degree and frequency of DZ-related conflicts at each intersection approach. SSH includes detailed information regarding the possibility of crashes, because it is calculated based on the vehicles conflicts. An example illustrating the application of the new methodology at two study sites in Virginia is presented and discussed, and a comparison is provided between SSH and other DZ-related safety surrogate measures mentioned in the literature. The results of the study reveal the efficacy of the SSH as complementary to existing surrogate measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of j-turn intersection design performance in Missouri, final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Research shows that a high percentage of crashes that take place on high-speed rural expressways occur at intersections : with minor roads. One low-cost alternative design for improving the safety of at-grade intersections on such expressways is : th...

  20. Driver behavior analysis for right-turn drivers at signalized intersections using SHRP 2 naturalistic driving study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianqing; Xu, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Understanding driver behavior is important for traffic safety and operation, especially at intersections where different traffic movements conflict. While most driver-behavior studies are based on simulation, this paper documents the analysis of driver-behavior at signalized intersections with the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) data. This study analyzes the different influencing factors on the operation (speed control) and observation of right-turn drivers. A total of 300 NDS trips at six signalized intersections were used, including the NDS time-series sensor data, the forward videos and driver face videos. Different factors of drivers, vehicles, roads and environments were studied for their influence on driver behavior. An influencing index function was developed and the index was calculated for each influencing factor to quantitatively describe its influencing level. The influencing index was applied to prioritize the factors, which facilitates development and selection of safety countermeasures to improve intersection safety. Drivers' speed control was analyzed under different conditions with consideration of the prioritized influencing factors. Vehicle type, traffic signal status, conflicting traffic, conflicting pedestrian and driver age group were identified as the five major influencing factors on driver observation. This research revealed that drivers have high acceleration and low observation frequency under Right-Turn-On-Red (RTOR), which constituted potential danger for other roadway users, especially for pedestrians. As speed has a direct influence on crash rates and severities, the revealed speed patterns of the different situations also benefit selection of safety countermeasures at signalized intersections. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Extraterrestrial intelligence and human imagination SETI at the intersection of science, religion, and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Traphagan, John

    2015-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) represents one of the most significant crossroads at which the assumptions and methods of scientific inquiry come into direct contact with—and in many cases conflict with—those of religion. Indeed, at the core of SETI is the same question that motivates many interested in religion: What is the place of humanity in the universe? Both scientists involved with SETI (and in other areas) and those interested in and dedicated to some religious traditions are engaged in contemplating these types of questions, even if their respective approaches and answers differ significantly. This book explores this intersection with a focus on three core points: 1) the relationship between science and religion as it is expressed within the framework of SETI research, 2) the underlying assumptions, many of which are tacitly based upon cultural values common in American society, that have shaped the ways in which SETI researchers have conceptualized the nature of their endeavo...

  2. Inclusive measurements of hyperon production at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhan, S.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the inclusive reactions: pp→LAMBDA 0 +x, and pp→anti LAMBDA 0 +x, pp→exactly equal to - +x, pp→SIGMA+-(1385)+x) at equivalent laboratory moments of 1500 GeV/c (√s=53 GeV) and 2100 GeV/c (√s=62 GeV) at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). An estimate of the total LAMBDA 0 and anti LAMBDA 0 inclusive cross sections is presented. The measured data are extrapolated to x = 0 using √s = 44 GeV CERN Intersecting Storage Ring results. The cross sections for LAMBDA 0 and anti LAMBDA 0 are found to be 4.42 +- 0.18 mb and 1.17 +- 0.40 mb at 1500 GeV/c and 4.72 +- 0.18 mb. and 1.37 +- 0.48 mb at 2100 GeV/c respectively. The total exactly equal to - inclusive cross section in the region x > 0.4 is found to be. In addition, results are presented of searches for reactions: pp →(LAMBDA 0 anti LAMBDA 0 ) +x and pp→(LAMBDA 0 LAMBDA 0 )+x. Pair production of LAMBDA 0 anti LAMBDA 0 with x > 0.6 is measured to be 1.7 +-/0.2μb, while LAMBDA 0 LAMBDA 0 cross section in the same x range is less than 1.0 +- 0.1 μb

  3. Changes in Drivers’ Visual Performance during the Collision Avoidance Process as a Function of Different Field of Views at Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Xinran; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Xiaomeng; Yang, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    The intersection field of view (IFOV) indicates an extent that the visual information can be observed by drivers. It has been found that further enhancing IFOV can significantly improve emergent collision avoidance performance at intersections, such as faster brake reaction time, smaller deceleration rate, and lower traffic crash involvement risk. However, it is not known how IFOV affects drivers’ eye movements, visual attention and the relationship between visual searching and traffic safety. In this study, a driving simulation experiment was conducted to uncover the changes in drivers’ visual performance during the collision avoidance process as a function of different field of views at an intersection by using an eye tracking system. The experimental results showed that drivers’ ability in identifying the potential hazard in terms of visual searching was significantly affected by different IFOV conditions. As the IFOVs increased, drivers had longer gaze duration (GD) and more number of gazes (NG) in the intersection surrounding areas and paid more visual attention to capture critical visual information on the emerging conflict vehicle, thus leading to a better collision avoidance performance and a lower crash risk. It was also found that female drivers had a better visual performance and a lower crash rate than male drivers. From the perspective of drivers’ visual performance, the results strengthened the evidence that further increasing intersection sight distance standards should be encouraged for enhancing traffic safety. PMID:27716824

  4. V2I-based startup assistance system at signalized intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic delays are caused by unskilled vehicle operation and driver distraction during the startup process at signalized intersections. To address this issue, we propose a V2I-based driver assistance system that can acquire the current traffic signal status and provide drivers with startup assistance. This article presents the proposed system’s architecture and an assistance algorithm, which contains two types of driver assistance methods: startup prompting and automatic startup control. The automatic startup control method, based on fuzzy logic control, is validated in simulation tests. We also implement startup prompting using a prototype system and validate its performance in field tests. The test results suggest that the proposed assistance algorithm can help drivers start up their vehicles with less delay, which will significantly improve traffic efficiency.

  5. Electron-muon coincidences in proton-proton collisions at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, A G; Darriulat, Pierre; Eggert, K; Hungerbühler, V; Jenni, Peter; Lapuyade, C; Modis, T; Pérez, P; Renshall, H; Richter, Burton; Smadja, G; Strauss, J; Strolin, P; Tarnopolsky, G J; Teiger, J; Tur, C; Vialle, J P; Zaccone, Henri; Zallo, A; Zylberstejn, A

    1978-01-01

    In an experiment carried out at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings with a highly selective electron spectrometer system and a magnetized iron filter to detect muons, the authors have observed 32+or-16 dilepton events of the type p+p to mu /sup +or-/+e/sup -or+/+... The integrated luminosity of the experiment was (2.0+or-0.1)*10/sup 37/ cm /sup -2/, and the over-all detection efficiency 0.14+or-0.07. Interpreting this signal as due to charmed meson-pair production, the authors estimate a model-dependent acceptance of 6.5*10/sup -5/ per event, and a cross-section sigma (p+p to D+D+...)=(18+or-9) mu b, with a scale uncertainty of 50% due to the detection efficiency. (9 refs).

  6. A review of accelerator and particle physics at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.; Johnsen, K.

    1984-01-01

    The last meeting of the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings Committee (ISRC) was held on 27 January 1984, following the closing of the ISR for colliding-beam physics in December 1983. This report consists of the written versions of the two review talks presented at that meeting. K. Johnsen describes the history and importance of the ISR for accelerator physics, from the first ideas on colliding-beam devices to the final operation. M. Jacob gives his view of the role of the ISR physics programme in the development of particle physics up to and including the latest available results. The preface is by G. Bellettini, the last chairman of the ISR Committee. (orig.)

  7. Building Theory at the Intersection of Ecological Sustainability and Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borland, Helen; Ambrosini, Véronique; Lindgreen, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This article builds theory at the intersection of ecological sustainability and strategic management literature—specifically, in relation to dynamic capabilities literature. By combining industrial organization economics–based, resource-based, and dynamic capability–based views, it is possible...... to develop a better understanding of the strategies that businesses may follow, depending on their managers’ assumptions about ecological sustainability. To develop innovative strategies for ecological sustainability, the dynamic capabilities framework needs to be extended. In particular, the sensing......–seizing–maintaining competitiveness framework should operate not only within the boundaries of a business ecosystem but in relation to global biophysical ecosystems; in addition, two more dynamic capabilities should be added, namely, remapping and reaping. This framework can explicate core managerial beliefs about ecological...

  8. Prenatal programing: at the intersection of maternal stress and immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Christopher L; Bale, Tracy L

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to prenatal insults such as maternal stress and pathogenic infections has been associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. The mechanisms by which these programing events occur likely involve complex interactions between the maternal hormonal milieu, the placenta, and the developing fetus, in addition to compounding factors such as fetal sex and gestational stage of development. Despite the diverse biological processes involved, examination of common pathways in maternal stress and immune activation offers intriguing possibilities for elucidation of mechanistic insight. Further, the endocrine and sex-specific placenta is a tissue poised to be a key mediator in fetal programing, located at the intersection of the maternal and embryonic environments. In this review, we will discuss the potential shared mechanisms of maternal stress and immune pathway activation, with a particular focus on the important contribution and role of the placenta. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Travel Times, Congestion Levels, and Delays at Intersections Calculated on the Basis of Floating Car Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Torp, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, the mapping of flow rate in a road network has been based on spot and intersection counting. Using these counting techniques, detailed information about traffic at a few well-picked spots in the road network is obtained. However, these techniques give no exact information about tra...... of the cars. This paper presents a method to determine travel time, congestion levels and delays using GPS data from moving vehicles – the so-called floating car data....... traffic only a few meters away from the measuring spots. The situation is totally the opposite when it comes to log data from GPS receivers in cars. Here detailed information about individual cars in the entire road network is obtained. However, the GPS data is only available from a small subset...

  10. Grounded Intersectionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marfelt, Mikkel Mouritz

    2016-01-01

    associated with intersectional research. The findings assist in positioning the proposed methodological framework within recent intersectional debates. Findings – The review shows a rise in intersectional publications since the birth of the “intersectionality” term in 1989. Moreover, the paper points to four...... oriented but still emphasizes stable concepts. Moreover, it does not give primacy to oppression. Finally, it adopts a critical stance on the nature of the macro, meso, and micro levels as dominant analytical perspectives. As a result, this paper focusses on the importance of intersectionality...

  11. Highway-rail intersection GPS-based in-vehicle warning systems - literature review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    In 2008, there were 2,395 incidents at highway-rail intersections (level crossings) in the United States, resulting in 939 injuries and 287 fatalities. Crossing elimination, grade separation, and the implementation of traditional warning devices are ...

  12. EJWS retrospective on intersectionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, K.E.; Zarkov, Dubravka

    2017-01-01

    The EJWS has been at the forefront of debates about intersectionality in Europe. In the past two decades, the journal has published countless articles on intersectionality as theory, methodology, and political framework for doing critical feminist research. We have selected some of these articles

  13. Influences of motorcycle rider and driver characteristics and road environment on red light running behavior at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensupakarn, Auearree; Kanitpong, Kunnawee

    2018-04-01

    In Thailand, red light running is considered as one of the most dangerous behaviors at intersection. Red light running (RLR) behavior is the failure to obey the traffic control signal. However, motorcycle riders and car drivers who are running through red lights could be influenced by human factors or road environment at intersection. RLR could be advertent or inadvertent behavior influenced by many factors. Little research study has been done to evaluate the contributing factors influencing the red-light violation behavior. This study aims to determine the factors influencing the red light running behavior including human characteristics, physical condition of intersection, traffic signal operation, and traffic condition. A total of 92 intersections were observed in Chiang Mai, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Chonburi, the major provinces in each region of Thailand. In addition, the socio-economic characteristics of red light runners were obtained from self-reported questionnaire survey. The Binary Logistic Regression and the Multiple Linear Regression models were used to determine the characteristics of red light runners and the factors influencing rates of red light running respectively. The results from this study can help to understand the characteristics of red light runners and factors affecting them to run red lights. For motorcycle riders and car drivers, age, gender, occupation, driving license, helmet/seatbelt use, and the probability to be penalized when running the red light significantly affect RLR behavior. In addition, the results indicated that vehicle travelling direction, time of day, existence of turning lane, number of lanes, lane width, intersection sight distance, type of traffic signal pole, type of traffic signal operation, length of yellow time interval, approaching speed, distance from intersection warning sign to stop line, and pavement roughness significantly affect RLR rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Benefit Impact of Air Pollution Reduction Through ATCS Implementation at Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief; Huboyo, Haryono Setiyo; Samadikun, Budi Prasetyo

    2018-02-01

    The field study in five intersections that had ATCS, such as Krapyak, Tugu Muda, Polda, Bangkong and Fatmawati were done to investigate the effectivity of air pollution reduction. The study was done by estimating the differences between the vehicle speed due to the cycle duration of green light by field observation and video recording in each intersection. In five intersections that had been observed, the percentage of fuel consumption savings for two-wheeled vehicles were between 15 - 18%, meanwhile for four-wheel vehicles were between 30 - 46%. Based on the calculation that adopt the emission factor from CORINAIR and USEPA emission, the emission reduction based on pollutant types were TSP (12-17%), NOx (22-36%), CO (15-25%), HC (16-28%) and SO2 (22-35%). The result to the vehicles' speed that passed the intersections through ATCS has also indicated that the ATCS could increase vehicle speed and consequently reduce the emission.

  15. AERIS : Eco-Vehicle Speed Control at Signalized Intersections Using I2V Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report concentrates on a velocity advisory tool, or decision support system, for vehicles approaching an intersection using communication capabilities between the infrastructure and vehicles. The system uses available signal change information, ...

  16. Influence of the cognitive workload on bicycle safety at four-legged intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Agerholm, Niels

    2018-01-01

    is the influence of workload capacity on bicyclists spatial behaviour in a natural environment of four-legged intersections. Method: Due to the traffic safety of test participants, the study is divided in two phases. In the first phase, the actual physical environment of the four-legged intersection and bicyclists......-legged intersection. The eye tracking glasses will be used to make video and audio recording of visible field of where or how long bicyclists are allocating their visual attention while riding a bicycle and facing obstacles when crossing the four-legged intersection. On the second phase, a bicycle riding simulator...... riding task. This will allow to understand the allocation of bicyclists attention between primary and secondary tasks, to reveal the limit of the information processing capacity during biking. Results expected: Two experimental results will be incorporated to gain in-depth knowledge on bicycle accidents...

  17. Analysis and methods of improvement of safety at high-speed rural intersections [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since 2006, INDOT has been preparing an annual fivepercent : report that identifies intersections and segments : on Indiana state roads that require attention due to the : excessive number and severity of crashes. Many of the : identifi...

  18. A Study of the Traffic Safety at Reduced Conflict Intersections In Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    In 2010, the Minnesota Department of Transportation installed the first Reduced Conflict Intersection (RCI) in the City of Willmar. Since 2010, seven more were constructed, with more planned. The RCI concept is gaining popularity in several states, i...

  19. Analysis on influencing factors and decision-making of pedestrian crossing at intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Likun; Wang, Ziyang

    2017-10-01

    The city signal intersection always has complex traffic flow and many traffic accidents. As vulnerable participants, the proportion of traffic accidents involving pedestrians remain high. And a lot of insecure crossing behavior seriously reduce the safety of the intersection. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out in-depth study on the traversing characteristics of pedestrians, reveal the inherent laws of pedestrian crossing, and then put forward targeted measures to improve pedestrian traffic environment, protect pedestrian crossing safety and improve traffic efficiency.

  20. Influential factors of red-light running at signalized intersection and prediction using a rare events logistic regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yilong; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Ding, Chuan

    2016-10-01

    Red light running (RLR) has become a major safety concern at signalized intersection. To prevent RLR related crashes, it is critical to identify the factors that significantly impact the drivers' behaviors of RLR, and to predict potential RLR in real time. In this research, 9-month's RLR events extracted from high-resolution traffic data collected by loop detectors from three signalized intersections were applied to identify the factors that significantly affect RLR behaviors. The data analysis indicated that occupancy time, time gap, used yellow time, time left to yellow start, whether the preceding vehicle runs through the intersection during yellow, and whether there is a vehicle passing through the intersection on the adjacent lane were significantly factors for RLR behaviors. Furthermore, due to the rare events nature of RLR, a modified rare events logistic regression model was developed for RLR prediction. The rare events logistic regression method has been applied in many fields for rare events studies and shows impressive performance, but so far none of previous research has applied this method to study RLR. The results showed that the rare events logistic regression model performed significantly better than the standard logistic regression model. More importantly, the proposed RLR prediction method is purely based on loop detector data collected from a single advance loop detector located 400 feet away from stop-bar. This brings great potential for future field applications of the proposed method since loops have been widely implemented in many intersections and can collect data in real time. This research is expected to contribute to the improvement of intersection safety significantly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Fully-Distributed Heuristic Algorithm for Control of Autonomous Vehicle Movements at Isolated Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah A. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing autonomous vehicle movements through roadway intersections is a challenging problem. It has been demonstrated in the literature that traditional traffic control, such as traffic signal and stop sign control are not optimal especially for heavy traffic demand levels. Alternatively, centralized autonomous vehicle control strategies are costly and not scalable given that the ability of a central controller to track and schedule the movement of hundreds of vehicles in real-time is questionable. Consequently, in this paper a fully distributed algorithm is proposed where vehicles in the vicinity of an intersection continuously cooperate with each other to develop a schedule that allows them to safely proceed through the intersection while incurring minimum delay. Unlike other distributed approaches described in the literature, the wireless communication constraints are considered in the design of the control algorithm. Specifically, the proposed algorithm requires vehicles heading to an intersection to communicate only with neighboring vehicles, while the lead vehicles on each approach lane share information to develop a complete intersection utilization schedule. The scheduling rotates between vehicles to identify higher traffic volumes and favor vehicles coming from heavier lanes to minimize the overall intersection delay. The simulated experiments show significant reductions in the average delay using the proposed approach compared to other methods reported in the literature and reduction in the maximum delay experienced by a vehicle especially in cases of heavy traffic demand levels.

  2. Concurrent audio-visual feedback for supporting drivers at intersections : a study using two linked driving simulators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtenbos, M. Winter, J.C.F. de Hale, A.R. Wieringa, P.A. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    A large portion of road traffic crashes occur at intersections for the reason that drivers lack necessary visual information. This research examined the effects of an audio-visual display that provides real-time sonification and visualization of the speed and direction of another car approaching the

  3. Interdisciplinary Research at the Intersection of CALL, NLP, and SLA: Methodological Implications from an Input Enhancement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Nicole; Meurers, Detmar; Rebuschat, Patrick; Ruiz, Simón; Moreno-Vega, José L.; Chinkina, Maria; Li, Wenjing; Grey, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Despite the promise of research conducted at the intersection of computer-assisted language learning (CALL), natural language processing, and second language acquisition, few studies have explored the potential benefits of using intelligent CALL systems to deepen our understanding of the process and products of second language (L2) learning. The…

  4. Intersections between Music Education and Music Therapy: Education Reform, Arts Education, Exceptionality, and Policy at the Local Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Karen; Pasiali, Varvara

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a music teacher educator and a music therapy clinician and educator discuss special education policy and arts instruction at the district level. To illustrate the gulf between federal and local policies with regard to exceptional learners and arts instruction, we examine the intersections of music therapy and music education with…

  5. Study of the reaction pp. -->. p(n. pi. /sup +/) at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broll, C [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1976-07-01

    New results are presented on the diffraction dissociation of protons into (n..pi../sup +/) systems at the CERN intersecting storage rings. The data were taken at the centre of mass energy ..sqrt..s=45GeV and a very high statistics of events (nearly 75,000) was obtained. The experiment was performed at the Split Field Magnet whose description is made as well as that of the special neutron devices and of the trigger logic. The software chain (pattern recognition, geometrical reconstruction and kinematical fitting) is also described. A particular emphasis is put on the four-dimensional acceptance correction applied to the events. Phenomenological comments are given on two different but complementary approaches: the impact parameter description in the s-channel and the Deck model. The physics results are shown with in particular, detailed studies for the five following variables: the momentum transfer from proton to proton, the (n..pi../sup +/) invariant mass, the Jackson angles of this system and the momentum transfer from proton to neutron. A comparison with the pion-exchange Deck model is performed, showing a qualitative agreement with the data. Several experiments at a lower energy are also compared: on the average, there is little evolution with energy.

  6. A simulator-based analysis of engineering treatments for right-hook bicycle crashes at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jennifer; Hurwitz, David S; Monsere, Christopher M; Fleskes, Kayla

    2017-07-01

    A right-hook crash is a crash between a right-turning motor vehicle and an adjacent through-moving bicycle. At signalized intersections, these crashes can occur during any portion of the green interval when conflicting bicycles and vehicles are moving concurrently. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of four types of engineering countermeasures - regulatory signage, intersection pavement marking, smaller curb radius, and protected intersection design - at modifying driver behaviors that are known contributing factors in these crashes. This research focused on right-hook crashes that occur during the latter stage of the circular green indication at signalized intersections with a shared right-turn and through lane. Changes in driver performance in response to treatments were measured in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Twenty-eight participants each completed 22 right-turn maneuvers. A partially counterbalanced experimental design exposed drivers to critical scenarios, which had been determined in a previous experiment. For each turn, driver performance measures, including visual attention, crash avoidance, and potential crash severity, were collected. A total of 75 incidents (47 near-collisions and 28 collisions) were observed during the 616 right turns. All treatments had some positive effect on measured driver performance with respect to the right-turn vehicle conflicts. Further work is required to map the magnitude of these changes in driver performance to crash-based outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Substituent effects on dynamics at conical intersections: Allene and methyl allenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neville, Simon P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Wang, Yanmei [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Boguslavskiy, Andrey E.; Stolow, Albert, E-mail: albert.stolow@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Schuurman, Michael S., E-mail: michael.schuurman@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2016-01-07

    We report a joint experimental and theoretical study on the ultrafast excited state dynamics of allene and a series of its methylated analogues (1,2-butadiene, 1,1-dimethylallene, and tetramethylallene) in order to elucidate the conical intersection mediated dynamics that give rise to ultrafast relaxation to the ground electronic state. We use femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) to probe the coupled electronic-vibrational dynamics following UV excitation at 200 nm (6.2 eV). Ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) simulations are employed to determine the mechanistic details of two competing dynamical pathways to the ground electronic state. In all molecules, these pathways are found to involve as follows: (i) twisting about the central allenic C–C–C axis followed by pyramidalization at one of the terminal carbon atoms and (ii) bending of allene moiety. Importantly, the AIMS trajectory data were used for ab initio simulations of the TRPES, permitting direct comparison with experiment. For each molecule, the decay of the TRPES signal is characterized by short (30 fs, 52 fs, 23 fs) and long (1.8 ps, 3.5 ps, [306 fs, 18 ps]) time constants for 1,2-butadiene, 1,1-dimethylallene, and tetramethylallene, respectively. However, AIMS simulations show that these time constants are only loosely related to the evolution of electronic character and actually more closely correlate to large amplitude motions on the electronic excited state, modulating the instantaneous vertical ionization potentials. Furthermore, the fully substituted tetramethylallene is observed to undergo qualitatively different dynamics, as displacements involving the relatively massive methyl groups impede direct access to the conical intersections which give rise to the ultrafast relaxation dynamics observed in the other species. These results show that the branching between the “twisting” and “bending” pathways can be modified via the selective methylation of the terminal

  8. Development of a real-time prediction model of driver behavior at intersections using kinematic time series data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yaoyuan V; Elliott, Michael R; Flannagan, Carol A C

    2017-09-01

    As connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) enter the fleet, there will be a long period when these vehicles will have to interact with human drivers. One of the challenges for CAVs is that human drivers do not communicate their decisions well. Fortunately, the kinematic behavior of a human-driven vehicle may be a good predictor of driver intent within a short time frame. We analyzed the kinematic time series data (e.g., speed) for a set of drivers making left turns at intersections to predict whether the driver would stop before executing the turn. We used principal components analysis (PCA) to generate independent dimensions that explain the variation in vehicle speed before a turn. These dimensions remained relatively consistent throughout the maneuver, allowing us to compute independent scores on these dimensions for different time windows throughout the approach to the intersection. We then linked these PCA scores to whether a driver would stop before executing a left turn using the random intercept Bayesian additive regression trees. Five more road and observable vehicle characteristics were included to enhance prediction. Our model achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.84 at 94m away from the center of an intersection and steadily increased to 0.90 by 46m away from the center of an intersection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Smart Girls, Black Girls, Mean Girls, and Bullies: At the Intersection of Identities and the Mediating Role of Young Girls' Social Network in Mathematical Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholson, Maisie; Martin, Danny B.

    2014-01-01

    By taking an intersectional and emic view to studying a group of African American girls in a third-grade class, we attempted to capture the complexity of mathematics learning for these girls. Traditionally, children's social networks in school are framed as external to mathematics content learning. Our preliminary analyses of student interviews…

  10. A Bayesian Combined Model for Time-Dependent Turning Movement Proportions Estimation at Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-dependent turning movement flows are very important input data for intelligent transportation systems but are impossible to be detected directly through current traffic surveillance systems. Existing estimation models have proved to be not accurate and reliable enough during all intervals. An improved way to address this problem is to develop a combined model framework that can integrate multiple submodels running simultaneously. This paper first presents a back propagation neural network model to estimate dynamic turning movements, as well as the self-adaptive learning rate approach and the gradient descent with momentum method for solving. Second, this paper develops an efficient Kalman filtering model and designs a revised sequential Kalman filtering algorithm. Based on the Bayesian method using both historical data and currently estimated results for error calibration, this paper further integrates above two submodels into a Bayesian combined model framework and proposes a corresponding algorithm. A field survey is implemented at an intersection in Beijing city to collect both time series of link counts and actual time-dependent turning movement flows, including historical and present data. The reported estimation results show that the Bayesian combined model is much more accurate and stable than other models.

  11. Game Theory Model of Traffic Participants within Amber Time at Signalized Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The traffic light scheme is composed of red, green, and amber lights, and it has been defined clearly for the traffic access of red and green lights; however, the definition of that for the amber light is indistinct, which leads to the appearance of uncertainty factors and serious traffic conflicts during the amber light. At present, the traffic administrations are faced with the decision of whether to forbid passing or not during the amber light in the cities of China. On one hand, it will go against the purpose of setting amber lights if forbidding passing; on the other hand, it may lead to a mess of traffic flow running if not. And meanwhile the drivers are faced with the decision of passing the intersection or stopping during the amber light as well. So the decision-making behavior of traffic administrations and drivers can be converted into a double game model. And through quantification of their earnings in different choice conditions, the optimum decision-making plan under specific conditions could be solved via the Nash equilibrium solution concept. Thus the results will provide a basis for the formulation of the traffic management strategy.

  12. Implications of advanced warning messages on eliminating sun glare disturbances at signalized intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to sun glare disturbances, drivers encounter fatal threats on roadways, particularly at signalized intersections. Many studies have attempted to develop applicable solutions, such as avoiding sun positions, applying road geometric re-directions, and wearing anti-glare glasses. None of these strategies have fully solved the problem. As one of the “Connected Vehicle” practices proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, advanced warning messages (AWMs are capable of providing wireless information about traffic controls. AWM acts as a supplement to conventional signs and signals, which can be blocked by obstacles or natural disturbances, such as sun glare. The drivers' smart advisory system (DSAS can provide drivers with AWM. Using a driving simulator this research explores the effects of DSAS messages on driving behaviors under sun glare disturbance. Statistical analyses were applied to assess (1 the negative impacts of sun glare, (2 the compensation of the DSAS AWM to sun glare effects, and (3 the improvement in driving performance due to DSAS AWM. Four performance indexes were measured, including (1 half kinetic energy speed, (2 mean approach speed, (3 brake response time, and (4 braking distance. The effects of the socio-demographic factors, such as gender, age, educational background, and driving experience were also studied. The analytical results illustrate that the DSAS can compensate for reduced visibility due to sun glare and improve driving performance to a normal visual situation, particularly for left turn and through movement.

  13. Theory and method at the intersection of anthropology and cultural neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropologists have become increasingly interested in embodiment—that is, the ways that socio-cultural factors influence the form, behavior and subjective experience of human bodies. At the same time, social cognitive neuroscience has begun to reveal the mechanisms of embodiment by investigating the neural underpinnings and consequences of social experience. Despite this overlap, the two fields have barely engaged one another. We suggest three interconnected domains of inquiry in which the intersection of neuroscience and anthropology can productively inform our understanding of the relationship between human brains and their socio-cultural contexts. These are: the social construction of emotion, cultural psychiatry, and the embodiment of ritual. We build on both current research findings in cultural neuroscience and ethnographic data on cultural differences in thought and behavior, to generate novel, ecologically informed hypotheses for future study. In addition, we lay out a specific suggestion for operationalizing insights from anthropology in the context of cultural neuroscience research. Specifically, we advocate the development of field studies that use portable measurement technologies to connect individual patterns of biological response with socio-cultural processes. We illustrate the potential of such an approach with data from a study of psychophysiology and religious devotion in Northeastern Brazil. PMID:19965815

  14. Dynamic Eco-Driving Speed Guidance at Signalized Intersections: Multivehicle Driving Simulator Based Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in vehicle fuel consumption and gas emissions are usually associated with changes in cruise speed and the aggressiveness of drivers’ acceleration/deceleration, especially at traffic signals. In an attempt to enhance vehicle fuel efficiency on arterials, this study developed a dynamic eco-driving speed guidance strategy (DESGS using real-time signal timing and vehicle positioning information in a connected vehicle (CV environment. DESGS mainly aims to optimize the fuel/emission speed profiles for vehicles approaching signalized intersections. An optimization-based rolling horizon and a dynamic programming approach were proposed to track the optimal guided velocity for individual vehicles along the travel segment. In addition, a vehicle specific power (VSP based approach was integrated into DESGS to estimate the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. To evaluate the effectiveness of the overall strategy, 15 experienced drivers were recruited to participate in interactive speed guidance experiments using multivehicle driving simulators. It was found that compared to vehicles without speed guidance, those with DESGS had a significantly reduced number of stops and approximately 25% less fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

  15. Game Theory Model of Traffic Participants within Amber Time at Signalized Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiwei; Wen, Huiying; Fu, Chuanyun; Song, Mo

    2014-01-01

    The traffic light scheme is composed of red, green, and amber lights, and it has been defined clearly for the traffic access of red and green lights; however, the definition of that for the amber light is indistinct, which leads to the appearance of uncertainty factors and serious traffic conflicts during the amber light. At present, the traffic administrations are faced with the decision of whether to forbid passing or not during the amber light in the cities of China. On one hand, it will go against the purpose of setting amber lights if forbidding passing; on the other hand, it may lead to a mess of traffic flow running if not. And meanwhile the drivers are faced with the decision of passing the intersection or stopping during the amber light as well. So the decision-making behavior of traffic administrations and drivers can be converted into a double game model. And through quantification of their earnings in different choice conditions, the optimum decision-making plan under specific conditions could be solved via the Nash equilibrium solution concept. Thus the results will provide a basis for the formulation of the traffic management strategy. PMID:25580108

  16. Modeling Crossing Behavior of Drivers at Unsignalized Intersections with Consideration of Risk Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Miaomiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drivers’ risk perception is vital to driving behavior and traffic safety. In the dynamic interaction of a driver-vehicle-environment system, drivers’ risk perception changes dynamically. This study focused on drivers’ risk perception at unsignalized intersections in China and analyzed drivers’ crossing behavior. Based on cognitive psychology theory and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, quantitative models of drivers’ risk perception were established for the crossing processes between two straight-moving vehicles from the orthogonal direction. The acceptable risk perception levels of drivers were identified using a self-developed data analysis method. Based on game theory, the relationship among the quantitative value of drivers’ risk perception, acceptable risk perception level, and vehicle motion state was analyzed. The models of drivers’ crossing behavior were then established. Finally, the behavior models were validated using data collected from real-world vehicle movements and driver decisions. The results showed that the developed behavior models had both high accuracy and good applicability. This study would provide theoretical and algorithmic references for the microscopic simulation and active safety control system of vehicles.

  17. Development of Model for Pedestrian Gap Based on Land Use Pattern at Midblock Location and Estimation of Delay at Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Adepu; Ashritha, Kilari; Kumar, Molugaram

    2018-04-01

    Walking has always been a prime source of human mobility for short distance travel. Traffic congestion has become a major problem for safe pedestrian crossing in most of the metropolitan cities. This has emphasized for providing a sufficient pedestrian gap for safe crossing on urban road. The present works aims in understanding factors that influence pedestrian crossing behaviour. Four locations were chosen for identification of pedestrian crossing behaviour, gap characteristics, waiting time etc., in Hyderabad city. From the study it was observed that pedestrian behaviour and crossing patterns are different and is influenced by land use pattern. A gap acceptance model was developed from the data for improving pedestrian safety at mid-block location; the model was validated using the existing data. Pedestrian delay was estimated at intersection using Highway Capacity Manual (HCM). It was observed that field delays are less when compared to delay arrived from HCM method.

  18. Outlook from the intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    I review a number of the physics themes of the Fifth Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics, discussing the significance and promise of current work at the interface of these fields. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. Using the event analysis of systemic teamwork (EAST) to explore conflicts between different road user groups when making right hand turns at urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenne, Michael G; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Collisions between different types of road users at intersections form a substantial component of the road toll. This paper presents an analysis of driver, cyclist, motorcyclist and pedestrian behaviour at intersections that involved the application of an integrated suite of ergonomics methods, the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) framework, to on-road study data. EAST was used to analyse behaviour at three intersections using data derived from an on-road study of driver, cyclist, motorcyclist and pedestrian behaviour. The analysis shows the differences in behaviour and cognition across the different road user groups and pinpoints instances where this may be creating conflicts between different road users. The role of intersection design in creating these differences in behaviour and resulting conflicts is discussed. It is concluded that currently intersections are not designed in a way that supports behaviour across the four forms of road user studied. Interventions designed to improve intersection safety are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Intersection safety currently represents a key road safety issue worldwide. This paper presents a novel application of a framework of ergonomics methods for studying differences in road user behaviour at intersections. The findings support development of interventions that consider all road users as opposed to one group in isolation.

  20. EMPIRICAL STUDY ON USABILITY OF CROSSING SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR VISUALLY DISABLED AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koji; Fujita, Motohiro; Matsuura, Kazuma; Fukuzono, Kazuyuki

    This paper evaluates the adjustment process for crossing support system for visually disabled at signalized intersections with the use of pedestrian traffic signals in concert with visible light communication (VLC) technology through outdoor experiments. As for the experiments, we put a blindfold on sighted people by eye mask in order to analyze the behavior of acquired visually disabled. And we used a full-scale crosswalk which is taking into consideration the crossing slope, the bumps at the edge of a crosswalk between the roadway and the sidewalkand crosswalk line. From the results of the survey, it is found that repetitive use of the VLC system decreased the number of lost their bearings completely and ended up standing immobile and reduced the crossing time for each person. On the other hand, it is shown that the performance of our VLC system is nearly equal to the existing support system from the view point of crossing time and the number of standing immobile and we clarified the effect factor for guidance accuracy by the regression analyses. Then we broke test subjects down into patterns by cluster analysis, and explained the walking characteristics for each group as they used the VLC system. In addition, we conducted the additional surveys for the quasi-blind subjects who had difficulty walking by using VLC system and visually impaired users. As a result, it is revealed that guidance accuracy was improved by providing the information about their receiving movement at several points on crosswalk and the habit of their walks for each user.

  1. Quality assurance grading of conventional equipment at nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ping; Li Shichang

    2006-01-01

    Equipment QA grading with the systematic and standardized approach will benefit the concerned organizations by effective allocating of limited resources to guarantee the quality of essential equipment. This paper presents a new quality assurance grading system for the convention systems/equipment of nuclear power station, which is operative and at the same time could help the owner to allot resource reasonably through the analysis of the purpose of grading and the experience and lessons of LINGAO Phase I project. (authors)

  2. Dynamic all-red extension at signalized intersection : probabilistic modeling and algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Red light running has been a major cause of intersection injuries and fatalities in the United : States. In 2004 alone, there were 8,619 fatal crashes and 848,000 crashes with people injured, all : caused by RLR. Under the U.S. Department of Transpor...

  3. The Benefit Impact of Air Pollution Reduction Through ATCS Implementation at Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Budihardjo Mochamad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The field study in five intersections that had ATCS, such as Krapyak, Tugu Muda, Polda, Bangkong and Fatmawati were done to investigate the effectivity of air pollution reduction. The study was done by estimating the differences between the vehicle speed due to the cycle duration of green light by field observation and video recording in each intersection. In five intersections that had been observed, the percentage of fuel consumption savings for two-wheeled vehicles were between 15 – 18%, meanwhile for four-wheel vehicles were between 30 – 46%. Based on the calculation that adopt the emission factor from CORINAIR and USEPA emission, the emission reduction based on pollutant types were TSP (12-17%, NOx (22-36%, CO (15-25%, HC (16-28% and SO2 (22-35%. The result to the vehicles' speed that passed the intersections through ATCS has also indicated that the ATCS could increase vehicle speed and consequently reduce the emission.

  4. Molecular and cellular sex differences at the intersection of stress and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Rita J; Reyes, Beverly; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth; Bangasser, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex biases in the prevalence and severity of diseases can advance our understanding of their pathophysiological basis and serve as a guide for developing treatments. A well-established sex difference in psychiatry is the higher incidence of mood and anxiety disorders in females. These disorders share stress as a potential etiological contributor and hyperarousal as a core symptom, suggesting that the distinction between sexes lies at the intersection of stress and arousal systems. This review focuses on the link between the stress axis and the brain norepinephrine arousal system as a key point at which sex differences occur and are translated to differences in the expression of mood disorders. Evidence for a circuit designed to relay emotion-related information via the limbic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system to the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine arousal system is reviewed. This is followed by recent novel findings of sex differences in CRF receptor signaling and trafficking that would result in an enhanced arousal response and a compromised ability to adapt to chronic stress in females. Finally, we discuss the evidence for sex differences in LC dendritic structure that allow for an increased receipt and processing of limbic information in females compared to males. Together these complementary sets of data suggest that in females, the LC arousal system is poised to process more limbic information and to respond to some of this information in an enhanced manner compared to males. The clinical and therapeutic considerations arising from this perspective are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey Science at the Intersection of Health and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, S. M.; Plumlee, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    People worldwide worry about how their environment affects their health, and expect scientists to help address these concerns. The OneHealth concept recognizes the crucial linkages between environment, human health, and health of other organisms. Many US Geological Survey science activities directly examine or help inform how the Earth and the environment influence toxicological and infectious diseases. Key is our ability to bring to bear a collective expertise in environmental processes, geology, hydrology, hazards, microbiology, analytical chemistry, ecosystems, energy/mineral resources, geospatial technologies, and other disciplines. Our science examines sources, environmental transport and fate, biological effects, and human exposure pathways of many microbial (e.g. bacteria, protozoans, viruses, fungi), inorganic (e.g. asbestos, arsenic, lead, mercury) and organic (e.g. algal toxins, pesticides, pharmaceuticals) contaminants from geologic, anthropogenic, and disaster sources. We develop new laboratory, experimental, and field methods to analyze, model, and map contaminants, to determine their baseline and natural background levels, and to measure their biological effects. We examine the origins, environmental persistence, wildlife effects, and potential for transmission to humans of pathogens that cause zoonotic or vector-borne diseases (e.g., avian influenza or West Nile virus). Collaborations with human health scientists from many organizations are essential. For example, our work with epidemiologists and toxicologists helps understand the exposure pathways and roles of geologically sourced toxicants such as arsenic (via drinking water) and asbestos (via dusts) in cancer. Work with pulmonologists and pathologists helps clarify the sources and fate of inhaled mineral particles in lungs. Wildlife health scientists help human health scientists assess animals as sentinels of human disease. Such transdisciplinary science is essential at the intersection of health

  6. Evaluation of pedestrian safety at intersections: A theoretical framework based on pedestrian-vehicle interaction patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ying; Wang, Menglong; Sun, Jian; Li, Keping

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, and pedestrian safety has become a major research focus in recent years. Regarding the quality and quantity issues with collision data, conflict analysis using surrogate safety measures has become a useful method to study pedestrian safety. However, given the inequality between pedestrians and vehicles in encounters and the multiple interactions between pedestrians and vehicles, it is insufficient to simply use the same indicator(s) or the same way to aggregate indicators for all conditions. In addition, behavioral factors cannot be neglected. To better use information extracted from trajectories for safety evaluation and pay more attention on effects of behavioral factors, this paper develops a more sophisticated framework for pedestrian conflict analysis that takes pedestrian-vehicle interactions into consideration. A concept of three interaction patterns has been proposed for the first time, namely "hard interaction," "no interaction," and "soft-interaction." Interactions have been categorized under one of these patterns by analyzing profiles of speed and conflict indicators during the whole interactive processes. In this paper, a support vector machine (SVM) approach has been adopted to classify severity levels for a dataset including 1144 events extracted from three intersections in Shanghai, China, followed by an analysis of variable importance. The results revealed that different conflict indicators have different contributions to indicating the severity level under various interaction patterns. Therefore, it is recommended either to use specific conflict indicators or to use weighted indicator aggregation for each interaction pattern when evaluating pedestrian safety. The implementation has been carried out at the fourth crosswalk, and the results indicate that the proposed method can achieve a higher accuracy and better robustness than conventional methods. Furthermore, the method is helpful for better

  7. Modeling the frequency of opposing left-turn conflicts at signalized intersections using generalized linear regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Pan; Chen, Yuguang; Bai, Lu; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify whether the frequency of traffic conflicts at signalized intersections can be modeled. The opposing left-turn conflicts were selected for the development of conflict predictive models. Using data collected at 30 approaches at 20 signalized intersections, the underlying distributions of the conflicts under different traffic conditions were examined. Different conflict-predictive models were developed to relate the frequency of opposing left-turn conflicts to various explanatory variables. The models considered include a linear regression model, a negative binomial model, and separate models developed for four traffic scenarios. The prediction performance of different models was compared. The frequency of traffic conflicts follows a negative binominal distribution. The linear regression model is not appropriate for the conflict frequency data. In addition, drivers behaved differently under different traffic conditions. Accordingly, the effects of conflicting traffic volumes on conflict frequency vary across different traffic conditions. The occurrences of traffic conflicts at signalized intersections can be modeled using generalized linear regression models. The use of conflict predictive models has potential to expand the uses of surrogate safety measures in safety estimation and evaluation.

