Sample records for asynchronous inhibition-mediated synchronization

  1. Amplification of asynchronous inhibition-mediated synchronization by feedback in recurrent networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sashi Marella


    Full Text Available Synchronization of 30-80 Hz oscillatory activity of the principle neurons in the olfactory bulb (mitral cells is believed to be important for odor discrimination. Previous theoretical studies of these fast rhythms in other brain areas have proposed that principle neuron synchrony can be mediated by short-latency, rapidly decaying inhibition. This phasic inhibition provides a narrow time window for the principle neurons to fire, thus promoting synchrony. However, in the olfactory bulb, the inhibitory granule cells produce long lasting, small amplitude, asynchronous and aperiodic inhibitory input and thus the narrow time window that is required to synchronize spiking does not exist. Instead, it has been suggested that correlated output of the granule cells could serve to synchronize uncoupled mitral cells through a mechanism called "stochastic synchronization", wherein the synchronization arises through correlation of inputs to two neural oscillators. Almost all work on synchrony due to correlations presumes that the correlation is imposed and fixed. Building on theory and experiments that we and others have developed, we show that increased synchrony in the mitral cells could produce an increase in granule cell activity for those granule cells that share a synchronous group of mitral cells. Common granule cell input increases the input correlation to the mitral cells and hence their synchrony by providing a positive feedback loop in correlation. Thus we demonstrate the emergence and temporal evolution of input correlation in recurrent networks with feedback. We explore several theoretical models of this idea, ranging from spiking models to an analytically tractable model.

  2. Asynchronized synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Botvinnik, M M


    Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids” of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv

  3. Asynchronous versus Synchronous Learning in Pharmacy Education (United States)

    Motycka, Carol A.; St. Onge, Erin L.; Williams, Jennifer


    Objective: To better understand the technology being used today in pharmacy education through a review of the current methodologies being employed at various institutions. Also, to discuss the benefits and difficulties of asynchronous and synchronous methodologies, which are being utilized at both traditional and distance education campuses.…

  4. Blending Online Asynchronous and Synchronous Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C. Yamagata-Lynch


    Full Text Available In this article I will share a qualitative self-study about a 15-week blended 100% online graduate level course facilitated through synchronous meetings on Blackboard Collaborate and asynchronous discussions on Blackboard. I taught the course at the University of Tennessee (UT during the spring 2012 semester and the course topic was online learning environments. The primary research question of this study was: How can the designer/instructor optimize learning experiences for students who are studying about online learning environments in a blended online course relying on both synchronous and asynchronous technologies? I relied on student reflections of course activities during the beginning, middle, and the end of the semester as the primary data source to obtain their insights regarding course experiences. Through the experiences involved in designing and teaching the course and engaging in this study I found that there is room in the instructional technology research community to address strategies for facilitating online synchronous learning that complement asynchronous learning. Synchronous online whole class meetings and well-structured small group meetings can help students feel a stronger sense of connection to their peers and instructor and stay engaged with course activities. In order to provide meaningful learning spaces in synchronous learning environments, the instructor/designer needs to balance the tension between embracing the flexibility that the online space affords to users and designing deliberate structures that will help them take advantage of the flexible space.

  5. On the theoretical gap between synchronous and asynchronous MPC protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beerliová-Trubíniová, Zuzana; Hirt, Martin; Nielsen, Jesper Buus


    that in the cryptographic setting (with setup), the sole reason for it is the distribution of inputs: given an oracle for input distribution, cryptographically-secure asynchronous MPC is possible with the very same condition as synchronous MPC, namely t ..., we show that such an input-distribution oracle can be reduced to an oracle that allows each party to synchronously broadcast one single message. This means that when one single round of synchronous broadcast is available, then asynchronous MPC is possible at the same condition as synchronous MPC...

