WorldWideScience

Sample records for at grade intersections

  1. Crash patterns at signalized intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Polders, Evelien; Daniels, Stijn; HERMANS, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Traffic signals are often implemented to provide for efficient movement and to improve traffic safety. Nevertheless, severe crashes still occur at signalized intersections. This study aims to improve the understanding of signalized intersection safety by identifying crash types, locations and factors associated with signalized intersections. For this purpose, 1295 police-reported crashes at 87 signalized intersections are analyzed based on detailed crash descriptions, i.e. crash data and c...

  2. The Structure Theorem for Complete Intersections of Grade 4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oh-Jin Kang; Hyoung J. Ko

    2005-01-01

    Serre showed that a Gorenstein ideal of grade 2 is a complete intersection, and Buchsbaum and Eisenbud proved a structure theorem for Gorenstein ideals of grade 3. It is found that a certain complete matrix defines a perfect ideal K3(f).As an application,we present a structure theorem for complete intersections of grade 4.

  3. The Ideal Intersection Property for Groupoid Graded Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öinert, Per Johan; Lundström, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    We show that, if a groupoid graded ring has a grading satisfying a certain nondegeneracy property, then the commutant of the center of the principal component of the ring has the ideal intersection property, that is it intersects nontrivially every nonzero ideal of the ring. Furthermore, we show ...

  4. At the Intersection of Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidasi Judit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that part of today’s societal difficulties, uncertainties and crisis worldwide can be attributed to the competing of multiple identities, to their intersections and their overlapping nature – on the level of nations, on the level of communities and also on the level of the individual. We aim at presenting a typology of identities that come into play in the public and in the private domain of the individual. It is hypothesized that there is a strong interdependence of cultural heritage, human values and social traditions in the competition of identities. These questions, which are interrelated and interconnected with each other through a common denominator, namely “cultural-mental programming” and “reprogramming efforts,” are going to be pondered about in the presentation. In the context of globalization the relevance of this topic is reinforced by the need to adapt to changes within the ever-intensifying shift from intercultural to multicultural environment in communities, in business and in work places. Attempts will be made to articulate some projections with respect to future trends that are to be expected: the way to go from competing identities to establishing a competitive identity (Simon Anholt. The contribution does not offer ready solutions but rather serves as fuel for further discussions.

  5. Modeling aggressive driver behavior at unsignalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysi, Isam A; Abbany, Ali S

    2007-07-01

    The processing of vehicles at unsignalized intersections is a complex and highly interactive process, whereby each driver makes individual decisions about when, where, and how to complete the required maneuver, subject to his perceptions of distances, velocities, and own car's performance. Typically, the performance of priority-unsignalized intersections has been modeled with probabilistic approaches that consider the distribution of gaps in the major-traffic stream and their acceptance by the drivers of minor street vehicles based on the driver's "critical gap". This paper investigates the aggressive behavior of minor street vehicles at intersections that are priority-unsignalized but operate with little respect of control measures. The objective is to formulate a behavioral model that predicts the probability that a driver performs an aggressive maneuver as a function of a set of driver and traffic attributes. Parameters that were tested and modeled include driver characteristics (gender and age), car characteristics (performance and model year), and traffic attributes (number of rejected gaps, total waiting time at head of queue, and major-traffic speed). Binary probit models are developed and tested, based on a collected data set from an unsignalized intersection in the city of Beirut, to determine which of the studied variables are statistically significant in determining the aggressiveness of a specific driver. Primary conclusions reveal that age, car performance, and average speed on the major road are the major determinants of aggressive behavior. Another striking conclusion is that the total waiting time of the driver while waiting for an acceptable gap is of little significance in incurring the "forcing" behavior. The obtained model is incorporated in a simple simulation framework that reflects driver behavior and traffic stream interactions in estimating delay and conflict measures at unsignalized intersections. The simulation results were then compared

  6. Vacuum chamber at intersection I-6

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The vacuum chamber at intersection region I-6, one of these where experiments in colliding-beam physics will be taking place. The "wheels" prevent the thin wall (1.5 mm) of the chamber from collapsing. The chamber is equipped with heating tapes and its wrapped in thermal insulation. Residual gas pressure at this and other similar regions is around 10_11.

  7. Statistical modeling of total crash frequency at highway intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash M. Roshandeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intersection-related crashes are associated with high proportion of accidents involving drivers, occupants, pedestrians, and cyclists. In general, the purpose of intersection safety analysis is to determine the impact of safety-related variables on pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles, so as to facilitate the design of effective and efficient countermeasure strategies to improve safety at intersections. This study investigates the effects of traffic, environmental, intersection geometric and pavement-related characteristics on total crash frequencies at intersections. A random-parameter Poisson model was used with crash data from 357 signalized intersections in Chicago from 2004 to 2010. The results indicate that out of the identified factors, evening peak period traffic volume, pavement condition, and unlighted intersections have the greatest effects on crash frequencies. Overall, the results seek to suggest that, in order to improve effective highway-related safety countermeasures at intersections, significant attention must be focused on ensuring that pavements are adequately maintained and intersections should be well lighted. It needs to be mentioned that, projects could be implemented at and around the study intersections during the study period (7 years, which could affect the crash frequency over the time. This is an important variable which could be a part of the future studies to investigate the impacts of safety-related works at intersections and their marginal effects on crash frequency at signalized intersections.

  8. Information point and saturation flow at signalized intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an information point factor and attempts to identify how it affects saturation flow and their relationship at signalized intersections. An information point is defined as any object, structure, or activity located outside of a traveling vehicle that can potentially attract the visual attention of the driver. Saturation flow rates are studied at three pairs of signalized intersections in Toledo, Ohio, USA. Each pair of intersections consists of one intersection with a high number of information points and one intersection with a low number of information points. Study results reveal that, for each pair of intersections, the one with high information points has a lower saturation flow rate than the one with low information points. A statistical analysis shows that the differences are significant. Based on the saturation flow data of the paired intersections, information point effect models are developed and presented in this paper.

  9. Simulation of Intersection Rivet at Non-signalized Intersection in Housing Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazmi, Mohd; Takaba, Sadao; Ohno, Sumio; Yusoff, Mohd Nazaruddin

    Accident in the residential area are become serious case in Malaysia. Most of the incidents occur among pedestrians, bicycles, motorcycles and vehicles. Our research purpose is to avoid collision at the non-signalized intersection in the housing scheme. We committed to reduce injuries and increase pedestrians' safety. Our research provides important information that can help driver predict common problems and take steps to prevent collisions. Intersection rivet is proposed for this matter. This type of signal system can prevent any accident in a dangerous non-signalized intersection. Simulation tools and systems are developed to find and solve the problem in order to decrease any fatal incident. Investigation data were used to simulate the situation more precisely. The result will be effective as reference to set the parameter of control system of the intersection rivet.

  10. Study on Optimization of Phase Offset at Adjacent Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanli GU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the phase offset at adjacent intersections is the key parameter regarding coordinated control of traffic signal for adjacent intersections, which decides the effect of the coordinated control for adjacent intersections. According to characters of saturated traffic flow of Chinese urban road, this thesis establishes a model for optimization of phase offset for adjacent interactions and finds a solution from such model by adopting genetic algorithm. The model is verified by actual traffic flow datum of two adjacent signal intersections on Changan Avenue. Then a comparison is made between the optimization result of such model and that of the existing mathematical method and SYNCHRO model, which indicates that the model established by this thesis can reduce the delay suffered by vehicles at the intersections and increase the traffic efficiency of the intersections.

  11. Landscaping of highway medians and roadway safety at unsignalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongyun; Fabregas, Aldo; Lin, Pei-Sung

    2016-05-01

    Well-planted and maintained landscaping can help reduce driving stress, provide better visual quality, and decrease over speeding, thus improving roadway safety. Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) Standard Index (SI-546) is one of the more demanding standards in the U.S. for landscaping design criteria at highway medians near intersections. The purposes of this study were to (1) empirically evaluate the safety results of SI-546 at unsignalized intersections and (2) quantify the impacts of geometrics, traffic, and landscaping design features on total crashes and injury plus fatal crashes. The studied unsignalized intersections were divided into (1) those without median trees near intersections, (2) those with median trees near intersections that were compliant with SI-546, and (3) those with median trees near intersections that were non-compliant with SI-546. A total of 72 intersections were selected, for which five-year crash data from 2006-2010 were collected. The sites that were compliant with SI-546 showed the best safety performance in terms of the lowest crash counts and crash rates. Four crash predictive models-two for total crashes and two for injury crashes-were developed. The results indicated that improperly planted and maintained median trees near highway intersections can increase the total number of crashes and injury plus fatal crashes at a 90% confidence level; no significant difference could be found in crash rates between sites that were compliant with SI-546 and sites without trees. All other conditions remaining the same, an intersection with trees that was not compliant with SI-546 had 63% more crashes and almost doubled injury plus fatal crashes than those at intersections without trees. The study indicates that appropriate landscaping in highway medians near intersections can be an engineering technology that not only improves roadway environmental quality but also maintains intersection safety.

  12. Estimation of air quality improvement at road and street intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, P.G. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Traffic and Transport Planning

    1995-12-31

    There has always been a very great problem to quantify the detrimental exhaust air pollution related to the traffic flow, especially at road and street intersections. Until now model calculations have been developed mainly for the links between the intersections. In an attempt to remedy this situation the author has developed a method of estimating emissions on the micro level from motor vehicles at intersections as a help for infrastructural design related to improved environmental conditions. Very parsimonious knowledge exists regarding the deceleration and acceleration patterns at road- and street intersections. Not many surveys are done neither in Sweden nor within other countries. Evidently, the need for knowledge regarding deceleration and acceleration behaviour on the micro level has until now not been given priority. In traffic safety related research studies have been done describing the drivers` deceleration and acceleration behaviour and the vehicles` braking performance. Those results give deceleration data for extreme situations and are not useful for describing normal decelerations and accelerations at road- and street intersections. Environment related problems within the traffic flow analysis are now accentuating the need for the studying of special deceleration and acceleration behaviours in combination with an alternative design of the road and street infrastructure. There is a big difference in different vehicles` amount of emitted exhaust pollutions during the passing of intersections depending on the vehicles` speed levels related to their deceleration and acceleration levels. (author)

  13. Mitigating gas emissions at signalised intersections using wireless vehicle detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Kwasi Torkudzor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion on roads wastes travel times and increases fuel consumption as well as gas emissions which are dangerous to human health. This has led to growing concern about environmental protection and energy conservation and a number of studies to increase fuel economy and reduce gas emissions. To increase travel times so as to reduce fuel consumption and gas emissions, traffic signals at intersections must be well implemented. It is therefore necessary to employ the current technology of wireless sensor networks to enhance the optimisation of the signalised intersections so as to address such a concern. In this study, a vehicular traffic control model was developed to optimise a signalised intersection, using wireless vehicle detectors. Real-time traffic volume gathered were analysed to obtain the peak hour traffic volume causing congestion. The intersection was modelled and simulated in Synchro7 as an actuated signalised model using results from the analysed data. The model for morning peak and evening peak periods gave optimal cycle lengths which result in the reduction of gas emissions, fuel consumption and delay at the intersection.

  14. New Approach to Measuring Traffic Queue at Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Lei; SHI Zhong-ke

    2008-01-01

    To measure the length of traffic queue, a vehicle motion model at intersections was built, and based on it the effective traffic queue was defined. Color images segmentation and frame differencing technique were used to detect the foreground and the moving vehicles by detecting regions of the images, and then measure the length of effective traffic queue. By processing the image sequence acquired at certain intersection, the results prove that it is able to work out the traffic queue effectively by using the two techniques.

  15. Research on Driver Behavior in Yellow Interval at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are often caught in dilemma zone when they approach signalized intersections in yellow interval. The existence of dilemma zone which is significantly influenced by driver behavior seriously affects the efficiency and safety of intersections. This paper proposes the driver behavior models in yellow interval by logistic regression and fuzzy decision tree modeling, respectively, based on camera image data. Vehicle’s speed and distance to stop line are considered in logistic regression model, which also brings in a dummy variable to describe installation of countdown timer display. Fuzzy decision tree model is generated by FID3 algorithm whose heuristic information is fuzzy information entropy based on membership functions. This paper concludes that fuzzy decision tree is more accurate to describe driver behavior at signalized intersection than logistic regression model.

  16. Self-organizing traffic lights at multiple-street intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Traffic light coordination is a complex problem. In this paper, we extend previous work on an abstract model of city traffic to allow for multiple street intersections. We test a self-organizing method in our model, showing that it is close to theoretical optima and superior to a traditional method of traffic light coordination. Abstract: The elementary cellular automaton following rule 184 can mimic particles flowing in one direction at a constant speed. This automaton can therefore model highway traffic. In a recent paper, we have incorporated intersections regulated by traffic lights to this model using exclusively elementary cellular automata. In such a paper, however, we only explored a rectangular grid. We now extend our model to more complex scenarios employing an hexagonal grid. This extension shows first that our model can readily incorporate multiple-way intersections and hence simulate complex scenarios. In addition, the current extension allows us to study and evaluate the behavior of two...

  17. Traffic noise and vehicle movement at a controlled intersection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic noise at an intersection controlled by traffic lights shows noise level variations due to the alternating green and red lights for the different trafficstreams. Noise peaks caused by automobiles pulling up or passing by at highspeed may be quite annoying for people living near the intersecti

  18. At the ISR intersection I-7

    CERN Document Server

    1975-01-01

    The vacuum chamber being mounted is the titanium bicone for the experiment R702 (see photo 7507132X). On the centre, facing the camera, G. Mathis handles a clearing electrode, at his left M. Achard (?). On the outside of the fence R. Laude.

  19. Exploring Driver Injury Severity at Intersection: An Ordered Probit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that intersections are the most hazardous locations; however, only little is known about driver injury severity in intersection crashes. Hence, the main goal of this study was to further examine the different factors contributing to driver injury severity involved in fatal crashes at intersections. Data used for the present analysis was from the US DOT-Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS crash database from the year 2011. An ordered probit model was employed to fit the fatal crash data and analyze the factors impacting each injury severity level. The analysis results displayed that driver injury severity is significantly affected by many factors. They include driver age and gender, driver ethnicity, vehicle type and age (years of use, crash type, driving drunk, speeding, violating stop sign, cognitively distracted driving, and seat belt usage. These findings from the current study are beneficial to form a solid basis for adopting corresponding measures to effectively drop injury severity suffering from intersection crash. More insights into the effects of risk factors on driver injury severity could be acquired using more advanced statistical models.

  20. Influences of hydraulic gradient, surface roughness, intersecting angle, and scale effect on nonlinear flow behavior at single fracture intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Liu, Richeng; Jiang, Yujing

    2016-07-01

    Fluid flow tests were conducted on two crossed fracture models for which the geometries of fracture segments and intersections were measured by utilizing a visualization technique using a CCD (charged coupled device) camera. Numerical simulations by solving the Navier-Stokes equations were performed to characterize the fluid flow at fracture intersections. The roles of hydraulic gradient, surface roughness, intersecting angle, and scale effect in the nonlinear fluid flow behavior through single fracture intersections were investigated. The simulation results of flow rate agreed well with the experimental results for both models. The experimental and simulation results showed that with the increment of the hydraulic gradient, the ratio of the flow rate to the hydraulic gradient, Q/J, decreases and the relative difference of Q/J between the calculation results employing the Navier-Stokes equations and the cubic law, δ, increases. When taking into account the fracture surface roughness quantified by Z2 ranging 0-0.42 for J = 1, the value of δ would increase by 0-10.3%. The influences of the intersecting angle on the normalized flow rate that represents the ratio of the flow rate in a segment to the total flow rate, Ra, and the ratio of the hydraulic aperture to the mechanical aperture, e/E, are negligible when J 10-2. Based on the regression analysis on simulation results, a mathematical expression was proposed to quantify e/E, involving variables of J and Rr, where Rr is the radius of truncating circles centered at an intersection. For E/Rr > 10-2, e/E varies significantly and the scale of model has large impacts on the nonlinear flow behavior through intersections, while for E/Rr < 10-3, the scale effect is negligibly small. Finally, a necessary condition to apply the cubic law to fluid flow through fracture intersections is suggested as J < 10-3, E/Rr < 10-3, and Z2 = 0.

  1. Intersecting D 3 -D3 ' -brane system at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, William; Hanson, James; Hashimoto, Akikazu; Loveridge, Andrew; Pettengill, Duncan

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the intersecting D 3 -D3 ' -brane system overlapping in 1 +1 dimensions, in a holographic treatment where N D3 branes are manifested as anti-de Sitter Schwartzschild geometry, and the D3 ' brane is treated as a probe. We extract the thermodynamic equation of state from the set of embedding solutions, and analyze the stability at the perturbative and the nonperturbative level. We review a systematic procedure to resolve local instabilities and multivaluedness in the equations of state based on classic ideas of convexity in the microcanonical ensemble. We then identify a runaway behavior which was not noticed previously for this system.

  2. Wide-angle spectrometer at intersection I-2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    The members of the British-Scandinavian ISR Collaboration "manning the rails" of the wide-angle spectrometer at intersection I-2, whose vacuum chamber is visible to theleft. The equipment of this high-momentum version of experiment R203 consists of scintillation counter hodoscopes, wire spark chambers, and spherical high-pressure threshold Cerenkov counters before and after an analysing magnet. The equipment is mounted on a movable platform. The smaller magnet suspended above the spectrometer measures the momentum of cosmic rays.

  3. Multinomial Logit Model of Pedestrian Crossing Behaviors at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-Ping Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian crashes, making up a large proportion of road casualties, are more likely to occur at signalized intersections in China. This paper aims to study the different pedestrian behaviors of regular users, late starters, sneakers, and partial sneakers. Behavior information was observed manually in the field study. After that, the survey team distributed a questionnaire to the same participant who has been observed, to acquire detailed demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as attitude and preference indicators. Totally, 1878 pedestrians were surveyed at 16 signalized intersections in Nanjing. First, correlation analysis is performed to analyze each factor’s effect. Then, five latent variables including safety, conformity, comfort, flexibility, and fastness are obtained by structure equation modeling (SEM. Moreover, based on the results of SEM, a multinomial logit model with latent variables is developed to describe how the factors influence pedestrians’ behavior. Finally, some conclusions are drawn from the model: (1 for the choice of being late starters, arrival time, the presence of oncoming cars, and crosswalk length are the most important factors; (2 gender has the most significant effect on the pedestrians to be sneakers; and (3 age is the most important factor when pedestrians choose to be partial sneakers.

  4. Intersecting D3-D3' system at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Cottrell, William; Hashimoto, Akikazu; Loveridge, Andrew; Pettengill, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the embedding of probe D3'-brane in the background of $N$ D3-branes at finite temperature, oriented such that they overlap in 1+1 dimensions. As the distance between the D3'-brane and the D3 brane is varied, we find solutions that appear to intersect the horizon. We find that this brane bends logarithmically, making the precise definition of the distance separating the D3 and the D3' brane scale dependent. We also consider the embedding of a probe M5-brane in the background of $N$ M2-branes at finite temperature, for which the logarithmic bending is absent. These systems appear to open a path to probe physics near and behind the black hole horizon in a strictly field theoretic framework.

  5. A Comparison of Tram Priority at Signalized Intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Lele

    2013-01-01

    We study tram priority at signalized intersections using a stochastic cellular automaton model for multimodal traffic flow. We simulate realistic traffic signal systems, which include signal linking and adaptive cycle lengths and split plans, with different levels of tram priority. We find that tram priority can improve service performance in terms of both average travel time and travel time variability. We consider two main types of tram priority, which we refer to as full and partial priority. Full tram priority is able to guarantee service quality even when traffic is saturated, however, it results in significant costs to other road users. Partial tram priority significantly reduces tram delays while having limited impact on other traffic, and therefore achieves a better result in terms of the overall network performance. We also study variations in which the tram priority is only enforced when trams are running behind schedule, and we find that those variations retain almost all of the benefit for tram op...

  6. Characteristics of traffic flow at nonsignalized T-shaped intersection with U-turn movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-Qiang; Jia, Bin; Li, Xin-Gang; Tian, Jun-Fang; Yan, Xue-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Most nonsignalized T-shaped intersections permit U-turn movements, which make the traffic conditions of intersection complex. In this paper, a new cellular automaton (CA) model is proposed to characterize the traffic flow at the intersection of this type. In present CA model, new rules are designed to avoid the conflicts among different directional vehicles and eliminate the gridlock. Two kinds of performance measures (i.e., flux and average control delay) for intersection are compared. The impacts of U-turn movements are analyzed under different initial conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that (i) the average control delay is more practical than flux in measuring the performance of intersection, (ii) U-turn movements increase the range and degree of high congestion, and (iii) U-turn movements on the different direction of main road have asymmetrical influences on the traffic conditions of intersection.

  7. Characteristics of Traffic Flow at Nonsignalized T-Shaped Intersection with U-Turn Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Qiang Fan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most nonsignalized T-shaped intersections permit U-turn movements, which make the traffic conditions of intersection complex. In this paper, a new cellular automaton (CA model is proposed to characterize the traffic flow at the intersection of this type. In present CA model, new rules are designed to avoid the conflicts among different directional vehicles and eliminate the gridlock. Two kinds of performance measures (i.e., flux and average control delay for intersection are compared. The impacts of U-turn movements are analyzed under different initial conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that (i the average control delay is more practical than flux in measuring the performance of intersection, (ii U-turn movements increase the range and degree of high congestion, and (iii U-turn movements on the different direction of main road have asymmetrical influences on the traffic conditions of intersection.

  8. An extended car-following model at signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2014-08-01

    To simulate car-following behaviors better when the traffic light is red, three successive car-following data at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China were collected by using a new proposed data acquisition method and then analyzed to select input variables of the extended car-following model. An extended car-following model considering two leading cars' accelerations was proposed, calibrated and verified with field data obtained on the basis of the full velocity difference model and then a comparative model used for comparative research was also proposed and calibrated in the light of the GM model. The results indicate that the extended car-following model could fit measured data well, and that the fitting precision of the extended model is prior to the comparative model, whose mean absolute error is reduced by 22.83%. Finally a theoretical car-following model considering multiple leading cars' accelerations was put forward which has potential applicable to vehicle automation system and vehicle safety early warning system, and then the linear stability analysis and numerical simulations were conducted to analyze some observed physical features existing in the realistic traffic.

  9. Modeling Traffic Flow and Management at Un-signalized, Signalized and Roundabout Road Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kakooza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion continues to hinder economic and social development and also has a negative impact on the environment. A simple mathematical model is used to analyze the different types of road intersections in terms of their Performance in relation to managing traffic congestion and to establish the condition for stability of the road intersections after sufficiently longer periods of time (steady-state. In the analysis, single and double lane un-signalized, signalized and roundabout intersections are evaluated on the basis of their performance (expected number of vehicles and waiting time. Experimental scenarios are carefully designed to analyze the performance of the different types of intersections. It is noted that under light traffic, roundabout intersections perform better than un-signalized and signalized in terms of easing congestion. However under heavy traffic, signalized intersection perform better in terms of easing traffic congestion compared to un-signalized and roundabout intersections. It is further noted that for stability of a road intersection, the proportion of the time a road link stopping at an intersection is delayed should not exceed the utilization factor (the ratio of the arrival rate of vehicles to the product of number of service channels and service rate.

  10. The Intersection of Middle-Grade Teachers' Beliefs regarding Mathematics and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Lisa Ann

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain an enhanced understanding of middle-grade teachers' beliefs about adolescents and teaching mathematics. The participants were three veteran middle-grade teachers in different school districts who were purposively selected by the researcher. Data collection methods included semi-structured interviews, observations…

  11. Improved paleoenvironmental interpretations at the intersection between paleontology and biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, T. W.

    2012-04-01

    paleoenvironments using the combined approach, subtle variations in chemical tracers can be calibrated with refined paleoredox resolution using fossils and extrapolated back to Precambrian intervals predating the evolutionary appearance of animals. Oxygen deficiencies of varying degree likely dominated most of the Precambrian marine record. Additional topics to be discussed are new and refined geochemical proxies that work best under intermediate redox states. Another interesting intersection of Fe and trace metal proxies and biology lies with the clear fingerprints of depositional settings with abundant free hydrogen sulfide in the pore fluids, often right at the sediment-water interface, but with oxygen in the bottom waters. Independent recognition of such conditions would have important impact on our interpretations of infaunal and epifaunal animal communities, including those that thrive at redox interfaces in symbiotic partnership with thiotrophic and methanotropic bacteria.

  12. Characteristics of traffic flow at a non-signalized intersection in the framework of game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongqiang; Jia, Bin; Tian, Junfang; Yun, Lifen

    2014-12-01

    At a non-signalized intersection, some vehicles violate the traffic rules to pass the intersection as soon as possible. These behaviors may cause many traffic conflicts even traffic accidents. In this paper, a simulation model is proposed to research the effects of these behaviors at a non-signalized intersection. Vehicle’s movement is simulated by the cellular automaton (CA) model. The game theory is introduced for simulating the intersection dynamics. Two types of driver participate the game process: cooperator (C) and defector (D). The cooperator obey the traffic rules, but the defector does not. A transition process may occur when the cooperator is waiting before the intersection. The critical value of waiting time follows the Weibull distribution. One transition regime is found in the phase diagram. The simulation results illustrate the applicability of the proposed model and reveal a number of interesting insights into the intersection management, including that the existence of defectors is benefit for the capacity of intersection, but also reduce the safety of intersection.

  13. Droplets coalescence at microchannel intersection chambers with different shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaomiao; Wang, Xiang; Cao, Rentuo; Pang, Yan

    2016-11-01

    The influence of microchannel intersection chamber shape on droplets coalescence process is investigated in this study. Three kinds of chamber shapes (half-round, triangle and camber) are designed to realize head-on droplets coalescence. The coalescence processes are visualized with high-speed camera system and the internal flow patterns are resolved with micro-PIV system. Experimental analyses on droplets coalescence position, coalescence time and the critical conditions are discussed. Both direct coalescence and late coalescence can be observed in the camber junction while only the late coalescence is present for the half-round and the triangle junction. The critical capillary number Ca* varies for different working systems or intersection shapes. Ca* in the camber junction is larger than that in the other two junctions for each working system and it decreases with the increase of the viscosity ratios for each intersection shape. Moreover, the characteristics of the velocity fields for different coalescence cases are analyzed for in-depth understanding of the process. The authors do appreciate the financial support of No.11572013 of National Nature Scicence Funding of China.

  14. Using Cellular Automata to Investigate Pedestrian Conflicts with Vehicles in Crosswalk at Signalized Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The operational efficiency and safety of pedestrian flows at intersections is an important aspect of urban traffic. Particularly, conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles in crosswalk are one of the most influential factors for intersection safety. This paper presents a cellular automata model that simulates pedestrian and vehicle crossing behaviors at signalized intersections. Through the simulation, we investigate the effects of different pedestrian signal timing and crosswalk widths on the crosswalk capacity, the number of traffic conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles, and pedestrian delay due to the conflicts. The simulation results indicate that the cellular automata is an effective simulation platform for investigating complex pedestrian-related traffic phenomenon at signalized intersections.

  15. Evaluation and analysis of noise levels at traffic intersections of Nagpur city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Popat, Rishabh; Pisode, Mayur; Sharma, Asheesh; Manoj, Kumar; Chakrabarti, T; Gupta, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor and assess the noise levels at traffic intersections in Napgur city under heterogenic traffic activities. For this, traffic volume and noise level were measured at intersections on highways, major roads andring road during morning and evening peak hours. Traffic volume was categorized in light, medium and heavy vehicles while noise levels were measured for Lmin, Lmax, Leq , L10 and L90. Equivalent noise was observed in the range of 71.3 to 79.3 dB(A) at the traffic intersections. Due to heterogenic traffic conditions and activities at the intersection like honking, idling, gear noise, bearing noise, breaking noise, tyre-road noise and exhaust noise, no correlation was established between traffic volume and observed noise levels except West High Court road. A strong correlation was found at West High Court road due to controlled traffic flow and less impact of heavy vehicles. Impact of noisy vehicles on general traffic was also assessed at the traffic intersections based on noise pollution levels and traffic noise index. The study suggests that control measures are required at the traffic intersections to minimize noise pollution levels.

  16. Empirical Analysis and Modeling of Stop-Line Crossing Time and Speed at Signalized Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Keshuang; Wang, Fen; Yao, Jiarong; Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In China, a flashing green (FG) indication of 3 s followed by a yellow (Y) indication of 3 s is commonly applied to end the green phase at signalized intersections. Stop-line crossing behavior of drivers during such a phase transition period significantly influences safety performance of signalized intersections. The objective of this study is thus to empirically analyze and model drivers’ stop-line crossing time and speed in response to the specific phase transition period of FG and Y. High-resolution trajectories for 1465 vehicles were collected at three rural high-speed intersections with a speed limit of 80 km/h and two urban intersections with a speed limit of 50 km/h in Shanghai. With the vehicle trajectory data, statistical analyses were performed to look into the general characteristics of stop-line crossing time and speed at the two types of intersections. A multinomial logit model and a multiple linear regression model were then developed to predict the stop-line crossing patterns and speeds respectively. It was found that the percentage of stop-line crossings during the Y interval is remarkably higher and the stop-line crossing time is approximately 0.7 s longer at the urban intersections, as compared with the rural intersections. In addition, approaching speed and distance to the stop-line at the onset of FG as well as area type significantly affect the percentages of stop-line crossings during the FG and Y intervals. Vehicle type and stop-line crossing pattern were found to significantly influence the stop-line crossing speed, in addition to the above factors. The red-light-running seems to occur more frequently at the large intersections with a long cycle length.

  17. Bicycle Conversion Factor Calibration at Two-Phase Intersections in Mixed Traffic Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dianhai; LIANG Chunyan; JING Chunguang; WANG Guohua

    2007-01-01

    Chinese traffic is typically composed of bicycles and motor vehicles on the same road. The efficiency of bicycle traffic in time and space at intersections was investigated for eight typical intersections in the cities of Tianjin, Shenyang, and Changchun, all in China, by means of video recording. Models were developed to calculate the through bicycle traffic and the left-turn bicycle traffic conversion factors in intersections where bicycles and motor vehicles share the same road. The results indicate that the through bicycle conversion factor is 0.28 and the left-turn bicycle conversion factor is 0.33. This conclusion differs from the current value used in China. More research on the conversion factor is necessary to evaluate the impact of intersections.

  18. Behavior of two-wheelers at limited priority uncontrolled T-intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal R. Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Being convenient and affordable, motorized two-wheeler is the most widely used personal mode for short and medium distance trips in India, thereby resulting in a very high concentration of two-wheelers on Indian roads. Its compact size and aggressive nature of two-wheeler riders have significant impact on the overall traffic characteristics and safety. A large number of unsignalized intersections in India do not have stop or yield sign, and even if it exists, drivers in general do not follow the intended priorities. The combinations of these factors create complex conditions at unsignalized intersections. At some intersections, where the drivers clearly perceive major and minor roads, priority rules are followed to a certain extent. Such partially controlled intersections where limited priorities are observed are studied here. The focus of this paper is on analyzing and modeling gap acceptance behavior of two-wheelers at limited priority unsignalized T-intersections in India. The data collected at four intersections revealed that accepted gaps/lags follow lognormal distribution. Logit models are developed for major and minor road right turnings which show that the probability of accepting a gap is higher if the driver is young, the conflicting vehicle is a two-wheeler, or both. Critical gap values are estimated using Raff's method, lag method, Ashworth's method, logit method, and maximum likelihood method. These values vary from 2.38 to 3.06 s for major road right turning and 2.77 to 3.71 s for minor road right turning. The maximum likelihood method is found to give the most consistent values. The findings of this study are useful in developing performance and safety evaluation of uncontrolled intersections in India.

  19. Cyclist activity and injury risk analysis at signalized intersections: a Bayesian modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Morency, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    This study proposes a two-equation Bayesian modelling approach to simultaneously study cyclist injury occurrence and bicycle activity at signalized intersections as joint outcomes. This approach deals with the potential presence of endogeneity and unobserved heterogeneities and is used to identify factors associated with both cyclist injuries and volumes. Its application to identify high-risk corridors is also illustrated. Montreal, Quebec, Canada is the application environment, using an extensive inventory of a large sample of signalized intersections containing disaggregate motor-vehicle traffic volumes and bicycle flows, geometric design, traffic control and built environment characteristics in the vicinity of the intersections. Cyclist injury data for the period of 2003-2008 is used in this study. Also, manual bicycle counts were standardized using temporal and weather adjustment factors to obtain average annual daily volumes. Results confirm and quantify the effects of both bicycle and motor-vehicle flows on cyclist injury occurrence. Accordingly, more cyclists at an intersection translate into more cyclist injuries but lower injury rates due to the non-linear association between bicycle volume and injury occurrence. Furthermore, the results emphasize the importance of turning motor-vehicle movements. The presence of bus stops and total crosswalk length increase cyclist injury occurrence whereas the presence of a raised median has the opposite effect. Bicycle activity through intersections was found to increase as employment, number of metro stations, land use mix, area of commercial land use type, length of bicycle facilities and the presence of schools within 50-800 m of the intersection increase. Intersections with three approaches are expected to have fewer cyclists than those with four. Using Bayesian analysis, expected injury frequency and injury rates were estimated for each intersection and used to rank corridors. Corridors with high bicycle volumes

  20. Optimal Control and Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Urban Traffic Intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue J. [Boston University; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Cassandras, Christos G. [Boston University

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of coordinating online a continuous flow of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) crossing two adjacent intersections in an urban area. We present a decentralized optimal control framework whose solution yields for each vehicle the optimal acceleration/deceleration at any time in the sense of minimizing fuel consumption. The solu- tion, when it exists, allows the vehicles to cross the intersections without the use of traffic lights, without creating congestion on the connecting road, and under the hard safety constraint of collision avoidance. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation considering two intersections located in downtown Boston, and it is shown that coordination of CAVs can reduce significantly both fuel consumption and travel time.

  1. Set methods of left-turn waiting zone at signalized intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei; YANG Xiao-guang; YANG Xiao-long

    2009-01-01

    To maximize the number of vehicles passing by the stop-line in a cycle and improve the operation ef-ficiency of intersection in China, the settlement of left-turn lane waiting-zone is becoming prevailing. Based on conflicting-point method, the internal mechanism of left-turn flow after stopping line was analyzed through taking postposition left-turn lane waiting-zone intersection for instance. The relationship between the first left-turn vehi-cle and the last vehicle of previous phase passing the conflicting point was expounded. According to the time of successive arriving of two vehicle flows at conflicting-point, the reasonable layout for waiting area of left-turn ve-hicles was researched when the clearance index was less than O. The results suggest that the appropriate layoutfor waiting area of left-turning vehicles can improve the operation efficiency of intersections.

  2. Crossing at a Red Light: Behavior of Cyclists at Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobao Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between cyclist violation and waiting duration, the red-light running behavior of nonmotorized vehicles is examined at signalized intersections. Violation waiting duration is collected by video cameras and it is assigned as censored and uncensored data to distinguish between normal crossing and red-light running. A proportional hazard-based duration model is introduced, and variables revealing personal characteristics and traffic conditions are used to describe the effects of internal and external factors. Empirical results show that the red-light running behavior of cyclist is time dependent. Cyclist’s violating behavior represents positive duration dependence, that the longer the waiting time elapsed, the more likely cyclists would end the wait soon. About 32% of cyclists are at high risk of violation and low waiting time to cross the intersections. About 15% of all the cyclists are generally nonrisk takers who can obey the traffic rules after waiting for 95 seconds. The human factors and external environment play an important role in cyclists’ violation behavior. Minimizing the effects of unfavorable condition in traffic planning and designing may be an effective measure to enhance traffic safety.

  3. Negative particle production at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, A; Cristallini, A; D'Agostino-Bruno, M; Ellis, R J; Giacomelli, G; Maroni, C; Mercatali, F; Rossi, A M; Vannini, G

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary results on the production of negative particles in inclusive reactions at intermediate angles (80-200 mrad) at the CERN ISR are reported. Pion production, is still the dominant process; within experimental errors, scaling holds for negative pions or alternatively a limiting distribution is reached at relatively low energies. However the antiproton production cross-sections are apparently larger than smaller energies. (14 refs).

  4. Building Theory at the Intersection of Ecological Sustainability and Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borland, Helen; Ambrosini, Véronique; Lindgreen, Adam;

    2016-01-01

    This article builds theory at the intersection of ecological sustainability and strategic management literature—specifically, in relation to dynamic capabilities literature. By combining industrial organization economics–based, resource-based, and dynamic capability–based views, it is possible...

  5. Guidelines for Assessing the Need for Adaptive Devices for Visually Impaired Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Brian R.; de Oca, Patricia Montes

    1998-01-01

    Presents guidelines for orientation and mobility instructors and traffic engineers to assess the need for adaptive devices to make crosswalks at signalized intersections accessible to pedestrians with visual impairments. The discussions of audible and tactile pedestrian devices, along with case examples, distinguish when each device should be…

  6. Open-Axial-Field Magnet at ISR intersection I8

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This axial field spectrometer left the central collision region unobstructed in order to ease analysis of secondary particles emitted at large angle. The ISR circulating beams were passing through a hole in the magnet poles.

  7. Quality of pedestrian flow and crosswalk width at signalized intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael K.M. Alhajyaseen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Among various pedestrian facilities, signalized crosswalks are the most complex and critical ones. Their geometry and configuration including width, position and angle directly affect the safety, cycle length and resulting delays for all users. Existing manuals do not provide clear and rational specifications for the required crosswalk width under different pedestrian demand combinations and properties. Furthermore, they do not consider the bi-directional flow effects on crossing speed and time when addressing pedestrian flow at signalized crosswalks. However, quantifying the effects of such interactions on the behavior of pedestrian flow is a prerequisite for improving the geometric design and configuration of signalized crosswalks. The objective of this paper is to develop a methodology for estimating the required crosswalk width at different pedestrian demand combinations and a pre-defined LOS. The developed methodology is based on theoretical modeling for total pedestrian platoon crossing time, which consists of discharge and crossing times. The developed models are utilized to generate the fundamental diagrams of pedestrian flow at signalized crosswalks. A comprehensive discussion about the effects of bi-directional flow and various pedestrian age groups on the characteristics of pedestrian flow and the capacity of signalized crosswalks is presented. It is found that the maximum reduction in the capacity of signalized crosswalks occurs at roughly equal pedestrian flows from both sides of the crosswalk. By utilizing existing LOS thresholds for pedestrian flow at signalized crosswalks, the required crosswalk widths for various pedestrian demand combinations are proposed for implementation.

  8. Split Field magnet at the I4 ISR intersection

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The Split-Field Magnet (SFM) at I4 had an unconventional topology, consisting of two dipole magnets of opposite polarity. It formed the heart of the first general facility at the ISR. It had a useful magnetic field volume of 28 m3 and a field in the median plane of 1.14 T. With a gap height of 1.1 m and length of 10.5 m, the magnet weighed about 1000 t. The SFM spectrometer featured the first large-scale application of MWPCs (about 70,000 wires), which filled the main magnet, visible here in 1974, and the two large compensator magnets.

  9. Safety Impacts of Push-Button and Countdown Timer on Nonmotorized Traffic at Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the random parameters negative binominal model to investigate safety impacts of push-button and countdown timer on pedestrians and cyclists at urban intersections. To account for possible unobserved heterogeneity which could vary from one intersection to another, random parameters model is introduced. A simulation-based maximum likelihood method using Halton draws is applied to estimate the maximum likelihood of random parameters in the model. Dataset containing pedestrians’ and cyclists’ crash data of 1,001 intersections from Chicago is utilized to establish the statistical relationship between crash frequencies and potential impact factors. LIMDEP (Version 9.0 statistical package is utilized for modeling. The parameter estimation results indicate that existence of push-button and countdown timer could significantly reduce crash frequencies of pedestrians and cyclists at intersections. Increasing number of through traffic lanes, left turn lanes, and ratio of major direction AADT to minor direction AADT, tend to increase crash frequencies. Annual average daily left turn traffic has a negative impact on pedestrians’ safety, but its impact on cyclists’ crash frequency is statistically insignificant at 90% confidence level. The results of current study could provide important insights for nonmotorized traffic safety improvement projects in both planning and operational levels.

  10. Ways of knowing at the intersection of culture and rhetoric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    , and combining it with Wenger's (definition for communities of practice which relies on participation and reification occurring in conjunction with written documents, we can understand Internet texts as reifications in an ongoing social action of producing knowledge. This study looks at the use of web presences......As the internet becomes increasingly embedded in society (Woolgar 2002), the impact of information available on the Web implies an increasing capacity to reflect and affect common knowledge in a given society. Looking at the question of the role writing plays as communities engage in technological...... and social change in local and increasingly global contexts, writing is approached from a knowledge communication perspective--situating writing as a reification of knowledge processes in discourse communities. Working from Bazerman(1988) and Miller's (1986) definition of writing as social action...

  11. An overall view of intersection I-8 at the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    (See Annual Report 1979 p. 114, Fig. 1.) At the extreme left are the liquid argon calorimeters of experiment R806, withdrawn to allow access to the outer half of the R807 central drift chamber. In the centre is the circular pole of the Open Axial Field Magnet (OAFM) with par of the supporting structure for the uranium calorimeter above it. To the right can be seen the high-pressure Cerenkov counter, the wall of proportional chambers and the atmospheric pressure Cerenkov counters (extreme right).

  12. Biophysics at the intersection of health science and nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, D. [Brock Univ., Dept. of Physics, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada); Alsop, R.J.; Rheinstadter, M.C. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Harroun, T.A. [Brock Univ., Dept. of Physics, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    We're all on a quest for improved heart health, but what do we really know about it? A daily regimen of aspirin can help some people with heart disease. We need to lower our cholesterol, and increase our intake of omega fatty acids. There is simply no health benefit to taking extra vitamin E, and it's not known why. Apart from cardiac tests with radiopharmaceuticals, what role does nuclear technology play in this story? It turns out that cold and thermal neutrons are important tools for the biophysicists studying these topics. We will review some recently published studies that are advancing our understanding of how cholesterol, vitamin E, and aspirin all work at the molecular level, inside the membrane of our cells. These insights could not have been learned without access to research reactor neutron beams such as those at the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, and how this new knowledge has really engaged the broader health science community into new ways of thinking about these molecules. (author)

  13. Shocked materials at the intersection of experiment and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadau, Kai [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic lattice response of solids under the extreme conditions of pressure, temperature and strain rate is a scientific quest that spans nearly a century. Critical to developing this understanding is the ability to probe and model the spatial and temporal evolution of the material microstructure and properties at the scale of the relevant physical phenomena -- nanometers to micrometers and picoseconds to nanoseconds. While experimental investigations over this range of spatial and temporal scales were unimaginable just a decade ago, new technologies and facilities currently under development and on the horizon have brought these goals within reach for the first time. The equivalent advancements in simulation capabilities now mean that we can conduct simulations and experiments at overlapping temporal and spatial scales. In this article, we describe some of our studies which exploit existing and new generation ultrabright, ultrafast x-ray sources and large scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the real-time physical phenomena that control the dynamic response of shocked materials.

  14. Shocked materials at the intersection of experiment and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzana, H. E.; Belak, J. F.; Bradley, K. S.; Bringa, E. M.; Budil, K. S.; Cazamias, J. U.; El-Dasher, B.; Hawreliak, J. A.; Hessler, J.; Kadau, K.; Kalantar, D. H.; McNaney, J. M.; Milathianaki, D.; Rosolankova, K.; Swift, D. C.; Taravillo, M.; Van Buuren, T. W.; Wark, J. S.; de la Rubia, T. Diaz

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the dynamic lattice response of solids under the extreme conditions of pressure, temperature and strain rate is a scientific quest that spans nearly a century. Critical to developing this understanding is the ability to probe and model the spatial and temporal evolution of the material microstructure and properties at the scale of the relevant physical phenomena-nanometers to micrometers and picoseconds to nanoseconds. While experimental investigations over this range of spatial and temporal scales were unimaginable just a decade ago, new technologies and facilities currently under development and on the horizon have brought these goals within reach for the first time. The equivalent advancements in simulation capabilities now mean that we can conduct simulations and experiments at overlapping temporal and spatial scales. In this article, we describe some of our studies which exploit existing and new generation ultrabright, ultrafast x-ray sources and large scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the real-time physical phenomena that control the dynamic response of shocked materials.

  15. Biophysics at the intersection of health science and nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, D., E-mail: thad.harroun@brocku.ca [Brock Univ., Dept. of Physics, St. Catherines, Ontario (Canada); Alsop, R.J.; Rheinstadter, M.C. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Harroun, T.A. [Brock University, Dept. of Physics, St. Catherines, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    We're all on a quest for improved heart health, but what do we really know about it? A daily regimen of aspirin can help some people with heart disease. We need to lower our cholesterol, and increase our intake of omega fatty acids. There is simply no health bene t to taking extra vitamin E, and it's not known why. Apart from cardiac tests with radiopharmaceuticals, what role does nuclear technology play in this story? It turns out that cold and thermal neutrons are important tools for the biophysicists studying these topics. We will review some recently published studies that are advancing our understanding of how cholesterol, vitamin E, and aspirin all work at the molecular level, inside the membrane of our cells. These insights could not have been learned without access to research reactor neutron beams such as those at the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, and how this new knowledge has really engaged the broader health science community into new ways of thinking about these molecules. (author)

  16. Personality change at the intersection of autonomic arousal and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Daniel; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    We hypothesized that personality change in children can be predicted by the interaction of family risk with susceptibility to autonomic arousal and that children characterized by both high-risk families and highly reactive autonomic nervous systems tend to show maladaptive change. This hypothesis was tested in a 6-year longitudinal study in which personality-type prototypicality, problem behavior, and negative emotional intensity were measured at 2-year intervals. The results indicated that children who both had exaggerated skin conductance responses (a measure of autonomic reactivity) and were living in families with multiple risk factors were most likely to develop an undercontrolled personality type and to exhibit increases in problem behavior and negative emotional intensity. The implications of the results for understanding personality change are discussed.

  17. TURKEY AT THE INTERSECTION OF ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has made in the last 4 decades a remarkable growth in economy. The energy industry is represented mainly by the coal industry (especially lignite and coal, located in northwest Anatolia. The electricity is produced in the hydro and thermal power plants. Turkey has the world's 17th largest nominal GDP, and 15th largest GDP by PPP. The country is a founding member of the OECD (1961 and the G-20 major economies (1999. Since December 31, 1995, Turkey is also a part of the EU Customs Union. While many economies have been unable to recover from the recent global financial recession, the Turkish economy expanded by 9.2% in 2010, and 8.5 percent in 2011, thus standing out as the fastest growing economy in Europe, and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Hence, Turkey has been meeting the “60 percent EU Maastricht criteria” for public debt stock since 2004. Similarly, from 2002 to 2011, the budget deficit decreased from more than 10 percent to less than 3 percent, which is one of the EU Maastricht criteria for the budget balance. As of 2012, the main trading partners of Turkey are Germany, Russia and Iran. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase industrial production for exports, while benefiting from EU – origin foreign investment into the country. Turkey is also a source of foreign direct invest-ment in central and eastern Europe and the CIS, with more than $1.5 billion invested. 32% has been invested in Russia, primarily in the natural resources and construction sector, and 46% in Turkey’s Black Sea neighbours, Bulgaria and Romania. Turkish companies also have sizable FDI stocks in Poland, at about $100 million. The construction and contracting companies have been significant players, such as Enka, Tekfen, Gama, and Üçgen İnşaat, as well as the three industrial groups, Anadolu Efes Group, ŞişeCam Group and Vestel Group. The exports reached $115.3 billion in

  18. China Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Harbin Cobb

    2009-01-01

    <正>I’m a few years older than the People’s Re- public of China, but hardly an infant compared to China’s vast history and culture. China and I have intersected at many points, and I want to tell you about a few of them.

  19. Temporal Variation of Carbon Monoxide Concentration at Congested Urban Roadways Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon monoxide (CO is dominant among major traffic emitted pollutants such as respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM, oxides of nitrogen (NOx, volatile organic carbons(VOCs and ozone (O3 etc. It is generated by automobiles due to incomplete combustion of the fuel. The vehicles that queue up at an intersection spend more time in idle driving mode generating more pollutant leading to higher pollutant concentrations. Therefore, the trends of average hourly CO concentrations at various locations of congested roadways intersection have been investigated. The four approach roads making intersection have been selected for the present study. CO monitoring has been carried out at 2 selected locations of each approach road. The CO concentration has been monitored from 8:00 AM to 8:00 PM at each location using portable online CO monitor. The average hourly CO concentrations data have been analyzed using MS excel spread sheet for each approach road. The average hourly concentration of monitored CO concentration at all receptors locations shows two peak CO concentration values (i.e., the morning peak and evening peak throughout the monitoring programme (March to May, 2011. The comparison of monitored values of average 1 hourly CO concentration levels as well as 8 hourly average concentration levels of CO showed non compliance with the prescribed standards (4000 µg/m3 average hourly and 2000 µg/m3 average 8 hourly CO concentration. The temporal CO concentration at various approach roads making roadway intersection shows non-uniform. The highest CO concentration has been observed to be towards high rise building and vice-versa. The least CO concentration has been observed towards either low rise building or open area.

  20. Experimental and numerical studies on the mixing at the intersection of millimetric channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etcheverry, F; Cachile, M [LIA-Grupo de Medios Porosos, Facultad de Ingenieria, UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gomba, J M [Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco, UNCPBA, Tandil (Argentina); Wolluschek, C, E-mail: mcachil@fi.uba.ar [Mecanica de Fluidos e Ingenieria Termica, Centro tecnologico Cemitec, Noain, Navarra (Spain)

    2011-05-01

    In this work, experimental and numerical results on the effect of diffusion and geometrical dispersion on the mixing of confluent flows are presented. Two channels with an internal diameter D{sub h} = 4 mm intersect with an angle {alpha} = 30,60,90,120,150,180{sup 0}. The experimental setup allows to accurately control the flow rate and assures a constant flow at both inlets. The mixing properties are studied by injecting pure water in one inlet and colored water at the other. The effects of the inlet flow and the intersection angle on the diffusion of ink is analyzed. We observed that the mixing by convection is only important for {alpha} = 180{sup 0}. For other angles, diffusion is the main mechanism for mixing.

  1. Effects of turning and through lane sharing on traffic performance at intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Turning vehicles strongly influence traffic flows at intersections. Effective regulation of turning vehicles is important to achieve better traffic performance. This paper studies the impact of lane sharing and turning signals on traffic performance at intersections by using cellular automata. Both right-turn and left-turn lane sharing are studied. Interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are considered. The transportation efficiency, road safety and energy economy are the traffic performance metrics. Extensive simulations are carried out to study the traffic performance indices. It is observed that shared turning lanes and permissive left-turn signal improve the transportation efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption in most cases, but the safety is usually sacrificed. It is not always beneficial for the through vehicles when they are allowed to be in the turning lanes.

  2. EMPIRICAL VERIFICATION OF ANISOTROPIC HYDRODYNAMIC TRAFFIC MODEL IN TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AT INTERSECTIONS IN URBAN AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yan-fang; GUO Si-ling; XUE Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the traffic hydrodynamic model considering the driver's reaction time was applied to the traffic analysis at the intersections on real roads. In the numerical simulation with the model, the pinch effect of the right-turning vehicles flow was found, which mainly leads to traffic jamming on the straight lane. All of the results in accordance with the empirical data confirm the applicability of this model.