  8. Influence of dimension box differences and time differences during operations of red box for motorcycles at signalized intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyadi, Agah Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Performance of signalized intersection has declined due to a large number of motorcycles. The number of motorcycles reached 98.2 million units and the composition of motorcycles has reached around 81.7% of the total composition of vehicles in Indonesia (AISI, 2017). To solve that problem, the red box for motorcycles are provided at the signalized intersection. Red box for the motorcycle at signalized intersections was developed from the concept of Advance Stop Line (ASL) for bicycles. The Red Box was developed to split the queue between motorcycles and other vehicles when waiting at red light. This paper aims to evaluate the influence of the red box dimension and red time operation differences. The survey was conducted as many as 30 cycles of traffic signals per day. The data were analyzed using software IBM SPSS Statistics 20 by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to obtain p-value (significant). The analysis shows that there are insignificant influences between the occupancy rates to the dimension of Red Box. Furthermore, that there is a significant difference that shows the dependency of only motorcycles in the Red Box Area towards red time operation.

  9. Research on the Method of Setting Waiting Area for Non-motor Vehicle at Signal Control Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yun Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric bicycle has become an indispensable important component of the transportation system. The fact is that traffic organization and channelizing design of signal control intersection is not intensive, which cannot adapt to the current traffic demand of non-motor vehicle, such as unclear traffic rules and poor visibility, thus the traffic safety of non-motor vehicle is not optimistic. Therefore, it is necessary to study on traffic organization method based on the demand of non-motor vehicle, which can provide certain theoretical basis for traffic administrative department to make policy and traffic design. This article focuses on the method of setting waiting area for non-motor vehicle at signal control intersection, including the advantages, disadvantages and the applicable conditions.

  10. An extended car-following model at un-signalized intersections under V2V communication environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Li, Peng

    2018-01-01

    An extended car-following model is proposed in this paper to analyze the impacts of V2V (vehicle to vehicle) communication on the micro driving behavior at the un-signalized intersection. A four-leg un-signalized intersection with twelve streams (left-turn, through movement, and right turn from each leg) is used. The effect of the guidance strategy on the reduction of the rate of stops and total delay is explored by comparing the proposed model and the traditional FVD car-following model. The numerical results illustrate that potential conflicts between vehicles can be predicted and some stops can be avoided by decelerating in advance. The driving comfort and traffic efficiency can be improved accordingly. More benefits could be obtained under the long communication range, low to medium traffic density, and simple traffic pattern conditions. PMID:29425243

  11. Intersectionality at Work: South Asian Muslim Women's Experiences of Employment and Leadership in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Memoona; Syed, Jawad

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative interviews with 20 South Asian heritage, Muslim, female leaders, managers, and supervisors in the United Kingdom, we examine the multi-layered issues and challenges they face in pursuit of employment and leadership positions. The paper offers an intersectional perspective taking into account interconnected and overlapping factors (gender, ethnicity, religion, and family status) that affect not only the issues and challenges these women face in the labour market but also the individual agency and strategies they use to overcome any obstacles in the way of their employment and career. The results show that although Muslim women continue to face a myriad of challenges in the workplace, they are also able to tackle some of these issues through their individual strategies and networks, such as personal networks and further education. The study highlights the need for policymakers and employers to consider intersectionality to enable ethnic minority women's inclusion and leadership within and outside the workplace.

  12. Calculation of vehicle delay at signal-controlled intersections with adaptive traffic control algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronov Roman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By widely introducing information technology tools in the field of traffic control, it is possible to increase the capacity of hubs and reduce vehicle delays. Adaptive traffic light control is one of such tools. Its effectiveness can be assessed through traffic flow simulation. The aim of this study is to create a simulation model of a signal-controlled intersection that can be used to assess the effectiveness of adaptive control in various traffic situations, including the presence or absence of pedestrian traffic through an intersection. The model is based on a numerical experiment conducted using the Monte Carlo method. As a result of the study, vehicle delays, queue length and duration of traffic light cycles are calculated subject to different intensities of incoming traffic flows, and the presence or absence of pedestrian traffic.

  13. A Fully-Distributed Heuristic Algorithm for Control of Autonomous Vehicle Movements at Isolated Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah A. Hassan; Hesham A. Rakha

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing autonomous vehicle movements through roadway intersections is a challenging problem. It has been demonstrated in the literature that traditional traffic control, such as traffic signal and stop sign control are not optimal especially for heavy traffic demand levels. Alternatively, centralized autonomous vehicle control strategies are costly and not scalable given that the ability of a central controller to track and schedule the movement of hundreds of vehicles in real-time is ques...

  14. Distributed Algorithm for Collision Avoidance at Road Intersections in the Presence of Communication Failures

    OpenAIRE

    Savic, Vladimir; Schiller, Elad M.; Papatriantafilou, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication is a crucial component of the future autonomous driving systems since it enables improved awareness of the surrounding environment, even without extensive processing of sensory information. However, V2V communication is prone to failures and delays, so a distributed fault-tolerant approach is required for safe and efficient transportation. In this paper, we focus on the intersection crossing (IC) problem with autonomous vehicles that cooperate via V2V co...

  15. Analysis of Emission Effects Related to Drivers’ Compliance Rates for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruohua Liao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Unknown remaining time of signal phase at a signalized intersection generally results in extra accelerations and decelerations that increase variations of operating conditions and thus emissions. A cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system can reduce unnecessary speed changes by establishing communications between vehicles and the signal infrastructure. However, the environmental benefits largely depend on drivers’ compliance behaviors. To quantify the effects of drivers’ compliance rates on emissions, this study applied VISSIM 5.20 (Planung Transport Verkehr AG, Karlsruhe, Germany to develop a simulation model for a signalized intersection, in which light duty vehicles were equipped with a cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system. A vehicle-specific power (VSP-based model was used to estimate emissions. Based on simulation data, the effects of different compliance rates on VSP distributions, emission factors, and total emissions were analyzed. The results show the higher compliance rate decreases the proportion of VSP bin = 0, which means that the frequencies of braking and idling were lower and light duty vehicles ran more smoothly at the intersection if more light duty vehicles complied with the cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system, and emission factors for light duty vehicles decreased significantly as the compliance rate increased. The case study shows higher total emission reductions were observed with higher compliance rate for all of CO2, NOx, HC, and CO emissions. CO2 was reduced most significantly, decreased by 16% and 22% with compliance rates of 0.3 and 0.7, respectively.

  16. Analysis of Emission Effects Related to Drivers' Compliance Rates for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System at Signalized Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ruohua; Chen, Xumei; Yu, Lei; Sun, Xiaofei

    2018-01-12

    Unknown remaining time of signal phase at a signalized intersection generally results in extra accelerations and decelerations that increase variations of operating conditions and thus emissions. A cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system can reduce unnecessary speed changes by establishing communications between vehicles and the signal infrastructure. However, the environmental benefits largely depend on drivers' compliance behaviors. To quantify the effects of drivers' compliance rates on emissions, this study applied VISSIM 5.20 (Planung Transport Verkehr AG, Karlsruhe, Germany) to develop a simulation model for a signalized intersection, in which light duty vehicles were equipped with a cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system. A vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based model was used to estimate emissions. Based on simulation data, the effects of different compliance rates on VSP distributions, emission factors, and total emissions were analyzed. The results show the higher compliance rate decreases the proportion of VSP bin = 0, which means that the frequencies of braking and idling were lower and light duty vehicles ran more smoothly at the intersection if more light duty vehicles complied with the cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system, and emission factors for light duty vehicles decreased significantly as the compliance rate increased. The case study shows higher total emission reductions were observed with higher compliance rate for all of CO₂, NO x , HC, and CO emissions. CO₂ was reduced most significantly, decreased by 16% and 22% with compliance rates of 0.3 and 0.7, respectively.

  17. Analysis of Emission Effects Related to Drivers’ Compliance Rates for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System at Signalized Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ruohua; Yu, Lei; Sun, Xiaofei

    2018-01-01

    Unknown remaining time of signal phase at a signalized intersection generally results in extra accelerations and decelerations that increase variations of operating conditions and thus emissions. A cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system can reduce unnecessary speed changes by establishing communications between vehicles and the signal infrastructure. However, the environmental benefits largely depend on drivers’ compliance behaviors. To quantify the effects of drivers’ compliance rates on emissions, this study applied VISSIM 5.20 (Planung Transport Verkehr AG, Karlsruhe, Germany) to develop a simulation model for a signalized intersection, in which light duty vehicles were equipped with a cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system. A vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based model was used to estimate emissions. Based on simulation data, the effects of different compliance rates on VSP distributions, emission factors, and total emissions were analyzed. The results show the higher compliance rate decreases the proportion of VSP bin = 0, which means that the frequencies of braking and idling were lower and light duty vehicles ran more smoothly at the intersection if more light duty vehicles complied with the cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system, and emission factors for light duty vehicles decreased significantly as the compliance rate increased. The case study shows higher total emission reductions were observed with higher compliance rate for all of CO2, NOx, HC, and CO emissions. CO2 was reduced most significantly, decreased by 16% and 22% with compliance rates of 0.3 and 0.7, respectively. PMID:29329214

  18. Micro-simulation of vehicle conflicts involving right-turn vehicles at signalized intersections based on cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, C; Wong, Y D

    2014-02-01

    At intersection, vehicles coming from different directions conflict with each other. Improper geometric design and signal settings at signalized intersection will increase occurrence of conflicts between road users and results in a reduction of the safety level. This study established a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate vehicular interactions involving right-turn vehicles (as similar to left-turn vehicles in US). Through various simulation scenarios for four case cross-intersections, the relationships between conflict occurrences involving right-turn vehicles with traffic volume and right-turn movement control strategies are analyzed. Impacts of traffic volume, permissive right-turn compared to red-amber-green (RAG) arrow, shared straight-through and right-turn lane as well as signal setting are estimated from simulation results. The simulation model is found to be able to provide reasonable assessment of conflicts through comparison of existed simulation approach and observed accidents. Through the proposed approach, prediction models for occurrences and severity of vehicle conflicts can be developed for various geometric layouts and traffic control strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Concurrent audio-visual feedback for supporting drivers at intersections: A study using two linked driving simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtenbos, M; de Winter, J C F; Hale, A R; Wieringa, P A; Hagenzieker, M P

    2017-04-01

    A large portion of road traffic crashes occur at intersections for the reason that drivers lack necessary visual information. This research examined the effects of an audio-visual display that provides real-time sonification and visualization of the speed and direction of another car approaching the crossroads on an intersecting road. The location of red blinking lights (left vs. right on the speedometer) and the lateral input direction of beeps (left vs. right ear in headphones) corresponded to the direction from where the other car approached, and the blink and beep rates were a function of the approaching car's speed. Two driving simulators were linked so that the participant and the experimenter drove in the same virtual world. Participants (N = 25) completed four sessions (two with the audio-visual display on, two with the audio-visual display off), each session consisting of 22 intersections at which the experimenter approached from the left or right and either maintained speed or slowed down. Compared to driving with the display off, the audio-visual display resulted in enhanced traffic efficiency (i.e., greater mean speed, less coasting) while not compromising safety (i.e., the time gap between the two vehicles was equivalent). A post-experiment questionnaire showed that the beeps were regarded as more useful than the lights. It is argued that the audio-visual display is a promising means of supporting drivers until fully automated driving is technically feasible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effect of Pedestrians on the Saturation Flow Rate of Right Turn Movements at Signalized Intersection - Case Study from Rasht City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, Mostafa; Bargegol, Iraj

    2017-10-01

    Saturation flow rate is one of the important items in the analysis of the capacity of signalized intersections that are affected by some factors. Pedestrian crossing on signalized intersection is one of the factors which influence the vehicles flow. In addition, the released researches determined that the greatest impact of pedestrian on the saturation flow occurred in the Conflict zone where the highest chance of the encounter of pedestrians and vehicles has in turning movements. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the saturation flow rate considering the effect of a pedestrian on right turn movements of the signalized intersections in Rasht city. For this goal, 6 signalized intersections with 90 cycles of reviews were selected for the estimation of saturation flow rate by the microscopic method and also 3 right turn lanes containing radius differences with 70 cycles of reviews were collected for the investigation of the pedestrians’ effects. Each phase of right turn lanes cycle was divided in the pieces of 10-second period which was totally 476 sample volumes of considered pedestrians and vehicles at that period. Only 101 samples of those were ranged as saturated conditions. Finally, using different regression models, the best relationship between pedestrian’s volume and right turning vehicles flow parameters was evaluated. The results indicate that there is a primarily linear relationship between pedestrian volume and right turning vehicles flow with R2=0.6261. According to this regression model with the increase in pedestrians, saturation flow rate will be reduced. In addition, by comparing the adjustment factor obtained in the present study and other studies, it was found that the effect of pedestrians on the right-turn movements in Rasht city is less than the rest of the world.

  1. Zone of influence for particle number concentrations at signalised traffic intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Anju; Kumar, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of zone of influences (ZoI) at signalised traffic intersections (TI) is important to accurately model particle number concentrations (PNCs) and their exposure to public at emission hotspot locations. However, estimates of ZoI for PNCs at different types of TIs are barely known. We carried out mobile measurements inside the car cabin with windows fully open for size-resolved PNCs in the 5-560 nm range on a 6 km long busy round route that had 10 TIs. These included four-way TIs without built-up area (TI4w-nb), four-way TIs with built-up area (TI4w-wb), three-way TIs without built-up area (TI3w-nb) and three-way TIs with built-up area (TI3w-wb). Mobile measurements were made with a fast response differential mobility spectrometer (DMS50). Driving speed and position of the car were recorded every second using a global positioning system (GPS). Positive matrix factorisation (PMF) modelling was applied on the data to quantify the contribution of PNCs released during deceleration, creep-idling, acceleration and cruising to total PNCs at the TIs. The objectives were to address the following questions: (i) how does ZoI vary at different types of TIs in stop- and go-driving conditions?, (ii) what is the effect of different driving conditions on ZoI of a TI?, (iii) how realistically can the PNC profiles be generalised within a ZoI of a TI?, and (iv) what is the share of emissions during different driving conditions towards the total PNCs at a TI? Average length of ZoI in longitudinal direction and along the road was found to be the highest (148 m; 89 to -59 m from the centre of a TI) at a TI3w-wb, followed by TI4w-nb (129 m; 79 to -42 m), TI3w-nb (86 m; 71 to -15 m) and TI4w-wb (79 m; 46 to -33 m) in stop- and go-driving conditions. During multiple stopping driving conditions when a vehicle stops at a TI more than once in a signal cycle due to oversaturation of vehicles, average length of ZoI increased by 55, 22 and 21% at TI4w-nb, TI3w-nb and TI3w-wb, respectively

  2. Understanding driver behavior at grade crossings through signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report uses signal detection theory (SDT) to model motorists decisionmaking strategies at grade crossings in order to understand the factors that influence such decisions and to establish a framework for evaluating the impact of proposed coun...

  3. Understanding driver behavior at grade crossings through signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    This report uses signal detection theory (SDT) to model motorists decisionmaking strategies at grade crossings in order to understand the factors that influence such decisions and to establish a framework for evaluating the impact of proposed coun...

  4. At grade optical crossover for monolithic optial circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Planar optical circuits may be made to cross through each other, (thus eliminating extra steps required to fabricate elevated, nonintersecting crossovers) by control of the dimensions of the crossing light conductors (10, 12) to be significantly greater than d=0.89.lambda. and the angle of crossing as nearly 90.degree. as conveniently possible. A light trap may be provided just ahead of the intersection to trap any light being reflected in the source conductor at angles greater than about 45.degree.. The light trap may take the form of triangular shaped portions (16a, 16b) on each side of the source conductor with the far side of the triangular portion receiving incident light at an angle so that incident light will be reflected to the other side, or it may take the form of windows (18a, 18b) in place of the triangular portions. Planar optical circuit boards (21-23) may be fabricated and stacked to form a keyboard (20) with intersecting conductors (26-29) and keyholes (0-9) where conductors merge at the broad side of the circuit boards. These keyholes may be prearranged to form an array or matrix of keyholes.

  5. Disaster Concept at Different Educational Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Dikmenli, Yurdal; Gafa, İbrahim

    2017-01-01

    Disasters cover allthe events that damage both humans and their living environment. The disasters whichstem from nature are called natural disasters while those which stem from humankind,are called human disasters. Since humans constantly encounter such events at differenttimes, places and in different forms, it is inevitable that they will be affectedby them. Thus, one wonders what people understand the concept of disaster tobe. The aim of this study is to identify the students from all the ...

  6. Ortographic difficulties in writing at a basic grade level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo Joly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the performance in children’s writing at a basic grade level. A written test was applied to 546 grade 2 or 3 boys and girls (aged 7 to 13 in public and private schools from the State of São Paulo. The results showed that the grade 3 participants presented a better performance than the grade 2 participants even though both groups have achieved the same maximum and minimum scores. It was confirmed that participants had more difficulty with words containing compound syllables, while words with aggregated consonants and digraphs were associated with the highest rate of correct answers. Furthermore, students from private school revealed more competence in orthographic writing than those coming from public schools. As to gender differences, there were no significant differences in performance for compound and complex syllables items though for other words, girls had better scores.   Keywords: writing; academic achievement; evaluation.

  7. Multilevel models for evaluating the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions at intersections and mid-blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistberg, D Alex; Howard, Eric J; Ebel, Beth E; Moudon, Anne V; Saelens, Brian E; Hurvitz, Philip M; Curtin, James E; Rivara, Frederick P

    2015-11-01

    Walking is a popular form of physical activity associated with clear health benefits. Promoting safe walking for pedestrians requires evaluating the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions at specific roadway locations in order to identify where road improvements and other interventions may be needed. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the risk of pedestrian collisions at intersections and mid-blocks in Seattle, WA. The study used 2007-2013 pedestrian-motor vehicle collision data from police reports and detailed characteristics of the microenvironment and macroenvironment at intersection and mid-block locations. The primary outcome was the number of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions over time at each location (incident rate ratio [IRR] and 95% confidence interval [95% CI]). Multilevel mixed effects Poisson models accounted for correlation within and between locations and census blocks over time. Analysis accounted for pedestrian and vehicle activity (e.g., residential density and road classification). In the final multivariable model, intersections with 4 segments or 5 or more segments had higher pedestrian collision rates compared to mid-blocks. Non-residential roads had significantly higher rates than residential roads, with principal arterials having the highest collision rate. The pedestrian collision rate was higher by 9% per 10 feet of street width. Locations with traffic signals had twice the collision rate of locations without a signal and those with marked crosswalks also had a higher rate. Locations with a marked crosswalk also had higher risk of collision. Locations with a one-way road or those with signs encouraging motorists to cede the right-of-way to pedestrians had fewer pedestrian collisions. Collision rates were higher in locations that encourage greater pedestrian activity (more bus use, more fast food restaurants, higher employment, residential, and population densities). Locations with higher intersection density had a lower

  8. Intersectionality at Work: Determinants of Labor Supply among Immigrant Latinas1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2015-01-01

    This article borrows from the intersectionality literature to investigate how legal status, labor market position, and family characteristics structure the labor supply of immigrant Latinas in Durham, NC, a new immigrant destination. The analysis takes a broad view of labor force participation, analyzing the predictors of whether or not women work; whether and how the barriers to work vary across occupations; and variation in hours and weeks worked among the employed. I also explicitly investigate the extent to which family constraints interact with other social characteristics, especially legal status, in shaping women’s labor market position. Results highlight that immigrant Latinas experience multiple, interrelated constraints on employment owing to their position as low-skill workers in a labor market highly segregated by gender and nativity, to their status as members of a largely undocumented population, and as wives and mothers in an environment characterized by significant work-family conflict. PMID:26843783

  9. Using Traffic Conflict Method in Evaluating Traffic Safety at the Reconstructed Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Bukljaš

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of organised social system, traffic is subjected togeneral social tendency towards adequate safety and sustainabilityof relations in such a system, probabilistically marked bythe risk of danger. Inte1polation of subjective factor facilitatesthe occwTence of negative phenomena. Road traffic system ischaracterised by extremely massive participation in traffic, contributingthus to a greater possibility of negative features characteristicfor imperfect human mechanism. This is precisely thereason why this paper deals with the problem of traffic safety onthe concrete example of the intersection between the SavskaStreet and the Slavonska and LjubljanskaAvenues over the periodof time prior to constmcting the new unde1pass solution,and the period of time immediately after the construction workswere completed. The used data have been provided by the TrafficPolice Department - Lucko.

  10. Multi-format music use at the intersection of downloading and streaming practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ægidius, Andreas Lenander

    2017-01-01

    in accordance with the licensed agreements between the music industry and the IT-industry. The listeners seem unaffected by the technological changes and even the less tech-savvy listeners can easily stream-rip to produce music files from stream, which they then re-commodify by adjusting the metadata inscribed......This paper will investigate the restructuring of digital online music use related to the remediation of the music download as a music stream. The paper draws on the empirical findings of my PhD-study based on qualitative interviews with young listeners (n16), professional musicians (n10......) and distributors from Spotify, TDC Play, Tidal, and 24/7 Entertainment (n4). Interviewing three different social groups (n30 total) represents a unique approach with which to answer the question how music files are understood and used in the intersection between download-based and stream-based music practices...

  11. Characteristics of turn signal use at intersections in baseline naturalistic driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, John M; Bao, Shan; Goudy, Roy; Konet, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a driver's use of turn signals is sufficiently reliable to forecast a vehicle's future path around an intersection, when detailed information about the intersection is unavailable. Naturalistic observations of turn signal use among 108 drivers on surface streets were extracted from the baseline portion of a field operational test of a safety system. Left and right turns that resulted in heading changes of between 70 and 110° and turn radii between 18 and 90 m were selected from the dataset. The odds that a driver would signal a turn were modeled as a function of road type, turn direction, presence of a forward vehicle, whether the vehicle stopped before the turn, and driver age and gender. Overall, 25 percent of left turns and 29 percent of right turns were not signaled. Road type, turn direction, and presence of a forward vehicle were found to influence the odds that a turn is signaled, while gender and age of the driver did not. The results suggest that situational factors like road type and turn direction are more powerful predictors of whether a turn will be signaled than either age or gender. Signaling on major and minor surface roads was about 5 times more likely than on local roads and 1.5 times more likely when a forward vehicle was present, suggesting a possible effect of traffic volume. It was concluded that turn signal activation alone may be insufficiently reliable to forecast a driver's path. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ISR Intersection 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 1 by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R105). It consists of two almost identical magnetic spectrometers centered at 90 degrees on opposite sides of the intersection region. In each spectrometer one can see magnetostrictive wire spark chambers, a magnet, more chambers and various hodoscopes of scintillation counters. Gas Cerenkov counters (almost invisible in the picture) are located in the gap of each magnet. On the left hand side, a matrix of 119 lead glass Cerenkov counters is located behind some concrete and iron shielding.

  13. The White Habitus and Hegemonic Masculinity at the Elite Southern University: Asian Americans and the Need for Intersectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind S. Chou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our article demonstrates the power of white habitus, prevalence of colorblind racism, and effect of hegemonic masculine ideology on Asian American students at an elite Southern university. This study takes an intersectional approach towards white habitus, acknowledging the gendered sexualized nature of colorblind racial ideology. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 Asian American undergraduates, we emphasize that Asian Americans are not immune to the racist and racialized experiences of even the most elite American universities and its social spaces. Findings suggest that white habitus and exclusionary white university Greek spaces support a racialized, sexualized, and gendered socialization that intimatley affects our respondents. Our Asian American undergraduates describe instances of sexualized racism and racialized romantic experiences that are particular by gender. We also discuss how our participants have adopted and internalized ideology produced from white habitus and colorblind racism at the university. White habitus socializes and shapes Asian American students at an elite Southern university through intersecting domains of power and through exclusion in largely white spaces.

  14. Eco-Approach and Departure System for Left-Turn Vehicles at a Fixed-Time Signalized Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifu Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposed an eco-approach and departure system for left-turn vehicles at a fixed-time signalized intersection. This system gives higher priority to enhancing traffic safety than improving mobility and fuel efficiency, and optimizes the entire traffic consisted of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs and conventional human-driven vehicles by providing ecological speed trajectories for left-turn CAVs. All the ecological speed trajectories are offline optimized before the implementation of system. The speed trajectory optimization is constructed in Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle structure. The before and after evaluation of the proposed system shows the percentage of vehicles that drive pass the intersection at safe speed increases by 2.14% to 45.65%, fuel consumption benefits range 0.53% to 18.44%, emission benefits range from 0.57% to 15.69%, no significant throughput benefits is observed. The proposed system significantly enhances the traffic safety and improves the fuel efficiency and emission reduction of left-turn vehicles with no adverse effect on mobility, and has a good robustness against the randomness of traffic. The investigation also indicates that the computation time of proposed system is greatly reduced compared to previous eco-driving system with online speed optimization. The computation time is up to 0.01 s. The proposed system is ready for real-time application.

  15. Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle NOx and CO2 Emissions Based on Prediction of Arrival Traffic Flows at Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from vehicles have been increasing every year because of the growing number of vehicles, and they cause serious environmental problems such as air pollution and global warming. To alleviate these problems, this paper proposes a new traffic signal control method for reducing vehicle NOx and CO2 emissions on arterial roads. To this end, we first model the amount of vehicle emissions as a function of the traffic delay and the number of stops at intersections. This step is necessary because it is difficult to obtain the amount of emissions directly using traffic control systems. Second, we introduce a signal control model in which the control parameters are continuously updated on the basis of predictions of arrival traffic flows at intersections. The signal timings are calculated in such a manner so as to minimize the weighted sum of the two emissions, which depend on the traffic flow. To evaluate the validity of this method, simulation experiments are carried out on an arterial road. The experiments show that the proposed method significantly outperforms existing methods in reducing both the emissions and travel time.

  16. Open badges for education: what are the implications at the intersection of open systems and badging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Ahn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Badges have garnered great interest among scholars of digital media and learning. In addition, widespread initiatives such as Mozilla’s Open Badge Framework expand the potential of badging into the realm of open education. In this paper, we explicate the concept of open badges. We highlight some of the ways that researchers have examined badges as part of educational practice and also highlight the different definitions of open-ness that are employed in popular and scholarly thought. By considering badges from three different perspectives (motivation, pedagogy, and credential and the concept of openness from three different perspectives (production, access and appropriation we develop a framework to consider the tensions where these competing conceptions meet. This explication illuminates how the ideas of open and badges intersect, and clarifies situations where these concepts come into direct conflict or mutually enhance each other. Our analysis pinpoints and elucidates particular areas where research is needed to better understand the complex phenomenon of open badges, and also offers design considerations for developers, educators, and organizations that are actively involved in open badges.

  17. Evaluation of Deployment Challenges of Wireless Sensor Networks at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Azpilicueta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demand of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS for safer and more efficient transportation, research on and development of such vehicular communication systems have increased considerably in the last years. The use of wireless networks in vehicular environments has grown exponentially. However, it is highly important to analyze radio propagation prior to the deployment of a wireless sensor network in such complex scenarios. In this work, the radio wave characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs deployed taking advantage of the existence of traffic light infrastructure has been assessed. By means of an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, the impact of topology as well as urban morphology of the environment has been analyzed, emulating the realistic operation in the framework of the scenario. The complexity of the scenario, which is an intersection city area with traffic lights, vehicles, people, buildings, vegetation and urban environment, makes necessary the channel characterization with accurate models before the deployment of wireless networks. A measurement campaign has been conducted emulating the interaction of the system, in the vicinity of pedestrians as well as nearby vehicles. A real time interactive application has been developed and tested in order to visualize and monitor traffic as well as pedestrian user location and behavior. Results show that the use of deterministic tools in WSN deployment can aid in providing optimal layouts in terms of coverage, capacity and energy efficiency of the network.

  18. Pathways to Aging: The Mitochondrion at the Intersection of Biological and Psychosocial Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Picard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compelling evidence suggests that both biological and psychosocial factors impact the process of aging. However, our understanding of the dynamic interplay among biological and psychosocial factors across the life course is still fragmentary. For example, it needs to be established how the interaction of individual factors (e.g., genetic and epigenetic endowment and personality, behavioral factors (e.g., physical activity, diet, and stress management, and psychosocial experiences (e.g., social support, well-being, socioeconomic status, and marriage in perinatal, childhood, and adulthood influence health across the aging continuum. This paper aims to outline potential intersection points serving as an interface between biological and psychosocial factors, with an emphasis on the mitochondrion. Mitochondria are cellular organelles which play a critical role in cellular senescence. Both chronic exposure to psychosocial stress and genetic-based mitochondrial dysfunction have strikingly similar biological consequences; both predispose individuals to adverse age-related health disorders and early mortality. Exploring the interactive nature of the factors resulting in pathways to normal healthy aging, as well as those leading to morbidity and early mortality, will continue to enhance our ability to translate research into effective practices that can be implemented throughout the life course to optimise the aging process.

  19. PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENT (PCE OF THROUGH VEHICLES AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS IN DHAKA METROPOLITAN CITY, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha SAHA

    2009-01-01

    PCE currently used in Bangladesh is based on the values given in Geometric Design of Highways (MoC, 2001, which is the modification of the values given by Webster (1958 on the study performed in the United Kingdom in the 50's and 60's. But now-a-days, the situation is far different both for traffic and road user as the characteristics have changed from that time. Hence, in this paper an empirical study was carried out to determine the PCE of different types of vehicle that reflect the actual traffic conditions of Dhaka Metropolitan City. Data were collected from ten signalized intersections and the headway ratio method was used to estimate the PCE of different types of vehicle. The main vehicle compositions observed during the study period consist of passenger cars, auto-rickshaws, mini-buses and buses. The PCE obtained in this study were compared to the values established earlier. It was found that the estimated PCE are smaller than those being used in Bangladesh.

  20. Pathways to aging: the mitochondrion at the intersection of biological and psychosocial sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that both biological and psychosocial factors impact the process of aging. However, our understanding of the dynamic interplay among biological and psychosocial factors across the life course is still fragmentary. For example, it needs to be established how the interaction of individual factors (e.g., genetic and epigenetic endowment and personality), behavioral factors (e.g., physical activity, diet, and stress management), and psychosocial experiences (e.g., social support, well-being, socioeconomic status, and marriage) in perinatal, childhood, and adulthood influence health across the aging continuum. This paper aims to outline potential intersection points serving as an interface between biological and psychosocial factors, with an emphasis on the mitochondrion. Mitochondria are cellular organelles which play a critical role in cellular senescence. Both chronic exposure to psychosocial stress and genetic-based mitochondrial dysfunction have strikingly similar biological consequences; both predispose individuals to adverse age-related health disorders and early mortality. Exploring the interactive nature of the factors resulting in pathways to normal healthy aging, as well as those leading to morbidity and early mortality, will continue to enhance our ability to translate research into effective practices that can be implemented throughout the life course to optimise the aging process.

  1. Racism at the intersections: Gender and socioeconomic differences in the experience of racism among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-09-01

    Several studies investigating the health effects of racism have reported gender and socioeconomic differences in exposures to racism, with women typically reporting lower frequencies, and individuals with greater resources reporting higher frequencies. This study used diverse measures of socioeconomic position and multiple measures and methods to assess experienced racism. Socioeconomic position included education and financial and employment status. Quantitative racism measures assessed individual experiences with day-to-day and with major lifetime incidents and perceptions of the extent to which African Americans as a group experience racism. A brief qualitative question asked respondents to describe a racist incident that stood out in recent memory. Participants comprised a probability sample of N = 144 African American adults aged 19 to 87 residing in New York City. Results suggested that women reported fewer lifetime incidents but did not differ from men on everyday racism. These differences appear to be partly because of scale content. Socioeconomic position as measured by years of education was positively associated with reported racism in the total sample but differently patterned across gender; subjective social status showed a negative association. Qualitative responses describing memorable incidents fell into 5 key categories: resources/opportunity structures, criminal profiling, racial aggression/assault, interpersonal incivilities, and stereotyping. In these narratives, men were more likely to offer accounts involving criminal profiling, and women encountered incivilities more often. The findings highlight the need for closer attention to the intersection of gender and socioeconomic factors in investigations of the health effects of racism. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Traffic flow behavior at un-signalized intersection with crossings pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouk, A.; Echab, H.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Lakouari, N.

    2018-02-01

    Mixed traffic flux composed of crossing pedestrians and vehicles extensively exists in cities. To study the characteristics of the interference traffic flux, we develop a pedestrian-vehicle cellular automata model to present the interaction behaviors on a simple cross road. By realizing the fundamental parameters (i.e. injecting rates α1, α2, the extracting rate β and the pedestrian arrival rate αP), simulations are carried out. The vehicular traffic flux is calculated in terms of rates. The effect of the crosswalk can be regarded as a dynamic impurity. The system phase diagrams in the (α1 ,αP) plane are built. It is found that the phase diagrams consist essentially of four phases namely Free Flow, Congested, Maximal Current and Gridlock. The value of the Maximal current phase depends on the extracting rate β, while the Gridlock phase is achieved only when the pedestrians generating rate is higher than a critical value. Furthermore, the effect of vehicles changing lane (Pch1 ,Pch2) and the location of the crosswalk XP on the dynamic characteristics of vehicles flow are investigated. It is found that traffic situation in the system is slightly enhanced if the location of the crosswalks XP is far from the intersection. However, when Pch1, Pch2 increase, the traffic becomes congested and the Gridlock phase enlarges.

  3. The limits of intensive feeding: maternal foodwork at the intersections of race, class, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, Joslyn

    2017-07-01

    Despite experiencing numerous barriers, mothers today confront increasing social pressure to embody perfection through their foodwork. A growing body of social science research identifies how gender and class inequality shape women's perceptions of food and their feeding strategies, but this research is thus far limited in its understanding of the roles that race and ethnic identity play in a mother's food landscape. Drawing on 60 in-depth interviews with a racially and economically diverse group of mothers, this paper examines how feeding young children is intertwined with contemporary ideas about child health as well as women's efforts to negotiate race, class, and gender hierarchies. Extending Hays' concept of intensive mothering, rich descriptions of feeding children reveal how mothers in this study are discursively engaged with what I call an 'intensive feeding ideology' - the widespread belief that good mothering is synonymous with intensive food labour. Drawing on intersectional theory, this article discusses the limits of an intensive feeding ideology, particularly for poor and middle-class mothers of colour. The findings contribute to an understanding of how power relations are embedded within food ideologies and how mothers of young children attempt to negotiate them. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  4. Peer harassment at primary school: gender and school grade differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Martín Seoane

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to study the relationship among gender, school grade and peer harassment at Primary School. The participants were 2.050 children aged 8 to 13. The overall sample was designed to represent all students in grades 3th through 6th in both public and private schools. A self-report questionnaire on peer harassment situations was administered to the participants. Factor analysis revealed two different dimensions: ‘physical violence and property attacks’ and ‘verbal violence and social exclusion’. Boys reported higher levels of peer harassment among classmates than girls. No effect of the school grade on the gender differences CONTEXTOS EDUCATIVOS, 13 (2010, 11-26 11 Contextos Educ., 13 (2010, 11-26 was found. This paper provides a better understanding of peer harassment as well as some prevention indications.

  5. Examination of drivers' cell phone use behavior at intersections by using naturalistic driving data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Huimin; Bao, Shan; Sayer, James; Kato, Kazuma

    2015-09-01

    Many driving simulator studies have shown that cell phone use while driving greatly degraded driving performance. In terms of safety analysis, many factors including drivers, vehicles, and driving situations need to be considered. Controlled or simulated studies cannot always account for the full effects of these factors, especially situational factors such as road condition, traffic density, and weather and lighting conditions. Naturalistic driving by its nature provides a natural and realistic way to examine drivers' behaviors and associated factors for cell phone use while driving. In this study, driving speed while using a cell phone (conversation or visual/manual tasks) was compared to two baselines (baseline 1: normal driving condition, which only excludes driving while using a cell phone, baseline 2: driving-only condition, which excludes all types of secondary tasks) when traversing an intersection. The outcomes showed that drivers drove slower when using a cell for both conversation and visual/manual (VM) tasks compared to baseline conditions. With regard to cell phone conversations, drivers were more likely to drive faster during the day time compared to night time driving and drive slower under moderate traffic compared to under sparse traffic situations. With regard to VM tasks, there was a significant interaction between traffic and cell phone use conditions. The maximum speed with VM tasks was significantly lower than that with baseline conditions under sparse traffic conditions. In contrast, the maximum speed with VM tasks was slightly higher than that with baseline driving under dense traffic situations. This suggests that drivers might self-regulate their behavior based on the driving situations and demand for secondary tasks, which could provide insights on driver distraction guidelines. With the rapid development of in-vehicle technology, the findings in this research could lead the improvement of human-machine interface (HMI) design as well

  6. Unpacking 'Give Back Box': A Social Enterprise at the Intersection of Leadership, Innovation, and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Barrientos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Once the domain of government agencies and non-profit organizations, a social enterprise integrates social benefits such as employment and sustainability into a for-profit firm’s mission.  The social enterprise (SE bottom line includes both economic and social value, reflecting an intersection of the Jesuit leadership tradition with commercial business enterprise.  This case study describes the start-up of Give Back Box (GBB, a Chicago-based social enterprise that supports recycling and repurposing.  GBB’s business model involves providing a convenient, no-cost opportunity to follow up an online purchase by recycling the shipping box to forward unneeded items to charities.  GBB was founded in 2012 by two entrepreneurs with expertise in global business as well as online retailing. Thus, this case also addresses the entrepreneurial dimension of SE by illustrating the close link between social enterprise and social entrepreneurship.  Following its initial pilot phase, GBB has grown steadily, receiving impressive media coverage that has included articles in Forbes, Fast Company, and a feature on NBC’s ‘Today’ show.  In 2013 another partner joined GBB: a Colombian engineer with an MBA from a U.S. Jesuit business school who has sought to apply business principles and Jesuit values in his work as a GBB partner.  This case study describes the start-up’s inception, its mission and business plan, and its achievements to date, together with recommendations for other SE start-ups.

  7. Activated states for cross-slip at screw dislocation intersections in face-centered cubic nickel and copper via atomistic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.I.; Dimiduk, D.M.; El-Awady, J.A.; Parthasarathy, T.A.; Uchic, M.D.; Woodward, C.

    2010-01-01

    We extend our recent simulation studies where a screw dislocation in face-centered cubic (fcc) Ni was found to spontaneously attain a low energy partially cross-slipped configuration upon intersecting a forest dislocation. Using atomistic (molecular statics) simulations with embedded atom potentials, we evaluated the activation barrier for a dislocation to transform from fully residing on the glide plane to fully residing on a cross-slip plane intersecting a forest dislocation in both Ni and Cu. The activation energies were obtained by determining equilibrium configurations (energies) when variable pure tensile or compressive stresses were applied along the [1 1 1] direction on the partially cross-slipped state. We show that the activation energy is a factor of 2-5 lower than that for cross-slip in isolation via the Escaig process. The cross-slip activation energies obtained at the intersection in Cu were in reasonable accord with the experimentally determined cross-slip activation energy for Cu. Further, the activation barrier for cross-slip at these intersections was shown to be linearly proportional to (d/b)[ln(√(3)d/b)] 1/2 , as in the Escaig process, where d is the Shockley partial dislocation spacing and b is the Burgers vector of the screw dislocation. These results suggest that cross-slip should be preferentially observed at selected screw dislocation intersections in fcc materials.

  8. Hydrothermal circulation, serpentinization, and degassing at a rift valley-fracture zone intersection: Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15[degree]N, 45[degree]W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rona, P.A.; Nelson, T.A. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, FL (United States)); Bougault, H.; Charlou, J.L.; Needham, H.D. (Inst. Francais de Recherche pour I' Exploitation de la Mer, Centre de Brest (France)); Appriou, P. (Univ. of Western Brittany, Brest (France)); Trefry, J.H. (Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne (United States)); Eberhart, G.L.; Barone, A. (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States))

    1992-09-01

    A hydrothermal system characterized by high ratios of methane to both manganese and suspended particulate matter was detected in seawater sampled at the eastern intersection of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the Fifteen-Twenty Fracture Zone. This finding contrasts with low ratios in black smoker-type hydrothermal systems that occur within spreading segments. Near-bottom water sampling coordinated with SeaBeam bathymetry and camera-temperature tows detected the highest concentrations of methane at fault zones in rocks with the appearance of altered ultramafic units in a large dome that forms part of the inside corner high at the intersection. The distinct chemical signatures of the two types of hydrothermal systems are inferred to be controlled by different circulation pathways related to reaction of seawater primarily with ultramafic rocks at intersections of spreading segments with fracture zones but with mafic rocks within spreading segments.

  9. Grade control and the determination of ore reserves at a low-grade uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, J.A.F.; Robertson, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1966 an intensive exploration programme was conducted by Rio Tinto South Africa Ltd, involving airborne and ground radiometric surveys, percussion and diamond drilling, and pilot-plant tests. This investigation established the presence of a large deposit of low-grade uranium that could be mined on a large scale by open-pitting. Soon after production started in June 1974, it was realized that the original presentation of the ore reserves did not give a true reflection of the orebody. A comparison between the estimates and the ore mined from reserve blocks over the period 1975 to 1977 showed that the reserve grades were over-optimistic. In 1977 Rio Tinto Zinc Consultants were commissioned to re-evaluate the ore reserves from exploration diamond-drill data with the help of The Centre de Geostatistique at Fontainebleau, France. A new global reserve using disjunctive kriging techniques was developed, and is now the long-term reserve used for planning purposes at the Roessing Mine. For short-term planning, ore-reserve data are replaced by information from an intermediate drilling programme and blast-hole assays if these are available. A computerized short-term planning system has been established that reconciles the ore mined against the reserve blocks, as well as a system by which composited blast-hole assays are analysed for grade-control purposes. Owing to the complexity of the orebody, additional monitoring is achieved by the scanning of each truckload of ore with a group of scintillation crystal heads that evaluate the material mined

  10. Optimal medical outcomes with limited liability: risk management principles for medical practices at the intersection of medicine, law, and business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterick, Timothy J; Paterick, Timothy E; Waterhouse, Blake E

    2007-01-01

    Physicians practice at the intersection of medicine, law, and business. Each discipline creates its own challenges for the practicing physician: to practice efficient, effective medicine; to limit potential liability; and to create a positive financial outcome. Those challenges increase with escalating costs and reduced reimbursements. In this paper, the common clinical presentation of chest pain has been used to create a paradigm to educate physicians to understand efficient and effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment, and how effective communication with patients and meticulous documentation of all medical encounters can limit the potential for liability. Ultimately, given today's reimbursement formulas, physicians must also understand the cost of testing, in relation to its benefits, in an attempt to yield a positive financial outcome.