  6. Psychophysiological effects of synchronous versus asynchronous music during cycling. (United States)

    Lim, Harry B T; Karageorghis, Costas I; Romer, Lee M; Bishop, Daniel T


    Synchronizing movement to a musical beat may reduce the metabolic cost of exercise, but findings to date have been equivocal. Our aim was to examine the degree to which the synchronous application of music moderates the metabolic demands of a cycle ergometer task. Twenty-three recreationally active men made two laboratory visits. During the first visit, participants completed a maximal incremental ramp test on a cycle ergometer. At the second visit, they completed four randomized 6-min cycling bouts at 90% of ventilatory threshold (control, metronome, synchronous music, and asynchronous music). Main outcome variables were oxygen uptake, HR, ratings of dyspnea and limb discomfort, affective valence, and arousal. No significant differences were evident for oxygen uptake. HR was lower under the metronome condition (122 ± 15 bpm) compared to asynchronous music (124 ± 17 bpm) and control (125 ± 16 bpm). Limb discomfort was lower while listening to the metronome (2.5 ± 1.2) and synchronous music (2.3 ± 1.1) compared to control (3.0 ± 1.5). Both music conditions, synchronous (1.9 ± 1.2) and asynchronous (2.1 ± 1.3), elicited more positive affective valence compared to metronome (1.2 ± 1.4) and control (1.2 ± 1.2), while arousal was higher with synchronous music (3.4 ± 0.9) compared to metronome (2.8 ± 1.0) and control (2.8 ± 0.9). Synchronizing movement to a rhythmic stimulus does not reduce metabolic cost but may lower limb discomfort. Moreover, synchronous music has a stronger effect on limb discomfort and arousal when compared to asynchronous music.

  7. Molecular mechanisms for synchronous, asynchronous, and spontaneous neurotransmitter release. (United States)

    Kaeser, Pascal S; Regehr, Wade G


    Most neuronal communication relies upon the synchronous release of neurotransmitters, which occurs through synaptic vesicle exocytosis triggered by action potential invasion of a presynaptic bouton. However, neurotransmitters are also released asynchronously with a longer, variable delay following an action potential or spontaneously in the absence of action potentials. A compelling body of research has identified roles and mechanisms for synchronous release, but asynchronous release and spontaneous release are less well understood. In this review, we analyze how the mechanisms of the three release modes overlap and what molecular pathways underlie asynchronous and spontaneous release. We conclude that the modes of release have key fusion processes in common but may differ in the source of and necessity for Ca(2+) to trigger release and in the identity of the Ca(2+) sensor for release.

  8. A Loosely Synchronizing Asynchronous Router for TDM-Scheduled NOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotleas, Ioannis; Humphreys, Dean; Sørensen, Rasmus Bo


    This paper presents an asynchronous router design for use in time-division-multiplexed (TDM) networks-on-chip. Unlike existing synchronous, mesochronous and asynchronous router designs with similar functionality, the router is able to silently skip over cycles/TDM-slots where no traffic...... is scheduled and hence avoid all switching activity in the idle links and router ports. In this way switching activity is reduced to the minimum possible amount. The fact that this relaxed synchronization is sufficient to implement TDM scheduling represents a contribution at the conceptual level. The idea can...... only be implemented using asynchronous circuit techniques. To this end, the paper explores the use of “click-element” templates. Click-element templates use only flipflops and conventional gates, and this greatly simplifies the design process when using conventional EDA tools and standard cell...

  9. Development of speech glimpsing in synchronously and asynchronously modulated noise. (United States)

    Hall, Joseph W; Buss, Emily; Grose, John H


    This study investigated development of the ability to integrate glimpses of speech in modulated noise. Noise was modulated synchronously across frequency or asynchronously such that when noise below 1300 Hz was "off," noise above 1300 Hz was "on," and vice versa. Asynchronous masking was used to examine the ability of listeners to integrate speech glimpses separated across time and frequency. The study used the Word Intelligibility by Picture Identification (WIPI) test and included adults, older children (age 8-10 yr) and younger children (5-7 yr). Results showed poorer masking release for the children than the adults for synchronous modulation but not for asynchronous modulation. It is possible that children can integrate cues relatively well when all intervals provide at least partial speech information (asynchronous modulation) but less well when some intervals provide little or no information (synchronous modulation). Control conditions indicated that children appeared to derive less benefit than adults from speech cues below 1300 Hz. This frequency effect was supported by supplementary conditions where the noise was unmodulated and the speech was low- or high-pass filtered. Possible sources of the developmental frequency effect include differences in frequency weighting, effective speech bandwidth, and the signal-to-noise ratio in the unmodulated noise condition.