  3. Travel Time Model for Right-Turning Vehicles of Secondary Street at Unsignalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The travel time of right-turning vehicles on secondary street at unsignalized intersection is discussed in this paper. Under the assumption that the major-street through vehicles’ headway follows Erlang distribution and secondary-street right-turning vehicles’ headway follows Poisson distribution. The right-turning vehicles travel time model is established on the basis of gap theory and M/G/1 queue theory. Comparison is done with the common model based on the assumption that the major-street vehicles’ headway follows Poisson distribution. An intersection is selected to verify each model. The results show that the model established in this paper has stronger applicability, and its most relative error is less than 15%. In addition, the sensitivity analysis has been done. The results show that right-turning flow rate and major-street flow rate have a significant impact on the travel time. Hence, the methodology for travel time of right-turning vehicles at unsignalized intersection proposed in this paper is effective and applicable.

  4. Modeling Left-Turn Driving Behavior at Signalized Intersections with Mixed Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, mixed traffic is the most common type of urban transportation; traffic of this type faces many major problems in traffic engineering, such as conflicts, inefficiency, and security issues. This paper focuses on the traffic engineering concerns on the driving behavior of left-turning vehicles caused by different degrees of pedestrian violations. The traffic characteristics of left-turning vehicles and pedestrians in the affected region at a signalized intersection were analyzed and a cellular-automata-based “following-conflict” driving behavior model that mainly addresses four basic behavior modes was proposed to study the conflict and behavior mechanisms of left-turning vehicles by mathematic methodologies. Four basic driving behavior modes were reproduced in computer simulations, and a logit model of the behavior mode choice was also developed to analyze the relative share of each behavior mode. Finally, the microscopic characteristics of driving behaviors and the macroscopic parameters of traffic flow in the affected region were all determined. These data are important reference for geometry and capacity design for signalized intersections. The simulation results show that the proposed models are valid and can be used to represent the behavior of left-turning vehicles in the case of conflicts with illegally crossing pedestrians. These results will have potential applications on improving traffic safety and traffic capacity at signalized intersections with mixed traffic conditions.

  5. Waiting Endurance Time Estimation of Electric Two-Wheelers at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Huan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed a model for estimating waiting endurance times of electric two-wheelers at signalized intersections using survival analysis method. Waiting duration times were collected by video cameras and they were assigned as censored and uncensored data to distinguish between normal crossing and red-light running behavior. A Cox proportional hazard model was introduced, and variables revealing personal characteristics and traffic conditions were defined as covariates to describe the effects of internal and external factors. Empirical results show that riders do not want to wait too long to cross intersections. As signal waiting time increases, electric two-wheelers get impatient and violate the traffic signal. There are 12.8% of electric two-wheelers with negligible wait time. 25.0% of electric two-wheelers are generally nonrisk takers who can obey the traffic rules after waiting for 100 seconds. Half of electric two-wheelers cannot endure 49.0 seconds or longer at red-light phase. Red phase time, motor vehicle volume, and conformity behavior have important effects on riders’ waiting times. Waiting endurance times would decrease with the longer red-phase time, the lower traffic volume, or the bigger number of other riders who run against the red light. The proposed model may be applicable in the design, management and control of signalized intersections in other developing cities.

  6. Effects of flashing green on driver’s stop/go decision at signalized intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈家军; 王炜

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this work is to explore how drivers react to flashing green at signalized intersections. Through video taping and data procession based on photogrammetry, the operating speeds of vehicles before and after the moment when flashing green started was compared using paired-samples T-test. The critical distances between go and stop decisions was defined through cumulative percentage curve. The boundary of dilemma zone was determined by comparing stop distance and travel distance. Amber-running violation was analyzed on the basis of the travel time to the stop line. And finally, a logistic model for stop and go decisions was constructed. The results shows that the stopping ratios of the first vehicles of west-bound and east-bound approaches are 41.3% and 39.8%, respectively; the amber-light running violation ratios of two approaches are 31.6% and 25.4%, respectively; the operating speed growth ratios of first vehicles selecting to cross intersection after the moment when flashing green started are 26.7% and 17.7%, respectively; and the critical distances are 48 m and 46 m, respectively, which are close to 44 m, the boundary of dilemma zone. The developed decision models demonstrate that the probability of go decision is higher when the distance from the stop line is shorter or operating speed is higher. This indicates that flashing green is an effective way to enhance intersection safety, but it should work together with a strict enforcement. In addition, traffic signs near critical distance and reasonable speed limitation are also beneficial to the safety of intersections.

  7. Management challenges at the intersection of public policy environments and strategic decision making in public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort B

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities.

  8. Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Priest, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115), we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys) and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept) across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed.

  9. Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Bécares

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115, we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed.

  10. Growing up at the intersection of the genomic era and the information age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessnack, Martha

    2009-06-01

    Children actively seek to make sense of their worlds based on the information they receive and their experience. For children growing up at the intersection of genomic era and information age, the array of information and experience continues to expand. This article highlights the importance of exploring these early contexts for learning, including the children's exposure to books and mass media, and the impact of early learning on later health literacy and behaviors. This article presents a case study discussing the inheritance of cystic fibrosis using the Harry Potter book series.

  11. A Model for Capacity Considering the Interference by Pedestrian Traffic at Signal Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixin Chen; Yulong He; Xiaoduan Sun

    2016-01-01

    The capacity is impacted badly by pedestrians’ violation behavior at signal intersections. In order to quantify the impact, the time⁃headway and the vehicular speed from start⁃up to reach the stable saturation flow with and without pedestrian traffic are used as the direct measurements. Using the statistical analysis, the time⁃headway of saturation flow is mainly affected by the position of pedestrians and the degree of pedestrians ’ influence is classified into four levels. Then the speed⁃time profile for the vehicular acceleration at each level is fitted by Curve Fitting Software. Based on the effect to the time⁃headway and acceleration time, the model of capacity influenced by pedestrians is established and the influence is quantified, which enriches the fundamental theory of traffic engineering. The result shows that the vehicular capacity can be decreased by 14%at the worst case ( level I ) . The conclusions obtained in this paper are valuable for better management of the signal intersection.

  12. A Reliability-Based Analysis of Bicyclist Red-Light Running Behavior at Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Huan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the red-light running behavior of bicyclists at urban intersections based on reliability analysis approach. Bicyclists’ crossing behavior was collected by video recording. Four proportional hazard models by the Cox, exponential, Weibull, and Gompertz distributions were proposed to analyze the covariate effects on safety crossing reliability. The influential variables include personal characteristics, movement information, and situation factors. The results indicate that the Cox hazard model gives the best description of bicyclists’ red-light running behavior. Bicyclists’ safety crossing reliabilities decrease as their waiting times increase. There are about 15.5% of bicyclists with negligible waiting times, who are at high risk of red-light running and very low safety crossing reliabilities. The proposed reliability models can capture the covariates’ effects on bicyclists’ crossing behavior at signalized intersections. Both personal characteristics and traffic conditions have significant effects on bicyclists’ safety crossing reliability. A bicyclist is more likely to have low safety crossing reliability and high violation risk when more riders are crossing against the red light, and they wait closer to the motorized lane. These findings provide valuable insights in understanding bicyclists’ violation behavior; and their implications in assessing bicyclists’ safety crossing reliability were discussed.

  13. A PREDICTIVE STUDY: CARBON MONOXIDE EMISSION MODELING AT A SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY WEE LIANG KHO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available CAL3QHC dispersion model was used to predict the present and future carbonmonoxide (CO levels at a busy signalized intersection. This study attempted to identify CO “hot-spots” at nearby areas of the intersection during typical A.M. and P.M. peak hours. The CO concentration “hot-spots” had been identified at 101 Commercial Park and the simulated maximum 1-hour Time-Weighted Average (1-h TWA ground level CO concentrations of 18.3 ppm and 18.6 ppm had been observed during A.M. and P.M. peaks, respectively in year 2006. This study shows that there would be no significant increment in CO level for year 2014 although a substantial increase in the number of vehicles is assumed to affect CO levels. It was also found that CO levels would be well below the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guideline of 30 ppm (1-h TWA. Comparisons between the measured and simulated CO levels using quantitative data analysis technique and statistical methods indicated that CAL3QHC dispersion model correlated well with measured data.

  14. Safety effectiveness of pavement design treatment at intersections: Left turning vehicles and pedestrians on crosswalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Iasmin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users as they are more exposed than other road users. Pedestrian safety at road intersections still remains the most vital and yet unsolved issue. One of the critical points in pedestrian safety is the occurrence of accidents between left-turning vehicle and pedestrians on crosswalks at signalized intersections. A crosswalk is a place designated for pedestrians and cyclists to cross vehicular roads safely. Drivers are expected to give priority to pedestrians or cyclists during interactions between them on the crosswalk. If a driver exhibits non-yielding behavior, the interaction will turn into a collision. This study examined the safety effect of three crosswalks designed with different materials such as red-colored material or brick pavement based on a safety performance study. The safety performance study considered left-turning driver's gap acceptance behavior and the severity of traffic conflict events between left-turning vehicles and pedestrians. The results of the study indicates that using brick pavement on a crosswalk increases the safety level of the crosswalk. Drivers at such crosswalks are more acquiescent to the priority rule.

  15. Two innovative healthcare technologies at the intersection of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahnam, Sheryl; Brooks, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    Using game technologies and digital media for improving physical and mental health and for the therapeutic benefit and well-being of a wide range of people is an area of study that is rapidly expanding. Much research in this emerging field is centered at the intersection of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy. In this paper the authors describe their transdisciplinary work at this intersection: i) an integrative system of psychotherapy technologies called MyPsySpace currently being prototyped in Second Life with the aim of offering new and virtual translations of traditional expressive therapies (virtual sandplay, virtual drama therapy, digital expressive therapy, and virtual safe spaces) and ii) a mature body of research entitled SoundScapes that is exploring the use of interactive video games and abstract creative expression (making music, digital painting, and robotic device control) as a supplement to traditional physical rehabilitation intervention. Aside from introducing our work to a broader audience, our goal is to encourage peers to investigate ideas that reach across disciplines-to both risk and reap the benefits of combining technologies, theories, and methods stemming from multiple disciplines.

  16. Intermediate photofragment distributions as probes of non-adiabatic dynamics at conical intersections: application to the Hartley band of ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu

    2015-11-21

    Quantum dynamics at a reactive two-state conical intersection lying outside the Franck-Condon zone is studied for a prototypical reaction of ultraviolet photodissociation of ozone in the Hartley band. The focus is on the vibrational distributions in the two electronic states at intermediate interfragment distances near the intersection. Such intermediate distributions of strongly interacting photofragments contain unique information on the location and shape of the conical intersection. Multidimensional Landau-Zener modeling provides a framework to reverse engineer the molecular geometry-dependent Massey parameter of the intersection from the intermediate distributions. The conceptual approach is demonstrated for the intermediate O-O bond stretch distributions which become strongly inverted on adiabatic passage through the intersection. It is further demonstrated that intermediate distributions can be reconstructed from the photoemission spectrum of the dissociating molecule. The illustration, given using quantum mechanical calculations of resonance Raman profiles for ozone, completes a practicable cycle of conversion of intermediate distributions into topographic features of the conical intersection.

  17. Research on countermeasures of collector first-grade highway plane intersection traffic safety%集散一级公路平面交叉口交通安全对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亦丁

    2011-01-01

    In engineering design perspective,plane this paper analyzed and researched domestic collector first-grade highway plane intersections safety problems exist,to address these issues and put forward countermeasures to improve highway plane intersection traffic safety,improve traffic capacity of road safety at level-crossings design methods to protect the distribution of traffic safety and smooth.%从工程设计的角度对国内集散一级公路平面交叉口存在的安全问题进行了分析研究,并针对这些问题提出了相应对策和改善公路平面交叉口交通安全、提高通行能力的公路平交路口安全设计方法,以保障集散一级公路交叉口的交通安全和畅通。

  18. Extraterrestrial intelligence and human imagination SETI at the intersection of science, religion, and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Traphagan, John

    2015-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) represents one of the most significant crossroads at which the assumptions and methods of scientific inquiry come into direct contact with—and in many cases conflict with—those of religion. Indeed, at the core of SETI is the same question that motivates many interested in religion: What is the place of humanity in the universe? Both scientists involved with SETI (and in other areas) and those interested in and dedicated to some religious traditions are engaged in contemplating these types of questions, even if their respective approaches and answers differ significantly. This book explores this intersection with a focus on three core points: 1) the relationship between science and religion as it is expressed within the framework of SETI research, 2) the underlying assumptions, many of which are tacitly based upon cultural values common in American society, that have shaped the ways in which SETI researchers have conceptualized the nature of their endeavo...

  19. Safety surrogate histograms (SSH): A novel real-time safety assessment of dilemma zone related conflicts at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanipoor Machiani, Sahar; Abbas, Montasir

    2016-11-01

    Drivers' indecisiveness in dilemma zones (DZ) could result in crash-prone situations at signalized intersections. DZ is to the area ahead of an intersection in which drivers encounter a dilemma regarding whether to stop or proceed through the intersection when the signal turns yellow. An improper decision to stop by the leading driver, combined with the following driver deciding to go, can result in a rear-end collision, unless the following driver recognizes a collision is imminent and adjusts his or her behavior at or shortly after the onset of yellow. Considering the significance of DZ-related crashes, a comprehensive safety measure is needed to characterize the level of safety at signalized intersections. In this study, a novel safety surrogate measure was developed utilizing real-time radar field data. This new measure, called safety surrogate histogram (SSH), captures the degree and frequency of DZ-related conflicts at each intersection approach. SSH includes detailed information regarding the possibility of crashes, because it is calculated based on the vehicles conflicts. An example illustrating the application of the new methodology at two study sites in Virginia is presented and discussed, and a comparison is provided between SSH and other DZ-related safety surrogate measures mentioned in the literature. The results of the study reveal the efficacy of the SSH as complementary to existing surrogate measures.

  20. Travel Times, Congestion Levels, and Delays at Intersections Calculated on the Basis of Floating Car Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Torp, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, the mapping of flow rate in a road network has been based on spot and intersection counting. Using these counting techniques, detailed information about traffic at a few well-picked spots in the road network is obtained. However, these techniques give no exact information about...... traffic only a few meters away from the measuring spots. The situation is totally the opposite when it comes to log data from GPS receivers in cars. Here detailed information about individual cars in the entire road network is obtained. However, the GPS data is only available from a small subset...... of the cars. This paper presents a method to determine travel time, congestion levels and delays using GPS data from moving vehicles – the so-called floating car data....

  1. Delay Estimates of Mixed Traffic Flow at Signalized Intersections in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yuelong; WEI Zheng; CHENG Sihan; YAO Danya; ZHANG Yi; LI Li

    2009-01-01

    Two characteristics of Chinese mixed traffic invalidate the conventional queuing delay estimates for western countries. First, the driving characteristics of Chinese drivers lead to different delays even though the other conditions are the same. Second, urban traffic flow in China is often hindered by pedestrians at intersections, such that imported intelligent traffic control systems do not work appropriately. Typical delay estimates for Chinese conditions were obtained from data for over 500 vehicle queues in Beijing collected using charge coupled device (CCD) cameras. The results show that the delays mainly depend on the pro-portion and positions of heavy vehicles in the queue, as well as the start-up situations (with or without inter-ference). A simplified delay estimation model considers vehicle types and positions that compares well with the observed traffic delays.

  2. At the Intersection of Health Information Technology and Decision Support: Measurement Feedback Systems... and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorpita, Bruce F; Daleiden, Eric L; Bernstein, Adam D

    2016-05-01

    We select and comment on concepts and examples from the target articles in this special issue on measurement feedback systems, placing them in the context of some of our own insights and ideas about measurement feedback systems, and where those systems lie at the intersection of technology and decision making. We contend that, connected to the many implementation challenges relevant to many new technologies, there are fundamental design challenges that await a more elaborate specification of the clinical information and decision models that underlie these systems. Candidate features of such models are discussed, which include referencing multiple evidence bases, facilitating observed and expected value comparisons, fostering collaboration, and allowing translation across multiple ontological systems. We call for a new metaphor for these technologies that goes beyond measurement feedback and encourages a deeper consideration of the increasingly complex clinical decision models needed to manage the uncertainty of delivering clinical care.

  3. Intersecting branes, SUSY breaking and the 2 TeV excess at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Intersecting D-brane models in string theory can naturally support the gauge and matter content of left-right symmetric extensions of the Standard Model with gauge symmetry SU(3) c × SU(2) L × SU(2) R × U(1) B- L . Considering such models as candidates for explaining the 2 TeV excesses seen in Run-1 by both ATLAS and CMS, the minimal possible scale of supersymmetry breaking is determined by the requirement of precise one-loop gauge coupling unification. For the vector-like, bifundamental and (anti-)symmetric Higgs content of such brane configurations, this comes out fairly universally at around 19 TeV. For the SU(2) R gauge coupling one finds values 0.48 < g R ( M R ) < 0.6. Threshold corrections can potentially lower the scale of supersymmetry breaking.

  4. Intersecting Branes, SUSY Breaking and the 2TeV Excess at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Intersecting D-brane models in string theory can naturally support the gauge and matter content of left-right symmetric extensions of the Standard Model with gauge symmetry SU(3)_c x SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x U(1)_{B-L}. Considering such models as candidates for explaining the 2TeV excesses seen in Run-1 by both ATLAS and CMS, the minimal possible scale of supersymmetry breaking is determined by the requirement of precise one-loop gauge coupling unification. For the vector-like, bifundamental and (anti-)symmetric Higgs content of such brane configurations, this comes out fairly universally at around 19TeV. For the SU(2)_R gauge coupling one finds values 0.48

  5. Existing Facilities And Deficiencies In A Busy Intersection At Dhaka Based On The Condition Survey Of The Study Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudul Hasan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Roundabouts have become increasingly popular in recent years as an innovative operational and safety solution at both low volume and high volume intersections. This paper contains capacity analysis of existing roads at a busy intersection in Dhaka named Polashi intersection, compare capacity and volume, AADT, velocity study, road user behavior, pedestrian flow analysis for proposed roundabout. Evaluations are made on a rational basis using qualitative analysis wherever possible and accepting that some matters determine by the exercise of judgments. Roundabouts have a number of advantages over traffic signals depending on the conditions. They reduce the severity of crashes since head-on and right-angle conflicts are nearly eliminated. They may consume less land area since turn pocket lanes are not needed. They have lower energy and maintenance costs

  6. Intersection cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Borel, Armand

    1984-01-01

    This book is a publication in Swiss Seminars, a subseries of Progress in Mathematics. It is an expanded version of the notes from a seminar on intersection cohomology theory, which met at the University of Bern, Switzerland, in the spring of 1983. This volume supplies an introduction to the piecewise linear and sheaf-theoretic versions of that theory as developed by M. Goresky and R. MacPherson in Topology 19 (1980), and in Inventiones Mathematicae 72 (1983). While some familiarity with algebraic topology and sheaf theory is assumed, the notes include a self-contained account of further material on constructibility, derived categories, Verdier duality, biduality, and on stratified spaces, which is used in the second paper but not found in standard texts. "The volume should be useful to someone interested in acquiring some basic knowledge about the field..." —Mathematical Reviews.

  7. Pedestrians´and cyclists´effect on the capacity of the right turn movement at signalised intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Pierre; Rysgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Henning;

    1998-01-01

    Observations at 4 intersection in Copenhagen are used to formulate a model for the delays which right turning cars experience due to straight ahead going pedestrians and cyclists. A simulation model is formulated in order to give results for cases not covered by the empirical data......Observations at 4 intersection in Copenhagen are used to formulate a model for the delays which right turning cars experience due to straight ahead going pedestrians and cyclists. A simulation model is formulated in order to give results for cases not covered by the empirical data...

  8. Influential factors of red-light running at signalized intersection and prediction using a rare events logistic regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yilong; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Ding, Chuan

    2016-10-01

    Red light running (RLR) has become a major safety concern at signalized intersection. To prevent RLR related crashes, it is critical to identify the factors that significantly impact the drivers' behaviors of RLR, and to predict potential RLR in real time. In this research, 9-month's RLR events extracted from high-resolution traffic data collected by loop detectors from three signalized intersections were applied to identify the factors that significantly affect RLR behaviors. The data analysis indicated that occupancy time, time gap, used yellow time, time left to yellow start, whether the preceding vehicle runs through the intersection during yellow, and whether there is a vehicle passing through the intersection on the adjacent lane were significantly factors for RLR behaviors. Furthermore, due to the rare events nature of RLR, a modified rare events logistic regression model was developed for RLR prediction. The rare events logistic regression method has been applied in many fields for rare events studies and shows impressive performance, but so far none of previous research has applied this method to study RLR. The results showed that the rare events logistic regression model performed significantly better than the standard logistic regression model. More importantly, the proposed RLR prediction method is purely based on loop detector data collected from a single advance loop detector located 400 feet away from stop-bar. This brings great potential for future field applications of the proposed method since loops have been widely implemented in many intersections and can collect data in real time. This research is expected to contribute to the improvement of intersection safety significantly.

  9. Substituent effects on dynamics at conical intersections: Allene and methyl allenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neville, Simon P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Wang, Yanmei [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Boguslavskiy, Andrey E.; Stolow, Albert, E-mail: albert.stolow@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Schuurman, Michael S., E-mail: michael.schuurman@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, 10 Marie Curie, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2016-01-07

    We report a joint experimental and theoretical study on the ultrafast excited state dynamics of allene and a series of its methylated analogues (1,2-butadiene, 1,1-dimethylallene, and tetramethylallene) in order to elucidate the conical intersection mediated dynamics that give rise to ultrafast relaxation to the ground electronic state. We use femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) to probe the coupled electronic-vibrational dynamics following UV excitation at 200 nm (6.2 eV). Ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) simulations are employed to determine the mechanistic details of two competing dynamical pathways to the ground electronic state. In all molecules, these pathways are found to involve as follows: (i) twisting about the central allenic C–C–C axis followed by pyramidalization at one of the terminal carbon atoms and (ii) bending of allene moiety. Importantly, the AIMS trajectory data were used for ab initio simulations of the TRPES, permitting direct comparison with experiment. For each molecule, the decay of the TRPES signal is characterized by short (30 fs, 52 fs, 23 fs) and long (1.8 ps, 3.5 ps, [306 fs, 18 ps]) time constants for 1,2-butadiene, 1,1-dimethylallene, and tetramethylallene, respectively. However, AIMS simulations show that these time constants are only loosely related to the evolution of electronic character and actually more closely correlate to large amplitude motions on the electronic excited state, modulating the instantaneous vertical ionization potentials. Furthermore, the fully substituted tetramethylallene is observed to undergo qualitatively different dynamics, as displacements involving the relatively massive methyl groups impede direct access to the conical intersections which give rise to the ultrafast relaxation dynamics observed in the other species. These results show that the branching between the “twisting” and “bending” pathways can be modified via the selective methylation of the terminal

  10. Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives  Sabine Bornkessel The worldwide growing functional food market (e.g. Menrad, 2

  11. Prediction of CO concentrations from road traffic at signalized intersections using CAL3QHC model: the Khon Kaen case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prungchan Wongwises

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the US EPA air pollution model, CAL3QHC version 2.0 was applied to predict carbon monoxide (CO concentrations from road traffic at three signalized intersections in Khon Kaen province. Four data groups required by the model, namely site parameters, traffic parameters, meteorological parameters and emission parameters were collected at each intersection and have been used as the inputs to the model. The prediction results were compared to the measurement. The results showed that the predicted CO concentration variations corresponding mostly to the measurement except at some hours when there was not good agreement due to an extreme upwind location of receptor, low wind speed, raining period, other out-sources of CO concentration such as another near intersection and parking lot. However, this study shows that the CAL3QHC model can be applied to predict CO concentration in the environmental condition of Thailand quite well. Moreover, the model might be used as a tool for assessing traffic air pollution at roadway intersection as well as for air quality management.

  12. To illuminate or not to illuminate: roadway lighting as it affects traffic safety at intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, John D; Donnell, Eric T; Rea, Mark S

    2013-04-01

    A two-pronged effort to quantify the impact of lighting on traffic safety is presented. In the statistical approach, the effects of lighting on crash frequency for different intersection types in Minnesota were assessed using count regression models. The models included many geometric and traffic control variables to estimate the association between lighting and nighttime and daytime crashes and the resulting night-to-day crash ratios. Overall, the presence of roadway intersection lighting was found to be associated with an approximately 12% lower night-to-day crash ratio than unlighted intersections. In the parallel analytical approach, visual performance analyses based on roadway intersection lighting practices in Minnesota were made for the same intersection types investigated in the statistical approach. The results of both approaches were convergent, suggesting that visual performance improvements from roadway lighting could serve as input for predicting improvements in crash frequency. A provisional transfer function allows transportation engineers to evaluate alternative lighting systems in the design phase so selections based on expected benefits and costs can be made.

  13. Game Theory Model of Traffic Participants within Amber Time at Signalized Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The traffic light scheme is composed of red, green, and amber lights, and it has been defined clearly for the traffic access of red and green lights; however, the definition of that for the amber light is indistinct, which leads to the appearance of uncertainty factors and serious traffic conflicts during the amber light. At present, the traffic administrations are faced with the decision of whether to forbid passing or not during the amber light in the cities of China. On one hand, it will go against the purpose of setting amber lights if forbidding passing; on the other hand, it may lead to a mess of traffic flow running if not. And meanwhile the drivers are faced with the decision of passing the intersection or stopping during the amber light as well. So the decision-making behavior of traffic administrations and drivers can be converted into a double game model. And through quantification of their earnings in different choice conditions, the optimum decision-making plan under specific conditions could be solved via the Nash equilibrium solution concept. Thus the results will provide a basis for the formulation of the traffic management strategy.

  14. A Bayesian Combined Model for Time-Dependent Turning Movement Proportions Estimation at Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-dependent turning movement flows are very important input data for intelligent transportation systems but are impossible to be detected directly through current traffic surveillance systems. Existing estimation models have proved to be not accurate and reliable enough during all intervals. An improved way to address this problem is to develop a combined model framework that can integrate multiple submodels running simultaneously. This paper first presents a back propagation neural network model to estimate dynamic turning movements, as well as the self-adaptive learning rate approach and the gradient descent with momentum method for solving. Second, this paper develops an efficient Kalman filtering model and designs a revised sequential Kalman filtering algorithm. Based on the Bayesian method using both historical data and currently estimated results for error calibration, this paper further integrates above two submodels into a Bayesian combined model framework and proposes a corresponding algorithm. A field survey is implemented at an intersection in Beijing city to collect both time series of link counts and actual time-dependent turning movement flows, including historical and present data. The reported estimation results show that the Bayesian combined model is much more accurate and stable than other models.

  15. Implications of advanced warning messages on eliminating sun glare disturbances at signalized intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to sun glare disturbances, drivers encounter fatal threats on roadways, particularly at signalized intersections. Many studies have attempted to develop applicable solutions, such as avoiding sun positions, applying road geometric re-directions, and wearing anti-glare glasses. None of these strategies have fully solved the problem. As one of the “Connected Vehicle” practices proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, advanced warning messages (AWMs are capable of providing wireless information about traffic controls. AWM acts as a supplement to conventional signs and signals, which can be blocked by obstacles or natural disturbances, such as sun glare. The drivers' smart advisory system (DSAS can provide drivers with AWM. Using a driving simulator this research explores the effects of DSAS messages on driving behaviors under sun glare disturbance. Statistical analyses were applied to assess (1 the negative impacts of sun glare, (2 the compensation of the DSAS AWM to sun glare effects, and (3 the improvement in driving performance due to DSAS AWM. Four performance indexes were measured, including (1 half kinetic energy speed, (2 mean approach speed, (3 brake response time, and (4 braking distance. The effects of the socio-demographic factors, such as gender, age, educational background, and driving experience were also studied. The analytical results illustrate that the DSAS can compensate for reduced visibility due to sun glare and improve driving performance to a normal visual situation, particularly for left turn and through movement.

  16. Modeling Crossing Behavior of Drivers at Unsignalized Intersections with Consideration of Risk Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Miaomiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drivers’ risk perception is vital to driving behavior and traffic safety. In the dynamic interaction of a driver-vehicle-environment system, drivers’ risk perception changes dynamically. This study focused on drivers’ risk perception at unsignalized intersections in China and analyzed drivers’ crossing behavior. Based on cognitive psychology theory and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, quantitative models of drivers’ risk perception were established for the crossing processes between two straight-moving vehicles from the orthogonal direction. The acceptable risk perception levels of drivers were identified using a self-developed data analysis method. Based on game theory, the relationship among the quantitative value of drivers’ risk perception, acceptable risk perception level, and vehicle motion state was analyzed. The models of drivers’ crossing behavior were then established. Finally, the behavior models were validated using data collected from real-world vehicle movements and driver decisions. The results showed that the developed behavior models had both high accuracy and good applicability. This study would provide theoretical and algorithmic references for the microscopic simulation and active safety control system of vehicles.

  17. Theory and method at the intersection of anthropology and cultural neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Rebecca; Brown, Ryan A

    2010-06-01

    Anthropologists have become increasingly interested in embodiment-that is, the ways that socio-cultural factors influence the form, behavior and subjective experience of human bodies. At the same time, social cognitive neuroscience has begun to reveal the mechanisms of embodiment by investigating the neural underpinnings and consequences of social experience. Despite this overlap, the two fields have barely engaged one another. We suggest three interconnected domains of inquiry in which the intersection of neuroscience and anthropology can productively inform our understanding of the relationship between human brains and their socio-cultural contexts. These are: the social construction of emotion, cultural psychiatry, and the embodiment of ritual. We build on both current research findings in cultural neuroscience and ethnographic data on cultural differences in thought and behavior, to generate novel, ecologically informed hypotheses for future study. In addition, we lay out a specific suggestion for operationalizing insights from anthropology in the context of cultural neuroscience research. Specifically, we advocate the development of field studies that use portable measurement technologies to connect individual patterns of biological response with socio-cultural processes. We illustrate the potential of such an approach with data from a study of psychophysiology and religious devotion in Northeastern Brazil.

  18. Detecting Road Users at Intersections Through Changing Weather Using RGB-Thermal Videos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahnsen, Chris; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of a watch-dog sys- tem that detects road user actions in urban intersections to a KLT- based tracking system used in traffic surveillance. The two approaches are evaluated on 16 hours of video data captured by RGB and ther- mal cameras under challenging light...

  19. Totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with a time-dependent boundary: interaction between vehicles and pedestrians at intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between vehicles and pedestrians is seen in many areas such as crosswalks and intersections. In this paper, we study a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with a bottleneck at a boundary caused by an interaction. Due to the time-dependent effect originating from the speed of pedestrians, the flow of the model varies even if the average hopping probability at the last site is the same. We analyze the phenomenon by using two types of approximations: (2+1)-cluster approximation and isolated rarefaction wave approximation. The approximate results capture intriguing features of the model. Moreover, we discuss the situation where vehicles turn right at the intersection by adding a traffic light at the boundary condition. The result suggests that pedestrian scrambles are valid to eliminate traffic congestion in the right turn lane.

  20. Concentration dynamics of coarse and fine particulate matter at and around signalised traffic intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Goel, Anju

    2016-09-14

    The understanding of rapidly evolving concentrations of particulate matter (PMC) at signalised traffic intersections (TIs) is limited, but it is important for accurate exposure assessment. We performed "mobile" and "fixed-site" monitoring of size-resolved PMCs in the 0.25-34 μm range at TIs. On-road mobile measurements were made inside a car under five different ventilation settings on a 6 km long round route, passing through 10 different TIs. Fixed-site measurements were conducted at two types (3- and 4-way) of TIs. The aims were to assess the effects of different ventilation settings on in-vehicle PMCs and their comparison during delay conditions at the TIs with those experienced by pedestrians while crossing these TIs. We also estimated the zone of influence (ZoI) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 under different driving conditions and fitted the probability distribution functions to fixed-site data to understand the concentration and exposure dynamics of coarse and fine particles around the studied (3- and 4-way) TIs. The fine particles (PM2.5) showed a strong positive exponential correlation with the air exchange rates under different ventilation settings compared with coarse particles (PM2.5-10) showing an opposite trend. This suggested that the ventilation system of the car was relatively more efficient in removing coarse particles from the incoming outside air. On-road median PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 during delays at the TIs were ∼40%, 16% and 17% higher, respectively, compared with free-flow conditions on the rest of the route. About 7% of the average commuting time spent during delay conditions over all the runs at the TIs corresponded to 10, 7 and 8% of the total respiratory deposition dose (RDD) for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The maximum length of the ZoI for PM2.5 and PM1 was highest at the 4-way TI and the maximum length of the ZoI for PM10 was highest at the 3-way TI. The on-road average RDD rate of PM10 inside the cabin when windows were fully open was

  1. Competing conceptualizations of decent work at the intersection of health, social and economic discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Cohen, Joanna E; Cole, Donald C; Forman, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), decent work is critical to economic and social progress and well-being. The ILO's Decent Work Agenda outlines four directions (creating jobs, guaranteeing rights at work, extending social protection, promoting social dialogue) (ILO, 2015). While the Agenda's existence may imply consensus about its meaning, we contend that several conceptualizations of decent work exist in the global policy arena. Different institutional perspectives must be negotiated, and political, economic, social and health considerations balanced in its pursuit. This paper reports findings from a critical discourse analysis of 10 policy texts that aimed to reveal different health, economic, and social claims about decent work and how these are shaped by the work policy agendas of the ILO, World Health Organization, and World Bank. Themes emerging from the discourse analysis include the: challenges and realities of promoting "one" agenda; complex intersection between decent work, health and health equity concepts; emphasis on economic and pro-market interests versus the social dimensions of work; and, relative emphasis on individual versus collective responsibility for decent work. To our knowledge, this is a first attempt to contrast different conceptualizations of decent work involving these institutions. Our findings suggest that decent work is a contested notion, and that more than one "agenda" is operating in the face of vested institutional interests. Broader discourses are contributing to a reframing of decent work in economic, social and/or health terms and these are impacting which dimensions of work are taken up in policy texts over others. Results show how the language of economics acts as a disciplinary and regulatory power and its role as a normalizing discourse. We call for research that deepens understanding of how a social, economic and health phenomenon like work is discursively re-interpreted through different global

  2. Guanylyl Cyclase C Hormone Axis at the Intersection of Obesity and Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomain, Erik S; Merlino, Dante J; Pattison, Amanda M; Snook, Adam E; Waldman, Scott A

    2016-09-01

    Obesity has emerged as a principal cause of mortality worldwide, reflecting comorbidities including cancer risk, particularly in colorectum. Although this relationship is established epidemiologically, molecular mechanisms linking colorectal cancer and obesity continue to be refined. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C), a membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, binds the paracrine hormones guanylin and uroguanylin, inducing cGMP signaling in colorectum and small intestine, respectively. Guanylin is the most commonly lost gene product in sporadic colorectal cancer, and its universal loss early in transformation silences GUCY2C, a tumor suppressor, disrupting epithelial homeostasis underlying tumorigenesis. In small intestine, eating induces endocrine secretion of uroguanylin, the afferent limb of a novel gut-brain axis that activates hypothalamic GUCY2C-cGMP signaling mediating satiety opposing obesity. Recent studies revealed that diet-induced obesity suppressed guanylin and uroguanylin expression in mice and humans. Hormone loss reflects reversible calorie-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and the associated unfolded protein response, rather than the endocrine, adipokine, or inflammatory milieu of obesity. Loss of intestinal uroguanylin secretion silences the hypothalamic GUCY2C endocrine axis, creating a feed-forward loop contributing to hyperphagia in obesity. Importantly, calorie-induced guanylin loss silences the GUCY2C-cGMP paracrine axis underlying obesity-induced epithelial dysfunction and colorectal tumorigenesis. Indeed, genetically enforced guanylin replacement eliminated diet-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in mice. Taken together, these observations suggest that GUCY2C hormone axes are at the intersection of obesity and colorectal cancer. Moreover, they suggest that hormone replacement that restores GUCY2C signaling may be a novel therapeutic paradigm to prevent both hyperphagia and intestinal tumorigenesis in obesity.

  3. Evaluation of pedestrian safety at intersections: A theoretical framework based on pedestrian-vehicle interaction patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ying; Wang, Menglong; Sun, Jian; Li, Keping

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, and pedestrian safety has become a major research focus in recent years. Regarding the quality and quantity issues with collision data, conflict analysis using surrogate safety measures has become a useful method to study pedestrian safety. However, given the inequality between pedestrians and vehicles in encounters and the multiple interactions between pedestrians and vehicles, it is insufficient to simply use the same indicator(s) or the same way to aggregate indicators for all conditions. In addition, behavioral factors cannot be neglected. To better use information extracted from trajectories for safety evaluation and pay more attention on effects of behavioral factors, this paper develops a more sophisticated framework for pedestrian conflict analysis that takes pedestrian-vehicle interactions into consideration. A concept of three interaction patterns has been proposed for the first time, namely "hard interaction," "no interaction," and "soft-interaction." Interactions have been categorized under one of these patterns by analyzing profiles of speed and conflict indicators during the whole interactive processes. In this paper, a support vector machine (SVM) approach has been adopted to classify severity levels for a dataset including 1144 events extracted from three intersections in Shanghai, China, followed by an analysis of variable importance. The results revealed that different conflict indicators have different contributions to indicating the severity level under various interaction patterns. Therefore, it is recommended either to use specific conflict indicators or to use weighted indicator aggregation for each interaction pattern when evaluating pedestrian safety. The implementation has been carried out at the fourth crosswalk, and the results indicate that the proposed method can achieve a higher accuracy and better robustness than conventional methods. Furthermore, the method is helpful for better

  4. Using the event analysis of systemic teamwork (EAST) to explore conflicts between different road user groups when making right hand turns at urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenne, Michael G; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Collisions between different types of road users at intersections form a substantial component of the road toll. This paper presents an analysis of driver, cyclist, motorcyclist and pedestrian behaviour at intersections that involved the application of an integrated suite of ergonomics methods, the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) framework, to on-road study data. EAST was used to analyse behaviour at three intersections using data derived from an on-road study of driver, cyclist, motorcyclist and pedestrian behaviour. The analysis shows the differences in behaviour and cognition across the different road user groups and pinpoints instances where this may be creating conflicts between different road users. The role of intersection design in creating these differences in behaviour and resulting conflicts is discussed. It is concluded that currently intersections are not designed in a way that supports behaviour across the four forms of road user studied. Interventions designed to improve intersection safety are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Intersection safety currently represents a key road safety issue worldwide. This paper presents a novel application of a framework of ergonomics methods for studying differences in road user behaviour at intersections. The findings support development of interventions that consider all road users as opposed to one group in isolation.

  5. Intersecting Brane Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Aldazabal, G; Ibáñez, L E; Rabadan, Raul; Uranga, Angel M

    2001-01-01

    It is known that chiral fermions naturally appear at certain intersections of branes at angles. Motivated by this fact, we propose a string scenario in which different standard model gauge interactions propagate on different (intersecting) brane worlds, partially wrapped in the extra dimensions. Quarks and leptons live at brane intersections, and are thus located at different positions in the extra dimensions. Replication of families follows naturally from the fact that the branes generically intersect at several points. Gauge and Yukawa couplings can be computed in terms of the compactification radii. Hierarchical Yukawa couplings appear naturally, since amplitudes involving three different intersections are proportional to exp(-A_{ijk}), where A_{ijk} is the area of a string world-sheet extending among the intersections. The models are non-supersymmetric but the string scale may be lowered down to 1-10 TeV. The proton is however stable due to a set of discrete symmetries arising from world-sheet selection r...

  6. Analytical investigation on the minimum traffic delay at a two-phase intersection considering the dynamical evolution process of queues

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hong-Ze; Hu, Mao-Bin; Jia, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This paper has studied the minimum traffic delay at a two-phase intersection, taking into account the dynamical evolution process of queues. The feature of delay function has been studied, which indicates that the minimum traffic delay must be achieved when equality holds in at least one of the two constraints. We have derived the minimum delay as well as the corresponding traffic signal period, which shows that two situations are classified. Under certain circumstance, extra green time is needed for one phase while otherwise no extra green time should be assigned in both phases. Our work indicates that although the clearing policies were shown in many experiments to be optimal at isolated intersections, it is sometimes not the case.

  7. Grounded Intersectionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marfelt, Mikkel Mouritz

    2016-01-01

    oriented but still emphasizes stable concepts. Moreover, it does not give primacy to oppression. Finally, it adopts a critical stance on the nature of the macro, meso, and micro levels as dominant analytical perspectives. As a result, this paper focusses on the importance of intersectionality...

  8. METHODS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE INDICATION MEASURES AT AMAKOM INTERSECTION AND THEIR APPLICATION IN MICRO SIMULATION MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Kwesi Nyantakyi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Signalized intersections are vital nodal points in a transportation network and their efficiency of operation greatly influences the entire network's performance. Traffic simulation models have been widely used in both transportation operations and traffic analyses because simulation is safer, less expensive, and faster than field implementation and testing. This study assessed performance indication measures at Amakom intersection using micro simulation models in Synchro/SimTraffic. Traffic, geometric and signal control data including key parameters with greatest impact on the calibration process were collected on the field. At 5% significant level, the Chi square test and t-test analyses revealed that headway had a strong correlation with saturation flow compared to speed for both field and simulated conditions. It was concluded that changes in phasing plan with geometric improvement would improve upon the intersection’s level of service.

  9. Urban Middle School Students' Stereotypes at the Intersection of Sexual Orientation, Ethnicity, and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Negin; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2017-03-06

    Heterosexual urban middle school students' (N = 1,757) stereotypes about gender typicality, intelligence, and aggression were assessed. Students (Mage  = 12.36 years) rated Facebook-like profiles of peers who varied by gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Several hypotheses about how the gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation of target peers intersect to shape stereotypes were tested. As predicted, a peer's sexual orientation determined stereotypes of gender typicality, with gay and lesbian students viewed as most atypical. As expected, ethnicity shaped stereotypes of intelligence, with Asian American students seen as most intelligent. Gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation independently and jointly affected stereotypes of aggression. These results demonstrate the value of an intersectional approach to the study of stereotypes. Implications for future research and practice are offered.

  10. Bi-Bayesian Combined Model for Two-Step Prediction of Dynamic Turning Movement Proportions at Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Short-term prediction of dynamic turning movement proportions at intersections is very important for intelligent transportation systems, but it is impossible to detect turning flows directly through current traffic surveillance devices. Existing prediction models have proved to be rather accurate in general, but not precise enough during every time interval, and can only obtain the one-step prediction. This paper first presents a Bayesian combined model to forecast the entering and exiting flows at intersections, by integrating a nonlinear regression, a moving average, and an autoregressive model. Based on the forecasted traffic flows, this paper further develops an accurate backpropagation neural network model and an efficient Kalman filtering model to predict the dynamic turning movement proportions. Using Bayesian method with both historical information and currently prediction results for error adjustment, this paper finally integrates both the above two prediction models and proposes a Bi-Bayesian combined framework to achieve both one-step and two-step predictions. A case study is implemented based on practical survey data, which are collected at an intersection in Beijing city, including both historical and current data. The reported prediction results indicate that the Bi-Bayesian combined model is rather accurate and stable for on-line applications.

  11. Zone of influence for particle number concentrations at signalised traffic intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Anju; Kumar, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of zone of influences (ZoI) at signalised traffic intersections (TI) is important to accurately model particle number concentrations (PNCs) and their exposure to public at emission hotspot locations. However, estimates of ZoI for PNCs at different types of TIs are barely known. We carried out mobile measurements inside the car cabin with windows fully open for size-resolved PNCs in the 5-560 nm range on a 6 km long busy round route that had 10 TIs. These included four-way TIs without built-up area (TI4w-nb), four-way TIs with built-up area (TI4w-wb), three-way TIs without built-up area (TI3w-nb) and three-way TIs with built-up area (TI3w-wb). Mobile measurements were made with a fast response differential mobility spectrometer (DMS50). Driving speed and position of the car were recorded every second using a global positioning system (GPS). Positive matrix factorisation (PMF) modelling was applied on the data to quantify the contribution of PNCs released during deceleration, creep-idling, acceleration and cruising to total PNCs at the TIs. The objectives were to address the following questions: (i) how does ZoI vary at different types of TIs in stop- and go-driving conditions?, (ii) what is the effect of different driving conditions on ZoI of a TI?, (iii) how realistically can the PNC profiles be generalised within a ZoI of a TI?, and (iv) what is the share of emissions during different driving conditions towards the total PNCs at a TI? Average length of ZoI in longitudinal direction and along the road was found to be the highest (148 m; 89 to -59 m from the centre of a TI) at a TI3w-wb, followed by TI4w-nb (129 m; 79 to -42 m), TI3w-nb (86 m; 71 to -15 m) and TI4w-wb (79 m; 46 to -33 m) in stop- and go-driving conditions. During multiple stopping driving conditions when a vehicle stops at a TI more than once in a signal cycle due to oversaturation of vehicles, average length of ZoI increased by 55, 22 and 21% at TI4w-nb, TI3w-nb and TI3w-wb, respectively

  12. Micro-simulation of vehicle conflicts involving right-turn vehicles at signalized intersections based on cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, C; Wong, Y D

    2014-02-01

    At intersection, vehicles coming from different directions conflict with each other. Improper geometric design and signal settings at signalized intersection will increase occurrence of conflicts between road users and results in a reduction of the safety level. This study established a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate vehicular interactions involving right-turn vehicles (as similar to left-turn vehicles in US). Through various simulation scenarios for four case cross-intersections, the relationships between conflict occurrences involving right-turn vehicles with traffic volume and right-turn movement control strategies are analyzed. Impacts of traffic volume, permissive right-turn compared to red-amber-green (RAG) arrow, shared straight-through and right-turn lane as well as signal setting are estimated from simulation results. The simulation model is found to be able to provide reasonable assessment of conflicts through comparison of existed simulation approach and observed accidents. Through the proposed approach, prediction models for occurrences and severity of vehicle conflicts can be developed for various geometric layouts and traffic control strategies.

  13. A hazard-based duration model for analyzing crossing behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobao; Huan, Mei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Peng, Yichuan; Gao, Ziyou

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hazard-based duration approach to investigate riders' waiting times, violation hazards, associated risk factors, and their differences between cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections. A total of 2322 two-wheeled riders approaching the intersections during red light periods were observed in Beijing, China. The data were classified into censored and uncensored data to distinguish between safe crossing and red-light running behavior. The results indicated that the red-light crossing behavior of most riders was dependent on waiting time. They were inclined to terminate waiting behavior and run against the traffic light with the increase of waiting duration. Over half of the observed riders cannot endure 49s or longer. 25% of the riders can endure 97s or longer. Rider type, gender, waiting position, conformity tendency and crossing traffic volume were identified to have significant effects on riders' waiting times and violation hazards. Electric bike riders were found to be more sensitive to the external risk factors such as other riders' crossing behavior and crossing traffic volume than cyclists. Moreover, unobserved heterogeneity was examined in the proposed models. The finding of this paper can explain when and why cyclists and electric bike riders run against the red light at intersections. The results of this paper are useful for traffic design and management agencies to implement strategies to enhance the safety of riders.

  14. A second look at the CloudSat/TRMM intersect data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Z.; Kuo, K.; Smith, E. A.; Kiang, D.; Turk, F. J.

    2010-12-01

    The original objective motivating the creation of the CloudSat+TRMM intersect products (by E.A. Smith, K.-S. Kuo et al) was to provide new opportunities in research related to precipitating clouds. The data products consist of near-coincident CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar calibrated 94-GHz reflectivity factors and detection flag, sampled every 240 m in elevation, and the TRMM Precipitation Radar calibrated 13.8-GHz reflectivity factors, attenuation-adjusted reflectivity factors and rain rate estimates, sampled every 250 m in elevation, in the TRMM beam whose footprint encompasses the CloudSat beam footprint. Because retrieving precipitation distributions from single-frequency radar measurements is a very under-constrained proposition, we decided to restrict our analyses to CloudSat data that were taken within 3 minutes of a TRMM pass. We ended up with over 5000 beams of nearly simultaneous observations of precipitation, and proceeded in two different ways: 1) we attempted to perform retrievals based on simultaneous radar reflectivity measurements at Ku and W bands. At low precipitation rates, the Ku-band radar does not detect much of the rain. At higher precipitation rates, the W-band radar incurs high attenuation, and this makes “Hitschfeld-Bordan” retrievals (from the top of the column down toward the surface) diverge because of numerical instability. The main question for this portion of the analysis was to determine if these two extremes are indeed extremes that still afford us a significant number of “in-between” cases, on which we can apply a careful dual-frequency retrieval algorithm; 2) we also attempted to quantify the ability of the Ku-band measurements to provide complementary information to the W-band estimates outside their overlap region, and vice versa. Specifically, instead of looking at the admittedly small vertical region where both radars detect precipitation and where their measurements are unambiguously related to the underlying

  15. Crosswatch: a Camera Phone System for Orienting Visually Impaired Pedestrians at Traffic Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchenko, Volodymyr; Coughlan, James; Shen, Huiying

    2008-07-01

    Urban intersections are the most dangerous parts of a blind or visually impaired person's travel. To address this problem, this paper describes the novel "Crosswatch" system, which uses computer vision to provide information about the location and orientation of crosswalks to a blind or visually impaired pedestrian holding a camera cell phone. A prototype of the system runs on an off-the-shelf Nokia camera phone in real time, which automatically takes a few images per second, uses the cell phone's built-in computer to analyze each image in a fraction of a second and sounds an audio tone when it detects a crosswalk. Tests with blind subjects demonstrate the feasibility of the system and its ability to provide useful crosswalk alignment information under real-world conditions.

  16. At the Intersection Between Art and Research. Practice-Based Research in the Performing Arts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of three years. The contributors to this anthology are artists and academics. They each present their particular angle to the field based partly on debates that arose in the study circle. What is the difference between theory and practice? Of what nature is the knowledge of the performing artist? Can......As an emerging field within the Nordic countries, the 'intersection' between art and research is still in the process of being named and renamed. Practice-Based Research within the Performing Arts was the concept that framed the investigation of the field in a NSU study circle during a period...... artistic work be original, political, ethical? How is the work disseminated? How can art as research have an impact on different art forms and on other types of research? What questions of identity does the researching artist face? Can his/her work be compared to a journey? The articles reflect a plurality...

  17. ISR Intersection 1

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 1 by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R105). It consists of two almost identical magnetic spectrometers centered at 90 degrees on opposite sides of the intersection region. In each spectrometer one can see magnetostrictive wire spark chambers, a magnet, more chambers and various hodoscopes of scintillation counters. Gas Cerenkov counters (almost invisible in the picture) are located in the gap of each magnet. On the left hand side, a matrix of 119 lead glass Cerenkov counters is located behind some concrete and iron shielding.