  11. A study of the production of high -psub(T) π0s at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourkoumelis, C.; Resvanis, L.K.; Filippas, T.A.; Fokitis, E.; Cnops, A.M.; Iwata, S.; Palmer, R.B.; Rahm, D.C.; Rehak, P.; Stumer, I.

    1980-01-01

    The inclusive cross-section for π 0 production near 90 0 in pp collisions at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings has been studied for the psub(T) range 3 0 → γγ decay were resolved and measured separately for sub(T)u values up to 10 GeV/c. Results indicate an agreement with the psub(T) -8 behaviour for the lower values of psub(T) and a slower decrease of the cross-section for the higher values of psub(T). The high-psub(T) data deviate the scaling expression psub(T)sup(-n)F(kappasub(T)), which holds for the lower psub(T) values (psub(T) < 8 GeV/c). (orig.)

  12. The Buddhist Institute at Phnom Penh, the International Council of Women, and the Rome International Institute for Educational Cinematography: Intersections of Internationalism and Imperialism, 1931-1934

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the intersection of aspects of imperialism and internationalism in discussion of cinematography at the League of Nations, at the International Council of Women (ICW), and as they played out in the imperial, national and local flows around educational cinematography in the work of Suzanne Karpelès at the Institute of Buddhist…

  13. Detection of vehicle crossing path at intersection; Mitoshi no yoi kosaten ni okeru deaigashira jiko ni tsuite (Ibarakiken ni okeru jiko tahatsu zone no tokucho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K; Uchida, N; Katayama, T [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An investigation was excuted to understand the actual state of accidents happened at intersections where there were no constructive obstacles in field of view. First, the aspects of fatal accidents are described under the basis of the data published by the police of Ibaraki prefecture. Then it is shown that there are at least 336 intersections where the accidents happened in the last two years. It is also clarified that many dangerous zones were located in line along rivers. The authors stress that it is urgent to inform the existence of dangerous zones to prevent the accidents. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Types of intersections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    There are many types of intersections in the Netherlands. In an inherently safe road traffic system, however, the number of intersection types needs to be limited, depending on the road types that intersect. The desired types of intersections do not always correspond with the recommendations in the

  15. Differences in passenger car and large truck involved crash frequencies at urban signalized intersections: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunjiao; Clarke, David B; Richards, Stephen H; Huang, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    The influence of intersection features on safety has been examined extensively because intersections experience a relatively large proportion of motor vehicle conflicts and crashes. Although there are distinct differences between passenger cars and large trucks-size, operating characteristics, dimensions, and weight-modeling crash counts across vehicle types is rarely addressed. This paper develops and presents a multivariate regression model of crash frequencies by collision vehicle type using crash data for urban signalized intersections in Tennessee. In addition, the performance of univariate Poisson-lognormal (UVPLN), multivariate Poisson (MVP), and multivariate Poisson-lognormal (MVPLN) regression models in establishing the relationship between crashes, traffic factors, and geometric design of roadway intersections is investigated. Bayesian methods are used to estimate the unknown parameters of these models. The evaluation results suggest that the MVPLN model possesses most of the desirable statistical properties in developing the relationships. Compared to the UVPLN and MVP models, the MVPLN model better identifies significant factors and predicts crash frequencies. The findings suggest that traffic volume, truck percentage, lighting condition, and intersection angle significantly affect intersection safety. Important differences in car, car-truck, and truck crash frequencies with respect to various risk factors were found to exist between models. The paper provides some new or more comprehensive observations that have not been covered in previous studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intersectional perspective in elderly care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Marta; Rämgård, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that power relationships at workplaces are constructed by power structures. Processes related to power always influence the working conditions for (in this study in elderly care) the working groups involved. Power structures are central for intersectional analysis, in the sense that the intersectional perspective highlights aspects such as gender and ethnicity (subjective dimensions) and interrelates them to processes of power (objective dimension). This qualitative study aims to explore in what way an intersectional perspective could contribute to increased knowledge of power structures in a nursing home where the employees were mostly immigrants from different countries. By using reflexive dialogues related to an intersectional perspective, new knowledge which contributes to the employees' well-being could develop. Narrative analysis was the method used to conduct this study. Through a multi-stage focus group on six occasions over 6 months, the staff were engaged in intersectional and critical reflections about power relationship with the researchers, by identifying patterns in their professional activities that could be connected to their subjectivities (gender, ethnicity, etc.). The result of this study presents three themes that express the staff's experiences and connect these experiences to structural discrimination. 1) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of professionalism; 2) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of collaboration; and 3) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of discrimination. The result demonstrates that an intersectional perspective reinforces the involved abilities, during the conversations, into being clear about, for example, their experiences of discrimination, and consequently developing a better understanding of their professionalism and collaboration. Such deeper reflections became possible through a process of consciousness raising, strengthening the employee's self

  17. Intersectional perspective in elderly care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Marta; Rämgård, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that power relationships at workplaces are constructed by power structures. Processes related to power always influence the working conditions for (in this study in elderly care) the working groups involved. Power structures are central for intersectional analysis, in the sense that the intersectional perspective highlights aspects such as gender and ethnicity (subjective dimensions) and interrelates them to processes of power (objective dimension). This qualitative study aims to explore in what way an intersectional perspective could contribute to increased knowledge of power structures in a nursing home where the employees were mostly immigrants from different countries. By using reflexive dialogues related to an intersectional perspective, new knowledge which contributes to the employees’ well-being could develop. Narrative analysis was the method used to conduct this study. Through a multi-stage focus group on six occasions over 6 months, the staff were engaged in intersectional and critical reflections about power relationship with the researchers, by identifying patterns in their professional activities that could be connected to their subjectivities (gender, ethnicity, etc.). The result of this study presents three themes that express the staff's experiences and connect these experiences to structural discrimination. 1) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of professionalism; 2) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of collaboration; and 3) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of discrimination. The result demonstrates that an intersectional perspective reinforces the involved abilities, during the conversations, into being clear about, for example, their experiences of discrimination, and consequently developing a better understanding of their professionalism and collaboration. Such deeper reflections became possible through a process of consciousness raising, strengthening the employee's self

  18. Intersectional perspective in elderly care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cuesta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Earlier research has shown that power relationships at workplaces are constructed by power structures. Processes related to power always influence the working conditions for (in this study in elderly care the working groups involved. Power structures are central for intersectional analysis, in the sense that the intersectional perspective highlights aspects such as gender and ethnicity (subjective dimensions and interrelates them to processes of power (objective dimension. This qualitative study aims to explore in what way an intersectional perspective could contribute to increased knowledge of power structures in a nursing home where the employees were mostly immigrants from different countries. By using reflexive dialogues related to an intersectional perspective, new knowledge which contributes to the employees’ well-being could develop. Narrative analysis was the method used to conduct this study. Through a multi-stage focus group on six occasions over 6 months, the staff were engaged in intersectional and critical reflections about power relationship with the researchers, by identifying patterns in their professional activities that could be connected to their subjectivities (gender, ethnicity, etc.. The result of this study presents three themes that express the staff's experiences and connect these experiences to structural discrimination. 1 Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of professionalism; 2 Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of collaboration; and 3 Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of discrimination. The result demonstrates that an intersectional perspective reinforces the involved abilities, during the conversations, into being clear about, for example, their experiences of discrimination, and consequently developing a better understanding of their professionalism and collaboration. Such deeper reflections became possible through a process of consciousness raising, strengthening the employee

  19. Outlook from the intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    I review a number of the physics themes of the Fifth Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics, discussing the significance and promise of current work at the interface of these fields. Some of thee themes are: pattern of quark and boson masses; solar neutrino problem; lepton flavor violation tests; atomic dipole moments studies; Δs=0 weak interaction between nucleons; and strongly-interacting many-body problems

  20. Exploring stop-go decision zones at rural high-speed intersections with flashing green signal and insufficient yellow time in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Keshuang; Xu, Yanqing; Wang, Fen; Oguchi, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to empirically analyze and model the stop-go decision behavior of drivers at rural high-speed intersections in China, where a flashing green signal of 3s followed by a yellow signal of 3s is commonly applied to end a green phase. 1, 186 high-resolution vehicle trajectories were collected at four typical high-speed intersection approaches in Shanghai and used for the identification of actual stop-go decision zones and the modeling of stop-go decision behavior. Results indicate that the presence of flashing green significantly changed the theoretical decision zones based on the conventional Dilemma Zone theory. The actual stop-go decision zones at the study intersections were thus formulated and identified based on the empirical data. Binary Logistic model and Fuzzy Logic model were then developed to further explore the impacts of flashing green on the stop-go behavior of drivers. It was found that the Fuzzy Logic model could produce comparably good estimation results as compared to the traditional Binary Logistic models. The findings of this study could contribute the development of effective dilemma zone protection strategies, the improvement of stop-go decision model embedded in the microscopic traffic simulation software and the proper design of signal change and clearance intervals at high-speed intersections in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic resonance perfusion for differentiating low-grade from high-grade gliomas at first presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrigo, Jill M; Fountain, Daniel M; Provenzale, James M; Law, Eric K; Kwong, Joey Sw; Hart, Michael G; Tam, Wilson Wai San

    2018-01-22

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumour. They are graded using the WHO classification system, with Grade II-IV astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are WHO Grade II infiltrative brain tumours that typically appear solid and non-enhancing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. People with LGG often have little or no neurologic deficit, so may opt for a watch-and-wait-approach over surgical resection, radiotherapy or both, as surgery can result in early neurologic disability. Occasionally, high-grade gliomas (HGGs, WHO Grade III and IV) may have the same MRI appearance as LGGs. Taking a watch-and-wait approach could be detrimental for the patient if the tumour progresses quickly. Advanced imaging techniques are increasingly used in clinical practice to predict the grade of the tumour and to aid clinical decision of when to intervene surgically. One such advanced imaging technique is magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion, which detects abnormal haemodynamic changes related to increased angiogenesis and vascular permeability, or "leakiness" that occur with aggressive tumour histology. These are reflected by changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) expressed as rCBV (ratio of tumoural CBV to normal appearing white matter CBV) and permeability, measured by K trans . To determine the diagnostic test accuracy of MR perfusion for identifying patients with primary solid and non-enhancing LGGs (WHO Grade II) at first presentation in children and adults. In performing the quantitative analysis for this review, patients with LGGs were considered disease positive while patients with HGGs were considered disease negative.To determine what clinical features and methodological features affect the accuracy of MR perfusion. Our search strategy used two concepts: (1) glioma and the various histologies of interest, and (2) MR perfusion. We used structured search strategies appropriate for each database searched, which included: MEDLINE

  2. Two-dimensional photon-echo spectroscopy at a conical intersection: A two-mode pyrazine model with dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, Matthieu; Egorova, Dassia

    2016-12-20

    The multi-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of ultrafast nuclear dynamics at conical intersections (CI) is an emerging field of investigation, which profits also from the recent extension of the techniques to the UV domain. We present a detailed computational study of oscillatory signatures in two-dimensional (2D) photon-echo spectroscopy (also known as 2D electronic spectroscopy, 2DES) for the two-mode pyrazine model with dissipation. Conventional 2D signals as well as the resulting beating maps are considered. Although of a reduced character, the model captures quite well all the main signatures of the excited-state dynamics of the molecule. Due to the ultrafast relaxation via the CI and no excited-state absorption from the low-lying dark state, the oscillatory components of the signal are found to be predominantly determined by the ground state bleach contribution. They reflect, therefore, the ground-state vibrational coherence induced in the Raman active mode. Beating maps provide a way to experimentally differentiate between ground state bleach and stimulated emission oscillatory components. The ultrafast decay of the latter constitutes a clear indirect signature of the CI. In the considered model, because of the sign properties of the involved transition dipole moments, the dominance of the ground-state coherence leads to anti-correlated oscillations of cross peaks located at symmetric positions with respect to the main diagonal.

  3. Development and Testing of Optimized Autonomous and Connected Vehicle Trajectories at Signalized Intersections [summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Visions of self-driving vehicles abound in popular science and entertainment. Many programs are at work to make a reality catch of this imagination. Vehicle automation has progressed rapidly in recent years, from simple driver assistance technologies...

  4. Distance-based kinematics of the five-oblique-axis thumb model with intersecting axes at the metacarpophalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Nicolas; Dollar, Aaron M

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel and simple method to compute all possible solutions of the inverse kinematics problem of the five-oblique-axis thumb model with intersecting axes at the metacarpophalangeal joint. This thumb model is one of the suggested results by a magnetic-resonance-imaging-based study that, in contrast to those based on cadaver fingers or on the tracking of the surface of the fingers, takes into account muscle and ligament behaviors and avoids inaccuracies resulting from the movement of the skin with respect to the bones. The proposed distance-based inverse kinematics method eliminates the use of arbitrary reference frames as is usually required by standard approaches; this is relevant because the numerical conditioning of the resulting system of equations with such traditional approaches depends on the selected reference frames. Moreover, contrary to other parametrizations (e.g., Denavit-Hartenberg parameters), the suggested distance-based parameters for the thumb have a natural, human-understandable geometric meaning that makes them easier to be determined from any posture. These characteristics make the proposed approach of interest for those working in, for instance, measuring and modeling the movement of the human hand, developing rehabilitation devices such as orthoses and prostheses, or designing anthropomorphic robotic hands.

  5. Road map to a patient-centered research agenda at the intersection of hospital medicine and geriatric medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Heidi L; Leykum, Luci K; Mattison, Melissa L P; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Meltzer, David O

    2014-06-01

    As the United States ages, the patient population in acute care hospitals is increasingly older and more medically complex. Despite evidence of a high burden of disease, high costs, and often poor outcomes of care, there is limited understanding of the presentation, diagnostic strategies, and management of acute illness in older adults. In this paper, we present a strategy for the development of a research agenda at the intersection of hospital and geriatric medicine. This approach is informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, emphasizing input from patients and caregivers. The framework's four components are: 1) Topic generation, 2) Gap Analysis in Systematic Review, 3) Value of information (VOI) analysis, and 4) Peer Review. An inclusive process for topic generation requiring the systematic engagement of multiple stakeholders, especially patients, is emphasized. In subsequent steps, researchers and stakeholders prioritize research topics in order to identify areas that optimize patient-centeredness, population impact, impact on clinical decision making, ease of implementation, and durability. Finally, next steps for dissemination of the research agenda and evaluation of the impact of the patient-centered research prioritization process are described.

  6. ACCERBATIN, a small molecule at the intersection of auxin and reactive oxygen species homeostasis with herbicidal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuming; Depaepe, Thomas; Smet, Dajo; Hoyerova, Klara; Klíma, Petr; Cuypers, Ann; Cutler, Sean; Buyst, Dieter; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Martins, José; Petrášek, Jan; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-07-10

    The volatile two-carbon hormone ethylene acts in concert with an array of signals to affect etiolated seedling development. From a chemical screen, we isolated a quinoline carboxamide designated ACCERBATIN (AEX) that exacerbates the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-induced triple response, typical for ethylene-treated seedlings in darkness. Phenotypic analyses revealed distinct AEX effects including inhibition of root hair development and shortening of the root meristem. Mutant analysis and reporter studies further suggested that AEX most probably acts in parallel to ethylene signaling. We demonstrated that AEX functions at the intersection of auxin metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. AEX inhibited auxin efflux in BY-2 cells and promoted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidation in the shoot apical meristem and cotyledons of etiolated seedlings. Gene expression studies and superoxide/hydrogen peroxide staining further revealed that the disrupted auxin homeostasis was accompanied by oxidative stress. Interestingly, in light conditions, AEX exhibited properties reminiscent of the quinoline carboxylate-type auxin-like herbicides. We propose that AEX interferes with auxin transport from its major biosynthesis sites, either as a direct consequence of poor basipetal transport from the shoot meristematic region, or indirectly, through excessive IAA oxidation and ROS accumulation. Further investigation of AEX can provide new insights into the mechanisms connecting auxin and ROS homeostasis in plant development and provide useful tools to study auxin-type herbicides. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. The Discourse of Humanness at the Intersection of Color-Blindness and Race Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Color blind discourse often draws on sentiments such as, "When I look at you, I do not see color," or race should not matter since we are all human, we are all the same underneath. In other words, the desire to view others as individuals is often constituted on the back of the desire to understand the notion of the individual as one who…

  8. Student Data Privacy, Digital Learning, and Special Education: Challenges at the Intersection of Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, William M.; Karger, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    The rapid adoption of digital content and delivery systems, each with its own capacity to track, store, and analyze student usage, interactions, and academic outcomes at both a highly detailed and granular level, has emerged as an area of widespread opportunity, but also of concern. The comingling of various student data sets (demographics, usage,…

  9. Experiment R606 installed in the specially constructed pit at intersection 6

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    It was set-up by the Aachen-CERN-Harvard-Munich-Riverside Collaboration to study new particles at the ISR by detecting muon-electron coincidences and hadronic states. One can see the giant wheel of the air-cored magnet and Cerenkov counters, the drift chambers and the thin-walled cylindrical vacuum chamber

  10. "Beyond "BIO2010": Celebration and Opportunities" at the Intersection of Mathematics and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungck, John R.; Gaff, Holly D.; Fagen, Adam P.; Labov, Jay B.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on an important symposium, Beyond BIO2010: Celebration and Opportunities, which was held at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, D.C. on May 21-22, 2010. This symposium was organized to assess what progress has been made in addressing the challenges and recommendations in the National Research…

  11. Knowledge Communication at the Intersection of the Community and the Individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2008-01-01

    How can we approach the relationship between the individual and the community in terms of knowledge communication processes?  This presentation explores definitions of knowledge combining individual and group perspectives, seeking to build a flexible understanding of knowledge communication at th...... and make decisions.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.......How can we approach the relationship between the individual and the community in terms of knowledge communication processes?  This presentation explores definitions of knowledge combining individual and group perspectives, seeking to build a flexible understanding of knowledge communication...... of organizational knowing.  From definitions foregrounding the individual's role in knowledge communication, Nonaka & Takeuchi's notions of implicit and explicit knowledge in the SECI model, Kenneth Burke's conception of Terministic Screens as a language process at the individual level, Tsoukas & Vladimirou...

  12. Theory and method at the intersection of anthropology and cultural neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Seligman, Rebecca; Brown, Ryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropologists have become increasingly interested in embodiment—that is, the ways that socio-cultural factors influence the form, behavior and subjective experience of human bodies. At the same time, social cognitive neuroscience has begun to reveal the mechanisms of embodiment by investigating the neural underpinnings and consequences of social experience. Despite this overlap, the two fields have barely engaged one another. We suggest three interconnected domains of inquiry in which the i...

  13. Small-angle physics at the intersecting storage rings forty years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2012-01-01

    It is often said that the ISR did not have the detectors needed to discover fundamental phenomena made accessible by its large and new energy range. This is certainly true for ‘high-momentum-transfer physics’, which, since the end of the 1960s, became a main focus of research, but the statement does not apply to the field that is the subject of this paper. In fact, looking back to the results obtained at the ISR by the experiments that were programmed to study ‘small-angle physics’, one can safely say that the detectors were very well suited to the tasks and performed much better than foreseen. As far as the results are concerned, in this particular corner of hadron–hadron physics, new phenomena were discovered, unexpected scaling laws were found and the first detailed studies of that elusive concept, which goes under the name ‘pomeron’, were performed, opening the way to phenomena that we hope will be observed at the LHC. Moreover, some techniques and methods have had a lasting influence: all colliders had and have their Roman pots, and the different methods developed at the ISR for measuring the luminosity are still in use.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Impinging Jet Flow in Square Ducts Intersecting at 90 Degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Corson; Peter Vassallo

    2003-01-01

    An experimental and numerical investigation has been conducted on flow through two square ducts with a 2:1 hydraulic diameter ratio joined at a right angle. Measurements of the velocity field were acquired using a laser Doppler velocimeter at various planar locations throughout the ducts at a nominal Reynolds number of 68,000. Pressure drop measurements were taken for 3 Reynolds numbers between 46,000 and 93,000. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed using STAR-CD to determine how well the experimental data could be predicted using the k-(var e psilon), k-(var e psilon) RNG, k-(var e psilon)Chen, k-(var e psilon) quadratic, k-ω, and Spalart-Allmaras models. The results show that there are distinct differences in the CDF results. The standard k-(var e psilon) model overpredicted the loss coefficient by 4% and underpredicted the exit swirl magnitude by 43%. The best predictor of the swirl decay was found to be the k-ω model, which adequately followed the data throughout the entire geometry and underpredicted the exit swirl by 16%. The best overall model was found to be Spalart-Allmaras, which overpredicted the loss coefficient by 2% and underpredicted the exit swirl magnitude by 40%

  15. Studying sustainable development at the intersection of conduct and counter-conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    analyses how these documents are participating in the continuous negotiations of the governmental rationalities of global citizenship that are an inevitable part of the dispersed governing of sustainable development. In more detail, the paper analyses how the Danish transportation initiative is co......) that is sensitive to the subtle effects of counter-conduct. The paper reports on an empirical study that tracks the connections between the UN’s Agenda 21 and a ‘local’ Agenda 21 initiative in a rural Danish municipality aiming at ‘greening’ citizens’ everyday transportation practices, and, secondly, the paper...

  16. Search for massive photon pair production at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourkoumelis, C.; Resvanis, L.K.; Filippas, T.A.; Fokitis, E.; Palmer, R.B.; Rahm, D.C.; Rehak, P.; Stumer, I.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fields, T.

    1982-01-01

    A search for massive photon pair production at √s=63 GeV has been carried out on the data sample previously employed for the electron pair production study. Positive evidence is reported for msub(γ)sub(γ)>6 GeV, with a production cross-section similar to Drell-Yan electron pairs. The ratio γγ/π 0 π 0 was measured to be approx. equal to10 -3 for a psub(T) of each γ or π 0 above 3 GeV/c. (orig.)

  17. Corporate Entrepreneurship: Innovation at the Intersection between Creative Destruction and Controlled Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Løwe Nielsen, Suna

    2009-01-01

    In spite of a growing body of knowledge on the importance of innovation and changeability, firms still experience great difficulties in being continuously corporate entrepreneurial. This article addresses reasons for such difficulties. Building on a conceptual discussion, the article first...... identifies seemingly opposing forces found at the core of corporate entrepreneurship. These forces are in the article described in terms of ‘creative destruction' and ‘controlled adaptation'. Both forces are identified as being essential to successful corporate entrepreneurship, but set very different...

  18. Nanoinformatics: an emerging area of information technology at the intersection of bioinformatics, computational chemistry and nanobiotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando González-Nilo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After the progress made during the genomics era, bioinformatics was tasked with supporting the flow of information generated by nanobiotechnology efforts. This challenge requires adapting classical bioinformatic and computational chemistry tools to store, standardize, analyze, and visualize nanobiotechnological information. Thus, old and new bioinformatic and computational chemistry tools have been merged into a new sub-discipline: nanoinformatics. This review takes a second look at the development of this new and exciting area as seen from the perspective of the evolution of nanobiotechnology applied to the life sciences. The knowledge obtained at the nano-scale level implies answers to new questions and the development of new concepts in different fields. The rapid convergence of technologies around nanobiotechnologies has spun off collaborative networks and web platforms created for sharing and discussing the knowledge generated in nanobiotechnology. The implementation of new database schemes suitable for storage, processing and integrating physical, chemical, and biological properties of nanoparticles will be a key element in achieving the promises in this convergent field. In this work, we will review some applications of nanobiotechnology to life sciences in generating new requirements for diverse scientific fields, such as bioinformatics and computational chemistry.

  19. Alternative splicing at the intersection of biological timing, development, and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Dorothee; Brown, John W S

    2013-10-01

    High-throughput sequencing for transcript profiling in plants has revealed that alternative splicing (AS) affects a much higher proportion of the transcriptome than was previously assumed. AS is involved in most plant processes and is particularly prevalent in plants exposed to environmental stress. The identification of mutations in predicted splicing factors and spliceosomal proteins that affect cell fate, the circadian clock, plant defense, and tolerance/sensitivity to abiotic stress all point to a fundamental role of splicing/AS in plant growth, development, and responses to external cues. Splicing factors affect the AS of multiple downstream target genes, thereby transferring signals to alter gene expression via splicing factor/AS networks. The last two to three years have seen an ever-increasing number of examples of functional AS. At a time when the identification of AS in individual genes and at a global level is exploding, this review aims to bring together such examples to illustrate the extent and importance of AS, which are not always obvious from individual publications. It also aims to ensure that plant scientists are aware that AS is likely to occur in the genes that they study and that dynamic changes in AS and its consequences need to be considered routinely.

  20. Spatial database for intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Deciding which intersections in the state of Kentucky warrant safety improvements requires a comprehensive inventory : with information on every intersection in the public roadway network. The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) : had previously c...

  1. Study of massive electron pair production at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourkoumelis, C.; Resvanis, L.K.; Filippas, T.A.; Fokitis, E.; Cnops, A.M.; Cobb, J.H.; Hogue, R.; Iwata, S.; Palmer, R.B.; Rahm, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Data from a study of electron pairs produced in pp collisions (√s = 53 and 63 GeV) are used to extend measurements of the scaling function down to m/√s approx. 0.07 (4.5 3 d 2 delta/dmdy/sub(y = 0) = (2.60 +- 0.13) x 10 -32 exp [(-2.0 +- 0.7)m/√s](1 - m/√s) 9 . 7+-0 . 4 cm 2 GeV 2 . The average transverse momentum of dielectrons was found to be 1.43 +- 0.07 GeV, independent of mass (in the range 4.5 2 theta, where α = 1.15 +- 0.34. The angular decay of UPSILON at the same energies was found to have α = 0.31 +- 0.35. (orig.)

  2. Multiple nutrient stresses at intersecting Pacific Ocean biomes detected by protein biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mak A; McIlvin, Matthew R; Moran, Dawn M; Goepfert, Tyler J; DiTullio, Giacomo R; Post, Anton F; Lamborg, Carl H

    2014-09-05

    Marine primary productivity is strongly influenced by the scarcity of required nutrients, yet our understanding of these nutrient limitations is informed by experimental observations with sparse geographical coverage and methodological limitations. We developed a quantitative proteomic method to directly assess nutrient stress in high-light ecotypes of the abundant cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus across a meridional transect in the central Pacific Ocean. Multiple peptide biomarkers detected widespread and overlapping regions of nutritional stress for nitrogen and phosphorus in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and iron in the equatorial Pacific. Quantitative protein analyses demonstrated simultaneous stress for these nutrients at biome interfaces. This application of proteomic biomarkers to diagnose ocean metabolism demonstrated Prochlorococcus actively and simultaneously deploying multiple biochemical strategies for low-nutrient conditions in the oceans. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Beyond Identity: the Dynamic Self at the Intersection of Performance Philosophy and the Philosophy of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibila Petlevski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we advocate the methodological feedback loop in the study of the dynamical self at the crossroads of performance philosophy, (artistic performance, and the philosophy of science. We point to the importance of the dynamics of methodology transfer between arts and sciences and the “interactive continuum” proposed by Newman & Benz in 1998. In the first part of this paper we give a comparative review of the research context relevant for our field of study, and we explain our research hubs in approaching the concept of “performance”. We suggest the possibility to define our filed of research in three equally legitimate ways: as philosophy-of-performance, philosophy-as-performance and performance-as-philosophy. In our recent work we are primarily interested in artistic performances that incorporate elements of artistic practice in the methodology of research output (Frayling 1993, as well as in the potentials of performative aspects of scientific praxis and methodology. However, the conceptual background relevant for this paper is in the field of process philosophy and its relation to science (Birkhard’s “interactivist model” 2009; Campbell’s “process-based model for an interactive ontology” 2009. We attribute particular importance to the notion of “autopoietic feedback” (Maturana and Varela 1974; Luhmann 1990. The second part addresses the issue of transcending identity in the representations of the self and the other; the relationship between Theory-Theory (TT and Simulation Theory (ST, as well as some recent attempts at combining different theories of mind (e.g. Barlassina 2013. We also deal with the notion of “embodied praxis” (Gallagher and Meltzoff 1996; we mention some neuroscientific insights into the similar phenomena, and – commenting on the importance of the dialogue between neuroscientists and philosophers (Changeux and Ricour – we give an example of an enactive approach to understanding

  4. Advances in health informatics education: educating students at the intersection of health care and information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Brian; Kuo, Mu-Hsing

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the authors' work in the area of health informatics (HI) education involving emerging health information technologies. A range of information technologies promise to modernize health care. Foremost among these are electronic health records (EHRs), which are expected to significantly improve and streamline health care practice. Major national and international efforts are currently underway to increase EHR adoption. However, there have been numerous issues affecting the widespread use of such information technology, ranging from a complex array of technical problems to social issues. This paper describes work in the integration of information technologies directly into the education and training of HI students at both the undergraduate and graduate level. This has included work in (a) the development of Web-based computer tools and platforms to allow students to have hands-on access to the latest technologies and (b) development of interdisciplinary educational models that can be used to guide integrating information technologies into HI education. The paper describes approaches that allow for remote hands-on access by HI students to a range of EHRs and related technology. To date, this work has been applied in HI education in a variety of ways. Several approaches for integration of this essential technology into HI education and training are discussed, along with future directions for the integration of EHR technology into improving and informing the education of future health and HI professionals.

  5. Protagonist’s Self-Writing: Modus of Biography at the Intersection of Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Pavlenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article views the place of the fictional subject’s self-writing at workshops concerning autobiographical questions. The study reveals the repression of a particle “grafos” in the formula “auto-bio-graphy” and leads to the idea of the compensatory function of the self-writing practice analysis in that very situation. The change of the perspective on the research of self-writing appeals to the problematic of the method. The fictional subject’s self-writing represents a field of multiple crossings of different methodologies that examine ego-documents; therefore in this field the role of figures and metaphors is actualized. It is quite logical to describe the self-writing practice within the coordinates of the critical synthesis as the place of illustration and transmission of the values, as the dimension of self-reflectiveness, multi-generic reflectiveness, introspection, representation of author/reader relations, display of intertextuality (both declared by the author and unforeseen, play in autobiography, tension between fiction and reference. The fictional subject’s self-writing is not identical to the autobiographical writing of a real subject, though a lot of semantic fields and registers come across. The character writing the story of his life becomes that another who makes it possible to multiply the experience of the inner harmony research, to see the power of the writing work from one side approaching thus to its ontology. The key for understanding the figure of this another is deeply hidden in the interpretation of the fictional space metaphoric.

  6. At the intersection of toxicology, psychiatry, and genetics: a diagnosis of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloas, Harold Andrew; Ence, Thomas C; Mendez, Donna R; Cruz, Andrea T

    2013-09-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is a genetic disorder involving a mutation of the ornithine transcarbamylase gene, located on the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp21.1). This makes the expression of the gene most common in homozygous males, but heterozygous females can also be affected and may be more likely to suffer from serious morbidity. Most males present early in the neonatal period with more devastating outcomes than their female counterparts. Up to 34% will present in the first 30 days of life (J Pediatr 2001;138:S30). Females often have partially functioning mitochondria due to uneven distribution of the mutant gene secondary to lyonization (“X-chromosome Inactivation”. Genetics Home Reference, 2012). Occasionally, symptomatic females may not even present until they are placed under metabolic stress such as a severe illness, fasting, pregnancy, or new medication (Roth KS, Steiner RD. “Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency”. EMedicine, 2012). The urea cycle is the body's primary tool for the disposal of excess nitrogen, which is generated by the routine metabolism of proteins and amino acids. Mitochondrial dysfunction impairs urea production and result in hyperammonemia (Semin Neonatol 2002;7:27). The sine qua non among all degrees of OTC deficiency at presentation is hyperammonemia. As in adults, children will have similar symptoms of encephalopathy, but this may be expressed differently depending on the child's developmental level. We present an unusual case of OTC deficiency in an older child with undifferentiated symptoms of an anticholinergic toxidrome, liver failure, iron overdose, and mushroom poisoning.

  7. First Contact: the intersection of demographics, knowledge, and appraisal of treatment at the initial infertility visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHILDRESS, Krista J.; LAWSON, Angela K.; GHANT, Marissa S.; MENDOZA, Gricelda; CARDOZO, Eden R.; CONFINO, Edmond; MARSH, Erica E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of the initial infertility visit on treatment-related knowledge, patient anxiety, and appraisals of treatment. Study Design Prospective survey. Setting Academic medical center. Patients 234 English-speaking women, ages 18-50, attending their first infertility visit Intervention(s) Participants completed a survey assessing health literacy, knowledge, anxiety, and appraisals of the treatment process before and after their infertility visit. Main Outcome Measure(s) 1) Knowledge of infertility and treatment and, 2) Anxiety and appraisal scores. Results Most participants were white and earned >$100,000/year and had at least a college education. Baseline knowledge of reproductive anatomy, ART, and fertility factors was modest, but improved after the initial visit. Factors associated with higher knowledge included higher education and income, White or Asian ethnicity, and English as their primary language. Patient appraisals of treatment represented by the positive (Challenge) and negative (Threat and Loss) subscale scores on the Appraisal of Life Events (ALE) scale, changed from the pre-visit survey to the post-visit survey. Negative appraisals of treatment and anxiety scores decreased and positive appraisals of treatment increased after the initial visit. Lower knowledge was associated with higher positive appraisal scores lower health literacy was associated with higher anxiety and appraisal scores (positive and negative) post-visit. Black women had higher Challenge scores compared to White and Asian women. Hispanic women had higher anxiety scores than non-Hispanic women. Conclusions Infertility patients have modest baseline knowledge of fertility and infertility treatment. The initial infertility visit can improve this knowledge and decrease both negative appraisals of treatment and anxiety levels. Differences in knowledge and appraisal were seen across ethnic groups and other demographic variables. Physicians should individualize

  8. Increasing Megadrought Risk at the Intersection of Decadal to Centennial Variability and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overpeck, J. T.; Parsons, L. A.; Loope, G. R.; Ault, T.; Cole, J. E.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Buckle, N.; Stevenson, S.; Fasullo, J.

    2016-12-01

    Even more than the 1930's U.S. Dust Bowl Drought, the 20th century Sahel drought stands out as the most unprecedented drought of the instrumental era, in part because it extended over multiple decades. Paleoclimatic evidence makes it clear that this Sahel drought was nonetheless not really unprecedented - droughts many decades long have occurred in sub-Saharan Africa regularly over the last several thousand years, and these constitute what is now increasingly referred to as "megadrought." Paleoclimatic evidence also makes it clear that all drought-prone semi-arid and arid regions of the globe, including southwestern North America, southeastern Australia, and the Mediterranean/Middle Eastern region likely experienced multiple such multidecadal megadroughts in recent pre-Anthropocene Earth history. In other regions of the globe, including parts of South Asia and Amazonia, short but devastating droughts of the last 50-150 years, were also eclipsed in recent Earth history by much more serious megadrought, although these megadroughts were shorter than the multidecadal droughts of Africa or SW North America. In the past, megadroughts have occurred for reasons that are increasingly well understood in terms of ocean-atmosphere dynamics that led to unusually persistent precipitation deficits. Many of these same dynamics are well simulated in state-of-the-art Earth System Models, and yet comparisons between simulated and observed paleohydroclimatic variability suggests the models generally underestimate the risk of megadrought. Paleohydroclimatic records in some cases overestimate drought persistence, but there appear to be other issues at play that need to be better understood and simulated: positive land-atmosphere feedbacks, overly energetic interannual (i.e., ENSO) modes of variability, and insufficient internal multidecadal to centennial coupled climate system variability. Taking these issues and the impact of anthropogenic climate change into account means that the

  9. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against...... children, and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection....

  10. I Would Take any Job, but…: Biographies of Low-Educated Women at the Intersection of Class and Gender

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížková, Alena; Formánková, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 6 (2012), s. 651-677 ISSN 0049-1225 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP404/10/0021 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : gender * intersectionality * care Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.240, year: 2012

  11. Upper bound limit analysis of spherical pressure vessels with protruding nozzles and associated defects at the intersection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.G.

    1981-08-01

    The limit analysis of a circumferential partial penetration defect around the intersection of a sphere and a cylinder has been investigated. An upper bound to the limit pressure has been determined by considering four independent mechanisms, and compared to an existing lower bound solution. (author)

  12. Pedestrians´and cyclists´effect on capacity of right turn movement at signalized intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O; Aagaard, Pierre E.; Rysgaard, Rikke

    1998-01-01

    Observations from 4 intersections in Copenhagen are used to formulate a model for the delays which right turning car traffic experience due to straight ahead going pedestrians and cyclists. The empirical data are used to formulate a simulation model which allows estimation of delays in cases...

  13. Negotiating multisectoral evidence: a qualitative study of knowledge exchange at the intersection of transport and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Guell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the prevention and control of chronic diseases, two strategies are frequently highlighted: that public health should be evidence based, and that it should develop a multisectoral approach. At the end of a natural experimental study of the health impacts of new transport infrastructure, we took the opportunity of a knowledge exchange forum to explore how stakeholders assessed, negotiated and intended to apply multisectoral evidence in policy and practice at the intersection of transport and health. We aimed to better understand the challenges they faced in knowledge exchange, as well as their everyday experiences with working in multisectoral remits. Methods In 2015, we conducted participant observation during an interactive event with 41 stakeholders from national and local government, the third sector and academia in Cambridge, UK. Formal and informal interactions between stakeholders were recorded in observational field notes. We also conducted 18 semistructured interviews reflecting on the event and on knowledge exchange in general. Results We found that stakeholders negotiated a variety of challenges. First, stakeholders had to negotiate relatively new formal and informal multisectoral remits; and how to reconcile the differing expectations of transport specialists, who tended to emphasise the importance of precedence in guiding action, and health specialists’ concern for the rigour and synthesis of research evidence. Second, research in this field involved complex study designs, and often produced evidence with uncertain transferability to other settings. Third, health outcomes of transport schemes had political traction and were used strategically but not easily translated into cost-benefit ratios. Finally, knowledge exchange meant multiple directions of influence. Stakeholders were concerned that researchers did not always have skills to translate their findings into understandable evidence, and some stakeholders

  14. A review of fundamental drivers governing the emissions, dispersion and exposure to vehicle-emitted nanoparticles at signalised traffic intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Anju; Kumar, Prashant

    2014-11-01

    Signalised traffic intersections (TIs) are considered as pollution hot-spots in urban areas, but the knowledge of fundamental drivers governing emission, dispersion and exposure to vehicle-emitted nanoparticles (represented by particle number concentration, PNC) at TIs is yet to be established. A number of following key factors, which are important for developing an emission and exposure framework for nanoparticles at TIs, are critically evaluated as a part of this review article. In particular, (i) how do traffic- and wind-flow features affect emission and dispersion of nanoparticles? (ii) What levels of PNCs can be typically expected under diverse signal- and traffic-conditions? (iii) How does the traffic driving condition affect the particle number (PN) emissions and the particle number emission factors (PNEF)? (iv) What is the relative importance of particle transformation processes in affecting the PNCs? (v) What are important considerations for the dispersion modelling of nanoparticles? (vi) What is extent of exposure at TIs with respect to other locations in urban settings? (vii) What are the gaps in current knowledge on this topic where the future research should focus? We found that the accurate consideration of dynamic traffic flow features at TIs is essential for reliable estimates of PN emissions. Wind flow features at TIs are generally complex to generalise. Only a few field studies have monitored PNCs at TIs until now, reporting over an order of magnitude larger peak PNCs (0.7-5.4 × 105 cm-3) compared with average PNCs at typical roadsides (˜0.3 × 105 cm-3). The PN emission and thus the PNEFs can be up to an order of magnitude higher during acceleration compared with steady speed conditions. The time scale analysis suggests nucleation as the fastest transformation process, followed by dilution, deposition, coagulation and condensation. Consideration of appropriate flow features, PNEFs and transformation processes emerged as important parameters for

  15. Characterisation of nanoparticle emissions and exposure at traffic intersections through fast-response mobile and sequential measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Anju; Kumar, Prashant

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of disproportionate contribution made by signalised traffic intersections (TIs) to overall daily commuting exposure is important but barely known. We carried out mobile measurements in a car for size-resolved particle number concentrations (PNCs) in the 5-560 nm range under five different ventilation settings on a 6 km long busy round route with 10 TIs. These ventilation settings were windows fully open and both outdoor air intake from fan and heating off (Set1), windows closed, fan 25% on and heating 50% on (Set2), windows closed, fan 100% on and heating off (Set3), windows closed, fan off and heating 100% on (Set4), and windows closed, fan and heating off (Set5). Measurements were taken sequentially inside and outside the car cabin at 10 Hz sampling rate using a solenoid switching system in conjunction with a fast response differential mobility spectrometer (DMS50). The objectives were to: (i) identify traffic conditions under which TIs becomes hot-spots of PNCs, (ii) assess the effect of ventilation settings in free-flow and delay conditions (waiting time at a TI when traffic signal is red) on in-cabin PNCs with respect to on-road PNCs at TIs, (iii) deriving the relationship between the PNCs and change in driving speed during delay time at the TIs, and (iv) quantify the contribution of exposure at TIs with respect to overall commuting exposure. Congested TIs were found to become hot-spots when vehicle accelerate from idling conditions. In-cabin peak PNCs followed similar temporal trend as for on-road peak PNCs. Reduction in in-cabin PNC with respect to outside PNC was highest (70%) during free-flow traffic conditions when both fan drawing outdoor air into the cabin and heating was switched off. Such a reduction in in-cabin PNCs at TIs was highest (88%) with respect to outside PNC during delay conditions when fan was drawing outside air at 25% on and heating was 50% on settings. PNCs and change in driving speed showed an exponential

  16. Establishment of Traceability of Reference Grade Hydrometers at National Physical Laboratory, India (npli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Harish; Mandal, Goutam; Das, M. B.; Sharma, D. C.