  10. Experience with synchronous and asynchronous digital control systems (United States)

    Regenie, V. A.; Chacon, C. V.; Lock, W. P.


    Flight control systems have undergone a revolution since the days of simple mechanical linkages; presently the most advanced systems are full-authority, full-time digital systems controlling unstable aircraft. With the use of advanced control systems, the aerodynamic design can incorporate features that allow greater performance and fuel savings, as can be seen on the new Airbus design and advanced tactical fighter concepts. These advanced aircraft will be and are relying on the flight control system to provide the stability and handling qualities required for safe flight and to allow the pilot to control the aircraft. Various design philosophies have been proposed and followed to investigate system architectures for these advanced flight control systems. One major area of discussion is whether a multichannel digital control system should be synchronous or asynchronous. This paper addressed the flight experience at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA's Ames Research Center with both synchronous and asynchronous digital flight control systems. Four different flight control systems are evaluated against criteria such as software reliability, cost increases, and schedule delays.

  11. Experience with synchronous and asynchronous digital control systems. [for flight (United States)

    Regenie, Victoria A.; Chacon, Claude V.; Lock, Wilton P.


    Flight control systems have undergone a revolution since the days of simple mechanical linkages; presently the most advanced systems are full-authority, full-time digital systems controlling unstable aircraft. With the use of advanced control systems, the aerodynamic design can incorporate features that allow greater performance and fuel savings, as can be seen on the new Airbus design and advanced tactical fighter concepts. These advanced aircraft will be and are relying on the flight control system to provide the stability and handling qualities required for safe flight and to allow the pilot to control the aircraft. Various design philosophies have been proposed and followed to investigate system architectures for these advanced flight control systems. One major area of discussion is whether a multichannel digital control system should be synchronous or asynchronous. This paper addressed the flight experience at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA's Ames Research Center with both synchronous and asynchronous digital flight control systems. Four different flight control systems are evaluated against criteria such as software reliability, cost increases, and schedule delays.

  12. Pharmacists' perception of synchronous versus asynchronous distance learning for continuing education programs. (United States)

    Buxton, Eric C


    To evaluate and compare pharmacists' satisfaction with the content and learning environment of a continuing education program series offered as either synchronous or asynchronous webinars. An 8-lecture series of online presentations on the topic of new drug therapies was offered to pharmacists in synchronous and asynchronous webinar formats. Participants completed a 50-question online survey at the end of the program series to evaluate their perceptions of the distance learning experience. Eighty-two participants completed the survey instrument (41 participants from the live webinar series and 41 participants from the asynchronous webinar series.) Responses indicated that while both groups were satisfied with the program content, the asynchronous group showed greater satisfaction with many aspects of the learning environment. The synchronous and asynchronous webinar participants responded positively regarding the quality of the programming and the method of delivery, but asynchronous participants rated their experience more positively overall.

  13. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

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    Mark P. Nelder


    Full Text Available Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus, Phormia regina (Meigen, and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., Cochliomyia macellaria, and Phormia regina in the later stages. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was the only synchronous blow fly on the three carcasses; other blow fly species exhibited only site-specific synchrony. Using dichotomous correlations and analyses of variance, we demonstrated that blow fly-community succession was asynchronous among three alligators; however, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that there was some degree of synchrony between the carcasses.

  14. An Evaluation of Parallel Synchronous and Conservative Asynchronous Logic-Level Simulations

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    Ausif Mahmood


    a circuit remain fixed during the entire simulation. We remove this limitation and, by extending the analyses to multi-input, multi-output circuits with an arbitrary number of input events, show that the conservative asynchronous simulation extracts more parallelism and executes faster than synchronous simulation in general. Our conclusions are supported by a comparison of the idealized execution times of synchronous and conservative asynchronous algorithms on ISCAS combinational and sequential benchmark circuits.