  18. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system for gap acceptance behavior of right-turning vehicles at partially controlled T-intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jayant P. Sangole; Gopal R. Patil

    2014-01-01

    Gap acceptance theory is broadly used for evaluating unsignalized intersections in developed coun-tries. Intersections with no specific priority to any move-ment, known as uncontrolled intersections, are common in India. Limited priority is observed at a few intersections, where priorities are perceived by drivers based on geom-etry, traffic volume, and speed on the approaches of intersection. Analyzing such intersections is complex because the overall traffic behavior is the result of drivers, vehicles, and traffic flow characteristics. Fuzzy theory has been widely used to analyze similar situations. This paper describes the application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system (ANFIS) to the modeling of gap acceptance behavior of right-turning vehicles at limited priority T-intersections (in India, vehicles are driven on the left side of a road). Field data are collected using video cameras at four T-intersections having limited priority. The data extracted include gap/lag, subject vehicle type, conflicting vehicle type, and driver’s decision (accepted/rejected). ANFIS models are developed by using 80% of the extracted data (total data observations for major road right-turning vehicles are 722 and 1,066 for minor road right-turning vehicles) and remaining are used for model vali-dation. Four different combinations of input variables are considered for major and minor road right turnings sepa-rately. Correct prediction by ANFIS models ranges from 75.17% to 82.16% for major road right turning and 87.20% to 88.62% for minor road right turning. The models developed in this paper can be used in the dynamic estimation of gap acceptance in traffic simulation models.

  19. Impacts of Pedestrians on Capacity and Delay of Major Street Through Traffic at Two-Way Stop-Controlled Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to estimate the impacts of pedestrians on capacity and average control delay for the major street through traffic at two-way stop-controlled (TWSC intersections. A procedure was proposed to estimate the expected delay for major street through vehicles based on the pedestrian arrival time and motorist yielding behavior. Field data were collected to calibrate the crucial parameters in the established models. The proposed models were then validated against field measured data. It was found that the calibrated models provided reasonable delay estimates. Based on the established models, sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify the effects of pedestrian arrival rate and motorist yield rate on the capacity of the major street through lanes at TWSC intersections. The results suggested that the capacity of the through movement would decrease with an increase in the pedestrian arrival rate. It was also found that, with the same pedestrian arrival rate, the capacity would decrease as the motorist yield rate became higher, and the magnitude of the capacity reduction would increase with an increase in the pedestrian arrival rate.

  20. PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENT (PCE OF THROUGH VEHICLES AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS IN DHAKA METROPOLITAN CITY, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha SAHA

    2009-01-01

    PCE currently used in Bangladesh is based on the values given in Geometric Design of Highways (MoC, 2001, which is the modification of the values given by Webster (1958 on the study performed in the United Kingdom in the 50's and 60's. But now-a-days, the situation is far different both for traffic and road user as the characteristics have changed from that time. Hence, in this paper an empirical study was carried out to determine the PCE of different types of vehicle that reflect the actual traffic conditions of Dhaka Metropolitan City. Data were collected from ten signalized intersections and the headway ratio method was used to estimate the PCE of different types of vehicle. The main vehicle compositions observed during the study period consist of passenger cars, auto-rickshaws, mini-buses and buses. The PCE obtained in this study were compared to the values established earlier. It was found that the estimated PCE are smaller than those being used in Bangladesh.

  1. DYNAMIC PCU VALUES AT SIGNALISED INTERSECTIONS IN INDIA FOR MIXED TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Alex

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The traffic stream behaves differently in a mixed traffic condition as compared to that of a homogeneous condition. In a mixed traffic condition, as the traffic behaviour is always fluctuating based on the interaction caused by the surrounding elements, it is essential that the factors which affect the dynamic nature of the traffic characteristics should be considered for the proper design of the system. The paper highlights the methodology for developing the dynamic Passenger Car Unit (PCU under various vehicular interactions for mixed traffic conditions prevalent in India. Experiments were carried out using the micro simulation model, TRAFFICSIM, which was developed for signalised intersections by the authors and reported elsewhere. The dynamic PCU values were obtained based on the analysis of the outputs of TRAFFICSIM, for varying approach width, traffic composition, stream speed and traffic volume. Modified area occupancy concept was used to develop Dynamic PCU values in a mixed traffic condition. In the modified area occupancy method, the area occupancy of the vehicle types for various traffic compositions is compared with area occupancy of the passenger cars in a car only traffic condition having the same stream speed. The study showed that the PCU values are highly sensitive to the given traffic conditions such as approach width, traffic composition, stream speed as well as flow ratio.

  2. Evaluation of Deployment Challenges of Wireless Sensor Networks at Signalized Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpilicueta, Leyre; López-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Martínez, Carlos; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    With the growing demand of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) for safer and more efficient transportation, research on and development of such vehicular communication systems have increased considerably in the last years. The use of wireless networks in vehicular environments has grown exponentially. However, it is highly important to analyze radio propagation prior to the deployment of a wireless sensor network in such complex scenarios. In this work, the radio wave characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed taking advantage of the existence of traffic light infrastructure has been assessed. By means of an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, the impact of topology as well as urban morphology of the environment has been analyzed, emulating the realistic operation in the framework of the scenario. The complexity of the scenario, which is an intersection city area with traffic lights, vehicles, people, buildings, vegetation and urban environment, makes necessary the channel characterization with accurate models before the deployment of wireless networks. A measurement campaign has been conducted emulating the interaction of the system, in the vicinity of pedestrians as well as nearby vehicles. A real time interactive application has been developed and tested in order to visualize and monitor traffic as well as pedestrian user location and behavior. Results show that the use of deterministic tools in WSN deployment can aid in providing optimal layouts in terms of coverage, capacity and energy efficiency of the network. PMID:27455270

  3. Pathways to Aging: The Mitochondrion at the Intersection of Biological and Psychosocial Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Picard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compelling evidence suggests that both biological and psychosocial factors impact the process of aging. However, our understanding of the dynamic interplay among biological and psychosocial factors across the life course is still fragmentary. For example, it needs to be established how the interaction of individual factors (e.g., genetic and epigenetic endowment and personality, behavioral factors (e.g., physical activity, diet, and stress management, and psychosocial experiences (e.g., social support, well-being, socioeconomic status, and marriage in perinatal, childhood, and adulthood influence health across the aging continuum. This paper aims to outline potential intersection points serving as an interface between biological and psychosocial factors, with an emphasis on the mitochondrion. Mitochondria are cellular organelles which play a critical role in cellular senescence. Both chronic exposure to psychosocial stress and genetic-based mitochondrial dysfunction have strikingly similar biological consequences; both predispose individuals to adverse age-related health disorders and early mortality. Exploring the interactive nature of the factors resulting in pathways to normal healthy aging, as well as those leading to morbidity and early mortality, will continue to enhance our ability to translate research into effective practices that can be implemented throughout the life course to optimise the aging process.

  4. Evaluation of Deployment Challenges of Wireless Sensor Networks at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Azpilicueta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demand of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS for safer and more efficient transportation, research on and development of such vehicular communication systems have increased considerably in the last years. The use of wireless networks in vehicular environments has grown exponentially. However, it is highly important to analyze radio propagation prior to the deployment of a wireless sensor network in such complex scenarios. In this work, the radio wave characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs deployed taking advantage of the existence of traffic light infrastructure has been assessed. By means of an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, the impact of topology as well as urban morphology of the environment has been analyzed, emulating the realistic operation in the framework of the scenario. The complexity of the scenario, which is an intersection city area with traffic lights, vehicles, people, buildings, vegetation and urban environment, makes necessary the channel characterization with accurate models before the deployment of wireless networks. A measurement campaign has been conducted emulating the interaction of the system, in the vicinity of pedestrians as well as nearby vehicles. A real time interactive application has been developed and tested in order to visualize and monitor traffic as well as pedestrian user location and behavior. Results show that the use of deterministic tools in WSN deployment can aid in providing optimal layouts in terms of coverage, capacity and energy efficiency of the network.

  5. Racism at the intersections: Gender and socioeconomic differences in the experience of racism among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-09-01

    Several studies investigating the health effects of racism have reported gender and socioeconomic differences in exposures to racism, with women typically reporting lower frequencies, and individuals with greater resources reporting higher frequencies. This study used diverse measures of socioeconomic position and multiple measures and methods to assess experienced racism. Socioeconomic position included education and financial and employment status. Quantitative racism measures assessed individual experiences with day-to-day and with major lifetime incidents and perceptions of the extent to which African Americans as a group experience racism. A brief qualitative question asked respondents to describe a racist incident that stood out in recent memory. Participants comprised a probability sample of N = 144 African American adults aged 19 to 87 residing in New York City. Results suggested that women reported fewer lifetime incidents but did not differ from men on everyday racism. These differences appear to be partly because of scale content. Socioeconomic position as measured by years of education was positively associated with reported racism in the total sample but differently patterned across gender; subjective social status showed a negative association. Qualitative responses describing memorable incidents fell into 5 key categories: resources/opportunity structures, criminal profiling, racial aggression/assault, interpersonal incivilities, and stereotyping. In these narratives, men were more likely to offer accounts involving criminal profiling, and women encountered incivilities more often. The findings highlight the need for closer attention to the intersection of gender and socioeconomic factors in investigations of the health effects of racism.

  6. Open badges for education: what are the implications at the intersection of open systems and badging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Ahn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Badges have garnered great interest among scholars of digital media and learning. In addition, widespread initiatives such as Mozilla’s Open Badge Framework expand the potential of badging into the realm of open education. In this paper, we explicate the concept of open badges. We highlight some of the ways that researchers have examined badges as part of educational practice and also highlight the different definitions of open-ness that are employed in popular and scholarly thought. By considering badges from three different perspectives (motivation, pedagogy, and credential and the concept of openness from three different perspectives (production, access and appropriation we develop a framework to consider the tensions where these competing conceptions meet. This explication illuminates how the ideas of open and badges intersect, and clarifies situations where these concepts come into direct conflict or mutually enhance each other. Our analysis pinpoints and elucidates particular areas where research is needed to better understand the complex phenomenon of open badges, and also offers design considerations for developers, educators, and organizations that are actively involved in open badges.

  7. Evaluation of Deployment Challenges of Wireless Sensor Networks at Signalized Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpilicueta, Leyre; López-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Martínez, Carlos; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-07-22

    With the growing demand of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) for safer and more efficient transportation, research on and development of such vehicular communication systems have increased considerably in the last years. The use of wireless networks in vehicular environments has grown exponentially. However, it is highly important to analyze radio propagation prior to the deployment of a wireless sensor network in such complex scenarios. In this work, the radio wave characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed taking advantage of the existence of traffic light infrastructure has been assessed. By means of an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, the impact of topology as well as urban morphology of the environment has been analyzed, emulating the realistic operation in the framework of the scenario. The complexity of the scenario, which is an intersection city area with traffic lights, vehicles, people, buildings, vegetation and urban environment, makes necessary the channel characterization with accurate models before the deployment of wireless networks. A measurement campaign has been conducted emulating the interaction of the system, in the vicinity of pedestrians as well as nearby vehicles. A real time interactive application has been developed and tested in order to visualize and monitor traffic as well as pedestrian user location and behavior. Results show that the use of deterministic tools in WSN deployment can aid in providing optimal layouts in terms of coverage, capacity and energy efficiency of the network.

  8. A Finite Characterization and Recognition of Intersection Graphs of Hypergraphs with Rank at Most 3 and Multiplicity at Most 2 in the Class of Threshold Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metelsky Yury

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We characterize the class L32$L_3^2 $ of intersection graphs of hypergraphs with rank at most 3 and multiplicity at most 2 by means of a finite list of forbidden induced subgraphs in the class of threshold graphs. We also give an O(n-time algorithm for the recognition of graphs from L32$L_3^2 $ in the class of threshold graphs, where n is the number of vertices of a tested graph.

  9. Optimal medical outcomes with limited liability: risk management principles for medical practices at the intersection of medicine, law, and business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterick, Timothy J; Paterick, Timothy E; Waterhouse, Blake E

    2007-01-01

    Physicians practice at the intersection of medicine, law, and business. Each discipline creates its own challenges for the practicing physician: to practice efficient, effective medicine; to limit potential liability; and to create a positive financial outcome. Those challenges increase with escalating costs and reduced reimbursements. In this paper, the common clinical presentation of chest pain has been used to create a paradigm to educate physicians to understand efficient and effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment, and how effective communication with patients and meticulous documentation of all medical encounters can limit the potential for liability. Ultimately, given today's reimbursement formulas, physicians must also understand the cost of testing, in relation to its benefits, in an attempt to yield a positive financial outcome.

  10. The red-light running behavior of electric bike riders and cyclists at urban intersections in China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Kan

    2012-11-01

    Electric bikes and regular bicycles play an important role in the urban transportation system of China. Red-light running is a type of highly dangerous behavior of two-wheeled riders. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rate, associated factors, and behavior characteristics of two-wheelers' red-light running in China. A field observational study was conducted using two synchronized video cameras at three signalized intersections in Beijing. A total of 451 two-wheelers facing a red light (222 e-bike riders and 229 cyclists) were observed and analyzed. The results showed that 56% of the two-wheelers crossed the intersection against a red light. Age was found to be a significant variable for predicting red-light runners, with the young and middle-aged riders being more likely than the old ones to run against a red light. The logistic regression analysis also indicated that the probability of a rider running a red light was higher when she or he was alone, when there were fewer riders waiting, and when there were riders already crossing on red. Further analysis of crossing behavior revealed that the majority of red-light running occurred in the early and late stages of a red-light cycle. Two-wheelers' crossing behavior was categorized into three distinct types: law-obeying (44%), risk-taking (31%) and opportunistic (25%). Males were more likely to act in a risk-taking manner than females, and so were the young and middle-aged riders than the old ones. These findings provide valuable insights in understanding two-wheelers' red-light running behaviors, and their implications in improving road safety were discussed.

  11. "Bring it on": Explaining persistence in science at the intersection of identity and epistemology

    CERN Document Server

    Conlin, Luke D; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Research has documented a sharp decline in students' interest and persistence in science, starting in middle school, particularly among students from underrepresented populations. In working to address this problem, we can learn a great deal from positive examples of students getting excited about science, especially students who were previously disengaged. In this paper, we present a case study of Estevan, an 8th grade student who came into Ms. K's science class with a reputation as a potential "problem student," but left as a leader of the class, even making plans to pursue a career in science. Through analysis of interviews and classroom interactions, we show how Estevan's love of science can be partially explained by an alignment between his identity as a lover of challenges and his epistemology of science as involving the challenge of figuring things out for yourself. This alignment was possible in part because it was supported by his caring teacher, who attended to his ideas and constantly challenged hi...

  12. Remediating Computational Deficits at Third Grade: A Randomized Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2008-01-01

    The major purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of tutoring to remediate 3rd-grade computational deficits and to explore whether remediation is differentially efficacious depending on whether students experience mathematics difficulty alone or concomitantly with reading difficulty. At 2 sites, 127 students were stratified on…

  13. Intersectional perspective in elderly care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cuesta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Earlier research has shown that power relationships at workplaces are constructed by power structures. Processes related to power always influence the working conditions for (in this study in elderly care the working groups involved. Power structures are central for intersectional analysis, in the sense that the intersectional perspective highlights aspects such as gender and ethnicity (subjective dimensions and interrelates them to processes of power (objective dimension. This qualitative study aims to explore in what way an intersectional perspective could contribute to increased knowledge of power structures in a nursing home where the employees were mostly immigrants from different countries. By using reflexive dialogues related to an intersectional perspective, new knowledge which contributes to the employees’ well-being could develop. Narrative analysis was the method used to conduct this study. Through a multi-stage focus group on six occasions over 6 months, the staff were engaged in intersectional and critical reflections about power relationship with the researchers, by identifying patterns in their professional activities that could be connected to their subjectivities (gender, ethnicity, etc.. The result of this study presents three themes that express the staff's experiences and connect these experiences to structural discrimination. 1 Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of professionalism; 2 Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of collaboration; and 3 Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of discrimination. The result demonstrates that an intersectional perspective reinforces the involved abilities, during the conversations, into being clear about, for example, their experiences of discrimination, and consequently developing a better understanding of their professionalism and collaboration. Such deeper reflections became possible through a process of consciousness raising, strengthening the employee

  14. Experiment R606 installed in the specially constructed pit at intersection 6

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    It was set-up by the Aachen-CERN-Harvard-Munich-Riverside Collaboration to study new particles at the ISR by detecting muon-electron coincidences and hadronic states. One can see the giant wheel of the air-cored magnet and Cerenkov counters, the drift chambers and the thin-walled cylindrical vacuum chamber

  15. The Discourse of Humanness at the Intersection of Color-Blindness and Race Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Color blind discourse often draws on sentiments such as, "When I look at you, I do not see color," or race should not matter since we are all human, we are all the same underneath. In other words, the desire to view others as individuals is often constituted on the back of the desire to understand the notion of the individual as one who…

  16. Administrative law beyond the state: participation at the intersection of legal systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, J.; Chiti, E.; Mattarella, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter assesses, on a first approach, the impact that the reception of international or global norms by European Union (EU) law may have on participation opportunities and guarantees that would otherwise be granted to private persons at the EU level. The analysis is premised, inter alia, on th

  17. "Beyond "BIO2010": Celebration and Opportunities" at the Intersection of Mathematics and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungck, John R.; Gaff, Holly D.; Fagen, Adam P.; Labov, Jay B.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on an important symposium, Beyond BIO2010: Celebration and Opportunities, which was held at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, D.C. on May 21-22, 2010. This symposium was organized to assess what progress has been made in addressing the challenges and recommendations in the National Research…

  18. Local polynomial convexity of the union of two totally real surfaces at their intersection

    CERN Document Server

    Gorai, Sushil

    2010-01-01

    We consider the following question: Let $S_1$ and $S_2$ be two smooth, totally-real surfaces in $\\mathbb{C}^2$ that contain the origin. If the union of their tangent planes is locally polynomially convex at the origin, then is $S_1 \\cup S_2$ locally polynomially convex at the origin? If $T_0S_1 \\cap T_0S_2=\\{0\\}$, then it is a folk result that the answer is yes. We discuss an obstruction to the presumed proof, and provide a different approach. When dimension of $T_0S_1 \\cap T_0S_2$ over the field of real numbers is 1, we present a geometric condition under which no consistent answer to the above question exists. We then discuss conditions under which we can expect local polynomial convexity.

  19. [Rheumatologic patient management and research in Berlin at the intersection between East and West].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieper, J

    1995-01-01

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, there was an immediate need for collaboration between rheumatologists from East- and West-Berlin from the very beginning, which could be taken as an example for the rest of Germany. This was achieved through different activities in patient care and research. The "Regionales Rheumazentrum Berlin" which was started at about that time played a special role in making this enterprise a success.

  20. Commons at the Intersection of Peer Production, Citizen Science, and Big Data: Galaxy Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge commons research framework is applied to a case of commons governance grounded in research in modern astronomy. The case, Galaxy Zoo, is a leading example of at least three different contemporary phenomena. In the first place Galaxy Zoo is a global citizen science project, in which volunteer non-scientists have been recruited to participate in large-scale data analysis via the Internet. In the second place Galaxy Zoo is a highly successful example of peer production, sometimes k...

  1. Deadly crosstalk: Notch signaling at the intersection of EMT and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Ingrid; Miele, Lucio

    2013-11-28

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway involved in cell fate control during development, stem cell self-renewal and postnatal tissue differentiation. Roles for Notch in carcinogenesis, in the biology of cancer stem cells, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been reported. This mini-review describes the role of Notch signaling deregulation in EMT and tumor aggressiveness. We describe how accumulated evidence suggests that Notch inhibition is an attractive strategy for the treatment of several cancers, at least in part because of its potential to reverse or prevent EMT.

  2. Nanoinformatics: an emerging area of information technology at the intersection of bioinformatics, computational chemistry and nanobiotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Nilo, Fernando; Pérez-Acle, Tomás; Guínez-Molinos, Sergio; Geraldo, Daniela A; Sandoval, Claudia; Yévenes, Alejandro; Santos, Leonardo S; Laurie, V Felipe; Mendoza, Hegaly; Cachau, Raúl E

    2011-01-01

    After the progress made during the genomics era, bioinformatics was tasked with supporting the flow of information generated by nanobiotechnology efforts. This challenge requires adapting classical bioinformatic and computational chemistry tools to store, standardize, analyze, and visualize nanobiotechnological information. Thus, old and new bioinformatic and computational chemistry tools have been merged into a new sub-discipline: nanoinformatics. This review takes a second look at the development of this new and exciting area as seen from the perspective of the evolution of nanobiotechnology applied to the life sciences. The knowledge obtained at the nano-scale level implies answers to new questions and the development of new concepts in different fields. The rapid convergence of technologies around nanobiotechnologies has spun off collaborative networks and web platforms created for sharing and discussing the knowledge generated in nanobiotechnology. The implementation of new database schemes suitable for storage, processing and integrating physical, chemical, and biological properties of nanoparticles will be a key element in achieving the promises in this convergent field. In this work, we will review some applications of nanobiotechnology to life sciences in generating new requirements for diverse scientific fields, such as bioinformatics and computational chemistry.

  3. Comanagement at the Fringes: Examining Stakeholder Perspectives at Macassar Dunes, Cape Town, South Africa--at the Intersection of High Biodiversity, Urban Poverty, and Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Graham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, co-management provides a fruitful way to engage local residents in efforts to conserve and manage particular spaces of ecological value. However, natural resource management, and biodiversity conservation in particular, are faced with novel sets of complexities in the rapidly urbanizing areas of Cape Town, South Africa, and in the nexus between an apartheid past, informal settlements, remnant biodiversity patches, and urban poverty. Departing from such a dynamic social and ecological context, this article first provides an historical account of the decade-long comanagement process at Macassar Dunes, and then considers, through stakeholder perceptions, what are the successes and failures of the contested process. We find that comanagement at Macassar Dunes faces serious legitimacy, trust, and commitment issues, but also that stakeholders find common ground on education and awareness-raising activities. In conclusion we argue that the knowledge generated from case studies like this is useful in challenging and rethinking natural resource management theory generally, but specifically it is useful for the growing cities of the Global South. More case studies and a deeper engagement are needed with geographical theories on the “urban fringe” as “possibility space”, to help build a firm empirical base for theorizing comanagement “at the fringes”, i.e., at the intersection of poverty, socioeconomic inequality, and high biodiversity and ecological values.

  4. Knowledge Communication at the Intersection of the Community and the Individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2008-01-01

    How can we approach the relationship between the individual and the community in terms of knowledge communication processes?  This presentation explores definitions of knowledge combining individual and group perspectives, seeking to build a flexible understanding of knowledge communication...... of organizational knowing.  From definitions foregrounding the individual's role in knowledge communication, Nonaka & Takeuchi's notions of implicit and explicit knowledge in the SECI model, Kenneth Burke's conception of Terministic Screens as a language process at the individual level, Tsoukas & Vladimirou......'s argument that knowledge can be understood as "individual's ability to draw distinctions" based on appropriate understanding of the context, and Kastberg's (2007) framework for a communicative and  integrative approach to knowledge communication.  Although none of these theories specifically exclude...

  5. Beyond Identity: the Dynamic Self at the Intersection of Performance Philosophy and the Philosophy of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibila Petlevski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we advocate the methodological feedback loop in the study of the dynamical self at the crossroads of performance philosophy, (artistic performance, and the philosophy of science. We point to the importance of the dynamics of methodology transfer between arts and sciences and the “interactive continuum” proposed by Newman & Benz in 1998. In the first part of this paper we give a comparative review of the research context relevant for our field of study, and we explain our research hubs in approaching the concept of “performance”. We suggest the possibility to define our filed of research in three equally legitimate ways: as philosophy-of-performance, philosophy-as-performance and performance-as-philosophy. In our recent work we are primarily interested in artistic performances that incorporate elements of artistic practice in the methodology of research output (Frayling 1993, as well as in the potentials of performative aspects of scientific praxis and methodology. However, the conceptual background relevant for this paper is in the field of process philosophy and its relation to science (Birkhard’s “interactivist model” 2009; Campbell’s “process-based model for an interactive ontology” 2009. We attribute particular importance to the notion of “autopoietic feedback” (Maturana and Varela 1974; Luhmann 1990. The second part addresses the issue of transcending identity in the representations of the self and the other; the relationship between Theory-Theory (TT and Simulation Theory (ST, as well as some recent attempts at combining different theories of mind (e.g. Barlassina 2013. We also deal with the notion of “embodied praxis” (Gallagher and Meltzoff 1996; we mention some neuroscientific insights into the similar phenomena, and – commenting on the importance of the dialogue between neuroscientists and philosophers (Changeux and Ricour – we give an example of an enactive approach to understanding

  6. Commons at the Intersection of Peer Production, Citizen Science, and Big Data: Galaxy Zoo

    CERN Document Server

    Madison, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge commons research framework is applied to a case of commons governance grounded in research in modern astronomy. The case, Galaxy Zoo, is a leading example of at least three different contemporary phenomena. In the first place Galaxy Zoo is a global citizen science project, in which volunteer non-scientists have been recruited to participate in large-scale data analysis via the Internet. In the second place Galaxy Zoo is a highly successful example of peer production, sometimes known colloquially as crowdsourcing, by which data are gathered, supplied, and/or analyzed by very large numbers of anonymous and pseudonymous contributors to an enterprise that is centrally coordinated or managed. In the third place Galaxy Zoo is a highly visible example of data-intensive science, sometimes referred to as e-science or Big Data science, by which scientific researchers develop methods to grapple with the massive volumes of digital data now available to them via modern sensing and imaging technologies. This ...

  7. Metabolic Syndrome after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: At the Intersection of Treatment Toxicity and Immune Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Lucie M; Yingst, Ashley; Verneris, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors face a multitude of short- and long-term health complications in the years after treatment. One important health complication that is associated with significant morbidity is metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). This constellation of findings, which includes obesity, glucose and lipid dysmetabolism, and hypertension, places affected individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular complications, and stroke. Previous studies have linked MetSyn in HCT survivors to prior treatment; however, few studies have addressed the potential roles of systemic inflammation and immune system dysfunction after HCT. Within this review, we address the recent advances in the understanding of adipose tissue biology, immune, and inflammatory mechanisms involved in MetSyn in non-HCT patients, and lastly, we discuss potential novel mechanisms that may play a role in MetSyn development after HCT, such as hematopoietic stem cell source, inflammatory status of the stem cell donor, and microbiome composition, all of which represent potential new directions for post-HCT MetSyn research.

  8. Advances in health informatics education: educating students at the intersection of health care and information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth; Armstrong, Brian; Kuo, Mu-Hsing

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the authors' work in the area of health informatics (HI) education involving emerging health information technologies. A range of information technologies promise to modernize health care. Foremost among these are electronic health records (EHRs), which are expected to significantly improve and streamline health care practice. Major national and international efforts are currently underway to increase EHR adoption. However, there have been numerous issues affecting the widespread use of such information technology, ranging from a complex array of technical problems to social issues. This paper describes work in the integration of information technologies directly into the education and training of HI students at both the undergraduate and graduate level. This has included work in (a) the development of Web-based computer tools and platforms to allow students to have hands-on access to the latest technologies and (b) development of interdisciplinary educational models that can be used to guide integrating information technologies into HI education. The paper describes approaches that allow for remote hands-on access by HI students to a range of EHRs and related technology. To date, this work has been applied in HI education in a variety of ways. Several approaches for integration of this essential technology into HI education and training are discussed, along with future directions for the integration of EHR technology into improving and informing the education of future health and HI professionals.

  9. At the intersection of toxicology, psychiatry, and genetics: a diagnosis of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloas, Harold Andrew; Ence, Thomas C; Mendez, Donna R; Cruz, Andrea T

    2013-09-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is a genetic disorder involving a mutation of the ornithine transcarbamylase gene, located on the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp21.1). This makes the expression of the gene most common in homozygous males, but heterozygous females can also be affected and may be more likely to suffer from serious morbidity. Most males present early in the neonatal period with more devastating outcomes than their female counterparts. Up to 34% will present in the first 30 days of life (J Pediatr 2001;138:S30). Females often have partially functioning mitochondria due to uneven distribution of the mutant gene secondary to lyonization (“X-chromosome Inactivation”. Genetics Home Reference, 2012). Occasionally, symptomatic females may not even present until they are placed under metabolic stress such as a severe illness, fasting, pregnancy, or new medication (Roth KS, Steiner RD. “Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency”. EMedicine, 2012). The urea cycle is the body's primary tool for the disposal of excess nitrogen, which is generated by the routine metabolism of proteins and amino acids. Mitochondrial dysfunction impairs urea production and result in hyperammonemia (Semin Neonatol 2002;7:27). The sine qua non among all degrees of OTC deficiency at presentation is hyperammonemia. As in adults, children will have similar symptoms of encephalopathy, but this may be expressed differently depending on the child's developmental level. We present an unusual case of OTC deficiency in an older child with undifferentiated symptoms of an anticholinergic toxidrome, liver failure, iron overdose, and mushroom poisoning.

  10. Late Cenozoic stress state distributions at the intersection of the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Över, Semir; Özden, Süha; Pınar, Ali; Yılmaz, Hüseyin; Kamacı, Züheyr; Ünlügenç, Ulvi Can

    2016-12-01

    The history of the Late Cenozoic stress regime was determined for an area between the gulfs of Fethiye and Antalya. Fault kinematic analysis and inversion of focal mechanisms of shallow earthquakes reveal significant evolution of the regional stress regime in SW Anatolia, i.e., the area of interaction between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs, from the Mio-Pliocene to the present time. Fault kinematic analysis yields two different normal faulting stress regimes along the southwestern part of Fethiye-Burdur Fault zone, e.g., in and around Çameli Basin (Zone A1) and two different strike-slip to normal faulting stress regimes characterized by a roughly orthogonal set of extensional axes between Fethiye and Demre (Zone B) with an older NW-SE σ3 axis for Mio-Pliocene and a younger NE-SW σ3 axis for Plio-Quaternary time. Inversion of focal mechanisms of the earthquakes occurring in Zone A1 provides an extensional stress state with approximately N-S σ3 axis. Inversion of those occurring in Zone B, south of Zone A1, yields a dominantly strike-slip stress state with a NE-SW σ3 axis and a NW-SE σ1 axis respectively. The inversion slip vectors from fault planes yield a consistent normal faulting stress regime in Burdur Basin and its surroundings (i.e., along the northeastern part of Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone, (Zone A2)) during Plio-Quaternary, continuing into recent time as indicated by earthquake focal mechanism inversions. Both states have a consistent NW-SE σ3 axis. Fault kinematic analysis indicates NW-SE extension acting in Zone C (subarea between Demre and Antalya), south of Zone A2, during Mio-Pliocene time. The inversion of focal mechanisms yields normal faulting also characterized by a consistent NW-SE σ3 axis. The nearly orthogonal extensional stress regimes (NW-SE and NE-SW) obtained by inversion of both measured and seismic faults seem to have been acting contemporaneously with each other at different intensities from the Mio-Pliocene onwards in SW Turkey. This

  11. Deburring small intersecting holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-08-01

    Deburring intersecting holes is one of the most difficult deburring tasks faced by many industries. Only 14 of the 37 major deburring processes are applicable to most intersecting hole applications. Only five of these are normally applicable to small or miniature holes. Basic process capabilities and techniques used as a function of hole sizes and intersection depths are summarized.

  12. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against ch...... children, and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection....

  13. Remediating Computational Deficits at Third Grade: A Randomized Field Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Cirino, Paul T.; FLETCHER, JACK M.

    2008-01-01

    The major purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of tutoring to remediate 3rd-grade computational deficits and to explore whether remediation is differentially efficacious depending on whether students experience mathematics difficulty alone or concomitantly with reading difficulty. At 2 sites, 127 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and randomly assigned to 4 conditions: word recognition (control) tutoring or 1 of 3 computation tutoring conditions: fact retr...

  14. Pedestrians´and cyclists´effect on capacity of right turn movement at signalized intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Pierre E.; Rysgaard, Rikke; Jørgensen, N O

    1998-01-01

    Observations from 4 intersections in Copenhagen are used to formulate a model for the delays which right turning car traffic experience due to straight ahead going pedestrians and cyclists. The empirical data are used to formulate a simulation model which allows estimation of delays in cases...

  15. A Feasibility Study on Crash Avoidance at Four-Way Stop-Sign-Controlled Intersections Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Hyun; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Kyeong Tae; Li, Ki Joune

    In this letter, we propose a novel approach using wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to enhance the safety and efficiency of four-way stop-sign-controlled (FWSC) intersections. The proposed algorithm provides right of way (RoW) and crash avoidance information by means of an intelligent WSN system. The system is composed of magnetic sensors, embedded in the center of a lane, with relay nodes and a base station placed on the side of the road. The experimental results show that the vehicle detection accuracy is over 99% and the sensor node battery life expectancy is over 3 years for traffic of 5, 800 vehicles per day. For the traffic application we consider, a strong effect is observed as the projected conflict rate was reduced by 72% compared to an FWSC intersection operated with only driver perception.

  16. Stimulated Raman signals at conical intersections: Ab initio surface hopping simulation protocol with direct propagation of the nuclear wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalewski, Markus, E-mail: mkowalew@uci.edu; Mukamel, Shaul, E-mail: smukamel@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C—H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings.

  17. Cross-comparison of three surrogate safety methods to diagnose cyclist safety problems at intersections in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureshyn, Aliaksei; Goede, Maartje de; Saunier, Nicolas; Fyhri, Aslak

    2016-06-08

    Relying on accident records as the main data source for studying cyclists' safety has many drawbacks, such as high degree of under-reporting, the lack of accident details and particularly of information about the interaction processes that led to the accident. It is also an ethical problem as one has to wait for accidents to happen in order to make a statement about cyclists' (un-)safety. In this perspective, the use of surrogate safety measures based on actual observations in traffic is very promising. In this study we used video data from three intersections in Norway that were all independently analysed using three methods: the Swedish traffic conflict technique (Swedish TCT), the Dutch conflict technique (DOCTOR) and the probabilistic surrogate measures of safety (PSMS) technique developed in Canada. The first two methods are based on manual detection and counting of critical events in traffic (traffic conflicts), while the third considers probabilities of multiple trajectories for each interaction and delivers a density map of potential collision points per site. Due to extensive use of microscopic data, PSMS technique relies heavily on automated tracking of the road users in video. Across the three sites, the methods show similarities or are at least "compatible" with the accident records. The two conflict techniques agree quite well for the number, type and location of conflicts, but some differences with no obvious explanation are also found. PSMS reports many more safety-relevant interactions including less severe events. The location of the potential collision points is compatible with what the conflict techniques suggest, but the possibly significant share of false alarms due to inaccurate trajectories extracted from video complicates the comparison. The tested techniques still require enhancement, with respect to better adjustment to analysis of the situations involving cyclists (and vulnerable road users in general) and further validation. However, we

  18. Seventh-grade students at-risk for school failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, R; Pihl, R O

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of failure on the subsequent test performance in school of young adolescents. Fifty-one seventh-grade students, identified as at-risk for future school failure, were compared to 51 randomly selected classmates on individually administered measures of intelligence, self-concept, problem-solving ability, coping ability, attribution, and locus of control. Teachers' ratings, mathematics ability, and grades of the two groups were also compared. Students with a history of school failure, although of normal intelligence, were found to be significantly less intellectually, academically, and affectively competent than their more successful peers and were rated by their teachers as significantly less able to deal adaptively with normal school stress. A discriminant analysis separated the groups with 93% accuracy. On two equivalent mathematics tests, one given under relaxed conditions, and the other under normal school test-like conditions, approximately thirty percent of both the at-risk and the otherwise normal students got lower scores when they thought they were taking a test. Implications of these results for the understanding and remediation of stress-depressed school performance are discussed.

  19. Analysing adjustment factors for using lanes at traffic-light-controlled intersections in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Peña Lindarte

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article was focused on analyzing the lane use adjustment factor (fLU forming one of the eleven adjustment factors proposed in the current calculation methodology contained in the 2000 version of the Transportation Research Board’s (TRB Highway Capacity Manual (HCM for analyzing traffic-light-controlled intersection capacity in terms of saturation intensity. A methodology was established when analyzing the fLU factor that considered operational conditions regarding traffic-light-controlled intersections in Bogota. Road traffic flows were analyzed, including characterizing road traffic based on statistical sampling, field data collection and analysis. The project proposed equations allowing reference values to be gathered for determining adjustment factors regarding lane use on roads in Bogota in relation to existing access typologies and road traffic volume for analyzing traffic-light- controlled intersections. For example, in the specific case of roads having direct double-lane access (2CCD, the basic equation was determined to be y=-3,03E-08X2+3,44E-05X+0,888988, having a 1.0 coefficient of correlation. The dependent variable y referred to the fLU factor and the independent variable X was the volume of road traffic in mixed vehicles/hour. This equation was considered to be statistically relevant. A comparative analysis of the lane use adjustment factors estimated in the project is also presented and compared to the values recommended by the US Highway Capacity Manual. The project’s conclusions and re- commendations were thus sustained, validating the recommended factors summarized by the HCM and recommending that the results obtained from the project should be used in traffic-light-controlled design and planning projects.

  20. Quasi Lp-Intersection Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yang YU; Dong Hua WU; Gang Song LENG

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to generalize the notion of intersection bodies to that of quasi Lp-intersection bodies. The Lp-analogs of the Busemann intersection inequality and the Brunn Minkowski inequality for the quasi Lp-intersection bodies are obtained. The Aleksandrov-Fenchel inequality for the mixed quasi Lp-intersection bodies is also established.

  1. Negotiating identity at the intersection of paediatric and genetic medicine: the parent as facilitator, narrator and patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article identifies a significant transformation in the role and identity of parents accompanying their child to clinic. This shift is a product of the intersection between paediatric and genetic medicine, where parents play a critical role in providing information about their child, family and ultimately, about themselves. To provide a context for this matrix, two broad areas of sociological inquiry are highlighted. The first is explanations of the role a parent plays in paediatric medicine and the second is the diagnostic process in paediatric genetics and the implications for parent and child identities. Drawing from an ethnographic study of clinical consultations, attention is paid to the changing role of parenthood and the extended role of patienthood in paediatric genetic medicine.

  2. Investigating risk factors of traffic casualties at private highway-railroad grade crossings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Kirolos

    2016-10-01

    Private highway-railroad grade crossings (HRGCs) are intersections of highways and railroads on roadways that are not maintained by a public authority. Since no public authority maintains private HRGCs, fatal and injury crashes at these locations are of concern. However, no study has been conducted at private HRGCs to identify the safety issues that might exist and how to alleviate them. This study identifies the significant predictors of traffic casualties (including both injuries and fatalities) at private HRGCs in the U.S. using six years of nationwide crashes from 2009 to 2014. Two levels of injury severity were considered, injury (including fatalities and injuries) and no injury. The study investigates multiple predictors, e.g., temporal crash characteristics, geometry, railroad, traffic, vehicle, and environment. The study applies both the mixed logit and binary logit models. The mixed logit model was found to outperform the binary logit model. The mixed logit model revealed that drivers who did not stop, railroad equipment that struck highway users, higher train speeds, non-presence of advance warning signs, concrete road surface type, and cloudy weather were associated with an increase in injuries and fatalities. For example, a one-mile-per-hour higher train speed increases the probability of fatality by 22%. On the contrary, male drivers, PM peak periods, and presence of warning devices at both approaches were associated with a fatality reduction. Potential strategies are recommended to alleviate injuries and fatalities at private HRGCs.

  3. Investigation by techniques of electron stimulated desorption of the merits of glow discharge cleaning of the surfaces of vacuum chambers at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, A W; Williams, E M

    1973-01-01

    To provide surface cleaning of the CERN intersecting storage rings, in which the pressure is below 10/sup -10/ torr over a 2 km length of mostly elliptical pipe (160*52 mm), ion bombardment during a glow discharge has been utilized. The discharge in argon at a pressure of about 3*10/sup -2/ torr was carried out intermittently in the course of a 15 h bake-out at 300 degrees C. Subsequent electron scrubbing enabled the electron desorption efficiency of the surface of the ISR vacuum chambers to be reduced by two to three orders of magnitude. Information is given on the apparatus used and the procedure adopted, together with a discussion of the diagnostic technique and a consideration of the action of the discharge cleaning. (15 refs).

  4. Intersection I-2

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    Intersection I-2 of the ISR during the installation of experiments. On the left to the crossing region can be seen the massive iron plate structure of the muon detector being used by a British collaboration in a search for the intermediate vector boson. The magnet and hodoscopes on the right are part of the spectrometer arm of the Bristish-Scandinavian Collaration.

  5. Intersectional embodiment and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elg, Camilla; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    Through almost two decades the term ‘intersectionality' has gained influence in post colonial studies, gender studies, feminist theory and other research fields occupied with how social differences are distributed and how individuals are socially constructed  in stratified societies. The ‘interse...... differences and discuss the implications this has for our understanding of power relations....

  6. Optimising Signalised Intersection Using Wireless Vehicle Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi; Torkudzor, Moses; Asare, Jack

    Traffic congestion on roads wastes travel times. In this paper, we developed a vehicular traffic model to optimise a signalised intersection in Accra, using wireless vehicle detectors. Traffic volume gathered was extrapolated to cover 2011 and 2016 and were analysed to obtain the peak hour traffic...... volume causing congestion. The intersection was modelled and simulated in Synchro7 as an actuated signalised model using results from the analysed data. The model for morning peak periods gave optimal cycle lengths of 100s and 150s with corresponding intersection delay of 48.9s and 90.6s in 2011 and 2016...... respectively while that for the evening was 55s giving delay of 14.2s and 16.3s respectively. It is shown that the model will improve traffic flow at the intersection....

  7. History at the intersection of disability and public health: the case of John Galsworthy and disabled soldiers of the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznick, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    The author presented an earlier version of this historical article to the Disability Section of the American Public Health Association (November 2009). It is part of his ongoing research in the social and cultural history of medicine as the field intersects with the history of disability, veterans, and public health, as well as current issues that touch all of these areas. This article introduces readers to perspectives on disability held by the British novelist John Galsworthy (1867-1933), which he developed primarily through his philanthropic support for and his compositions about rehabilitation programs for British and American soldiers disabled in the First World War (1914-1918). Readers will learn that Galsworthy's perspectives are as much about his identity as an individual with disabilities as they are about men disabled in the "war to end all wars." The rediscovery of Galsworthy's experiences and words more than 90 years after the end of World War I reveals how history is present today at the intersection of disability and public health. Indeed, the story of Galsworthy ultimately seeking to forget his own experiences during the "Great War," as well as the very physical and psychological disability caused by that conflict, can inspire public health professionals and disability rights advocates today to remember-indeed, to advocate for-men and women who served in battle and have returned home to realize renewed health and social participation despite permanent physical and psychological wounds. Readers will note that language used throughout this article to describe disability is period-specific and therefore not keeping with current conventions.

  8. Grade 9 Astronomy Study: Interests of Boys and Girls Studying Astronomy at Fletcher's Meadow Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstovic, Mirjan; Brown, Laura; Chacko, Merin; Trinh, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    In this report, we discuss the interests of Grade 9 boys and girls studying astronomy at Fletcher's Meadow Secondary School in Brampton, Ontario. A total of 152 Grade 9 academic students were asked to rate their interest levels in various astronomy topics on a scale of 0-3, where 0 represented no interest and 3 represented a high level of…

  9. Intersecting M-Fluxbranes

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C M; Sharakin, S A; Chen, Chiang-Mei; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Sharakin, Sergei A.

    1999-01-01

    New solution to the six-dimensional vacuum Einstein's equations is constructed as a non-linear superposition of two five-dimensional solutions representing the Melvin-Gibbons-Maeda Universe and its S-dual. Then using duality between D=8 vacuum and a certain class of D=11 supergravity configurations we generate M2 and M5 fluxbranes as well as some of their intersections also including waves and KK-monopoles.

  10. Algebraic Thinking in Middle School Students at Different Grades: Conceptions about Generalization of Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek GİRİT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Algebra is generally considered as manipulating symbols, while algebraic thinking is about generalization. Patterns can be used for generalizat ion to develop early graders’ algebraic thinking. In the generalization of pattern context, the purpose of this study is to investigate middle school students’ reasoning and strategies at different grades when their algebraic thinking begins to develop. First, 6 open-ended linear growth pattern problems as numeric, pictorial, and tabular representations were asked to 154 middle grade students. Next, two students from each grade (6th, 7th, and 8th grade were interviewed to investigate how they interpret the relationship in different represented patterns, and which strategies they use. The findings of this study showed that students tended to use algebraic symbolis m as their grade level was increased. However, the students’ conceptions about ‘variable’ were troublesome.

  11. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas at dynamic enhanced CT: comparison between grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinoma and grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Kim, Kyung Won; Byun, Jae Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ki Byung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon; Hong, Seung-Mo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    To identify the CT features in differentiating grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinomas from grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumours. This study included 161 patients with surgically confirmed pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. Pathology slides were reviewed to determine the tumour grade. CT image analysis included size, pattern, calcification, margin, pancreatic duct dilatation, bile duct dilatation, vascular invasion, arterial enhancement ratio, and portal enhancement ratio. We used 2 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm as cutoff values of tumour size and 0.9 and 1.1 of enhancement ratio to determine the sensitivity and specificity. Pathology analysis identified 167 lesions in 161 patients. 154 lesions (92 %) were grade 1/2 and 13 (8 %) were grade 3. Portal enhancement ratio (< 1.1) showed high sensitivity and specificity 92.3 % and 80.5 %, respectively in differentiating grade 3 from grade 1/2. It showed the highest odds ratio (49.60), followed by poorly defined margin, size (> 3 cm), bile duct dilatation, and vascular invasion. When at least two of these five criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing grade 3 were 92.3 % (12/13) and 87.7 % (135/154), respectively. By using specific CT findings, grade 3 can be differentiated from grade 1/2 with a high diagnostic accuracy leading to an appropriate imaging staging. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of small-angle antiproton-proton and proton-proton elastic scattering at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amos, N.; Block, M.M.; Bobbink, G.J.; Botje, M.A.J.; Favart, D.; Leroy, C.; Linde, F.; Lipnik, P.; Matheys, J-P.; Miller, D.

    1985-01-01

    Antiproton-proton and proton-proton small-angle elastic scattering was measured for centre-of-mass energies at the CERN Intersectung Storage Rings. In addition, proton-proton elastic scattering was measured at . Using the optical theorem, total cross sections are obtained with an accuracy of about

  13. Prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM): A new frontier at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Formed by non-covalent interactions and not defined at genetic level, the assemblies of small molecules in biology are complicated and less explored. A common morphology of the supramolecular assemblies of small molecules is nanofibrils, which coincidentally resembles the nanofibrils formed by proteins such as prions. So these supramolecular assemblies are termed as prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM). Emerging evidence from several unrelated fields over the past decade implies the significance of PriSM in biology and medicine. This perspective aims to highlight some recent advances of the research on PriSM. This paper starts with description of the intriguing similarities between PriSM and prions, discusses the paradoxical features of PriSM, introduces the methods for elucidating the biological functions of PriSM, illustrates several examples of beneficial aspects of PriSM, and finishes with the promises and current challenges in the research of PriSM. We anticipate that the research of PriSM will contribute to the fundamental understanding at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology and ultimately lead to a new paradigm of molecular (or supramolecular) therapeutics for biomedicine.

  14. Low-energy direct photon production in p p and alpha alpha collisions at the cern intersecting storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Young-il

    1986-01-01

    High transverse momentum (p(,T)) direct photons have given us some of our best evidence for low order perturbative QCD proces- ses in hadron collisions. It is also important to examine hadronic collisions with a weakly interacting probe in the low p(,T) region, where hadron interactions involve very complicated phenomena. A previous experiment at SQRT.(s) = 12 GeV has observed an excess of low p(,T) direct photons. The present experiment has studied direct soft photons in pp interactions at SQRT.(s) = 63 GeV and alpha-alpha interactions at SQRT.(s(,NN)) = 31.5 GeV at the CERN ISR. Comparisons of photon production with respect to track production in pp minimum bias events with that in pp events with high transverse energy (E(,T)) and with alpha-alpha minimum bias events are investigated. For alpha-alpha minimum bias data, within experimental errors there was no excess of photons with respect to tracks, compared with pp minimum bias data. But for pp high E(,T) data, we observed an interesting effect: as p(,T) i...

  15. Measurement of proton-proton and proton-antiproton elastic scattering at the European center for nuclear research intersecting storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Norman A

    1985-01-01

    Proton-proton and proton-antiproton elastic scattering was measured at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. Using the optical theorem, we have extracted the total nuclear cross sections for these collisions. By measuring the interference between the Coulomb amplitude and the nuclear amplitude we have found rho, the ratio of the real part to the imaginary part of the forward nuclear elastic scattering amplitude. Further, we have extracted the nuclear slope parameter in the forward direction. For proton-proton interactions, the total nuclear cross sections measured were 39.95 +- 0.30 mb and 42.19 +- 0.19 mb for center-of-mass energies √s = 30.6 GeV and 52.8 GeV, respectively. The measured values of rho were 0.035 +- 0.009 and 0.071 +- 0.010. For proton-antiproton interactions, the cross sections found were 41.10 +- 0.40 mb and 43.34 +- 0.43 mb, respectively, and the rho values were 0.088 +- 0.025 and 0.066 +- 0.022

  16. 无信号交叉口行人过街决策行为分析%Decision-Making Behavior of Pedestrians at Intersection without Traffic Lights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦艳芳; 时伟; 邝华; 宋涛; 董力耘

    2013-01-01

    通过分析拟合广西梧州市中心城区无信号交叉口的实测数据,研究了行人的过街决策行为和过街速度,并在此基础上,引入了行人决策距离和临界安全距离两个概念.实测数据表明,交通平常期行人过街速度在平均速度附近变化:如果考虑行人在路边的等待时间,行人的平均过街速度为0.6 m/s;如果不考虑行人在路边的等待时间,行人的平均过街速度为0.8m/s.经统计学D'Agostino法检验发现,交通平常期行人过街的平均速度分布不满足正态分布.%This paper conducts a set of field measurements to obtain data of decision-making behavior and crossing speed of pedestrians at an intersection without traffic lights in downtown Wuzhou,Guangxi.The concepts of decision-making distance and critical safety distance are introduced through analysis and fitting of statistical data.The observed data show that pedestrians' crossing speed at off-peak hour fluctuates around the mean speed and does not perfectly obey the normal distribution based on the D'Agostino test.The mean speed at off-peak hour is only 0.6 m/s when the waiting time is counted,whereas it is 0.8 m/s without considering the waiting time.

  17. Look where you have to go! : a field study comparing looking behaviour at urban intersections using a navigation system or a printed route instruction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haupt, J. Nes, N. van & Risser, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, experienced navigation system users (N = 20) drove a given unfamiliar route twice: once with the navigation system activated and once with a printed instruction including a route instruction. Quantitative analysis indicated that drivers passed intersections slower when they used the p

  18. Switching exciton pulses through conical intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Leonhardt, K; Rost, J -M

    2013-01-01

    Exciton pulses transport excitation and entanglement adiabatically through Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light atoms, which are set into directed motion by resonant dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we demonstrate the coherent splitting of such pulses as well as the spatial segregation of electronic excitation and atomic motion. Both mechanisms exploit local non-adiabatic effects at a conical intersection, turning them from a decoherence source into an asset. The intersection provides a sensitive knob controlling the propagation direction and coherence properties of exciton pulses.

  19. On the Lp intersection body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, by using the Brunn-Minkowski-Firey mixed volume theory and dual mixed volume theory, associated with Lp intersection body and dual mixed volume, some dual Brunn-Minkowski inequalities and their isolate forms are established for Lp intersection body about the normalized Lp radial addition and Lp radial linear combination. Some properties of operator Lp are given.