    The present paper discusses the establishment of traceability of reference grade hydrometers at National Physical Laboratory, India (NPLI). The reference grade hydrometers are calibrated and traceable to the primary solid density standard. The calibration has been done according to standard procedure based on Cuckow's Method and the reference grade hydrometers calibrated covers a wide range. The uncertainty of the reference grade hydrometers has been computed and corrections are also calculated for the scale readings, at which observations are taken.

  17. Stimulated Raman signals at conical intersections: Ab initio surface hopping simulation protocol with direct propagation of the nuclear wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalewski, Markus, E-mail: mkowalew@uci.edu; Mukamel, Shaul, E-mail: smukamel@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C—H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings.

  18. Stimulated Raman signals at conical intersections: Ab initio surface hopping simulation protocol with direct propagation of the nuclear wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Mukamel, Shaul

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C—H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings

  19. Cross-comparison of three surrogate safety methods to diagnose cyclist safety problems at intersections in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureshyn, Aliaksei; Goede, Maartje de; Saunier, Nicolas; Fyhri, Aslak

    2017-08-01

    Relying on accident records as the main data source for studying cyclists' safety has many drawbacks, such as high degree of under-reporting, the lack of accident details and particularly of information about the interaction processes that led to the accident. It is also an ethical problem as one has to wait for accidents to happen in order to make a statement about cyclists' (un-)safety. In this perspective, the use of surrogate safety measures based on actual observations in traffic is very promising. In this study we used video data from three intersections in Norway that were all independently analysed using three methods: the Swedish traffic conflict technique (Swedish TCT), the Dutch conflict technique (DOCTOR) and the probabilistic surrogate measures of safety (PSMS) technique developed in Canada. The first two methods are based on manual detection and counting of critical events in traffic (traffic conflicts), while the third considers probabilities of multiple trajectories for each interaction and delivers a density map of potential collision points per site. Due to extensive use of microscopic data, PSMS technique relies heavily on automated tracking of the road users in video. Across the three sites, the methods show similarities or are at least "compatible" with the accident records. The two conflict techniques agree quite well for the number, type and location of conflicts, but some differences with no obvious explanation are also found. PSMS reports many more safety-relevant interactions including less severe events. The location of the potential collision points is compatible with what the conflict techniques suggest, but the possibly significant share of false alarms due to inaccurate trajectories extracted from video complicates the comparison. The tested techniques still require enhancement, with respect to better adjustment to analysis of the situations involving cyclists (and vulnerable road users in general) and further validation. However, we

  20. Design space for space design: Dialogs through boundary objects at the intersections of art, design, science, and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Pangaro, Paul

    2017-05-01

    For over half a century space exploration has been dominated by engineering and technology driven practices. This paradigm leaves limited room for art and design. Yet in other parts of our lives, art and design play important roles: they stimulate new ideas and connect people to their experiences and to each other at a deeper level, while affecting our worldview as we evolve our cognitive models. We develop these models through circular conversations with our environment, through perception and making sense through our sensory systems and responding back through language and interactions. Artists and designers create artifacts through conversation cycles of sense-giving and sense-making, thus increasing variety in the world in the form of evolving messages. Each message becomes information when the observer decodes it, through multiple sense-making and re-sampling cycles. The messages form triggers to the cognitive state of the observer. Having a shared key between the artist/designer and the observer-for example, in the form of language, gestures, and artistic/design styles-is fundamental to encode and decode the information, in conversations. Art, design, science, and engineering, are all creative practices. Yet, they often speak different languages, where some parts may correspond, while others address a different variety in a cybernetic sense. These specialized languages within disciplines streamline communications, but limit variety. Thus, different languages between disciplines may introduce communication blocks. Nevertheless, these differences are desired as they add variety to the interactions, and could lead to novel discourses and possibilities. We may dissolve communication blocks through the introduction of boundary objects in the intersection of multiple disciplines. Boundary objects can ground ideas and bridge language diversity across disciplines. These artifacts are created to facilitate circular cybernetic conversations, supporting convergence

  1. Development of nuclear grade stainless steels at KCSSL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, G.; Dhere, M.; Mahadik, A.; Hinge, N.M.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd is an alloy steel plant, where a variety of alloy steel grades are produced for automotive, defence, nuclear and aerospace applications. The plant has developed expertise in processing of several alloy steel grades of superior quality that meets stringent specifications. Primary steel is processed through a combination of electric arc furnace, ladle furnace and vacuum degassing where stringent control over dephosphorisation, desulphurization, deoxidation is effected to get a refined high quality steel. The molten steel is cast through continuous casting of slabs or ingot casting. In grades specific to nuclear application, the primary cast products are further subjected to electroslag remelting to achieve further freedom from inclusions and to achieve a favourable solidification grain structure, which ultimately improve the hot workability of the alloy steel. Appropriate choice of slag and operating parameters are needed for realising the required ingot quality. The present study would examine the processing and quality aspects of some important grades of steels used in nuclear industry namely ferritic 9Cr-1Mo steel, martensitic stainless steels 403, 410, precipitation hardenable 17-4 PH stainless steel and austenitic 321, 316LN stainless steel, which were made and supplied for applications to Indian nuclear industry. The expertise developed in processing the steels in terms of melting, heat treatment and their relationship to structural features and mechanical properties would be highlighted. (author)

  2. Traffic monitoring and modeling for Intersection Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyykönen, P.; Molinier, M.; Klunder, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    The INTERSAFE-2 project aims to develop and demonstrate a Cooperative Intersection Safety System that is able to significantly reduce injury and fatal accidents at intersections. The cooperative sensor data fusion is based on state-of-the-art and advanced on-board sensors for object recognition and

  3. Driving Simulator study for intelligent cooperative intersection safety system (IRIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.; Schendzielorz, T.; Mathias, P.; Feenstra, P.

    2008-01-01

    About forty percent of all accidents occur at intersections. The Intelligent Cooperative Intersection Safety system (IRIS), as part of the European research project SAFESPOT, is a roadside application and aims at minimizing the number of accidents at controlled and uncontrolled intersections. IRIS

  4. Nonadiabatic Eigenfunctions Can Have Amplitude, Signed Conical Nodes, or Signed Higher Order Nodes at a Conical Intersection with Circular Symmetry (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-26

    marked by black rings on the potential energy surfaces. In some sense, only about half of the zero point energy is available to each of the two...wheel at the bottom. The conical intersection at q1 = q2 = 0 and E = 0 is submerged below the zero-point energy of Ezp = 181 cm −1 ( black curve). The...J. Chem. Phys. 123, 044102 (2005)]. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 128, 109902. (49) Clinton, W. L.; Rice , B. Reformulation of the Jahn-Teller Theorem. J

  5. Grade inflation at a north american college of veterinary medicine: 1985-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; Sanderson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Grade inflation, an upward shift in student grade-point averages without a similar rise in achievement, is considered pervasive by most experts in post-secondary education in the United States. Grade-point averages (GPAs) at US universities have increased by roughly 0.15 points per decade since the 1960s, with a 0.6-point increase since 1967. In medical education, grade inflation has been documented and is particularly evident in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grade inflation over a 22-year period in a college of veterinary medicine. Academic records from 2,060 students who graduated from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University between 1985 and 2006 were evaluated, including cumulative GPAs earned during pre-clinical professional coursework, during clinical rotations, and at graduation. Grade inflation was documented at a rate of approximately 0.2 points per decade at this college of veterinary medicine. The difference in mean final GPA between the minimum (1986) and maximum (2003) years of graduation was 0.47 points. Grade inflation was similar for didactic coursework (years 1-3) and clinical rotations (final year). Demographic shifts, student qualifications, and tuition do not appear to have contributed to grade inflation over time. A change in academic standards and student evaluation of teaching may have contributed to relaxed grading standards, and technology in the classroom may have led to higher (earned) grades as a result of improved student learning.

  6. Student with dyslexia at second grade of primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Heřmánková, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on one of specific disorders of learning, namely the problem of dyslexia in second grade of primary school in relation to pupil self-concept. The practical part presents case studies of three girls and Q-technique as well as their self-image. The findings summarised in the concluding part may be useful for workers pedagogic-psychological counselling and for all those involved in the education of children with dyslexia.

  7. Converging flow joint insert system at an intersection between adjacent transitions extending between a combustor and a turbine assembly in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, David J.; Carlson, Andrew; Stoker, Kyle C.

    2017-10-31

    A transition duct system for routing a gas flow in a combustion turbine engine is provided. The transition duct system includes one or more converging flow joint inserts forming a trailing edge at an intersection between adjacent transition ducts. The converging flow joint insert may be contained within a converging flow joint insert receiver and may be disconnected from the transition duct bodies by which the converging flow joint insert is positioned. Being disconnected eliminates stress formation within the converging flow joint insert, thereby enhancing the life of the insert. The converging flow joint insert may be removable such that the insert can be replaced once worn beyond design limits.

  8. Negotiating identity at the intersection of paediatric and genetic medicine: the parent as facilitator, narrator and patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article identifies a significant transformation in the role and identity of parents accompanying their child to clinic. This shift is a product of the intersection between paediatric and genetic medicine, where parents play a critical role in providing information about their child, family and ultimately, about themselves. To provide a context for this matrix, two broad areas of sociological inquiry are highlighted. The first is explanations of the role a parent plays in paediatric medicine and the second is the diagnostic process in paediatric genetics and the implications for parent and child identities. Drawing from an ethnographic study of clinical consultations, attention is paid to the changing role of parenthood and the extended role of patienthood in paediatric genetic medicine. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Modelling how drivers respond to a bicyclist crossing their path at an intersection: How do test track and driving simulator compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Christian-Nils; Dozza, Marco; Bohman, Katarina; Thalya, Prateek; Larsson, Annika; Lubbe, Nils

    2018-02-01

    Bicyclist fatalities are a great concern in the European Union. Most of them are due to crashes between motorized vehicles and bicyclists at unsignalised intersections. Different countermeasures are currently being developed and implemented in order to save lives. One type of countermeasure, active safety systems, requires a deep understanding of driver behaviour to be effective without being annoying. The current study provides new knowledge about driver behaviour which can inform assessment programmes for active safety systems such as Euro NCAP. This study investigated how drivers responded to bicyclists crossing their path at an intersection. The influences of car speed and cyclist speed on the driver response process were assessed for three different crossing configurations. The same experimental protocol was tested in a fixed-base driving simulator and on a test track. A virtual model of the test track was used in the driving simulator to keep the protocol as consistent as possible across testing environments. Results show that neither car speed nor bicycle speed directly influenced the response process. The crossing configuration did not directly influence the braking response process either, but it did influence the strategy chosen by the drivers to approach the intersection. The point in time when the bicycle became visible (which depended on the car speed, the bicycle speed, and the crossing configuration) and the crossing configuration alone had the largest effects on the driver response process. Dissimilarities between test-track and driving-simulator studies were found; however, there were also interesting similarities, especially in relation to the driver braking behaviour. Drivers followed the same strategy to initiate braking, independent of the test environment. On the other hand, the test environment affected participants' strategies for releasing the gas pedal and regulating deceleration. Finally, a mathematical model, based on both experiments

  10. Study on Performance of Intersection Around The Underpass Using Micro Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliansyah, J.; Bawono, R. T.

    2018-03-01

    In order to overcome the problems of congestion at the major intersections in Palembang City, there have been grade separation constructions in the form of flyover or underpass. One of them is the intersection of Patal Pusri Underpass. The smooth traffic due to the underpass construction needs to be balanced by the arrangement management at the intersections located close to the underpass to get the best network performance since both affect each other performance. The Taman Kenten and Seduduk Putih junctions which are just 569 and 226 meters from the underpass of Patal Pusri has to be analyzed for its needs of management and traffic arrangements to reduce its impact on the performance of the intersection of Patal Pusri or vice versa. Some alternatives of management and traffic arrangements were developed to get the best solutions and the Vissim 8.00 microsimulation program was used to evaluate the performance of intersections in the network where the compared parameters are the value of the queue length and average delay. The results of the analysis and the conducted modeling show that the best solution to optimize the performance of the two junctions are to make geometric changes and diversion of traffic flow at Seduduk Putih Junction and making geometric changes at Taman Kenten Junction.

  11. BLM Colorado PLSS Intersected

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –The fully intersected data is the atomic level of the PLSS that is similar to the coverage or the smallest pieces used to build the PLSS. Polygons...

  12. Intersectionality - an intercategorical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how to empirically uncover intersectional complexity by simple methods. The article is based on three examples of intercategorical complexity. Firstly, by discussing gender mainstreaming, it is shown that a narrow focus on categories without their interse...... of a study in partial analyses may reveal intersectionality. The examples show how interaction and interwoven categories can be included in intercategorical analyses of structural relationships....

  13. Determining of the Parking Manoeuvre and the Taxi Blockage Adjustment Factor for the Saturation Flow Rate at the Outlet Legs of Signalized Intersections: Case Study from Rasht City (Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Hamid; Jahangir Samet, Mehdi; Najafi Moghaddam Gilani, Vahid; Amini, Amir

    2017-10-01

    The presence of taxi stops within the area of signalized intersections at the outlet legs due to unnatural behaviour of the taxis, sudden change of lanes, parking manoeuvres activities and stopping the vehicle to discharge or pick up the passengers have led to reduction of saturation flow rate at the outlet leg of signalized intersections and increased delay as well as affecting the performance of a crossing lane. So far, in term of evaluating effective adjustment factors on saturation flow rate at the inlet legs of the signalized intersections, various studies have been carried out, however; there has not been any studies on effective adjustment factors on saturation flow rate at the inlet legs. Hence, the evaluating of the traffic effects of unique behaviours on the saturation flow rate of the outlet leg is very important. In this research the parking manoeuvre time and taxi blockage time were evaluated and analyzed based on the available lane width as well as determining the effective adjustment factors on the saturation flow rate using recording related data at four signalized intersections in Rasht city. The results show that the average parking manoeuvre time is a function of the lane width and is increased as the lane width is reduced. Also, it is suggested to use the values of 7.37 and 11.31 seconds, respectively for the average parking manoeuvre time and the average blockage time of taxies at the outlet legs of signalized intersections for the traffic designing in Rasht city.

  14. Rural expressway intersection safety toolbox : desktop reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This document is intended to be a guide for planning-level decisions concerning safety : issues and subsequent potential improvements at rural expressway intersections. It is : NOT a design guide. It simply presents the gamut of safety treatment opti...

  15. Genetic algorithm-based stochastic optimization for preempted signals at highway railroad grade crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Decreasing the number of accidents at highway-railway grade crossings (HRGCs) is an important goal in the transportation field. The preemption of traffic signal operations at HRGCs is widely used to prevent accidents by clearing vehicles off the trac...

  16. Technology in Intersecting Figured Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Gertrud Lynge; Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we analyze aspects of how Danish student nurses acquire technological literacy during their clinical internship at a Danish hospital. The argument is supported by several cases from Esbensen's empirical work. We focus on a Techno-Anthropological study of how student nurses learn to engage in technological mediated relations, and discuss how we think the ideas of intersecting worlds help to analyze some of the difficulties, student's experience.

  17. A 21st century frontier of discovery: the physics of the universe a strategic plan for federal research at the intersection of physics and astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In this report the Interagency Working Group on the Physics of the Universe responds to the National Research Council's (NRC) 2002 report, Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos: Eleven Science Questions for the New Century. The Physics of the Universe group examines the status of the Federal government s current investments aimed at answering the eleven questions in the NRC report. Based upon that assessment, the group prioritized the new facilities needed to advance understanding in each of these areas. Consistent with a goal of the President's Management Agenda to manage Federal RandD investments as a portfolio of interconnected activities, this report lays out a plan for exciting discovery at the intersection of physics and astronomy

  18. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas at dynamic enhanced CT: comparison between grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinoma and grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Kim, Kyung Won; Byun, Jae Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ki Byung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon; Hong, Seung-Mo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    To identify the CT features in differentiating grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinomas from grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumours. This study included 161 patients with surgically confirmed pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. Pathology slides were reviewed to determine the tumour grade. CT image analysis included size, pattern, calcification, margin, pancreatic duct dilatation, bile duct dilatation, vascular invasion, arterial enhancement ratio, and portal enhancement ratio. We used 2 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm as cutoff values of tumour size and 0.9 and 1.1 of enhancement ratio to determine the sensitivity and specificity. Pathology analysis identified 167 lesions in 161 patients. 154 lesions (92 %) were grade 1/2 and 13 (8 %) were grade 3. Portal enhancement ratio (< 1.1) showed high sensitivity and specificity 92.3 % and 80.5 %, respectively in differentiating grade 3 from grade 1/2. It showed the highest odds ratio (49.60), followed by poorly defined margin, size (> 3 cm), bile duct dilatation, and vascular invasion. When at least two of these five criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing grade 3 were 92.3 % (12/13) and 87.7 % (135/154), respectively. By using specific CT findings, grade 3 can be differentiated from grade 1/2 with a high diagnostic accuracy leading to an appropriate imaging staging. (orig.)

  19. Intersectional embodiment and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elg, Camilla; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    Through almost two decades the term ‘intersectionality' has gained influence in post colonial studies, gender studies, feminist theory and other research fields occupied with how social differences are distributed and how individuals are socially constructed  in stratified societies. The ‘interse......Through almost two decades the term ‘intersectionality' has gained influence in post colonial studies, gender studies, feminist theory and other research fields occupied with how social differences are distributed and how individuals are socially constructed  in stratified societies...... not seem to gain much attention in social stratification research in general. In our paper we will present our work on an embodied approach to intersectionality, which is inspired by Pierre Bourdieu and other thinkers of embodiment. We will argue for the importance of a focus on the embodiment of social...

  20. Gender Equality, Intersectionality and Diversity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    . Drawing on discursive policy analysis, it addresses the interaction between policies, institutions and civil society actors in relation to gender equality, diversity and intersectionality at the European level. Rolandsen Agustín successfully integrates the concepts of diversity and gender equality...... into a contextualized approach to analyzing transnational intersectionality. This unique approach focuses on processes of institutionalization and mobilization, which are addressed in relation to the institutional setup of the EU, its policies and policymaking structures, as well as transnational civil society...

  1. Intersection carbon monoxide modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamurs, J.

    1990-01-01

    In this note the author discusses the need for better air quality mobile source models near roadways and intersections. To develop the improved models, a better understanding of emissions and their relation to ambient concentrations is necessary. The database for the modal model indicates that vehicles do have different emission levels for different engine operating modes. If the modal approach is used information is needed on traffic signal phasing, queue lengths, delay times, acceleration rates, deceleration rates, capacity, etc. Dispersion estimates using current air quality models may be inaccurate because the models do not take into account intersecting traffic streams, multiple buildings of varying setbacks, height, and spacing

  2. Optimising Signalised Intersection Using Wireless Vehicle Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi; Torkudzor, Moses; Asare, Jack

    Traffic congestion on roads wastes travel times. In this paper, we developed a vehicular traffic model to optimise a signalised intersection in Accra, using wireless vehicle detectors. Traffic volume gathered was extrapolated to cover 2011 and 2016 and were analysed to obtain the peak hour traffic...... volume causing congestion. The intersection was modelled and simulated in Synchro7 as an actuated signalised model using results from the analysed data. The model for morning peak periods gave optimal cycle lengths of 100s and 150s with corresponding intersection delay of 48.9s and 90.6s in 2011 and 2016...... respectively while that for the evening was 55s giving delay of 14.2s and 16.3s respectively. It is shown that the model will improve traffic flow at the intersection....

  3. History at the intersection of disability and public health: the case of John Galsworthy and disabled soldiers of the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznick, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    The author presented an earlier version of this historical article to the Disability Section of the American Public Health Association (November 2009). It is part of his ongoing research in the social and cultural history of medicine as the field intersects with the history of disability, veterans, and public health, as well as current issues that touch all of these areas. This article introduces readers to perspectives on disability held by the British novelist John Galsworthy (1867-1933), which he developed primarily through his philanthropic support for and his compositions about rehabilitation programs for British and American soldiers disabled in the First World War (1914-1918). Readers will learn that Galsworthy's perspectives are as much about his identity as an individual with disabilities as they are about men disabled in the "war to end all wars." The rediscovery of Galsworthy's experiences and words more than 90 years after the end of World War I reveals how history is present today at the intersection of disability and public health. Indeed, the story of Galsworthy ultimately seeking to forget his own experiences during the "Great War," as well as the very physical and psychological disability caused by that conflict, can inspire public health professionals and disability rights advocates today to remember-indeed, to advocate for-men and women who served in battle and have returned home to realize renewed health and social participation despite permanent physical and psychological wounds. Readers will note that language used throughout this article to describe disability is period-specific and therefore not keeping with current conventions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Medical school dropout - testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    Medical Education 2011: 45: 1111-1120 Context  Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent...... took a composite non-grade-based admission test (Strategy 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor-parent, origin, parenthood, parents living together, parent on benefit, university-educated parents) were also examined. The outcome of interest was students' dropout status at 2...... appeared to have an independent, protective effect on dropout in this setting....

  5. The management of moderation of school based assessment at Grade 12 level in the Gauteng province

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Phil. In 2000, the incumbent Minister of Education, Professor Kader Asmal, mandated the inclusion of school based assessment (SBA) as a component of Senior Certificate (Grade 12) assessment across all examining bodies in the country. Prior to this, the Senior Certificate (Grade 12) examination was a “once off” terminal examination at the end of twelve years of schooling. The rationale for the inclusion of SBA as a component of the Senior Certificate (Grade 12) was to remove the focus fro...

  6. Design of a rotary for an uncontrolled multi-leg intersection in Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha Kumar, S.; Gulati, Himanshu; Arora, Shivam

    2017-11-01

    One way to control the traffic at busy intersections is to construct a roundabout or rotary intersection, which is a special type of at-grade intersection, where all converging vehicles are forced to move round a central island in clock-wise direction. The present study aims to design a rotary for an uncontrolled multi leg intersection located in Royapetah in Chennai, India. The intersection has five approach roads with two-way traffic in all the approach roads and there is no signal or traffic police to control the traffic at present and hence experiences traffic chaos during peak hours. In order to design the rotary, it is essential to have the information on traffic volumes coming from the approach roads. For this, a video data collection was carried out for a duration of eight hours from 7.30 am to 11.30 am and from 2.30 pm to 6.30 pm on a typical working day using a handycam from the terrace of an apartment building located near the intersection. During data extraction stage, each 5 min. traffic volume was extracted for all the five classes of vehicles considered and were converted to passenger car units (PCU). The analysis of traffic data showed that during peak hour from 4.45 pm to 5.45 pm, the proportion of weaving traffic, i.e., ratio of sum of crossing streams to the total traffic on the weaving section was found to be 0.81. According to Indian road congress (IRC) guidelines, this proportion can take any value between 0.4 and 1 and in the present study, the calculated value is found to be within the prescribed range. Using the calculated values of average entry width of the rotary and width & length of weaving section, the practical capacity of the rotary was found to be 3020 PCUs which is well above the observed traffic volume of 2665 PCUs.

  7. Intersectionality and Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Johnella E.

    2017-01-01

    Intersectionality--an integrated approach to analyzing the complex, matrix-like interconnections among patterns of discrimination based on race, gender, and other social identities, with the goal of highlighting how resulting inequalities are experienced--has many implications for exploring the relationship between knowledge and experience and for…

  8. Particle-nuclear intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    With the traditional distinctions between particle and nuclear physics becoming increasing blurred, the Fifth Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics, held from May 31 to June 6 in St. Petersburg, Florida, brought together particle and nuclear physicists to discuss common research efforts and to define and plan a united approach

  9. Considering Intersectionality in Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Madeline

    2015-01-01

    The intersection of feminist theory and multiculturalism is discussed. Although Frisby makes several strong points, there are several aspects of his definition of multiculturalism that are simplistic. Expansion of ideas borrowed from feminism has potential to increase the nuance and accuracy of the conceptualization of multiculturalism.

  10. Grade Perceptions of Students in Chemistry Coursework at All Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jeffrey A.; Karatjas, Andrew G.

    2018-01-01

    Various reasons are attributed to poor student performance in physical science courses such as lack of motivation, lack of ability, and/or the overall difficulty of these courses. One overlooked reason is a lack of self-awareness as to preparation level. Through a study over a two-year period, students at all levels (freshman through M.S.) of a…

  11. PREVALENCE OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS GENOTYPES IN LOW AND HIGH GRADE SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL LESIONS AT CERVICAL TISSUE

    OpenAIRE

    Prasetyo, Rizki Eko; Mastutik, Gondo; Mustokoweni, Sjahjenny

    2017-01-01

    HPV infection is known to cause cervical cancer. This study aimed to identify the variant of HPV genotypes of cervical precancerous lesions from low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion  (LSIL) and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). This was an explorative study using formalin fix paraffin embedded (FFPE) from cervical precancerous lesions at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. DNA was extracted from FFPE and hybridized for HPV genotyping using Ampliquality HPV Type Express kit (...

  12. An Analysis on Students' Speaking Skill at Second Grade SMP 8 Rambah Hilir

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Siti Surinah; Antoni, Rivi; Rasyidah, Ummi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to find out students speaking skill. Speaking is one of the some skills among listening, writing, reading.This research used descriptive qualitative research design.where the writer described and analyzed the students' errors in speaking skill. The population of this research was taken from the second grade students' at Smp 8 Rambah Hilir in Rambah Hilir district is about 21 students.Based on the result, the writer concludes that the second grade students' of ...

  13. A graded approach to safety documentation at processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has over 40 major Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) in preparation for non-reactor facilities. These facilities include nuclear material production facilities, waste management facilities, support laboratories and environmental remediation facilities. The SARs for these various projects encompass hazard levels from High to Low, and mission times from startup, through operation, to shutdown. All of these efforts are competing for scarce resources, and therefore some mechanism is required for balancing the documentation requirements. Three of the key variables useful for the decision making process are Depth of Safety Analysis, Urgency of Safety Analysis, and Resource Availability. This report discusses safety documentation at processing facilities

  14. Mixing studies at low grade vacuum pan using the radiotracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.M

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, some preliminary results achieved in the evaluation of the homogenization time at a vacuum pan for massecuite b and seed preparation , using two approaches of the radiotracer method, are presented. Practically no difference between the o n line , using small size detector and the sampling methods, in mixing studies performed at the high-grade massecuite was detected. Results achieved during the trials performed at the vacuum station show that the mechanical agitation in comparison with normal agitation improves the performance of mixing in high-grade massecuite b and in seed preparation at the vacuum pan

  15. Mixing studies at low grade vacuum pan using the radiotracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.M

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, some preliminary results achieved in the evaluation of the homogenization time at a Vacuum Pan for massecuite B and seed preparation , using two approaches of the radiotracer method, are presented. Practically no difference between the Ion Line , using small size detector and the sampling methods, in mixing studies performed at the high-grade massecuite was detected. Results achieved during the trials performed at the vacuum station show that the mechanical agitation in comparison with normal agitation improves the performance of mixing in high-grade massecuite b and in seed preparation at the vacuum pan

  16. Predictors of cultural capital on science academic achievement at the 8th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misner, Johnathan Scott

    The purpose of the study was to determine if students' cultural capital is a significant predictor of 8th grade science achievement test scores in urban locales. Cultural capital refers to the knowledge used and gained by the dominant class, which allows social and economic mobility. Cultural capital variables include magazines at home and parental education level. Other variables analyzed include socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language learners (ELL). This non-experimental study analyzed the results of the 2011 Eighth Grade Science National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The researcher analyzed the data using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The researcher concluded that the addition of cultural capital factors significantly increased the predictive power of the model where magazines in home, gender, student classified as ELL, parental education level, and SES were the independent variables and science achievement was the dependent variable. For alpha=0.05, the overall test for the model produced a R2 value of 0.232; therefore the model predicted 23.2% of variance in science achievement results. Other major findings include: higher measures of home resources predicted higher 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement; males were predicted to have higher 2011 NAEP 8 th grade science achievement; classified ELL students were predicted to score lower on the NAEP eight grade science achievement; higher parent education predicted higher NAEP eighth grade science achievement; lower measures of SES predicted lower 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement. This study contributed to the research in this field by identifying cultural capital factors that have been found to have statistical significance on predicting eighth grade science achievement results, which can lead to strategies to help improve science academic achievement among underserved populations.

  17. Grade Retention at Primary School: What the Teachers in Zimbabwe Say

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchemwa Stella

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary education is the base of all advanced education levels, developments and innovations; it should therefore be meticulously done so as not to disadvantage the learners. In a bid to do it well, those involved in primary education have tried and are still trying strategies that can give the learners maximum advantage, for instance, grade retention and grade promotion. This research aimed at assessing the Zimbabwean primary school teachers’ stance on grade retention. The researcher took the advantage of Block-Release students at Solusi University in April 2016 (these are teachers from all over Zimbabwe and other countries in Africa who come for their degree studies at Solusi University during the holidays to collect data through interviews from a purposive sample of these teachers. Collected data was coded and analyzed descriptively. Findings showed that: 56% of the respondents indicated that retention is taking place at the primary schools where they are teaching but usually on a minimal scale since it is usually done upon parents’ request; 67% of the respondents said that retention is necessary and helpful; retention can be most suitably done at infant grades (1-3; however, the effect of retention on pupils’ performance is not clear due to other factors that affect performance. Findings also showed that the Zimbabwean Government is neither for retention nor grade promotion but for ERI (Early Reading Initiative and PLAP (Performance Lag Address Programme which have been recently introduced.

  18. Discovery and Distribution of Black Smokers on the Western Galapagos Spreading Center: Implications for Spatial and Temporal Controls on High Temperature Venting at Ridge/Hotspot Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymon, R. M.; Anderson, P. G.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; White, S. M.; MacDonald, K. C.

    2006-12-01

    Though nearly one-fifth of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) lies on or near hotspots, it has been debated whether hotspots increase or decrease MOR hydrothermal flux, or affect vent biota. Despite hotspot enhancement of melt supply, high-temperature vent plumes are enigmatically sparse along two previously-surveyed ridge- hotspot intersections [Reykjanes Ridge (RR), Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR)]. This has been attributed to crustal thickening by excess volcanism. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 540 km-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot at lon. 94.5 -89.5 deg. W. Although MOR hydrothermal springs were first found along the eastern GSC crest in 1977 near lon. 86 deg. W, the GalAPAGoS smokers are the first active high-temperature vents to be found anywhere along the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary. Active and/or recently-inactive smokers were located beneath plumes at 5 sites on the seafloor between lon. 91 deg. W and 94.5 deg. W (see Anderson et al., this session) during near-bottom, real-time fiber-optic Medea camera surveys. Smokers occur along eruptive seafloor fissures atop axial volcanic ridges near the middles of ridge segments, mainly in areas underlain by relatively shallow, continuous axial magma chamber (AMC) seismic reflectors. These findings (1) support magmatic, rather than tectonic, control of GSC smoker distribution; (2) demonstrate that thick crust at MOR-hotspot intersections does not prevent high-temperature hydrothermal vents from forming; and, (3) appear to be inconsistent with models suggesting that enhanced hydrothermal cooling causes abrupt deepening of the AMC and transition from non-rifted to rifted GSC morphology near lon. 92.7 deg. W. The widely-spaced smoker sites located on different GSC segments exhibit remarkably similar characteristics and seafloor settings. Most sites are mature or extinct, and are on lava

  19. Electronic theodolite intersection systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bingley, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of electronic surveying instruments, such as electronic theodolites, and concurrent advances in computer technology, has revolutionised engineering surveying; one of the more recent examples being the introduction of Electronic Theodolite Intersection Systems (ETISs). An ETIS consists of two or more electronic theodolites and a computer, with peripheral hardware and suitable software. The theoretical principles on which they are based have been known for a long time, but ...

  20. Singular moduli and Arakelov intersection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Lin.

    1994-05-01

    The value of the modular function j(τ) at imaginary quadratic arguments τ in the upper half plane is usually called singular moduli. In this paper, we use Arakelov intersection to give the prime factorizations of a certain combination of singular moduli, coming from the Hecke correspondence. Such a result may be considered as the degenerate one of Gross and Zagier on Heegner points and derivatives of L-series in their paper [GZ1], and is parallel to the result in [GZ2]. (author). 2 refs

  1. Prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM): A new frontier at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Formed by non-covalent interactions and not defined at genetic level, the assemblies of small molecules in biology are complicated and less explored. A common morphology of the supramolecular assemblies of small molecules is nanofibrils, which coincidentally resembles the nanofibrils formed by proteins such as prions. So these supramolecular assemblies are termed as prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM). Emerging evidence from several unrelated fields over the past decade implies the significance of PriSM in biology and medicine. This perspective aims to highlight some recent advances of the research on PriSM. This paper starts with description of the intriguing similarities between PriSM and prions, discusses the paradoxical features of PriSM, introduces the methods for elucidating the biological functions of PriSM, illustrates several examples of beneficial aspects of PriSM, and finishes with the promises and current challenges in the research of PriSM. We anticipate that the research of PriSM will contribute to the fundamental understanding at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology and ultimately lead to a new paradigm of molecular (or supramolecular) therapeutics for biomedicine.

  2. Three-Dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Modeling of Preferential Flow Dynamics at Fracture Intersections on a High-Performance Computing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordilla, J.; Bresinsky, L. T.

    2017-12-01

    The physical mechanisms that govern preferential flow dynamics in unsaturated fractured rock formations are complex and not well understood. Fracture intersections may act as an integrator of unsaturated flow, leading to temporal delay, intermittent flow and partitioning dynamics. In this work, a three-dimensional Pairwise-Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) model is being applied in order to simulate gravity-driven multiphase flow at synthetic fracture intersections. SPH, as a meshless Lagrangian method, is particularly suitable for modeling deformable interfaces, such as three-phase contact dynamics of droplets, rivulets and free-surface films. The static and dynamic contact angle can be recognized as the most important parameter of gravity-driven free-surface flow. In SPH, surface tension and adhesion naturally emerges from the implemented pairwise fluid-fluid (sff) and solid-fluid (ssf) interaction force. The model was calibrated to a contact angle of 65°, which corresponds to the wetting properties of water on Poly(methyl methacrylate). The accuracy of the SPH simulations were validated against an analytical solution of Poiseuille flow between two parallel plates and against laboratory experiments. Using the SPH model, the complex flow mode transitions from droplet to rivulet flow of an experimental study were reproduced. Additionally, laboratory dimensionless scaling experiments of water droplets were successfully replicated in SPH. Finally, SPH simulations were used to investigate the partitioning dynamics of single droplets into synthetic horizontal fractures with various apertures (Δdf = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 mm) and offsets (Δdoff = -1.5, -1.0, -0.5, 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mm). Fluid masses were measured in the domains R1, R2 and R3. The perfect conditions of ideally smooth surfaces and the SPH inherent advantage of particle tracking allow the recognition of small scale partitioning mechanisms and its importance for bulk flow

  3. Measurement of small-angle antiproton-proton and proton-proton elastic scattering at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amos, N.; Block, M.M.; Bobbink, G.J.; Botje, M.A.J.; Favart, D.; Leroy, C.; Linde, F.; Lipnik, P.; Matheys, J-P.; Miller, D.

    1985-01-01

    Antiproton-proton and proton-proton small-angle elastic scattering was measured for centre-of-mass energies at the CERN Intersectung Storage Rings. In addition, proton-proton elastic scattering was measured at . Using the optical theorem, total cross sections are obtained with an accuracy of about

  4. Intersectionality: A Critical Qualitative Exploration of the Experiences of LGBTQ Persons with Disabilities at the Collegiate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Amanda A.

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to contribute to the growing awareness surrounding the barriers, challenges, and needs of LGBTQ persons with disabilities at the collegiate level. The purpose of this research was to capture the lived experiences of LGBTQ persons with disabilities who were enrolled at postsecondary institutions throughout the United States.…

  5. Production spectra of π+-, K+-, p+- at large angles in proton-proton collisions in the CERN intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, B.; Boeggild, H.; Booth, P.; Bulos, F.; Carroll, L.J.; Damgaard, G.; Von Dardel, G.; Duff, B.; Hansen, K.H.; Heymann, F.; Jackson, J.N.; Jarlskog, G.; Joensson, L.; Klovning, A.; Leistam, L.; Lillethun, E.; Lohse, E.; Lynch, G.; Manning, G.; Potter, K.; Prentice, M.; Sharp, P.; Sharrock, S.; Oelgaard-Nielsen, S.; Quarrie, D.; Weiss, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Results are given on the inclusive production of charged pions, kaons, and nucleons, in proton-proton collisions at c.m. energies from √s=23 to 63 GeV at large angles and for the transverse momentum range 0.1 < psub(T) < 4.8 GeV/c. The dependence of the production spectra on the collision energy √s, the transverse momentum psub(T), and the longitudinal rapidity is discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Measurements of elastic scattering in alpha-alpha and alpha-proton collisions at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, M.; Anzivino, G.; Barbarino, G.; Paternoster, G.; Patricelli, S.; Becker, U.; Kantardjian, G.; Owen, D.L.; Paradiso, J.; Carboni, G.; Pisa Univ.

    1982-01-01

    We measured the elastic scattering of αα at √S = 126 GeV and of αp at √S = 89 GeV. For αα, the differential cross section dsigma/dt has a diffractive pattern with minima at vertical stroke t vertical stroke = 0.10 and 0.38 GeV 2 . At small vertical stroke t vertical stroke = 0.05 - 0.07 GeV 2 , this cross section behaves like exp [(100 +- 10)t]. Extrapolating a fit to the data to the optical point, we obtained for the total cross section αsub(tot)(αα) = 250 +- 50 mb and an integrated elastic cross section sigmasub(el)(αα) = 45 +- 15 mb. Another method of estimating sigmasub(tot)(αα), based on measuring the interaction rate, yielded 295 +- 40 mb. For αp, dsigma/dt has a minimum at vertical stroke t vertical stroke = 0.20 GeV 2 , and for 0.05 2 behaves like exp[(41 +- 2)t]. Extraolating this slope to vertical stroke t vertical stroke = 0, we found sigmasub(tot)(αp) = 130 +- 20 and sigmasub(el)(αp) = 20 +- 4 mb. Results on pp elastic scattering at √s = 63 GeV agree with previous ISR experiments. (orig.)

  7. A safe haven for the injured? Urban trauma care at the intersection of healthcare, law enforcement, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Sara F; Richmond, Therese S; Holena, Daniel N; Kaufman, Elinore J

    2018-02-01

    Patients with traumatic injuries often interact with police before and during hospitalization, particularly when their injuries are due to violence. People of color are at highest risk for violent injuries and have the poorest outcomes after injury. The purpose of this study was to describe how injured, Black patients perceived their interactions with police and what these perceptions reveal about police involvement within trauma care systems. We combined data from two qualitative studies to achieve this aim. The first was ethnographic fieldwork that followed Black trauma patients in the hospital through the physical and emotional aftermath of their injuries. The second was a qualitative, descriptive study of how patients experienced trauma resuscitation in the emergency department (ED). Both studies were conducted between 2012 and 2015 at the Trauma Center at Penn, an academic medical center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. The present study includes data from 24 adult, Black participants undergoing treatment for injury. We reanalyzed all interview data related to law enforcement encounters from the scene of injury through inpatient hospitalization and coded data using a constant comparative technique from grounded theory. Participants described law enforcement encounters at the scene of injury and during transport to the hospital, in the ED, and over the course of inpatient care. Injured participants valued police officers' involvement when they perceived that officers provided safety at the scene, speed of transport to the hospital, or support and information after injury. Injured participants also found police questioning to be stressful and, at times, disrespectful or conflicting with clinical care. Communities, trauma centers, and professional societies have the opportunity to enact policies that standardize law enforcement access in trauma centers and balance patients' health, privacy, and legal rights with public safety needs. Copyright

  8. Safety evaluation of driver cognitive failures and driving errors on right-turn filtering movement at signalized road intersections based on Fuzzy Cellular Automata (FCA) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chen; Wong, Yiik Diew; Wang, Xuesong

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a simulation-based approach to estimate safety impact of driver cognitive failures and driving errors. Fuzzy Logic, which involves linguistic terms and uncertainty, is incorporated with Cellular Automata model to simulate decision-making process of right-turn filtering movement at signalized intersections. Simulation experiments are conducted to estimate the relationships between cognitive failures and driving errors with safety performance. Simulation results show Different types of cognitive failures are found to have varied relationship with driving errors and safety performance. For right-turn filtering movement, cognitive failures are more likely to result in driving errors with denser conflicting traffic stream. Moreover, different driving errors are found to have different safety impacts. The study serves to provide a novel approach to linguistically assess cognitions and replicate decision-making procedures of the individual driver. Compare to crash analysis, the proposed FCA model allows quantitative estimation of particular cognitive failures, and the impact of cognitions on driving errors and safety performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Body weight, perceived weight stigma and mental health among women at the intersection of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status: insights from the modified labelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Perry, Brea L

    2018-01-01

    With increasing rates of obesity in the United States, attention to life chances and psychological consequences associated with weight stigma and weight-based discrimination has also intensified. While research has demonstrated the negative effects of weight-based discrimination on mental health, little is known about whether different social groups are disproportionately vulnerable to these experiences. Drawing on the modified labelling theory, the focus of this paper is to investigate the psychological correlates of body weight and self-perceived weight-based discrimination among American women at the intersection of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Analyses use data from the National Health Measurement Study (NHMS), a national multi-stage probability sample of non-institutional, English-speaking adults, ages 35 to 89 in 2005-2006. Our findings demonstrate that the effect of weight-based discrimination on psychological well-being is highly contingent on social status. Specifically, the psychological consequences of discrimination on Hispanic women and women in the lowest household income group is significantly greater relative to White women and women with higher household income, controlling for obesity status and self-rated health. These results suggest that higher social status has a buffering effect of weight stigma on psychological well-being. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  10. Implement of a magnetic spectrometer at the CERN intersecting stockage rings (900 spectrometer in the R608 experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyrolle, M.