  15. Microwave Diplexer Purely Based on Direct Synchronous and Asynchronous Coupling

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    A. O. Nwajana


    Full Text Available A diplexer realized purely based on direct coupling is presented. No cross-coupling is involved in the design process. The microwave diplexer is achieved by coupling a dual-band bandpass filter onto two individual channel filters. This design eliminates the need for employing external junctions in diplexer design, as opposed to the conventional design approach which requires separate junctions for energy distribution. A 10-pole (10th order diplexer has been successfully designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The diplexer is composed of 2 poles from the dual-band filter, 4 poles from the Tx bandpass filter, and the remaining 4 poles from the Rx bandpass filter. The design was implemented using synchronously and asynchronously tuned microstrip square open-loop resonators. The simulation and measurement results show that an isolation of 50 dB is achieved between the diplexer Tx and Rx bands. The minimum insertion loss is 2.88 dB for the transmit band, and 2.95 dB for the receive band.

  16. [System of telesonography with synchronous teleconsultations and asynchronous telediagnoses (Togo)]. (United States)

    Adambounou, K; Farin, F; Boucher, A; Adjenou, K V; Gbeassor, M; N'dakena, K; Vincent, N; Arbeille, P


    Ultrasonography is an important nonirradiating diagnostic medical imaging procedure, frequently used, especially in urgent circumstances. This relatively inexpensive noninvasive examination makes it possible to diagnose disorders in various parts of the human body, by examining, for example, the abdomen and pelvis, the cardiovascular system, and the muscles and joints. Ultrasound is also an operator-dependent examination, in that the quality of the result depends on precision in the manipulation of the probe. Unfortunately, many small medical centers and isolated sites do not have an appropriate well-trained sonographer to perform initial evaluations, and an untrained operator cannot capture the appropriate echographic views required for a safe diagnosis of current patients, even with realtime vocal guidance (personal data). The lack of experienced physicians or qualified technicians means that diagnostic ultrasound is not always accessible to patients for rapid examination worldwide, especially in Africa, Amazonia or near the North or South Poles. This situation has led to the development of a new concept of telemedicine: telesonography, with a remote ultrasound diagnosis either in real time (synchronous) or delayed (asynchronous; store-and-forward). These systems of real-time telesonography and data transmission require expensive and complex technology with sophisticated equipment not available in many developing countries. The purpose of this study is to design a low-cost real-time system of telesonography for teleconsultations with experts and a delayed telediagnostic mode between isolated peripheral hospitals and a University Hospital center (UHC). An IP camera and an internet video server were installed in a geographically isolated site equipped with an ultrasound machine and an operator with basic training in its use. Synchronous teleconsultation (second-opinion diagnosis) is possible via internet with a UHC expert. If no ultrasound operator is available at

  17. The Effects of Self-Generated Synchronous and Asynchronous Visual Speech Feedback on Overt Stuttering Frequency (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory J.; Hough, Monica Strauss; Blanchet, Paul; Ivy, Lennette J.; Waddell, Dwight


    Purpose: Relatively recent research documents that visual choral speech, which represents an externally generated form of synchronous visual speech feedback, significantly enhanced fluency in those who stutter. As a consequence, it was hypothesized that self-generated synchronous and asynchronous visual speech feedback would likewise enhance…

  18. Finite-time synchronization of uncertain coupled switched neural networks under asynchronous switching. (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Cao, Jinde; Li, Qingbo; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Alsaadi, Fuad E


    This paper deals with the finite-time synchronization problem for a class of uncertain coupled switched neural networks under asynchronous switching. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov-like functionals and using the average dwell time technique, some sufficient criteria are derived to guarantee the finite-time synchronization of considered uncertain coupled switched neural networks. Meanwhile, the asynchronous switching feedback controller is designed to finite-time synchronize the concerned networks. Finally, two numerical examples are introduced to show the validity of the main results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing face-to-face, synchronous, and asynchronous learning: postgraduate dental resident preferences. (United States)

    Kunin, Marc; Julliard, Kell N; Rodriguez, Tobias E


    The Department of Dental Medicine of Lutheran Medical Center has developed an asynchronous online curriculum consisting of prerecorded PowerPoint presentations with audio explanations. The focus of this study was to evaluate if the new asynchronous format satisfied the educational needs of the residents compared to traditional lecture (face-to-face) and synchronous (distance learning) formats. Lectures were delivered to 219 dental residents employing face-to-face and synchronous formats, as well as the new asynchronous format; 169 (77 percent) participated in the study. Outcomes were assessed with pretests, posttests, and individual lecture surveys. Results found the residents preferred face-to-face and asynchronous formats to the synchronous format in terms of effectiveness and clarity of presentations. This preference was directly related to the residents' perception of how well the technology worked in each format. The residents also rated the quality of student-instructor and student-student interactions in the synchronous and asynchronous formats significantly higher after taking the lecture series than they did before taking it. However, they rated the face-to-face format as significantly more conducive to student-instructor and student-student interaction. While the study found technology had a major impact on the efficacy of this curricular model, the results suggest that the asynchronous format can be an effective way to teach a postgraduate course.