  20. INEQUALITIES FOR MIXED INTERSECTION BODIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN SHUFENG; LENG GANGSONG

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, some properties of mixed intersection bodies are given, and inequalities from the dual Brunn-Minkowski theory (such as the dual Minkowski inequality, the dual Aleksandrov-Fenchel inequalities and the. dual Brunn-Minkowski inequalities) are established for mixed intersection bodies.

  1. Differential forms and Hodge numbers for toric complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Hamm, Helmut A

    2011-01-01

    We discuss conditions for complete intersections in a toric variety which allow to compute Hodge numbers if the complete intersection is a quasi-smooth complete variety. A preliminary step is the computation of the Euler characteristic of differential forms, we also look at symmetric or arbitrary forms instead of the usual alternating ones.

  2. Research on Grade Renewing of Cultivated Land at County Level:A Case Study of Daxing District,Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-hui; JIN Jing; WU Ke-ning; KOU Zong-miao; FU Bo

    2012-01-01

    To create a scientific way to renew the grades of cultivated land at county level, monitoring points were set up according to the monitoring control regions and grade types of cultivated land in Daxing District, Beijing, and soil samples were collected to carry out chemical analysis. Afterwards, the input and output data of cultivated land in each village were surveyed to renew the grades of cultivated land. The results indicate that the average natural grade of cultivated land was 8.4, which was equal to that of 2004; the average utilization grade was 8.1, which was slightly higher than that of 2004; the average economic grade was 9.9, which was lower than that of 2004. It is concluded that it is scientific to renew cultivated land grades through scientifically setting monitoring points according to the monitoring control regions and grade types of cultivated land.

  3. 突发事件下应急车辆单点信号优先控制研究%Signal Priority Control Strategy for Emergency Vehicles at Isolated Intersection under Unexpected Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟海波; 俞建宁; 刘林忠

    2012-01-01

    Under an unexpected event, emergency vehicles coming from different directions arrive at the same intersection simultaneously and compete for green light phase. To reduce intersection delays of emergency vehicles, taken the minimum delays of all vehicles at isolated intersection as the control target, the priority of each phase was obtained by considering expected future waiting times and emergency vehicle volume rate comprehensively. Fuzzy Petri net approach was adopted to give the most suitable green time of current phase according to the queue and the emergency vehicle volume rate of current phase and the next phase. Finally, a concrete signal priority control strategy was presented. Simulation result indicates that when the emergency vehicle volume rate increased from 0. 1 to 0. 6, the average intersection delay of emergency vehicles decreased from 22. 43 s to 20. 41 s, since the phase priority increased correspondingly and the assigned green time was close to the clearance time, some emergency vehicles can pass through the intersection directly. The strategy given here can reduce the intersection delays of emergency vehicles efficiently.%突发事件下,不同方向的应急车辆同时到达交叉口竞争绿灯相位.为减少应急车辆在交叉口的延误,以车辆总停留时间最小为目标,综合考虑各相位的期望将来停留时间和应急车流量比,得到各个相位的优先权.根据当前相位和下一相位的队长和应急车流量比,采用模糊Petri网方法确定当前相位的最佳绿灯时间,并给出了具体的信号优先控制策略.仿真结果表明,当应急车流量比由0.1增加到0.6时,由于对应相位的优先权增大,实际执行绿灯时间接近于相位清空时间,部分应急车辆可以不在交叉口停留直接通过,应急车辆的交叉口平均延误由22.43 s下降到20.41 s.可见,该方法可以有效降低应急车辆的交叉口延误.

  4. Impact of Driver Behavior on Capacity at the Signalized Intersections%驾驶者行为选择对十字路口通行能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴腾宇; 徐寅峰; 张珩

    2015-01-01

    考虑通过十字路口时左转车辆和直行车辆发生路权冲突时的不同驾驶者行为,将驾驶者分为跟随型驾驶者和谦让型驾驶者,并建立了左转车辆通过十字路口的模型,研究不同的驾驶者行为选择对十字路口通行能力的影响。结果表明,随着交通流量逐渐增加,驾驶者的行为越趋向于跟随时,十字路口的通行能力将会急剧降低;而当驾驶者的行为趋向于谦让时,十字路口的通行能力甚至优于有交警指挥的情形。该结果很好地解释了在行车高峰期中国十字路口堵塞的原因,即驾驶者的行为选择,可以通过改变驾驶者的行为选择和在交通流量达到一定的饱和度时派出交警来改善十字路口的通行能力。%When the conflicts between the left-turn vehicles and the through vehicles have happened at the signal-ized intersection, we consider different driver behaviors and divide the drivers into two types:the following driver and the humility driver, and build a model of the left-turn vehicles going through the intersection.The impact on the intersection’ s capacity by the different driver behavior is studied.The results show that when all the drivers are the following drivers, with the increase of the traffic flow, the capacity of the intersection decreases sharply. When all the drivers are the humility drivers, considering the situation that the policeman directs traffic, the capacity of the intersection will be better.These results can explain the reason for the blocking of the intersec-tions at the heavy traffic time in China well.We can improve the capacity of the intersections by changing the driver behavior and by directing traffic by a policeman.

  5. Enactment of Scientific Inquiry: Observation of Two Cases at Different Grade Levels in China Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Ronghui; Clarke, David; Wang, Weizhen

    2014-04-01

    Enactment of scientific inquiry in classroom has attracted a great attention of science educators around the world. In this study, we examined two competent teachers' (one Grade 9 chemistry teacher and one Grade 4 science teacher) enactment of scientific inquiry in selected teaching units to reveal the characteristics of enacted inquiry at different grade levels by analyzing lesson sequence videos. The coding schemes for enacted inquiry consist of ontological properties and instructional practices. Pre-topic and post-topic teacher interviews and the two teachers' responses to a questionnaire were adopted to identify the factors influencing teacher's enactment. The results indicate that the two case teachers' enactment involved a range of inquiry activities. The enacted inquiry at fourth-grade level covered all the inquiry elements, tending to engage students in the whole procedure of inquiry. The ninth-grade chemistry class placed emphasis on the elements "making plans" to solve problems in authentic context. Important factors influencing the enactment include teacher's understanding about scientific inquiry, textbooks, assessment, students and resource. Implications for inquiry enactment and instruction improvement have been provided.

  6. Design and construction technology of coal bunker at the intersection%交岔点处煤仓设计与施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传振; 公维宽; 王伟强

    2015-01-01

    -1100m level transfer bunker is located in the intersection of-1100m belt blind incline shaft and-1100m transshipment roadway, upper opening began-1100m belt blind incline shaft, the below is located in-1100m transshipment roadway. If using incline coal bunker, the distance between the below opening and-1100m transshipment roadway is 2m, the space to install reproduced belt is insufficient, if taken using vertical coal bunker, the below opening is located in the intersection of-1100m belt blind incline shaft and-1100m transshipment roadway, to reduce-1100m level transfer bunker construction difficulty, improve the construction strength of the intersection, by constructed the integrated load-bearing walls in the intersection, strengthen the supporting of the below opening, which ensure the bearing ability and service life of large section of vertical coal bunker.%-1100 m水平转载仓位于-1100 m皮带暗斜井及-1100 m转载巷交岔处,上缩口始于-1100 m皮带暗斜井,下口位于-1100 m转载巷,若采用倾斜煤仓,下缩口将距-1100 m转载巷端头2 m,转载皮带安装空间不足,若采用垂直煤仓,下缩口将位于转载巷与通道的交岔点处.为降低-1100 m转载仓施工难度、提高交岔点处施工强度,在交岔点处构筑一体化承重墙,强化煤仓下缩口处支护设计,保证了大断面垂直煤仓的承载能力和服务年限.

  7. -Mixed Intersection Bodies and Star Duality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhao Chang-jian; Wing-Sum Cheung

    2010-09-01

    The paper extends the two notions of the dual mixed volumes and -intersection body to -dual mixed volumes and -mixed intersection body, respectively. Inequalities for the star dual of -mixed intersection bodies are established.

  8. 北京市道路信号交叉口自行车和行人的行为研究%The Behavior of Cyclists and Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建平; 黄岭; 赵坚利

    2004-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out at a signalized intersection in Beijing to study the behavior of cyclists and pedestrians in mixed traffic situations. Video cameras and data analysis technologies have been used to collect and analyze image data of cyclists and pedestrians at the signalized intersection. Results are useful for understanding the performance of mixed traffic at signalized intersections, and for building microscopic simulation models for urban mixed traffic.%对北京市信号交叉口的自行车和行人在混和交通流中的微观行为进行研究分析.研究中使用视频采集技术和数据分析技术来收集和分析自行车和行人在交叉口的行为.论文的主要研究结果是信号交叉口自行车和行人的各种微观行为特征和基础行为模型,这些结果有助于理解信号交叉口混和交通流的行为,并为城市混和交通流的微观交通模拟模型提供基础数据和理论依据.

  9. Modelling of urban traffic networkof signalized intersections

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This report presents how traffic network of signalized intersection in a chosen urban area called Tema is synchronized. Using a modular approach, two different types of traffic intersection commonly found in an urban area were modelled i.e. a simple intersection and a complex intersection. A direct road, even though not an intersection, was also included in the modelling because it’s commonly found in an urban area plus it connects any two intersections. Each of these scenarios was modelled u...

  10. Medical school dropout - testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta;

    2011-01-01

    dropout. Methods  This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n = 1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half......Medical Education 2011: 45: 1111-1120 Context  Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent...... years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Results  Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission...

  11. The CA model for traffic-flow at the grade roundabout crossing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Rui-Xiong; Bai Ke-Zhao; Liu Mu-Ren

    2006-01-01

    The cellular automaton model is suggested to describe the traffic-flow at the grade roundabout crossing. After the simulation with computer, the fundamental properties of this model have been revealed. Analysing this kind of road structure, this paper transforms the grade roundabout crossing with inner-roundabout-lane and outer-roundabout-lane into a configuration with many bottlenecks. Because of the self-organization, the traffic flow remains unblocked under a certain vehicle density. Some results of the simulation are close to the actual design parameter.

  12. Analysis of Drivers'Behavior at Signalized Intersection%信号交叉口驾驶员行为博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄选伟; 汪晶; 张邻

    2015-01-01

    为了研究车辆通过信号交叉口时的驾驶员决策行为,从博弈角度出发,根据影响驾驶员决策行为的性格因素,以及不同策略之间的势因素,通过时间细化,建立基于重复博弈下影响驾驶员决策行为的效用函数.通过驾驶员在行进过程中的决策行为,分析驾驶员获得的效用,得到动态博弈中驾驶员的最优决策.同时通过实例验证模型的可行性.例证表明:第一,对于冲动型的驾驶员在决策初始时刻最可能选择减速策略;第二,温和型的驾驶员选择加速或减速策略;第三,谨慎型的驾驶员选择减速策略.%In order to study the decision-making behavior of drivers at the signalized intersection, this study estab-lishes a utility function of drivers' driving behavior by reference to dynamic reduplicate game theory based on the drivers'personality that affects decision-making behavior and time refinement, and the relative potential factors among different strategies . According to the drivers'decision-making behavior in the process of driving and ana-lyzing the utility of the drivers'decision-making behavior, the drivers'optimal decision behaviors in a dynamic game are obtained, and the feasibility of the model is simultaneously verified. Experiments show that during deci-sion-making①impulsive drivers are more willing to choose deceleration strategy;②mild drivers prefer accelera-tion strategy or deceleration strategy;and③cautious drivers choose deceleration strategy.

  13. Effectiveness of Spanish Intervention for First-Grade English Language Learners at Risk for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Mathes, Patricia G.; Cirino, Paul T.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Francis, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of an explicit, systematic reading intervention for first-grade students whose home language was Spanish and who were at risk for reading difficulties was examined. Participants were 69 students in 20 classrooms in 7 schools from 3 districts who initially did not pass the screening in Spanish and were randomly assigned within…

  14. School Readiness and Achievement of Crow Indian Children, First Through Fourth Grades, at Pryor, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joyce Martin

    The study was based on a year's work with Crow Indian children, grades 1-4, at Pryor, Montana. Five tests were given and evaluated: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, the Gesell Developmental Examination, the Lowenfeld Mosaic, and 3 selected tasks from Piaget. The 21 pupils used for this study were broken…

  15. Error Patterns in Ordering Fractions among At-Risk Fourth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Amelia Schneider; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2015-01-01

    The 3 purposes of this study were to: (a) describe fraction ordering errors among at-risk 4th-grade students; (b) assess the effect of part-whole understanding and accuracy of fraction magnitude estimation on the probability of committing errors; and (c) examine the effect of students' ability to explain comparing problems on the probability of…

  16. The Impact of High-Speed Internet Connectivity at Home on Eighth-Grade Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    In the fall of 2008 Westside Community Schools - District 66, in Omaha, Nebraska implemented a one-to-one notebook computer take home model for all eighth-grade students. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a required yearlong one-to-one notebook computer program supported by high-speed Internet connectivity at school on (a)…

  17. The Priority of Intersectionality in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrand, Kristen L; Eliason, Jennifer; St Cloud, Tiffani; Potter, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    Recent societal events highlight inequities experienced by underrepresented and marginalized communities. These inequities are the impetus for ongoing efforts in academic medicine to create inclusive educational and patient care environments for diverse stakeholders. Frequently, approaches focus on singular populations or broad macroscopic concepts and do not always elucidate the complexities that arise at the intersection between multiple identities and life experiences. Intersectionality acknowledges multidimensional aspects of identity inclusive of historical, structural, and cultural factors. Understanding how multiple identity experiences impact different individuals, from patients to trainees to providers, is critical for improving health care education and delivery. Building on existing work within academic medicine, this Commentary outlines six key recommendations to advance intersectionality in academic medicine: embrace personal and collective loci of responsibility; examine and rectify unbalanced power dynamics; celebrate visibility and intersectional innovation; engage all stakeholders in the process of change; select and analyze meaningful metrics; and sustain the commitment to achieving health equity over time. Members of the academic medical community committed to advancing health equity can use these recommendations to promote and maintain meaningful changes that recognize and respond to the multidimensional voices and expressed needs of all individuals engaged in providing and receiving health care.

  18. Improving the Performance of Urban Road Intersection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Fareed M.A.Karim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Road intersection is responsible for an important proportion of air pollution especially in urban areas, due to long queues of vehicles waiting for discharge. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify their emissions as accurately as possible. In this study an attempt was made to research on reducing the traffic air pollution such as CO, CO2, HC and NOx, fuel consumption and vehicle operating cost along with improving the traffic flow and delay at a road intersection. One major uncontrolled (un signalized intersection in capital city Sana'a (Yemen was chosen for the study. The traffic air pollution, fuel consumption and vehicle operating cost as well as vehicle delay was calculated for the base year 2012 using aaSIDRA 2.0 software developed in Australia. For the horizon year 2022, three scenarios were considered for investigation viz. (1 do nothing, (2 signalizing the intersection and (3 construction of flyover. The analysis shows that for the above mentioned parameters scenario (3 will be the best scenario followed by scenario (2, while worst case scenario will be do nothing.

  19. Self-Intersecting Periodic Curves in the Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Howie, J

    2010-01-01

    Suppose a smooth planar curve $\\gamma$ is $2\\pi$-periodic in the $x$ direction and the length of one period is $\\ell$. It is shown that if $\\gamma$ self-intersects, then it has a segment of length $\\ell- 2\\pi$ on which it self-intersects and somewhere its curvature is at least $2\\pi/(\\ell - 2\\pi)$. The proof involves the projection $\\Gamma$ of $\\gamma$ onto a cylinder. (The complex relation between $\\gamma$ and $\\Gamma$ was recently observed analytically by T. M. Apostol and M. A. Mnatsakanian. When $\\gamma$ is in general position there is a bijection between self-intersection points of $\\gamma$ modulo the periodicity, and self-intersection points of $\\Gamma$ with winding number 0 around the cylinder. However, our proof depends on the observation that a loop in $\\Gamma$ with winding number 1 leads to a self-intersection point of $\\gamma$.

  20. Expression of serum human epididymal secretory protein E4 at low grade and high grade serous carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Fei Zhu; Lin-Sheng He; Zhen-Dong Zhang; Qing-Shui Huang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in differential diagnosis of patients with low-grade serous (LGSC) and high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) serous ovarian cancer. Methods: LGSC and HGSC serous ovarian cancer were diagnosed by the two-tier grade system, serum levels of HE4 and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) were measured by ELISA and radioisotope method, respectively in 60 serous ovarian cancer patients. HE4 and TP53 protein in cancer tissue were measured by immunohistochemical method. Results: The difference in density of HE4 and TP53 protein was significant between LGSC and HGSC tissue, while serum CA125 did not show significant difference between different serum samples. There was significant difference in serum HE4 levels between LGSC and HGSC, and the result was different within FIGO (I+II) stage, suggesting HE4 was not a reliable biomarker for the discrimination between LGSC and HGSC. HE4 had potential as a biomarker for the discrimination between LGSC and HGSC but the role in early diagnosis was limited. Conclusions: HE4 may be a reliable marker for differential diagnosis of LGSC and HGSC. But its role in early diagnosis of LGSC and HGSC need to be confirmed from the perspective of two-tier grade system.

  1. Study on Control Algorithm of Traffic Signals at Intersections Based on Optimizing Sub-area Traffic Flows%基于子区域交通流优化的交叉口信号控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧利林; 朱文兴

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce average delay time of passing vehicles and improve urban area traffic efficiency, considering actual geographical characteristics of intersections and sub-area traffic data, a control model for traffic signals at intersections was built based on optimizing sub-area traffic flows, and genetic algorithm was used to find out the optimal solution of the model. With traffic signals coordination of neighboring intersections considered, vehicle minimal delay time was chosen as the optimization object in the model. HCM2000 was adopted to calculate vehicle delay time and Robertson model was embedded in the optimization procedure, which ensured the proposed model to be feasible and effective. VC+ 3- 6. 0 software was applied to programm and calculate an optimal control plan for traffic signals at intersections. Finally, simulation by CORSIM was implemented to verifythe validity of the control plan. The results show that the proposed model can obtain better traffic efficiency than the coordination control method based on existing common cycle, and provides a new signal control idea at intersections for urban traffic.%为了减少车辆平均延误时间,提高城市区域交通通行效率,结合实际交叉口地理特征和区域交通流数据,建立了一种基于子区域交通流优化的交叉口信号控制模型,并应用遗传算法获得模型的最优解。在模型中,考虑相邻交叉口信号之间的协调,以车辆平均延误时间最小为优化目标,采用HCM2000延误计算方法,并在优化过程中嵌入Robertson车队离散模型,保证提出模型的可行性和有效性。在VC++6.0中编写程序,获得交叉口信号最优控制方案,最后通过CORSIM仿真证明该控制方案的优劣。结果表明:与现有基于共同周期的协调控制方法相比,所提出的模型能够获得更优的交通效益,为区域交通信号控制提供了一种新的思路。

  2. 自主车辆安全系数估计与T形路口避碰规划%Estimation of the safety coefficient of autonomous vehicles and collision avoidance planning at the T-shape intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄维; 田彦涛; 樊泽华; 王磊

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the collaboration of autonomous vehicles at a T-shape intersection , by measuring the vehicle speed and the distance of the vehicle away from the preset collision point , a safety coefficient estimation method is proposed.In combination with the basic thoughts on the artificial potential field , the collision avoidance of vehicles at an intersection may be realized and the intersection collaboration efficiency may be improved .Firstly, based on the safety coefficient obtained by calculations , the safety degree of two autonomous vehicles driving into the T-shape intersection are evaluated respectively , the push-pull function is derived from the artificial potential field and is uti-lized to estimate the expected control force and speed of the autonomous vehicles; then, a deviation is formed be-tween the estimated expected vehicle speed and the actual feedback speed , the increment-type digital PI controller is utilized to realize accurate control for the longitudinal speed of an autonomous vehicle ;finally, proper tactics are applied to complete the parallel collaboration of the two vehicles .The simulation result verifies the feasibility and ef-fectiveness of the cooperative collision avoidance of autonomous vehicles at a T-shape intersection estimated on the basis of the safety coefficient .%针对自主车辆T形路口协作问题,通过测量车辆速度和预碰点距离,提出安全系数估计方法,结合人工势场基本思想,实现车辆路口避碰,提高路口协作效率。首先以计算得到的安全系数为依据,评价驶入T形路口两辆自主车各自的安全程度,并利用人工势场产生的推拉作用估计协作自主车辆的期望控制力和速度。然后将估计的期望车速与反馈的实际车速形成偏差,利用增量型数字PI控制器实现自主车纵向车速的准确控制。最后以一定的策略完成两辆自主车的并线协作。仿真结果验证了基于安全系数估计的

  3. Using Robots to Motivate At-Risk Learners in Science over the Ninth Grade Hurdle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerge, Dora

    The ninth grade is a pivotal year in an adolescent's academic career; however, educators have failed to find a remedy for the high failure and dropout rates at this grade level. Students who lack basic skills and support as they enter high school can experience repeated failures, which often lead to a decrease in motivation and dropping out of school. Up to 15% of all ninth graders repeat ninth grade and 36% of all U. S. dropouts are ninth graders. It is imperative that researchers and educators find new ways to motivate at-risk students and augment basic skills in order to mitigate the dropout problem at this grade level. Robot teachers could be a viable solution to increase student motivation and achievement. However, before such strategies could be recommended for implementation, information about their efficacy in a high school setting is needed. The purpose of this quantitative, two-group experimental, pretest-posttest study was to determine the effects of a robot teacher/instructor on science motivation and science achievement in ninth grade at-risk learners. Approximately 40 at-risk, repeating ninth graders, ranging in age from 13 to 17 years old from one high school in the United States Virgin Islands, participated in the study. Half of the students received a robot teacher/instructor manipulation whereby a robot taught a science lesson for physical science assessments (experimental group), and the other half received the same instruction from a human teacher (control group). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare the science achievement posttest scores, as measured by test scores, and science motivation posttest scores, as measured by the SMTSL, between the experimental and the control groups, while controlling for the pretest scores (covariate). The results demonstrated that posttest motivation and achievement scores in the human teacher condition were not significantly different than posttest motivation scores in the robot teacher

  4. Simulation of queue with cyclic service in signalized intersection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dermawan Mulyodiputro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The simulation was implemented by modeling the queue with cyclic service in the signalized intersection system. The service policies used in this study were exhaustive and gated, the model was the M/M/1 queue, the arrival rate used was Poisson distribution and the services rate used was Exponential distribution. In the gated service policy, the server served only vehicles that came before the green signal appears at an intersection. Considered that there were 2 types of exhaustive policy in the signalized intersection system, namely normal exhaustive (vehicles only served during the green signal was still active, and exhaustive (there was the green signal duration addition at the intersection, when the green signal duration at an intersection finished. The results of this queueing simulation program were to obtain characteristics and performance of the system, i.e. average number of vehicles and waiting time of vehicles in the intersection and in the system, as well as system utilities. Then from these values, it would be known which of the cyclic service policies (normal exhaustive, exhaustive and gated was the most suitable when applied to a signalized intersection system

  5. Medical school dropout - testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta;

    2011-01-01

     years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Results  Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission...... dropout. Methods  This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n = 1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half...... took a composite non-grade-based admission test (Strategy 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor-parent, origin, parenthood, parents living together, parent on benefit, university-educated parents) were also examined. The outcome of interest was students' dropout status at 2...

  6. Algebraic Thinking in Middle School Students at Different Grades: Conceptions about Generalization of Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek GİRİT; Didem AKYÜZ

    2016-01-01

    Algebra is generally considered as manipulating symbols, while algebraic thinking is about generalization. Patterns can be used for generalizat ion to develop early graders’ algebraic thinking. In the generalization of pattern context, the purpose of this study is to investigate middle school students’ reasoning and strategies at different grades when their algebraic thinking begins to develop. First, 6 open-ended linear growth pattern problems as numeric, pictorial, and tabular r...

  7. "I am not [just] a rabbit who has a bunch of children!": agency in the midst of suffering at the intersections of global inequalities, gendered violence, and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, Nia

    2010-08-01

    This article is based on an analysis of the life history narrative of Antonia, a Peruvian immigrant in Chile, in the context of ethnographic research on Chilean women's experiences of domestic violence (DV) and the post-dictatorship state's responses to DV. Structural and socio-cultural constraints and forms of violence, including global and local economic inequalities, migration, racism, and intimate, gender-based abuses in both home and receiving countries interact in Antonia's experience to produce suffering and influence a form of gendered agency. This analysis points to the need for research and policies specifically designed to attend to the intersecting vulnerabilities migrant women who suffer DV often face, as well as their agentive acts.

  8. The OAFM magnet for ISR intersection I-8

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The Open Axial Field Magnet (OAFM), weighing in at 300 tons, was installed in ISR intersection I-8 and brought into operation early in 1979. Fitted with a highly transparent "flat-fish" vacuum chamber, it served experiment R807 (large transverse momentum). Flat-fish vacuum chambers were originally developed for use inside the Split-Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I-4: see 8310325 and references there.

  9. Planning of Autonomous Multi-agent Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viksnin Ilya I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a traffic management system with agents acting on behalf autonomous vehicle at the crossroads. Alternatively to existing solutions based on usage of semiautonomous control systems with the control unit, proposed in this paper algorithm apply the principles of decentralized multi-agent control. Agents during their collaboration generate intersection plan and determinate the optimal order of road intersection for a given criterion based on the exchange of information about them and their environment. The paper contains optimization criteria for possible routes selection and experiments that perform in order to estimate the proposed model. Experiment results show that this model can significantly reduce traffic density compared to the traditional traffic management systems. Moreover, the proposed algorithm efficiency increases with road traffic density. Furthermore, the availability of control unit in the system significantly reduces the negative impact of possible failures and hacker attacks.

  10. Effectiveness of an English Intervention for First-Grade English Language Learners at Risk for Reading Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Mathes, Patricia; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Cirino, Paul; Carlson, Coleen; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Francis, David

    2006-01-01

    A first-grade reading and language development intervention for English language learners (Spanish/English) at risk for reading difficulties was examined. The intervention was conducted in the same language as students' core reading instruction (English). Two hundred sixteen first-grade students from 14 classrooms in 4 schools from 2 districts…

  11. Study on the Method of Reversible Approach Guidance at the Signalized Intersection Base on PARAMICS%基于PARAMICS的信号交叉口可变进口道诱导方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东明; 成卫; 潘云伟; 肖海承

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development of science and technology to make intelligent transportation as an effective means to solve traffic problems, for the traffic flow phenomenon of morning and afternoon peak hour traffic and the direction of imbalance at intersection,the thought of traffic guidance is induced, made use of variable approach to solve traffic congestion during peak periods at the signalized intersection ,given the way of the data acquisition and the conditions of lanes change. Variable Message Sign (VMS) is used to display the information of lanes change in a timely manner,with the actual the intersection model is established,the same time,with rich API of the microscopic traffic simulation software-paramics to achieve the model simulation, the comparison and evaluation results are presented. The results show that the using of variable approach can significantly improve the intersection level of service.%科学技术的快速发展使智能交通成为解决交通问题的有效手段.针对交叉口交通流量呈现潮汐性、方向不均衡性的现象,运用交通诱导的思想,提出利用可变进口道解决高峰时段信号交叉口交通拥堵的方法.给出了数据采集的途径和变化车道的条件.采用VMS(可变情报板)及时展示车道变化信息,结合实际,建立交叉口模型,并通过微观交通仿真软件PA-RAMICS丰富的API功能,实现对模型的仿真验证.列出对比评价结果,结果表明进行可变进口道诱导之后,交叉口的服务水平明显提高.

  12. Evaluation of several FDG PET parameters for prediction of soft tissue tumour grade at primary diagnosis and recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendler, Wolfgang P. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Chalkidis, Rebecca P.; Ilhan, Harun [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Knoesel, Thomas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); Herrmann, Ken [Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Issels, Rolf D.; Lindner, Lars H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Internal Medicine III, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Cyran, Clemens C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Hacker, Marcus [Vienna General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of SUV-based parameters derived from [{sup 18} F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in order to optimize non-invasive prediction of soft tissue tumour (STT) grade. One hundred and twenty-nine lesions from 123 patients who underwent FDG-PET for primary staging (n = 79) or assessment of recurrence (n = 44) of STT were analyzed retrospectively. Histopathology was the reference standard for tumour grading. Absolute values and tumour-to-liver ratios of several standardized uptake value (SUV) parameters were correlated with tumour grading. At primary diagnosis SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub liver} and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} showed good correlation with tumour grade. SUV{sub peak} (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic, AUC-ROC: 0.82) and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} (AUC-ROC: 0.82) separated best between low grade (WHO intermediate, grade 1 sarcoma, and low risk gastrointestinal stromal tumours, GISTs) and high grade (grade 2/3 sarcoma and intermediate/high risk GISTs) lesions: optimal threshold for SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} was 2.4, which resulted in a sensitivity of 79 % and a specificity of 81 %. At disease recurrence, the AUC-ROC was <0.75 for each parameter. A tumour SUV{sub peak} of at least 2.4 fold mean liver uptake predicts high grade histopathology with good diagnostic accuracy at primary staging. At disease recurrence, FDG-PET does not reliably separate high and low grade lesions. (orig.)

  13. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address...

  14. ISR Intersection Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This special vacuum chamber presenting a lateral opening at the beam crossing point is one of the many chambers specifically designed for a particular experiment. Here it is shown during assembly at the ISR mechanical worshop.

  15. Crossing b ehavior of p edestrians and vehicles at unsignalized intersection based on dirty faces game%基于脏脸博弈模型的人车路口穿越行为研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐; 叶顺强; 谢能刚

    2015-01-01

    The conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles at unsignalized intersections are rather dangerous. Besides the motion features, pedestrians and vehicle drivers also have behavioral features, so modelling the crossing behaviors of pedestrians and vehicles from the sociological aspect is necessary. Through an in-depth analysis of the interference mechanism between pedestrians and vehicles at unsignalized intersections, in this paper, a dirty faces game to analyze the crossing behaviors of pedestrians and vehicles as “rational man” is proposed. The formation process of common knowledge, the producing mechanism of dominant strategy and the kinetic process of dirty faces game are analyzed. Under the assumption of probability of the dominant strategy and distribution of crossing times, theoretical derivations of the benefits gained by pedestrians and vehicles as well as the conflict probability are given. Results show that a collision is more likely to occur when the theoretical time of pedestrian passing through is closer to that of the vehicle driver, and this is consistent with the actual situation. Furthermore, the influences of vehicle type, waiting time and heterogeneity of pedestrians on the conflict probability are also considered.

  16. Fuzzy Decision Tree Model for Driver Behavior Confronting Yellow Signal at Signalized Intersection%交叉口黄灯期间驾驶员行为的模糊决策树模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙科军; 赵文秀; 肖向良

    2011-01-01

    Drivers decision to go or stop during the yellow interval belongs to uncertain decision making. This paper collects drivers behavior data at four similar intersections. Fuzzy Decision Tree(FDT) is applied to model driver behavior at signalized intersection. Considering vehicle location,velocity and countdown timer as the influencing factors, the FDT model is constructed using FID3 algorithm, and decision roles are generated as well. Test sample is applied to test FDT model, and results indicate that FDT model can predict drivers' decision with overall accuracy of 84.8%.%采集黄灯期间驾驶员行为的相关数据,考虑车辆位置、车速、倒计时表3个影响因素,分别设定其隶属度函数,应用模糊决策树中的FID3算法,以模糊信息熵为启发信息,构建驾驶员选择的模糊决策树模型,生成决策规则.利用测试样本对模型进行检验,结果表明,基于模糊决策树的预测结果准确率总体达到84.8%.

  17. Reconstructing surface triangulations by their intersection matrices

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The intersection matrix of a finite simplicial complex has as each of its entries the rank of the intersection of its respective simplices. We prove that such matrix defines the triangulation of a closed connected surface up to isomorphism.

  18. Technological Studies at Thomas Edison Middle School. Grades 6-7-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Patrick N.

    This technology studies curriculum for grades 6-8 is a plan for each middle school student to experience technology education for approximately 60 days (1 trimester of a 180-day school year) in each grade. Section A provides definitions; structure or content for grade-level programs with science and technology unifiers (unifying curricular…

  19. The Clique Problem in Ray Intersection Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, Sergio; Langerman, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Ray intersection graphs are intersection graphs of rays, or halflines, in the plane. We show that any planar graph has an even subdivision whose complement is a ray intersection graph. The construction can be done in polynomial time and implies that finding a maximum clique in a segment intersection graph is NP-hard. This solves a 21-year old open problem posed by Kratochv\\'il and Ne\\v{s}et\\v{r}il.

  20. Oversaturation Inherence and Traffic Diversion Effect at Urban Intersections through Simulation%城市路口过饱和机理与相应交通转移措施效应的仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏恒; PERUGU Harikishan C.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional approaches of signal control optimization and geometric channelization may not be an inappropriate solution to an oversaturated urban intersection, especially where physical expansion is limited by the intensive land-use development around it. Traffic diversion strategy may be an optional solution; however, it is greatly dependant upon identification of the traffic movements that need diversion and the existence of parallel or accessible detour routes that are capable of accommodating the diverted traffic without bring adverse impact on the diversion routes. Obviously, these factors are difficult to be determined through analysis of the field observations alone. This paper presents a study of using simulation-based approach combined with analysis of observed data to indentify oversaturated intersection movements needed for diversion and test the traffic diversion effect in the roadways that have potential to bear the diverted traffic. The proposed approach is discussed through a practical case study at the intersection of Galbraith Avenue and Colerain Avenue (US-27), Ohio. The effect of such option is evaluated using a state-of-the-art microscopic traffic simulation system VISSIM, intersection analysis software programs, Highway Capacity Software (HCS 2000), and Synchro. The optimum percentage of traffic that is desired to be diverted at the inlet to minimize the delay while keeping shorter travel time is evaluated for the concerned intersection. The evaluation results imply a successful option that has great potential to put into practice. Finally, signage countermeasures are discussed for implementing the diversion strategy.%传统的交通信号控制优化和路口几何渠化或路口扩展在现实中可能遇到许多局限.有些路口由于土地使用的限制,实际无法采用路口几何渠化或扩展的方式来缓解路口的严重拥挤的程度.交通流量转移措施也许是一个可行的方法,但其影响因素和适时方案

  1. Intersecting Surface Defects and Two-Dimensional CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Gomis, Jaume; Pan, Yiwen; Peelaers, Wolfger

    2016-01-01

    We initiate the study of intersecting surface operators/defects in four-dimensional quantum field theories (QFTs). We characterize these defects by coupled 4d/2d/0d theories constructed by coupling the degrees of freedom localized at a point and on intersecting surfaces in spacetime to each other and to the four-dimensional QFT. We construct supersymmetric intersecting surface defects preserving just two supercharges in N = 2 gauge theories. These defects are amenable to exact analysis by localization of the partition function of the underlying 4d/2d/0d QFT. We identify the 4d/2d/0d QFTs that describe intersecting surface operators in N = 2 gauge theories realized by intersecting M2-branes ending on N M5-branes wrapping a Riemann surface. We conjecture and provide evidence for an explicit equivalence between the squashed four-sphere partition function of these intersecting defects and correlation functions in Liouville/Toda CFT with the insertion of arbitrary degenerate vertex operators, which are labeled by ...

  2. Grading Practices and Considerations of Graduate Students at the Beginning of their Teaching Assignment

    CERN Document Server

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Maries, Alexandru; Henderson, Charles R; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that expert-like approaches to problem-solving can be promoted by encouraging students to explicate their thought processes and follow a prescribed problem-solving strategy. Since grading communicates instructors' expectations, teaching assistants' grading decisions play a crucial role in forming students' approaches to problem-solving in physics. We investigated the grading practices and considerations of 43 graduate teaching assistants (TAs). The TAs were asked to grade a set of specially designed student solutions and explain their grading decisions. We found that in a quiz context, a majority of TAs noticed but did not grade on solution features which promote expert-like approaches to problem-solving. In addition, TAs graded differently in quiz and homework contexts, partly because of how they considered time limitations in a quiz. Our findings can inform professional development programs for TAs.

  3. Frontal brain asymmetry, childhood maltreatment, and low-grade inflammation at midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Davidson, Richard J; Graham, Eileen K; Mroczek, Daniel K; Lachman, Margie E; Seeman, Teresa E; van Reekum, Carien M; Miller, Gregory E

    2017-01-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry is thought to reflect variations in affective style, such that greater relative right frontal activity at rest predicts enhanced emotional responding to threatening or negative stimuli, and risk of depression and anxiety disorders. A diathesis-stress model has been proposed to explain how this neuro-affective style might predispose to psychopathology, with greater right frontal activity being a vulnerability factor especially under stressful conditions. Less is known about the extent to which greater relative right frontal activity at rest might be associated with or be a diathesis for deleterious physical health outcomes. The present study examined the association between resting frontal EEG asymmetry and systemic, low-grade inflammation and tested the diathesis-stress model by examining whether childhood maltreatment exposure interacts with resting frontal asymmetry in explaining inflammation. Resting EEG, serum inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen) and self-reported psychological measures were available for 314 middle-aged adults (age M=55.3years, SD=11.2, 55.7% female). Analyses supported the diathesis-stress model and revealed that resting frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly associated with inflammation, but only in individuals who had experienced moderate to severe levels of childhood maltreatment. These findings suggest that, in the context of severe adversity, a trait-like tendency towards greater relative right prefrontal activity may predispose to low-grade inflammation, a risk factor for conditions with inflammatory underpinnings such as coronary heart disease.

  4. Tumor Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... much of the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : an evaluation of the ...

  5. ISR intersection I-2

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Towards the left one sees, on top of ISR beam 1, the front section of the 30-metre-long, small-angle spectrometer from the CERN-Holland-Lancaster-Manchester single-particle production experiment. It consists of two special septum magnets carrying up to 20 kA each. These magnets are necessary to force charged particles produced at small angles away from the ISR beam. They are followed by two threshold Cerenkov counters and (not visible) three more bending magnets and a 6-metre-long Cerenkov counter. Particle identification follows from the Cerenkov signals after determination of the particle trajectory through the spectrometer with magnetostrictive spark chambers. The positions of the first magnets and Cerenkov counters can be changed by remote control. In front one sees the electronics which determines the traversal of a charged particle from scintillator counter signals and gives the "fire" signal for the spark chambers.

  6. Composite fluxbranes with general intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Ivashchuk, V D

    2002-01-01

    Generalized composite fluxbrane solutions for a wide class of intersection rules are obtained. The solutions are defined on a manifold which contains a product of n Ricci-flat spaces M_1 x ... x M_n with 1-dimensional M_1. They are defined up to a set of functions H_s obeying non-linear differential equations equivalent to Toda-type equations with certain boundary conditions imposed. A conjecture on polynomial structure of governing functions H_s for intersections related to semisimple Lie algebras is suggested. This conjecture is valid for Lie algebras: A_m, C_{m+1}, m > 0. For simple Lie algebras the powers of polynomials coincide with the components of the dual Weyl vector in the basis of simple roots. Explicit formulas for A_1 + ... + A_1 (orthogonal), "block-ortogonal" and A_2 solutions are obtained. Certain examples of solutions in D = 11 and D =10 (II A) supergravities (e.g. with A_2 intersection rules) and Kaluza-Klein dyonic A_2 flux tube, are considered.

  7. 设置导流岛的信号交叉口右转通行能力模型%Capacity Model of the Right-turn Lane at Signalized Intersection With Channelized Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖元文; 荣建; 刘小明

    2012-01-01

    In order to estimate the capacity of right-turn lane at signalized intersections with channelized islands. Based on the gap acceptance model, this paper proposes a new approach to calculating the capacity of right-turn lane at signalized intersections with channelized islands. This model takes into account the interference of non-motorized traffic enter channelized islands. The non-motorized traffic is treated as the traffic on the major road-a crosswalk, which has great impacts on right-turn vehicles on the minor road-an exclusive right-turn lane. The basic model is modified by introducing the red light effect adjustment coefficient. The new model is calibrated and tested using the field data collected at 6 signalized intersections with ehannelized islands in 4 cities. The average relative error between the calculated value and the observed is 9.28% , which means the proposed method in this paper can better estimate the capacity of an exclusive free right-turn lane under the interference of non-motorized traffic.%为了计算在信号交叉口设置导流岛后右转车道的通行能力,以接受间隙理论模型为基础,给出了针对设置导流岛的信号交叉口右转车道通行能力计算方法.考虑到非机动车进入导流岛对右转车辆产生较大影响,确定以非机动车流为主路,提出红灯效应修正系数,对基础模型进行修正.通过4个城市6个设置导流岛的信号交叉口实测数据进行模型标定和检验.比较模型计算值与实际观测值发现,平均相对误差为9.28%,表明本文所提计算方法能较好地反映非机动车对右转车道通行能力影响的实际情况.

  8. Investigating everyday measures through exploratory talk: whole class plenary intervention and landscape study at grade four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Sharada; Blomqvist, Charlotta

    2016-10-01

    We report an exploratory talk based, whole class plenary intervention, in relation to students' understanding of everyday measures and measurement, in a grade four classroom at a grade 4-6 school in Sweden. Extended, project related, teacher-researcher collaboration forms basis for such cultural historical activity theory or CHAT based efforts. As formative intervention, the conduct of the plenary is not pre-determined but embedded in ongoing curricular realities, with the agency of students and teacher promoted, pedagogical ideas reutilised and the role of researcher viewed as supporting design and growth of the intervention. Under Charlotta's guidance as teacher, the plenary is opportunity for her students to examine improbable scenarios such as, Can Eva and Anton measure the length of Sweden on foot, Can Lars and Iris measure their age in decimeters. A zone of proximal development is created, in which students make the transition from spontaneous to scientific concepts and learn how various units of measurement are objects-that-can-be-used-for-certain-purposes. With opportunity for critical and reflective inquiry, in a plenary designed to lead development, Charlotta's students look beyond the making of rote measurements and articulate a theory of measure in nascent terms. Such a landscape of teaching-learning is finally understood in terms of the nature of talk that was facilitated, the manner of pedagogy utilised, the style of teaching exercised and the kind of learning that was demanded of her students.

  9. Una Mirada Interseccional a la Violencia contra las Mujeres con Diversidad Funcional (An Intersectional Glance at Violence against Women with Functional Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Arenas Conejo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The eradication of violence is one of the main demands of disabled women's organizations around the world. As a result of their activism, both the Beijing Platform for Action (1995 and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006 made specific mention of their greater risk of suffering violence and the need to implement appropriate measures. However, the countries that have included these recommendations in their laws against gender violence are still scarce. Moreover, according to some women with functional diversity, this invisibility is often reproduced both among the feminist and the disability rights movement. The aim of this paper is to explore how an intersectional approach could help to overcome this double obstacle: on the one hand, encouraging the creation of alliances between social movements working for similar objectives and on the other hand, developing legislation and public policies which do not reproduce the exclusion of traditionally marginalized social groups. La erradicación de la violencia es una de las principales reivindicaciones de las organizaciones de mujeres con diversidad funcional a nivel internacional. Fruto de este activismo, se logró que tanto en la Plataforma de Acción de Beijing (1995 como en la Convención de la ONU sobre los derechos de las personas con discapacidad (2006, se hiciera mención específica a su mayor riesgo de sufrir violencia así como a la necesidad de implementar medidas adecuadas. Sin embargo, son todavía escasos los países cuya legislación contra la violencia de género ha introducido estas recomendaciones. Una invisibilización que, según manifiestan las propias mujeres con diversidad funcional, también se reproduce a menudo tanto en el movimiento feminista como en el de las personas con diversidad funcional. El objetivo del texto es explorar hasta qué punto la perspectiva de la interseccionalidad podría contribuir a superar este doble obstáculo: por un

  10. Design of wideband graded-index antireflection coatings at oblique light incidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jun-Chao; Fang Ming; Jin Yun-Xia; He Hong-Bo

    2012-01-01

    We suggest a design method of graded-refractive-index (GRIN) antireflection (AR) coating for s-polarized or ppolarized light at off-normal incidence.The spectrum characteristic of the designed antireflection coating with a quintic effective refractive-index profile for a given state of polarization has been discussed.In addition,the genetic algorithm was used to optimize the refractive index profile of the GRIN antireflection for reducing the mean reflectance of s- and p-polarizations.The average reflectance loss was reduced to only 0.04% by applying optimized GRIN AR coatings onto BK7 glass over the wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm at the incident angle of θ0 =70°.

  11. Aspects That Concern Assessing Lower Secondary School Students at the Physics National Contest Exemplification for the 7th Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, we aim at analysing the results obtained by the 7th grade students who participated in the 50th edition of the Physics National Contest, which took place in Cluj-Napoca between the 6th and the 11th of April, 2014. Why have we chosen the 7th grade? One of the reasons is represented by the good results obtained by the…

  12. MATLAB Simulation of Fuzzy Traffic Controller for Multilane Isolated Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azura Che Soh/Lai Guan Rhung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a MATLAB simulation of fuzzy traffic controller for controlling traffic flow at multilane isolated signalized intersection. The controller is developed based on the waiting time and vehicles queue length at current green phase, and vehicles queue lengths at the other phases. For control strategy, the controllercontrols the traffic light timings and phase sequence to ensure smooth flow of traffic with minimal waiting time, queue length and delay time. In this research, the isolated intersection model used consists of two lanes in each approach. Each approach has two different values of vehicles queue length and waiting time, respectively, at the intersection. The maximum values of vehicles queue length and waiting times are selected as the inputs to controller for optimized control of traffic flows at the intersection. A traffic model and fuzzy traffic controller are developed to evaluate the performance of traffic controllers underdifferent conditions. In the end, by comparing the experimental result obtained by the vehicle-actuated controller (VAC and fuzzy traffic controller (FTC which improves significant performance for intersections, we confirmed the efficiency of our intelligent controller based fuzzy inference system.

  13. Recombination of Intersecting D-Branes and Cosmological Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Reino, Marta

    2002-01-01

    We consider the interactions between Dp-branes intersecting at an arbitrary number of angles in the context of type II string theory. For cosmology purposes we concentrate in the theory on R^{3,1} x T^6. Interpreting the distance between the branes as the inflaton field, the branes can intersect at most at two angles in the compact space. If the configuration is non-supersymmetric we will have an interbrane potential that provides an effective cosmological inflationary epoch at the four dimensional intersection between the branes. The end of inflation occurs when the interbrane distance becomes small compared with the string scale, where a tachyon develops triggering the recombination of the branes. We study this recombination due to tachyon instabilities and we find the possibility for the final configuration to be again branes intersecting at two angles. This preserves the interesting features that are present in the intersecting brane models from the string model building point of view also after the end o...

  14. Study on Synergy Problem of Dynamic Lane-use Assignment and Signal Control at Intersections%交叉口动态车道功能与信号控制协同问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾滢; 杨晓光; 马莹莹

    2009-01-01

    基于信号控制交叉口时空关系分析,综合运用交通流理论和信号控制技术,建立了动态车道功能与信号相位组合模型,用Visual Basic语言编制程序对该模型求解.为验证模型的有效性,应用该模型对实际案例进行了优化,并通过交通仿真软件VISSIM分别对优化前后的方案进行了仿真对比分析.仿真结果表明:交叉口动态车道功能与信号控制存在协同作用,与仅改善车道功能或信号控制相比,实现两者的协同能有效提高交叉口时空资源的利用率,使关键状态参量如延误与排队长度显著降低.%Based on the analysis of space-time relation of signalized intersections,an integrated model for lane-use assignment and signal phase was established using the traffic flow theory and signal control technology synthetically.In order to solve the model,a program was developed through Visual Basic programming.Actual road intersections were optimized by the program and optimal solutions were generated.Then both the origin plan and the optimal solutions were simulated with VISSIM to verify the model.The simulation results show that there is synergetic effect between dynamic lane-use assignment and signal control.Different from improving lane-use assignment or signal plan alone,synergy cann effectively improve the utilization of space-time resources at intersections,thus reducing the key traffic state parameters such as delay and queue length.

  15. God-image of Servant King as powerful but vulnerable and serving: Towards transforming African church leadership at an intersection of African kingship and biblical kingship to servant leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Christianity is mediated through culture and people’s cultural practices. One such cultural practice is African kingship. African kingship conveys on the ruler sovereignty, power, authority and supremacy over people under one’s jurisdiction. Intricately linked to respect for elders and those in power, African church leaders are at an intersection of the African kingship leadership style and the biblical kingship leadership style. Consciously or unconsciously, church leaders tend to embrace the African kingship approach to leadership and to a lesser extent biblical servant leadership. In such a situation, what God-image of biblical leadership could be discerned for constructive church leadership? In response, the God-image of Servant King as all powerful God, although vulnerable and serving, provides the framework for a transformative approach to church leadership in Africa.

  16. An instructional package integrating science and social studies instruction at the fifth-grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulley, Kathy Louise Sullivan

    Integrative education is being implemented by classroom teachers who want to immerse students in an environment rich in problem-solving skills, critical analysis skills, ethics, valuing of knowledge, and communication of learning. Several subject areas in the curriculum have been integrated, such as literature with social studies and mathematics with science. The focus of this dissertation is on the integration of science and social studies at the fifth grade level using the Mississippi State Department of Education Curriculum Guidelines and Objectives (MSDE, 1995) and the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council (NRC), 1996). An instructional package of lesson plans that teachers can use as ideas to create their own plans for an integrated curriculum of science and social studies was devised. The Mississippi State Department of Education Curriculum Guidelines and Objectives for Social Studies (MSDE, 1995) at the fifth grade level contain fifteen competencies. Three standards from the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) were chosen. They include (a) science and technology, (b) science in personal and social perspectives, and (c) the history and nature of science. Each competency for social studies has three lesson plans written that integrate the three chosen standards from the National Science Education Standards. A total of forty-five lesson plans were written integrating science and social studies. Each lesson plan includes an objective, materials, procedures, and evaluation for teachers. Teachers are encouraged to use the lesson plans as a guide in creating their own lesson plans that would correspond to their school's particular curriculum guidelines. Consideration should be given to the learning levels and styles of their classroom. This qualitative study was done to create lesson plans that integrate science and social studies with the hope that teachers will expand upon them and implement them into their curricula.

  17. 信号交叉口人车交互运行元胞自动机模型构建%Construction of cellular automata model of alternate operation between pedestrians and vehicles at signal intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国华; 邓亚娟; 韩海; 马荣国; 卢杨

    2015-01-01

    为了确定过街设施的形式,分析了十字信号交叉口行人步行速度及机动车排队净空间距、转向车头时距等交通运行特性,通过对人车冲突行为调查与分析,构建了行人过街可插间隙选择概率模型。以人车交互运行特性为理论基础,建立了双向6车道行人正向前进、避让、侧向前进和机动车停车线前慢启动跟驰、停车线后转向跟驰、目标车道选择规则,引入了人行横道处行人和机动车冲突判定选择规则,将行人过街规则和机动车通行规则进行了叠加,构建信号交叉口人车交互运行元胞自动机模型。以主主相交的双向6车道十字信号交叉口为例,分析了采用行人过街专用信号相位和立体过街设施形式的适用性。结果表明:当交通量不小于4500 pcu·h-1、右转车比例不小于70%、信号周期不小于90 s、左转相位绿信比不小于50%、行人流量不小于2700人·( h·m)-1时,应采用立体过街设施形式。%To determine the form of crossing facilities,The traffic characteristics of pedestrians’ walking speed and vehicles’ queuing spacing, headway of steering were analyzed in signalized intersection. The probabilistic model of acceptable gap choice for pedestrians crossing the intersection was constructed by survey and analysis of conflicting operations between pedestrians and vehicles. On the theoretical foundation of characteristics from alternate operations between pedestrians and vehicles, rules concerning pedestrians walking forward, avoidance, lateral walking forward, vehicles stop⁃to⁃slow following, steering following, and target lanes selection in bidirectional six lanes were established;selective rules concerning conflicts identification between pedestrians and vehicles at pedestrian crossroads were introduced. Therefore, the cellular automata model of alternate operations between pedestrians and vehicles at signal

  18. Allergic sensitization at school age is a systemic low-grade inflammatory disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, B. L. K.; Stokholm, J.; Malby-Schoos, A.-M.;

    2015-01-01

    Systemic low-grade inflammation has been demonstrated in a range of the frequent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) as a possible shared mechanism, but is largely unexplored in relation to allergic sensitization. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the possible association between systemic low-grade...