    1985-01-01

    By adding a new spectrometer at 90 0 in the R608 experiment at CERN (ISR) we can search correlations between some systems of particles fully measured in the forward and transverse directions. The corresponding new electronic trigger, which selects events with momentum above a chosen threshold, is mixed or not to the forward trigger, in order to record correlated or inclusive data from the collisions p-p, p-anti-p, α-α. In the 90 0 spectrometer, we build drift chambers, set before the dipolar magnet. We studied the spatial resolution and the methods to associate tracks before and after this magnet. We developed the method to determine the momenta, by taking account of the variations of the deflecting power: the accuracy of this method is better than O.3%, and the global resolution is about 0.01 P 2 . We proposed also how to identify the particles from time of flight measurements and aerogel cerenkov counters [fr

  11. [Health services research: subject matter and objectives of a field at the intersection of economics, medicine and ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M

    2003-07-01

    In analogy to the famous saying that war is too serious to leave it to the generals, one could say that the provision of medical care is too serious and too costly to leave it to doctors. This, however.would give the impression of an incongruity which does not exist as an actual factor or as a standpoint in research on the healthcare system. Having said that, there are differences in the methods of observation used: doctors always base their observations on their experiences at the doctor/patient level. In these situations, they are influenced by the therapeutic imperative of wanting to help and their convictions do not allow them to take into account competing requirements or to feel dependent on the higher-level conditions; and the realm of research on the health care system bases its observations more or less on findings derived by means of analysing what is often highly aggregated data, be it of a medical, economic or epidemiological nature. Even though the insights gained at the macrolevel ultimately have to be applied at the microlevel of the doctor/patient relationship, there remains an internal distance from the problems of care which is conducive to proper judgement. From this distant vantage point, researchers attempt to prove the relationship between effort and yield, to indicate weak spots which individual doctors cannot recognise and to define capacity, structure and incentive conditions which guarantee maxi-mum medical care quality. There is, for instance, evidence of astonishing dependence between the medical care provided and incentives for the number of doctor/patient contacts, use of medicines, surgery rates and number of diagnoses. This evidence can be used to draw up recommendations for self-governing bodies in the health care sector and for the political sphere as to how the health care system could be enhanced to achieve a high level of efficiency and quality.

  12. Domestic violence at the intersections of race, class, and gender: challenges and contributions to understanding violence against marginalized women in diverse communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Natalie J; Dupont, Ida

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of the emerging domestic violence literature using a race, class, gender, sexual orientation intersectional analysis and structural framework fostered by women of color and their allies to understand the experiences and contexts of domestic violence for marginalized women in U.S. society. The first half of the article lays out a series of challenges that an intersectional analysis grounded in a structural framework provides for understanding the role of culture in domestic violence. The second half of the article points to major contributions of such an approach to feminist methods and practices in working with battered women on the margins of society.

  13. Role of sensory and cognitive conspicuity in the prevention of collisions between motorcycles and trucks at T-intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Teik Hua; Ghanbari, Mahshid; Hamid, Hussain; Abdul-Halin, Alfian; Ng, Choy Peng

    2016-11-01

    increase the detection rate and the identification of a motorcycle by a truck driver at a farther distance, but effect deteriorates as the distance decreases. The results show that the detection rate and the identification of a motorcyclist wearing a black helmet with a reflective sticker increases as the distance between the motorcycle and the truck decreases. We also found that a motorcyclist wearing a white helmet and a white outfit is more identifiable and detectable at both shorter and longer distances. In conclusion, although this study provides evidence that the use of appropriate conspicuity treatments enhances motorcycle conspicuity to truck drivers, we suggest that more attention should be paid to the effect of background environment on motorcycle conspicuity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Buddhism at Crossroads: A Case Study of Six Tibetan Buddhist Monks Navigating the Intersection of Buddhist Theology and Western Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonam, Tenzin

    Recent effort to teach Western science in the Tibetan Buddhist monasteries has drawn interest both within and outside the quarters of these monasteries. This novel and historic move of bringing Western science in a traditional monastic community began around year 2000 at the behest of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism. Despite the novelty of this effort, the literature in science education about learners from non-Western communities suggests various "cognitive conflicts" experienced by these non-Western learners due to fundamental difference in the worldview of the two knowledge traditions. Hence, in this research focuses on how six Tibetan Buddhist monks were situating/reconciling the scientific concepts like the theory of evolution into their traditional Buddhist worldview. The monks who participated in this study were engaged in a further study science at a university in the U.S. for two years. Using case study approach, the participants were interviewed individually and in groups over the two-year period. The findings revealed that although the monks scored highly on their acceptance of evolution on the Measurement of Acceptance of Theory of Evolution (MATE) survey, however in the follow-up individual and focus group interviews, certain conflicts as well as agreement between the theory of evolution and their Buddhist beliefs were revealed. The monks experienced conflicts over concepts within evolution such as common ancestry, human evolution, and origin of life, and in reconciling the Buddhist and scientific notion of life. The conflicts were analyzed using the theory of collateral learning and was found that the monks engaged in different kinds of collateral learning, which is the degree of interaction and resolution of conflicting schemas. The different collateral learning of the monks was correlated to the concepts within evolution and has no correlation to the monks' years in secular school, science learning or their

  15. One Medicine One Science: a framework for exploring challenges at the intersection of animals, humans, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Dominic A; Sriramarao, P; Cardona, Carol; Steer, Clifford J; Kennedy, Shaun; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing the health consequences of interactions among animals, humans, and the environment in the face of climatic change, environmental disturbance, and expanding human populations is a critical global challenge in today's world. Exchange of interdisciplinary knowledge in basic and applied sciences and medicine that includes scientists, health professionals, key sponsors, and policy experts revealed that relevant case studies of monkeypox, influenza A, tuberculosis, and HIV can be used to guide strategies for anticipating and responding to new disease threats such as the Ebola and Chickungunya viruses, as well as to improve programs to control existing zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis. The problem of safely feeding the world while preserving the environment and avoiding issues such as antibiotic resistance in animals and humans requires cooperative scientific problem solving. Food poisoning outbreaks resulting from Salmonella growing in vegetables have demonstrated the need for knowledge of pathogen evolution and adaptation in developing appropriate countermeasures for prevention and policy development. Similarly, pesticide use for efficient crop production must take into consideration bee population declines that threaten the availability of the two-thirds of human foods that are dependent on pollination. This report presents and weighs the objective merits of competing health priorities and identifies gaps in knowledge that threaten health security, to promote discussion of major public policy implications such that they may be decided with at least an underlying platform of facts. © 2014 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Prader-Willi Syndrome and Schaaf-Yang Syndrome: Neurodevelopmental Diseases Intersecting at the MAGEL2 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Fountain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, developmental delay/intellectual disability, and characteristic feeding behaviors with failure to thrive during infancy; followed by hyperphagia and excessive weight gain later in childhood. Individuals with PWS also manifest complex behavioral phenotypes. Approximately 25% meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD. PWS is caused by the absence of paternally expressed, maternally silenced genes at chromosome 15q11-q13. MAGEL2 is one of five protein-coding genes in the PWS-critical domain. Truncating point mutations of the paternal allele of MAGEL2 cause Schaaf-Yang syndrome, which has significant phenotypic overlap with PWS, but is also clinically distinct; based on the presence of joint contractures, and a particularly high prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (up to 75% of affected individuals. The clinical and molecular overlap between PWS and Schaaf-Yang syndrome, but also their distinguishing features provide insight into the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying both disorders.

  17. Mental health at the intersections: the impact of complex needs on police contact and custody for Indigenous Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimovs, Julian; Dowse, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Australians experience significant social risk, vulnerability and disadvantage. Nowhere is this more starkly demonstrated than in the levels of contact that Indigenous Australians have with the criminal justice system, particularly the police. Utilizing a linked dataset of extant criminal justice, human and health service administrative data in New South Wales (NSW) Australia, this paper explores patterns of police contact and custody for a cohort of Indigenous males with complex needs. Four significant factors are identified that alone or in combination appear to impact on the frequency with which these men experience police contact and custody, including young age at first police contact, experiencing out of home care as a child, alcohol misuse, and limited locational mobility. Whilst it might be expected that the presence of mental ill-health and/or cognitive disability would be a key predictor of the frequency and intensity of police contact and custody, the findings suggest rather that the presence of multiple disadvantages beginning in the early years and compounding throughout individuals' lives, in which mental illness may or may not be a factor, is more significant than the presence of any one diagnosis in precipitating police contact and custody for this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Streptococcus mutans NADH oxidase lies at the intersection of overlapping regulons controlled by oxygen and NAD+ levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J L; Derr, A M; Karuppaiah, K; MacGilvray, M E; Kajfasz, J K; Faustoferri, R C; Rivera-Ramos, I; Bitoun, J P; Lemos, J A; Wen, Z T; Quivey, R G

    2014-06-01

    NADH oxidase (Nox, encoded by nox) is a flavin-containing enzyme used by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans to reduce diatomic oxygen to water while oxidizing NADH to NAD(+). The critical nature of Nox is 2-fold: it serves to regenerate NAD(+), a carbon cycle metabolite, and to reduce intracellular oxygen, preventing formation of destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). As oxygen and NAD(+) have been shown to modulate the activity of the global transcription factors Spx and Rex, respectively, Nox is potentially poised at a critical junction of two stress regulons. In this study, microarray data showed that either addition of oxygen or loss of nox resulted in altered expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and transport and the upregulation of genes encoding ROS-metabolizing enzymes. Loss of nox also resulted in upregulation of several genes encoding transcription factors and signaling molecules, including the redox-sensing regulator gene rex. Characterization of the nox promoter revealed that nox was regulated by oxygen, through SpxA, and by Rex. These data suggest a regulatory loop in which the roles of nox in reduction of oxygen and regeneration of NAD(+) affect the activity levels of Spx and Rex, respectively, and their regulons, which control several genes, including nox, crucial to growth of S. mutans under conditions of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Eating Disorder Symptoms and Obesity at the Intersections of Gender, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation in US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauren A.; Birkett, Michelle A.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Everett, Bethany

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined purging for weight control, diet pill use, and obesity across sexual orientation identity and ethnicity groups. Methods. Anonymous survey data were analyzed from 24 591 high school students of diverse ethnicities in the federal Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System Survey in 2005 and 2007. Self-reported data were gathered on gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation identity, height, weight, and purging and diet pill use in the past 30 days. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds of purging, diet pill use, and obesity associated with sexual orientation identity in gender-stratified models and examined for the presence of interactions between ethnicity and sexual orientation. Results. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identity was associated with substantially elevated odds of purging and diet pill use in both girls and boys (odds ratios [OR] range =  1.9–6.8). Bisexual girls and boys were also at elevated odds of obesity compared to same-gender heterosexuals (OR = 2.3 and 2.1, respectively). Conclusions. Interventions to reduce eating disorders and obesity that are appropriate for LGB youths of diverse ethnicities are urgently needed. PMID:23237207

  20. Construction of a prototype superconducting quadrupole magnet for a high-luminosity insertion at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billan, J.; Perin, R.; Resegotti, L.; Tortschanoff, T.; Wolf, R.

    1976-01-01

    An account is given of the design and construction of a prototype superconducting magnet providing a high field gradient over a large aperture. After stressing the importance of careful definition and monitoring of all the steps involved, the authors present the manufacturing process in full, together with a description of the materials, techniques, facilities, and tools employed in the fabrication of the various components and in their assembly. The superconductor is NbTi in a copper matrix. The magnet has auxiliary sextupole and 12-pole windings; the warm bore diameter is 173 mm and the magnetic length 1.25 m. During tests, a maximum gradient of 47 T/m was obtained, with a peak field in the windings of 6.1 T and a stored energy of 700 kJ. Eight such magnets have been proposed as part of a system for focusing the proton beams of the ISR at one of the crossing points in order to achieve locally increased luminosity. (author)

  1. One Medicine One Science: a framework for exploring challenges at the intersection of animals, humans, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Dominic A; Sriramarao, P; Cardona, Carol; Steer, Clifford J; Kennedy, Shaun; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the health consequences of interactions among animals, humans, and the environment in the face of climatic change, environmental disturbance, and expanding human populations is a critical global challenge in today's world. Exchange of interdisciplinary knowledge in basic and applied sciences and medicine that includes scientists, health professionals, key sponsors, and policy experts revealed that relevant case studies of monkeypox, influenza A, tuberculosis, and HIV can be used to guide strategies for anticipating and responding to new disease threats such as the Ebola and Chickungunya viruses, as well as to improve programs to control existing zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis. The problem of safely feeding the world while preserving the environment and avoiding issues such as antibiotic resistance in animals and humans requires cooperative scientific problem solving. Food poisoning outbreaks resulting from Salmonella growing in vegetables have demonstrated the need for knowledge of pathogen evolution and adaptation in developing appropriate countermeasures for prevention and policy development. Similarly, pesticide use for efficient crop production must take into consideration bee population declines that threaten the availability of the two-thirds of human foods that are dependent on pollination. This report presents and weighs the objective merits of competing health priorities and identifies gaps in knowledge that threaten health security, to promote discussion of major public policy implications such that they may be decided with at least an underlying platform of facts. PMID:25476836

  2. Symbiotic virus at the evolutionary intersection of three types of large DNA viruses; iridoviruses, ascoviruses, and ichnoviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bigot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ascovirus, DpAV4a (family Ascoviridae, is a symbiotic virus that markedly increases the fitness of its vector, the parasitic ichneumonid wasp, Diadromus puchellus, by increasing survival of wasp eggs and larvae in their lepidopteran host, Acrolepiopsis assectella. Previous phylogenetic studies have indicated that DpAV4a is related to the pathogenic ascoviruses, such as the Spodoptera frugiperda ascovirus 1a (SfAV1a and the lepidopteran iridovirus (family Iridoviridae, Chilo iridescent virus (CIV, and is also likely related to the ancestral source of certain ichnoviruses (family Polydnaviridae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To clarify the evolutionary relationships of these large double-stranded DNA viruses, we sequenced the genome of DpAV4a and undertook phylogenetic analyses of the above viruses and others, including iridoviruses pathogenic to vertebrates. The DpAV4a genome consisted of 119,343 bp and contained at least 119 open reading frames (ORFs, the analysis of which confirmed the relatedness of this virus to iridoviruses and other ascoviruses. CONCLUSIONS: Analyses of core DpAV4a genes confirmed that ascoviruses and iridoviruses are evolutionary related. Nevertheless, our results suggested that the symbiotic DpAV4a had a separate origin in the iridoviruses from the pathogenic ascoviruses, and that these two types shared parallel evolutionary paths, which converged with respect to virion structure (icosahedral to bacilliform, genome configuration (linear to circular, and cytopathology (plasmalemma blebbing to virion-containing vesicles. Our analyses also revealed that DpAV4a shared more core genes with CIV than with other ascoviruses and iridoviruses, providing additional evidence that DpAV4a represents a separate lineage. Given the differences in the biology of the various iridoviruses and ascoviruses studied, these results provide an interesting model for how viruses of different families evolved from one another.

  3. Engineering design for pedestrian safety at highway-rail grade crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    A number of pedestrian treatments at railroad grade crossings have been developed and are used throughout the United States. The decision of when to use these treatments is generally a matter of best practices, using a decision tree, or conducting a ...

  4. Driver behavior at highway-railroad grade crossings : a literature review from 1990-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Accidents at grade crossings continue to be the leading cause of fatalities in the railroad industry. A large proportion of these accidents are the result of driver error. The purpose of this report is to review research that addresses driver behavio...

  5. A School-Based Violence Prevention Model for At-Risk Eighth Grade Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Stephen A.; Kaiser-Ulrey, Cheryl; Potts, Isabelle; Creason, Alia Haque

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of a school and community-based violence prevention program for at-risk eighth-grade students. School officials matched intervention students with community-based mentors in an employment setting. Findings suggest that mentored students had significant reductions in total number and days of suspensions, days of sanction,…

  6. Infant-Mother Attachment Security and Children's Anxiety and Aggression at First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Weinraub, Marsha

    2007-01-01

    With a large and diverse sample of children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the role of infant-mother attachment security as a protective factor against the development of children's anxious and aggressive behaviors at first grade was examined. When child's sex,…

  7. Survival and prognostic factors at time of diagnosis in high-grade appendicular osteosarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding-Rasmussen, Thomas; Thorn, Andrea Pohly; Horstmann, Peter

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Survival of patients with high-grade osteosarcoma (HOS), the most common primary bone cancer, has not improved significantly the last 30 years and the disease remains a major challenge. The purpose of this study is to evaluate survival in relation to prognostic factors at time of diag...

  8. Intersectionality research in counseling psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzanka, Patrick R; Santos, Carlos E; Moradi, Bonnie

    2017-10-01

    This article introduces the special section on intersectionality research in counseling psychology. Across the 4 manuscripts that constitute this special section, a clear theme emerges: a need to return to the roots and politics of intersectionality. Importantly, the 2 empirical articles in this special section (Jerald, Cole, Ward, & Avery, 2017; Lewis, Williams, Peppers, & Gadson, 2017) are studies of Black women's experiences: a return, so to speak, to the subject positions and social locations from which intersectionality emanates. Shin et al. (2017) explore why this focus on Black feminist thought and social justice is so important by highlighting the persistent weaknesses in how much research published in leading counseling psychology journals has tended to use intersectionality as a way to talk about multiple identities, rather than as a framework for critiquing systemic, intersecting forms of oppression and privilege. Shin and colleagues also point to the possibilities intersectionality affords us when scholars realize the transformative potential of this critical framework. Answers to this call for transformative practices are foregrounded in Moradi and Grzanka's (2017) contribution, which surveys the interdisciplinary literature on intersectionality and presents a series of guidelines for using intersectionality responsibly. We close with a discussion of issues concerning the applications of intersectionality to counseling psychology research that spans beyond the contributions of each manuscript in this special section. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Medical school dropout--testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Korsholm, Lars; Eika, Berit

    2011-11-01

    Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent dropout. This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n=1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half took a composite non-grade-based admission test (Strategy 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor-parent, origin, parenthood, parents living together, parent on benefit, university-educated parents) were also examined. The outcome of interest was students' dropout status at 2 years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission strategy, the type of qualifying examination and the priority given to the programme on the national application forms contributed significantly to the dropout model. Social variables did not predict dropout and neither did Strategy 2 admission test scores. Selection by admission testing appeared to have an independent, protective effect on dropout in this setting. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  10. Switching Exciton Pulses Through Conical Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    Exciton pulses transport excitation and entanglement adiabatically through Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light atoms, which are set into directed motion by resonant dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we demonstrate the coherent splitting of such pulses as well as the spatial segregation of electronic excitation and atomic motion. Both mechanisms exploit local nonadiabatic effects at a conical intersection, turning them from a decoherence source into an asset. The intersection provides a sensitive knob controlling the propagation direction and coherence properties of exciton pulses. The fundamental ideas discussed here have general implications for excitons on a dynamic network.

  11. Using Robots to Motivate At-Risk Learners in Science over the Ninth Grade Hurdle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerge, Dora

    The ninth grade is a pivotal year in an adolescent's academic career; however, educators have failed to find a remedy for the high failure and dropout rates at this grade level. Students who lack basic skills and support as they enter high school can experience repeated failures, which often lead to a decrease in motivation and dropping out of school. Up to 15% of all ninth graders repeat ninth grade and 36% of all U. S. dropouts are ninth graders. It is imperative that researchers and educators find new ways to motivate at-risk students and augment basic skills in order to mitigate the dropout problem at this grade level. Robot teachers could be a viable solution to increase student motivation and achievement. However, before such strategies could be recommended for implementation, information about their efficacy in a high school setting is needed. The purpose of this quantitative, two-group experimental, pretest-posttest study was to determine the effects of a robot teacher/instructor on science motivation and science achievement in ninth grade at-risk learners. Approximately 40 at-risk, repeating ninth graders, ranging in age from 13 to 17 years old from one high school in the United States Virgin Islands, participated in the study. Half of the students received a robot teacher/instructor manipulation whereby a robot taught a science lesson for physical science assessments (experimental group), and the other half received the same instruction from a human teacher (control group). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare the science achievement posttest scores, as measured by test scores, and science motivation posttest scores, as measured by the SMTSL, between the experimental and the control groups, while controlling for the pretest scores (covariate). The results demonstrated that posttest motivation and achievement scores in the human teacher condition were not significantly different than posttest motivation scores in the robot teacher

  12. Exploring Class-Based Intersectionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David; Corona, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that language, culture and identity researchers need to take the intersectionality of identity inscriptions seriously and, further to this, that an intersectional approach which emanates from an interest in social class provides a productive way to examine the lives and experience of individuals living in multicultural societies.…

  13. Intersectionality and Critical Race Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePouw, Christin

    2018-01-01

    This conceptual article employs critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical framework to explore the importance of intersectionality in critical race parenting. In particular, I focus on intersectionality to understand better how Whiteness and racial power play out in intimate relationships within the family, particularly between White parents and…

  14. Scattering Amplitudes from Intersection Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, Sebastian

    2018-04-06

    We use Picard-Lefschetz theory to prove a new formula for intersection numbers of twisted cocycles associated with a given arrangement of hyperplanes. In a special case when this arrangement produces the moduli space of punctured Riemann spheres, intersection numbers become tree-level scattering amplitudes of quantum field theories in the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulation.

  15. Lighting levels for isolated intersections : leading to safety improvements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have linked the benefits of roadway lighting to a reduction in crash rates at night for a variety : of roadway types including rural intersections. Assessing the effectiveness of intersection lighting has primarily : relied upon c...

  16. Allergic Sensitization at School Age is a Systemic Low-grade Inflammatory Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, B. L.; Stokholm, J.; Schoos, A.-M. M.

    2017-01-01

    allergic sensitization. Methods High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) were measured in plasma at age 6 months (N = 214) and 7 years (N = 277) in children from the Copenhagen Prospective...... sensitization in school-aged children suggesting systemic low-grade inflammation as a phenotypic characteristic of this early-onset NCD....

  17. Cognitive effects of cancer and its treatments at the intersection of aging: what do we know; what do we need to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Hurria, Arti; McDonald, Brenna C; Saykin, Andrew J; Stern, Robert A; VanMeter, John W; McGuckin, Meghan; Traina, Tiffani; Denduluri, Neelima; Turner, Scott; Howard, Darlene; Jacobsen, Paul B; Ahles, Tim

    2013-12-01

    There is a fairly consistent, albeit non-universal body of research documenting cognitive declines after cancer and its treatments. While few of these studies have included subjects aged 65 years and older, it is logical to expect that older patients are at risk of cognitive decline. Here, we use breast cancer as an exemplar disease for inquiry into the intersection of aging and cognitive effects of cancer and its therapies. There are a striking number of common underlying potential biological risks and pathways for the development of cancer, cancer-related cognitive declines, and aging processes, including the development of a frail phenotype. Candidate shared pathways include changes in hormonal milieu, inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage and compromised DNA repair, genetic susceptibility, decreased brain blood flow or disruption of the blood-brain barrier, direct neurotoxicity, decreased telomere length, and cell senescence. There also are similar structure and functional changes seen in brain imaging studies of cancer patients and those seen with "normal" aging and Alzheimer's disease. Disentangling the role of these overlapping processes is difficult since they require aged animal models and large samples of older human subjects. From what we do know, frailty and its low cognitive reserve seem to be a clinically useful marker of risk for cognitive decline after cancer and its treatments. This and other results from this review suggest the value of geriatric assessments to identify older patients at the highest risk of cognitive decline. Further research is needed to understand the interactions between aging, genetic predisposition, lifestyle factors, and frailty phenotypes to best identify the subgroups of older patients at greatest risk for decline and to develop behavioral and pharmacological interventions targeting this group. We recommend that basic science and population trials be developed specifically for older hosts with intermediate endpoints

  18. Identification of black spots for traffic injury in road intersections dependence of injury definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Hansen, Dennis; Lauritsen, Jens M

    2010-01-01

    injury information has been available for about 20 years and in the current project the aim was to investigate whether different definitions of black spots (hot spots) would point at different intersections for further scrutiny. During the years 2002 to 2007 all 29 719 patient contacts due to traffic...... defined as The upper decile of injury generating intersections. Intersections with at least one death or hospitalised patient. The intersections covering the upper decile of injuries. Results The three definitions in combination identified 295 injury burdened intersections. Only three intersections were...... identified by all three definitions. All intersections fulfilling definition three were also included in definition one. Definition two covered 103 intersections, only 22 of these were identified by definition one. Conclusion The definition of Black spot has huge implications for identification...

  19. Political Intersectionality and Democratic Politics in the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Public Sphere (EPS). It is inspired by results and reflections from the European Gender Project (EGP) , where intersectionality was used as an approach for analysing negotiations between gender and ethno-national diversity in selected European countries and in relation to the European Public Sphere....... The aim of the essay is to further deepen the theoretical and empirical understanding of intersectionality by reflecting on the relations between political intersectionality and democratic politics from a particular European perspective. It thus confronts theory and research findings concerning...... intersections of gender and ethnic diversity in political life at the national and transnational levels across Europe. In this context, political intersectionality refers to the framing of gender and ethnic diversity by major political actors as well as by activities of women’s and anti-racist organisations...

  20. The Priority of Intersectionality in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrand, Kristen L; Eliason, Jennifer; St Cloud, Tiffani; Potter, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    Recent societal events highlight inequities experienced by underrepresented and marginalized communities. These inequities are the impetus for ongoing efforts in academic medicine to create inclusive educational and patient care environments for diverse stakeholders. Frequently, approaches focus on singular populations or broad macroscopic concepts and do not always elucidate the complexities that arise at the intersection between multiple identities and life experiences. Intersectionality acknowledges multidimensional aspects of identity inclusive of historical, structural, and cultural factors. Understanding how multiple identity experiences impact different individuals, from patients to trainees to providers, is critical for improving health care education and delivery. Building on existing work within academic medicine, this Commentary outlines six key recommendations to advance intersectionality in academic medicine: embrace personal and collective loci of responsibility; examine and rectify unbalanced power dynamics; celebrate visibility and intersectional innovation; engage all stakeholders in the process of change; select and analyze meaningful metrics; and sustain the commitment to achieving health equity over time. Members of the academic medical community committed to advancing health equity can use these recommendations to promote and maintain meaningful changes that recognize and respond to the multidimensional voices and expressed needs of all individuals engaged in providing and receiving health care.

  1. Real-life data for the optimization of the geometric layout of an intersection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleuren, S.T.G.; Lefeber, A.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    This document contains the data of ten real-life intersections. This data can be used for the optimization of the geometric layout of the intersection, e.g., optimizing the arrival lanes, departure lanes and lane markings at the intersection.

  2. Finite element analysis of functionally graded bone plate at femur bone fracture site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Pravat Kumar; Sahoo, Bamadev; Panda, L. N.; Das, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of fractured Femur bone with functionally graded bone plate. The Femur bone is modeled by using the data from the CT (Computerized Tomography) scan and the material properties are assigned using Mimics software. The fracture fixation plate used here is composed of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). The functionally graded bone plate is considered to be composed of different layers of homogeneous materials. Finite element method approach is adopted for analysis. The volume fraction of the material is calculated by considering its variation along the thickness direction (z) according to a power law and the effective properties of the homogeneous layers are estimated. The model developed is validated by comparing numerical results available in the literature. Static analysis has been performed for the bone plate system by considering both axial compressive load and torsional load. The investigation shows that by introducing FG bone plate instead of titanium, the stress at the fracture site increases by 63 percentage and the deformation decreases by 15 percentage, especially when torsional load is taken into consideration. The present model yields better results in comparison with the commercially available bone plates.

  3. The Role of the A* Grade at a Level as a Predictor of University Performance in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Rodeiro, Carmen; Zanini, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    In summer 2010, the A* grade at A level was awarded for the first time. This grade was introduced to help higher education institutions to differentiate between the highest achieving candidates and to promote and reward greater stretch and challenge. Exploring data from the Higher Education Statistics Service and making use of multilevel…

  4. Learning Achievement and the Efficiency of Learning the Concept of Vector Addition at Three Different Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubrud, Allan R.; Novak, Joseph D.

    1973-01-01

    Empirical data relate to Bruner's and Ausubel's theories of learning concepts at different age levels. The concept of vector addition was taught to eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The concept was learned and retained by high ability ninth and all tenth grade students. (PS)

  5. Intersectionality as a Framework for Inclusive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    To create more inclusive environments for the advancement of scientific inquiry, it is critical to consider the role of intersectionality. Originating in activism and legal scholarship grounded in the realities of women of color, the concept of intersectionality emphasizes how societal power dynamics shape the differential construction of life opportunities of diverse demographic groups across a variety of social identities, contexts, and historical conditions. Importantly, intersectionality also recognizes that individuals can simultaneously hold privileged and marginalized identities. For example, while white women scientists are less represented in leadership and decision-making positions than their male counterparts, but they typically do not experience the marginalization of being mistaken for cleaning staff at their institutions, as many African American and Latina scientists report. Thus, white women are relatively privileged in this context. This case and national survey data demonstrate the critical importance of recognizing that the intersection of racial and gender identities creates complex and multi-faceted challenges for diverse women scientists in navigating the organizational culture of science. Educational research indicates that interventions seeking to create more inclusivity in science should take into account the relationships between various social identities, contexts, and broader historical conditions that affect the advancement of historically underrepresented minority groups. Therefore, this presentation will provide a conceptual framework of intersectionality to guide interventions to encourage all scientists to recognize the distinctive intellectual and social contributions of those from diverse gender, race, class, disability, sexual orientation, and other identity backgrounds. It will also address how this framework can be applied to develop programs, policies, and practices that transform organizational cultures to be more inclusive

  6. The applied philosopher-scientist: Intersections among phenomenological research, nursing science, and theory as a basis for practice aimed at facilitating boys' healing from being bullied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Danny G; Grace, Pamela J

    2011-01-01

    This article uses an exemplar of phenomenological research of middle school boys, experiences of being bullied as applied philosophy and science to illuminate the intersection of the moral and scientific realms for theory-oriented research and practice. As a consequence, a clear foundation for advancing nursing science and envisioning innovative nursing practice with boys who experience being bullied is provided. Included is a weaving together of phenomenological perspective for research and practice, Roger's (nursing) Science of Unitary Human Beings (SUHB), and SUHB-derived middle range theories of self-transcendence and power.

  7. Evaluation of several FDG PET parameters for prediction of soft tissue tumour grade at primary diagnosis and recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendler, Wolfgang P. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Chalkidis, Rebecca P.; Ilhan, Harun [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Knoesel, Thomas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); Herrmann, Ken [Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Issels, Rolf D.; Lindner, Lars H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Internal Medicine III, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Cyran, Clemens C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Hacker, Marcus [Vienna General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of SUV-based parameters derived from [{sup 18} F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in order to optimize non-invasive prediction of soft tissue tumour (STT) grade. One hundred and twenty-nine lesions from 123 patients who underwent FDG-PET for primary staging (n = 79) or assessment of recurrence (n = 44) of STT were analyzed retrospectively. Histopathology was the reference standard for tumour grading. Absolute values and tumour-to-liver ratios of several standardized uptake value (SUV) parameters were correlated with tumour grading. At primary diagnosis SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub liver} and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} showed good correlation with tumour grade. SUV{sub peak} (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic, AUC-ROC: 0.82) and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} (AUC-ROC: 0.82) separated best between low grade (WHO intermediate, grade 1 sarcoma, and low risk gastrointestinal stromal tumours, GISTs) and high grade (grade 2/3 sarcoma and intermediate/high risk GISTs) lesions: optimal threshold for SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} was 2.4, which resulted in a sensitivity of 79 % and a specificity of 81 %. At disease recurrence, the AUC-ROC was <0.75 for each parameter. A tumour SUV{sub peak} of at least 2.4 fold mean liver uptake predicts high grade histopathology with good diagnostic accuracy at primary staging. At disease recurrence, FDG-PET does not reliably separate high and low grade lesions. (orig.)

  8. Achievement, Engagement, and Behavior Outcomes of Youth at Risk Following a Pre-Eighth-Grade Summer Academic Enrichment Program and Participation in a School-Wide, School Year Long, Ownership, Mastery, and Grading Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alati, David K.

    2011-01-01

    No significant differences in beginning eighth-grade pretest compared to ending eighth-grade posttest California Achievement Test Normal Curve Equivalent Scores were found for youth at risk who completed a pre-eighth-grade summer academic enrichment program where comparisons for reading vocabulary t(19) = 0.46, p = 0.33 (one-tailed), d = 0.107,…

  9. Performance of resistance grading system at 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator Facility, BARC-TIFR, Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Ram; Matkar, U.V.; Ekambaram, M.; Lokare, R.N.; Yadav, M.L.; Gore, J.A.; Kulkarni, S.G.; Gupta, A.K.; Bhagwat, P.V.; Kale, R.M.; Karande, J.N.; Kurup, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The 14UD Pelletron Accelerator has been in operation for last sixteen years, progressively with increased efficiency. Since inception the accelerator was operating in slit control mode, however, with the installation of a TPS system, it is now possible to operate the accelerator in GVM mode even with ion beam of low intensities. Recently all the column and tube corona points were replaced by resistances. This has helped in low voltage operation of accelerator. In this paper we will discuss in detail the performance of new Terminal Potential Stabiliser system, particularly, our experience resistance grading, at the Pelletron Accelerator. (author)

  10. Effects of Extracurricular Participation during Middle School on Academic Motivation and Achievement at Grade 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.; Cao, Qian; Kwok, Oi-man

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of participating in two domains of extracurricular activities (sports and performance arts/clubs) in Grades 7 and 8 on Grade 9 academic motivation and letter grades, above baseline performance. Participants were 483 students (55% male; 33% Euro-American, 25% African American, and 39% Latino). Propensity score weighting…

  11. Technological Studies at Thomas Edison Middle School. Grades 6-7-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Patrick N.

    This technology studies curriculum for grades 6-8 is a plan for each middle school student to experience technology education for approximately 60 days (1 trimester of a 180-day school year) in each grade. Section A provides definitions; structure or content for grade-level programs with science and technology unifiers (unifying curricular…

  12. Intersection negotiation problems of older drivers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This project included a background literature synthesis and observational field study. The research goals were to document driving problems and errors at intersections, for older drivers using their own cars to travel familiar and unfamiliar routes, ...

  13. Misconception on Addition and Subtraction of Fraction at Primary School Students in Fifth-Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivena, V.; Ningsih, A. R.; Jupri, A.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the mastery concept of the student in mathematics learning especially in addition and subtraction of fraction at primary school level. By using qualitative research method, the data were collected from 23 grade five students (10-11-year-old). Instruments included a test, that is accompanied by Certainty Response Index (CRI) and interview with students and teacher. The result of the test has been obtained, then processed by analyzing the student’s answers for each item and then grouped by the CRI categories that combined with the results of the interview with students and teacher. The results showed that student’s mastery-concept on additional and subtraction dominated by category ‘misconception’. So, we can say that mastery-concept on addition and subtraction of fraction at fifth-grade students is still low. Finally, the impact can make most of primary student think that learning addition and subtraction of fraction in mathematics is difficult.

  14. The OAFM magnet for ISR intersection I-8

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The Open Axial Field Magnet (OAFM), weighing in at 300 tons, was installed in ISR intersection I-8 and brought into operation early in 1979. Fitted with a highly transparent "flat-fish" vacuum chamber, it served experiment R807 (large transverse momentum). Flat-fish vacuum chambers were originally developed for use inside the Split-Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I-4: see 8310325 and references there.

  15. Rhythm production at school entry as a predictor of poor reading and spelling at the end of first grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundetræ, Kjersti; Thomson, Jenny M

    2018-01-01

    Rhythm plays an organisational role in the prosody and phonology of language, and children with literacy difficulties have been found to demonstrate poor rhythmic perception. This study explored whether students' performance on a simple rhythm task at school entry could serve as a predictor of whether they would face difficulties in word reading and spelling at the end of grade 1. The participants were 479 Norwegian 6-year-old first graders randomized as controls in the longitudinal RCT on track (n = 1171). Rhythmic timing and pre-reading skills were tested individually at school entry on a digital tablet. On the rhythm task, the students were told to tap a drum appearing on the screen to two different rhythms (2 Hz paced and 1.5 Hz paced). Children's responses were recorded as they tapped on the screen with their index finger. Significant group differences were found in rhythm tapping ability measured at school entry, when groups were defined upon whether children went on to score above or below the 20th percentile reading and spelling thresholds in national assessment tests at the end of grade one. Inclusion of the school-entry rhythmic tapping measure into a model of classification accuracy for above or below threshold reading and spelling improved accuracy of classification by 6.2 and 9.2% respectively.

  16. "I am not [just] a rabbit who has a bunch of children!": agency in the midst of suffering at the intersections of global inequalities, gendered violence, and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, Nia

    2010-08-01

    This article is based on an analysis of the life history narrative of Antonia, a Peruvian immigrant in Chile, in the context of ethnographic research on Chilean women's experiences of domestic violence (DV) and the post-dictatorship state's responses to DV. Structural and socio-cultural constraints and forms of violence, including global and local economic inequalities, migration, racism, and intimate, gender-based abuses in both home and receiving countries interact in Antonia's experience to produce suffering and influence a form of gendered agency. This analysis points to the need for research and policies specifically designed to attend to the intersecting vulnerabilities migrant women who suffer DV often face, as well as their agentive acts.

  17. Traffic design and signal timing of staggered intersections based on a sorting strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Cai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A staggered intersection is a special type of intersection in a road network. Its geographical characteristics consist of two T-legged intersections that cause the lost time per cycle to become longer than at cross intersections under conventional signal control, thus leading to low intersection efficiency. This article shows that the problem can be eliminated at the left–right type of staggered intersection by channelization and signal phasing, based on a sorting strategy and pre-signal, which reduce the amount of lost time during the signal cycle using the split distance as the sorting area. VISSIM was used to model and analyze the proposed method as well as the conventional method for comparison purposes. The simulation revealed that the proposed method reduced the average delays and maximum queue lengths in each movement and for the entire intersection, both in the peak hours and in the off-peak hour.

  18. Long-Term Experience With World Health Organization Grade III (Malignant) Meningiomas at a Single Institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Lewis A.; Prayson, Richard A.; Lee, Joung; Reddy, Chandana; Chao, Samuel T.; Barnett, Gene H.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Suh, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes for patients with Grade III meningiomas as defined by the 2007 World Health Organization standards. Methods and Materials: The slides from patients who had been treated at the Cleveland Clinic for malignant meningiomas were reviewed by a single neuropathologist. The data from 13 patients treated between 1984 and 2006 satisfied the World Health Organization 2007 definition of Grade III meningioma. A total of 24 surgeries were performed, including 13 primary, 7 salvage, and 4 second salvage. Also, 14 courses of radiotherapy (RT) were administered, including fractionated RT in 3 patients after primary surgery, fractionated RT in 4 patients after salvage surgery, salvage stereotactic radiosurgery to six separate areas in 3 patients, and salvage intensity-modulated RT in 1 patient. Results: From the primary surgery, the median survival was 3.4 years, the 5-year survival rate was 47.2%, and the 8-year survival rate was 12.2%. The median time to recurrence was 9.6 months. A trend was seen toward longer survival for patients who had received adjuvant RT after initial surgery compared with those treated with surgery alone. Two patients developed radiation necrosis, and three had surgical complications. Conclusion: This is one of the few studies reporting the outcomes for malignant meningioma patients according to recent definitions. Our results are consistent with existing reports of the overall poor outcomes for atypical and malignant meningioma patients. From the available data, surgical resection followed by RT and salvage therapy can lead to extended survival.

  19. Investigating everyday measures through exploratory talk: whole class plenary intervention and landscape study at grade four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Sharada; Blomqvist, Charlotta

    2018-03-01

    We report an exploratory talk based, whole class plenary intervention, in relation to students' understanding of everyday measures and measurement, in a grade four classroom at a grade 4-6 school in Sweden. Extended, project related, teacher-researcher collaboration forms basis for such cultural historical activity theory or CHAT based efforts. As formative intervention, the conduct of the plenary is not pre-determined but embedded in ongoing curricular realities, with the agency of students and teacher promoted, pedagogical ideas reutilised and the role of researcher viewed as supporting design and growth of the intervention. Under Charlotta's guidance as teacher, the plenary is opportunity for her students to examine improbable scenarios such as, Can Eva and Anton measure the length of Sweden on foot, Can Lars and Iris measure their age in decimeters. A zone of proximal development is created, in which students make the transition from spontaneous to scientific concepts and learn how various units of measurement are objects-that-can-be-used-for-certain-purposes. With opportunity for critical and reflective inquiry, in a plenary designed to lead development, Charlotta's students look beyond the making of rote measurements and articulate a theory of measure in nascent terms. Such a landscape of teaching-learning is finally understood in terms of the nature of talk that was facilitated, the manner of pedagogy utilised, the style of teaching exercised and the kind of learning that was demanded of her students.

  20. Planning of Autonomous Multi-agent Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viksnin Ilya I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a traffic management system with agents acting on behalf autonomous vehicle at the crossroads. Alternatively to existing solutions based on usage of semiautonomous control systems with the control unit, proposed in this paper algorithm apply the principles of decentralized multi-agent control. Agents during their collaboration generate intersection plan and determinate the optimal order of road intersection for a given criterion based on the exchange of information about them and their environment. The paper contains optimization criteria for possible routes selection and experiments that perform in order to estimate the proposed model. Experiment results show that this model can significantly reduce traffic density compared to the traditional traffic management systems. Moreover, the proposed algorithm efficiency increases with road traffic density. Furthermore, the availability of control unit in the system significantly reduces the negative impact of possible failures and hacker attacks.