  20. Asynchronous video streaming vs. synchronous videoconferencing for teaching a pharmacogenetic pharmacotherapy course. (United States)

    Moridani, Majid


    To compare students' performance and course evaluations for a pharmacogenetic pharmacotherapy course taught by synchronous videoconferencing method via the Internet and for the same course taught via asynchronous video streaming via the Internet. In spring 2005, a pharmacogenetic therapy course was taught to 73 students located on Amarillo, Lubbock, and Dallas campuses using synchronous videoconferencing, and in spring 2006, to 78 students located on the same 3 campuses using asynchronous video streaming. A course evaluation was administered to each group at the end of the courses. Students in the asynchronous setting had final course grades of 89% +/- 7% compared to the mean final course grade of 87% +/- 7% in the synchronous group (p = 0.05). Regardless of which technology was used, average course grades did not differ significantly among the 3 campus sites. Significantly more of the students in the asynchronous setting agreed (57%) with the statement that they could read the lecture notes and absorb the content on their own without attending the class than students in the synchronous class (23%; chi-square test; p videos over delivery of content using the synchronous or asynchronous method alone.

  1. Beyond an Institutionalized Learning Environment: Fostering Interactions and Learning Using Synchronous and Asynchronous Messaging Systems

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    Nikki Philline C. DE LA ROSA


    Full Text Available Beyond an Institutionalized Learning Environment: Fostering Interactions and Learning Using Synchronous and Asynchronous Messaging Systems Ma. Luisa D. MARIANO Nikki Philline C. DE LA ROSA University of the Philippines Open University-PHILIPPINE ABSTRACT This paper seeks to examine the use of synchronous and asynchronous messaging systems with distance education students and the implications for student interaction and learning in the institutionalized Integrated Virtual Learning Environment (IVLE of the University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU. It will present, as a case in point, the learning experiences of UPOU students in obtaining tutorial support and using the IVLE and alternative synchronous and asynchronous messaging systems to maximize and facilitate online activities involving the Faculty-in-Charge, Tutor, UPOU support staff and the students.

  2. Asynchronous and synchronous distance learning in stem education, using the example of the online master program wind energy systems (United States)

    Gleim, Daniela; Kuhl, Detlef


    This paper describes the 100% online teaching concepts of the degree program Online M.Sc. Wind Energy Systems. These are the synchronous teaching concept, the asynchronous learning concept and a combination of synchronous and asynchronous learning concept. The challenges that students and teachers have to face in the implementation of these teaching concepts are described here.

  3. Synchronous and asynchronous modes of synaptic transmission utilize different calcium sources. (United States)

    Wen, Hua; Hubbard, Jeffrey M; Rakela, Benjamin; Linhoff, Michael W; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul


    Asynchronous transmission plays a prominent role at certain synapses but lacks the mechanistic insights of its synchronous counterpart. The current view posits that triggering of asynchronous release during repetitive stimulation involves expansion of the same calcium domains underlying synchronous transmission. In this study, live imaging and paired patch clamp recording at the zebrafish neuromuscular synapse reveal contributions by spatially distinct calcium sources. Synchronous release is tied to calcium entry into synaptic boutons via P/Q type calcium channels, whereas asynchronous release is boosted by a propagating intracellular calcium source initiated at off-synaptic locations in the axon and axonal branch points. This secondary calcium source fully accounts for the persistence following termination of the stimulus and sensitivity to slow calcium buffers reported for asynchronous release. The neuromuscular junction and CNS neurons share these features, raising the possibility that secondary calcium sources are common among synapses with prominent asynchronous release. DOI:

  4. Synchronous and asynchronous detection of ultra-law light levels using CMOS-compatible semiconductor technologies


    Lotto, Christian; Seitz, Peter; Charbon, Edoardo; Enz, Christian; Farine, Pierre-André


    This work presents significant improvements of noise performance in synchronous CMOS image sensors and in asynchronous energy-sensitive singlephoton X-ray imaging systems. A detailed analysis of synchronous CMOS low-noise image sensors using conventional architectures reveals room for potential noise performance improvements, namely noise in switched-capacitor column-parallel amplifiers as well as imperfections in the low-pass filtering properties provided by such switched-capacitor amplifier...