  19. Adaptive Control at Intersection in Urban Area Based on Probe Data%基于车载数据的城市道路交叉口自适应控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚佼; 范海雁; 韩印; 崔雷

    2014-01-01

    在总结现有交叉口交通控制弊端的基础上,通过对控制目标和任务的分析,基于车路协同系统的全时空车载数据,以单车道的车队和多车道的车队簇为控制对象,利用车头时距和间距研究车队和车队簇的形成和动态变化规律,建立了基于车载数据的交叉口自适应控制模型,同时在相位切换逻辑中考虑了两难区。最后基于二次开发的仿真平台,对研究成果进行了测试和验证,相关的案例分析表明,模型应用对于交叉口平峰和低峰情况下的运行效率和安全性有显著改善。%To overcome disadvantages of traffic control at intersection in current situation,the control objective and task were analyzed,and then with probe data,the formation and variation of platoon in single lane and cluster platoon in multi lanes were studied.Furthermore,an adaptive control model was established,in which dilemma zone was also taken into account when making phase transition.Finally,based on secondary development of simulation software,relative test and validation work were also finished,and from case study,it is concluded that the model can improve the efficiency and safety of intersection operation,especially in flat and low demand scenarios.

  20. Projective modules and complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Satya

    1997-01-01

    In these notes on "Projective Modules and Complete Intersections" an account on the recent developments in research on this subject is presented. The author's preference for the technique of Patching isotopic isomorphisms due to Quillen, formalized by Plumsted, over the techniques of elementary matrices is evident here. The treatment of Basic Element theory here incorporates Plumstead's idea of the "generalized dimension functions". These notes are highly selfcontained and should be accessible to any graduate student in commutative algebra or algebraic geometry. They include fully self-contained presentations of the theorems of Ferrand-Szpiro, Cowsik-Nori and the techniques of Lindel.

  1. Proton MR spectroscopy of cerebral gliomas at 3 T: spatial heterogeneity, and tumour grade and extent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Costanzo, Alfonso; Catapano, Domenico; D' Angelo, Vincenzo A. [Department of Health Sciences, University of Molise, Campobasso (Italy); Scarabino, Tommaso; Popolizio, Teresa; Giannatempo, Giuseppe M. [Department of Neuroradiology, Scientific Institute, Foggia (Italy); Trojsi, Francesca; Bonavita, Simona; Tedeschi, Gioacchino [Department of Neurological Sciences, 2. University of Naples (Italy); Portaluri, Maurizio [Department of Radiotherapy, Perrino Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Tosetti, Michela [Department of Magnetic Resonance, Scientific Institute Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Salvolini, Ugo [Department of Radiology, Polytechnic University of Marches, Ancona (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of proton MR spectroscopic imaging ({sup 1}H-MRSI) at 3 T in differentiating high- from low-grade gliomas, and tumour from necrosis, oedema or normal tissue. Forty-four patients with brain gliomas and four with meningiomas were retrospectively reviewed. The normalised metabolites choline (nCho), N-acetylaspartate (nNAA), creatine (nCr) and lactate/lipids (nLL), and the metabolite ratios Cho/NAA, NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr were calculated. Necrotic-appearing areas showed two spectroscopic patterns: 'necrosis' with variable nCho and high nLL, and 'cystic necrosis' with variable nLL or nonevident peaks. Peri-enhancing oedematous-appearing areas showed three spectroscopic patterns ('tumour' with abnormal Cho/NAA, 'oedema' with normal Cho/NAA and 'tumour/oedema' with normal nCho and abnormal Cho/NAA) in gliomas, and one ('oedema') in meningiomas. Peri-enhancing or peri-tumour normal-appearing areas showed two patterns ('infiltrated' with abnormal nCho and/or Cho/NAA and 'normal' with normal spectra) in gliomas and one ('normal') in meningiomas. Discriminant analysis showed that classification accuracy between high- and low-grade glioma masses was better with normalised metabolites or all parameters together than metabolite ratios and that among peri-enhancing areas was much better with normalised metabolites. The analysis of spatial distribution of normalised metabolites by 3-T {sup 1}H-MRSI helps to discriminate among different tissues, offering information not available with conventional MRI. (orig.)

  2. 信号交叉口右转机动车与行人冲突运动模型%A Conflict Model Involving Right-turning Vehicles and Cross-walking Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍怡婷; 周竹萍; 徐永能

    2016-01-01

    Normally,the right-turning movement of vehicles at signalized intersections is not controlled.Thus, there are potential risks of conflicts between the right-turning vehicles and cross-walking pedestrians.Current studies ad-dressed on the identification and classification of such conflicts,no theoretical model is proposed to analyze such processes of conflicts.With the purpose to reduce conflicts and improve safety of pedestrians,a new simulation model to describe the conflict processes between right-turning vehicles and cross-walking pedestrians is proposed in this study.The decision-making process of right-turning vehicles is studied.Then the mechanism of conflicts between vehicles and pedestrians is analyzed.Finally,a vehicle-pedestrian conflict model is established.Meanwhile,the coefficients for this model are calibra-ted using actual data including vehicle speed and gap acceptance.A simulation study is then conducted to optimize the measurements for safety evaluation:time-to-collision (TTC),post-encroachment time (PET),safety braking decelera-tion,and gap time.The results reveal that PET is the most significant measurement to evaluate vehicle-pedestrian con-flict.The accuracy analysis results show that the deviation of vehicle speed and PET between simulation and actual data is less than 5%,which indicates the validity of this model.An implementation of sensitivity analysis shows that PET of small size intersections increases 10% compared with large size of intersections,which indicates that small intersections have the advantage to reduce the severity of conflicts.%在一些信号交叉口,右转机动车的转弯行为不受信号控制,容易与过街行人发生冲突。现有冲突研究的内容多为冲突判别和冲突分级研究,对人车冲突运动过程研究相对较少。为减少交通冲突,提高行人过街安全性,提出一种新的右转机动车与行人冲突运动过程的仿真模型。研究右转车辆的决策过程,

  3. Identification of black spots for traffic injury in road intersections dependence of injury definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Hansen, Dennis; Lauritsen, Jens M

    2010-01-01

    accidents treated at three hospitals for a region covering roughly 0.5 mio persons were recorded routinely and subsequently geo-coded to exact location. For 8191 injured persons the traffic accident occurred in one of 2157 road intersections. In total the county holds 56.994 intersections. Hot spots were...... of intersections considered as a black spot. GIS methods must take this into consideration....

  4. Numerical simulations of Mach stem formation via intersecting bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E. C.; Frank, A.; Hartigan, P.; Yirak, K.

    2015-12-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations show bright knots of Hα emission within outflowing young stellar jets. Velocity variations in the flow create secondary bow shocks that may intersect and lead to enhanced emission. When the bow shocks intersect at or above a certain critical angle, a planar shock called a Mach stem is formed. These shocks could produce brighter Hα emission since the incoming flow to the Mach stem is parallel to the shock normal. In this paper we report first results of a study using 2-D numerical simulations designed to explore Mach stem formation at the intersection of bow shocks formed by hypersonic "bullets" or "clumps". Our 2-D simulations show how the bow shock shapes and intersection angles change as the adiabatic index γ changes. We show that the formation or lack of a Mach stem in our simulations is consistent with the steady-state Mach stem formation theory. Our ultimate goal, which is part of an ongoing research effort, is to characterize the physical and observational consequences of bow shock intersections including the formation of Mach stems.

  5. Finite Temperature Corrections to Tachyon Mass in Intersecting D-Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Sethi, Varun; Sarkar, Swarnendu

    2016-01-01

    We continue with the analysis of finite temperature corrections to the Tachyon mass in intersecting branes which was initiated in arxiv:1403.0389. In this paper we extend the computation to the case of intersecting D3-branes by considering a setup of two intersecting branes in flat-space background. A holographic model dual to BCS superconductor consisting of intersecting D8-branes in D4-brane background was proposed in arxiv:1104.2843. The background considered here is a simplified configuration of this dual model. We compute the one-loop Tachyon amplitude in the Yang-Mills approximation and show that the result is finite. Analyzing the amplitudes further we numerically compute the transition temperature at which the Tachyon becomes massless. The analytic expressions for the one-loop amplitudes obtained here reduce to those for intersecting D1-branes obtained in arxiv:1403.0389 as well as those for intersecting D2-branes.

  6. Asterisk Grade Study Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorsky, Eileen A.

    A study was conducted at Passaic County Community College (PCCC) to investigate the operation of a grading system which utilized an asterisk (*) grade to indicate progress in a course until a letter grade was assigned. The study sought to determine the persistence of students receiving the "*" grade, the incidence of cases of students receiving…

  7. L_p-mixed intersection bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the author first introduce a new concept of Lp-dual mixed volumes of star bodies which extends the classical dual mixed volumes. Moreover, we extend the notions of Lp- intersection body to Lp-mixed intersection body. Inequalities for Lp-dual mixed volumes of Lp-mixed intersection bodies are established and the results established here provide new estimates for these type of inequalities.

  8. Modeling Driver Behavior near Intersections in Hidden Markov Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; He, Qinglian; Zhou, Hang; Guan, Yunlin; Dai, Wei

    2016-12-21

    Intersections are one of the major locations where safety is a big concern to drivers. Inappropriate driver behaviors in response to frequent changes when approaching intersections often lead to intersection-related crashes or collisions. Thus to better understand driver behaviors at intersections, especially in the dilemma zone, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is utilized in this study. With the discrete data processing, the observed dynamic data of vehicles are used for the inference of the Hidden Markov Model. The Baum-Welch (B-W) estimation algorithm is applied to calculate the vehicle state transition probability matrix and the observation probability matrix. When combined with the Forward algorithm, the most likely state of the driver can be obtained. Thus the model can be used to measure the stability and risk of driver behavior. It is found that drivers' behaviors in the dilemma zone are of lower stability and higher risk compared with those in other regions around intersections. In addition to the B-W estimation algorithm, the Viterbi Algorithm is utilized to predict the potential dangers of vehicles. The results can be applied to driving assistance systems to warn drivers to avoid possible accidents.

  9. Volume of intersection of two cones

    CERN Document Server

    Balogun, F A; Cesareo, R

    2000-01-01

    Radiation measurements utilising collimated source and detector systems invariably result in a target volume described by the overlap of their fields of view. When these collimators are cylindrical, this is derived from the volume of intersection of two cones. In general, analysis of this volume does not lend itself to a direct analytical process. Here, numerical methods of estimating the common volume of two intersecting right cones are presented. These include methods which employ, (a) a sequential scanning of an elemental volume with a predetermined size across a defined space containing the volume of interest and (b) a Monte Carlo technique. The accuracy obtainable and the execution time in the first type of algorithm depend on the size of the elemental volume (bin-size). On the other hand, these two parameters are independent of the bin-size but dependent on the number of histories sampled, for the Monte Carlo technique. At 0 deg. angle of inclination, where an analytical estimation is easily obtained, t...

  10. POLES OF ZETA FUNCTIONS OF COMPLETE INTERSECTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A vanishing theorem is proved for -adic cohomology with compact support on an affine (singular) complete intersection. As an application, it is shown that for an affine complete intersection defined over a finite field of q elements, the reciprocal "poles" of the zeta function are always divisible by q as algebraic integers. A p-adic proof is also given, which leads to further q-divisibility of the poles or equivalently an improvement of the polar part of the AxKatz theorem for an affine complete intersection. Similar results hold for a projective complete intersection.

  11. The clique problem in ray intersection graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Langerman, Stefan; Cardinal, Jean; Cabello, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Ray intersection graphs are intersection graphs of rays, or halflines, in the plane. We show that any planar graph has an even subdivision whose complement is a ray intersection graph. The construction can be done in polynomial time and implies that finding a maximum clique in a segment intersection graph is NP-hard. This solves a 21-year old open problem posed by Kratochvíl and Nešetřil (Comment Math Univ Carolinae 31(1):85-93, 1990).

  12. Effectiveness of Spanish intervention for first-grade English language learners at risk for reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Mathes, Patricia G; Cirino, Paul T; Carlson, Coleen D; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Francis, David J

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of an explicit, systematic reading intervention for first-grade students whose home language was Spanish and who were at risk for reading difficulties was examined. Participants were 69 students in 20 classrooms in 7 schools from 3 districts who initially did not pass the screening in Spanish and were randomly assigned within schools to a treatment or comparison group; after 7 months, 64 students remained in the study. The intervention matched the language of instruction of their core reading program (Spanish). Treatment groups of 3 to 5 students met daily for 50 min and were provided systematic and explicit instruction in oral language and reading by trained bilingual intervention teachers. Comparison students received the school's standard intervention for struggling readers. Observations during core reading instruction provided information about the reading instruction and language use of the teachers. There were no differences between the treatment and comparison groups in either Spanish or English on any measures at pretest, but there were significant posttest differences in favor of the treatment group for the following outcomes in Spanish: Letter-Sound Identification (d = 0.72), Phonological Awareness composite (d = 0.73), Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery-Revised Oral Language composite (d = 0.35), Word Attack (d = 0.85), Passage Comprehension (d = 0.55), and two measures of reading fluency (d = 0.58-0.75).

  13. Material properties of Grade 91 steel at elevated temperature and their comparison with a design code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Woo Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Han Sang; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the material properties of tensile strength, creep properties, and creep crack growth model for Gr.91 steel at elevated temperature were obtained from material tests at KAERI, and the test data were compared with those of the French elevated temperature design code, RCC-MRx. The conservatism of the material properties in the French design code is highlighted. Mod.9Cr-1Mo (ASME Grade 91; Gr.91) steel is widely adopted as candidate material for Generation IV nuclear systems as well as for advanced thermal plants. In a Gen IV sodium-cooled fast reactor of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) being developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), Gr.91 steel is selected as the material for the steam generator, secondary piping, and decay heat exchangers. However, as this material has a relatively shorter history of usage in an actual plant than austenitic stainless steel, there are still many issues to be addressed including the long-term creep rupture life extrapolation and ratcheting behavior with cyclic softening characteristics.

  14. A Study of the Relationship between Attendance and Grades of Three Business Law Classes at Broome Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, William S.

    In an effort to encourage the growth and maturity of its students, Broome Community College in New York abolished its attendance policy. For the past 7 years, both attendance rates and grade point averages (GPA's) of students at the college had been dropping. In 1990, a study was conducted at BCC to determine if there was a measurable relationship…

  15. Tools for analyzing intersecting tracks: The x2sys package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Paul

    2010-03-01

    I present a new set of tools for detection of intersections among tracks in 2-D Cartesian or geographic coordinates. These tools allow for evaluation of crossover errors at intersections, analysis of such crossover errors to determine appropriate linear models of systematic corrections for each track, and application of these corrections and further adjustments to data that completely eliminates crossover discrepancies from final 2-D data compilations. Unlike my older x_system tools, the new x2sys tools implement modern algorithms for detecting track intersections and are capable of reading a wide range of data file formats, including data files following the netCDF COARDS convention. The x2sys package contains several programs that address the various tasks needed to undertake a comprehensive crossover analysis and is distributed as a supplement to the Generic Mapping Tools, making them available for all computer platforms and architectures.

  16. Tracks, intersections and dead ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Skjeie, Hege

    2008-01-01

    of organisations of civil society in political power. The second part explores the framing of the hijab as a political issue of "intersections" of gender equality versus religious belongings. The third part investigates what we see as a "dead end" in policy making to prevent violations of women's rights......The article discusses multicultural challenges to state feminism in Denmark and Norway focusing both on similarities and differences in the two countries policy responses.  In spite of important differences, we point towards similar problems and dilemmas in the public responses to multiculturalism...... and diversity among women connected to a state feminist agenda that in both countries has been rather one-sided in its conception of what women-friendliness may imply. The first part expands on institutional "tracks": (Variations in) state feminist traditions, in religious traditions, and in the inclusion...

  17. Viewing equitable practices through the lens of intersecting identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Renée; Dsouza, Nikeetha; Quigley, Cassie

    2016-12-01

    This review explores Archer, Dawson, Seakins, and Wong's "Disorienting, fun or meaningful? Disadvantaged families' experiences of a science museum visit" by examining the analytic frameworks guiding this study. To expand on Archer et al.'s use of feminist post-structuralist theories of identity we draw from the theory of intersectionality to provide a more robust framework for analyzing barriers to engagement within an informal learning space. Our response to this work ends by exploring the types of solutions generated from an intersectionality framework—solutions aimed at transforming institutional programs and practices to create more equitable spaces for learning.

  18. Viewing equitable practices through the lens of intersecting identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Renée; Dsouza, Nikeetha; Quigley, Cassie

    2016-04-01

    This review explores Archer, Dawson, Seakins, and Wong's "Disorienting, fun or meaningful? Disadvantaged families' experiences of a science museum visit" by examining the analytic frameworks guiding this study. To expand on Archer et al.'s use of feminist post-structuralist theories of identity we draw from the theory of intersectionality to provide a more robust framework for analyzing barriers to engagement within an informal learning space. Our response to this work ends by exploring the types of solutions generated from an intersectionality framework—solutions aimed at transforming institutional programs and practices to create more equitable spaces for learning.

  19. Framing Gender Intersections in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which the emergence of an antidiscrimination policy in the European Union (EU) implies a shift in EU gender equality policies towards an intersectional approach. The frame analysis of EU gender equality policy documents shows that intersectional dimensions...

  20. Computations in intersection rings of flag bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Grayson, Daniel R; Stillman, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Intersection rings of flag varieties and of isotropic flag varieties are generated by Chern classes of the tautological bundles modulo the relations coming from multiplicativity of total Chern classes. In this paper we describe the Groebner bases of the ideals of relations and give applications to computation of intersections, as implemented in Macaulay2.

  1. An intersection algorithm based on transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-xia; YONG Jun-hai; CHEN Yu-jian

    2006-01-01

    How to obtain intersection of curves and surfaces is a fundamental problem in many areas such as computer graphics,CAD/CAM,computer animation,and robotics.Especially,how to deal with singular cases,such as tangency or superposition,is a key problem in obtaining intersection results.A method for solving the intersection problem based on the coordinate transformation is presented.With the Lagrange multiplier method,the minimum distance between the center of a circle and a quadric surface is given as well.Experience shows that the coordinate transformation could significantly simplify the method for calculating intersection to the tangency condition.It can improve the stability of the intersection of given curves and surfaces in singularity cases.The new algorithm is applied in a three dimensional CAD software (GEMS),produced by Tsinghua University.

  2. The Effect of Graduation Coaches and Credit Recovery Programs on the Dropout Rate of At-Risk Grade 9 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics of effective graduation coaches (GCs) and credit recovery programs and explain the influence of a GC and a credit recovery program on Grade 9 students at risk of dropping out. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a high school GC and enrollment in a credit recovery…

  3. The Nation's Report Card: Writing 2011. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grades 8 and 12. NCES 2012-470

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results of the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in writing at grades 8 and 12. In this new national writing assessment sample, 24,100 eighth-graders and 28,100 twelfth-graders engaged with writing tasks and composed their responses on computer. The assessment tasks reflected writing situations common to…

  4. Entering Adulthood: Looking at Body Image and Eating Disorders. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Susan

    This module includes six lessons which focus on issues related to body image and self-esteem, eating disorders, and sensible eating habits for adolescents in grades 9-12. In lesson 1, students examine influences on body image, assess their personal traits, and trade assessments with their peers. In lesson 2, students look at pressure and…

  5. Grades--Scores--Predictions: A Study of the Efficiency of High School Grades and American College Test Scores in Predicting Academic Achievement at Montgomery College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Robert L.; Bleil, David F.

    This report analyzes the relationship between high school grades, American College Test (ACT) scores, and first-semester college grades. Based on the Standard Research Service of the ACT program, 1,379 students in the fall 1969 freshman class of Montgomery College (Maryland) were studied. Measures of academic background used ACT scores in English,…

  6. 城市路网交叉口检测器均衡布设优化方法%Optimal traffic detector locations for equal distribution at urban network intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金盛; 徐程; 王殿海

    2013-01-01

    This work proposed an optimal location method of traffic detectors based on the correlation of flow at urban intersections. Multiple stepwise regression models were used for each detector, and the correlation matrix of detector field data was obtained. The number of location detectors was determined by maximal linearly independent subset. By introducing the concept of Gini Coefficient in economics, an optimization model of equal distribution for the selection of key detectors was set under the minimum Gini Coefficient. The field intersections data from Wuyi-Wusi Road in Fuzhou were used to verify the validity of the proposed model and to analyze the trend of prediction error. Experimental results show that the mean absolute error and the mean relative error of volume were 10. 44 vehicle/h and 8. 13% , respectively. The F value for test of significance has a strong linear correlation with the optimal number of traffic detectors.%根据道路交叉口交通流量相关性,提出一种交叉口检测器均衡布设优化方法.在分析检测器数据相关性的基础上,建立交叉口所有检测器的多元逐步回归模型,并得到检测器相关性矩阵,采用极大无关组确定检测器优化布设规模;借鉴经济学中基尼系数的概念,以基尼系数最小作为检测器均衡布设的优化目标,从极大无关组中优选得到最佳检测器布设位置;采用福州五一五四路交叉口实际数据对模型有效性进行验证,并对预测误差进行详细分析.结果表明:对非关键检测器数据预测的平均绝对误差与平均相对误差分别为10.44辆车/h和8.13%;显著性检验中的F值与布设检测器的规模具有很强的线性相关性.

  7. Two Case Studies of Secondary Language Teaching: A Critical Look at the Intersection of Management and the Local and Social Realities that Shape Our Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study followed two graduates from a master of arts in the teaching of languages program, who had taught for at least 3 years, into their domain of work in public school teaching. The study was carried out to better understand the day-to-day work, challenges, and social and interactive contexts in which language teachers engage. It…

  8. Prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM): A new frontier at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Formed by non-covalent interactions and not defined at genetic level, the assemblies of small molecules in biology are complicated and less explored. A common morphology of the supramolecular assemblies of small molecules is nanofibrils, which coincidentally resembles the nanofibrils formed by proteins such as prions. So these supramolecular assemblies are termed as prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM). Emerging evidence from several unrelated fields over the past decade implies ...

  9. On the Newton filtration for functions on complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Hamm, Helmut A

    2011-01-01

    W.Ebeling and S.M.Gusein-Zade have started to look at multi-index Newton filtrations for hypersurface singularities. In this paper we pass to complete intersections. One motivation is the possibility to compare with the "classical" Newton filtration introduced by A.G.Kushnirenko in connection with the Milnor number.

  10. Becoming Black Women: Intimate Stories and Intersectional Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I argue that intimate stories are an important resource for the achievement of intersectional identities. Drawing on in-depth interviews with black college students at two predominantly white universities, I examine the stories black college women tell about interracial relationships between black men and white women. I argue that…

  11. Belonging and Unbelonging from an Intersectional Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte

    2009-01-01

    The article is primarily theoretical and conceptual. It focuses on the notion of belonging from an intersectional perspective. The purpose is to discuss different dimensions of the concept of ‘belonging' and its rooting at different analytical levels. The first part of the article outlines...... the theoretical framework. The point of departure is multilayered citizenship and different notions of belonging. Second, the notion of belonging is divided into three analytical levels: (a) the macro level: imagined communities; (b) the meso level: collective organizations; and (c) the micro level: everyday......, for instance how to combine analysis of model citizenship/migration regimes with perspectives on everyday life. Another question relates to dilemmas within studies of everyday life. On the one hand, these studies are based on voices from below and a high degree of authenticity, but on the other hand, they tend...

  12. The Precious Sortie: The United States Air Force at the Intersection of Rising Energy Prices, an Aging Fleet, a Struggling Recapitalization Effort, and Stressed Defense Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    them at their own peril. 26 NOTES 1 Gayle Putrich and Vago Muridan, "Rising Oil Prices Change USAF Ops," DefenseNews, July 14, 200S, http...accessed July 30, 200S). 4 Vago Muridan, "Oil Prices Reshape How the Air Force Flies," AirForceTimes, July 14, 200S,_ http://www.airforcetimes.com...Lori. "Congress Urges Spending Restraint." The Washington Post, January 8, 2009. 31 Muridan, Vago . "Oil Prices Reshape How the Air Force Flies." Air

  13. An at-grade stabilization structure impact on runoff and suspended sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minks, Kyle R.; Lowery, Birl; Madison, Fred W.; Ruark, Matthew; Frame, Dennis R.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, agricultural runoff has received more attention as a major contributor to surface water pollution. This is especially true for the unglaciated area of Wisconsin, given this area's steep topography, which makes it highly susceptible to runoff and soil loss. We evaluated the ability of an at-grade stabilization structure (AGSS), designed as a conservation practice to reduce the amount of overland runoff and suspended sediment transported to the surface waters of an agricultural watershed. Eight years of storm and baseflow data collected by the US Geological Survey–Wisconsin Water Science Center on a farm in west central Wisconsin were analyzed for changes in precipitation, storm runoff volume, and suspended sediment concentration before and after installation of an AGSS. The agricultural research site was designed as a paired watershed study in which monitoring stations were installed on the perennial streams draining both control and treatment watersheds. Linear mixed effects model analyses were conducted to determine if any statistically significant changes occurred in the water quality parameters before and after the AGSS was installed. Results indicated no significant changes (p = 0.51) in average event precipitation and runoff volumes before and after installation of the AGSS in either the treatment (NW) or control (SW) watersheds. However, the AGSS did significantly reduce the average suspended sediment concentration in the event runoff water (p = 0.02) in the NW from 972 to 263 mg L–1. In addition, particle size analyses, using light diffraction techniques, were conducted on soil samples taken from within the AGSS and adjacent valley and ridge top to determine if suspended sediments were being retained within the structure. Statistical analysis revealed a significantly (p waters. The cost of an AGSS can range from US$3,500 to US$8,000, depending on size. Thus, these structures provide a cheap and effective means of improving water quality

  14. Influence of Phase Conversion Prompt on Traffic Operation Efficiency at Intersection%换相提示对交叉口交通运行效率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹慧

    2015-01-01

    Signal reversing prompt device has been applied to signalized intersections in many cities in China ,and countdown is most commonly used .This paper targets at the traffic psychology ,efficiency to study the impact of reversing prompt device ,applies VISSIM simulation software .contrasts and analyses the traffic characteristic before and after the installation of the countdown .VISSIM evaluation results show that after the installation of a countdown clock ,reduced the vehicle travel time , delay time and vehicle queue length ,possible capacity increase by 2310pcu/h .%信号换相提示装置在我国许多城市的交叉口得到了应用 ,其中倒计时表最为常用.从运行效率入手 ,对信号交叉口换相提示的影响进行了研究 ,应用VIS-SIM仿真软件 ,对不同换相提示方式下交通特性进行仿真对比分析.研究结果表明 ,相较于闪烁信号灯 ,安装倒计时信号灯的交叉口 ,降低了车辆行程时间、延误时间和排队车辆长 ,可能通行能力提高了2310pcu/h ,提高了交叉口的运行效率.

  15. Analysis of Joint at Intersection of Lingang Industrial Area with Seaside Avenue in Tianjin%天津临港工业区与海滨大道相交节点交通分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寅弘; 黄文

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the traffic traveling demands of Lingang Industrial Area in Tianjin, sets forth the importance of Seaside Avenue surrounding Bohai River to the traffic traveling of Lingang Industrial Area, introduces in detail every joint at the intersections of the main traveling roads in Lingang Industrial Area with Seaside Avenue, and demonstrates the mutual relying-on relationship of the construction of Seaside Avenue with the traffic demand of Lingang Industrial Area as so to realize the separation of the areal traffic from the transit traffic.%该文对天津临港工业区的交通出行需求进行了分析,阐述了环绕渤海的海滨大道对l临港工业区交通出行的重要性,并对临港工业区主要出行道路与海滨大道相交的各个节点进行了详细介绍,论证了海滨大道的建设与临港工业区交通需求的相互依托关系,实现了区域交通与过境交通的分离.

  16. Internet Use and Online Literacy among Middle Grade Students at Risk of Dropping out of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Amy; Henry, Laurie A.

    2010-01-01

    This research provides an analysis of Internet use and online literacy skill among seventh-grade students who were identified as having a high risk for school dropout. Participants (n = 1,025) included students from 12 middle schools in 9 school districts. Six of the schools were located in rural and urban districts in the Northeast United States…

  17. Metacognition Theory as Related to Reading Strategies and Reading Comprehension at the Fifth Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppins, Laci Sharyl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the application of metacognition theory as related to reading strategies and reading comprehension in the Fifth Grade. Specifically, the researcher examined the impact of metacognition in reading comprehension, the effect of metacognition on reading strategies, and the role the teacher…

  18. Cognitive Processes and Math Performance: A Study with Children at Third Grade of Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Isabel S.; Almeida, Leandro S.; Ferreira, Aristides I.; Martinez, Luis F.; Ramalho, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to examine the relationship between cognitive factors and mathematical achievement in primary education. Participants were 103 Portuguese third grade students, aged 8 and 9. All participants completed a battery for working memory (WMTB-C), a test of general intelligence (Raven's Progressive Color Matrices), a selective…

  19. The "School Safety & Security Questionnaire": Middle Grades Students' Perceptions of Safety at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Janice Williams; Nickell, Linda K.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the development and basic psychometric characteristics of the "School Safety and Security Questionnaire" (SSSQ). This new measure was constructed to assess middle grade students' perceptions of safety and security during the school year. The content validity of the theoretically-based instrument was assessed and the measure was…

  20. Emerging role for corticotropin releasing factor signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis at the intersection of stress and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Yuval; Winder, Danny G

    2013-01-01

    Stress and anxiety play an important role in the development and maintenance of drug and alcohol addiction. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a brain region involved in the production of long-term stress-related behaviors, plays an important role in animal models of relapse, such as reinstatement to previously extinguished drug-seeking behaviors. While a number of neurotransmitter systems have been suggested to play a role in these behaviors, recent evidence points to the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) as being critically important in BNST-mediated reinstatement behaviors. Although numerous studies indicate that the BNST is a complex brain region with multiple afferent and efferent systems and a variety of cell types, there has only been limited work to determine how CRF modulates this complex neuronal system at the circuit level. Recent work from our lab and others have begun to unravel these BNST neurocircuits and explore their roles in CRF-related reinstatement behaviors. This review will examine the role of CRF signaling in drug addiction and reinstatement with an emphasis on critical neurocircuitry within the BNST that may offer new insights into treatments for addiction.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic flow due to noncoaxial rotations of a porous disk and a fourth-grade fluid at infinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Tasawar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The governing equations for the unsteady flow of a uniformly conducting incompressible fourth-grade fluid due to noncoaxial rotations of a porous disk and the fluid at infinity are constructed. The steady flow of the fourth-grade fluid subjected to a magnetic field with suction/blowing through the disk is studied. The nonlinear ordinary differential equations resulting from the balance of momentum and mass are discretised by a finite-difference method and numerically solved by means of an iteration method in which, by a coordinate transformation, the semi-infinite physical domain is converted to a finite calculation domain. In order to solve the fourth-order nonlinear differential equations, asymptotic boundary conditions at infinity are augmented. The manner in which various material parameters affect the structure of the boundary layer is delineated. It is found that the suction through the disk and the magnetic field tend to thin the boundary layer near the disk for both the Newtonian fluid and the fourth-grade fluid, while the blowing causes a thickening of the boundary layer with the exception of the fourth-grade fluid under strong blowing. With the increase of the higher-order viscosities, the boundary layer has the tendency of thickening.

  2. Use of Online Learning Resources in the Development of Learning Environments at the Intersection of Formal and Informal Learning: The Student as Autonomous Designer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Lebeničnik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning resources that are used in the education of university students are often available online. The nature of new technologies causes an interweaving of formal and informal learning, with the result that a more active role is expected from students with regard to the use of ICT for their learning. The variety of online learning resources (learning content and learning tools facilitates informed use and enables students to create the learning environment that is most appropriate for their personal learning needs and preferences. In contemporary society, the creation of an inclusive learning environment supported by ICT is pervasive. The model of Universal Design for Learning is becoming increasingly significant in responding to the need for inclusive learning environments. In this article, we categorize different online learning activities into the principles of Universal Design for Learning. This study examines ICT use among university students (N = 138, comparing student teachers with students in other study programs. The findings indicate that among all students, activities with lower demands for engagement are most common. Some differences were observed between student teachers and students from other programs. Student teachers were more likely than their peers to perform certain activities aimed at meeting diverse learner needs, but the percentage of students performing more advanced activities was higher for students in other study programs than for student teachers. The categorization of activities revealed that student teachers are less likely to undertake activities that involve interaction with others. Among the sample of student teachers, we found that personal innovativeness is correlated with diversity of activities in only one category. The results show that student teachers should be encouraged to perform more advanced activities, especially activities involving interaction with others, collaborative learning and use of ICT to

  3. Intersection crossing considered as intercepting a moving traffic gap: effects of task and environmental constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveton, Nicolas; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Guerin, Perrine; Berthelon, Catherine; Montagne, Gilles

    2012-11-01

    Safely crossing an intersection requires that drivers actively control their approach to the intersection with respect to characteristics of the flow of incoming traffic. To further our understanding of the perceptual-motor processes involved in this demanding manoeuvre, we designed a driving simulator experiment in which 13 participants actively negotiated intersections by passing through a gap in the train of incoming traffic. Task constraints were manipulated by varying the size of the traffic gap and the initial conditions with respect to the time of arrival of the traffic gap at the intersection. Environment constraints were manipulated by varying the intersection geometry through changes in the angle formed by the crossroads. The results revealed that the task constraints systematically gave rise to continuous and gradual adjustments in approach velocity, initiated well before arriving at the intersection. These functionally appropriate adjustments allowed the drivers to safely cross the intersection, generally just slightly ahead of the center of the traffic gap. Notwithstanding the fact that the geometry of the intersection did not affect the spatiotemporal constraints of the crossing task, approach behavior varied systematically over geometries, suggesting that drivers rely on the traffic gap's bearing angle. Overall, the pattern of results is indicative of a continuous coupling between perception and action, analogous to that observed in locomotor interception tasks.

  4. Threshold Functions in Random s-Intersection Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jun; Gligor, Virgil

    2015-01-01

    Random $s$-intersection graphs have recently received considerable attention in a wide range of application areas. In such a graph, each vertex is equipped with a set of items in some random manner, and any two vertices establish an undirected edge in between if and only if they have at least $s$ common items. In particular, in a uniform random $s$-intersection graph, each vertex independently selects a fixed number of items uniformly at random from a common item pool, while in a binomial random $s$-intersection graph, each item in some item pool is independently attached to each vertex with the same probability. For binomial/uniform random $s$-intersection graphs, we establish threshold functions for perfect matching containment, Hamilton cycle containment, and $k$-robustness, where $k$-robustness is in the sense of Zhang and Sundaram [IEEE Conf. on Decision & Control '12]. We show that these threshold functions resemble those of classical Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'{e}nyi graphs, where each pair of vertices has an un...

  5. Numerical Simulations of Mach Stem Formation via Intersecting Bow Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Edward C; Hartigan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations show bright knots of H$\\alpha$ emission within outflowing young stellar jets. Velocity variations in the flow create secondary bow shocks that may intersect and lead to enhanced emission. When the bow shocks intersect at or above a certain critical angle, a planar shock called a Mach stem is formed. These shocks could produce brighter H$\\alpha$ emission since the incoming flow to the Mach stem is parallel to the shock normal. In this paper we report first results of a study using 2-D numerical simulations designed to explore Mach stem formation at the intersection of bow shocks formed by hypersonic "bullets" or "clumps". Our 2-D simulations show how the bow shock shapes and intersection angles change as the adiabatic index $\\gamma$ changes. We show that the formation or lack of a Mach stem in our simulations is consistent with the steady-state Mach stem formation theory. Our ultimate goal, which is part of an ongoing research effort, is to characterize the physical and obse...

  6. Session Types = Intersection Types + Union Types

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We propose a semantically grounded theory of session types which relies on intersection and union types. We argue that intersection and union types are natural candidates for modeling branching points in session types and we show that the resulting theory overcomes some important defects of related behavioral theories. In particular, intersections and unions provide a native solution to the problem of computing joins and meets of session types. Also, the subtyping relation turns out to be a pre-congruence, while this is not always the case in related behavioral theories.

  7. Conical intersections in an ultracold gas

    CERN Document Server

    Wüster, S; Rost, J M

    2010-01-01

    We find that energy surfaces of more than two atoms or molecules interacting via dipole-dipole po- tentials generically possess conical intersections (CIs). Typically only few atoms participate strongly in such an intersection. For the fundamental case, a circular trimer, we show how the CI affects adiabatic excitation transport via electronic decoherence or geometric phase interference. These phe- nomena may be experimentally accessible if the trimer is realized by light alkali atoms in a ring trap, whose dipole-dipole interactions are induced by off-resonant dressing with Rydberg states. Such a setup promises a direct probe of the full many-body density dynamics near a conical intersection.

  8. MR elastography of the liver at 3.0 T in diagnosing liver fibrosis grades; preliminary clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Mitsufuji, Toshimichi; Shinagawa, Yoshinobu; Fujimitsu, Ritsuko; Morita, Ayako; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Takano, Koichi [Fukuoka University, Department of Radiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Hayashi, Hiroyuki [Fukuoka University, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    To clarify the usefulness of 3.0-T MR elastography (MRE) in diagnosing the histological grades of liver fibrosis using preliminary clinical data. Between November 2012 and March 2014, MRE was applied to all patients who underwent liver MR study at a 3.0-T clinical unit. Among them, those who had pathological evaluation of liver tissue within 3 months from MR examinations were retrospectively recruited, and the liver stiffness measured by MRE was correlated with histological results. Institutional review board approved this study, waiving informed consent. There were 70 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Liver stiffness showed significant correlation with the pathological grades of liver fibrosis (rho = 0.89, p < 0.0001, Spearman's rank correlation). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.93, 0.95, 0.99 and 0.95 for fibrosis score greater than or equal to F1, F2, F3 and F4, with cut-off values of 3.13, 3.85, 4.28 and 5.38 kPa, respectively. Multivariate analysis suggested that grades of necroinflammation also affected liver stiffness, but to a significantly lesser degree as compared to fibrosis. 3.0-T clinical MRE was suggested to be sufficiently useful in assessing the grades of liver fibrosis. (orig.)

  9. CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) mutation identifies low grade, early stage endometrial cancer patients at increased risk of recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnit, Katherine C; Kim, Grace N; Fellman, Bryan M; Urbauer, Diana L; Mills, Gordon B; Zhang, Wei; Broaddus, Russell R

    2017-03-10

    Although the majority of low grade, early stage endometrial cancer patients will have good survival outcomes with surgery alone, those patients who do recur tend to do poorly. Optimal identification of the subset of patients who are at high risk of recurrence and would benefit from adjuvant treatment has been difficult. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of somatic tumor mutation on survival outcomes in this patient population. For this study, low grade was defined as endometrioid FIGO grades 1 or 2, while early stage was defined as endometrioid stages I or II (disease confined to the uterus). Next-generation sequencing was performed using panels comprised of 46-200 genes. Recurrence-free and overall survival was compared across gene mutational status in both univariate and multivariate analyses. In all, 342 patients were identified, 245 of which had endometrioid histology. For grades 1-2, stages I-II endometrioid endometrial cancer patients, age (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), CTNNB1 mutation (HR 5.97, 95% CI 2.69-13.21), and TP53 mutation (HR 4.07, 95% CI 1.57-10.54) were associated with worse recurrence-free survival on multivariate analysis. When considering endometrioid tumors of all grades and stages, CTNNB1 mutant tumors were associated with significantly higher rates of grades 1-2 disease, lower rates of deep myometrial invasion, and lower rates of lymphatic/vascular space invasion. When both TP53 and CTNNB1 mutations were considered, presence of either TP53 mutation or CTNNB1 mutation remained a statistically significant predictor of recurrence-free survival on multivariate analysis and was associated with a more precise confidence interval (HR 4.69, 95% CI 2.38-9.24). Thus, mutational analysis of a 2 gene panel of CTNNB1 and TP53 can help to identify a subset of low grade, early stage endometrial cancer patients who are at high risk of recurrence.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 10 March 2017; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2017.15.

  10. At the Intersection of College & Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    By purchasing abandoned facilities and transforming them into vibrant hubs for culture and education, community colleges are fulfilling one of their key missions: revitalizing their communities. But these types of projects can be fraught with challenges as well. Here's how Austin Community College (Texas), Manchester Community College…

  11. At the ISR intersection region I-7

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    One sees on the left the setup of the experiment R704 which aimed to study charmonium spectroscopy using a 4 GeV/c antiproton beam and a hydrogen-jet gas target (see Annual Report 1982 p. 109 and 1883 p. 127). Lars Leistam stands on top of the passerelle.

  12. Dominance of Acidithiobacillus at ore surface of Zijinshan commercial low-grade copper bioleaching heap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xing-yu; CHEN Bo-wei; WEN Jian-kang

    2008-01-01

    The microbial community structure in the ore surface of Zijinshan commercial low-grade copper bioleaching heap was investigated by 16S rRNA gene clone library.For both bacteria and Archaea,105 clones were sequenced.The dominant bacteria species present in the ore surface were Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum,accounting for 51.42% and 48.57%,respectively.However,for the Archaea,only one operational taxonomic unit (OUT) belonged to Ferroplasma acidiphilum.These results indicate that function of genus Acidithiobacillus in the commercial low-grade copper bioleaching heap may be underestimated.More detailed and quantitative information on microbial community structure over time are now under investigation.

  13. MULTIAGENT PLANNING OF INTERSECTION PASSAGE BY AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zikratov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a traffic management system for autonomous vehicles that are agents at the intersection. In contrast to the known solutions based on the usage of semiautonomous control systems in assembly with the control unit, this algorithm is based on the principles of decentralized multiagent control. The best travel plan for intersection passage is produced by means of optimization methods jointly by all agents belonging to a dynamic collaboration of autonomous vehicles. The order of road intersection optimal for a given criterion is determined by the agents in the process of information exchange about themselves and environment. Our experiments show that this protocol can reduce significantly the traffic density as compared to the traditional systems of traffic management. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm increases with increasing density of road traffic. In addition, the absence of the critical object, that is the control unit, in the control system, reduces significantly the effectiveness of possible failures and hacker attacks on the intersection control system.

  14. Hirzebruch-Milnor classes of complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Maxim, Laurentiu; Schuermann, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We prove a new formula for the Hirzebruch-Milnor classes of global complete intersections with arbitrary singularities describing the difference between the Hirzebruch classes and the virtual ones. This generalizes a formula for the Chern-Milnor classes in the hypersurface case that was conjectured by S. Yokura and was proved by A. Parusinski and P. Pragacz. It also generalizes a formula of T. Suwa for the Chern-Milnor classes of complete intersections with isolated singularities.

  15. A Comparative Study of the Academic Performance of Secondary School Pupils at Grade Twelve Level in English, French and Zambian Languages (1998-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chishiba, G. M.; Mukuka, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the performance of pupils at grade 12 level in Zambian languages, French and English during a period of ten years (1998-2008). Grade 12 is the final year of Secondary School Education in Zambia. This exercise was aimed at establishing the language with the best performance during the aforementioned period. The study, which was…

  16. The Effect of Arabism of Romanic Alphabets on the Development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language Students' Writing Skills at Secondary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhair, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the effect of Arabization of Romanic Alphabets on the development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language students' composition writing skills at secondary school level. This experimental study includes 25 secondary school students in their 9th Grade in which English is taught as a foreign language at…

  17. MATLAB Simulation of Fuzzy Traffic Controller for Multilane Isolated Intersection

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a MATLAB simulation of fuzzy traffic controller for controlling traffic flow at multilane isolated signalized intersection. The controller is developed based on the waiting time and vehicles queue length at current green phase, and vehicles queue lengths at the other phases. For control strategy, the controllercontrols the traffic light timings and phase sequence to ensure smooth flow of traffic with minimal waiting time, queue length and delay time. In this research, the ...

  18. Parametric performance of circumferentially grooved heat pipes with homogeneous and graded-porosity slab wicks at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, M.; Pittman, R. B.; Eninger, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A recently developed, potentially high-performance nonarterial wick has been extensively tested. This slab wick has an axially varying porosity which can be tailored to match the local stress imposed on the wick. The purpose of the tests was to establish the usefulness of the graded-porosity slab wick at cryogenic temperatures between 110 K and 260 K, with methane and ethane as working fluids. For comparison, a homogeneous (i.e., uniform porosity) slab wick was also tested. The tests included: (1) maximum heat pipe performance as a function of fluid inventory, (2) maximum performance as a function of operating temperature, (3) maximum performance as a function of evaporator elevation, and (4) influence of slab wick orientation on performance. The experimental data was compared with theoretical predictions obtained with the computer program GRADE.

  19. Parametric performance of circumferentially grooved heat pipes with homogeneous and graded-porosity slab wicks at cryogenic temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, M.; Pittman, R.B.; Eninger, J.E.

    1975-12-01

    A recently developed, potentially high-performance nonarterial wick has been extensively tested. This slab wick has an axially varying porosity which can be tailored to match the local stress imposed on the wick. The purpose of the tests was to establish the usefulness of the graded-porosity slab wick at cryogenic temperatures between 110 K and 260 K, with methane and ethane as working fluids. For comparison, a homogeneous (i.e., uniform porosity) slab wick was also tested. The tests included: (1) maximum heat pipe performance as a function of fluid inventory; (2) maximum performance as a function of operating temperature; (3) maximum performance as a function of evaporator elevation; and (4) influence of slab wick orientation on performance. The experimental data was compared with theoretical predictions obtained with the computer program GRADE. (GRA)

  20. The Outlook for Low-Grade Fuels in Tomsk Region: Research Experience at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the discussed issue is caused by the need to substitute in the regional fuel-energy balances imported energy resources with local low-grade fuels. The main aim of the study is to estimate thermal properties of local fuels in Tomsk region and evaluate its energy use viability. The methods used in the study were based standard GOST 52911-2008, 11022-95 and 6382-2001, by means of a bomb calorimeter ABK-1 and Vario micro cube analyzer. The mineral ash of researched fuels was studied agreeing with GOST 10538-87. The results state the fact that discussed low-grade fuels of Tomsk region in the unprepared form are not able to replace imported coal in regional energy balance, because of the high moisture and ash content values. A promosing direction of a low-temperature fue processing is a catalytic converter, which allows receiving hydrogen-enriched syngas from the initial solid raw.

  1. Bilingual Education Project: Evaluation of the 1973-74 French Immersion Program in Grades K-2 at Allenby Public School, Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Henri C.; And Others

    The school performance of pupils in grades K-2 of the French immersion program in operation at Allenby Public School in Toronto is evaluated in comparison with that of pupils in the regular English program. The results indicate that by the end of kindergarten pupils in both programs are equally ready for beginning school work in grade 1. By the…

  2. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for low grade glioma at McGill University: long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, D; Souhami, L; Olivier, A; Leblanc, R; Podgorsak, E

    2006-02-01

    Small, well-defined, unresectable low-grade gliomas are attractive targets for stereotactic irradiation. Fractionated stereotactic irradiation of these targets has the theoretical benefit of increased normal tissue sparing beyond that provided by the physical characteristics of stereotactic radiosurgery. From July 1987 to November 1992, 21 patients were treated for low-grade glioma at our institution using a hypofractionated regimen of stereotactic radiotherapy. All patients had well-circumscribed, < 40 mm tumors. No patient had had prior radiotherapy. All lesions were histologically proven WHO grade I or II glial tumors. Lesions involved sensitive brain structures and were deemed unresectable. A typical dose of 42 Gy was delivered in 6 fractions over a two-week period using rigid immobilization and a linac-based dynamic stereotactic radiosurgical technique. Patients had a median age of 23 years (9-74) and were predominantly female (60%). Median tumor diameter was 20 mm. With a median follow-up for living patients of 13.3 years, the actuarial 5, 10, and 15-year overall survival rates are 76%, 71%, and 63%, respectively. Treatment was acutely well tolerated although three patients experienced late post-therapy complications. Our results and those of 241 patients treated in nine other institutional series are reviewed. Despite some examples of favorable short-term outcomes, all reported series are highly selected and thus likely biased. The data regarding the use of SRS is limited and, in our opinion, insufficient to claim a clear therapeutic advantage to SRS in the initial management of low-grade glioma. Our own results with hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy are similar to those expected with standard therapy.

  3. On $k$-connectivity and minimum vertex degree in random $s$-intersection graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jun; Gligor, Virgil

    2014-01-01

    Random s-intersection graphs have recently received much interest [1-9]. In a random s-intersection graph, each vertex is assigned to a set of items in some manner, and two vertices have an edge in between if and only if they share at least s items. In particular, in a uniform random s-intersection graph, each vertex independently selects the same number of items uniformly at random from a common item pool, while in a binomial random s-intersection graph, each item in some item pool is independently attached to each vertex with the same probability. These two graph models have numerous applications; e.g., using uniform random s-intersection graph for cryptanalysis [14,15], and to model secure wireless sensor networks [8-10] and online social networks [11,12], and using a binomial random s-intersection graph for clustering analysis [17], classification [18] and the design of integrated circuits [34]. For binomial/uniform random s-intersection graphs, we present results related to k-connectivity and minimum ver...

  4. Concepts and practices of teachers of argumentation skills at the 5th grade of basic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza da Costa França

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article seeks to discuss the concepts of two teachers regarding the teaching of argumentation skills and how they refl ect on their teaching practices with 5th grade students. The analysis of fi ve classes of each teacher has revealed that one of them adopted a concept of argumentation detached from day-to-day situations, expressed in the teaching of concepts and in a standard compositional form. The other teacher has shown a clearer understanding of the diversity of textual genres and of the situations in which one has to use argumentation skills, therefore generating more reading and writing activities based on the context, focusing on the analyzed genres’ characteristics. It is possible to conclude that the concept of argumentation as a discursive practice requires a greater knowledge of the diversity of situations and genres found in the society. This knowledge is essential for a more refl exive pedagogical practice centered on the social uses of writing.

  5. Infiuence of Bicycle Traffic on Capacity of Typical Signalized Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; YUE Hao

    2007-01-01

    Bicycle traffic has a significant effect on the capacity of signalized intersections. This paper divides the influence of bicyclists on vehicular flow into four types with the time durations estimated based on probability, shock wave, and gap acceptance theory. Vehicular saturation flow rate is predicted for various conditions on the basis of the speed-flow curve for the capacity of typical intersections influenced by bicycle traffic.The model overcomes the limitations of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM, 2000) method for left-turns due to data collection, and takes into account the effect of trapped bicycles on the through vehicular traffic.The numerical results show that the left-turn and through capacities predicted by the model are lower than those of the HCM method. The right-turn capacity is close to that of the HCM method at Iow bicycle volumes and higher than that of the HCM method at high bicycle volumes.