  1. Wear Behavior of Selected Nuclear Grade Graphites at Room Temperature in Ambient Air Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung-Seon; Park, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Yong-Wan

    2008-01-01

    In a very high temperature reactor (VHTR), graphite will be used not only for as a moderator and reflector but also as a major structural component due to its excellent neutronic, thermal and mechanical properties. In the VHTR, wear of graphite components is inevitable due to a neutron irradiation-induced dimensional change, thermal gradient, relative motions of graphite components and a shock load such as an earthquake. Large wear particles accumulated at the bottom of a reactor can influence the cooling of the lower part and small wear particles accumulated on the primary circuit and heat exchanger tube can make it difficult to inspect the equipment, and also decrease the heat exchange rate. In the present work, preliminary wear tests were performed at room temperature in ambient air environment to understand the basic wear characteristics of selected nuclear grade graphites for the VHTR

  2. Intense CH{sub 4} plumes generated by serpentinization of ultramafic rocks at the intersection of the 15{degree}20[minutes]N fracture zone and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlou, J.L.; Fouquet, Y.; Bougault, H.; Donval, J.P.; Etoubleau, J. [IFREMER Centre de Brest, Plouzane (France). Dept. Geosciences Marines; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Dapoigny, A. [CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Appriou, P. [Univ. de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France); Rona, P.A. [Rutgers-the State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1998-07-01

    As part of the FARA French-US Program designed to study the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) between 15{degree}N and the Azores, twenty-three dives with the submersible Nautile were conducted during the French-US Faranaut 15N cruise on the eastern and western parts of the Fracture Zone/Ridge axis intersection. South of the eastern ridge-transform fault intersection, nine Nautile dives were made within the rift valley and along the western rift valley wall. CH{sub 4} concentrations in the bottom waters reach 53.2 nmol/kg along faulted zones on top and on the east flank of the ultramafic inner corner high where serpentinized rocks outcrop. No {sup 3}He anomaly is associated with methane, ruling out any primary mantle component. High CH{sub 4} anomalies (up to 22 nmol/kg) are also present in the bottom waters of the rift valley northern segment on both the western and eastern valley walls and on the inner high adjacent to the eastern wall where ultramafic rocks outcrop. Seven vertical hydrocasts carried out in the axial valley (4500 M deep) show an intense CH{sub 4} anomaly, with a maximum (35.8 nmol/kg) at 3200 m depth. CH{sub 4} concentrations of 9.9--14.9 nmol/kg are also present on the western wall along the 3200 m isobath. CH{sub 4} output from ultramafic outcrops on the western and eastern intersections of the Fracture Zone with the MAR is believed to reflect ongoing serpentinization.

  3. Biology Procedural Knowledge at Eleventh Grade of Senior High School in West Lampung Based on Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, T. M.; Paidi; Mercuriani, I. S.

    2018-03-01

    This study was aim to determine Biology procedural knowledge of senior high school in West Lampung based on curriculum at 11th grade in even semester. This research was descriptive research. The population was all students of senior high school in West Lampung. The sampling technique in this research used purposive sampling technique, so the researcher obtained 3 schools using K13 and 3 schools using KTSP. Data collecting technique used instrument test. Data analysis technique used U-Mann Whitney test. The result showed that p=0.028 (p<0.05), so there was significant differences between school using K13 and KTSP. The procedural knowledge of schools which using K13 is higher than school which using KTSP, with the mean score K13=4.35 and KTSP=4.00

  4. Democratising intersectionality? participatory structures and equality policies in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Alonso Alvarez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly work on intersectionality has shown some concern on whether this policy strategy is implemented in a participatory manner. The case of Portugal has been of particular interest since the country features a long tradition of involving civil society in the making of equality policies. This article revisits the Portuguese case in order to analyse recent developments. First, the participatory and coordinated approach adopted so far to deal with inequalities is described. Second, the analysis focuses on gender-based violence policies to help capturing new advancements. These policies have been recently enlarged to tackle the situation of women at the intersections and civil society actors have been actively involved in the policy-making process. In particular, the case of policies to combat female genital mutilation illustrates how participatory structures contribute to bring an intersectional perspective. The analysis of the Portuguese case allows thus reflecting on the potential benefits of democratising intersectionality as well as its limits.

  5. Modulation of Magnetic Properties at the Nanometer Scale in Continuously Graded Ferromagnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Fallarino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ferromagnetic alloy materials with designed composition depth profiles provide an efficient route for the control of magnetism at the nanometer length scale. In this regard, cobalt-chromium and cobalt-ruthenium alloys constitute powerful model systems. They exhibit easy-to-tune magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization MS and Curie temperature TC while preserving their crystalline structure over a wide composition range. In order to demonstrate this materials design potential, we have grown a series of graded Co1−xCrx and Co1−wRuw (10 1 ¯ 0 epitaxial thin films, with x and w following predefined concentration profiles. Structural analysis measurements verify the epitaxial nature and crystallographic quality of our entire sample sets, which were designed to exhibit in-plane c-axis orientation and thus a magnetic in-plane easy axis to achieve suppression of magnetostatic domain generation. Temperature and field-dependent magnetic depth profiles have been measured by means of polarized neutron reflectometry. In both investigated structures, TC and MS are found to vary as a function of depth in accordance with the predefined compositional depth profiles. Our Co1−wRuw sample structures, which exhibit very steep material gradients, allow us to determine the localization limit for compositionally graded materials, which we find to be of the order of 1 nm. The Co1−xCrx systems show the expected U-shaped TC and MS depth profiles, for which these specific samples were designed. The corresponding temperature dependent magnetization profile is then utilized to control the coupling along the film depth, which even allows for a sharp onset of decoupling of top and bottom sample parts at elevated temperatures.

  6. Complicating Counterspaces: Intersectionality and the Michigan Womyn's Music Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Elizabeth A; Todd, Nathan R; Odahl-Ruan, Charlynn; Shattell, Mona

    2016-06-01

    The counterspaces framework articulated by Case and Hunter (2012), follows from community psychology's long-standing interest in the potential for settings to promote well-being and liberatory responses to oppression. This framework proposes that certain settings (i.e., "counterspaces") facilitate a specific set of processes that promote the well-being of marginalized groups. We argue that an intersectional analysis is crucial to understand whether and how counterspaces achieve these goals. We draw from literature on safe spaces and present a case study of the Michigan Womyn's Music Festival (Michfest) to illustrate the value of an intersectional analysis and explore how these processes operate. Based on 20 in-person interviews, 23 responses to an online survey, and ethnographic field notes, we show how Michfest was characterized by a particular intersection of identities at the setting level, and intersectional diversity complicated experiences at the individual level. Moreover, intersectional identities provided opportunities for dialogue and change at the setting level, including the creation of counterspaces within counterspaces. Overall, we demonstrate the need to attend to intersectionality in counterspaces, and more broadly in how we conceptualize settings in community psychology. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  7. Linking leach chemistry and microbiology of low-grade copper ore bioleaching at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Sun, He-yun; Tan, Qiao-yi; Gao, Hong-shan; Feng, Xing-liang; Ruan, Ren-man

    2018-03-01

    The effects of temperature on chalcocite/pyrite oxidation and the microbial population in the bioleaching columns of a low-grade chalcocite ore were investigated in this study. Raffinate from the industrial bioleaching heap was used as an irrigation solution for columns operated at 20, 30, 45, and 60°C. The dissolution of copper and iron were investigated during the bioleaching processes, and the microbial community was revealed by using a high-throughput sequencing method. The genera of Ferroplasma, Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum, Acidiplasma, and Sulfobacillus dominated the microbial community, and the column at a higher temperature favored the growth of moderate thermophiles. Even though microbial abundance and activity were highest at 30°C, the column at a higher temperature achieved a much higher Cu leaching efficiency and recovery, which suggested that the promotion of chemical oxidation by elevated temperature dominated the dissolution of Cu. The highest pyrite oxidation percentage was detected at 45°C. Higher temperature resulted in precipitation of jarosite in columns, especially at 60°C. The results gave implications to the optimization of heap bioleaching of secondary copper sulfide in both enhanced chalcocite leaching and acid/iron balance, from the perspective of leaching temperature and affected microbial community and activity.

  8. Factors associated with self-reported inattentive driving at highway-rail grade crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal J

    2017-12-01

    This research identified factors associated with inattentive driving at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings (HRGCs) by investigating drivers' self-reported inattentive driving experiences and factors pertaining to their socioeconomic, personality, attitudinal, and other characteristics. A random selection of 2500 households in Nebraska received a survey questionnaire designed for licensed motor vehicle drivers; respondents returned 980 questionnaires. Factor analysis identified latent variables evaluating drivers' patience and inclination to wait for trains, attitudes toward new technology, law enforcement or education regarding HRGC safety, and the propensity to commit serious traffic violations at HRGCs. The investigation utilized a structural equation model for analysis. This model indicated that drivers with a higher risk of inattentive driving at HRGCs were: female, younger in age, from households with higher incomes, with shorter tenure (in years) in their current city of residence, more frequently used HRGCs, received less information on safety at HRGCs, had less patience to wait for trains to pass and had less interest in safety improvement technology, law enforcement or safety education at HRGCs. These research findings provide useful information for future research and to policy makers for improving public safety. Additionally, the results are useful for safety educational program providers for targeted program delivery to drivers that are more vulnerable to distracted driving at HRGCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Final Oral/Practical State Examination at Freiburg Medical Faculty in 2012--Analysis of grading to test quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickler, Angela; Brüstle, Peter; Biller, Silke

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the grades given for the oral/practical part of the German State Examination at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg. We examined whether or not the grades given for the written and the oral/practical examinations correlated and if differences in grading between the Freiburg University Medical Center (UMC) and the other teaching hospitals could be found. In order to improve the quality of the state examination, the medical school has been offering standardized training for examiners for several years. We evaluated whether or not trained and untrained examiners differed in their grading of the exam and how these differences have changed over time. The results of the 2012 spring and fall exams were analyzed (N=315). The relevant data set was made available to us by the Baden-Württemberg Examination Office (Landesprüfungsamt). The data were analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. We observed a correlation of ρ=0.460** between the grades for the written and the oral/practical exams. The UMC and the teaching hospitals did not differ significantly in their grade distributions. Compared to untrained examiners, trained ones assigned the grade of "very good" less often. Furthermore, they displayed a significantly higher variance in the grades given (p=0.007, phi=0.165). This effect is stronger when concentrating specifically on those examiners who took part in the training less than a year before. The results of this study suggest that the standardized training for examiners at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg is effective for quality assurance. As a consequence, more examiners should be motivated to take part in the training.

  10. Congestion analysis of unsignalized intersections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abhishek,; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Boon, M.A.A.; Nunez Queija, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers an unsignalized intersection used by two traffic streams. A stream of cars is using a primary road, and has priority over the other, low-priority, stream. Cars belonging to the latter stream cross the primary road if the gaps between two subsequent cars on the primary road is

  11. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address...

  12. Using Intersectionality in Student Affairs Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter presents intersectionality as a useful heuristic for conducting research in higher education and student affairs contexts. Much more than just another theory, intersectionality can powerfully shape student affairs research in both obvious and tacit ways.

  13. Authenticity in Leadership: Intersectionality of Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    This chapter situates leadership and the process of becoming a leader within an understanding of identity, particularly intersecting social identities and intersectionality. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  14. Evaluating a grading change at UCSD school of medicine: pass/fail grading is associated with decreased performance on preclinical exams but unchanged performance on USMLE step 1 scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuff, Susan G R; McDuff, DeForest; Farace, Jennifer A; Kelly, Carolyn J; Savoia, Maria C; Mandel, Jess

    2014-06-30

    To assess the impact of a change in preclerkship grading system from Honors/Pass/Fail (H/P/F) to Pass/Fail (P/F) on University of California, San Diego (UCSD) medical students' academic performance. Academic performance of students in the classes of 2011 and 2012 (constant-grading classes) were collected and compared with performance of students in the class of 2013 (grading-change class) because the grading policy at UCSD SOM was changed for the class of 2013, from H/P/F during the first year (MS1) to P/F during the second year (MS2). For all students, data consisted of test scores from required preclinical courses from MS1 and MS2 years, and USMLE Step 1 scores. Linear regression analysis controlled for other factors that could be predictive of student performance (i.e., MCAT scores, undergraduate GPA, age, gender, etc.) in order to isolate the effect of the changed grading policy on academic performance. The change in grading policy in the MS2 year only, without any corresponding changes to the medical curriculum, presents a unique natural experiment with which to cleanly evaluate the effect of P/F grading on performance outcomes. After controlling for other factors, the grading policy change to P/F grading in the MS2 year had a negative impact on second-year grades relative to first-year grades (the constant-grading classes performed 1.65% points lower during their MS2 year compared to the MS1 year versus 3.25% points lower for the grading-change class, p < 0.0001), but had no observable impact on USMLE Step 1 scores. A change in grading from H/P/F grading to P/F grading was associated with decreased performance on preclinical examinations but no decrease in performance on the USMLE Step 1 examination. These results are discussed in the broader context of the multitude of factors that should be considered in assessing the merits of various grading systems, and ultimately the authors recommend the continuation of pass-fail grading at UCSD School of Medicine.

  15. Intersection assistance: a safe solution for older drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R; de Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H

    2013-10-01

    Within the next few decades, the number of older drivers operating a vehicle will increase rapidly (Eurostat, 2011). As age increases so does physical vulnerability, age-related impairments, and the risk of being involved in a fatal crashes. Older drivers experience problems in driving situations that require divided attention and decision making under time pressure as reflected by their overrepresentation in at-fault crashes on intersections. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) especially designed to support older drivers crossing intersections might counteract these difficulties. In a longer-term driving simulator study, the effects of an intersection assistant on driving were evaluated. 18 older drivers (M=71.44 years) returned repeatedly completing a ride either with or without a support system in a driving simulator. In order to test the intersection assistance, eight intersections were depicted for further analyses. Results show that ADAS affects driving. Equipped with ADAS, drivers allocated more attention to the road center rather than the left and right, crossed intersections in shorter time, engaged in higher speeds, and crossed more often with a critical time-to-collision (TTC) value. The implications of results are discussed in terms of behavioral adaptation and safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Outerbridge Grade IV Cartilage Lesions in the Hip Identified at Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Nowak, Douglas D; Briggs, Karen K; Patterson, Diana C; Philippon, Marc J

    2016-05-01

    To determine factors associated with grade IV cartilage defects in the hip in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy with joint pain. Data from consecutive patients who underwent hip arthroscopy performed by a single surgeon over a period of 4 years were included in this study. The study group included 1,097 patients (491 women and 606 men; mean age, 37 years) who underwent hip arthroscopy for pain, had no prior hip surgery, and were aged 18 years or older. Preoperative radiographs, patient demographic characteristics, and operative details were used to identify risk factors for cartilage defects. Grade IV chondral defects were present in 308 of 1,097 hips (28%). Isolated chondral lesions were more frequently observed on the acetabulum (76%) than on the femoral head (24%). Defects of the acetabulum were more commonly anterosuperior (94.7%) and less commonly posterolateral (5.3%). Patients with less than 2 mm of joint space on preoperative radiographs were 8 times more likely to have a grade IV lesion than those with more than 2 mm. Men were more likely than women to have grade IV lesions (35% v 19%, P = .0001); patients with grade IV lesions were older than those without (42 years v 34 years, P = .0001). Hips with grade IV lesions had significantly higher alpha angles than those without (74° v 70°, P = .0001). Patients with grade IV defects reported a longer duration of symptoms than those without (37 months v 27 months, P = .007). Independent risk factors for the presence of grade IV chondral defects were less than 2 mm of joint space, male gender, increasing age, larger alpha angle, and longer duration of symptoms. Grade IV chondral defects in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were associated with decreased joint space, increased time from symptom onset to arthroscopy, male gender, and larger alpha angles associated with femoroacetabular impingement. Level IV, prognostic case series. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by

  17. Bicone vacuum chamber for ISR intersection

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This is one of the bicone chambers made of titanium for experiment R 702. The central corrugated part had a very thin titanium wall (0.28 mm). The first of these chambers collapsed in its central part when baked at 300 C (August 1975). After an intensive effort to develop better quality and reproducible welds for this special material, the ISR workshop was able to build two new chambers of this type. One of them was installed at I 7 for R 702 in 1976 and worked perfectly. It was at that time the most "transparent" intersection vacuum chamber. See also 7609219, 7609221.

  18. Intersectionality, Race-Gender Subordination, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angela; Leonardo, Zeus

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we unpack "intersectionality as an analytical framework." First, we cite Black Lives Matter as an impetus for discussing intersectionality's current traction. Second, we review the genealogy of "intersectionality" beginning with Kimberlé Crenshaw's formulation, which brought a Black Studies provocation into…

  19. 30 CFR 57.7055 - Intersecting holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intersecting holes. 57.7055 Section 57.7055... Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7055 Intersecting holes. Holes shall not be drilled where there is a danger of intersecting a misfired hole or a hole containing explosives, blasting agents...

  20. 30 CFR 56.7055 - Intersecting holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intersecting holes. 56.7055 Section 56.7055... Piercing Drilling § 56.7055 Intersecting holes. Holes shall not be drilled where there is a danger of intersecting a misfired hole or a hole containing explosives blasting agents, or detonators. [56 FR 46508, Sept...

  1. A Different Kind of Kid, a Different Kind of Teacher Education: Middle Grades Teachers Reflect on Their Preparation to Teach Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochanji, Moses K.; Chen, Rong-Ji; Daniels, Erika; Deringer, Marlene L.; McDaniel, Janet; Stowell, Laurie; Cambra-Adamson, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Good teaching at the middle grades comes out of a deep understanding of the unique cognitive, physical, social, emotional, and moral needs of young adolescents. Specialized preparation therefore is necessary to help teacher candidates understand how to operationalize the intersection of young adolescent development and the effective pedagogy that…

  2. Shape of Multireference, Equation-of-Motion Coupled-Cluster, and Density Functional Theory Potential Energy Surfaces at a Conical Intersection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozem, Samer; Melaccio, Federico; Valentini, Alessio; Filatov, Michael; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Ferré, Nicolas; Frutos, Luis Manuel; Angeli, Celestino; Krylov, Anna I; Granovsky, Alexander A; Lindh, Roland; Olivucci, Massimo

    2014-08-12

    We report and characterize ground-state and excited-state potential energy profiles using a variety of electronic structure methods along a loop lying on the branching plane associated with a conical intersection (CI) of a reduced retinal model, the penta-2,4-dieniminium cation (PSB3). Whereas the performance of the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster, density functional theory, and multireference methods had been tested along the excited- and ground-state paths of PSB3 in our earlier work, the ability of these methods to correctly describe the potential energy surface shape along a CI branching plane has not yet been investigated. This is the focus of the present contribution. We find, in agreement with earlier studies by others, that standard time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) does not yield the correct two-dimensional (i.e., conical) crossing along the branching plane but rather a one-dimensional (i.e., linear) crossing along the same plane. The same type of behavior is found for SS-CASPT2(IPEA=0), SS-CASPT2(IPEA=0.25), spin-projected SF-TDDFT, EOM-SF-CCSD, and, finally, for the reference MRCISD+Q method. In contrast, we found that MRCISD, CASSCF, MS-CASPT2(IPEA=0), MS-CASPT2(IPEA=0.25), XMCQDPT2, QD-NEVPT2, non-spin-projected SF-TDDFT, and SI-SA-REKS yield the expected conical crossing. To assess the effect of the different crossing topologies (i.e., linear or conical) on the PSB3 photoisomerization efficiency, we discuss the results of 100 semiclassical trajectories computed by CASSCF and SS-CASPT2(IPEA=0.25) for a PSB3 derivative. We show that for the same initial conditions, the two methods yield similar dynamics leading to isomerization quantum yields that differ by only a few percent.

  3. Material properties of Grade 91 steel at elevated temperature and their comparison with a design code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Woo Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Han Sang; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the material properties of tensile strength, creep properties, and creep crack growth model for Gr.91 steel at elevated temperature were obtained from material tests at KAERI, and the test data were compared with those of the French elevated temperature design code, RCC-MRx. The conservatism of the material properties in the French design code is highlighted. Mod.9Cr-1Mo (ASME Grade 91; Gr.91) steel is widely adopted as candidate material for Generation IV nuclear systems as well as for advanced thermal plants. In a Gen IV sodium-cooled fast reactor of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) being developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), Gr.91 steel is selected as the material for the steam generator, secondary piping, and decay heat exchangers. However, as this material has a relatively shorter history of usage in an actual plant than austenitic stainless steel, there are still many issues to be addressed including the long-term creep rupture life extrapolation and ratcheting behavior with cyclic softening characteristics.

  4. Experimental Realization of an Epsilon-Near-Zero Graded-Index Metalens at Terahertz Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Peña, Victor; Engheta, Nader; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Gentselev, Alexandr; Beruete, Miguel

    2017-09-01

    The terahertz band has been historically hindered by the lack of efficient generators and detectors, but a series of recent breakthroughs have helped to effectively close the "terahertz gap." A rapid development of terahertz technology has been possible thanks to the translation of revolutionary concepts from other regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Among them, metamaterials stand out for their unprecedented ability to control wave propagation and manipulate electromagnetic response of matter. They have become a workhorse in the development of terahertz devices such as lenses, polarizers, etc., with fascinating features. In particular, epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials have attracted much attention in the past several years due to their unusual properties such as squeezing, tunneling, and supercoupling where a wave traveling inside an electrically small channel filled with an ENZ medium can be tunneled through it, reducing reflections and coupling most of its energy. Here, we design and experimentally demonstrate an ENZ graded-index (GRIN) metamaterial lens operating at terahertz with a power enhancement of 16.2 dB, using an array of narrow hollow rectangular waveguides working near their cutoff frequencies. This is a demonstration of an ENZ GRIN device at terahertz and can open the path towards other realizations of similar devices enabling full quasioptical processing of terahertz signals.

  5. A Multicomponent, Preschool to Third Grade Preventive Intervention and Educational Attainment at 35 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Temple, Judy A

    2018-03-01

    Educational attainment is the leading social determinant of health, but few studies of prevention programs have examined whether the programs are associated with educational attainment outcomes after the mid-20s, especially for large-scale programs that provide a longer duration of services. To examine the association between a preschool to third grade intervention and educational attainment at midlife and differences by program duration, sex, and parental educational level. This matched-group, alternative intervention study assessed 1539 low-income minority children born in 1979 or 1980 who grew up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois. The comparison group included 550 children primarily from randomly selected schools participating in the usual early intervention. A total of 989 children who entered preschool in 1983 or 1984 and completed kindergarten in 1986 were included in the Chicago Longitudinal Study and were followed up for 27 to 30 years after the end of a multicomponent intervention. A total of 1398 participants (90.8%) in the original sample had educational attainment records at 35 years of age. The study was performed from January 1, 2002, through May 31, 2015. The Child-Parent Center Program provides school-based educational enrichment and comprehensive family services from preschool to third grade (ages 3-9 years). Educational outcomes from administrative records and self-report included school dropout, 4-year high school graduation, years of education, postsecondary credential, and earned degrees from associate's to master's or higher. A total of 1539 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [0.32] years; 1423 [92.9%] black and 108 [7.1%] Hispanic) were included in the study. After weighting on 2 propensity scores, preschool participants had higher rates of postsecondary degree completion, including associate's degree or higher (15.7% vs 10.7%; difference, 5.0%; 95% CI, 1.0%-9.0%), master's degree (4.2% vs 1.5%; difference, 2.7%; 95% CI, 1

  6. A STUDY ON STUDENTS’ DIRECT LISTENING STRATEGIES IN COMPREHENDING A PASSAGE AT THE SECOND GRADE STUDENTS OF SMAN OLAHRAGA RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Kurniawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to identify the students’ directlistening strategies in comprehending a passage at the second grade students ofSMAN Olahraga Riau. The design of this research was survey attitudes andpractices. Sample of the research was 50 students at the second grade students ofSMAN Olahraga Riau. The instrument that was used was questionnaire. Thequestionnaire was design the students’ direct listening. The questionnaire wasanalyzed by using descriptive statistics and Likert scale. The result of analyzingdata in terms of memory strategy, the students’ mean score was 3.99 in moderatelevel. In terms of cognitive strategy, the students’ mean score was 3.74 inmoderate level, while in terms of compensation strategy, the students had meanscore 3.86 in moderate level. In conclusion, the students were interested usingmemory strategy as the main direct strategy in comprehending a passage at thesecond grade students of SMAN Olahraga Riau.Keywords : Direct Listening Strategy, Comprehension, and Passage

  7. Multirater agreement for grading the femoral and tibial cartilage surface lesions at CT arthrography and analysis of causes of disagreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoumi, Patrick; Michoux, Nicolas; Larbi, Ahmed; Lacoste, Laure; Lecouvet, Frédéric E.; Perlepe, Vasiliki; Vande Berg, Bruno C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The multirater agreement of the modified Outerbridge system is only fair when readers of varying levels of experience are taken into account. • Inter- and intra-observer agreement increase with readers experience. • Interobserver agreement is substantial for grade 4 lesions. • Knowledge of normal variations of cartilage thickness is required to help avoid pitfalls and improve interobserver agreement in reporting cartilage lesions. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the multirater agreement of the modified Outerbridge system for the grading of predefined areas of femorotibial cartilage at CT arthrography with multiple readers, with varying experience. Design: Five readers with varying experience (two junior radiologists, three musculoskeletal radiologists including two experts in cartilage imaging) separately analyzed 962 cartilage sectors from pre-divided knee CT arthrograms with femorotibial osteoarthritis (Kellgren/Lawrence = 3). Each cartilage area was graded twice by each reader, at a three-month interval, according to the modified 5-grade Outerbridge system. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement were assessed. After the second reading, 121 areas exhibiting the highest interobserver disagreement were reviewed in consensus to determine the sources of disagreement. Results: The global interobserver agreement was fair (k = 0.35), and increased with the grade (from k = 0.14 to k = 0.76 from grade 0–4). The intraobserver agreement varied with the readers’ experience from moderate (k = 0.59) to almost perfect (k = 0.92). The majority of cases of disagreement (44%) was due to difficulties in assessing the normal variations of cartilage thickness, including diffuse cartilage thinning (23%) and normal variants of cartilage thickness (22%). 32% of cases of disagreement were due to retrospectively avoidable interpretation errors. Conclusions: The multirater agreement of the modified Outerbridge system is only fair when readers of different

  8. Multirater agreement for grading the femoral and tibial cartilage surface lesions at CT arthrography and analysis of causes of disagreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omoumi, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.omoumi@chuv.ch [Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires St Luc − UC Louvain, Hippocrate Avenue 10/2942, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital, Bugnon 46, CH-1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Michoux, Nicolas; Larbi, Ahmed; Lacoste, Laure; Lecouvet, Frédéric E.; Perlepe, Vasiliki; Vande Berg, Bruno C. [Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires St Luc − UC Louvain, Hippocrate Avenue 10/2942, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • The multirater agreement of the modified Outerbridge system is only fair when readers of varying levels of experience are taken into account. • Inter- and intra-observer agreement increase with readers experience. • Interobserver agreement is substantial for grade 4 lesions. • Knowledge of normal variations of cartilage thickness is required to help avoid pitfalls and improve interobserver agreement in reporting cartilage lesions. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the multirater agreement of the modified Outerbridge system for the grading of predefined areas of femorotibial cartilage at CT arthrography with multiple readers, with varying experience. Design: Five readers with varying experience (two junior radiologists, three musculoskeletal radiologists including two experts in cartilage imaging) separately analyzed 962 cartilage sectors from pre-divided knee CT arthrograms with femorotibial osteoarthritis (Kellgren/Lawrence = 3). Each cartilage area was graded twice by each reader, at a three-month interval, according to the modified 5-grade Outerbridge system. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement were assessed. After the second reading, 121 areas exhibiting the highest interobserver disagreement were reviewed in consensus to determine the sources of disagreement. Results: The global interobserver agreement was fair (k = 0.35), and increased with the grade (from k = 0.14 to k = 0.76 from grade 0–4). The intraobserver agreement varied with the readers’ experience from moderate (k = 0.59) to almost perfect (k = 0.92). The majority of cases of disagreement (44%) was due to difficulties in assessing the normal variations of cartilage thickness, including diffuse cartilage thinning (23%) and normal variants of cartilage thickness (22%). 32% of cases of disagreement were due to retrospectively avoidable interpretation errors. Conclusions: The multirater agreement of the modified Outerbridge system is only fair when readers of different

  9. Analysis of students’ incorrect answers at triangle materials in the fifth-grade of primary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintawati, E.; Jupri, Al

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to analyse the comparison of the predictions made by the author between learning methods with the reality that occur in the class and to analyse students' responses toward questions given by teachers at triangle materials. The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. The subjects of this research are all fifth-grade students from a primary school in the city of Bandung. The results of this research indicated that there are some influences between learning methods and students' responses shown by the way students answer the question. In reality, there are many students’ responses produced beyond the predictions of the author. It shows that as the good teachers, besides setting up learning methods, they should also make predictions toward the responses of the students in answering the questions given. The results of the predictions could be used as a lesson for teachers to run the learning processes as good as possible so the students' responses could being accordance with the concept of materials presented and could also achieve the expected learning goals. Based on this research’s results, as a teacher must have techniques and strategies to overcome things that are not expected during the learning so that learning can be conducive so that students can focus on learning and enjoy learning so that learning outcomes is the ability of students to increase in understanding the material and can construct the concept of material provided.

  10. [Language and behavioral difficulties at age 3 and half and reading delay in grade 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watier, L; Dellatolas, G; Chevrie-Muller, C

    2006-09-01

    Early detection of specific language impairment and dyslexia in children is an important public health problem. Longitudinal studies are needed for the distinction of real impairments from simple transitory delays. Teachers filled a 29-item questionnaire on language and behavior for 695 children aged 3.5 years. Four years later (at second grade of primary school) the same children were evaluated for reading and writing. Statistical analysis focused on the relationships between teacher's early observations and reading delay 4 years later. Associated factors were age, sex, educational level and bilinguism of the parents, and area of the school. The delay in written language acquisition (8.5% of the children) was significantly associated with low educational level (but not bilinguism) of the parents and to the area of the school. In univariate analysis, most of the teacher's early negative assessments were significantly related to reading/writing delay, with the exception of some behavioral problems. However, when the effect of associated factors was taken into account only a few items, mainly concerning language expression, remained significantly associated with later reading/writing delay. These data show a major role of associated factors (educational level of the parents, area of the school) in reading delay, and help to select specific teacher's observations for an early prediction of this delay.

  11. Nuclear grade and DNA ploidy in stage IV breast cancer with only visceral metastases at initial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lena, M; Barletta, A; Marzullo, F; Rabinovich, M; Leone, B; Vallejo, C; Machiavelli, M; Romero, A; Perez, J; Lacava, J; Cuevas, M A; Rodriguez, R; Schittulli, F; Paradisco, A

    1996-01-01

    The presence of early metastases to distant sites in breast cancer patients is an infrequent event whose mechanisms are still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biologic and clinical role of DNA ploidy and cell nuclear grade of primary tumors in the metastatic process of a series of stage IV previously untreated breast cancer patients with only visceral metastases. DNA flow cytometry analysis on paraffin-embedded material and cell nuclear grading of primary tumors was performed on a series of 50 breast cancer patients with only visceral metastases at the time of initial diagnosis. Aneuploidy was found in 28/46 (61%) of evaluable cases and was independent of site of involvement, clinical response, time of progression and overall survival of patients. Of the 46 cases evaluable for nuclear grade, 5 (11%), 16 (35%) and 25 (54%) were classified as G1 (well-differentiated) G2 and G3, respectively. Nuclear grade also was unrelated to response to therapy and overall survival, whereas time to progression was significantly longer in G1-2 than G3 tumors with the logrank test (P < 0.03) and multivariate analysis. Our results seem to stress the difficulty to individualize different prognostic subsets from a series of breast cancer patients with only visceral metastases at initial diagnosis according to DNA flow cytometry and nuclear grade.

  12. Conformational analysis by intersection: CONAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smellie, Andrew; Stanton, Robert; Henne, Randy; Teig, Steve

    2003-01-15

    As high throughput techniques in chemical synthesis and screening improve, more demands are placed on computer assisted design and virtual screening. Many of these computational methods require one or more three-dimensional conformations for molecules, creating a demand for a conformational analysis tool that can rapidly and robustly cover the low-energy conformational spaces of small molecules. A new algorithm of intersection is presented here, which quickly generates (on average heuristics are applied after intersection to generate a small representative collection of conformations that span the conformational space. In a study of approximately 97,000 randomly selected molecules from the MDDR, results are presented that explore these conformations and their ability to cover low-energy conformational space. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 24: 10-20, 2003

  13. Avoided intersections of nodal lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monastra, Alejandro G; Smilansky, Uzy; Gnutzmann, Sven

    2003-01-01

    We consider real eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger operator in 2D. The nodal lines of separable systems form a regular grid, and the number of nodal crossings equals the number of nodal domains. In contrast, for wavefunctions of non-integrable systems nodal intersections are rare, and for random waves, the expected number of intersections in any finite area vanishes. However, nodal lines display characteristic avoided crossings which we study in this work. We define a measure for the avoidance range and compute its distribution for the random wave ensemble. We show that the avoidance range distribution of wavefunctions of chaotic systems follows the expected random wave distributions, whereas for wavefunctions of classically integrable but quantum non-separable systems, the distribution is quite different. Thus, the study of the avoidance distribution provides more support to the conjecture that nodal structures of chaotic systems are reproduced by the predictions of the random wave ensemble

  14. Una Mirada Interseccional a la Violencia contra las Mujeres con Diversidad Funcional (An Intersectional Glance at Violence against Women with Functional Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Arenas Conejo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The eradication of violence is one of the main demands of disabled women's organizations around the world. As a result of their activism, both the Beijing Platform for Action (1995 and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006 made specific mention of their greater risk of suffering violence and the need to implement appropriate measures. However, the countries that have included these recommendations in their laws against gender violence are still scarce. Moreover, according to some women with functional diversity, this invisibility is often reproduced both among the feminist and the disability rights movement. The aim of this paper is to explore how an intersectional approach could help to overcome this double obstacle: on the one hand, encouraging the creation of alliances between social movements working for similar objectives and on the other hand, developing legislation and public policies which do not reproduce the exclusion of traditionally marginalized social groups. La erradicación de la violencia es una de las principales reivindicaciones de las organizaciones de mujeres con diversidad funcional a nivel internacional. Fruto de este activismo, se logró que tanto en la Plataforma de Acción de Beijing (1995 como en la Convención de la ONU sobre los derechos de las personas con discapacidad (2006, se hiciera mención específica a su mayor riesgo de sufrir violencia así como a la necesidad de implementar medidas adecuadas. Sin embargo, son todavía escasos los países cuya legislación contra la violencia de género ha introducido estas recomendaciones. Una invisibilización que, según manifiestan las propias mujeres con diversidad funcional, también se reproduce a menudo tanto en el movimiento feminista como en el de las personas con diversidad funcional. El objetivo del texto es explorar hasta qué punto la perspectiva de la interseccionalidad podría contribuir a superar este doble obstáculo: por un

  15. God-image of Servant King as powerful but vulnerable and serving: Towards transforming African church leadership at an intersection of African kingship and biblical kingship to servant leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Christianity is mediated through culture and people’s cultural practices. One such cultural practice is African kingship. African kingship conveys on the ruler sovereignty, power, authority and supremacy over people under one’s jurisdiction. Intricately linked to respect for elders and those in power, African church leaders are at an intersection of the African kingship leadership style and the biblical kingship leadership style. Consciously or unconsciously, church leaders tend to embrace the African kingship approach to leadership and to a lesser extent biblical servant leadership. In such a situation, what God-image of biblical leadership could be discerned for constructive church leadership? In response, the God-image of Servant King as all powerful God, although vulnerable and serving, provides the framework for a transformative approach to church leadership in Africa.

  16. ISR intersection I-2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Towards the left one sees, on top of ISR beam 1, the front section of the 30-metre-long, small-angle spectrometer from the CERN-Holland-Lancaster-Manchester single-particle production experiment. It consists of two special septum magnets carrying up to 20 kA each. These magnets are necessary to force charged particles produced at small angles away from the ISR beam. They are followed by two threshold Cerenkov counters and (not visible) three more bending magnets and a 6-metre-long Cerenkov counter. Particle identification follows from the Cerenkov signals after determination of the particle trajectory through the spectrometer with magnetostrictive spark chambers. The positions of the first magnets and Cerenkov counters can be changed by remote control. In front one sees the electronics which determines the traversal of a charged particle from scintillator counter signals and gives the "fire" signal for the spark chambers.

  17. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly one dimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons

  18. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.

    1998-10-01

    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly onedimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons.

  19. The Effect of Graduation Coaches and Credit Recovery Programs on the Dropout Rate of At-Risk Grade 9 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics of effective graduation coaches (GCs) and credit recovery programs and explain the influence of a GC and a credit recovery program on Grade 9 students at risk of dropping out. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a high school GC and enrollment in a credit recovery…

  20. Assessing the Promise of a Supplemental Reading Intervention for At-Risk First Grade Students in a Public School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Neel, Joanna L.; Kaiser, Forrest; Le, Hong-Hai

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory quasi-experimental case study, we assessed the promise of a yearlong supplemental reading intervention with a small pilot group of at-risk first grade readers in an elementary school setting. Using standardized measures of reading proficiency, we found that after 47 hours of one-on-one tutoring instruction, students read…

  1. Improving the Grade Point Average of Our At-Risk Students: A Collaborative Group Action Research Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurino, Dan R.; Hinson, Kenneth; Bouma, Amy

    This paper focuses on the use of a group action research approach to help student teachers develop strategies to improve the grade point average of at-risk students. Teaching interventions such as group work and group and individual tutoring were compared to teaching strategies already used in the field. Results indicated an improvement in the…

  2. Common intersection points in dense fluids via equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsafar, G. A.; Noorian, R.

    2001-01-01

    Some new of state which are derived for dense fluids in recent years, namely the linear isotherm regularity, the dense system equation of state, Ihm-Song-Mason equation of state, and a newly derived semi-empirical equation of state have used to investigate the common intersection point of isobaric expansivity (α p ) in dense fluids. We have shown that the accuracy of these equations of state in predicting such a common intersection point is reduced from the new semi-imperial equation of state, dense system equation of state, linear isotherm regularity, to Ihm-Song-Mason equation of state. respectively. Form physical point of view, the van der Waals equation of state is used to investigate such an intersection point. It is shown that the van der Waals repulsion forces and temperature dependency of the effective molecular diameter are important for existence of this common point. Finally, we have shown that the common intersection points of the isotherms of thermal pressure coefficient, the isotherms of heat capacity at constant volume, and the iso chores of internal pressure for a fluid are related to each other. Also, the common intersection points of the reduced bulk modulus and 1/(Tα p ) for isotherms of a fluid both appear at the same density

  3. A finite-element for the analysis of shell intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koves, W.J.; Nair, S.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of discontinuity stresses at shell intersections is a problem of great importance in several major industries. Some of the major areas of interest are pressure-containing equipment, such as reactors and piping, in the nuclear and fossil power industry; pressure vessels and heat exchangers in the petrochemical industry; bracing in offshore oil platforms; and aerospace structures. A specialized shell-intersection finite element, which is compatible with adjoining shell elements, has been developed that has the capability of physically representing the complex three-dimensional geometry and stress state at shell intersections. The element geometry is a contoured shape that matches a wide variety of practical nozzle configurations used in ASME Code pressure vessel construction, and allows computational rigor. A closed-form theory of elasticity solution was used to compute the stress state and strain energy in the element. The concept of an energy-equivalent nodal displacement and force vector set was then developed to allow complete compatibility with adjoining shell elements and retain the analytical rigor within the element. This methodology provides a powerful and robust computation scheme that maintains the computational efficiency of shell element solutions. The shell-intersection element was then applied to the cylinder-sphere and cylinder-cylinder intersection problems

  4. Numerical and experimental study of creep of grade 91 steel at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, R.