  5. A Methodology for the Design and Verification of Globally Asynchronous/Locally Synchronous Architectures (United States)

    Miller, Steven P.; Whalen, Mike W.; O'Brien, Dan; Heimdahl, Mats P.; Joshi, Anjali


    Recent advanced in model-checking have made it practical to formally verify the correctness of many complex synchronous systems (i.e., systems driven by a single clock). However, many computer systems are implemented by asynchronously composing several synchronous components, where each component has its own clock and these clocks are not synchronized. Formal verification of such Globally Asynchronous/Locally Synchronous (GA/LS) architectures is a much more difficult task. In this report, we describe a methodology for developing and reasoning about such systems. This approach allows a developer to start from an ideal system specification and refine it along two axes. Along one axis, the system can be refined one component at a time towards an implementation. Along the other axis, the behavior of the system can be relaxed to produce a more cost effective but still acceptable solution. We illustrate this process by applying it to the synchronization logic of a Dual Fight Guidance System, evolving the system from an ideal case in which the components do not fail and communicate synchronously to one in which the components can fail and communicate asynchronously. For each step, we show how the system requirements have to change if the system is to be implemented and prove that each implementation meets the revised system requirements through modelchecking.

  6. A Study of Asynchronous and Synchronous Discussion on Cognitive Maps in a Distributed Learning Environment. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Madhumita

    This paper reports on a comparative study of the use of asynchronous (bulletin board) and synchronous (chat) discussion on three learning units based on the cognitive maps developed by the learners. Cognitive maps have been found to be an effective tool for learners for discussion in a distributed learning environment. Cognitive maps provided…

  7. An efficient algorithm for computing attractors of synchronous and asynchronous Boolean networks. (United States)

    Zheng, Desheng; Yang, Guowu; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhicai; Liu, Feng; He, Lei


    Biological networks, such as genetic regulatory networks, often contain positive and negative feedback loops that settle down to dynamically stable patterns. Identifying these patterns, the so-called attractors, can provide important insights for biologists to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying many coordinated cellular processes such as cellular division, differentiation, and homeostasis. Both synchronous and asynchronous Boolean networks have been used to simulate genetic regulatory networks and identify their attractors. The common methods of computing attractors are that start with a randomly selected initial state and finish with exhaustive search of the state space of a network. However, the time complexity of these methods grows exponentially with respect to the number and length of attractors. Here, we build two algorithms to achieve the computation of attractors in synchronous and asynchronous Boolean networks. For the synchronous scenario, combing with iterative methods and reduced order binary decision diagrams (ROBDD), we propose an improved algorithm to compute attractors. For another algorithm, the attractors of synchronous Boolean networks are utilized in asynchronous Boolean translation functions to derive attractors of asynchronous scenario. The proposed algorithms are implemented in a procedure called geneFAtt. Compared to existing tools such as genYsis, geneFAtt is significantly [Formula: see text] faster in computing attractors for empirical experimental systems. The software package is available at

  8. Synchronous and Asynchronous E-Language Learning: A Case Study of Virtual University of Pakistan (United States)

    Perveen, Ayesha


    This case study evaluated the impact of synchronous and asynchronous E-Language Learning activities (ELL-ivities) in an E-Language Learning Environment (ELLE) at Virtual University of Pakistan. The purpose of the study was to assess e-language learning analytics based on the constructivist approach of collaborative construction of knowledge. The…

  9. Characterization and synthesis of a 32-bit asynchronous microprocessor in synchronous reconfigurable devices

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    Adrian Pedroza de la Crúz