  6. The Standard Model from Stable Intersecting Brane World Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, R; Lüst, Dieter; Ott, T; Blumenhagen, Ralph; Kors, Boris; Lust, Dieter; Ott, Tassilo

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the perturbative stability of non-supersymmetric intersecting brane world models on tori. Besides the dilaton tadpole, a dynamical instability in the complex structure moduli space occurs at string disc level, which drives the background geometry to a degenerate limit. We show that in certain orbifold models this latter instability is absent as the relevant moduli are frozen. We construct explicit examples of such orbifold intersecting brane world models and discuss the phenomenological implications of a three generation Standard Model which descends naturally from an SU(5) GUT theory. It turns out that various phenomenological issues require the string scale to be at least of the order of the GUT scale. As a major difference compared to the Standard Model, some of the Yukawa couplings are excluded so that the standard electroweak Higgs mechanism with a fundamental Higgs scalar is not realized in this set-up.

  7. The Standard Model from stable intersecting brane world orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph E-mail: blumenha@physik.hu-berlin.de; Koers, Boris E-mail: koers@physik.hu-berlin.de; Luest, Dieter E-mail: luest@physik.hu-berlin.de; Ott, Tassilo E-mail: ott@physik.hu-berlin.de

    2001-11-19

    We analyze the perturbative stability of non-supersymmetric intersecting brane world models on tori. Besides the dilaton tadpole, a dynamical instability in the complex structure moduli space occurs at string disc level, which drives the background geometry to a degenerate limit. We show that in certain orbifold models this latter instability is absent as the relevant moduli are frozen. We construct explicit examples of such orbifold intersecting brane world models and discuss the phenomenological implications of a three generation Standard Model which descends naturally from an SU(5) GUT theory. It turns out that various phenomenological issues require the string scale to be at least of the order of the GUT scale. As a major difference compared to the Standard Model, some of the Yukawa couplings are excluded so that the standard electroweak Higgs mechanism with a fundamental Higgs scalar is not realized in this set-up.

  8. Incorporating intersectionality theory into population health research methodology: challenges and the potential to advance health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R

    2014-06-01

    Intersectionality theory, developed to address the non-additivity of effects of sex/gender and race/ethnicity but extendable to other domains, allows for the potential to study health and disease at different intersections of identity, social position, processes of oppression or privilege, and policies or institutional practices. Intersectionality has the potential to enrich population health research through improved validity and greater attention to both heterogeneity of effects and causal processes producing health inequalities. Moreover, intersectional population health research may serve to both test and generate new theories. Nevertheless, its implementation within health research to date has been primarily through qualitative research. In this paper, challenges to incorporation of intersectionality into population health research are identified or expanded upon. These include: 1) confusion of quantitative terms used metaphorically in theoretical work with similar-sounding statistical methods; 2) the question of whether all intersectional positions are of equal value, or even of sufficient value for study; 3) distinguishing between intersecting identities, social positions, processes, and policies or other structural factors; 4) reflecting embodiment in how processes of oppression and privilege are measured and analysed; 5) understanding and utilizing appropriate scale for interactions in regression models; 6) structuring interaction or risk modification to best convey effects, and; 7) avoiding assumptions of equidistance or single level in the design of analyses. Addressing these challenges throughout the processes of conceptualizing and planning research and in conducting analyses has the potential to improve researchers' ability to more specifically document inequalities at varying intersectional positions, and to study the potential individual- and group-level causes that may drive these observed inequalities. A greater and more thoughtful incorporation

  9. A secure multi-party computation solution to intersection problems of sets and rectangles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shundong; DAI Yiqi; WANG Daoshun; LUO Ping

    2006-01-01

    Secure multi-party computation (SMC) is a research focus in international cryptographic community. At present, there is no SMC solution to the intersection problem of sets. In this paper, we first propose a SMC solution to this problem. Applying Cantor encoding method to computational geometry problems, and based on the solution to set-intersection problem, we further propose solutions to points inclusion problem and intersection problem of rectangles and further prove their privacy-preserving property with widely accepted simulation paradigm. Compared with the known solutions, these new solutions are of less computational complexity and less communication complexity, and have obvious superiority in computational and communication complexity.

  10. Imploded test-chamber for an ISR intersection

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    At the ISR intersection points the vacuum chambers had to be as "transparent" as possible, for the p-p collision product particles to reach the detectors with minimum hindrance. This meant the choice of a light, yet very strong, metal; minimum thickness; and corrugation for mechanical strength. The test-chamber seen here was made of 0.6 mm thick corrugated titanium, obviously not strong enough to withstand the atmospheric pressure.

  11. Fuels Performance: Navigating the Intersection of Fuels and Combustion (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, recognize that engine and infrastructure compatibility can make or break the impact of even the most promising fuel. NREL and its industry partners navigate the intersection of fuel chemistry, ignition kinetics, combustion, and emissions, with innovative approaches to engines and fuels that meet drivers' expectations, while minimizing petroleum use and GHGs.

  12. Component evolution in general random intersection graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hengartner, Nick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon G [CLAREMONT GRADUATE UNIV.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze component evolution in general random intersection graphs (RIGs) and give conditions on existence and uniqueness of the giant component. Our techniques generalize the existing methods for analysis on component evolution in RIGs. That is, we analyze survival and extinction properties of a dependent, inhomogeneous Galton-Watson branching process on general RIGs. Our analysis relies on bounding the branching processes and inherits the fundamental concepts from the study on component evolution in Erdos-Renyi graphs. The main challenge becomes from the underlying structure of RIGs, when the number of offsprings follows a binomial distribution with a different number of nodes and different rate at each step during the evolution. RIGs can be interpreted as a model for large randomly formed non-metric data sets. Besides the mathematical analysis on component evolution, which we provide in this work, we perceive RIGs as an important random structure which has already found applications in social networks, epidemic networks, blog readership, or wireless sensor networks.

  13. Intersection Logic in sequent calculus style

    CERN Document Server

    Della Rocca, Simona Ronchi; Stavrinos, Yiorgos; Veneti, Anastasia; 10.4204/EPTCS.45.2

    2011-01-01

    The intersection type assignment system has been designed directly as deductive system for assigning formulae of the implicative and conjunctive fragment of the intuitionistic logic to terms of lambda-calculus. But its relation with the logic is not standard. Between all the logics that have been proposed as its foundation, we consider ISL, which gives a logical interpretation of the intersection by splitting the intuitionistic conjunction into two connectives, with a local and global behaviour respectively, being the intersection the local one. We think ISL is a logic interesting by itself, and in order to support this claim we give a sequent calculus formulation of it, and we prove that it enjoys the cut elimination property.

  14. Thermodynamics of Intersecting Black Branes from Interacting Elementary Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    If an Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton system admits the extreme brane solution in which no force works between the parallel branes, the collective motion of nearly parallel branes exhibits the thermodynamical properties which are coincident with those of the corresponding black branes at low energy regime (up to unfixed numerical factors). Hence it may provide the microscopic description of the black branes ($p$-soup proposal). This fact motivates us to test this proposal in the intersecting black branes which have multiple brane charges and/or momentum along the brane direction. We consider the case that the multiple branes satisfy the intersection rule and feel no force when they are static, and find the agreement to the black hole thermodynamics.

  15. Continued Multicolumns Bioleaching for Low Grade Uranium Ore at a Certain Uranium Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongxin Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching has lots of advantages compared with traditional heap leaching. In industry, bioleaching of uranium is still facing many problems such as site space, high cost of production, and limited industrial facilities. In this paper, a continued column bioleaching system has been established for leaching a certain uranium ore which contains high fluoride. The analysis of chemical composition of ore shows that the grade of uranium is 0.208%, which is lower than that of other deposits. However, the fluoride content (1.8% of weight is greater than that of other deposits. This can be toxic for bacteria growth in bioleaching progress. In our continued multicolumns bioleaching experiment, the uranium recovery (89.5% of 4th column is greater than those of other columns in 120 days, as well as the acid consumption (33.6 g/kg. These results indicate that continued multicolumns bioleaching technology is suitable for leaching this type of ore. The uranium concentration of PLS can be effectively improved, where uranium recovery can be enhanced by the iron exchange system. Furthermore, this continued multicolumns bioleaching system can effectively utilize the remaining acid of PLS, which can reduce the sulfuric acid consumption. The cost of production of uranium can be reduced and this benefits the environment too.

  16. Perception of Catholic Lessons Among the Eleventh Grade Muslim Students at SMA Santa Theresia Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Retno Kris Sejati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The government has regulated that each student is entitled to religious education in accordance with his/her religion. However, some schools, one of which is SMA Santa Theresia (Santa Theresia Senior High School, have special regulations. Since these schools are run by Catholic foundations, they provide Catholic religious instruction to all students. Walgito (2004 reported that a person's perception will affect a person’s actions. Therefore, this research aims to reveal the Muslim students’ perception of the Catholic lessons they follow. This research used descriptive qualitative approach. The data were collected using interviews, observation and documentation through a process of data triangulation. The subjects selected through a purposive sampling method by considering that they are the eleventh grade students and taught by the same religious education teacher. The data were analyxed using Miles and Huberman model consisting of data reduction, data display and conclusion. The results indicated that the Muslim students have positive perception of the materials that are easy to apply in their daily lives, and also have a negative perception of the materials that have a lot of memorization and theories.

  17. Effects of acute hypoxia on renal and endocrine function at rest and during graded exercise in hydrated subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Kanstrup, I L; Richalet, J P

    1992-01-01

    Renal effects of altitude hypoxia are unclear. Renal and hormonal function was investigated in eight males at rest and during graded exercise at sea level (SL) and 48 h after rapid ascent to 4,350 m (HA). HA did not change resting values of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration......-intensity exercise, and there were no significant differences between exercise-induced decreases in CLi, CNa, and urine flow at HA compared with SL. Exercise gradually increased plasma norepinephrine, but values were higher at HA during light and moderate exercise. The small changes in the renal response to low......-intensity hypoxic exercise may be secondary to increased adrenosympathetic activity. However, antidiuretic and antinatriuretic effects of exercise were maintained in hypoxia and in both environments seemed to be the consequence of decreased proximal tubular outflow. The results demonstrate that renal glomerular...

  18. Low back pain at school: unique risk deriving from unsatisfactory grade in maths and school-type recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erne, Cordula; Elfering, Achim

    2011-12-01

    Psychosocial stress and pain may relate to educational selection. At the end of primary school (International Standard Classification of Education: ISCED level 1) children are recommended for one of three performance-based lower secondary level types of school (ISCED level 2). The study examines the association of educational selection and other risk factors with pain in the upper back (UBP), lower back pain (LBP), peripheral (limb) pain (PP), and abdominal pain (AP). Teacher reports of unsatisfactory grades in mathematics, and official school-type recommendation are included as objective psychosocial risk factors. One hundred and ninety-two schoolchildren, aged between 10 and 13 from 11 classes of 7 schools in Switzerland participated in the cross-sectional study. In logistic regression analysis, predictor variables included age, sex, BMI, participation in sport, physical mobility, weight of satchel, hours of daily TV, video, and computer use, pupils' back pain reported by the mother and father, psychosocial strain, unsatisfactory grade in mathematics, and school-type recommendation. Analysis of pain drawings was highly reliable and revealed high prevalence rates of musculoskeletal pain in the last 4 weeks (UBP 15.3%, LBP 13:8%, PP 33.9%, AP 20.1%). Psychosocial risk factors were uniquely significant predictors of UBP (psychosocial strain), LBP (psychosocial strain, unsatisfactory grade in mathematics, school-type recommendation), and AP (school-type recommendation). In conclusion, selection in terms of educational school system was uniquely associated with LBP in schoolchildren. Stress caused by educational selection should be addressed in primary prevention of musculoskeletal pain in schoolchildren.

  19. On the extent and connectivity of conical intersection seams and the effects of three-state intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Joshua D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Levine, B G [U IL AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN; Ong, M T [UIUC; Martinez, T J [UIUC

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the connectivity of intersection spaces and the role of minimal energy points within these intersection spaces (minimal energy conical intersections or MECIs) in promoting nonadiabatic transitions. We focus on malonaldeyde as a specific example, where there is a low-lying three-state conical intersection. This three-state intersection is the global minimum on the bright excited electronic state, but it plays a limited role in population transfer in our ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) simulations because the molecule must traverse a series of two-state conical intersections to reach the three-state intersection. Due to the differences in seam space dimensionality separating conventional (two-state) and three-state intersections, we suggest that dynamical effects arising directly from a three-state intersection may prove difficult to observe in general. We also use a newly developed method for intersection optimization with geometric constraints to demonstrate the connectivity of all the stationary points in the intersection spaces for malonaldehyde. This supports the conjecture that all intersection spaces are connected, and that three-state intersections play a key role in extending this connectivity to all pairs of states, e.g. the S{sub 1}/S{sub 0} and S{sub 2}/S{sub 1} intersection spaces.

  20. Expression of long-term plasticity at individual synapses in hippocampus is graded, bidirectional, and mainly presynaptic: optical quantal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, Ryosuke; Hu, Yi-Ling; Hamilton, David; Fine, Alan

    2009-04-30

    Key aspects of the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) remain unresolved despite decades of investigation. Alterations in postsynaptic glutamate receptors are believed to contribute to the expression of various forms of LTP and LTD, but the relative importance of presynaptic mechanisms is controversial. In addition, while aggregate synaptic input to a cell can undergo sequential and graded (incremental) LTP and LTD, it has been suggested that individual synapses may only support binary changes between initial and modified levels of strength. We have addressed these issues by combining electrophysiological methods with two-photon optical quantal analysis of plasticity at individual active (non-silent) Schaffer collateral synapses on CA1 pyramidal neurons in acute slices of hippocampus from adolescent rats. We find that these synapses sustain graded, bidirectional long-term plasticity. Remarkably, changes in potency are small and insignificant; long-term plasticity at these synapses is expressed overwhelmingly via presynaptic changes in reliability of transmitter release.

  1. Geographical clustering of prostate cancer grade and stage at diagnosis, before and after adjustment for risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curriero Frank

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial variation in patterns of disease outcomes is often explored with techniques such as cluster detection analysis. In other types of investigations, geographically varying individual or community level characteristics are often used as independent predictors in statistical models which also attempt to explain variation in disease outcomes. However, there is a lack of research which combines geographically referenced exploratory analysis with multilevel models. We used a spatial scan statistic approach, in combination with predicted block group-level disease patterns from multilevel models, to examine geographic variation in prostate cancer grade and stage at diagnosis. Results We examined data from 20928 Maryland men with incident prostate cancer reported to the Maryland Cancer Registry during 1992–1997. Initial cluster detection analyses, prior to adjustment, indicated that there were four statistically significant clusters of high and low rates of each outcome (later stage at diagnosis and higher histologic grade of tumor for prostate cancer cases in Maryland during 1992–1997. After adjustment for individual case attributes, including age, race, year of diagnosis, patterns of clusters changed for both outcomes. Additional adjustment for Census block group and county-level socioeconomic measures changed the cluster patterns further. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that, in locations where adjustment changed patterns of clusters, the adjustment factors may be contributing causes of the original clusters. In addition, clusters identified after adjusting for individual and area-level predictors indicate area of unexplained variation, and merit further small-area investigations.

  2. Intersection of the Exponential and Logarithmic Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukas, Andreas; Valahas, Theodoros

    2009-01-01

    The study of the number of intersection points of y = a[superscript x] and y = log[subscript a]x can be an interesting topic to present in a single-variable calculus class. In this article, the authors present a classroom presentation outline involving the basic algebra and the elementary calculus of the exponential and logarithmic functions. The…

  3. Triangle-intersecting families on eight vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Filmus, Yuval

    2011-01-01

    Simonovits and S\\'{o}s conjectured that the maximal size of a triangle-intersecting family of graphs on $n$ vertices is $2^{\\binom{n}{2}-3}$. Their conjecture has recently been proved using spectral methods. We provide an elementary proof of the special case of $8$ vertices using a partition argument.

  4. Inauguration ceremony for the Intersecting Storage Rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The inauguration ceremony for the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) was held on 16 October 1971. Kjell Johnsen is seen in the picture handing a symbolic key to the ISR to Edoardo Amaldi. From left to right on the podium: Victor Frederik Weisskopf, former Director-General; M Antonioz; Willibald Jentschke as Director-General of CERN, and on the other side Werner Heisenberg.

  5. A Finite Model Property for Intersection Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Statman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that the relational theory of intersection types known as BCD has the finite model property; that is, BCD is complete for its finite models. Our proof uses rewriting techniques which have as an immediate by-product the polynomial time decidability of the preorder <= (although this also follows from the so called beta soundness of BCD.

  6. First interactions from the Intersecting Storage Rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    On 27 January 1971, Kjell Johnsen, who led the construction team which built the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), announced that the first ever interactions from colliding protons had been recorded. On the left are Franco Bonaudi, who was responsible for the civil engineering and Dirk Neet, who later took charge of ISR operations.

  7. Teaching Science from Cultural Points of Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, Bruna Irene; Gummer, Edith

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on a professional development program for science teachers near or on American Indian reservations in Montana. This program was framed by culturally relevant pedagogy premises and was characterized by instructional strategies and content foci resulting from the intersection between three cultures: tribal, science teaching, and…

  8. Parenting influences on Latino children's social competence in the first grade: parental depression and parent involvement at home and school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R; Shewakramani, Vansa; Goldberg, Simon; Padilla, Brian

    2013-10-01

    Although it is widely accepted that parental depression is associated with problems with children's socioemotional adjustment, the pathways by which parental depression influences children's adjustment, particularly in low-income Latino children are not fully understood. In our investigation of 1,462 low-income Latino children in the first grade and their Spanish- and English-dominant parents, a factor analysis revealed three main pathways of possible influence of parent involvement in children's social development: emotional involvement and educational involvement at home and at school. The findings from multigroup structural equation modeling revealed that whereas the first two pathways mediated the effect of parental depression on child social competence for Spanish-dominant parents, only emotional involvement explained parental depression effects for English-dominant parents. Parent educational involvement at school did not mediate parental depression effects for either Spanish- or English-dominant Latino parents. Discussion and implications of findings with respect to research, practice, and policy with Latinos follow.

  9. Monocular trajectory intersection method for 3D motion measurement of a point target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a monocular trajectory intersection method,a videometrics measurement with a mature theoretical system to solve the 3D motion parameters of a point target.It determines the target’s motion parameters including its 3D trajectory and velocity by intersecting the parametric trajectory of a motion target and series of sight-rays by which a motion camera observes the target,in contrast with the regular intersection method for 3D measurement by which the sight-rays intersect at one point.The method offers an approach to overcome the technical failure of traditional monocular measurements for the 3D motion of a point target and thus extends the application fields of photogrammetry and computer vision.Wide application is expected in passive observations of motion targets on various mobile beds.

  10. Monocular trajectory intersection method for 3D motion measurement of a point target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU QiFeng; SHANG Yang; ZHOU Jian; ZHANG XiaoHu; LI LiChun

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a monocular trajectory intersection method,a videometrics measurement with a mature theoretical system to solve the 3D motion parameters of a point target.It determines the target's motion parameters including its 3D trajectory and velocity by intersecting the parametric trajectory of a motion target and series of sight-rays by which a motion camera observes the target,in contrast with the regular intersection method for 3D measurement by which the sight-rays intersect at one point.The method offers an approach to overcome the technical failure of traditional monocular measurements for the 3D motion of a point target and thus extends the application fields of photogrammetry and computer vision.Wide application is expected in passive observations of motion targets on various mobile beds.

  11. Intersecting Non-extreme p-Branes and Linear Dilaton Background

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C M; Ohta, N; Chen, Chiang-Mei; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    We construct the general static solution to the supergravity action containing gravity, the dilaton and a set of antisymmetric forms describing the intersecting branes delocalized in the relative transverse dimensions. The solution is obtained by reducing the system to a set of separate Liouville equations (the intersection rules implying the separability); it contains the maximal number of free parameters corresponding to the rank of the differential equations. Imposing the requirement of the absence of naked singularities, we show that the general configurations are restricted to two and only two classes: the usual asymptotically flat intersecting branes, and the intersecting branes some of which are asymptotically flat and some approach the linear dilaton background at infinity. In both cases the configurations are black. These are supposed to be relevant for the description of the thermal phase of the QFT's in the corresponding Domain-Wall/QFT duality.

  12. Non-adiabatic dynamics close to conical intersections and the surface hopping perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro eMalhado

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Conical intersections play a major role in the current understanding of electronic de-excitation in polyatomic molecules, and thus in the description of photochemistry and photo physics of molecular systems. This article reviews aspects of the basic theory underlying the description of non-adiabatic transitions at conical intersections, with particular emphasis on the important case when the dynamics of the nuclei are treated classically. Within this classical nuclear motion framework, the main aspects of the surface hopping methodology in the conical intersection context are presented. The emerging picture from this treatment is that of electronic transitions around conical intersections dominated by the interplay of the nuclear velocity and the derivative non-adiabatic coupling vector field.

  13. Intersections of potential energy surfaces of short-lived states: the complex analogue of conical intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Sven; Sommerfeld, Thomas; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2004-02-15

    Whereas conical intersections between potential energy surfaces of bound states are well known, the interaction of short-lived states has been investigated only rarely. Here, we present several systematically constructed model Hamiltonians to study the topology of intersecting complex potential energy surfaces describing short-lived states: We find the general phenomenon of doubly intersecting complex energy surfaces, i.e., there are two points instead of one as in the case of bound states where the potential energy surfaces coalesce. In addition, seams of intersections of the respective real and imaginary parts of the potential energy surfaces emanate from these two points. Using the Sigma* and Pi* resonance states of the chloroethene anion as a practical example, we demonstrate that our complete linear model Hamiltonian is able to reproduce all phenomena found in explicitly calculated ab initio complex potential energy surfaces.

  14. 信号交叉口公交专用进口道设置条件与效果分析%Setting Condition and Effect Analysis of Bus Lanes at Signalized Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕斌; 牛惠民

    2011-01-01

    分析了已有公交优先策略评价与仿真方法的局限性,考虑不同的交通需求水平与信号配时参数,将车均延误、人均延误和车辆排队长作为单个信号交叉口运行评价指标,以三相位十字信号交叉口为例,利用Simio仿真分析了公交专用进口道设置前后上述评价指标的变化规律.结果可用于交叉口公交优先信号配时参数的优化.%The limitations of evaluation and simulation methods for the existed bus priority strategy are analyzed. Average vehicle delay, average delay of customers and queue length are taken as evaluation indexes. Considering different traffic demand and signal timing parameters, a simulation example of a three-phase signalized intersection is presented to experiment and analyze the change rule of evaluation index with and without bus lanes, respectively by using the object-oriented simulation software Simio. The study results can be used in optimization signal timing parameters of signalized intersection based on bus priority.

  15. Periodic points in the intersection of immediate attracting basins boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Rossetti, Bastien

    2014-01-01

    We give sufficient conditions under which the set of eventually periodic points in the intersection of immediate attracting basins boundaries is non-empty. We give other conditions under which this set is dense in the intersection.

  16. Political Intersectionality and Democratic Politics in the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2015-01-01

    . The aim of the essay is to further deepen the theoretical and empirical understanding of intersectionality by reflecting on the relations between political intersectionality and democratic politics from a particular European perspective. It thus confronts theory and research findings concerning...

  17. Correlation of mechanical properties with metallurgical structure for 18Ni 200 grade maraging steel at room and cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    An extensive metallurgical study is presented which is intended to explain variations in the mechanical properties of Ni18 200 grade maraging steel in various product forms and orientations. Fracture toughness and Charpy impact values are found to decrease with decreasing temperature and be dependent on product form, specimen orientation, and metallurgical condition. Fatigue crack growth rates are dependent on temperature only. Fractographic analysis reveals that the decrease in toughness at -170 C is not associated with cleavage-type fracture morphology. Those specimens exhibiting low fracture toughness at room temperature or -170 C are found to have a significantly larger number of titanium-rich particles associated with dimple formation on the fracture surface.

  18. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine effectiveness against high-grade cervical lesions by age at vaccination: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herweijer, Eva; Sundström, Karin; Ploner, Alexander; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Sparén, Pär; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen

    2016-06-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16/18, included in HPV vaccines, contribute to the majority of cervical cancer, and a substantial proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2/3 or worse (CIN2+/CIN3+) including adenocarcinoma in situ or worse. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination on incidence of CIN2+ and CIN3+. A nationwide cohort of girls and young women resident in Sweden 2006-2013 and aged 13-29 (n = 1,333,691) was followed for vaccination and histologically confirmed high-grade cervical lesions. Data were collected using the Swedish nationwide healthcare registers. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and vaccine effectiveness [(1-IRR)x100%] comparing fully vaccinated with unvaccinated individuals. IRRs were adjusted for attained age and parental education, and stratified on vaccination initiation age. Effectiveness against CIN2+ was 75% (IRR = 0.25, 95%CI = 0.18-0.35) for those initiating vaccination before age 17, and 46% (IRR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.46-0.64) and 22% (IRR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.65-0.93) for those initiating vaccination at ages 17-19, and at ages 20-29, respectively. Vaccine effectiveness against CIN3+ was similar to vaccine effectiveness against CIN2+. Results were robust for both women participating to the organized screening program and for women at prescreening ages. We show high effectiveness of qHPV vaccination on CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions, with greater effectiveness observed in girls younger at vaccination initiation. Continued monitoring of impact of HPV vaccination in the population is needed in order to evaluate both long-term vaccine effectiveness and to evaluate whether the vaccination program achieves anticipated effects in prevention of invasive cervical cancer.

  19. An Integrated Learning System: Impact on At-Risk Students' Ninth Grade TAKS Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an integrated learning system on students who were considered at-risk of academic failure on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics assessment. Voyager Math (VMath), an integrated learning system had been implemented to address the needs of students at-risk of…

  20. A Valence Bond Description of the Prefulvene Extended Conical Intersection Seam of Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancafort, Lluís; Robb, Michael A

    2012-12-11

    The permutational isomers of the prefulvene-like minimum energy conical intersection lie on an extended conical intersection seam, where they are connected by higher symmetry structures. Here, we present a VB analysis of the electronic states involved along this extended seam. The VB method produces a spin-exchange density (ie. a bonding pattern) that provides the basis to assign resonance structures to the states. The results show that in the high symmetry region of the seam, the character of the states is dominated by the positive and negative combination of the Kekulé structures, (A+B) and (A-B). The low energy parts of the seam, comprised of lower symmetry conical intersection structures, are stabilized by mixing with the Dewar resonance structures. This feature is responsible for the stability of the benzvalene-like conical intersections. The validity of the VB model is confirmed by calculating the branching space vectors at this level of theory, which are in good agreement with the CASSCF calculated vectors. The VB analysis has also allowed us to complete our picture of the global seam, since it has provided the clue to locate a conical intersection saddle point that interconverts two minima of the prefulvene conical intersection where the carbon bent out of the plane is inverted and rotated by 60°. This saddle point has a benzvalene-like geometry, in agreement with the VB picture.

  1. Mechanical properties of S-65C grade beryllium at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goods, S.H. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Dombrowski, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Tensile property measurements and fractographic analysis of S-65C beryllium are reviewed. Tests were performed on specimens oriented in the longitudinal and transverse directions with respect to the direction of vacuum hot-pressing. Specimens were tested in air at RT, 100degC, 200degC, 300degC, 415degC and 500degC at an initial strain rate of 1.1 x 10{sup -4} sec{sup -1}. Ductility of the material was strongly affected by the test temperature, exhibiting a peak ductility at 300degC. The material displayed a yield point phenomenon which was most pronounced at this same temperature. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on the resulting fracture surfaces and observations are reported. (author)

  2. Neuro-fuzzy GMDH based particle swarm optimization for prediction of scour depth at downstream of grade control structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Najafzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, neuro-fuzzy based-group method of data handling (NF-GMDH as an adaptive learning network was utilized to predict the maximum scour depth at the downstream of grade-control structures. The NF-GMDH network was developed using particle swarm optimization (PSO. Effective parameters on the scour depth include sediment size, geometry of weir, and flow characteristics in the upstream and downstream of structure. Training and testing of performances were carried out using non-dimensional variables. Datasets were divided into three series of dataset (DS. The testing results of performances were compared with the gene-expression programming (GEP, evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR model, and conventional techniques. The NF-GMDH-PSO network produced lower error of the scour depth prediction than those obtained using the other models. Also, the effective input parameter on the maximum scour depth was determined through a sensitivity analysis.

  3. In vivo human gastrocnemius architecture with changing joint angle at rest and during graded isometric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, M V; Binzoni, T; Hiltbrand, E; Fasel, J; Terrier, F; Cerretelli, P

    1996-10-01

    1. Human gastrocnemius medialis architecture was analysed in vivo, by ultrasonography, as a function of joint angle at rest and during voluntary isometric contractions up to the maximum force (MCV). maximum force (MVC). 2. At rest, as ankle joint angle increased from 90 to 150 deg, pennation increased from 15.8 to 27.7 deg, fibre length decreased from 57.0 to 34.0 mm and the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) increased from 42.1 to 63.5 cm2. 3. From rest to MVC, at a fixed ankle joint angle of 110 deg, pennation angle increased from 15.5 to 33.6 deg and fibre length decreased from 50.8 to 32.9 mm, with no significant change in the distance between the aponeuroses. As a result of these changes the PCSA increased by 34.8%. 4. Measurements of pennation angle, fibre length and distance between the aponeuroses of the gastrocnemius medialis were also performed by ultrasound on a cadaver leg and found to be in good agreement with direct anatomical measurements. 5. It is concluded that human gastrocnemius medialis architecture is significantly affected both by changes of joint angle at rest and by isometric contraction intensity. The remarkable shortening observed during isometric contraction suggests that, at rest, the gastrocnemius muscle and tendon are considerably slack. The extrapolation of muscle architectural data obtained from cadavers to in vivo conditions should be made only for matching muscle lengths.

  4. Birationally rigid Fano complete intersections. II

    CERN Document Server

    Pukhlikov, Aleksandr

    2011-01-01

    We prove that a generic (in the sense of Zariski topology) Fano complete intersection $V$ of the type $(d_1,...,d_k)$ in ${\\mathbb P}^{M+k}$, where $d_1+...+d_k=M+k$, is birationally superrigid if $M\\geq 7$, $M\\geq k+3$ and $\\mathop{\\rm max} \\{d_i\\}\\geq 4$. In particular, on the variety $V$ there is exactly one structure of a Mori fibre space (or a rationally connected fibre space), the groups of birational and biregular self-maps coincide, $\\mathop{\\rm Bir} V= \\mathop{\\rm Aut} V$, and the variety $V$ is non-rational. This fact covers a considerably larger range of complete intersections than the result of [J. reine angew. Math. {\\bf 541} (2001), 55-79], which required the condition $M\\geq 2k+1$. The paper is dedicated to the memory of Eckart Viehweg.

  5. Leadership and cooperation at the general medicine department of LMU Munich: Good grades despite difficult conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, Jörg; Braun, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    The relevance of general medicine at German universities will increase over the next few years. Consequently, the discussion of teaching content and even more the improvement of the structures within the still small and dependent departments of general medicine are of major importance. The example of our department at LMU Munich shows which challenges for leadership and cooperation result from lack of financial and personnel structure. The project "cooperation culture" that the department has conducted in collaboration with the LMU Center for Leadership and People Management is presented as a means to promote leadership and cooperation. This project can serve as an inspiration for the coordinators of smaller departments of general medicine at other German universities that are also striving to improve their structure and their position within the university.

  6. Allergic Sensitization at School Age is a Systemic Low-grade Inflammatory Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, B. L.; Stokholm, J.; Schoos, A.-M. M.

    2017-01-01

    not univariately associated with sensitization, but multiparametric PCA suggested a specific inflammatory response among sensitized children. Inflammatory markers at age 6 months were not associated with subsequent development of sensitization phenotypes. Conclusions Elevated hs-CRP is associated with allergic...... allergic sensitization. Methods High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) were measured in plasma at age 6 months (N = 214) and 7 years (N = 277) in children from the Copenhagen Prospective...... Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000) birth cohort. Allergic sensitization against common inhalant and food allergens was determined longitudinally at ages ½, 1½, 4 and 6 years by specific IgE assessments and skin prick tests. Associations between inflammatory biomarkers and sensitization...

  7. The Final Oral/Practical State Examination at Freiburg Medical Faculty in 2012 – Analysis of grading to test quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schickler, Angela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the grades given for the oral/practical part of the German State Examination at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg. We examined whether or not the grades given for the written and the oral/practical examinations correlated and if differences in grading between the Freiburg University Medical Center (UMC and the other teaching hospitals could be found.In order to improve the quality of the state examination, the medical school has been offering standardized training for examiners for several years. We evaluated whether or not trained and untrained examiners differed in their grading of the exam and how these differences have changed over time.Methods: The results of the 2012 spring and fall exams were analyzed (N=315. The relevant data set was made available to us by the Baden-Württemberg Examination Office (. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics.Results: We observed a correlation of ρ=0.460** between the grades for the written and the oral/practical exams. The UMC and the teaching hospitals did not differ significantly in their grade distributions. Compared to untrained examiners, trained ones assigned the grade of “very good” less often. Furthermore, they displayed a significantly higher variance in the grades given (p=0.007, phi=0.165. This effect is stronger when concentrating specifically on those examiners who took part in the training less than a year before.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the standardized training for examiners at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg is effective for quality assurance. As a consequence, more examiners should be motivated to take part in the training.

  8. Spiked instantons from intersecting D-branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Nekrasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The moduli space of spiked instantons that arises in the context of the BPS/CFT correspondence [22] is realised as the moduli space of classical vacua, i.e. low-energy open string field configurations, of a certain stack of intersecting D1-branes and D5-branes in Type IIB string theory. The presence of a constant B-field induces an interesting dynamics involving the tachyon condensation.

  9. Spiked instantons from intersecting D-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasov, Nikita; Prabhakar, Naveen S.

    2017-01-01

    The moduli space of spiked instantons that arises in the context of the BPS/CFT correspondence [22] is realised as the moduli space of classical vacua, i.e. low-energy open string field configurations, of a certain stack of intersecting D1-branes and D5-branes in Type IIB string theory. The presence of a constant B-field induces an interesting dynamics involving the tachyon condensation.

  10. Spiked Instantons from Intersecting D-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Nekrasov, Nikita

    2016-01-01

    The moduli space of spiked instantons that arises in the context of the BPS/CFT correspondence is realised as the moduli space of classical vacua, i.e. low-energy open string field configurations, of a certain stack of intersecting D1-branes and D5-branes in Type IIB string theory. The presence of a constant B-field induces an interesting dynamics involving the tachyon condensation.

  11. A Math Intervention for Third Grade Latino English Language Learners at Risk for Math Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Word problems for English language learners (ELLs) at risk for math disabilities are challenging in terms of the constant need to develop precise math language and comprehension knowledge. As a result of this, ELLs may not only need math support but also reading and linguistic support. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a…

  12. Discrepancies between School Grades and Test Scores at Individual and School Level: Effects of Gender and Family Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekholm, Alli Klapp; Cliffordson, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to use multivariate multilevel techniques to investigate whether it was possible to separate different dimensions in grades that relate to subject-matter achievement and to other factors. Data were derived from The Gothenburg Educational Longitudinal Database (GOLD), and the subjects were 99,070 ninth-grade students…

  13. How to Learn Things at School You Don't Already Know: Experiences of Gifted Grade-Skippers in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronostaj, Anna; Werner, Elise; Bochow, Eric; Vock, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Skipping a grade, one specific form of acceleration, is an intervention used for gifted students. Quantitative research has shown acceleration to be a highly successful intervention regarding academic achievement, but less is known about the social-emotional outcomes of grade-skipping. In the present study, the authors used the grounded theory…

  14. Complete Intersection Fibers in F-Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Volker; Keitel, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Global F-theory compactifications whose fibers are realized as complete intersections form a richer set of models than just hypersurfaces. The detailed study of the physics associated with such geometries depends crucially on being able to put the elliptic fiber into Weierstrass form. While such a transformation is always guaranteed to exist, its explicit form is only known in a few special cases. We present a general algorithm for computing the Weierstrass form of elliptic curves defined as complete intersections of different codimensions and use it to solve all cases of complete intersections of two equations in an ambient toric variety. Using this result, we determine the toric Mordell-Weil groups of all 3134 nef partitions obtained from the 4319 three-dimensional reflexive polytopes and find new groups that do not exist for toric hypersurfaces. As an application, we construct several models that cannot be realized as toric hypersurfaces, such as the first toric SU(5) GUT model in the literature with disti...

  15. Reaction behavior between B4C, 304 grade of stainless steel and Zircaloy at 1473 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ryosuke; Ueda, Shigeru; Kim, Sun-Joong; Gao, Xu; Kitamura, Shin-ya

    2016-08-01

    For a better understanding of the decommissioning of the Fukushima-daiichi nuclear power plant, the melting behavior of the control blade and the channel box should be clarified. In Fukushima nuclear reactor, the channel box was made of Zircaloy-4, and the control rode is made of B4C together with stainless steel cladding and sheath. In the study, the interaction among B4C, stainless steel (SUS), and Zircaloy-4 was investigated at 1473 K in either argon or air atmosphere. In argon, Zircaloy is melted by the diffusion of elements from SUS, and SUS was melted at 1473 K by the diffusion of C and B. In air, SUS reacted with B2O3 and formed an oxides melt firstly. Then, the oxidized Zircaloy contacted with this melt and fused. Moreover, the progress of core melting process during severe accident under different atmospheres was firstly discussed.

  16. Brain-imaging during an isometric leg extension task at graded intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera eAbeln

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Imaging the brain during complex and intensive movements is challenging due to the susceptibility of brain-imaging methods for motion and myogenic artifacts. A few studies measured brain activity during either single-joint or low-intensity exercises; however, the cortical activation state during larger movements with increases up to maximal intensity has barely been investigated so far. Eleven right-handed volunteers (22-45 years in age performed isometric leg extensions with their right leg at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of their maximal voluntary contraction. Contractions were hold for 20 seconds respectively. Electroencephalographic (EEG and electromyographic (EMG activity was recorded. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA was used to localize the cortical current density within the premotor (PMC, primary motor (M1, primary somatosensory (S1 and somatosensory association cortex (SAC. ANOVA was used for repeated measures for comparison of intensities and between the left and right hemispheres.The quality of the EEG signal was satisfying up to 80% intensity. At 100% half of the participants were not able to keep their neck and face muscles relaxed, leading to myogenic artifacts. Higher contralateral versus ipsilateral hemispheric activity was found for the S1, SAC and PMC. M1 possessed higher ipsilateral activity. The highest activity was localized in the M1, followed by S1, PMC and SAC. EMG activity and cortical current density within the M1 increased with exercise intensity. EEG recordings during bigger movements up to submaximal intensity (80% are possible, but maximal intensities are still hard to investigate when subjects contracted their neck and face muscles at the same time. Isometric contractions mainly involve the M1, whereas the S1, PMC and SAC seem not to be involved in the force output. Limitations and recommendations for future studies are discussed.

  17. Brain-imaging during an isometric leg extension task at graded intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeln, Vera; Harig, Alexandra; Knicker, Axel; Vogt, Tobias; Schneider, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Imaging the brain during complex and intensive movements is challenging due to the susceptibility of brain-imaging methods for motion and myogenic artifacts. A few studies measured brain activity during either single-joint or low-intensity exercises; however, the cortical activation state during larger movements with increases up to maximal intensity has barely been investigated so far. Eleven right-handed volunteers (22-45 years in age) performed isometric leg extensions with their right leg at 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of their maximal voluntary contraction. Contractions were hold for 20 s respectively. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) was used to localize the cortical current density within the premotor (PMC), primary motor (M1), primary somatosensory (S1) and somatosensory association cortex (SAC). ANOVA was used for repeated measures for comparison of intensities and between the left and right hemispheres. The quality of the EEG signal was satisfying up to 80% intensity. At 100% half of the participants were not able to keep their neck and face muscles relaxed, leading to myogenic artifacts. Higher contralateral vs. ipsilateral hemispheric activity was found for the S1, SAC and, PMC. M1 possessed higher ipsilateral activity. The highest activity was localized in the M1, followed by S1, PMC, and SAC. EMG activity and cortical current density within the M1 increased with exercise intensity. EEG recordings during bigger movements up to submaximal intensity (80%) are possible, but maximal intensities are still hard to investigate when subjects contracted their neck and face muscles at the same time. Isometric contractions mainly involve the M1, whereas the S1, PMC, and SAC seem not to be involved in the force output. Limitations and recommendations for future studies are discussed.

  18. Model for neutron total cross-section at low energies for nuclear grade graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galván Josa, V.M. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Dawidowski, J., E-mail: javier@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Comisión Nacional de Enegía Atómica-Universidad Nacional de Cuyo (Argentina); Santisteban, J.R.; Malamud, F. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Comisión Nacional de Enegía Atómica-Universidad Nacional de Cuyo (Argentina); Oliveira, R.G. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), CIQUIBIC, Fac. Cs. Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina)

    2015-04-21

    At subthermal neutron energies, polycrystalline graphite shows a large total cross-section due to small angle scattering processes. In this work, a new methodology to determine pore size distributions through the neutron transmission technique at subthermal energies is proposed and its sensitivity is compared with standard techniques. A simple model based on the form factor for spherical particles, normally used in the Small Angle Neutron Scattering technique, is employed to calculate the contribution of small angle effect to the total scattering cross-section, with the width and center of the radii distributions as free parameters in the model. Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments were performed to compare results as a means to validate the method. The good agreement reached reveals that the neutron transmission technique is a useful tool to explore small angle scattering effects. This fact can be exploited in situations where large samples must be scanned and it is difficult to investigate them with conventional methods. It also opens the possibility to apply this method in energy-resolved neutron imaging. Also, since subthermal neutron transmission experiments are perfectly feasible in small neutron sources, the present findings open new possibilities to the work done in such kind of facilities.

  19. Finnish Preschool and First-Grade Children's Use of Media at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta-Liisa Korkeamäki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Finnish children’s use of print and electronic media in the home and their literacy development. Questionnaire data from 857 parents of preschoolers (collected in 2006 and 2007 and first graders (2008 showed that homes were well equipped with electronic media including Internet access in almost every home, although only a third of the children used the Internet. Television, print media, and videos/DVDs were more commonly used than computers. Most first graders but few preschoolers had mobile phones. Most parents read bedtime stories, had a sizable number of children’s books, and library visits were common. Boys´ and girls’ skills in reading did not differ at the beginning of their preschool year. But girls showed more interest in writing while boys played more console and computer-based games. Most first graders were reading early in the school year, suggesting that electronic media are not harmful but may even support literacy development.

  20. Some Problems of Unlikely Intersections in Arithmetic and Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zannier, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    This book considers the so-called Unlikely Intersections, a topic that embraces well-known issues, such as Lang's and Manin-Mumford's, concerning torsion points in subvarieties of tori or abelian varieties. More generally, the book considers algebraic subgroups that meet a given subvariety in a set of unlikely dimension. The book is an expansion of the Hermann Weyl Lectures delivered by Umberto Zannier at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton in May 2010. The book consists of four chapters and seven brief appendixes, the last six by David Masser. The first chapter considers multipli

  1. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine effectiveness against high‐grade cervical lesions by age at vaccination: A population‐based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Karin; Ploner, Alexander; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Sparén, Pär; Arnheim‐Dahlström, Lisen

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16/18, included in HPV vaccines, contribute to the majority of cervical cancer, and a substantial proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2/3 or worse (CIN2+/CIN3+) including adenocarcinoma in situ or worse. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination on incidence of CIN2+ and CIN3+. A nationwide cohort of girls and young women resident in Sweden 2006–2013 and aged 13–29 (n = 1,333,691) was followed for vaccination and histologically confirmed high‐grade cervical lesions. Data were collected using the Swedish nationwide healthcare registers. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and vaccine effectiveness [(1‐IRR)x100%] comparing fully vaccinated with unvaccinated individuals. IRRs were adjusted for attained age and parental education, and stratified on vaccination initiation age. Effectiveness against CIN2+ was 75% (IRR = 0.25, 95%CI = 0.18–0.35) for those initiating vaccination before age 17, and 46% (IRR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.46–0.64) and 22% (IRR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.65–0.93) for those initiating vaccination at ages 17–19, and at ages 20–29, respectively. Vaccine effectiveness against CIN3+ was similar to vaccine effectiveness against CIN2+. Results were robust for both women participating to the organized screening program and for women at prescreening ages. We show high effectiveness of qHPV vaccination on CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions, with greater effectiveness observed in girls younger at vaccination initiation. Continued monitoring of impact of HPV vaccination in the population is needed in order to evaluate both long‐term vaccine effectiveness and to evaluate whether the vaccination program achieves anticipated effects in prevention of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:26856527

  2. A study to visualize and determine the sequencing of intersecting ink lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Braz, André; López-López, Maria; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Determining the sequencing of intersecting ink lines is one of the current problems for forensic document examiners. The way two inks will distribute and interact with each other and the paper at the crossing is a dynamic process that can be affected by many variables. Thus, the main purpose of this manuscript is to visualize and have a more comprehensive understanding of this process as well as study a methodology for determining the correct order of intersecting ink lines. For this, overlapping layers of different types of inks from writing instruments and printers were cross-sectioned and examined with a microscope. Results from pen/pen crossings showed that liquid-liquid and gel-gel intersections tended to form a double layer but oil-oil intersections usually formed mixtures. Additionally, oil-liquid and oil-gel intersections tended to form a double layer whenever the oil ink was on top and liquid-gel intersections tended to form a double layer for almost all crossings with exception of the ones involving a gel pen ink from one manufacturer. Results from pen/printer crossings showed the formation of a double layer only when the printer ink was on top of the pen ink. On the other permutation, the pen ink tended to penetrate through the printer ink producing the mixture of both inks. The inks drying time was found to be an important factor affecting the interaction between two inks in a crossing, particularly crossings involving gel pen inks. On the contrary, the type of paper and the writing pressure showed no significant influence on the inks distribution at the crossing. The methodology developed was reproducible with overlapping layers but there were many experimental difficulties during the validation process of intersections representing real crossings. Moreover, interpretation was dependent on the operator's eye which was a limiting factor.

  3. Ultrafast charge transfer via a conical intersection in dimethylaminobenzonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Werner; Pushpa, Kumbil Kuttan; Rettig, Wolfgang; Schmid, Wolfram E; Trushin, Sergei A

    2002-04-01

    The L(a)-like S2 state (2A) of 4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile was pumped at 267 nm in the gas phase at 130 degrees C. Nonresonant multiphoton ionization at 800 nm with mass-selective detection then probed the subsequent processes. Whereas ionization at the Franck-Condon geometry only gave rise to the parent ion, fragmentation increased on motion towards the charge-transfer (CT) state. This useful difference is ascribed to a geometry-dependent resonance in the ion. The time constants found are interpreted by ultrafast (approximately 68 fs) relaxation through a conical intersection to both the CT and the L(b)-type S1 state (1B). Then the population equilibrates between these two states within 1 ps. From there the molecule relaxes within 90 ps to a lower excited state which can only be a triplet state (T(n)) and then decomposes within 300 ps. Previous experiments either investigated only 1B --> CT relaxation-which does not take place in the gas phase or nonpolar solvents for energetic reasons--or, starting from S2 excitation, typically had insufficient time resolution (>1 ps) to detect the temporary charge transfer. Only recently temporary population of the CT state was found in a nonpolar solvent (Kwok et al., J. Phys. Chem. A. 2000, 104, 4188), a result fully consistent with our mechanism. We also show that S2 --> S1 relaxation does not occur vertically but involves an intermediate strong geometrical distortion, passing through a conical intersection.

  4. AN APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING & EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF SUB-GRADE STRUCTURES AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-25

    In 2002, the Richland Operations Office (RL) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) developed milestones for transitioning the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facility to a clean slab-on-grade configuration. These milestones required developing an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EF/CA) for the facility's sub-grade structures and installations as part of a series of evaluations intended to provide for the transition of the facility to a clean slab-on-grade configuration. In addition to supporting decisions for interim actions, the analyses of sub-grade structures and installations performed through this EE/CA will contribute to the remedial investigation feasibility study(ies) and subsequently to the final records of decision for the relevant operable units responsible for site closure in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site.

  5. 77 FR 35163 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... appropriate public safety officials having jurisdiction over the grade crossing to provide them with the... in the United States was designed to provide a universal, easy-to-remember number, 9-1-1, for...

  6. An investigation into the English reading comprehension of Grade 10 English first additional language learners at a senior secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaka Chaka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor levels of English first additional language (EFAL reading comprehension amongst school learners at most public schools in South Africa are a great concern. In fact, for learning to be successful and effective, learners need to be able to read well in EFAL. This is more so as EFAL serves as a language of learning and teaching (LOLT for most learning areas in South Africa’s public schools. Against this background, this study set out in 2012 to investigate the English reading comprehension of Grade 10 EFAL learners at a senior secondary school. Using purposive and voluntary sampling techniques, the study had 17 EFAL learners(M = 10, F–7 as its participants. It employed three reading measures, a recall task, a summary and a comprehension test, which were based on three English extracts, to assess participants’ reading comprehension. It then assessed and scored participants’ responses to the three tasks by using an oral reading rubric and two prepared marking memoranda. One of the findings of this study was that, of the three reading tasks administered, participants did slightly above average in the comprehension test, but performed below average in the two other tasks – the recall and summary tasks.

  7. Schooling Effects on Degree Performance: A Comparison of the Predictive Validity of Aptitude Testing and Secondary School Grades at Oxford University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogg, Tom; Zimdars, Anna; Heath, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the cause of school type effects upon gaining a first class degree at Oxford University, whereby for a given level of secondary school performance, private school students perform less well at degree level. We compare the predictive power of an aptitude test and secondary school grades (GCSEs) for final examination…

  8. The Level of Diagnostic Tests' Preparation Skills among the Teachers of the First Three Elementary Grades' Teachers at the Directorate of Education of Bani Kinana District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmour, Kholoud Subhi; Obaidat, Luai Taleb; Hamadneh, Qaseem Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring the level of Diagnostic Tests' Preparation Skills among the teachers of the first Three Elementary Grades at the Directorate of Education of Bani Kinana District, and its relationship to the variables of gender, academic qualification, and years of experience. The sample of the study consisted of (264) male and female…

  9. Minimal free resolutions over complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenbud, David

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a theory of higher matrix factorizations for regular sequences and uses it to describe the minimal free resolutions of high syzygy modules over complete intersections. Such resolutions have attracted attention ever since the elegant construction of the minimal free resolution of the residue field by Tate in 1957. The theory extends the theory of matrix factorizations of a non-zero divisor, initiated by Eisenbud in 1980, which yields a description of the eventual structure of minimal free resolutions over a hypersurface ring. Matrix factorizations have had many other uses in a wide range of mathematical fields, from singularity theory to mathematical physics.