    2011-01-01

    Grade 91 steel is a suitable candidate for structural components of the secondary and the vapour of the generation IV nuclear reactors. Their in-service lifetime will be extended to 60 years. It is necessary to consider the mechanisms involved-term during long creep to propose more reliable predictions of creep lifetimes. Necking is the main failure mechanism for creep lifetimes up to 160 kh at 500 C and 94 kh at 600 C. Necking modelling including the material creep softening leads to two bound laws including experimental lifetimes of a large number of tempered martensitic steels loaded up to 200 kh at temperature 500-700 C. The observed creep intergranular cavities are shown to affect very weekly creep strain rate. The prediction of the cavity evolution will allow estimating creep lifetimes out of experimental data domain. Their nucleation and growth, supposed to be associated to vacancy diffusion, are modelled using two classical models. The first one considers instantaneous nucleation (Raj and Ashby) and the second one continuous nucleation obeying the Dyson law (Riedel). The second one leads to two bound laws, more stable with respect to the parameter values. It allows predicting final sizes of cavities in reasonable agreement with the measured ones. Nevertheless, nucleation rate should be estimated from measured cavity densities. Nucleation of cavities by diffusion is simulated using the Raj model. This model does not allow predicted final cavity densities in agreement with the measured ones, even by considering cavity nucleation at precipitates/Laves interfaces experimentally observed and the maximum local stress concentration of a factor 2 computed using finite element calculation in a 2D plane strain hypothesis based on either simulated or real microstructures containing triple points or precipitates/Laves phases. The use of the Dyson law allows us to propose predictions of long-term creep lifetimes. Lifetime predicted using the diffusion-induced growth

  5. What's Possible for First-Grade At-Risk Literacy Learners Receiving Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalino, Janet; Wang, Chuang; Gomez-Bellenge, Francisco X.; Zalud, Garreth

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study that was conducted on data from children who received a one-on-one intervention called Reading Recovery[R] during the first half of their first-grade year in school. The purpose was to investigate the relationship between accelerated progress children made during and after receiving a Reading Recovery intervention,…

  6. Digital Writing Practices: A Close Look at One Grade Three Author

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervin, Lisa; Mantei, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the digital writing practices of a Grade Three primary school student as he used an iPad to plan, produce and share digital texts. The case study acknowledges that writing is undergoing a period of great change in many classrooms and works to show how a student author has interpreted and produced digital texts with new…

  7. Home Parental Assistance for Underachieving Readers in Third Grade Using Read-at-Home Program Kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Theresa Eleanor

    Sixty-four third-grade pupils who were underachieving in reading participated in a study to determine the effect of parental home instruction in reading. A four-cell experimental design was used with two treatment factors: programmed home reading instruction given by mothers trained to administer the program versus no instruction, and mother's…

  8. The "School Safety & Security Questionnaire": Middle Grades Students' Perceptions of Safety at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Janice Williams; Nickell, Linda K.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the development and basic psychometric characteristics of the "School Safety and Security Questionnaire" (SSSQ). This new measure was constructed to assess middle grade students' perceptions of safety and security during the school year. The content validity of the theoretically-based instrument was assessed and the measure was…

  9. Consumer assessment of beef tenderloin steaks from various USDA quality grades at 3 degrees of doneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Quinn, Travis G; Brooks, J Chance; Miller, Markus F

    2015-02-01

    A consumer study was conducted to determine palatability ratings of beef tenderloin steaks from USDA Choice, USDA Select, and USDA Select with marbling scores from Slight 50 to 100 (USDA High Select) cooked to various degrees of doneness. Steaks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 degree of doneness categories: very-rare, medium-rare, or well-done. Consumers (N = 315) were screened for preference of degree of doneness and fed 4 samples of their preferred doneness (a warm-up and one from each USDA quality grade treatment in a random order). Consumers evaluated steaks on an 8-point verbally anchored hedonic scale for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like as well as rated steaks as acceptable or unacceptable for all palatability traits. Quality grade had no effect (P > 0.05) on consumer ratings for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like scores, with all traits averaging above a 7 ("like very much") on the 8-point scale. In addition, no differences (P > 0.05) were found in the percentage of samples rated as acceptable for all palatability traits, with more than 94% of samples rated acceptable for each trait in all quality grades evaluated. Steaks cooked to well-done had lower (P Choice and Select quality grades. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Implementation of Case-Based Instruction on Electrochemistry at the 11th Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkin, Aysegul; Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to compare the effectiveness of case-based instruction over traditional instruction in improving 11th grade students' understanding of electrochemistry concepts, attitudes toward chemistry, chemistry self-efficacy beliefs, and motivation to learn chemistry. In total, 113 students (47 males and 66 females) from three high schools…

  11. Cognitive Processes and Math Performance: A Study with Children at Third Grade of Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Isabel S.; Almeida, Leandro S.; Ferreira, Aristides I.; Martinez, Luis F.; Ramalho, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to examine the relationship between cognitive factors and mathematical achievement in primary education. Participants were 103 Portuguese third grade students, aged 8 and 9. All participants completed a battery for working memory (WMTB-C), a test of general intelligence (Raven's Progressive Color Matrices), a selective…

  12. Improving Deficient Listening Skills in the Language Arts Program at the Middle Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Laura

    A project developed a program for improving deficient student-to-student listening skills. The targeted population consisted of 18 seventh-grade middle school students in a culturally diverse, lower middle class community in a near-western suburb of Chicago. The problem of deficient listening skills was evident through teacher observation and…

  13. In Vivo Quantification of Cerebral R2FNx01-Response to Graded Hyperoxia at 3 Tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorios Gotzamanis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to quantify the response of the transverse relaxation rate of the magnetic resonance (MR signal of the cerebral tissue in healthy volunteers to the administration of air with step-wise increasing percentage of oxygen. Materials and Methods: The transverse relaxation rate (R2FNx01 of the MR signal was quantified in seven volunteers under respiratory intake of normobaric gas mixtures containing 21, 50, 75, and 100% oxygen, respectively. End-tidal breath composition, arterial blood saturation (SaO 2 , and heart pulse rate were monitored during the challenge. R2FNx01 maps were computed from multi-echo, gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data, acquired at 3.0T. The average values in the segmented white matter (WM and gray matter (GM were tested by the analysis of variance (ANOVA, with Bonferroni post-hoc correction. The GM R2FNx01-reactivity to hyperoxia was modeled using the Hill′s equation. Results: Graded hyperoxia resulted in a progressive and significant (P < 0.05 decrease of the R2FNx01 in GM. Under normoxia the GM-R2FNx01 was 17.2 ± 1.1 s -1 . At 75% O 2 supply, the R2FNx01 had reached a saturation level, with 16.4 ± 0.7 s -1 (P = 0.02, without a significant further decrease for 100% O 2 . The R2FNx01-response of GM correlated positively with CO 2 partial pressure (R = 0.69 ± 0.19 and negatively with SaO 2 (R = -0.74 ± 0.17. The WM showed a similar progressive, but non-significant, decrease in the relaxation rates, with an increase in oxygen intake (P = 0.055. The Hill′s model predicted a maximum R2FNx01 response of the GM, of 3.5%, with half the maximum at 68% oxygen concentration. Conclusions: The GM-R2FNx01 responds to hyperoxia in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that monitoring and modeling of the R2FNx01-response may provide new oxygenation biomarkers for tumor therapy or assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients.

  14. Applying DoE's Graded Approach for assessing radiation impacts to non-human biota at the Incl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Randall C.

    2006-01-01

    In July 2002, The US Department of Energy (DOE) released a new technical standard entitled A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota. DOE facilities are annually required to demonstrate that routine radioactive releases from their sites are protective of non-human receptors and sites are encouraged to use the Graded Approach for this purpose. Use of the Graded Approach requires completion of several preliminary steps, to evaluate the degree to which the site environmental monitoring program is appropriate for evaluating impacts to non-human biota. We completed these necessary activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) using the following four tasks: (1) develop conceptual models and evaluate exposure pathways; (2) define INL evaluation areas; (3) evaluate sampling locations and media; (4) evaluate data gaps. All of the information developed in the four steps was incorporated, data sources were identified, departures from the Graded Approach were justified, and a step-by-step procedure for biota dose assessment at the INL was specified. Finally, we completed a site-wide biota dose assessment using the 2002 environmental surveillance data and an offsite assessment using soil and surface water data collected since 1996. These assessments demonstrated the environmental concentrations of radionuclides measured on and near the INL do not present significant risks to populations of non-human biota

  15. Intersecting Branes Flip SU(5)

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Ellis, John

    2002-01-01

    Within a toroidal orbifold framework, we exhibit intersecting brane-world constructions of flipped SU(5) \\times U(1) GUT models with various numbers of generations, other chiral matter representations and Higgs representations. We exhibit orientifold constructions with integer winding numbers that yield 8 or more conventional SU(5) generations, and orbifold constructions with fractional winding numbers that yield flipped SU(5) \\times U(1) models with just 3 conventional generations. Some of these models have candidates for the 5 and {\\bar 5} Higgs representations needed for electroweak symmetry breaking, but not for the 10 and {\\bar 10} representations needed for GUT symmetry breaking, or vice-versa.

  16. Projective modules and complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Satya

    1997-01-01

    In these notes on "Projective Modules and Complete Intersections" an account on the recent developments in research on this subject is presented. The author's preference for the technique of Patching isotopic isomorphisms due to Quillen, formalized by Plumsted, over the techniques of elementary matrices is evident here. The treatment of Basic Element theory here incorporates Plumstead's idea of the "generalized dimension functions". These notes are highly selfcontained and should be accessible to any graduate student in commutative algebra or algebraic geometry. They include fully self-contained presentations of the theorems of Ferrand-Szpiro, Cowsik-Nori and the techniques of Lindel.

  17. Complex Road Intersection Modelling Based on Low-Frequency GPS Track Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Deng, M.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, H.

    2017-09-01

    It is widely accepted that digital map becomes an indispensable guide for human daily traveling. Traditional road network maps are produced in the time-consuming and labour-intensive ways, such as digitizing printed maps and extraction from remote sensing images. At present, a large number of GPS trajectory data collected by floating vehicles makes it a reality to extract high-detailed and up-to-date road network information. Road intersections are often accident-prone areas and very critical to route planning and the connectivity of road networks is mainly determined by the topological geometry of road intersections. A few studies paid attention on detecting complex road intersections and mining the attached traffic information (e.g., connectivity, topology and turning restriction) from massive GPS traces. To the authors' knowledge, recent studies mainly used high frequency (1 s sampling rate) trajectory data to detect the crossroads regions or extract rough intersection models. It is still difficult to make use of low frequency (20-100 s) and easily available trajectory data to modelling complex road intersections geometrically and semantically. The paper thus attempts to construct precise models for complex road intersection by using low frequency GPS traces. We propose to firstly extract the complex road intersections by a LCSS-based (Longest Common Subsequence) trajectory clustering method, then delineate the geometry shapes of complex road intersections by a K-segment principle curve algorithm, and finally infer the traffic constraint rules inside the complex intersections.

  18. Framing Gender Intersections in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2012-01-01

    are increasingly present but they are treated implicitly and from a separate perspective, and the inclusion of a wide range of inequalities often implies a degendering of the policy content. We assess the implications of the identified intersectionality trends for the quality of intersectionality in gender...... equality policies, and we suggest the practice of an “intersectionality impact assessment” as a way to improve the quality of EU policy-making....

  19. An at-grade stabilization structure impact on runoff and suspended sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minks, Kyle R.; Lowery, Birl; Madison, Fred W.; Ruark, Matthew; Frame, Dennis R.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, agricultural runoff has received more attention as a major contributor to surface water pollution. This is especially true for the unglaciated area of Wisconsin, given this area's steep topography, which makes it highly susceptible to runoff and soil loss. We evaluated the ability of an at-grade stabilization structure (AGSS), designed as a conservation practice to reduce the amount of overland runoff and suspended sediment transported to the surface waters of an agricultural watershed. Eight years of storm and baseflow data collected by the US Geological Survey–Wisconsin Water Science Center on a farm in west central Wisconsin were analyzed for changes in precipitation, storm runoff volume, and suspended sediment concentration before and after installation of an AGSS. The agricultural research site was designed as a paired watershed study in which monitoring stations were installed on the perennial streams draining both control and treatment watersheds. Linear mixed effects model analyses were conducted to determine if any statistically significant changes occurred in the water quality parameters before and after the AGSS was installed. Results indicated no significant changes (p = 0.51) in average event precipitation and runoff volumes before and after installation of the AGSS in either the treatment (NW) or control (SW) watersheds. However, the AGSS did significantly reduce the average suspended sediment concentration in the event runoff water (p = 0.02) in the NW from 972 to 263 mg L–1. In addition, particle size analyses, using light diffraction techniques, were conducted on soil samples taken from within the AGSS and adjacent valley and ridge top to determine if suspended sediments were being retained within the structure. Statistical analysis revealed a significantly (p clay inside the AGSS (37%) than outside (30%). These results indicate that the AGSS was successful in reducing the amount of suspended sediment transported to nearby

  20. Continued Multicolumns Bioleaching for Low Grade Uranium Ore at a Certain Uranium Deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Gongxin Chen; Zhanxue Sun; Yajie Liu

    2016-01-01

    Bioleaching has lots of advantages compared with traditional heap leaching. In industry, bioleaching of uranium is still facing many problems such as site space, high cost of production, and limited industrial facilities. In this paper, a continued column bioleaching system has been established for leaching a certain uranium ore which contains high fluoride. The analysis of chemical composition of ore shows that the grade of uranium is 0.208%, which is lower than that of other deposits. Howev...

  1. New concept in histopathological grading and staging of chronic hepatitis C infection at Sharkia Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangoud, Amal M; Eissa, Mostafa H; Sabee, Essam I; Ibrahem, Ibrahem A; Ismail, Alaa; Morsy, Tosson A; Nor Edin, Essam; Mostafa, Yousry; Abuel-Magd, Yousry; Afefy, Afefy F; el-Shorbagy, Eman; el-Sadawy, Mahmoud; Ragab, Hosnia; Mahrous, Seham; Abdel Menem, Amal; Etewa, Samia; Hassan, Mostafa I; Lakouz, Khalid; Abdel-Aziz, Khalid; Saber, Mahmoud; el-Hady, Gaber

    2004-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been estimated by the WHO to infect 170 million patients worldwide, with a high prevalence rate (about 24.5%) among Egyptians. The disease could be presented with variable hepatic lesions ranging from mild inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis to even end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Knodell histology activity index, published in 1981, was the first system of its type and is widely regarded as the benchmark for objective, semi-quantitative reproducible description of the various morphological lesions of chronic hepatitis. Other proposals for semi-quantitative evaluation have followed. In this study, when applying these systems on the present cases (109 liver biopsies taken from Egyptian patients infected with HCV), the authors found that the presented histopathological features may be unusual for any of the known scoring systems. Therefore, they suggested a new system for grading and staging of liver diseases in Egyptian patients infected with HCV. Accordingly, the degrees of necroinflammations are classified into 3 grades (1-3) and the progression of fibrosis is classified into 3 stages (1-3). The reduced numbers of grades and stages proposed in this study may be attributed to the rapid course among Egyptians who differ in environmental circumstances from abroad.

  2. Motorcycle and scooter speeds approaching urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D; Buchanan, J

    2012-09-01

    Five urban, uncontrolled T-intersections known to be motorcycle crash 'black spots' were monitored using instrumentation and a roadside observer. Two sets of twelve-hour observations were collected for each site (N≈100,000). Instrumentation recorded the 'events' of vehicles passing to measure, speed, direction, lane position, vehicle type (broadly characterised) and headway. Observers further recorded times of bicycle events, type of motorcycle (scooters or motorcycles), the behaviour of motorcycles and the use of 'high conspicuity' gear such as clothing or helmets. Results establish that motorcycles travel around 10% faster than the other traffic (car mean speed=34.97 km/h), with motorcycles travelling on average 3.3 km/h faster than cars. Motorcycles were 3.4 times more likely to be exceeding the speed limit than cars. Similar results are described for scooters. Also examined are the influences on mean speeds such as the time of day, the presence of a car at the t-intersection, and the influence of free headway. The results are compared for robustness across locations and days. It is concluded that in urban areas motorcycles are travelling significantly faster than other traffic. These findings are discussed against a concern to reduce motorcycle crashes by improving conspicuity and previous research that implicates a 'looked-but-failed-to-see' effect for car drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Feasibility study on intersection in North Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuty, I. P.; Sembiring, I. S.; Anas, R.; Lubis, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    Traffic congestion is one of the problems faced by big cities, One of them is Binjai city and Medan city in North Sumatera. One of the causes of congestion is intersection of roads with highway and roads with railroads. To ensure the smooth movement of vehicles, technical handling at the intersection is needed. Therefore, it is necessary to pre-study the feasibility of level crossing in Binjai and Medan to be able to assess the investment needs and the level of importance of road development in the region. The development of transportation infrastructure and facilities is based on the thought of improving the transportation network system. The necessity of systemical integrated transportation system handling is needed in creating a transportation efficiency. The purpose of this study is to identify and prioritize the needs of the railway crossings. The objective which we want to be achieved is to obtain a document that contains technical, economic and environmental ability indicators as a reference in the feasibility and planning studies. The methodology used is collecting the primary data, secondary data, introduction of study area as the initial analysis of the problem. From the study it can be concluded that the existence of railway interchange will move the movement through traffic so it will not interfere the movement of traffic within urban areas and it keeps the national road network performance is still good.

  4. MR elastography of the liver at 3.0 T in diagnosing liver fibrosis grades; preliminary clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Mitsufuji, Toshimichi; Shinagawa, Yoshinobu; Fujimitsu, Ritsuko; Morita, Ayako; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Takano, Koichi; Hayashi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the usefulness of 3.0-T MR elastography (MRE) in diagnosing the histological grades of liver fibrosis using preliminary clinical data. Between November 2012 and March 2014, MRE was applied to all patients who underwent liver MR study at a 3.0-T clinical unit. Among them, those who had pathological evaluation of liver tissue within 3 months from MR examinations were retrospectively recruited, and the liver stiffness measured by MRE was correlated with histological results. Institutional review board approved this study, waiving informed consent. There were 70 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Liver stiffness showed significant correlation with the pathological grades of liver fibrosis (rho = 0.89, p < 0.0001, Spearman's rank correlation). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.93, 0.95, 0.99 and 0.95 for fibrosis score greater than or equal to F1, F2, F3 and F4, with cut-off values of 3.13, 3.85, 4.28 and 5.38 kPa, respectively. Multivariate analysis suggested that grades of necroinflammation also affected liver stiffness, but to a significantly lesser degree as compared to fibrosis. 3.0-T clinical MRE was suggested to be sufficiently useful in assessing the grades of liver fibrosis. (orig.)

  5. MR elastography of the liver at 3.0 T in diagnosing liver fibrosis grades; preliminary clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Mitsufuji, Toshimichi; Shinagawa, Yoshinobu; Fujimitsu, Ritsuko; Morita, Ayako; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Takano, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    To clarify the usefulness of 3.0-T MR elastography (MRE) in diagnosing the histological grades of liver fibrosis using preliminary clinical data. Between November 2012 and March 2014, MRE was applied to all patients who underwent liver MR study at a 3.0-T clinical unit. Among them, those who had pathological evaluation of liver tissue within 3 months from MR examinations were retrospectively recruited, and the liver stiffness measured by MRE was correlated with histological results. Institutional review board approved this study, waiving informed consent. There were 70 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Liver stiffness showed significant correlation with the pathological grades of liver fibrosis (rho = 0.89, p 3.0-T clinical MRE was suggested to be sufficiently useful in assessing the grades of liver fibrosis. MR elastography may help clinicians assess patients with chronic liver diseases. Usefulness of 3.0-T MR elastography has rarely been reported. Measured liver stiffness correlated well with the histological grades of liver fibrosis. Measured liver stiffness was also affected by necroinflammation, but to a lesser degree. 3.0-T MRE could be a non-invasive alternative to liver biopsy.

  6. MR elastography of the liver at 3.0 T in diagnosing liver fibrosis grades; preliminary clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Mitsufuji, Toshimichi; Shinagawa, Yoshinobu; Fujimitsu, Ritsuko; Morita, Ayako; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Takano, Koichi [Fukuoka University, Department of Radiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Hayashi, Hiroyuki [Fukuoka University, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    To clarify the usefulness of 3.0-T MR elastography (MRE) in diagnosing the histological grades of liver fibrosis using preliminary clinical data. Between November 2012 and March 2014, MRE was applied to all patients who underwent liver MR study at a 3.0-T clinical unit. Among them, those who had pathological evaluation of liver tissue within 3 months from MR examinations were retrospectively recruited, and the liver stiffness measured by MRE was correlated with histological results. Institutional review board approved this study, waiving informed consent. There were 70 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Liver stiffness showed significant correlation with the pathological grades of liver fibrosis (rho = 0.89, p < 0.0001, Spearman's rank correlation). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.93, 0.95, 0.99 and 0.95 for fibrosis score greater than or equal to F1, F2, F3 and F4, with cut-off values of 3.13, 3.85, 4.28 and 5.38 kPa, respectively. Multivariate analysis suggested that grades of necroinflammation also affected liver stiffness, but to a significantly lesser degree as compared to fibrosis. 3.0-T clinical MRE was suggested to be sufficiently useful in assessing the grades of liver fibrosis. (orig.)

  7. DESIGNING AN EFFECTIVE INTERSECTION USING CAD ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISAN George-Horea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring the safety and streamline in road traffic are very important aims, with regard to the nowadays people mobility level. Road infrastructure is an essential element that can meet these requirements. Thus, it is proposed to develop an effective model of intersection by using CAD software tools. This type of intersection can be successfully used on almost any category of roads, increasing road traffic safety, reducing passing times through the intersection and in the same time, reducing conflict points and increase the intersection capacity.

  8. MOTORCYCLE CRASH PREDICTION MODEL FOR NON-SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HARNEN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to develop a prediction model for motorcycle crashes at non-signalized intersections on urban roads in Malaysia. The Generalized Linear Modeling approach was used to develop the model. The final model revealed that an increase in motorcycle and non-motorcycle flows entering an intersection is associated with an increase in motorcycle crashes. Non-motorcycle flow on major road had the greatest effect on the probability of motorcycle crashes. Approach speed, lane width, number of lanes, shoulder width and land use were also found to be significant in explaining motorcycle crashes. The model should assist traffic engineers to decide the need for appropriate intersection treatment that specifically designed for non-exclusive motorcycle lane facilities.

  9. On classical de Sitter and Minkowski solutions with intersecting branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriot, David

    2018-03-01

    Motivated by the connection of string theory to cosmology or particle physics, we study solutions of type II supergravities having a four-dimensional de Sitter or Minkowski space-time, with intersecting D p -branes and orientifold O p -planes. Only few such solutions are known, and we aim at a better characterisation. Modulo a few restrictions, we prove that there exists no classical de Sitter solution for any combination of D 3/ O 3 and D 7/ O 7, while we derive interesting constraints for intersecting D 5/ O 5 or D 6/ O 6, or combinations of D 4/ O 4 and D 8/ O 8. Concerning classical Minkowski solutions, we understand some typical features, and propose a solution ansatz. Overall, a central information appears to be the way intersecting D p / O p overlap each other, a point we focus on.

  10. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION BY USING MEDIA AT THE GRADE X3 OF SMA NEGERI I TAMBANG-KAMPAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Kurniawan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available At the grade X3 of SMAN I Tambang, the researcher found that the students havelow reading comprehension. One of the factors was the students’ lack of vocabulary. Theaimed of this research was to identify whether media can better improve students’ readingcomprehension and to find out what factors can influence the improvement of students’reading comprehension at the tenth grade students of SMAN 1 Tambang. This research wasClassroom Action Research (CAR. It had been carried out since May to June 2011. It hadtwo cycles and consisted of four meetings in each cycles. The participants of this researchwere the students at class X3 of SMAN I Tambang. They consisted of 39 students. Theresearcher found that media can better improve students’ reading comprehension at the gradeX3 of SMA Negeri I Tambang-Kampar. In conclusion, media can help the students toimprove their reading comprehension. The finding of this research implies that the use ofmedia can be used to enhance the students’ reading comprehension in English reading class.Key Words: Improve, Reading Comprehension, Media, Pictures, and Video

  11. An Intersectional Analysis of Latin@ College Women's Counter-Stories in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the intersectionality of mathematics experiences for two Latin@ college women pursuing mathematics-intensive STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors at a large, predominantly White university. The author employs intersectionality and poststructural theories to explore and make meaning…

  12. The Effect of Gender and Race Intersectionality on Student Learning Outcomes in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Hyun Kyoung; Loya, Karla I.

    2015-01-01

    Women and underrepresented minorities in traditionally White and male-dominated disciplines tend to report lower learning outcomes than their White peers. Adopting a feminist intersectionality framework, this study looks at the intersections of gender and race to investigate differences in self-assessed learning outcomes in engineering…

  13. Modeling the dynamics of driver's dilemma zone perception using machine learning methods for safer intersection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The "dilemma zone" (DZ) is defined as the area where drivers approaching a signalized intersection must decide to either proceed or stop at the onset of the yellow indication. Drivers that might perceive themselves to be too close to an intersection ...

  14. Evaluating the Impacts of Red Light Camera Deployment on Intersection Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-01

    Red-light cameras (RLC) are a popular countermeasure to reduce red-light running and improve intersection safety. Studies show that the reduction in side impact crashes at RLC intersections are often accompanied by no-change or an increase in the num...

  15. Rhythm Reproduction in Kindergarten, Reading Performance at Second Grade, and Developmental Dyslexia Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Dellatolas, Georges; Watier, Laurence; Le Normand, Marie-Thérèse; Todd, Lubbart; Claude, Chevrie-Muller

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Temporal processing deficit could be associated with a specific difficulty in learning to read. In 1951, Stambak provided preliminary evi- dence that children with dyslexia performed less well than good readers in reproduction of 21 rhythmic patterns. Stambak's task was admi- nistered to 1,028 French children aged 5 – 6 years. The score distribution ( from 0 to 21) was quasi-normal, with some children failing completely and other performing perfectly. In second grade, rea...

  16. Gold grade of epithermal gold ore at Lamuntet, Brang Rea, West Sumbawa District, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati, Rika; Idrus, Arifudin; TBMP, Himawan

    2017-06-01

    Lamuntet is one of gold ore mining area carried out by the Artisanal Small scale Gold Mining (ASGM) located in West Sumbawa, Indonesia. Most of the miners at this area are not the local miners but also those from other regions. Mineralization of this area is strong identified as low sulfidation epithermal system. There are two blocks of this mining location, namely, Ngelampar block with an area of 0.164 km2 and Song block with an area of 0.067 km2. This study was focused on Ngelampar block. The characteristic of epithermal system is the existence of quartz vein with comb, vuggy, and sugary texture. The aim of this research was to analyze the gold grade and other metals, such as Cu, Ag, Pb, As, Zn, and Hg. The research methods included literature study from previous researches, field work, laboratory work, and interpretation. The literature study was performed on previous researches with similar study area. The field work comprised of direct observation and sampling. Fieldwork was done for a week to obtain gold ore/vein. Sixteen samples were analyzed to obtain the grade of ore/metal. The Hg laboratory analysis was then performed on the six samples with the highest gold grade. Laboratory works were conducted at Intertek Jakarta by using Fire Assay (FA) for gold grade and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) for Cu, Ag, Pb, As, Zn, and Hg. Results of the analysis showed the range of Au was grade (0.1 ppm - 27.8 ppm), Cu was 26 ppm -1740 ppm, Pb was 101 ppm- >4000 ppm, Zn of 73 ppm- >10,000 ppm, Ag of 3 ppm -185 ppm, As was 150 ppm-6530 ppm, and Hg of 0.08 ppm - 1.89 ppm. L1 and L15 had high grade for all values (Au, Ag, Zn, Cu, As, and Hg). Gold mineralization was formed as electrum because of Ag content is higher than 20%. Associated minerals of the samples in the study area were galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, and chalcopyrite which showed the characteristic of rich base metal of Pb, Zn, and Cu at LS epithermal.

  17. Investigation of carbon monoxide at heavy traffic intersections of Karachi (Pakistan) using GIS to evaluate potential risk areas for respiratory and heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shareef, A.; Azam, M.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of carbon monoxide in the ambient air at 36 locations on the busy roads of Karachi showed peak values of CO at 18 sites to be within the permissible limit of 10 ppm whereas up to 70 ppm at the other 18 sites. The evaluated carboxy haemoglobin (COHb) level was in the range of 1.1 to 15.8 %. (author)

  18. Examining school effectiveness at the fourth grade: A hierarchical analysis of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemler, Steven Edward

    This study explored school effectiveness in mathematics and science at the fourth grade using data from IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Fourteen of the 26 countries participating in TIMSS at the fourth grade possessed sufficient between-school variability in mathematics achievement to justify the creation of explanatory models of school effectiveness while 13 countries possessed sufficient between-school variability in science achievement. Exploratory models were developed using variables drawn from student, teacher, and school questionnaires. The variables were chosen to represent the domains of student involvement, instructional methods, classroom organization, school climate, and school structure. Six explanatory models for each subject were analyzed using two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and were compared to models using only school mean SES as an explanatory variable. The amount of variability in student achievement in mathematics attributable to differences between schools ranged from 16% in Cyprus to 56% in Latvia, while the amount of between-school variance in science achievement ranged from 12% in Korea to 59% in Latvia. In general, about one-quarter of the variability in mathematics and science achievement was found to lie between schools. The research findings revealed that after adjusting for differences in student backgrounds across schools, the most effective schools in mathematics and science had students who reported seeing a positive relationship between hard work, belief in their own abilities, and achievement. In addition, more effective schools had students who reported less frequent use of computers and calculators in the classroom. These relationships were found to be stable across explanatory models, cultural contexts, and subject areas. This study has contributed a unique element to the literature by examining school effectiveness at the fourth grade across two subject areas and across 14

  19. Improvement in High-Grade Osteosarcoma Survival: Results from 202 Patients Treated at a Single Institution in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Yen, Chueh-Chuan; Wu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Chen, Paul C-H; Wu, Hung-Ta H; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare survival before and after 2004 and define the prognostic factors for high-grade osteosarcomas beyond those of typical young patients with localized extremity disease. Few studies have reported the long-term treatment outcomes of high-grade osteosarcoma in Taiwan. A total of 202 patients with primary high-grade osteosarcoma who received primary chemotherapy at Taipei Veterans General Hospital between January 1995 and December 2011 were retrospectively evaluated and compared by period (1995-2003 vs 2004-2011). Patients of all ages and tumor sites and those following or not following controlled protocols were included in analysis of demographic, tumor-related, and treatment-related variables and survival. Overall survival and progression-free survival at 5 years were, respectively, 67.7% and 48% for all patients (n = 202), 77.3% and 57.1% for patients without metastasis (n = 157), and 33.9% and 14.8% for patients with metastasis (n = 45). The survival rates of patients treated after 2004 were significantly higher (by 13%-16%) compared with those of patients treated before 2004, with an accompanying 30% increase in histological good response rate (P = .002). Factors significantly contributing to inferior survival in univariate and multivariate analyses were diagnosis before 2004, metastasis at diagnosis, and being a noncandidate for a controlled treatment protocol. By comparison with the regimens used at our institution before 2004, the current results support the effectiveness of the post-2004 regimens, which consisted of substantially reduced cycles of high-dose methotrexate and a higher dosage of ifosfamide per cycle, cisplatin, and doxorubicin, for treating high-grade osteosarcoma in Asian patients.

  20. Geometrical Design Errors in Duhok Intersections by Driver Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshad Ali Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In many situations, drivers if certain of the absence traffic monitoring system tend to shorten their driving paths and travel time across intersections. This behavior will be encouraged if the geometrical design suffers from mistakes, or the geometrical design and road conditions make it harder for drivers to follow the correct routes. Sometimes the intersection arrangement is confusing for the driver to distinguish the right from the wrong track. In this study, two sites with large number of driving mistakes were noticed. One site is a roundabout within the university of Duhok campus. The other is the intersection just outside the University of Duhok eastern main gate. At both sites, the geometry is very confusing and encourage driving mistakes. The university roundabout which was the first site investigated, was not properly designed encouraging wrong side driving. Many traffic accidents took place at this roundabout.  Wrong side driving reaches 32 % at peak hour in one approach.  This was reduced to 6% when temporary divisional island was installed. The other approach has a 15% wrong side driving and no remedy could be done to it. At the intersection near the university gate, wrong side driving reaches 56% of the traffic emerging from the main gate at peak hour. This was reduced to 14% when drivers are guided through direction sign. This percentage was reduced further to 9% with standing policeman.

  1. Designing of Holistic Mathematic Education Model Based-"System Among" at Low Grade Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, R.; Fauzan, A.; Iswari, M.; Khaidir, A.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model of Holistic Mathematics Education (HME) among systems based on low-grade primary school students so that students have a solid foundation when entering a higher behavior. This type of research is desaign research developed by Plomp to have three stages, namely the preliminary research, development or prototyping phase, and assessement Phase. This research resulted in a model Holistic Mathematics Education (HME) -based system is among the primary school students low grade consists of 10 stages, namely 1) Recap through the neighborhood, 2) Discussion groups by exploiting the environment, 3) Demonstration Group, 4) Exercise individuals, 5) mathematical modeling, 6) Demonstration of individuals, 7) Reflections, 8) impressions and messages, and giving meaning, 9) Celebrations and 10) A thorough assessment. Furthermore, this model also produces 7 important components that should be developed teacher, namely 1) constructivism, 2) the nature of nature, 3) independence, 4) parable, 5) inquiry, 6) cooperation, and 7) strengthening. This model will produce a model in the form of books, student books and teacher's guide book as a support system that can help users in its application.

  2. Error Patterns with Fraction Calculations at Fourth Grade as a Function of Students' Mathematics Achievement Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Robin F; Malone, Amelia S

    2017-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to describe fraction-calculation errors among 4 th -grade students and determine whether error patterns differed as a function of problem type (addition vs. subtraction; like vs. unlike denominators), orientation (horizontal vs. vertical), or mathematics-achievement status (low- vs. average- vs. high-achieving). We specifically addressed whether mathematics-achievement status was related to students' tendency to operate with whole number bias. We extended this focus by comparing low-performing students' errors in two instructional settings that focused on two different types of fraction understandings: core instruction that focused on part-whole understanding vs. small-group tutoring that focused on magnitude understanding. Results showed students across the sample were more likely to operate with whole number bias on problems with unlike denominators. Students with low or average achievement (who only participated in core instruction) were more likely to operate with whole number bias than students with low achievement who participated in small-group tutoring. We suggest instruction should emphasize magnitude understanding to sufficiently increase fraction understanding for all students in the upper elementary grades.

  3. The Outlook for Low-Grade Fuels in Tomsk Region: Research Experience at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the discussed issue is caused by the need to substitute in the regional fuel-energy balances imported energy resources with local low-grade fuels. The main aim of the study is to estimate thermal properties of local fuels in Tomsk region and evaluate its energy use viability. The methods used in the study were based standard GOST 52911-2008, 11022-95 and 6382-2001, by means of a bomb calorimeter ABK-1 and Vario micro cube analyzer. The mineral ash of researched fuels was studied agreeing with GOST 10538-87. The results state the fact that discussed low-grade fuels of Tomsk region in the unprepared form are not able to replace imported coal in regional energy balance, because of the high moisture and ash content values. A promosing direction of a low-temperature fue processing is a catalytic converter, which allows receiving hydrogen-enriched syngas from the initial solid raw.

  4. Intersectionality and Educational Leadership: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Vonzell; Roland, Ericka

    2018-01-01

    In this review of research, we explore intersectionality in the literature on K-12 educational leadership. We seek to understand how researchers have used intersectionality and what their findings or arguments reveal about the work of leading to reduce inequities in education. We ask, What traditions and trends associated with intersectionality…

  5. Rank 2 fusion rings are complete intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    We give a non-constructive proof that fusion rings attached to a simple complex Lie algebra of rank 2 are complete intersections.......We give a non-constructive proof that fusion rings attached to a simple complex Lie algebra of rank 2 are complete intersections....

  6. UpSet: Visualization of Intersecting Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Strobelt, Hendrik; Vuillemot, Romain; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Understanding relationships between sets is an important analysis task that has received widespread attention in the visualization community. The major challenge in this context is the combinatorial explosion of the number of set intersections if the number of sets exceeds a trivial threshold. In this paper we introduce UpSet, a novel visualization technique for the quantitative analysis of sets, their intersections, and aggregates of intersections. UpSet is focused on creating task-driven aggregates, communicating the size and properties of aggregates and intersections, and a duality between the visualization of the elements in a dataset and their set membership. UpSet visualizes set intersections in a matrix layout and introduces aggregates based on groupings and queries. The matrix layout enables the effective representation of associated data, such as the number of elements in the aggregates and intersections, as well as additional summary statistics derived from subset or element attributes. Sorting according to various measures enables a task-driven analysis of relevant intersections and aggregates. The elements represented in the sets and their associated attributes are visualized in a separate view. Queries based on containment in specific intersections, aggregates or driven by attribute filters are propagated between both views. We also introduce several advanced visual encodings and interaction methods to overcome the problems of varying scales and to address scalability. UpSet is web-based and open source. We demonstrate its general utility in multiple use cases from various domains. PMID:26356912

  7. Appropriate Pupilness: Social Categories Intersecting in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    The analytical focus in this article is on how social categories intersect in daily school life and how intersections intertwine with other empirically relevant categories such as normality, pupilness and (in)appropriatedness. The point of empirical departure is a daily ritual where teams for football are selected. The article opens up for a…

  8. Aging road user studies of intersection safety : lab and simulator-based studies of crosswalk markings and flashing yellow arrow comprehension -- phase 2 : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Nearly half of all traffic-related fatalities occur : at intersections, so engineering intersections : for greater safety remains a priority for the : Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). : Engineering in this case must take into accoun...

  9. Readmission after treatment of Grade 3 and 4 renal injuries at a Level I trauma center: Statewide assessment using the Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Brian; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B

    2016-03-01

    One criticism of the existing renal trauma research is the limited outpatient follow-up after index hospitalization. We assessed readmission rates following treatment for American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) Grade 3 and 4 renal injury using the Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System (CHARS). We evaluated all patients with AAST Grade 3 and 4 renal injuries admitted to Harborview Medical Center (HMC) between 1998 and 2010, the only Level 1 trauma center in Washington state. Grade 4 renal injuries were stratified by collecting system laceration (CSL) or segmental vascular injury. Data were abstracted from the CHARS database for readmissions to any Washington state hospital within 6 months of renal injury. Clinical variables, diagnoses, and procedures were queried based on DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. codes. A total of 477 Grade 3 and 159 Grade 4 renal injuries were initially treated at HMC. On admission, 111 patients required intervention: 75 (16%) of 477 Grade 3 and 36 (23%) of 159 Grade 4 injuries. Within 6 months of index hospitalization, 86 (18%) of 477 Grade 3 and 38 (24%) of 159 Grade 4 patients were readmitted to any Washington state hospital. Eighty percent of Grade 3 injuries and 66% of Grade 4 injuries returned to HMC compared with secondary hospitals (p = 0.08). At readmission, 19 (22%) of 86 Grade 3 and 16 (42%) of 38 Grade 4 injuries had a urologic diagnosis. Subsequent procedural intervention was required on readmission in 6 (7%) of 86 Grade 3 and 5 (13%) of 38 Grade 4 renal injuries (all CSL injuries). A subset of patients treated for Grade 3 and 4 renal trauma will be readmitted for further management. While urologic diagnoses and additional procedures may be low overall, readmission to outside hospitals may preclude accurate determination of renal trauma outcomes. Based on these data, patients with Grade 4 CSL injuries seem to be at the highest risk for readmission and to require a subsequent

  10. Stress analysis of cylinder to cylinder intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Cylinder to cylinder intersections have numerous applications in the power industry from different piping junctions to pressure vessel nozzles. A specific purpose computer program has been installed at the author's establishment for finite element analysis of such geometries. Some of the experiences are presented giving a short overview of the analysis of unreinforced man-holes, demonstrating how a more economical design has been verified by analysis. The program installed has linear-elastic and elasto-plastic capabilities. Further, it is prepared for heat transfer analysis with subsequent thermal stress computation. An efficient pre- and post-processor has also been installed and enhanced by the author. The software used is at its present stage capable for problem definition with input data such as outside/ inside diameters, length and number of subdivisions. Similarly simple is the load definition and the graphic representation of the full output. (author)

  11. An Intersectional Social Capital Analysis of the Influence of Historically Black Sororities on African American Women's College Experiences at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American…

  12. Sustainable intersection control to accommodate urban freight mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    In this research, we studied green extension of a two-phased vehicleactuated signal at an isolated : intersection between two one-way streets. The green phase is extended by a preset time interval, referred to : as critical gap, from the time of a...

  13. ISABELLE [Intersecting Storage Accelerators with the adjective belle] physics prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of reports on physics prospects at a 200 x 200-GeV proton intersecting storage ring facility (Isabelle or ISA). General topics of papers included are: machine-related topics, general purpose detectors, strong interaction experiments, weak and electromagnetic interaction experiments, and other exotic ideas

  14. Dual intersection syndrome of the forearm: a case report | Zhari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intersection syndrome, described since the 19th century, is an uncommon disorder associated with rubbing at the crossing point between the first dorsal compartment muscles and the radial wrist extensor muscles. Imaging modalities used to diagnosis this syndrome includes ultrasonography and magnetic resonance ...

  15. Becoming Black Women: Intimate Stories and Intersectional Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I argue that intimate stories are an important resource for the achievement of intersectional identities. Drawing on in-depth interviews with black college students at two predominantly white universities, I examine the stories black college women tell about interracial relationships between black men and white women. I argue that…

  16. The impact of demographic factors on the way lesbian and gay employees manage their sexual orientation at work: An intersectional perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Köllen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence demographic factors have on the way lesbians and gay men manage their sexual orientation at work. Design/methodology/approach : Based on data taken from a cross-sectional survey of 1308 gay and lesbian employees working in Germany, four regression models are proposed. The means of managing one's homosexuality at work was measured by the 31 items containing WSIMM from Anderson et al. (2001). Findings : Results indicate that bei...

  17. Lane assignment traffic control devices on frontage roads and conventional roads at interchanges : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The intersection and mandatory movement lane control signs placed on intersection approaches are critical to : safe and efficient intersection operations. Ramp, frontage road, and cross-street approaches to interchanges : often widen at intersections...

  18. Production spectra of $\\pi ^{\\pm}$, K$^{\\pm}$, p$^{\\pm}$ at large angles in proton-proton collisions in the CERN intersecting storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Alper, B; Booth, P; Bulos, F; Carroll, L J; Damgaard, G; Duff, Brian G; Hansen, K H; Heymann, Franz F; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jönsson, L B; Klovning, A; Leistam, L; Lillethun, E; Lohse, E; Lynch, G; Manning, Geoffrey; Ølgaard-Nielsen, S; Potter, K; Prentice, M; Quarrie, D; Sharp, P; Sharrock, S; von Dardel, Guy F; Weiss, J M

    1975-01-01

    Results are given on the inclusive production of charged pions, kaons, and nucleons, in proton-proton collisions at c.m. energies from square root s=23 to 63 GeV at large angles and for the transverse momentum range 0.1

  19. At the Intersection of HIV/AIDS and Cancer: A Qualitative Needs Assessment of Community-Based HIV/AIDS Service Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Jack E.; Cahill, Sean; Shuk, Elyse; Guidry, John; Corner, Geoffrey; Berk, Alexandra; Candelario, Norman; Kornegay, Mark; Lubetkin, Erica I.