  10. Reactive chemical dynamics through conical intersections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ghosal; B Jayachander Rao; S Mahapatra

    2007-09-01

    Reaction dynamics of prototypical, D + H2 and Cl (2P) + H2, chemical reactions occurring through the conical intersections of the respective coupled multi-sheeted potential energy surfaces is examined here. In addition to the electronic coupling, nonadiabatic effects due to relativistic spin-orbit coupling are also considered for the latter reaction. A time-dependent wave packet propagation approach is undertaken and the quantum dynamical observables viz., energy resolved reaction probabilities, integral reaction cross-sections and thermal rate constants are reported.

  11. An Optimal Online Algorithm for Halfplane Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jigang; JI Yongchang; CHEN Guoliang

    2000-01-01

    The intersection of N halfplanes is a basic problem in computational geometry and computer graphics. The optimal offiine algorithm for this problem runs in time O(N log N). In this paper, an optimal online algorithm which runs also in time O(N log N) for this problem is presented. The main idea of the algorithm is to give a new definition for the left side of a given line, to assign the order for the points of a convex polygon, and then to use binary search method in an ordered vertex set. The data structure used in the algorithm is no more complex than array.

  12. Intersectionality and Transnational Feminism between Constructivism, Post-Structuralism and Epistemological Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Demaria

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean today to talk about intersectionality or, better, about intersectional approaches within the vast and fragmented field of Feminist Studies? And how can intersectionality help understanding the development of transnational feminism, and viceversa? By offering a brief critical genealogy of the notion of intersectionality, from the systemic to the anti-categorial positions that have characterized the debate on this notion, the essay tries to present a reading of the main questions that stemmed from thinking the working of the many power differentials and identity markers (gender, race, class, ages, disabilities, etc. that constitute regional, national and transnational subjectivities. In adopting an anti-categorial stance, this work attempts at showing how feminism has changed thanks to different, yet complementary, perspectives on intersectional subject formations and positioning, along with the relational and transnational struggles that have been imagined in order to refine a feminist gaze at every level of social, cultural and political life, be it theoretical, methodological or epistemological.

  13. The effects of three concept mapping strategies on seventh-grade students' science achievement at an urban middle school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Navdeep Kaur

    2011-12-01

    There is great concern over students' poor science achievement in the United States. Due to the lack of science achievement, students are not pursing science related careers resulting in an increase in outsourcing to other countries. Learning strategies such as concept mapping may ameliorate this situation by providing students with tools that encourage meaningful learning. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to measure the effects of three concept mapping learning strategies (concept identifying, proposition identifying, student generated) on urban middle school students' understanding of the circulatory system. Three intact classes of seventh-grade students were assigned to one of the three concept mapping strategies. The students were given a pretest on the circulatory system then learned and used their respective concept mapping strategies while learning about the circulatory system. At the conclusion of the study, students' science achievement was measured by performance on an achievement test and rubric scores of their respective concept identifying, proposition identifying, and student generated concept maps. The results of the study suggest that all three of the concept mapping strategies are effective in increasing students' science achievement. Additionally, the moderate significant correlations between the posttest and concept map scores of the current study established that concept maps are a useful measure of student knowledge. Lastly, the results of the current study also suggest that the concept identifying mapping strategy may be a useful scaffold in instructing students how to develop student generated concept maps.

  14. Radionuclide ventriculographic responses to graded supine and upright exercise: critical role of the Frank-Starling mechanism at submaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingart, R M; Wexler, J; Slagle, S; Scheuer, J

    1984-06-01

    To assess the influence of work load and posture on the response to exercise, 25 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 17 normal subjects underwent graded supine and upright exercise radionuclide ventriculography. In both groups, end-diastolic counts increased with supine exercise (p less than 0.001). The ejection fraction and peak systolic pressure-end-systolic volume relation increased in normal subjects (p less than 0.02), but not in patients with CAD. At upright rest, end-diastolic counts decreased in both groups (p less than 0.001) and then increased with exercise (p less than 0.001). The increase in end-diastolic counts was most pronounced on the transition from upright rest to the 150-kpm work load and resulted in a significant increase in stroke counts (p less than 0.05) for both patients with CAD and normal subjects, without a measurable change in the ejection fraction or the peak systolic pressure-end-systolic volume relation. Later in exercise, end-diastolic counts plateaued, and the ejection fraction and the peak systolic pressure, end-systolic volume relation increased only among normal subjects. Thus, low-level upright exercise is highly dependent on the Starling mechanism in both normal subjects and patients with CAD, with enhanced contractility apparent only during more vigorous exercise in normal subjects.

  15. Safety evaluation of continuous green T intersections: A propensity scores-genetic matching-potential outcomes approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jonathan; Donnell, Eric T

    2016-08-01

    The continuous green T intersection is characterized by a channelized left-turn movement from the minor street approach onto the major street, along with a continuous through movement on the major street. The continuous flow through movement is not controlled by the three-phase traffic signal that is used to separate all other movements at the intersection. Rather, the continuous through movement typically has a green through arrow indicator to inform drivers that they do not have to stop. Past research has consistently shown that there are operational and environmental benefits to implementing this intersection form at three-leg locations, when compared to a conventional signalized intersection. These benefits include reduced delay, fuel consumption, and emissions. The safety effects of the conventional green T intersection are less clear. Past research has been limited to small sample sizes, or utilized only statistical comparisons reported crashes to evaluate the safety performance relative to similar intersection types. The present study overcomes past safety research evaluations by using a propensity scores-potential outcomes framework, with genetic matching, to compare the safety performance of the continuous green T to conventional signalized intersections, using treatment and comparison site data from Florida and South Carolina. The results show that the expected total, fatal and injury, and target crash (rear-end, angle, and sideswipe) frequencies are lower at the continuous green T intersection relative to the conventional signalized intersection (CMFs of 0.958 [95% CI=0.772-1.189], 0.846 [95% CI=0.651-1.099], and 0.920 [95% CI=0.714-1.185], respectively).

  16. Aircraft recognition based on the discrepancy of polygon intersection area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiujian; Wang, Yanfang; Feng, Qi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new algorithm that based on discrepancy of polygon intersection area for aircraft recognition is presented. The recognition algorithm process involves three parts: generating polygon of aircraft, placing overlapping plane polygons and computing the area of total intersecting polygons. For the purpose of getting the polygon of aircraft, the picture that was ready to be recognized has gone through a series of pre-processing and the smallest circumference polygon algorithm was used to get approximate polygon of the target contour. To make the two compared polygons have the approximate area, the similar principle was utilized. The matching procedure was divided into four steps including computing intersecting points, computing polygon intersecting sets, computing the intersecting area and getting the intersecting rate to recognize the aircraft. The data structure of algorithm is based on doubly liked list principle. A mass of simulations illustrate that the proposed algorithm is effective and reasonable.

  17. Locating conical intersections relevant to photochemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, Bernhard [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Regensburg, D 93040 Regensburg (Germany)], E-mail: Bernhard.Dick@chemie.uni-regensburg.de; Haas, Yehuda; Zilberg, Shmuel [Department of Physical Chemistry and the Farkas Center for Light-induced Processes, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2008-05-23

    A new computerized method for locating conical intersections of interest in photochemistry is presented. The search is based on the Longuet-Higgins phase change theorem (Berry phase) which provides the subspace required for the initial search. The subspace is approximated as a plane containing three stable structures lying on a Longuet-Higgins loop. The search is conducted for a minimum of {delta}E, the energy difference between two electronic states. It is started using up to three points within the circle defined by the three structures; symmetry, if relevant, is helpful but not essential. Since a two-dimensional subspace of the large 3N - 6 space is used, the search that uses either Cartesian or internal coordinates is efficient and yields a degeneracy after a few iterations. Given that not all degrees of freedom are included in the search, usually a high lying part of the conical intersection is initially located. The system is subsequently optimized along all coordinates keeping {delta}E as close to zero as desired. The method is demonstrated for the symmetric H{sub 3} system and also for the butadiene-cyclobutene-bicyclobutane system in which the three stable structures are not equivalent. The method is general and can be extended to any photochemical system.

  18. Intersecting Solitons, Amoeba and Tropical Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimori, Toshiaki; Ohta, Kazutoshi; Sakai, Norisuke; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2008-01-01

    We study generic intersection (or web) of vortices with instantons inside, which is a 1/4 BPS state in the Higgs phase of five-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric U(Nc) gauge theory on R_t \\times (C^\\ast)^2 \\simeq R^{2,1} \\times T^2 with Nf=Nc Higgs scalars in the fundamental representation. In the case of the Abelian-Higgs model (Nf=Nc=1), the intersecting vortex sheets can be beautifully understood in a mathematical framework of amoeba and tropical geometry, and we propose a dictionary relating solitons and gauge theory to amoeba and tropical geometry. A projective shape of vortex sheets is described by the amoeba. Vortex charge density is uniformly distributed among vortex sheets, and negative contribution to instanton charge density is understood as the complex Monge-Ampere measure with respect to a plurisubharmonic function on (C^\\ast)^2. The Wilson loops in T^2 are related with derivatives of the Ronkin function. The general form of the Kahler potential and the asymptotic metric of the moduli space of a vort...

  19. An Attitude Analysis Of English Language Learning: A Case Study Of Second-Grade Students Of Natural Science Program At Sma 4 Binjai

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina, Nova

    2016-01-01

    This thesis entitled “An Attitude Analysis of English Language Learning: A Case Study of Second-Grade Students of Natural Science Program at SMA 4 Binjai” is designed to enrich the English teachers’ knowledge for what the second-grade students think and respond towards learning English as a foreign language. In finding more answers for the three things, it was expected that the teachers will get an idea of what to do and how to behave while teaching English in the classroom. To be able to ove...

  20. Surface/Surface Intersection Using Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The genetic algorithm and marching method are integrated into a novel algorithm to solve the surface intersection problem. By combining genetic algorithm with local searching method the efficiency of evolution is greatly improved. By fully utilizing the global searching ability and instinct attribute for parallel computation of genetic algorithm and the local rapid convergency of marching method, the algorithm can compute the intersection robustly and generate correct topology of intersection curves. The details of the new algorithm are discussed here.

  1. Impact of intersection type and a vehicular fleet's hybridization level on energy consumption and emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Boubaker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle's energy consumption and emissions are two major constraints in sustainable development. Both of them have proportionally raised in recent decades with the exponential growth of world traffic demands. The reduction of road traffic-generated energy consumption and emissions have thus become unprecedentedly challenging and worth examining. This paper investigates energy consumption and environmental problems present at roundabout and signalized intersection to analyze the impact of the hybridization level's fleet and intersection type on vehicle consumption and pollution. Instantaneous fuel consumption and emission models coupled with simulation of urban mobility (SUMO are in this study. The authors started with modeling energy consumption. Then, an emission model emissions from traffic (EMIT was implemented to quantify vehicle emissions of CO2, CO and NOx. These models help investigate the influence of intersection type on energy consumption and environmental conditions. The authors implemented a signalized intersection and roundabout using SUMO. The input data are collected from the roundabout of Sousse (Tunisia using video data collection. Since there is a lack of econometric models that emulate hybridized stream behavior near intersections, two energy consumption models for the roundabout and crossroad are developed using traffic flow and hybridization level as the input variables. Compared to crossroads, a roundabout can obtain more environmental improvements and substantial reductions in energy consumption and road traffic emissions.

  2. Intersectional inequalities in immunization in India, 1992-93 to 2005-06: a progress assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, William

    2015-05-01

    Immunization in India is marked with stark disparities across gender, caste, wealth and place of residence with severe shortfalls among those disadvantaged in more than one dimension. In this regard, an explicit recognition of intersectionality and intersectional inequalities has 2-fold relevance; one, being the pathway of health inequality and the other being its role as a deterrent of progress particularly at higher (better) levels of health. Against this backdrop, this study examines intersectional inequalities in immunization in India and also suggests a level-sensitive progress assessment method. The study uses group analogue of Gini coefficient for highlighting the magnitude of intersectional inequality and for comprehending its association with immunization level. The results unravel the plight of vulnerable intersectional groups and draw attention to disquieting shortfalls among female SCST (scheduled castes and tribes) children from rural areas. There is also some evidence to indicate leveraging among rural males in matters of immunization and it is further discerned that such gender advantage is greater among rural non-SCST community than the rural SCST group. In concluding, the study calls for intensive immunization planning to improve coverage among vulnerable communities in both rural and urban areas.

  3. Help the Genetic Algorithm to Minimize the Urban Traffic on Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadmehr Rahbari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Control of traffic lights at the intersections of the main issues is the optimal traffic. Intersections to regulate traffic flow of vehicles and eliminate conflicting traffic flows are used. Modeling and simulation of traffic are widely used in industry. In fact, the modeling and simulation of an industrial system is studied before creating economically and when it is affordable. The aim of this article is a smart way to control traffic. The first stage of the project with the objective of collecting statistical data (cycle time of each of the intersection of the lights of vehicles is waiting for a red light steps where the data collection found optimal amounts next it is. Introduced by genetic algorithm optimization of parameters is performed. GA begin with coding step as a binary variable (the range specified by the initial data set is obtained will start with an initial population and then a new generation of genetic operators mutation and crossover and will Finally, the members of the optimal fitness values are selected as the solution set. The optimal output of Petri nets CPN TOOLS modeling and software have been implemented. The results indicate that the performance improvement project in intersections traffic control systems. It is known that other data collected and enforced intersections of evolutionary methods such as genetic algorithms to reduce the waiting time for traffic lights behind the red lights and to determine the appropriate cycle.

  4. Remote infrared signage evaluation for transit stations and intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, W; Brabyn, J; Bentzen, B L; Myers, L

    1999-10-01

    Opportunities for education and employment depend upon effective and independent travel. For mainstream society, this is accomplished to a large extent by printed signs. People who are print disabled, visually impaired, or totally blind are at a disadvantage because they do not have access to signage. Remote infrared signage, such as the Talking Signs (TS) system, provides a solution to this need by labeling the environment for distant viewing. The system uses a transmitting "sign" and a hand-held receiver to tell people about their surroundings. In a seamless infrared signage environment, a visually impaired traveler could: walk safely across an intersection to an ATM or fare machine, from fare machine to bus stop, from bus stop to bus; from bus to building, from building to elevator, from elevator to office, from office to restroom, and so forth. This paper focuses on two problems that are among the most challenging and dangerous faced by blind travelers: negotiating complex transit stations and controlled intersections. We report on human factors studies of TS in these critical tasks, examining such issues as how much training is needed to use the system, its impact on performance and safety, benefits for different population subgroups and user opinions of its value. Results indicate that blind people can quickly and easily learn to use remote infrared signage effectively, and that its use improves travel safety, efficiency, and independence.

  5. Exploring the Variability in the Validity of SAT Scores and High School GPA for Predicting First-Year College Grades at Different Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial variability in the degree to which the SAT and high school grade point average (HSGPA) predict first-year college performance at different institutions. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of multilevel modeling as a tool to uncover institutional characteristics that are associated with this variability. In a model that…

  6. Curriculum-Based Measurement and Standards-Based Mathematics: Monitoring the Arithmetic Word Problem-Solving Performance of Third-Grade Students at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a curriculum-based measure of word problem solving (CBM-WPS) as an indicator of performance and progress in a sample of 136 third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MDs) instructed in a standards-based mathematics curriculum. Students completed the CBM-WPS…

  7. The Relationship of Fast ForWord Scientific Learning to North Carolina End of Grade Reading Scores at a Middle School in Anson County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfield, Jamie Ledsinger

    2012-01-01

    Anson County School District wished to determine the relationship between Fast ForWord Scientific Learning data and North Carolina End of Grade reading scores at Anson Middle School in Anson County, North Carolina. The specific research questions that guided this study include: 1. How does the literacy intervention, Fast ForWord, affect EOG growth…

  8. The Nation's Report Card: A First Look--2013 Mathematics and Reading. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grade 4 and 8. NCES 2014-451

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics assessment measures students' knowledge and skills in mathematics and students' ability to apply their knowledge in problem-solving situations. At each grade, students responded to questions designed to measure what they know and can do across five mathematics content areas: number…

  9. Second Language Acquisition at the Early Childhood Level: A 5-Year Longitudinal Case Study of Pre-Kindergarten through First-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billak, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    This 5-year longitudinal study investigated the English language acquisition and development of students in pre-Kindergarten through Grade 1 at a U.S.-accredited international school. Of the 1,509 students tested, the overwhelming majority were nonnative English speakers. The data provide valuable insight into the rate of second language…

  10. Improvement of Learning Process and Learning Outcomes in Physics Learning by Using Collaborative Learning Model of Group Investigation at High School (Grade X, SMAN 14 Jakarta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astra, I. Made; Wahyuni, Citra; Nasbey, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to improve the quality of physics learning through application of collaborative learning of group investigation at grade X MIPA 2 SMAN 14 Jakarta. The method used in this research is classroom action research. This research consisted of three cycles was conducted from April to May in 2014. Each cycle consists of…

  11. Research Examination of the Options to Increase the Education Effectiveness in the Technical Subjects at the 7th Grade of Elementary School Using Hypertext Educational Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žácok, L'ubomir

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of hypertext educational material is going to be solved in this paper as a source using which the effectiveness of education the technical subjects at the 7th grade of elementary school can be increased. As a comparison between reached results in the control and experimental groups of pupils we used final didactical examination,…

  12. Inequalities for Dual Quermassintegrals of Mixed Intersection Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhao Chang-jian; Leng Gang-song

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we first introduce a new concept of dual quermassintegral sum function of two star bodies and establish Minkowski’s type inequality for dual quermassintegral sum of mixed intersection bodies, which is a general form of the Minkowski inequality for mixed intersection bodies. Then, we give the Aleksandrov–Fenchel inequality and the Brunn–Minkowski inequality for mixed intersection bodies and some related results. Our results present, for intersection bodies, all dual inequalities for Lutwak’s mixed prosection bodies inequalities.

  13. The Effects of General and Homophobic Victimization on Adolescents' Psychosocial and Educational Concerns: The Importance of Intersecting Identities and Parent Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Mereish, Ethan H.; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Koenig, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    Many adolescents experience peer victimization, which often can be homophobic. Applying the minority stress model with attention to intersecting social identities, this study tested the effects of general and homophobic victimization on several educational outcomes through suicidality and school belonging among 15,923 adolescents in Grades 7…

  14. Visual monitoring of railroad grade crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Yaser A.; Zhai, Yun; Shafique, Khurram; Shah, Mubarak A.

    2004-09-01

    There are approximately 261,000 rail crossings in the United States according to the studies by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). From 1993 to 1998, there were over 25,000 highway-rail crossing incidents involving motor vehicles - averaging 4,167 incidents a year. In this paper, we present a real-time computer vision system for the monitoring of the movement of pedestrians, bikers, animals and vehicles at railroad intersections. The video is processed for the detection of uncharacteristic events, triggering an immediate warning system. In order to recognize the events, the system first performs robust object detection and tracking. Next, a classification algorithm is used to determine whether the detected object is a pedestrian, biker, group or a vehicle, allowing inferences on whether the behavior of the object is characteristic or not. Due to the ubiquity of low cost, low power, and high quality video cameras, increased computing power and memory capacity, the proposed approach provides a cost effective and scalable solution to this important problem. Furthermore, the system has the potential to significantly decrease the number of accidents and therefore the resulting deaths and injuries that occur at railroad crossings. We have field tested our system at two sites, a rail-highway grade crossing, and a trestle located in Central Florida, and we present results on six hours of collected data.

  15. Coherent control using kinetic energy and the geometric phase of a conical intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liekhus-Schmaltz, Chelsea; McCracken, Gregory A.; Kaldun, Andreas; Cryan, James P.; Bucksbaum, Philip H.

    2016-10-01

    Conical intersections (CIs) between molecular potential energy surfaces with non-vanishing non-adiabatic couplings generally occur in any molecule consisting of at least three atoms. They play a fundamental role in describing the molecular dynamics beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and have been used to understand a large variety of effects, from photofragmentation and isomerization to more exotic applications such as exciton fission in semiconductors. However, few studies have used the features of a CI as a tool for coherent control. Here we demonstrate two modes of control around a conical intersection. The first uses a continuous light field to control the population on the two intersecting electronic states in the vicinity of a CI. The second uses a pulsed light field to control wavepackets that are subjected to the geometric phase shift in transit around a CI. This second technique is likely to be useful for studying the role of nuclear dynamics in electronic coherence phenomena.

  16. Coherent control using kinetic energy and the geometric phase of a conical intersection

    CERN Document Server

    Liekhus-Schmaltz, Chelsea; Kaldun, Andreas; Cryan, James P; Bucksbaum, Philip H

    2016-01-01

    Conical intersections (CI) between molecular potential energy surfaces with non-vanishing non-adiabatic couplings generally occur in any molecule consisting of at least three atoms. They play a fundamental role in describing the molecular dynamics beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and have been used to understand a large variety of effects, from photofragmentation and isomerization to more exotic applications such as exciton fission in semiconductors. However, few studies have used the features of a CI as a tool for coherent control. Here we demonstrate two modes of control around a conical intersection. The first uses a continuous light field to control the population on the two intersecting electronic states in the vicinity of a CI. The second uses a pulsed light field to control wavepackets that are subjected to the geometric phase shift in transit around a CI. This second technique is likely to be useful for studying the role of nuclear dynamics in electronic coherence phenomena.

  17. QUING WHY paper: Framing gender intersections in the European Union: what implications for the quality of intersectionality in policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Lombardo, Emanuela

    are increasingly present but they are treated implicitly and from a separate perspective, and the inclusion of a wide range of inequalities often implies a degendering of the policy content. We assess the implications of the identified intersectionality trends for the quality of intersectionality in gender......This paper explores the extent to which the emergence of an anti-discrimination policy in the European Union (EU) implies a shift in EU gender equality policies towards an intersectional approach. The frame analysis of EU gender equality policy documents shows that intersectional dimensions...

  18. The Impact of Interactive Whiteboard Technology on Ninth Grade English at Selected Rural High Schools in Upstate South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of interactive whiteboard technology on ninth grade English End of Course scores in two high schools in the Upstate of South Carolina in the school year 2011-2012. This study also sought to determine what impact interactive whiteboard technology had on the factors of gender, socio-economic…

  19. 76 FR 11992 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... those rights-of-way and public or private roads,'' ``to directly receive calls reporting'' any of three... jurisdiction over the grade crossing to provide them with the information necessary for them to direct traffic... crossing where traffic was congested. The tanker truck was punctured when it was struck by the Amtrak...

  20. Standardization Techniques for Grade-Inflation Problems at Higher Educational Institutions of Ethiopia: The Case of Addis Ababa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassahun, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is a measure that is used to display the achievement of college students in Ethiopia. It also serves as a key yardstick in career and scholarship assessment. In recent time there has been a rapid massification of higher educational institutions (HEIs). Many academics believe that the expansion has increased a…

  1. The Use of Graphic Rules in Grade One to Help Identify Children at Risk of Handwriting Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Puspa Inayat; Yunus, Jasmy; Adnan, Robiah; Harun, Mokhtar; Sudirman, Rubita; Mahmood, Nasrul Humaimi

    2010-01-01

    Previous researches on elementary grade handwriting revealed that pupils employ certain strategy when writing or drawing. The relationship between this strategy and the use of graphic rules has been documented but very little research has been devoted to the connection between the use of graphic rules and handwriting proficiency. Thus, this study…

  2. Homonormativity in Children's Literature: An Intersectional Analysis of Queer-Themed Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Jasmine Z.

    2014-01-01

    Effective social justice movements, including those at the level of children's literature, address the ways different forms of oppression intersect and affect the experiences of diverse queer identities. Children's literature can help combat heteronormative discourse by instilling at a young age the inherent value of all people.…

  3. ON INTERSECTIONS OF INDEPENDENT NONDEGENERATE DIFFUSION PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenlong CHEN

    2014-01-01

    Let X(1) = {X(1)(s), s ∈ R+} and X(2) = {X(2)(t), t ∈ R+} be two inde-pendent nondegenerate diffusion processes with values in Rd. The existence and fractal dimension of intersections of the sample paths of X (1) and X (2) are studied. More gener-ally, let E1, E2⊆(0,∞) and F ⊂Rd be Borel sets. A necessary condition and a suffcient condition for P{X(1)(E1)∩X(2)(E2)∩F 6=∅}>0 are proved in terms of the Bessel-Riesz type capacity and Hausdorff measure of E1 × E2 × F in the metric space (R+× R+× Rd,ρb), whereρb is an unsymmetric metric defined in R+× R+× Rd. Under reasonable conditions, results resembling those of Browian motion are obtained.

  4. Intersection how enterprise design bridges the gap between business, technology, and people

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations struggle with the dynamics and the complexity of today''s social ecosystems that connect everyone and everything, everywhere and all the time. Facing challenges at the intersection of business models, technical developments, and human needs, modern enterprises must overcome the siloed thinking and isolated efforts of the past, and instead address their relationships to people holistically. In Intersection, Milan Guenther introduces a Strategic Design approach that aligns the overarching efforts of Branding, Enterprise Architecture, and Experience Design, and sets them on a

  5. Phase diagram of a non-signalized T-shaped intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigated a non-signalized T-shaped intersection using the cellular automata model under the open boundary condition. Two different priority rules at intersection are introduced (Rule 1, Rule 2) to eliminate the jam-packed state. Phase diagram and its variation with the ratios of right and/or left turning vehicles are investigated. The space-time and the density profiles are also studied. The simulation results indicate that the system does not show the same performance under different priority rules, where Rule 1 (resp. Rule 2) can be better than Rule 2 (resp. Rule 1) according to the ratios of turning vehicles.

  6. The axial dipole moment of two intersecting spheres of equal radii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1988-01-01

    The use of a finite number of image charges to solve electrostatic problems associated with two conducting spheres intersecting at an angle of pi/n (n an integer) has been known for over a century. If, however, only spheres of equal radii are considered, it is possible to extend the permissible a...... angles of intersection to 2pi/n. This condition is discussed with reference to the evaluation of the axial dipole moment. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  7. Interactions between Intersecting Pedestrian and Vehicle Flows on Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ren-Yong; GUO Xi

    2011-01-01

    The crossing of vehicle How by pedestrians at either signalized crosswalks or locations away from crosswalks is studied using a car-following model. The model process is constructed, and two safe criterions deciding whether pedestrians begin to cross a road and a rule stopping vehicles at a signal intersection are proposed. Numerical results indicate that the relations of both vehicles' and pedestrians' delays to the width of pedestrian arrival interval are nonlinear; careful pedestrians unnecessarily spend more time to cross a road than aggressive ones; pedestrians crossing near a traffic signal have more influence on their and vehicles' delays. When pedestrians are permitted to cross a road using the gaps between slow vehicles, their delay may increase.%The crossing of vehicle flow by pedestrians at either signalized crosswalks or locations away from crosswalks is studied using a car-following model.The model process is constructed,and two safe criterions deciding whether pedestrians begin to cross a road and a rule stopping vehicles at a signal intersection are proposed.Numerical results indicate that the relations of both vehicles' and pedestrians' delays to the width of pedestrian arrival interval are nonlinear;careful pedestrians unnecessarily spend more time to cross a road than aggressive ones;pedestrians crossing near a traffic signal have more influence on their and vehicles' delays.When pedestrians are permitted to cross a road using the gaps between slow vehicles,their delay may increase.In recent years,intersecting pedestrian and vehicle flows on roads have been studied by using the microscopic simulation method.[1-5] In the method,the dynamics of vehicle flow are formulated by cell automata (CA) models[5] or car-following (CF) models[1-3] generally.It is well known that space is discretized into cells and the length of cells measures the moving distance of vehicles in the CA models.Thus,the CA models are used to investigate the effects of vehicles

  8. Can instructional and emotional support in the first-grade classroom make a difference for children at risk of school failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamre, Bridget K; Pianta, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    This study examined ways in which children's risk of school failure may be moderated by support from teachers. Participants were 910 children in a national prospective study. Children were identified as at risk at ages 5-6 years on the basis of demographic characteristics and the display of multiple functional (behavioral, attention, academic, social) problems reported by their kindergarten teachers. By the end of first grade, at-risk students placed in first-grade classrooms offering strong instructional and emotional support had achievement scores and student-teacher relationships commensurate with their low-risk peers; at-risk students placed in less supportive classrooms had lower achievement and more conflict with teachers. These findings have implications for understanding the role that classroom experience may play in pathways to positive adaptation.

  9. Intersection of Three Planes Revisited--An Algebraic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkler, Götz; Trenkler, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Given three planes in space, a complete characterization of their intersection is provided. Special attention is paid to the case when the intersection set does not exist of one point only. Besides the vector cross product, the tool of generalized inverse of a matrix is used extensively.

  10. Intersectionality and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamoon, Rita Kaur; Hankivsky, Olena

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the authors propose than an intersectionality perspective can transform understandings of the contentious content of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR). The use of an intersectionality perspective starts from the position that such discourses as racialization, gendering, capitalism, and ableism are mutually…

  11. 4-manifolds and intersection forms with local coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøyshov, Kim Anders

    2012-01-01

    We extend Donaldson's diagonalization theorem to intersection forms with certain local coefficients, under some constraints. This provides new examples of non-smoothable topological 4-manifolds.......We extend Donaldson's diagonalization theorem to intersection forms with certain local coefficients, under some constraints. This provides new examples of non-smoothable topological 4-manifolds....

  12. A new proof of Faber's intersection number conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Buryak, A

    2009-01-01

    We give a new proof of Faber's intersection number conjecture concerning the top intersections in the tautological ring of the moduli space of curves $\\M_g$. The proof is based on a very straightforward geometric and combinatorial computation with double ramification cycles.

  13. The Intersection of Gender and Age: An Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of gender inequality for women entering work has not been subject to significant research or theorizing. This small study indicated that young women entering the workplace are subject to direct discrimination and by using an intersectionality approach this paper proposes that the intersection of gender and young age results in…

  14. Heart rate and metabolic responses to moderate-intensity aerobic exercise: a comparison of graded walking and ungraded jogging at a constant perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Kraemer, Robert R; Quigley, Edward J; Mears, Jennifer L; Powers, Jeremy M; Dedea, Anthony J; Ferrer, Nicholas F

    2009-03-01

    In this study, we assessed how ungraded jogging and graded walking at the same rating of perceived exertion (RPE) affect heart rate and oxygen consumption ([Vdot]O(2)). Twenty untrained participants completed a treadmill test to determine peak [Vdot]O(2) (mean = 40.3 +/- 6.3 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1)). Participants completed separate 30-min trials of moderate exercise (RPE of 13 on the Borg 6-20 scale) in random order on the treadmill: graded walking and ungraded jogging. Treadmill speed or grade was adjusted throughout the trial by the experimenter based on participant responses to maintain an RPE of 13. The jogging trial produced a significantly higher heart rate (161 +/- 18 vs. 142 +/- 24 beats . min(-1)) and [Vdot]O(2) (7.4 +/- 1.8 vs. 5.8 +/- 1.5 METs) (P jogging trial (5.2 +/- 1.0 miles . h(-1) to 5.0 +/- 0.9 miles . h(-1)) (P > 0.05), in an effort to maintain constant RPE. These findings provide evidence that similar perceptions of effort during graded walking and ungraded jogging do not produce similar cardiovascular and metabolic responses. The results indicate that, for a given prescribed perceived effort, jogging provides a greater stimulus for fitness benefits and caloric expenditure.

  15. Protocol for Targeted School-Based Interventions for Improving Reading and Mathematics for Students With or At-Risk of Academic Difficulties in Grade 7 to 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Filges, Trine;

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review will examine the effects of targeted interventions to students with or at-risk of academic difficulties in grades 7 to 12 on standardized tests in reading and mathematics. We will examine interventions such as for example tutoring, cooperative learning, computer-assisted in......This systematic review will examine the effects of targeted interventions to students with or at-risk of academic difficulties in grades 7 to 12 on standardized tests in reading and mathematics. We will examine interventions such as for example tutoring, cooperative learning, computer......-assisted instruction, and incentive programs with the objective of assessing their comparative effectiveness. As such, the review will contribute to the knowledge of what type of interventions that can be used to improve the educational achievement of students with or at-risk of academic difficulties....

  16. Remobilisation features and structural control on ore grade distribution at the Konkola stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Torremans, K.; Gauquie, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Barrie, C.D.; Sikazwe, O.; Muchez, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    The Konkola deposit is a high grade stratiform Cu–Co ore deposit in the Central African Copperbelt in Zambia. Economic mineralisation is confined to the Ore Shale formation, part of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Katanga Supergroup. Petrographic study reveals that the copper–cobalt ore minerals are disseminated within the host rock, sometimes concentrated along bedding planes, often associated with dolomitic bands or clustered in cemented lenses and in layer-parallel and irre...

  17. Usage of Metaphors in Turkish Language Textbooks Used at 6th, 7th and 8th Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Karakas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The word “Metaphor”, which is equivalent to the terms “istiare” in Arabic or “eğretileme, transfer of idioms” in Turkish, consists of two parts. “Meta” means “later” or “with” whereas “phora” means transfer or conveyance of word. In the recent years metaphor has been the subject and focuses of several studies, and is used to express a concept or situation with another concept or situation. Starting from 1980s, researchers have studied metaphor and concurrently they examined usage of language. It is now been believed that using metaphors is appropriate in order to be able to understand any phenomenon. Metaphor can be used in encouraging learning and improving creative thinking; it can also provide hints for in-the-class methods, techniques and situations. In this context, metaphors are also essential components for Turkish language textbooks. The purpose of this study is to detect the uses of metaphor in Turkish language textbooks of 6th, 7th and 8th grade students. For this purpose the Turkish language textbooks of 6th, 7th and 8th grade students prepared by the Ministry of National Education (MEB were examined with “content analysis method. Considering that metaphors are effective in learning and improving creative thinking, the importance of using metaphors in textbooks is beyond discussion. The data collected throughout this study show that the metaphors detected in 7th and 8th grade Turkish language textbooks are less in number compared to those found in 6th grade Turkish language textbooks. Another important conclusion is that distribution of metaphors among units is not even. The conclusion of the study is that Turkish language textbooks are not prepared in a sensitive and choosy manner with this respect.

  18. Intersectionality in Context: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Researching the Faculty Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifer, Meghan J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a mixed-methods approach to integrating the methodological tools of social network analysis and qualitative research to explore intersectionality as it pertains to faculty experiences in institutional contexts. These research strategies, employed at the individual and aggregate levels, can be useful tools as institutions aim…

  19. The language intersection problem for non-recursive context-free grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, M.J.; Satta, G

    2004-01-01

    We prove that, given as input two context-free grammars, deciding non-emptiness of intersection of the two generated languages is PSPACE-complete if at least one grammar is non-recursive. The problem remains PSPACE-complete when both grammars are non-recursive and deterministic. Also investigated ar

  20. Graphic Intersections: Erga, Parerga and Pro-Erga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petherbridge, Deanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The place where design and art intersect is drawing with its elastic capability of functioning as the whole, the preparatory and the supplementary work. Drawing doesn't only occur at the level of individual practice but can be part of wider "graphic events" where concerted acts of recording, performing, inventing and disseminating link diverse visual practices across time. Two such discursive events are discussed as paradigms: the accidental finding of the Villa Aurea in the 1480s in Rome and Alois Senefelder's lithographic publication of the illustrated Book of Hours of Emperor Maximilian I in 1808. Both were stylistically influential through the popularising of 'grotesque' configurations that unify heterogeneity through linearity.

  1. Photodissociation of methyl formate: Conical intersections, roaming and triple fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, King-Chuen; Tsai, Po-Yu [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chao, Meng-Hsuan [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kasai, Toshio [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Lombardi, Andrea [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Palazzetti, Federico [Scuola Normale Superiore, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Aquilanti, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Struttura della Materia, 00016 Roma (Italy)

    2015-12-31

    The photodissociation channels of methyl formate have been extensively investigated by two different advanced experimental techniques, ion imaging and Fourier-Transform-Infrared emission spectroscopy, combined with quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Our aim is to characterize the role of alternative routes to the conventional transition-state mediated pathway: the roaming and the triple fragmentation processes. The photolysis experiments, carried out at a range of laser wavelengths in the vicinity of the triple fragmentation threshold, beside the simulation of large bunches of classical trajectories with different initial conditions, have shown that both mechanisms share a common path that involves a conical intersection during the relaxation process from the electronic excited state S{sub 1} to the ground state S{sub 0}.

  2. Capacity Reliability of Signalized Intersections with Mixed Traffic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; LI Da; DONG Chunjiao

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of capacity of signalized intersections in mixed traffic conditions involving vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians was investigated to complete the conventional, deterministic capacity calculations. Simulations using VISSIM provided estimates of capacity distributions, and demonstrated the effects of the analysis intervals on the distributions. With the random vehicle arrivals taken into account, a capacity reli-ability assessment method was given as a function. Assessments were also performed regarding the effects of the conflicting pedestrian and bicycle volumes on capacity reliability. The simulation indicates that the pe-destrians and bicycles result in greater random fluctuations of exclusive tuming lane capacities, but have less effect on the variability of shared lane capacities. Normal distributions can be used to model the capaci-ties for intervals not less than 10 min. At higher vehicular volumes, the capacity reliability is more sensitive to the mean and standard deviation of the pedestrian and bicycle volumes.

  3. E-cadherin downregulation at the infiltrating tumour front is associated with histological grade and stage in colorectal carcinoma of Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Serena Diane; Cheah, Phaik-Leng; Ong, Diana Bee-Lan; Teoh, Kean-Hooi; Looi, Lai-Meng

    2015-04-01

    Loss of E-cadherin, a 120 kDA transmembrane glycoprotein responsible for cell-cell adhesion, is one of the hallmarks of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT). E-cadherin expression was immunohistochemically studied in 94 histopathologically re-confirmed colorectal carcinomas (CRC) using a monoclonal antibody to E-cadherin (Dako: Clone NCH-38) on a Ventana Benchmark XT automated system. Each case was assessed for E-cadherin immunopositivity at two separate locations viz the tumour centre (TC) as well as the infiltrating front (IF). Expression was semiquantitated for proportion of immunopositive malignant cells as 0 (negative), 1 (1-25% staining), 2 (26-50% staining), 3 (51-75% staining) and 4 (>75% staining) and staining intensity: 0 (negative), 1 (weak), 2 (moderate) and 3 (strong). The final histoscore of E-cadherin immunopositivity was arbitrarily computed as proportion of immunopositivity multiplied by staining intensity of the malignant cells. E-cadherin histoscores were significantly lower at the IF (4.5±2.5) compared with TC (10.7±2.4). Furthermore, the histoscores were significantly reduced at the IF of 49 TNM III+IV tumours (3.6±2.5) compared with 45 II+III CRC (5.4±2.2). Reduction of E-cadherin expression was also noted in the 23 high grade (TC=8.6±3.2; IF=2.6±2.3) compared with 71 low grade tumours (TC=11.4±1.5; IF=5.1±2.3). E-cadherin is downregulated at the infiltrating front of CRC, possibly marking for EMT at this location. The downregulation is further enhanced amongst late stage and high grade tumours compared with earlier stage and low grade tumours; findings which are similar to that noted in CRC of other populations.

  4. Safety evaluation of intersections with dynamic use of exit-lanes for left-turn using field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yue

    2017-03-01

    As a newly proposed unconventional intersection design, the exit-lanes for left-turn (EFL) intersection is found to be effective in increasing the intersection capacity with high level of application flexibility, especially under heavy left-turn traffic conditions. However, the operational safety of EFL is of most concern to the authority prior to its implementation. This paper evaluates the safety of the EFL intersections by studying the behavior of left-turn maneuvers using field data collected at 7 locations in China. A total of 22830 left-turn vehicles were captured, in which 9793 vehicles turned left using the mixed-usage area. Four potential safety problems, including the red-light violations, head-on collision risks, trapped vehicles, and rear-end crash risks, were discussed. Statistical analyses were carried out to compare the safety risk between the EFL intersection and the conventional one. Results indicate that the safety problems of EFL intersections mainly lie in higher percentages in red-light violations at the pre-signal (1.83% higher), wrong-way violation problems during the peak hours (the violation rate reaches up to 11.07%), and the lower travel speeds in the mixed-usage area (18.75% lower). Such risks can be counteracted, however, by providing more guiding information, installing cameras to investigate and punish violation maneuvers, and adjusting design parameter values for layout design and signal timing, respectively.

  5. Study of the opportunities of analytical determination of the origin-destination flows in roundabout intersections based on data provided by fixed observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagu, E.; Boroiu, A. A.; Rizea, V.; Boroiu, A.

    2016-08-01

    For the purposes of the analysis of road traffic at the level of the area surrounding a roundabout intersection there are times when the flows of Origin-Destination (O-D flows) of the respective intersection are of interest - when it is not possible to improve the level of service of the intersection by means of increasing its capacity, but only by diverting some traffic flows from the respective area. Currently, the determining of these O-D flows is based on video recordings of the intersection traffic, followed by laborious and lengthy analyses of the images obtained. But a prolific way, yet not explored in specialised literature, can be the identification of the analytic relations between O-D flow volumes and the volumes of the intersection traffic flows that can be measured by fixed observers (incoming flows, outgoing flows and conflict flows). As a result, this paper presents the research conducted to identify the possible relationships between these deterministic O-D flows and the flows that can be measured by fixed observers. It was demonstrated that, when performing measuring of the flow of vehicles that turn right with fixed observers, there will be analytical deterministic relationships for the 3-armed intersection with return flows, as well as for the 4-armed intersection without return flows. This means that, for 3-armed intersections with return flows and for 4-armed intersections without return flows, it is possible to fully know the O-D flows based on the flows measured by fixed observers (compulsorily involving right-turn flows), which is an absolutely exciting and unique achievement, as knowing these Origin-Destination flows will allow better regulation of the traffic in the area where the roundabout intersection is, in order to facilitate the upstream diversion of some of O-D flows passing through the roundabout intersection.

  6. Attracting students and professionals into math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades: Annual report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flick, L.B.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the progress of a project to encourage students and professionals to participate in math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades. The topics of the report include developing a model laboratory/classroom for teacher education, providing financial incentives for students with technical majors to complete the program, and emphasizing issues of equity and minority participation in mathematics, science and technology education through recruitment procedures and in course content.

  7. Comparison of two measurement methods of dissolved gaseous mercury concentrations and estimations of supersaturation grade and mercury fluxes during a research campaign at the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerentorp M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM concentrations and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations were measured during an oceanographic campaign in the Mediterranean Sea. The DGM concentrations were measured using two different methods, a manual- and an automated method. The manual method was used to obtain DGM depth profiles at several stations throughout the campaign. The automated device measured DGM concentrations continuously at a depth of 4 m. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations in air were measured continuously at the bridge deck. The objectives were to achieve DGM depth profiles, compare the manual- and automated DGM measurement methods, to calculate the supersaturation grades of the sea and the evasional fluxes from the sea surface. Depth profiles of the four measured stations show no diurnal variations. The manual- and the automated method show good compliance. Supersaturation grades are high due to high DGM values and low GEM concentrations. Fluxes of Hg from the sea surface are more dependent on the wind speed than on the supersaturation grade according to the flux models used.

  8. Narrating the Intersectionalities of Gender Violence: Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floretta Boonzaier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The telling, sharing and, most critically, the hearing of stories related to gender violence has been a critical part of the project of feminism as well as the refuge movement (Dobash and Dobash 1979, Kelly 1988. This an introduction to a set of papers that represent highlights from the conference entitled “International Congress on Gender Violence: Intersectionalities” in terms of how the intersections of gender violence have been narrated. Contar, compartir, y, más críticamente, escuchar historias relacionadas con la violencia de género ha sido una parte fundamental del proyecto del feminismo, así como del movimiento de refugio (Dobash y Dobash 1979, Kelly 1988. Esta es una introducción a una serie de artículos representativos del Congreso Internacional sobre Violencia de Género: Intersecciones, que abordan cómo se han relatado las intersecciones de la violencia de género. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2710203

  9. CONTROLLING TRAFFIC FLOW IN MULTILANE-ISOLATED INTERSECTION USING ANFIS APPROACH TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. LAI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many controllers have applied the Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS concept for optimizing the controller performance. However, there are less traffic signal controllers developed using the ANFIS concept. ANFIS traffic signal controller with its fuzzy rule base and its ability to learn from a set of sample data could improve the performance of Existing traffic signal controlling system to reduce traffic congestions at most of the busy traffic intersections in city such as Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The aim of this research is to develop an ANFIS traffic signals controller for multilane-isolated four approaches intersections in order to ease traffic congestions at traffic intersections. The new concept to generate sample data for ANFIS training is introduced in this research. The sample data is generated based on fuzzy rules and can be analysed using tree diagram. This controller is simulated on multilane-isolated traffic intersection model developed using M/M/1 queuing theory and its performance in terms of average waiting time, queue length and delay time are compared with traditional controllers and fuzzy controller. Simulation result shows that the average waiting time, queue length, and delay time of ANFIS traffic signal controller are the lowest as compared to the other three controllers. In conclusion, the efficiency and performance of ANFIS controller are much better than that of fuzzy and traditional controllers in different traffic volumes.

  10. IMPACTS OF GROUP-BASED SIGNAL CONTROL POLICY ON DRIVER BEHAVIOR AND INTERSECTION SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshuang TANG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the typical stage-based policy commonly applied in Japan, the group-based control (often called movement-based in the traffic control industry in Japan refers to such a control pattern that the controller is capable of separately allocating time to each signal group instead of stage based on traffic demand. In order to investigate its applicability at signalized intersections in Japan, an intersection located in Yokkaichi City of Mie Prefecture was selected as an experimental application site by the Japan Universal Traffic Management Society (UTMS. Based on the data collected at the intersection before and after implementing the group-based control policy respectively, this study evaluated the impacts of such a policy on driver behavior and intersection safety. To specify those impacts, a few models utilizing cycle-based data were first developed to interpret the occurrence probability and rate of red-light-running (RLR. Furthermore, analyses were performed on the yellow-entry time (Ye of the last cleared vehicle and post encroachment time (PET during the phase switching. Conclusions supported that the group-based control policy, along with certain other factors, directly or indirectly influenced the RLR behavior of through and right-turn traffics. Meanwhile, it has potential safety benefits as well, indicated by the declined Ye and increased PET values.

  11. A Cooperative Traffic Control of Vehicle–Intersection (CTCVI) for the Reduction of Traffic Delays and Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjian; Dridi, Mahjoub; El-Moudni, Abdellah

    2016-01-01

    The problem of reducing traffic delays and decreasing fuel consumption simultaneously in a network of intersections without traffic lights is solved by a cooperative traffic control algorithm, where the cooperation is executed based on the connection of Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I). This resolution of the problem contains two main steps. The first step concerns the itinerary of which intersections are chosen by vehicles to arrive at their destination from their starting point. Based on the principle of minimal travel distance, each vehicle chooses its itinerary dynamically based on the traffic loads in the adjacent intersections. The second step is related to the following proposed cooperative procedures to allow vehicles to pass through each intersection rapidly and economically: on one hand, according to the real-time information sent by vehicles via V2I in the edge of the communication zone, each intersection applies Dynamic Programming (DP) to cooperatively optimize the vehicle passing sequence with minimal traffic delays so that the vehicles may rapidly pass the intersection under the relevant safety constraints; on the other hand, after receiving this sequence, each vehicle finds the optimal speed profiles with the minimal fuel consumption by an exhaustive search. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce both travel delays and fuel consumption compared with other papers under different traffic volumes. PMID:27999333

  12. Traffic Safety of Older Drivers in Various Types of Road Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Tollazzi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries people over 50 years of age represent a rapidly growing part of population. Their lifestyle is also becoming more active, which means that the percentage of older drivers in the population of all drivers is also increasing. Many different studies have shown that elderly drivers are more frequently involved in specific types of accidents, especially at intersections. In the past 15 years there was a trend of increasing popularity of roundabouts in Slovenia. Their introduction was generally supported by the arguments of increased traffic-flow capacity and traffic safety as well. The studies on which these arguments are based were performed with an “ideal” type of driver in mind; the one that fully understands new rules and reacts correctly in all situations that may occur at such intersections, where there are no light signals to guide them. An elderly person does not necessarily conform to that ideal and if the percentage of elderly drivers became significant, the premises of the above mentioned studies may not be correct anymore which in turn implies that their results could also be questioned. The present study concentrated on the evaluation of traffic safety of elderly drivers, at various types of intersection, from their own perspective. Various statistical analyses of obtained data were performed. The most important finding was that we may claim, with high degree of probability, that the average person of the age of over 60 feels more unsafe at double-lane roundabouts than they would feel had the same intersection been equipped with traffic lights. Elderly traffic participants will always cause more accidents or participate in them due to hazardous factors. Challenge, arising from many different studies and researches, is in studying what measures and solutions can reduce the risk for elderly participants. KEYWORDS: traffic safety, road intersections, roundabouts, elderly people, older drivers

  13. An efficient quantum scheme for Private Set Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2016-01-01

    Private Set Intersection allows a client to privately compute set intersection with the collaboration of the server, which is one of the most fundamental and key problems within the multiparty collaborative computation of protecting the privacy of the parties. In this paper, we first present a cheat-sensitive quantum scheme for Private Set Intersection. Compared with classical schemes, our scheme has lower communication complexity, which is independent of the size of the server's set. Therefore, it is very suitable for big data services in Cloud or large-scale client-server networks.

  14. The probability that a complete intersection is smooth

    CERN Document Server

    Bucur, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Given a smooth subscheme of a projective space over a finite field, we compute the probability that its intersection with a fixed number of hypersurface sections of large degree is smooth of the expected dimension. This generalizes the case of a single hypersurface, due to Poonen. We use this result to give a probabilistic model for the number of rational points of such a complete intersection. A somewhat surprising corollary is that the number of rational points on a random smooth intersection of two curves in projective 3-space is strictly less than the number of points on the projective line.

  15. Citizen Science: The Small World Initiative Improved Lecture Grades and California Critical Thinking Skills Test Scores of Nonscience Major Students at Florida Atlantic University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Joseph P; Israel, Natalie; Rowland, Kimberly; Lovelace, Matthew J; Saunders, Mary Jane

    2016-03-01

    Course-based undergraduate research is known to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics student achievement. We tested "The Small World Initiative, a Citizen-Science Project to Crowdsource Novel Antibiotic Discovery" to see if it also improved student performance and the critical thinking of non-science majors in Introductory Biology at Florida Atlantic University (a large, public, minority-dominant institution) in academic year 2014-15. California Critical Thinking Skills Test pre- and posttests were offered to both Small World Initiative (SWI) and control lab students for formative amounts of extra credit. SWI lab students earned significantly higher lecture grades than control lab students, had significantly fewer lecture grades of D+ or lower, and had significantly higher critical thinking posttest total scores than control students. Lastly, more SWI students were engaged while taking critical thinking tests. These results support the hypothesis that utilizing independent course-based undergraduate science research improves student achievement even in nonscience students.

  16. Parametric performance of circumferentially grooved heat pipes with homogeneous and graded-porosity slab wicks at cryogenic temperatures. [methane and ethane working fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, M.; Pittman, R. B.; Eninger, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A recently developed, potentially high-performance nonarterial wick was extensively tested. This slab wick has an axially varying porosity which can be tailored to match the local stress imposed on the wick. The purpose of the tests was to establish the usefulness of the graded-porosity slab wick at cryogenic temperatures between 110 and 260 K, with methane and ethane as working fluids. For comparison, a homogeneous (i.e., uniform porosity) slab wick was also tested. The tests included: maximum heat pipe performance as a function of fluid inventory, maximum performance as a function of operating temperature, maximum performance as a function of evaporator elevation, and influence of slab wick orientation on performance. The experimental data were compared with theoretical predictions obtained with the GRADE computer program.

  17. Citizen Science: The Small World Initiative Improved Lecture Grades and California Critical Thinking Skills Test Scores of Nonscience Major Students at Florida Atlantic University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Paul Caruso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Course-based undergraduate research is known to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics student achievement. We tested “The Small World Initiative, a Citizen-Science Project to Crowdsource Novel Antibiotic Discovery” to see if it also improved student performance and the critical thinking of nonscience majors in Introductory Biology at Florida Atlantic University (a large, public, minority-dominant institution in academic year 2014–15. California Critical Thinking Skills Test pre- and posttests were offered to both Small World Initiative (SWI and control lab students for formative amounts of extra credit. SWI lab students earned significantly higher lecture grades than control lab students, had significantly fewer lecture grades of D+ or lower, and had significantly higher critical thinking posttest total scores than control students. Lastly, more SWI students were engaged while taking critical thinking tests. These results support the hypothesis that utilizing independent course-based undergraduate science research improves student achievement even in nonscience students.

  18. Graded-index magnonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  19. A Unified Algorithm for Finding the Intersection Curve of Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭建荣; 郑建民; 等

    1994-01-01

    In this papaer,an INTEGRAL CURVE ALGORITHM is presented,which turns the intersection curve of surfaces into the form of integral one and then uses “PREDICTORCORRECTOR” technique to evaluate the intersection of surfaces.No matter how the surfaces are defined,the method always deals with the intersection curves in the same way.To find a point on the curve one need only to calculate the JACOBI determinants of “PREDICTOR point”and “CORRECTOR point” while the second order precision is guatanteed.Thus,not only is the problem of finding the intersection of surfaces resolved,but also the algorithms for generating both plane curve and space curve are unified.

  20. Intersection patterns of convex sets via simplicial complexes, a survey

    CERN Document Server

    Tancer, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The task of this survey is to present various results on intersection patterns of convex sets. One of main tools for studying intersection patterns is a point of view via simplicial complexes. We recall the definitions of so called $d$-representable, $d$-collapsible and $d$-Leray simplicial complexes which are very useful for this study. We study the differences among these notions and we also focus on computational complexity for recognizing them. A list of Helly-type theorems is presented in the survey and it is also discussed how (important) role play the above mentioned notions for the theorems. We also consider intersection patterns of good covers which generalize collections of convex sets (the sets may be `curvy'; however, their intersections cannot be too complicated). We mainly focus on new results.

  1. Reconstructing Surface Triangulations by Their Intersection Matrices 26 September 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The intersection matrix of a simplicial complex has entries equal to the rank of the intersecction of its facets. We prove that this matrix is enough to define up to isomorphism a triangulation of a surface.

  2. Deformation of Singularities and the Homology of Intersection Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Banagl, Markus

    2011-01-01

    While intersection cohomology is stable under small resolutions, both ordinary and intersection cohomology are unstable under smooth deformation of singularities. For complex projective algebraic hypersurfaces with an isolated singularity, we show that the first author's cohomology of intersection spaces is stable under smooth deformations in all degrees except possibly the middle, and in the middle degree precisely when the monodromy action on the cohomology of the Milnor fiber is trivial. In many situations, the isomorphism is shown to be a ring homomorphism induced by a continuous map. This is used to show that the rational cohomology of intersection spaces can be endowed with a mixed Hodge structure compatible with Deligne's mixed Hodge structure on the ordinary cohomology of the singular hypersurface.

  3. Grading for Understanding - Standards-Based Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based grading (SBG), sometimes called learning objectives-based assessment (LOBA), is an assessment model that relies on students demonstrating mastery of learning objectives (sometimes referred to as standards). The goal of this grading system is to focus students on mastering learning objectives rather than on accumulating points. I have used SBG in an introductory physics course for the past five years and worked with several physics faculty members to implement SBG in the first and second semester of algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses at a primarily undergraduate comprehensive public university with class sizes of 48 students. In this article I will discuss methods for implementing SBG in a physics class.

  4. A research-based strategy for inductively accelerating vocabulary acquisition of at-risk students in Grade 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitale, Michael R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the acceleration of vocabulary growth through a multi-part instructional strategy for engendering the inductive, semantic word-family oriented acquisition of vocabulary from context, a difficult task for elementary students. Implemented on a school-wide basis in grade 4 over an 8-week period, the intervention was a four-part enhancement to each of six regular basal reading stories that focused on 17 semantic word families associated with selected words in the stories. Results showed a. that experimental students inductively generated greater numbers of words with similar meanings that could be substituted for novel words in 3-sentence story-context passages and to word-family pairs; and; b. that Title 1 experimental students displayed greater achievement than comparable Title I controls on the ITBS Vocabulary Subtest.

  5. Reduced Hamiltonian for intersecting shells and Hawking radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Menotti, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of one or more self gravitating shells of matter in a centrally symmetric gravitational field in the Painleve' family of gauges. We give the reduced hamiltonian for two intersecting shells, both massless and massive. Such a formulation is applied to the computation of the semiclassical action of two intersecting shells. The relation of the imaginary part of the space-part of the action to the computation of the Bogoliubov coefficients is revisited.

  6. INTERSECTION OF MCMULLEN SET WITH ITS RATIONAL TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meifeng Dai; Lixin Tang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we study the intersection of Mcmullen set with its rational translation.The main difficulty is that the generating structure of the intersection.By the radix expansion of translating vector,we give its fractal characterization.We find that the Hausdorff measure of these sets forms a discrete spectrum whose non-zero values come only from translating the vector(x,y)with its radix expansion.

  7. Proceedings Sixth Workshop on Intersection Types and Related Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Graham-Lengrand, Stéphane; Paolini, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Intersection Types and Related Systems (ITRS 2012). The workshop was held in Dubrovnik (Croatia) on June 29th, 2012, affiliated to Twenty-Seventh Annual ACM/IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (LICS 2012). The ITRS workshop aims to bring together researchers working on both the theory and practical applications of systems based on intersection types and related approaches (e.g., union types, refinement types, behavioural ty...

  8. Protocol for Targeted School-Based Interventions for Improving Reading and Mathematics for Students With or At-Risk of Academic Difficulties in Grade K to 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Bøg, Martin; Eiberg, Misja;

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review will examine the effects of targeted interventions to students with or at-risk of academic difficulties in Kindergarten to grade 6 on standardized tests in reading and mathematics. We will examine interventions such as for example tutoring, cooperative learning, computer......-assisted instruction, and incentive programs with the objective of assessing their comparative effectiveness. As such, the review will contribute to the knowledge of what type of interventions that can be used to improve the educational achievement of students with or at-risk of academic difficulties....

  9. Modeling signalized intersection safety with corridor-level spatial correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Wang, Xuesong; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed A

    2010-01-01

    Intersections in close spatial proximity along a corridor should be considered as correlated due to interacted traffic flows as well as similar road design and environmental characteristics. It is critical to incorporate this spatial correlation for assessing the true safety impacts of risk factors. In this paper, several Bayesian models were developed to model the crash data from 170 signalized intersections in the state of Florida. The safety impacts of risk factors such as geometric design features, traffic control, and traffic flow characteristics were evaluated. The Poisson and Negative Binomial Bayesian models with non-informative priors were fitted but the focus is to incorporate spatial correlations among intersections. Two alternative models were proposed to capture this correlation: (1) a mixed effect model in which the corridor-level correlation is incorporated through a corridor-specific random effect and (2) a conditional autoregressive model in which the magnitude of correlations is determined by spatial distances among intersections. The models were compared using the Deviance Information Criterion. The results indicate that the Poisson spatial model provides the best model fitting. Analysis of the posterior distributions of model parameters indicated that the size of intersection, the traffic conditions by turning movement, and the coordination of signal phase have significant impacts on intersection safety.

  10. Race, gender, class, and sexual orientation: intersecting axes of inequality and self-rated health in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenstra Gerry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intersectionality theory, a way of understanding social inequalities by race, gender, class, and sexuality that emphasizes their mutually constitutive natures, possesses potential to uncover and explicate previously unknown health inequalities. In this paper, the intersectionality principles of "directionality," "simultaneity," "multiplicativity," and "multiple jeopardy" are applied to inequalities in self-rated health by race, gender, class, and sexual orientation in a Canadian sample. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey 2.1 (N = 90,310 provided nationally representative data that enabled binary logistic regression modeling on fair/poor self-rated health in two analytical stages. The additive stage involved regressing self-rated health on race, gender, class, and sexual orientation singly and then as a set. The intersectional stage involved consideration of two-way and three-way interaction terms between the inequality variables added to the full additive model created in the previous stage. Results From an additive perspective, poor self-rated health outcomes were reported by respondents claiming Aboriginal, Asian, or South Asian affiliations, lower class respondents, and bisexual respondents. However, each axis of inequality interacted significantly with at least one other: multiple jeopardy pertained to poor homosexuals and to South Asian women who were at unexpectedly high risks of fair/poor self-rated health and mitigating effects were experienced by poor women and by poor Asian Canadians who were less likely than expected to report fair/poor health. Conclusions Although a variety of intersections between race, gender, class, and sexual orientation were associated with especially high risks of fair/poor self-rated health, they were not all consistent with the predictions of intersectionality theory. I conclude that an intersectionality theory well suited for explicating health inequalities in Canada should be

  11. Conceptual study of X-braced frames with different steel grades using cyclic half-scale tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Parviz; Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, an experimental and analytical study of two half-scale steel X-braced frames with equal nominal shear strength under cyclic loading is described. In these tests, all members except the braces are similar. The braces are made of various steel grades to monitor the effects of seismic excitation. Internal stiffeners are employed to limit the local buckling and increase the fracture life of the steel bracing. A heavy central core is introduced at the intersection of the braces to decrease their effective length. Recent seismic specifications are considered in the design of the X-braced frame members to verify their efficiency. The failure modes of the X-braced frames are also illustrated. It is observed that the energy dissipation capacity, ultimate load capacity and ductility of the system increase considerably by using lower grade steel and proposed detailing. Analytical modeling of the specimens using nonlinear finite element software supports the experimental findings.

  12. Gendered Violence, Intersectionalities and Resisting Gender Neutrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Stubbs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Developments in feminist theory and research towards a more complex approach to gender relations and a more differentiated understanding of gendered violence have been positive but also have been the subject of significant debate. Some debates have long histories, while others mark more newly emergent concerns. In this paper I reflect on three areas of debate: intersectionality, complex gendering and complex inequalities; differentiating between forms of gendered violence (with a focus on intimate partner violence (IPV, and criminalisation. In each of these areas, feminist frameworks and knowledge concerning gendered violence have been challenged and the resurgence of gender neutral accounts has been notable. I argue that keeping a structural analysis to the fore provides the best way forward for constructive debate in the field aligned with feminist aspirations for the achievement of substantive equality. El desarrollo de la teoría feminista y la investigación hacia un enfoque más complejo de las relaciones de género y una comprensión más diferenciada de la violencia de género ha sido positivo, pero también ha sido objeto de un importante debate. Algunos debates tienen una larga historia, mientras que otros marcan preocupaciones emergentes surgidas en los últimos tiempos. En este trabajo se reflexiona sobre tres áreas de debate: interseccionalidad, configuración de géneros compleja y desigualdades complejas; diferenciación entre formas de violencia de género (fijándose en la violencia de pareja (VP; y la criminalización. En cada una de estas áreas, se han cuestionado los marcos feministas y el conocimiento relativo a la violencia de género, y ha sido notable el resurgimiento de cuentas de género neutro. Se defiende que fomentar un análisis estructural ofrece la mejor forma de fomentar un debate constructivo en el campo alineado con las aspiraciones feministas para el logro de una igualdad sustantiva. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM

  13. Conical intersection seam and bound resonances embedded in continuum observed in the photodissociation of thioanisole-d3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Songhee; Lim, Jeong Sik; Yoon, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jeongmook; Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Sang Kyu

    2014-02-07

    Herein, the multi-dimensional nature of the conical intersection seam has been experimentally revealed in the photodissociation reaction of thioanisole-d3 (C6H5SCD3) excited on S1, giving C6H5S·(Ã or X̃]) +·CD3 products. The translational energy distribution of the nascent·CD3 fragment, reflecting the relative yields of the C6H5S·(Ã) and C6H5S·(X̃) products, was measured at each S1 vibronic band using the velocity map ion imaging technique. Direct access of the reactant flux to the conical intersection seam leads to the increase of the nonadiabatic transition probability resulting in sharp resonances in the X̃/ÃC6H5S·product branching ratio at several distinct S1 vibronic bands. The nature of the S1 vibronic bands associated with such dynamic resonances was clarified by the mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy. The bound state embedded in continuum generated by the conical intersection is observed as a distinct dynamic resonance, revealing the nature of the nuclear motion responsible for the nonadiabatic coupling of two potential energy surfaces at the conical intersection. The multi-dimensional facets of the conical intersection seam in terms of its detailed structure and dynamic role are discussed with the aid of theoretical calculations.

  14. Attracting students and professionals into math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades: Final report, September 1, 1992--February 28, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flick, L.B.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the progress of a project to encourage students and professionals to participate in math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades. The topics of the report include documenting activities and procedures for the purposes of evaluation and dissemination of descriptive information, generating case studies of the students going through this program to provide research and evaluation data on the process of attracting technically qualified people into elementary and middle school teaching, establishing a program of mentoring between scientists, engineers, and mathematicians and prospective teachers in the program, and establishing a program of mentoring between master teachers in area schools and prospective teachers.

  15. Trajectory Generation Model-Based IMM Tracking for Safe Driving in Intersection Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Tracking the actions of vehicles at crossroads and planning safe trajectories will be an effective method to reduce the rate of traffic accident at intersections. It is to resolve the problem of the abrupt change because of the existence of drivers' voluntary choices. In this paper, we make approach of an improved IMM tracking method based on trajectory generation, abstracted by trajectory generation algorithm, to improve this situation. Because of the similarity between human-driving traject...

  16. Binding Energy of Quantum Bound States in X-shaped Nanowire Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    that with non-zero magnetic field new structures are associated with virtual and resonant states located at the junction that becomes 2D Landau ...results of our model system (cross-wire intersecting at an arbitrary angle) not only supplement the theory of quantum bound state in a classically unbound...geometries has been a long standing problem in quantum theory . Knowledge of quantum bound states in crossed nanowire system is very important in

  17. Delay Analysis and Formulation Inference of Signalized Intersection for Traffic Congestion Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广萍; 丁建梅

    2004-01-01

    Vehicle delay is an important measure to evaluate the signal timings of signalized intersections.When optimization the signal control parameters, delays of vehicles from all approach directions of an intersection should be considered. Based on the analysis of the vehicle delay on an approach of intersection, directed against the typical condition of a congested intersection-over-saturated condition, the paper has analyzed and inferred the intersection delay dynamic formulation, and has established the relation between intersection delay,the signal timings, vehicle arrival rate and the queue lengths, and that provides useful information for understanding vehicle delay of signalized intersection and for establishing performance index function of signal timing optimization.

  18. Traumatic high-grade spondylolisthesis at C7-T1 with no neurological deficits: Case series, literature review, and biomechanical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Son Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic high-grade spondylolisthesis in subaxial cervical spine is frequently associated with acute spinal cord injury and quadriparesis. There have been rare cases where such pathology demonstrates minimal to no neurological deficits. Assessment of the underlying biomechanics may provide insight into the mechanism of injury and associated neurological preservation. Patient 1 is a 63-year-old female presenting after a motor vehicle collision with significant right arm pain without neurological deficits. Imaging demonstrated C7/T1 spondyloptosis, associated with a locked facet on the left at C6/7 and a locked facet on the right at C7/T1, with a fracture of the left C7 pedicle and right C7 lamina. Patient 2 is a 60-year-old male presenting after a bicycle collision with transient bilateral upper extremity paresthesias without neurological deficits. Imaging demonstrated C7/T1 spondyloptosis, with fractures of bilateral C7 pedicles, C7/T1 facets, and C7 lamina. Patient 3 is a 36-year-old male presenting after a motor vehicle collision with diffuse tingling sensation throughout all extremities. His neurological examination was nonfocal. Imaging demonstrated a grade 4 spondylolithesis at C7/T1, associated with bilateral C7/T1 locked facets. From literature, most cases were noted to be dislocations resulting from fractures of the posterior elements. A minority of cases has been found to involve facet dislocations without fractures. Further biomechanical studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  19. Gleason’s Grading of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma: Inter-Observer Variation Among Seven Pathologists at a Tertiary Care Center in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asim; Lakhtakia, Ritu; AL Bahri, Maiya; Al Haddabi, Ibrahim; Saparamadu, Anna; Shalaby, Asem; Al Riyami, Marwa; Rizvi, Gauhar

    2016-11-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma is the commonest solid malignancy seen in Omani elderly males 60-80 years of age. The Gleason grade is the most widely used grading system for prostatic carcinoma and is recommended by the World Health Organization. A peer review was carried out at the Pathology Department of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, to assess the quality of reporting at the center. The aim of this study was to determine inter-observer variation among 7 pathologists working at a tertiary care center in Oman. A total of 47 consecutive prostatic biopsies were interdependently reviewed by seven pathologists and the results obtained were compared with each other and the original diagnosis. This peer review indicated a fair inter-observer agreement (0.482) among 7 pathologists in the department, with fair to moderate agreement when the results were compared to the reported diagnosis, comparable to the published literature. Dual and sub-specialty reporting are being instituted to improve the performance in this vital aspect of pathology.

  20. An Examination of the Efficacy of a Multitiered Intervention on Early Reading Outcomes for First Grade Students at Risk for Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fien, Hank; Smith, Jean Louise M; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K; Nelson, Nancy J; Chaparro, Erin

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings of an efficacy trial examining the effect of a multitiered instruction and intervention model on first grade at-risk students' reading outcomes. Schools (N = 16) were randomly assigned to the treatment or control condition. In the fall of Grade 1, students were assigned to an instructional tier on the basis of Stanford Achievement Test-10th Edition scores (31st percentile and above = Tier 1; from the 10th to the 30th percentile = Tier 2). In both conditions, students identified as at risk (i.e., Tier 2; n = 267) received 90 min of whole group instruction (Tier 1) and an additional 30 min of daily small group intervention (Tier 2). In the treatment condition, teachers were trained to enhance core reading instruction by making instruction more explicit and increasing practice opportunities for students in Tier 1. In addition, at-risk readers were provided an additional 30-min daily small group intervention with content that was highly aligned with the Tier 1 core reading program. Results indicate significant, positive effects of the intervention on students' decoding and first semester fluent reading and potentially positive effects on reading comprehension and total reading achievement.

  1. USING COVARIANCE INTERSECTION FOR CHANGE DETECTION IN REMOTE SENSING IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Meng; Zhang Gong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,an unsupervised change detection technique for remote sensing images acquired on the same geographical area but at different time instances is proposed by conducting Covariance Intersection (CI) to perform unsupervised fusion of the final fuzzy partition matrices from the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering for the feature space by applying compressed sampling to the given remote sensing images.The proposed approach exploits a CI-based data fusion of the membership function matrices,which are obtained by taking the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering of the frequency-domain feature vectors and spatial-domain feature vectors,aimed at enhancing the unsupervised change detection performance.Compressed sampling is performed to realize the image local feature sampling,which is a signal acquisition framework based on the revelation that a small collection of linear projections of a sparse signal contains enough information for stable recovery.The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a good change detection results and also performs quite well on denoising purpose.

  2. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Natalie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning

  3. PowerSet: A Comprehensive Visualization of Set Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsallakh, Bilal; Ren, Liu

    2017-01-01

    When analyzing a large amount of data, analysts often define groups over data elements that share certain properties. Using these groups as the unit of analysis not only reduces the data volume, but also allows detecting various patterns in the data. This involves analyzing intersection relations between these groups, and how the element attributes vary between these intersections. This kind of set-based analysis has various applications in a variety of domains, due to the generic and powerful notion of sets. However, visualizing intersections relations is challenging because their number grows exponentially with the number of sets. We present a novel technique based on Treemaps to provide a comprehensive overview of non-empty intersections in a set system in a scalable way. It enables gaining insight about how elements are distributed across these intersections as well as performing fine-grained analysis to explore and compare their attributes both in overview and in detail. Interaction allows querying and filtering these elements based on their set memberships. We demonstrate how our technique supports various use cases in data exploration and analysis by providing insights into set-based data, beyond the limits of state-of-the-art techniques.

  4. Vehicle Delay Estimation for an Isolated Intersection under Actuated Signal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle delay at an actuated signal control (ASC intersection is analyzed and computed with the aim of reflecting the effects of ASC and optimizing its parameters. The operation characteristics of traffic flows at the intersections serve as the foundation to present the mechanism of vehicle delay under the ASC; given that the arrival of vehicles obeys the Poisson distribution, probability algorithms of vehicle delay are put forward under the semi-ASC and fully ASC depending on discretization of green time. Computation process is illustrated by case study and CORSIM simulation experiments. Finally, the primary results indicate that the appropriate control modes can decrease vehicle delay, which is significantly affected by unit extension. Hopefully, the study will provide useful information for selecting different ASC modes and optimizing signal control parameters.

  5. Trajectory Generation Model-Based IMM Tracking for Safe Driving in Intersection Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking the actions of vehicles at crossroads and planning safe trajectories will be an effective method to reduce the rate of traffic accident at intersections. It is to resolve the problem of the abrupt change because of the existence of drivers' voluntary choices. In this paper, we make approach of an improved IMM tracking method based on trajectory generation, abstracted by trajectory generation algorithm, to improve this situation. Because of the similarity between human-driving trajectory and programming trajectory which is generated by trajectory-generated algorithm, the improved IMM method performs well in tracking moving vehicles with some sudden changes of its movement. A set of data is collected for experiments when an object vehicle takes a sudden left turn in intersection scenario. To compare the experiment results between IMM method with trajectory generation model and the one without, tracking error of the former decreases by 75% in particular scenario.

  6. Cycle-by-Cycle Queue Length Estimation for Signalized Intersections Using Multi-Source Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyu Wang; Qing Cai; Bing Wu; Yinhai Wang; Linbo Li

    2015-01-01

    In order to estimate vehicular queue length at signalized intersections accurately and overcome the shortcomings and restrictions of existing studies especially those based on shockwave theory, a new methodology is presented for estimating vehicular queue length using data from both point detectors and probe vehicles. The methodology applies the shockwave theory to model queue evolution over time and space. Using probe vehicle locations and times as well as point detector measured traffic states, analytical formulations for calculating the maximum and minimum ( residual) queue length are developed. The proposed methodology is verified using ground truth data collected from numerical experiments conducted in Shanghai, China. It is found that the methodology has a mean absolute percentage error of 17�09%, which is reasonably effective in estimating the queue length at traffic signalized intersections. Limitations of the proposed models and algorithms are also discussed in the paper.

  7. A systematic study on the reactivity of different grades of charged Li[NixMnyCoz]O2 with electrolyte at elevated temperatures using accelerating rate calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Nie, Mengyun; Xia, Jian; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    The reactivity between charged Li[NixMnyCoz]O2 (NMC, with x + y + z = 1, x:y:z = 1:1:1 (NMC111), 4:4:2 (NMC442), 5:3:2 (NMC532), 6:2:2 (NMC622) and 8:1:1 (NMC811)) and traditional carbonate-based electrolytes at elevated temperatures was systematically studied using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). The ARC results showed that the upper cut-off potential and NMC composition strongly affect the thermal stability of the various NMC grades when traditional carbonate-based electrolyte was used. Although higher cut-off potential and higher Ni content can help increase the energy density of lithium ion cells, these factors generally increase the reactivity between charged NMC and electrolyte at elevated temperatures. It is hoped that this report can be used to help guide the wise selection of NMC grade and upper cut-off potential to achieve high energy density Li-ion cells without seriously compromising cell safety.

  8. Remobilisation features and structural control on ore grade distribution at the Konkola stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torremans, K.; Gauquie, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Barrie, C. D.; Dewaele, S.; Sikazwe, O.; Muchez, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    The Konkola deposit is a high grade stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit in the Central African Copperbelt in Zambia. Economic mineralisation is confined to the Ore Shale formation, part of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Katanga Supergroup. Petrographic study reveals that the copper-cobalt ore minerals are disseminated within the host rock, sometimes concentrated along bedding planes, often associated with dolomitic bands or clustered in cemented lenses and in layer-parallel and irregular veins. The hypogene sulphide mineralogy consists predominantly of chalcopyrite, bornite and chalcocite. Based upon relationships with metamorphic biotite, vein sulphides and most of the sulphides in cemented lenses were precipitated during or after biotite zone greenschist facies metamorphism. New δ34S values of sulphides from the Konkola deposit are presented. The sulphur isotope values range from -8.7‰ to +1.4‰ V-CDT for chalcopyrite from all mineralising phases and from -4.4‰ to +2.0‰ V-CDT for secondary chalcocite. Similarities in δ34S for sulphides from different vein generations, earlier sulphides and secondary chalcocite can be explained by (re)mobilisation of S from earlier formed sulphide phases, an interpretation strongly supported by the petrographic evidence. Deep supergene enrichment and leaching occurs up to a km in depth, predominantly in the form of secondary chalcocite, goethite and malachite and is often associated with zones of high permeability. Detailed distribution maps of total copper and total cobalt contents of the Ore Shale formation show a close relationship between structural features and higher copper and lower cobalt contents, relative to other areas of the mine. Structural features include the Kirilabombwe anticline and fault zones along the axial plane and two fault zones in the southern limb of the anticline. Cobalt and copper behave differently in relation to these structural features. These structures are interpreted to have

  9. Flips from 4-folds with isolated complete intersection singularities whose downstairs have rational bi-elephants

    CERN Document Server

    Kachi, Y

    1996-01-01

    We shall investigate a flipping contraction g : X -> Y from a 4-fold X with at most isolated complete intersection singularities. If Y has an anti-bi-canonical divisor (=bi-elephant) with only rational singularities, then g carries an inductive structure chained up by blow-ups (La Torre Pendente), and in particular the flip exists. This naturally contains Miles Reid's `Pagoda' as an anti-canonical divisor (=elephant) and its proper transforms.

  10. (3, 1)*-Choosability of graphs of nonnegative characteristic without intersecting short cycles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haihui Zhang

    2016-05-01

    A graph is called (, )*-choosable if for every list assignment satisfying $|L(v)|\\geq k$ for all $v \\in V (G)$, there is an -coloring of such that each vertex of has at most neighbors colored with the same color as itself. In this paper, it is proved that every graph of nonnegative characteristic without intersecting -cycles for all = 3, 4, 5 is (3, 1)*-choosable.

  11. CONTROLLING TRAFFIC FLOW IN MULTILANE-ISOLATED INTERSECTION USING ANFIS APPROACH TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Many controllers have applied the Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) concept for optimizing the controller performance. However, there are less traffic signal controllers developed using the ANFIS concept. ANFIS traffic signal controller with its fuzzy rule base and its ability to learn from a set of sample data could improve the performance of Existing traffic signal controlling system to reduce traffic congestions at most of the busy traffic intersections in city such as Kuala L...

  12. Intersection local times of independent Brownian motions as generalized white noise functionals

    OpenAIRE

    Albeverio, Sergio; Oliveira, Maria João; Streit, Ludwig

    2001-01-01

    The original publication is available at http://www.springerlink.com/content/14jtbl19nh37ggtx/fulltext.pdf A "chaos expansion" of the intersection local time functional of two independent Brownian motions in Rd is given. The expansion is in terms of normal products of white noise (corresponding to multiple Wiener integrals). As a consequence of the local structure of the normal products, the kernel functions in the expansion are explicitly given and exhibit clearly the dimension depende...

  13. Ratchetting and creep-fatigue evaluation for nozzle-to-cylinder intersection. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, R.S.; Loomis, R.W.; Stewart, B.D.

    1976-01-01

    The study is part of an analytical investigation on the applicability of the simplified ratchetting and creep-fatigue rules to LMFBR component geometry. Both the detailed inelastic rules and the simplified elastic rules are applied to the results obtained from a three-dimensional finite element analysis of the nozzle-to-cylinder intersection. The results of both evaluations are compared at several locations on the surface, and an assessment of the degree of conservatism of the simplified methods is discussed.

  14. Minimal left-right symmetric intersecting D-brane model

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lust, Dieter; Taylor, Tomasz R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate left-right symmetric extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes, with gauge bosons due to strings attached to stacks of D-branes and chiral matter due to strings stretching between intersecting D-branes. The left-handed and right-handed fermions transform as doublets under Sp(1)_L and Sp(1)_R, and so their masses must be generated by the introduction of Higgs fields in a bi-fundamental (2,2) representation under the two Sp(1) gauge groups. For such D-brane configurations the left-right symmetry must be broken by Higgs fields in the doublet representation of Sp(1)_R and therefore Majorana mass terms are suppressed by some higher physics scale. The left-handed and right-handed neutrinos pair up to form Dirac fermions which maneuver the decay widths of the right-handed W' boson to yield comparable branching fractions into dilepton and dijets channels. Using the most recent searches at LHC13 Run II with 2016 data we constrain the (g_R, m_{W'}) parameter space. Our ana...

  15. Anthropology and cultural neuroscience: creating productive intersections in parallel fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R A; Seligman, R

    2009-01-01

    Partly due to the failure of anthropology to productively engage the fields of psychology and neuroscience, investigations in cultural neuroscience have occurred largely without the active involvement of anthropologists or anthropological theory. Dramatic advances in the tools and findings of social neuroscience have emerged in parallel with significant advances in anthropology that connect social and political-economic processes with fine-grained descriptions of individual experience and behavior. We describe four domains of inquiry that follow from these recent developments, and provide suggestions for intersections between anthropological tools - such as social theory, ethnography, and quantitative modeling of cultural models - and cultural neuroscience. These domains are: the sociocultural construction of emotion, status and dominance, the embodiment of social information, and the dual social and biological nature of ritual. Anthropology can help locate unique or interesting populations and phenomena for cultural neuroscience research. Anthropological tools can also help "drill down" to investigate key socialization processes accountable for cross-group differences. Furthermore, anthropological research points at meaningful underlying complexity in assumed relationships between social forces and biological outcomes. Finally, ethnographic knowledge of cultural content can aid with the development of ecologically relevant stimuli for use in experimental protocols.

  16. Optimal Locations of Bus Stops Connecting Subways near Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable locations of bus stops which provide feeder transportation connecting subways near urban intersections usually lead to the low efficiency of public transport and level of passenger service. A multiobjective optimization model to distribute such stop locations is proposed to attain the shortest total walk distance of passengers and minimum delay time of cars through intersections and travel time of buses. The Pareto frontier and optimal solutions for the proposed model are given by the distance-based and enumerative methods. The Xizhimen bus stop is selected to implement case studies for verifying the validity of the proposed model. The analysis of sensitivity on possible solutions is also carried out in the case studies. The results show that the proposed model is capable of optimizing the locations of bus stops connecting subways near intersections and helpful to improve the level of passengers service and operational efficiency of public transportation.

  17. On the intersections of Fibonacci, Pell, and Lucas numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseyev, Max A

    2010-01-01

    We describe how to compute the intersection of two Lucas sequences of the forms $\\{U_n(P,\\pm 1) \\}_{n=0}^{\\infty}$ or $\\{V_n(P,\\pm 1) \\}_{n=0}^{\\infty}$ with $P\\in\\mathbb{Z}$ that includes sequences of Fibonacci, Pell, Lucas, and Lucas-Pell numbers. We prove that such an intersection is finite except for the case $U_n(1,-1)$ and $U_n(3,1)$ and the case of two $V$-sequences when the product of their discriminants is a perfect square. Moreover, the intersection in these cases also forms a Lucas sequence. Our approach relies on solving homogeneous quadratic Diophantine equations and Thue equations. In particular, we prove that 0, 1, 2, and 5 are the only numbers that are both Fibonacci and Pell, and list similar results for many other pairs of Lucas sequences. We further extend our results to Lucas sequences with arbitrary initial terms.

  18. Beyond dichotomies: Gender and intersecting inequalities in climate change studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoudi, Houria; Locatelli, Bruno; Vaast, Chloe; Asher, Kiran; Brockhaus, Maria; Basnett Sijapati, Bimbika

    2016-12-01

    Climate change and related adaptation strategies have gender-differentiated impacts. This paper reviews how gender is framed in 41 papers on climate change adaptation through an intersectionality lens. The main findings show that while intersectional analysis has demonstrated many advantages for a comprehensive study of gender, it has not yet entered the field of climate change and gender. In climate change studies, gender is mostly handled in a men-versus-women dichotomy and little or no attention has been paid to power and social and political relations. These gaps which are echoed in other domains of development and gender research depict a 'feminization of vulnerability' and reinforce a 'victimization' discourse within climate change studies. We argue that a critical intersectional assessment would contribute to unveil agency and emancipatory pathways in the adaptation process by providing a better understanding of how the differential impacts of climate change shape, and are shaped by, the complex power dynamics of existing social and political relations.

  19. Dynamical Outcomes of Quenching: Reflections on a Conical Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Julia H.; Lester, Marsha I.

    2014-04-01

    This review focuses on experimental studies of the dynamical outcomes following collisional quenching of electronically excited OH A2Σ+ radicals by molecular partners. The experimental observables include the branching between reactive and nonreactive decay channels, kinetic energy release, and quantum state distributions of the products. Complementary theoretical investigations reveal regions of strong nonadiabatic coupling, known as conical intersections, which facilitate the quenching process. The dynamical outcomes observed experimentally are connected to the local forces and geometric properties of the nuclei in the conical intersection region. Dynamical calculations for the benchmark OH-H2 system are in good accord with experimental observations, demonstrating that the outcomes reflect the strong coupling in the conical intersection region as the system evolves from the excited electronic state to quenched products.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of cross-slip and the intersection of dislocations in copper

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Maozhen; Gao, K W; Qiao, L J

    2003-01-01

    The molecular dynamics method is used to simulate cross-slip by thermal activation at 30 K and the intersection of dislocations in copper containing 1.6 x 10 sup 6 atoms using the embedded atom method potential. The results show that an extended screw dislocation can recombine through thermal activation at 30 K into a constriction on the surface because of stress imbalance and the constriction will split again in the other slip plane. Removing the constriction along the extended dislocation results in a cross-slip of the screw dislocation at low temperature. After the intersection between a moving right-hand screw dislocation DC and a perpendicular left-hand dislocation BA, whose ends are fixed on the surfaces, an extended jog corresponding to a row of one-third vacancies forms in BA and a trail of vacancies behind DC. If the intersected dislocation is a right-hand screw dislocation AB, the jog formed in AB corresponds to a row of one-third interstitials and the point defects behind DC are interstitials. Afte...

  1. Water: Challenges at the Intersection of Human and Natural Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futrell, J.H.; Gephart, R. E.; Kabat-Lensch, E.; McKnight, D. M.; Pyrtle, A.; Schimel, J. P.; Smyth, R. L.; Skole, D. L. Wilson, J. L.; Gephart, J. M.

    2005-09-01

    There is a growing recognition about the critical role water plays in sustaining people and society. This workshop established dialog between disciplinary scientists and program managers from diverse backgrounds in order to share perspectives and broaden community understanding of ongoing fundamental and applied research on water as a complex environmental problem. Three major scientific themes emerged: (1) coupling of cycles and process, with emphasis on the role of interfaces; (2) coupling of human and natural systems across spatial and temporal scales; and (3) prediction in the face of uncertainty. In addition, the need for observation systems, sensors, and infrastructure; and the need for data management and synthesis were addressed. Current barriers to progress were noted as educational and institutional barriers and the integration of science and policy.

  2. Traffic data for local emissions monitoring at a signalized intersection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigazzi, A.; Lint, J.W.C. van; Klunder, G.; Stelwagen, U.; Ligterink, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    In order to assist planning efforts for air pollution-responsive dynamic traffic management (DTM) systems, this research assesses the accuracy of local emissions monitoring based on traffic data and models. The study quantifies the benefits of increased data resolution for short-term emissions estim

  3. The intersection of education and technology at the century mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadbury Amyot, Cynthia C; Nathe, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Since the inception of dental hygiene in 1913, we have witnessed the tremendous evolution of the profession. Within the past couple two decades a significant game changer has been technology. The ability to expand access to education through technology has resulted in an increasing number of dental hygienists seeking advanced degrees and gaining new skills and certifications. The evidence shows that dental hygienists are using their advanced education to address lack of access to oral health care services. The profession should remain focused on advocating for the increased education of the dental hygienist, by finding solutions to barriers that presently prevent the realization of this ultimate advancement.

  4. Provoking Innovation: Creating Grassroots and Intersectional Programming at Historical Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Historical organizations cannot continue to compete in the modern marketplace using traditional models for education program development. Social networking sites and new applications are shaping the way our audiences approach their work, even more so as Generation Y/Millennials begin to flood into the workforce, changing the demographic makeup,…

  5. Indiscretions: at the intersection of queer and postcolonial theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydemir, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the West, once apparently progressive causes such as sexual equality and lesbian and gay emancipation are increasingly redeployed in order to discipline and ostracize immigrant underclass subjects, primarily Muslims. Gender and sexuality on the one hand and race, culture, and/or ethnicity on the

  6. Reiteration: At the Intersection of Code-Switching and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunpää, Katariina; Mäkilähde, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    One of the most studied forms of multilingual language use is "code-switching," the use of more than one language within a speech exchange. Some forms of code-switching may also be regarded as instances of "translation," but the relation between these notions in studies of multilingual discourse remains underspecified. The…

  7. Emotional speech processing at the intersection of prosody and semantics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Schwartz

    Full Text Available The ability to accurately perceive emotions is crucial for effective social interaction. Many questions remain regarding how different sources of emotional cues in speech (e.g., prosody, semantic information are processed during emotional communication. Using a cross-modal emotional priming paradigm (Facial affect decision task, we compared the relative contributions of processing utterances with single-channel (prosody-only versus multi-channel (prosody and semantic cues on the perception of happy, sad, and angry emotional expressions. Our data show that emotional speech cues produce robust congruency effects on decisions about an emotionally related face target, although no processing advantage occurred when prime stimuli contained multi-channel as opposed to single-channel speech cues. Our data suggest that utterances with prosodic cues alone and utterances with combined prosody and semantic cues both activate knowledge that leads to emotional congruency (priming effects, but that the convergence of these two information sources does not always heighten access to this knowledge during emotional speech processing.

  8. Emotional speech processing at the intersection of prosody and semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rachel; Pell, Marc D

    2012-01-01

    The ability to accurately perceive emotions is crucial for effective social interaction. Many questions remain regarding how different sources of emotional cues in speech (e.g., prosody, semantic information) are processed during emotional communication. Using a cross-modal emotional priming paradigm (Facial affect decision task), we compared the relative contributions of processing utterances with single-channel (prosody-only) versus multi-channel (prosody and semantic) cues on the perception of happy, sad, and angry emotional expressions. Our data show that emotional speech cues produce robust congruency effects on decisions about an emotionally related face target, although no processing advantage occurred when prime stimuli contained multi-channel as opposed to single-channel speech cues. Our data suggest that utterances with prosodic cues alone and utterances with combined prosody and semantic cues both activate knowledge that leads to emotional congruency (priming) effects, but that the convergence of these two information sources does not always heighten access to this knowledge during emotional speech processing.

  9. Emotional Speech Processing at the Intersection of Prosody and Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Schwartz; Pell, Marc D.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to accurately perceive emotions is crucial for effective social interaction. Many questions remain regarding how different sources of emotional cues in speech (e.g., prosody, semantic information) are processed during emotional communication. Using a cross-modal emotional priming paradigm (Facial affect decision task), we compared the relative contributions of processing utterances with single-channel (prosody-only) versus multi-channel (prosody and semantic) cues on the perceptio...

  10. GUCY2C: at the intersection of obesity and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Gilbert W.; Lin, Jieru E.; Waldman, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C) has canonical centrality in defense of key intestinal homeostatic mechanisms, encompassing fluid and electrolyte balance, epithelial dynamics, antitumorigenesis, and intestinal barrier function. Recent discoveries expand the homeostatic role of GUCY2C to reveal a novel gut-brain endocrine axis regulating appetite, anchored by hypothalamic GUCY2C which is responsive to intestine-derived uroguanylin. Thus, GUCY2C may represent a new target for anti-obesity pharmacoth...

  11. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM IN THE AREA OF MATHMATICAL EDUCATION AT SCHOOL (8TH GRADE ON THE POLYLINGUALISM PLATFORM (RUSSIAN-TATAR-ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgaliev Albert Rustemovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing workload of a teacher arises a problem of fast diagnosing the deterioration of pupils’ academic performance with the corresponding differentiation of the academic workload. To cope with this problem an Expert System (ES has been developed, which is capable of consulting a teacher in questions related to the techniques of teaching a subject, from the analysis of pupils’ academic performance. The article uncovers the general didactic concepts of developing an ES in educational area on the example of teaching Algebra subject for the 8th grades based on polylingualism. During this research the architecture of the ES has been developed. In addition innovative approaches in analysis and processing of relevant data by the ES have been implemented in the form of a computer application. The model of analyzing pupils’ academic performance represented in grades is used as a basis for building an individual educational strategy. The system automatically selects the most optimal academic load for each individual pupil as well as for the entire class. This helps achieving flexibility during developing and realization of the study course. Due to the fact that some of the responsibilities of the teacher are taken by the ES, the teacher’s workload decreases, at the same time increasing the quality of education. The system is capable of analyzing current academic performance of each individual pupil in real time and depending on the improvement or deterioration in pupil performance it differentiates the load of a particular student for instance by generating individual homework exercises.

  12. Pre-clinical grades predict clinical performance in the MBBS stage II examination at the University of the West Indies, Mona Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepple, Dagogo J; Young, Lauriann E; Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana M; Carroll, Robert G

    2013-12-20

    In the preclinical sciences, statistically significant predictive values have been reported between the performances in one discipline and the others, supporting the hypothesis that students who perform well in one discipline were likely to perform well in the other disciplines. We therefore decided to conduct a retrospective study to investigate the predictive effects of preclinical subjects on clinical subjects from 87 students of The University of the West Indies (UWI), Mona Campus who took the MBBS Stage II examination at various times between May 2000 and May 2002. The grade in Pathology was significantly predicted by scores in Anatomy and Pharmacology; Medicine by Physiology and Pharmacology scores; Surgery by Anatomy and Social and Preventive Medicine scores; while, the Obstetrics and Gynecology grade was predicted by the Anatomy score. The results support the hypothesis that the scores in some preclinical subjects can predict the performance in specific clinical subjects, which could be interpreted to suggest that poor performance in specific preclinical disciplines could be a warning sign of future poor performance in the related clinical disciplines.

  13. Teleparallel loop quantum cosmology in a system of intersecting branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Pradhan, Anirudh; Beesham, Aroonkumar; de Haro, Jaume

    2016-09-01

    Recently, some authors have removed the big bang singularity in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) and have shown that the universe may undergo a number of oscillations. We investigate the origin of this type of teleparallel theory in a system of intersecting branes in M-theory in which the angle between them changes with time. This system is constructed by two intersecting anti-D8-branes, one compacted D4-brane and a D3-brane. These branes are built by joining M0-branes which develop in decaying fundamental strings. The compacted D4-brane is located between two intersecting anti-D8 branes and glues to one of them. Our universe is located on the D3 brane which wraps around the D4 brane from one end and sticks to one of the anti-D8 branes from the other one. In this system, there are three types of fields, corresponding to compacted D4 branes, intersecting branes and D3-branes. These fields interact with each other and make the angle between branes oscillate. By decreasing this angle, the intersecting anti-D8 branes approach each other, the D4 brane rolls, the D3 brane wraps around the D4 brane, and the universe contracts. By separating the intersecting branes and increasing the angle, the D4 brane rolls in the opposite direction, the D3 brane separates from it and the expansion branch begins. Also, the interaction between branes in this system gives us the exact form of the relevant Lagrangian for teleparallel LQC.

  14. Teleparallel loop quantum cosmology in a system of intersecting branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sepehri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, some authors have removed the big bang singularity in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC and have shown that the universe may undergo a number of oscillations. We investigate the origin of this type of teleparallel theory in a system of intersecting branes in M-theory in which the angle between them changes with time. This system is constructed by two intersecting anti-D8-branes, one compacted D4-brane and a D3-brane. These branes are built by joining M0-branes which develop in decaying fundamental strings. The compacted D4-brane is located between two intersecting anti-D8 branes and glues to one of them. Our universe is located on the D3 brane which wraps around the D4 brane from one end and sticks to one of the anti-D8 branes from the other one. In this system, there are three types of fields, corresponding to compacted D4 branes, intersecting branes and D3-branes. These fields interact with each other and make the angle between branes oscillate. By decreasing this angle, the intersecting anti-D8 branes approach each other, the D4 brane rolls, the D3 brane wraps around the D4 brane, and the universe contracts. By separating the intersecting branes and increasing the angle, the D4 brane rolls in the opposite direction, the D3 brane separates from it and the expansion branch begins. Also, the interaction between branes in this system gives us the exact form of the relevant Lagrangian for teleparallel LQC.

  15. Enhancing and expanding intersectional research for climate change adaptation in agrarian settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Hall, Mary; Carr, Edward R; Pascual, Unai

    2016-12-01

    Most current approaches focused on vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation to climate change frame gender and its influence in a manner out-of-step with contemporary academic and international development research. The tendency to rely on analyses of the sex-disaggregated gender categories of 'men' and 'women' as sole or principal divisions explaining the abilities of different people within a group to adapt to climate change, illustrates this problem. This framing of gender persists in spite of established bodies of knowledge that show how roles and responsibilities that influence a person´s ability to deal with climate-induced and other stressors emerge at the intersection of diverse identity categories, including but not limited to gender, age, seniority, ethnicity, marital status, and livelihoods. Here, we provide a review of relevant literature on this topic and argue that approaching vulnerability to climate change through intersectional understandings of identity can help improve adaptation programming, project design, implementation, and outcomes.

  16. Control of 1,3-cyclohexadiene photoisomerization using light-induced conical intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jaehee; White, James L; Petrovic, Vladimir S; Martinez, Todd J; Bucksbaum, Philip H

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the photo-induced isomerization from 1,3-cyclohexadiene to 1,3,5-hexatriene in the presence of an intense ultrafast laser pulse. We find that the laser field can suppress isomerization if it is both polarized parallel to the excitation dipole and present 50 fs after the initial photoabsorption, at the time when the system is expected to be in the vicinity of a conical intersection that mediates this structural transition. A modified ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) method shows that the laser induces a resonant coupling between the excited state and the ground state, which is a light-induced conical intersection. The theory accounts for the timing and direction of the effect.

  17. Solar Access Assessment in Dense Urban Environments: The Effect of Intersections in an Urban Canyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Garcia-Nevado

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The urban canyon model has been recurrently used as a basis for many solar access studies. However, its conception as endless structures disregards the effect of street intersections, despite being characteristic elements of urban fabrics. This paper aims to evaluate the impact of street discontinuities on solar access over building façades. The potential of crossings to increase the available radiation has been assessed through computer simulations in dense urban environments in a Mediterranean location. For the cases studied, results show that local effects of an intersection almost disappear beyond a specific distance for each aspect ratio, which can be helpful to determine the suitable level of detail for solar analyses at an urban fabric scale.

  18. Third Wave Feminism's Unhappy Marriage of Poststructuralism and Intersectionality Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Archer Mann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article first traces the history of unhappy marriages of disparate theoretical perspectives in US feminism. In recent decades, US third-wave authors have arranged their own unhappy marriage in that their major publications reflect an attempt to wed poststructuralism with intersectionality theory. Although the standpoint epistemology of intersectionality theory shares some common ground with the epistemology of poststructuralism, their epistemological assumptions conflict on a number of important dimensions. This contested terrain has generated serious debates within the third wave and between second- and thirdwave feminists. The form, content, and political implications of their "unhappy marriage" are the subject of this article.

  19. Histological type and grade of breast cancer tumors by parity, age at birth, and time since birth: a register-based study in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuch Ivar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have indicated that reproductive factors affect the risk of histological types of breast cancer differently. The long-term protective effect of a childbirth is preceded by a short-term adverse effect. Few studies have examined whether tumors diagnosed shortly after birth have specific histological characteristics. Methods In the present register-based study, comprising information for 22,867 Norwegian breast cancer cases (20-74 years, we examined whether histological type (9 categories and grade of tumor (2 combined categories differed by parity or age at first birth. Associations with time since birth were evaluated among 9709 women diagnosed before age 50 years. Chi-square tests were applied for comparing proportions, whereas odds ratios (each histological type vs. ductal, or grade 3-4 vs. grade 1-2 were estimated in polytomous and binary logistic regression analyses. Results Ductal tumors, the most common histological type, accounted for 81.4% of all cases, followed by lobular tumors (6.3% and unspecified carcinomas (5.5%. Other subtypes accounted for 0.4%-1.5% of the cases each. For all histological types, the proportions differed significantly by age at diagnoses. The proportion of mucinous and tubular tumors decreased with increasing parity, whereas Paget disease and medullary tumors were most common in women of high parity. An increasing trend with increasing age at first birth was most pronounced for lobular tumors and unspecified carcinomas; an association in the opposite direction was seen in relation to medullary and tubular tumors. In age-adjusted analyses, only the proportions of unspecified carcinomas and lobular tumors decreased significantly with increasing time since first and last birth. However, ductal tumors, and malignant sarcomas, mainly phyllodes tumors, seemed to occur at higher frequency in women diagnosed Conclusion Our results support previous observations that reproductive factors

  20. On the accessibility to conical intersections in purines: hypoxanthine and its singly protonated and deprotonated forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villabona-Monsalve, Juan P; Noria, Raquel; Matsika, Spiridoula; Peón, Jorge

    2012-05-09

    The dynamics following electronic excitation of hypoxanthine and its nucleoside inosine were studied by femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion. Our objective was to explore variants of the purinic DNA bases in order to determine the molecular parameters that increase or reduce the accessibility to ground state conical intersections. From experiments in water and methanol solution we conclude that both dominant neutral tautomers of hypoxanthine exhibit ultrashort excited state lifetimes (τ conical intersection for the fluorescent state upon removal of the amino group, present in guanine but absent in hypoxanthine. The excited state dynamics of singly protonated hypoxanthine were also studied, showing biexponential decays with a 1.1 ps component (5%) besides a sub-0.2 ps ultrafast component. On the other hand, the S(1) lifetimes of the singly deprotonated forms of hypoxanthine and inosine show drastic differences, where the latter remains ultrafast but the singly deprotonated hypoxanthine shows a much longer lifetime of 19 ps. This significant variation is related to the different deprotonation sites in hypoxanthine versus inosine, which gives rise to significantly different resonance structures. In our study we also include multireference perturbation theory (MRMP2) excited state calculations in order to determine the nature of the initial electronic excitation in our experiments and clarify the ordering of the states in the singlet manifold at the ground state geometry. In addition, we performed multireference configuration interaction calculations (MR-CIS) that identify the presence of low-lying conical intersections for both prominent neutral tautomers of hypoxanthine. In both cases, the surface crossings occur at geometries reached by out of plane opposite motions of C2 and N3. The study of this simpler purine gives several insights into how small structural modifications, including amino substitution and protonation site and state, determine the accessibility