    2013-01-01

    Due to advances in treatment, persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are living longer, but with aging, immune deficits, and lifestyle factors, they are at increased risk for cancer. This challenges community-based AIDS service organizations (ASOs) to address the growing cancer needs of…

  20. Manufacturing process scale-up of optical grade transparent spinel ceramic at ArmorLine Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilman, Joseph; Voyles, John; Nick, Joseph; Shaffer, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    While transparent Spinel ceramic's mechanical and optical characteristics are ideal for many Ultraviolet (UV), visible, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR), Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR), and multispectral sensor window applications, commercial adoption of the material has been hampered because the material has historically been available in relatively small sizes (one square foot per window or less), low volumes, unreliable supply, and with unreliable quality. Recent efforts, most notably by Technology Assessment and Transfer (TA and T), have scaled-up manufacturing processes and demonstrated the capability to produce larger windows on the order of two square feet, but with limited output not suitable for production type programs. ArmorLine Corporation licensed the hot-pressed Spinel manufacturing know-how of TA and T in 2009 with the goal of building the world's first dedicated full-scale Spinel production facility, enabling the supply of a reliable and sufficient volume of large Transparent Armor and Optical Grade Spinel plates. With over $20 million of private investment by J.F. Lehman and Company, ArmorLine has installed and commissioned the largest vacuum hot press in the world, the largest high-temperature/high-pressure hot isostatic press in the world, and supporting manufacturing processes within 75,000 square feet of manufacturing space. ArmorLine's equipment is capable of producing window blanks as large as 50" x 30" and the facility is capable of producing substantial volumes of material with its Lean configuration and 24/7 operation. Initial production capability was achieved in 2012. ArmorLine will discuss the challenges that were encountered during scale-up of the manufacturing processes, ArmorLine Optical Grade Spinel optical performance, and provide an overview of the facility and its capabilities.

  1. A 21st Century Frontier for Discovery: The Physics of the Universe. A Strategic Plan for Federal Research at the Intersection of Physics and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    the aggregation of matter (both dark and baryonic ) via application of this “3-D mass tomography” can place strong constraints on the nature of the...is Dark Matter ? 20 Question 2. What is the Nature of Dark Energy? 23 Question 3. How Did the Universe Begin? 25 Question 4. Did Einstein Have the... Matter at Exceedingly High Density and Temperature? 41 Question 9. Are There Additional Space-Time Dimensions? 43 Question 10. How Were the

  2. [Association between occupational stress and presenteeism among medical staff at grade A tertiary hospitals in Shanghai, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junming; Hua, Yujie; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Li; Fu, Hua

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the current status of occupational stress and presenteeism among medical staff at grade A tertiary hospitals in Shanghai, China, and to analyze the association between occupational stress and presenteeism. A total of 2356 healthcare workers from eight grade A tertiary hospitals in Shanghai were investigated by stratified random sampling. All the subjects were asked to complete self-administered questionnaires with informed consent. The occupational stress was assessed by the occupational stress core questionnaire. The presenteeism was evaluated by the Stanford Presenteeism Scale. In all subjects, the average score of presenteeism was 15.23 ± 3.89, and 72.5% felt occupational stress in self-evaluation. There were significant differences in the score of presenteeism between subjects with different ages, education levels, occupations, lengths of service, job titles, and shifts (all Poccupational stress, including job demand, control, social support, and demand-control ratio (Poccupational stress in medical staff from grade A tertiary hospitals is positively correlated with the level of presenteeism. It is important to promote social support to reduce the loss of work efficiency due to presenteeism.

  3. In-Street Wind Direction Variability in the Vicinity of a Busy Intersection in Central London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Ahmed A.; Tomlin, Alison S.; Wood, Curtis R.; Barlow, Janet F.; Belcher, Stephen E.; Smalley, Robert J.; Lingard, Justin J. N.; Arnold, Sam J.; Dobre, Adrian; Robins, Alan G.; Martin, Damien; Shallcross, Dudley E.

    2010-09-01

    We present results from fast-response wind measurements within and above a busy intersection between two street canyons (Marylebone Road and Gloucester Place) in Westminster, London taken as part of the DAPPLE (Dispersion of Air Pollution and Penetration into the Local Environment; www.dapple.org.uk ) 2007 field campaign. The data reported here were collected using ultrasonic anemometers on the roof-top of a building adjacent to the intersection and at two heights on a pair of lamp-posts on opposite sides of the intersection. Site characteristics, data analysis and the variation of intersection flow with the above-roof wind direction ( θ ref ) are discussed. Evidence of both flow channelling and recirculation was identified within the canyon, only a few metres from the intersection for along-street and across-street roof-top winds respectively. Results also indicate that for oblique roof-top flows, the intersection flow is a complex combination of bifurcated channelled flows, recirculation and corner vortices. Asymmetries in local building geometry around the intersection and small changes in the background wind direction (changes in 15- min mean θ ref of 5°-10°) were also observed to have profound influences on the behaviour of intersection flow patterns. Consequently, short time-scale variability in the background flow direction can lead to highly scattered in-street mean flow angles masking the true multi-modal features of the flow and thus further complicating modelling challenges.

  4. Large angle production of stable particles heavier than the proton and a search for quarks at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Alper, B; Booth, P; Bulos, F; Carroll, L J; Damgaard, G; Duff, Brian G; Heymann, Franz F; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jönsson, L B; Klovning, A; Leistam, L; Lillethun, E; Lynch, G; Manning, Geoffrey; Prentice, M; Quarrie, D; von Dardel, Guy F; Weiss, J M

    1973-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on production of particles with mass >1.5 GeV/c/sup 2/ and charge >or=2/3 for theta /sub lab/=62.5 degrees and square root s=53 GeV. At p/sub T/=0.7 GeV/c the relative rate of production of antideuterons to pi /sup -/ is (5+or-1)*10/sup -5/. The deuteron to antideuteron ratio is 3.7+or-1.2. No new stable particle has been seen amongst 0.7*10/sup 8/ charged particles entering our detector. (7 refs).

  5. 10 Best resources on… intersectionality with an emphasis on low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elizabeth; George, Asha; Morgan, Rosemary; Poteat, Tonia

    2016-10-01

    Intersectionality has emerged as an important framework for understanding and responding to health inequities by making visible the fluid and interconnected structures of power that create them. It promotes an understanding of the dynamic nature of the privileges and disadvantages that permeate health systems and affect health. It considers the interaction of different social stratifiers (e.g. 'race'/ethnicity, indigeneity, gender, class, sexuality, geography, age, disability/ability, migration status, religion) and the power structures that underpin them at multiple levels. In doing so, it is a departure from previous health inequalities research that looked at these forms of social stratification in isolation from one another or in an additive manner. Despite its potential use and long history in other disciplines, intersectionality is uncommonly used in health systems research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To orient readers to intersectionality theory and research, we first define intersectionality and describe its role in public health, and then we review resources on intersectionality. We found that applications in public health mostly increased after 2009, with only 14 out of 86 articles focused on LMICs. To arrive at 10 best resources, we selected articles based on the proportion of the article that was devoted to intersectionality, the strength of the intersectionality analysis, and its relevance to LMICs. The first four resources explain intersectionality as a methodology. The subsequent six articles apply intersectionality to research in LMIC with quantitative and qualitative analysis. We provide examples from India, Swaziland, Uganda and Mexico. Topics for the studies range from HIV, violence and sexual abuse to immunization and the use of health entitlements. Through these 10 resources, we hope to spark interest and open a needed conversation on the importance and use of intersectional analysis in LMICs as part of understanding people

  6. New limits to the remote monitoring of workers' activities at the intersection between the rules of the Statute and the privacy Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilario Alvino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the provisions contained in the new article 4 of the Worker’s Statute that limit the employer’s monitoring powers.After more 40 years, this article is being changed by article 23 of d.lgs. 151/2015 with the purpose to revise the legislation in connection with development of modern technologies.In particular, emphasis is given to the difficult to implement and interpret the law in relation to the scope for employers to control how employees use the internet and emails at work.The new article is analysed in accordance with the rules of Italian Data Protection Code (d.lgs. 196/2003 and the norms laid down by the Italian Data Protection Authority.

  7. Interdisciplinary Issues at the Intersection of Assessing and Treating Substance Use Disorders and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: Clinical Social Work and Clinical Behavioral Analysis with Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica M. Matthieu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Veterans and military personnel may be at higher risk for developing addictions due to increased prevalence rates of co-occurring mental health disorders including posttraumatic stress and substance abuse disorders. However, clinicians may feel unprepared to assess and to treat these co-occurring disorders, especially when it includes a behavioral addiction such as gambling. Clinical social work and clinical behavior analysis are two fields with complementary interdisciplinary approaches that can lead to improved client-centered outcomes. Yet, limited evidence exists to guide interdisciplinary treatment teams in effective treatment of gambling addictions and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The current article provides an interdisciplinary treatment model to assist clinicians in selecting appropriate evidence-based assessments and treatments. A case example focuses on the use of assessment tools and treatment approaches drawn from recommendations from best practice guidelines for veterans. Finally, resources related trauma and addictions are presented.

  8. Creating a Learning Continuum: A Critical Look at the Intersection of Prior Knowledge, Outdoor Education, and Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlobohm, Trisha Leigh

    Outdoor School is a cherished educational tradition in the Portland, OR region. This program's success is attributed to its presumed ability to positively impact affective and cognitive student outcomes. Residential programs such as Outdoor School are considered to be an important supplement to the classroom model of learning because they offer an authentic, contextually rich learning environment. References to relevant literature support the idea that student gains in affective and cognitive domains occur as a result of the multi-sensory, enjoyable, hands-on nature of outdoor learning. The sample population for this study was 115 sixth graders from a demographically diverse Portland, OR school district. This study used an instrument developed by the Common Measures System that was administered to students as part of Outdoor School's professional and program development project. The affective student outcome data measured by the Common Measures instrument was complemented by a formative assessment probe ascertaining prior knowledge of the definition of plants and field notes detailing Field Study instructor lesson content. This first part of this study examined the changes that take place in students' attitudes toward science as a result of attending Outdoor School. The second part took a look at how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants field study aligned with NGSS MS-LS Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices. The third section of the study compared how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants Field Study and students' prior knowledge of what defines a plant aligned with NGSS MS-LS DCIs. The intent of the research was to arrive at a more nuanced understanding of how students' attitudes toward science are influenced by participating in an outdoor education program and contribute to the development of a continuum between classroom and outdoor school learning using Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices as a framework. Results of

  9. Bilingual Education Project: Evaluation of the 1973-74 French Immersion Program in Grades K-2 at Allenby Public School, Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Henri C.; And Others

    The school performance of pupils in grades K-2 of the French immersion program in operation at Allenby Public School in Toronto is evaluated in comparison with that of pupils in the regular English program. The results indicate that by the end of kindergarten pupils in both programs are equally ready for beginning school work in grade 1. By the…

  10. The Effectiveness of Using Brainstorming Strategy in the Development of Academic Achievement of Sixth Grade Students in English Grammar at Public Schools in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkawi, Nibal Abdelkarim Mousa; Smadi, Mona

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to identify the effect of using brainstorming method in the teaching of English grammar; to improve the level of sixth grade students in English grammar at public schools in Jordan. The study population consisted of all sixth grade students of both sexes. The sample of the study was chosen in the random stratified manner,…

  11. Differentiation grade for extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinoma: Assessed by diffusion-weighted imaging at 3.0-T MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xin-Qiao; Shu, Jian; Luo, Li; Jin, Ming-Li; Lu, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Shu-Gen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DWI can assess the prognostic of extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinomas (EBDA). • The ADC value of EBDA lesion descended as the differentiation grade decreased. • The cut off value from ROC Curve of ADC can predict EBDA differentiation grade. • To some extend, it is reliable as we analysed a relatively large number of EBDAs. - Abstract: Purpose—: To assess the pathological differentiation grade in the patients with extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinoma (EBDA) using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3.0-T MR. Methods—: Sixty-eight patients who were clinically and histologically diagnosed with EBDA underwent abdominal DWI within 2 weeks before surgery. The lesion signal intensity, signal intensity ratio of the lesion and hepar (SIR-LH) value, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in patients with EBDA were retrospectively analysed. Results: —In the 68 patients, 22 well-differentiated, 36 moderately-differentiated, and 10 poorly-differentiated EBDAs were histopathological confirmed. These EBDAs exhibited hyper-intensity on DWI in 95.59% of patients. Hyper-intensity lesions were found in 90.91% of patients with good-differentiation, in 97.22% with moderate-differentiation and in 100% with poor-differentiation. There showed no statistical difference for the lesion signal intensity (P = 0.426) and SIR-LH value (P = 0.766) on DWI among three groups. The median ADC value of the well-differentiated, moderately-differentiated and poorly-differentiated EBDAs were 1.506 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s, 1.275 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s and 1.154 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s, respectively. As the pathological differentiation grade decreased, the lesion ADC value of EBDA gradually declined (x 2 = 51.220, P = 0.000). The ADC value <1.184 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s can predict the poorly-differentiated EBDA with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94.83%. The ADC value >1.316 × 10 −3 mm 2 / s can forecast the well-differentiated EBDA with a sensitivity of 100% and a

  12. Differentiation grade for extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinoma: Assessed by diffusion-weighted imaging at 3.0-T MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xin-Qiao, E-mail: 1109489147@qq.com; Shu, Jian, E-mail: shujiannc@163.com; Luo, Li, E-mail: 23857275@qq.com; Jin, Ming-Li, E-mail: 1242037853@qq.com; Lu, Xiao-Fei, E-mail: 82901782@qq.com; Yang, Shu-Gen, E-mail: 82587849@qq.com

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • DWI can assess the prognostic of extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinomas (EBDA). • The ADC value of EBDA lesion descended as the differentiation grade decreased. • The cut off value from ROC Curve of ADC can predict EBDA differentiation grade. • To some extend, it is reliable as we analysed a relatively large number of EBDAs. - Abstract: Purpose—: To assess the pathological differentiation grade in the patients with extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinoma (EBDA) using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3.0-T MR. Methods—: Sixty-eight patients who were clinically and histologically diagnosed with EBDA underwent abdominal DWI within 2 weeks before surgery. The lesion signal intensity, signal intensity ratio of the lesion and hepar (SIR-LH) value, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in patients with EBDA were retrospectively analysed. Results: —In the 68 patients, 22 well-differentiated, 36 moderately-differentiated, and 10 poorly-differentiated EBDAs were histopathological confirmed. These EBDAs exhibited hyper-intensity on DWI in 95.59% of patients. Hyper-intensity lesions were found in 90.91% of patients with good-differentiation, in 97.22% with moderate-differentiation and in 100% with poor-differentiation. There showed no statistical difference for the lesion signal intensity (P = 0.426) and SIR-LH value (P = 0.766) on DWI among three groups. The median ADC value of the well-differentiated, moderately-differentiated and poorly-differentiated EBDAs were 1.506 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, 1.275 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s and 1.154 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively. As the pathological differentiation grade decreased, the lesion ADC value of EBDA gradually declined (x{sup 2} = 51.220, P = 0.000). The ADC value <1.184 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s can predict the poorly-differentiated EBDA with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94.83%. The ADC value >1.316 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/ s can forecast the well

  13. At the Intersection of Urbanization, Water, and Food Security: Determination of Select Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Mussels and Oysters from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burket, S Rebekah; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Zheng, J S; Chung, Shan Shan; Brooks, Bryan W

    2018-05-23

    Aquaculture, which is growing 3-5 times faster than terrestrial agriculture, will play an important role to meet future global food production needs. However, over 80% of global sewage production is returned to the environment untreated or poorly treated. In developing nations, these nontraditional waters of diverse quality are being recycled for aquaculture, yet chemical residues are differentially studied. Here, we examined pharmaceuticals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and flame retardants in marine bivalves using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and low-pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LP GC-MS/MS). Green-lipped mussels from the field and oysters from aquaculture net pens, which are harvested as food products, were collected adjacent to point source municipal wastewater and landfill leachate effluent discharges, respectively, in Hong Kong, the fourth most densely populated country in the world. Multiple classes of pharmaceutical, pesticides, PAHs, and phosphorus-based flame retardants were detected at low μg/kg levels. Acceptable servings per week indicated minimal risk for a number of chemicals; however, such calculations could not be performed for other contaminants of emerging concern. Future efforts are needed to better understand contaminant influences on marine bivalve populations and aquaculture product safety, particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions of developing countries with limited wastewater infrastructure.

  14. Emerging role for corticotropin releasing factor signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis at the intersection of stress and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Yuval; Winder, Danny G

    2013-01-01

    Stress and anxiety play an important role in the development and maintenance of drug and alcohol addiction. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a brain region involved in the production of long-term stress-related behaviors, plays an important role in animal models of relapse, such as reinstatement to previously extinguished drug-seeking behaviors. While a number of neurotransmitter systems have been suggested to play a role in these behaviors, recent evidence points to the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) as being critically important in BNST-mediated reinstatement behaviors. Although numerous studies indicate that the BNST is a complex brain region with multiple afferent and efferent systems and a variety of cell types, there has only been limited work to determine how CRF modulates this complex neuronal system at the circuit level. Recent work from our lab and others have begun to unravel these BNST neurocircuits and explore their roles in CRF-related reinstatement behaviors. This review will examine the role of CRF signaling in drug addiction and reinstatement with an emphasis on critical neurocircuitry within the BNST that may offer new insights into treatments for addiction.

  15. Working at the intersection of context, culture, and technology: Provider perspectives on antimicrobial stewardship in the emergency department using electronic health record clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Phillip; Scandlyn, Jean; Dayan, Peter S; Mistry, Rakesh D

    2017-11-01

    Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) have not been fully developed for the emergency department (ED), in part the result of the barriers characteristic of this setting. Electronic health record-based clinical decision support (EHR CDS) represents a promising strategy to implement ASPs in the ED. We aimed to determine the cultural beliefs and structural barriers and facilitators to implementation of antimicrobial stewardship in the pediatric ED using EHR CDS. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with hospital and ED leadership, attending ED physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and residents at a single health system in Colorado. We reviewed and coded the data using constant comparative analysis and framework analysis until a final set of themes emerged. Two dominant perceptions shaped providers' perspectives on ASPs in the ED and EHR CDS: (1) maintaining workflow efficiency and (2) constrained decision-making autonomy. Clinicians identified structural barriers to ASPs, such as pace of the ED, and various beliefs that shaped patterns of practice, including accommodating the prescribing decisions of other providers and managing parental expectations. Recommendations to enhance uptake focused on designing a simple yet flexible user interface, providing clinicians with performance data, and on-boarding clinicians to enhance buy-in. Developing a successful ED-based ASP using EHR CDS should attend to technologic needs, the institutional context, and the cultural beliefs of practice associated with providers' antibiotic prescribing. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of Online Learning Resources in the Development of Learning Environments at the Intersection of Formal and Informal Learning: The Student as Autonomous Designer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Lebeničnik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning resources that are used in the education of university students are often available online. The nature of new technologies causes an interweaving of formal and informal learning, with the result that a more active role is expected from students with regard to the use of ICT for their learning. The variety of online learning resources (learning content and learning tools facilitates informed use and enables students to create the learning environment that is most appropriate for their personal learning needs and preferences. In contemporary society, the creation of an inclusive learning environment supported by ICT is pervasive. The model of Universal Design for Learning is becoming increasingly significant in responding to the need for inclusive learning environments. In this article, we categorize different online learning activities into the principles of Universal Design for Learning. This study examines ICT use among university students (N = 138, comparing student teachers with students in other study programs. The findings indicate that among all students, activities with lower demands for engagement are most common. Some differences were observed between student teachers and students from other programs. Student teachers were more likely than their peers to perform certain activities aimed at meeting diverse learner needs, but the percentage of students performing more advanced activities was higher for students in other study programs than for student teachers. The categorization of activities revealed that student teachers are less likely to undertake activities that involve interaction with others. Among the sample of student teachers, we found that personal innovativeness is correlated with diversity of activities in only one category. The results show that student teachers should be encouraged to perform more advanced activities, especially activities involving interaction with others, collaborative learning and use of ICT to

  17. No correlation between ultrasound placental grading at 31-34 weeks of gestation and a surrogate estimate of organ function at term obtained by stereological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T T; Loughna, P; Ong, S S; Padfield, J; Mayhew, T M

    2009-08-01

    We test the experimental hypothesis that early changes in the ultrasound appearance of the placenta reflect poor or reduced placental function. The sonographic (Grannum) grade of placental maturity was compared to placental function as expressed by the morphometric oxygen diffusive conductance of the villous membrane. Ultrasonography was used to assess the Grannum grade of 32 placentas at 31-34 weeks of gestation. Indications for the scans included a history of previous fetal abnormalities, previous fetal growth problems or suspicion of IUGR. Placentas were classified from grade 0 (most immature) to grade III (most mature). We did not exclude smokers or complicated pregnancies as we aimed to correlate the early appearance of mature placentas with placental function. After delivery, microscopical fields on formalin-fixed, trichrome-stained histological sections of each placenta were obtained by multistage systematic uniform random sampling. Using design-based stereological methods, the exchange surface areas of peripheral (terminal and intermediate) villi and their fetal capillaries and the arithmetic and harmonic mean thicknesses of the villous membrane (maternal surface of villous trophoblast to adluminal surface of vascular endothelium) were estimated. An index of the variability in thickness of this membrane, and an estimate of its oxygen diffusive conductance, were derived secondarily as were estimates of the mean diameters and total lengths of villi and fetal capillaries. Group comparisons were drawn using analysis of variance. We found no significant differences in placental volume or composition or in the dimensions or diffusive conductances of the villous membrane. Subsequent exclusion of smokers did not alter these main findings. Grannum grades at 31-34 weeks of gestation appear not to provide reliable predictors of the functional capacity of the term placenta as expressed by the surrogate measure, morphometric diffusive conductance.

  18. Health and healthcare disparities among U.S. women and men at the intersection of sexual orientation and race/ethnicity: a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Mai-Han; Agénor, Madina; Austin, S Bryn; Jackson, Chandra L

    2017-12-19

    Research has shown that sexual minorities (SMs) (e.g. lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals), compared to their heterosexual counterparts, may engage in riskier health behaviors, are at higher risk of some adverse health outcomes, and are more likely to experience reduced health care access and utilization. However, few studies have examined how the interplay between race and sexual orientation impacts a range of health measures in a nationally representative sample of the U.S. To address these gaps in the literature, we sought to investigate associations between sexual orientation identity and health/healthcare outcomes among U.S. women and men within and across racial/ethnic groups. Using 2013-2015 National Health Interview Survey data (N = 91,913) we employed Poisson regression with robust variance to directly estimate prevalence ratios (PR) comparing health and healthcare outcomes among SMs of color to heterosexuals of color and white heterosexuals, stratified by gender and adjusting for potential confounders. The sample consisted of 52% women, with approximately 2% of each sex identifying as SMs. Compared to their heterosexual counterparts, white (PR = 1.25 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.45]) and black (1.54 [1.07, 2.20]) SM women were more likely to report heavy drinking. Hispanic/Latino SM women and men were more likely to experience short sleep duration compared to white heterosexual women (1.33 [1.06, 1.66]) and men (1.51 [1.21, 1.90). Black SM women had a much higher prevalence of stroke compared to black heterosexual women (3.25 [1.63, 6.49]) and white heterosexual women (4.51 [2.16, 9.39]). White SM women were more likely than white heterosexual women to be obese (1.31 [1.15, 1.48]), report cancer (1.40 [1.07, 1.82]) and report stroke (1.91 [1.16, 3.15]. White (2.41 [2.24, 2.59]), black (1.40[1.20, 1.63]), and Hispanic/Latino SM (2.17 [1.98, 2.37]) men were more likely to have been tested for HIV than their heterosexual counterparts

  19. Wind tunnel measurements of pollutant turbulent fluxes in urban intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Hayden, Paul; Robins, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments have been carried out at the EnFlo laboratory to measure mean and turbulent tracer fluxes in geometries of real street canyon intersections. The work was part of the major DAPPLE project, focussing on the area surrounding the intersection between Marylebone Road and Gloucester Place in Central London, UK. Understanding flow and dispersion in urban streets is a very important issue for air quality management and planning, and turbulent mass exchange processes are important phenomena that are very often neglected in urban modelling studies. The adopted methodology involved the combined use of laser Doppler anemometry and tracer concentration measurements. This methodology was applied to quantify the mean and turbulent flow and dispersion fields within several street canyon intersections. Vertical profiles of turbulent tracer flux were also measured. The technique, despite a number of limitations, proved reliable and allowed tracer balance calculations to be undertaken in the selected street canyon intersections. The experience gained in this work will enable much more precise studies in the future as issues affecting the accuracy of the experimental technique have been identified and resolved.

  20. MULTIAGENT PLANNING OF INTERSECTION PASSAGE BY AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zikratov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a traffic management system for autonomous vehicles that are agents at the intersection. In contrast to the known solutions based on the usage of semiautonomous control systems in assembly with the control unit, this algorithm is based on the principles of decentralized multiagent control. The best travel plan for intersection passage is produced by means of optimization methods jointly by all agents belonging to a dynamic collaboration of autonomous vehicles. The order of road intersection optimal for a given criterion is determined by the agents in the process of information exchange about themselves and environment. Our experiments show that this protocol can reduce significantly the traffic density as compared to the traditional systems of traffic management. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm increases with increasing density of road traffic. In addition, the absence of the critical object, that is the control unit, in the control system, reduces significantly the effectiveness of possible failures and hacker attacks on the intersection control system.

  1. Revisiting Street Intersections Using Slot-Based Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi Tachet

    Full Text Available Since their appearance at the end of the 19th century, traffic lights have been the primary mode of granting access to road intersections. Today, this centuries-old technology is challenged by advances in intelligent transportation, which are opening the way to new solutions built upon slot-based systems similar to those commonly used in aerial traffic: what we call Slot-based Intersections (SIs. Despite simulation-based evidence of the potential benefits of SIs, a comprehensive, analytical framework to compare their relative performance with traffic lights is still lacking. Here, we develop such a framework. We approach the problem in a novel way, by generalizing classical queuing theory. Having defined safety conditions, we characterize capacity and delay of SIs. In the 2-road crossing configuration, we provide a capacity-optimal SI management system. For arbitrary intersection configurations, near-optimal solutions are developed. Results theoretically show that transitioning from a traffic light system to SI has the potential of doubling capacity and significantly reducing delays. This suggests a reduction of non-linear dynamics induced by intersection bottlenecks, with positive impact on the road network. Such findings can provide transportation engineers and planners with crucial insights as they prepare to manage the transition towards a more intelligent transportation infrastructure in cities.

  2. Continued Multicolumns Bioleaching for Low Grade Uranium Ore at a Certain Uranium Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongxin Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching has lots of advantages compared with traditional heap leaching. In industry, bioleaching of uranium is still facing many problems such as site space, high cost of production, and limited industrial facilities. In this paper, a continued column bioleaching system has been established for leaching a certain uranium ore which contains high fluoride. The analysis of chemical composition of ore shows that the grade of uranium is 0.208%, which is lower than that of other deposits. However, the fluoride content (1.8% of weight is greater than that of other deposits. This can be toxic for bacteria growth in bioleaching progress. In our continued multicolumns bioleaching experiment, the uranium recovery (89.5% of 4th column is greater than those of other columns in 120 days, as well as the acid consumption (33.6 g/kg. These results indicate that continued multicolumns bioleaching technology is suitable for leaching this type of ore. The uranium concentration of PLS can be effectively improved, where uranium recovery can be enhanced by the iron exchange system. Furthermore, this continued multicolumns bioleaching system can effectively utilize the remaining acid of PLS, which can reduce the sulfuric acid consumption. The cost of production of uranium can be reduced and this benefits the environment too.

  3. Analysis Science Process Skills Content in Chemistry Textbooks Grade XI at Solubility and Solubility Product Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Antrakusuma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the analysis of science process skills in textbooks of chemistry grade XI in SMA N 1 Teras, Boyolali. This research used the descriptive method. The instruments were developed based on 10 indicators of science process skills (observing, classifying, finding a conclusion, predicting, raising the question, hypothesizing, planning an experiment, manipulating materials, and equipment, Applying, and communicating. We analyzed 3 different chemistry textbooks that often used by teachers in teaching. The material analyzed in the book was solubility and solubility product concept in terms of concept explanation and student activity. The results of this research showed different science process skill criteria in 3 different chemistry textbooks. Book A appeared 50% of all aspects of science process skills, in Book B appeared 80% of all aspects of science process skills, and in Book C there was 40% of all aspects of the science process skills. The most common indicator in all books was observing (33.3%, followed by prediction (19.05%, classifying (11.90%, Applying (11.90% , planning experiments (9.52%, manipulating materials and equipment (7.14%, finding conclusion (4.76%, communicating (2.38%. Asking the question and hypothesizing did not appear in textbooks.

  4. The results of STEM education methods in physics at the 11th grade level: Light and visual equipment lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungsombatsanti, A.; Ponkham, K.; Somtoa, T.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) To evaluate the efficiency of the process and the efficiency of the results (E1 / E2) of the innovative instructional lesson plan in the form of the STEM Education method in the field of physics of secondary students at the 10th grade level in physics class to determine the efficiency of the STEM based on criteria of the 70/70 standard level. 2) To study students' critical thinking skills of secondary students at the 11th grade level, and assessing skill in criteria 80 percentage 3) To compare learning achievements between students' pre-post testing after taught in STEM Education 4) To evaluate Student' Satisfaction after using STEM Education teaching by using mean compare to 5 points Likert Scale. The participant used were 40 students from grade 11 at Borabu School, Borabu District, Mahasarakham Province, semester 2, Academic year 2016. Tools used in this study consist of: 1) STEM Education plan about the force and laws of motion for grade 11 students of 1 schemes with total of 15 hours, 2) The test of critical think skills with essay type in amount of 30 items, 3) achievement test on Light and visual equipment with multiple-choice of 4 options of 30 items, 4) satisfaction learning with 5 Rating Scale of 16 items. The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent). The results showed that 1) The results of these findings revealed that the efficiency of the STEM based on criteria indicate that are higher than the standard level of the 70/70 at 71.51/75 2) Student has critical thinking scores that are higher than criteria 80 percentage as amount is 26 people. 3) Statistically significant of students' learning achievements to their later outcomes were differentiated between pretest and posttest at the .05 level, evidently. 4) The student' level of satisfaction toward the learning by using STEM Education plan was at a good level (X ¯ = 4.33, S.D = 0.64).

  5. Relationship of Family Particulars with Mental Health in Tehran Girls\\' Students at Third Grade in the Field of Experimental Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Shoja'ei-Zadeh

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Personality development is a complicated phenomenon. Several external and internal factors such as hereditary background, congenital status, events afterbirth, individual differences, positive and negative promoting behaviors, and other cultural and social factors alone or in combination affect individual personality. Based on the theory of psychological analysis, experiences at childhood, especially interaction with parents have an undeniable effect on individual personality in adulthood. The subject of the present study is to investigate the relationship of family particulars with mental health in high school girls' students in Tehran at third grade in the field of experimental sciences. The present study is a case-study and its purpose is to study theories on dissatisfaction of students at disorganized families and its relationship with anxiety, depression, violence, and obsession. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 80 girl students studying at third grade in field of experimental sciences at Tehran high schools. Half of these students were selected as case group and half of them as control group. The subjects were selected with screening method and the SCL-90 test was used to study hypothesis. Results: The results revealed that there was a significant difference between case and control group. The quality of family relationship had a strong correlation with mental growth of child.   Conclusion: Based on obtained results, the atmosphere around the control group was happier than the case group. The members of the case group usually did not talk about their problems with father.

  6. “Bus Lane Within The Area Of Intersection” Method For Buses Priority On The Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikovych Ihor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this article is to formalize the “special bus lanes within the area of intersection” method that allows providing buses with space-time priority at signalized intersections (mostly of the isolated type, including those with no more than two traffic lanes in each direction at the approaches to the intersection. The article establishes the limits for efficient application of this method, and describes the results of a simulation experiment conducted in the VISSIM environment to investigate the functioning of the method on an actual intersection. The most critical phase of implementation of this method is to determine the optimum length of the special bus lane at the approach to the intersection. The optimum length of special bus lanes at the approaches to isolated or coordinated intersections is determined based on the maximum length of queued vehicles which is computed using the simulation models developed in the Objective-C language. The article covers the basic characteristics of those models, their structure and building principles, and also provides the model validation results. Simulation models can be used both for determination of the optimum length of special bus lanes at the approaches to signalized intersections and for analysis of intersection performance based on the maximum length of queued vehicles.

  7. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.

  8. At the ISR intersection region I-7

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    One sees on the left the setup of the experiment R704 which aimed to study charmonium spectroscopy using a 4 GeV/c antiproton beam and a hydrogen-jet gas target (see Annual Report 1982 p. 109 and 1883 p. 127). Lars Leistam stands on top of the passerelle.

  9. At the Intersection of College & Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    By purchasing abandoned facilities and transforming them into vibrant hubs for culture and education, community colleges are fulfilling one of their key missions: revitalizing their communities. But these types of projects can be fraught with challenges as well. Here's how Austin Community College (Texas), Manchester Community College…

  10. Measuring user awareness at signalized intersections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Drivers have limited awareness of changes in trip attributes or the performance of the traffic system. Due to non-utilitarian behavior and perceptual biases a distinctive amount of changes go unnoticed or are valued incorrectly, which makes drivers indifferent to changing traffic conditions to a

  11. THE PRACTICE REHEARSAL PAIR STRATEGY TOWARDS STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY AT THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMA N 2 LUBUK ALUNG

    OpenAIRE

    Reza, Thenzia Februa; Hayati, Amal; Widyawati, Siska Okta

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to find the effect of the application of Practice Rehearsal Pairs strategy Towards Students’ Speaking Ability At The Tenth Grade Students of SMAN 2 Lubuk Alung. This research is an experimental research. The population was all students in class X SMAN 2 Lubuk Alung school year 2015/2016. The samples selected were X1class as the experimental class and X3 class as the control class. The research was conducted for 8 meetings. The research began by providing treat...

  12. Where to locate transit stops: Cross-intersection profiles of ultrafine particles and implications for pedestrian exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonsik; Ranasinghe, Dilhara; DeShazo, J R; Kim, Jae-Jin; Paulson, Suzanne E

    2018-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to traffic-related pollutants increases incidence of adverse health outcomes. Transit users in cities across the globe commonly spend 15-45 min or more waiting at transit stops each day, often at locations with high levels of pollution from traffic. Here, we investigate the characteristics of concentration profiles of ultrafine particles (UFP) with 5 m spatial resolution across intersections, to determine the best place to site transit stops to minimize exposures. Cross-intersection UFP profiles were derived from 1744 profiles covering 90 m before and after each intersection center with a mobile monitoring platform. Measurements were made at 10 signalized intersections located at six urban sites, each with a distinct built environment, during both mornings and afternoons. Measurements were made within 1.5 m of the sidewalk and approximately at breathing height (1.5 m above ground level) to approximate sidewalk exposures. UFP profiles were strongly influenced by high emissions from vehicle stops and accelerations, and peaked within 30 m of intersection centers; from there concentrations decreased sharply with distance. Peak concentrations averaged about 90% higher than the minima along the block. They were accompanied by more frequent and larger transient concentration spikes, increasing the chance of people near the intersection being exposed to both short-term extremely high concentration spikes and higher average concentrations. The decays are somewhat larger before the intersection than after the intersection, however as siting transit stops after intersections is preferred for smooth traffic flow, we focus on after the intersection. Simple time-duration exposure calculations combined with breathing rates suggest moving a bus stop from 20 to 40-50 m after the intersection can reduce transit-users' exposure levels to total UFP substantially, in proportion to the reciprocal of the magnitude of elevation at

  13. The problem with the phrase women and minorities: intersectionality-an important theoretical framework for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa

    2012-07-01

    Intersectionality is a theoretical framework that posits that multiple social categories (e.g., race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status) intersect at the micro level of individual experience to reflect multiple interlocking systems of privilege and oppression at the macro, social-structural level (e.g., racism, sexism, heterosexism). Public health's commitment to social justice makes it a natural fit with intersectionality's focus on multiple historically oppressed populations. Yet despite a plethora of research focused on these populations, public health studies that reflect intersectionality in their theoretical frameworks, designs, analyses, or interpretations are rare. Accordingly, I describe the history and central tenets of intersectionality, address some theoretical and methodological challenges, and highlight the benefits of intersectionality for public health theory, research, and policy.

  14. Effects of acute hypoxia on renal and endocrine function at rest and during graded exercise in hydrated subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Kanstrup, I L; Richalet, J P

    1992-01-01

    Renal effects of altitude hypoxia are unclear. Renal and hormonal function was investigated in eight males at rest and during graded exercise at sea level (SL) and 48 h after rapid ascent to 4,350 m (HA). HA did not change resting values of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration...... rate (GFR), sodium clearance (CNa), urine flow, or lithium clearance (CLi), which was used as an index of proximal tubular outflow. At rest, HA increased plasma norepinephrine concentration and decreased plasma concentrations of renin and aldosterone. Exercise decreased ERPF similarly in both...... environments. Normoxic exercise progressively reduced GFR, but at HA GFR only decreased during heavy exercise. This resulted in a higher filtration fraction during light and moderate hypoxic exercise. However, calculated absolute proximal reabsorption rate (GFR-CLi) at HA was higher during low...

  15. The intersection of culture, disability and assistive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie; Woodgate, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Although the use of assistive technology (AT) is by an individual, it occurs within a much larger socio-cultural environment. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyse current knowledge about the intersection of culture and disability in the context of the AT user. Literature review of theoretical and empirical study papers that discuss cultural aspects related to AT use or provision. Understanding how an individual's culturally defined identity is shaped as an AT user, and the meaning the AT holds to that person and family, is essential to providing culturally appropriate AT services. AT providers also belong to a culture framed by their professional experiences; needed are ways of addressing ethnocentricity within culturally diverse practice settings. Some AT users may identify with a disability culture, a culture formed by a shared set of beliefs, values and behaviours around the construct of disability. This review reveals there is a paucity of knowledge about the intersection of AT and culture, and that this intersection requires further research. Embarking on this investigation is mandatory if we seek to meet the needs of the culturally diverse individuals who use AT.

  16. Multiphase flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaoglu, H.; Meakin, P.; Green, C.T.; Mathew, M.; ,

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interaction potentials was used to study gravity-driven flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections. Simulated scenarios included fluid dripping from a fracture aperture, two-phase flow through intersecting fractures and thin-film flow on smooth and undulating solid surfaces. Qualitative comparisons with recently published experimental findings indicate that for these scenarios the LB model captured the underlying physics reasonably well.

  17. Low back pain at school: unique risk deriving from unsatisfactory grade in maths and school-type recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erne, Cordula; Elfering, Achim

    2011-12-01

    Psychosocial stress and pain may relate to educational selection. At the end of primary school (International Standard Classification of Education: ISCED level 1) children are recommended for one of three performance-based lower secondary level types of school (ISCED level 2). The study examines the association of educational selection and other risk factors with pain in the upper back (UBP), lower back pain (LBP), peripheral (limb) pain (PP), and abdominal pain (AP). Teacher reports of unsatisfactory grades in mathematics, and official school-type recommendation are included as objective psychosocial risk factors. One hundred and ninety-two schoolchildren, aged between 10 and 13 from 11 classes of 7 schools in Switzerland participated in the cross-sectional study. In logistic regression analysis, predictor variables included age, sex, BMI, participation in sport, physical mobility, weight of satchel, hours of daily TV, video, and computer use, pupils' back pain reported by the mother and father, psychosocial strain, unsatisfactory grade in mathematics, and school-type recommendation. Analysis of pain drawings was highly reliable and revealed high prevalence rates of musculoskeletal pain in the last 4 weeks (UBP 15.3%, LBP 13:8%, PP 33.9%, AP 20.1%). Psychosocial risk factors were uniquely significant predictors of UBP (psychosocial strain), LBP (psychosocial strain, unsatisfactory grade in mathematics, school-type recommendation), and AP (school-type recommendation). In conclusion, selection in terms of educational school system was uniquely associated with LBP in schoolchildren. Stress caused by educational selection should be addressed in primary prevention of musculoskeletal pain in schoolchildren.

  18. Asymptotic properties of axisymmetric Stokes flow of a viscous liquid with intersecting boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinov, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    The general axisymmetric problem on the liquid flow by the low Reynolds number when the boundary surfaces (both of the solid body and free one) are intersecting at the certain angle on the moving line, is considered. The work is aimed at establishing the asymptotic regularities of the behavior of the current function and voltages in the small vicinity of the intersection (contact) line of the boundary surfaces. The asymptotic analysis makes it possible to consider the arbitrary axisymmetric Stokes flow with the intersecting boundaries [ru

  19. Comparison of Crack Growth Test Results at Elevated Temperature and Design Code Material Properties for Grade 91 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Kim, Woo-Gon; Kim, Nak-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Reserach Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The material properties of crack growth models at an elevated temperature were derived from the results of numerous crack growth tests for Mod.9Cr-1Mo (ASME Grade 91) steel specimens under fatigue loading and creep loading at an elevated temperature. These crack growth models were needed for defect assessment under creep-fatigue loading. The mathematical crack growth rate models for fatigue crack growth (FCG) and creep crack growth (CCG) were determined based on the test results, and the models were compared with those of the French design code RCCMRx to investigate the conservatism of the code. The French design code RCC-MRx provides an FCG model and a CCG model for Grade 91 steel in Section III Tome 6. It was shown that the FCG model of RCC-MRx is conservative, while the CCG model is non-conservative compared with the present test data. Thus, it was shown that further validation of the property was required. Mechanical strength tests and creep tests were also conducted, and the test results were compared with those of RCC-MRx.

  20. The Use of Herringbone technique in Comprehending Recount Text at The Tenth Grade Students of Madrasah Aliyah Swasta Terpadu Duri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    deny silvia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to find out whether there was a significant difference between reading comprehension recount text ability of students who were taught by using Herringbone technique and those who were taught without using Herringbone technique. The research method used was experimental research. The instruments  for collecting data was test. It was given to subjects before and after the experiment. The test was used in order to find out the students comprehension ability on recount text. The subject chosen for this study were 62 students at the tenth grade of Madrasah Aliyah Swasta Terpadu Duri. They were divided into two group: experimental and control group. Based on finding, the results of t-test and interpretations, the following conclusions were drawn: (1 Herringbone Technique  was applicable to improve students` ablity in comprehending recount text, (2 there was a significant difference between reading comprehension ability of students who were taught  before using Herringbone Technique and those who were taught after using  Herringbone Technique. And  (3 there was significant effect of using Herringbone Technique in comprehending recount text at the Tenth Grade Students of Madrasah Aliyah Swasta Terpadu Duri. It was evidence by calculation of t- test. The result of t-test was  (2, 00 2, 65. It could be concluded that Ha was accepted.   Key Words: Herringbone Technique, Recount Text