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation, and experimental results of 32-bit asynchronous microprocessor developed in a synchronous reconfigurable device (FPGA, taking advantage of a hard macro. It has support for floating point operations, such as addition, subtraction, and multiplication, and is based on the IEEE 754-2008 standard with 32-bit simple precision. This work describes the different blocks of the microprocessors as delay modules, needed to implement a Self-Timed (ST protocol in a synchronous system, and the operational analysis of the asynchronous central unit, according to the developed occupations and speeds. The ST control is based on a micropipeline used as a centralized generator of activation signals that permit the performance of the operations in the microprocessor without the need of a global clock. This work compares the asynchronous microprocessor with a synchronous version. The parameters evaluated are power consumption, area, and speed. Both circuits were designed and implemented in an FPGA Virtex 5. The performance obtained was 4 MIPS for the asynchronous microprocessor against 1.6 MIPS for the synchronous.

  10. Leadership Styles in Synchronous and Asynchronous Virtual Learning Environments (United States)

    Ruggieri, Stefano; Boca, Stefano; Garro, Maria


    A comparison of the effects of transactional and transformational leadership in synchronous and a synchronous online teamwork was conducted. In the study, groups of four participants interacted in online text chat and online text forum in problem solving tasks. The groups were lead by a confederate who acted as a transactional or a…

  11. Differences in Electronic Exchanges in Synchronous and Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication: The Effect of Culture as a Mediating Variable (United States)

    Angeli, Charoula; Schwartz, Neil H.


    Two hundred and eighty undergraduates from universities in two countries were asked to read didactic material, and then think and write about potential solutions to an ill-defined problem. The writing was conducted within a synchronous or asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) environment. Asynchronous CMC took the form of email…

  12. The Interplay of Content and Community in Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication: Virtual Communication in a Graduate Seminar

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    Richard A. Schwier


    Full Text Available A group of graduate students and an instructor at the University of Saskatchewan experimented with the use of synchronous communication (chat and asynchronous communication (bulletin board in a theory course in Educational Communications and Technology for an eight-month period. Synchronous communication contributed dramatically to the continuity and convenience of the class, and promoted a strong sense of community. At the same time, it was viewed as less effective than asynchronous communication for dealing with content and issues deeply, and it introduced a number of pedagogical and intellectual limitations. We concluded that synchronous and asynchronous strategies were suitable for different types of learning, and what we experienced was a balancing act between content and community in our group. A combination of synchronous and asynchronous experiences seems to be necessary to promote the kind of engagement and depth required in a graduate seminar.

  13. Synchronization, retiming and OTDM of an asynchronous 10 Gigabit Ethernet NRZ packet using a time lens for Terabit Ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen


    An asynchronous 10G Ethernet packet is synchronized and retimed to a master clock using a time lens. The NRZ packet is converted into an RZ packet and multiplexed with a serial 1.28 Tb/s signal.......An asynchronous 10G Ethernet packet is synchronized and retimed to a master clock using a time lens. The NRZ packet is converted into an RZ packet and multiplexed with a serial 1.28 Tb/s signal....

  14. Differential effects of synchronous and asynchronous multifinger coactivation on human tactile performance

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    Dinse Hubert R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated execution of a tactile task enhances task performance. In the present study we sought to improve tactile performance with unattended activation-based learning processes (i.e., focused stimulation of dermal receptors evoking neural coactivation (CA. Previous studies show that the application of CA to a single finger reduced the stationary two-point discrimination threshold and significantly increased tactile acuity. These changes were accompanied by an expansion of the cortical finger representation in primary somatosensory cortex (SI. Here we investigated the effect of different types of multifinger CA on the tactile performance of each finger of the right hand. Results Synchronous and asynchronous CA was applied to all fingers of a subject's dominant hand. We evaluated changes in absolute touch thresholds, static two-point discrimination thresholds, and mislocalization of tactile stimuli to the fingertips. After synchronous CA, tactile acuity improved (i.e., discrimination thresholds decreased and the frequency of mislocalization of tactile stimuli changed from directly neighboring fingers to more distant fingers. On the other hand, asynchronous CA did not significant improve tactile acuity. In fact, there was evidence of impaired tactile acuity. Multifinger CA with synchronous or asynchronous stimulation did not significantly alter absolute touch thresholds. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that it is possible to extend tactile CA to all fingers of a hand. The observed changes in mislocalization of tactile stimuli after synchronous CA indicate changes in the topography of the cortical hand representation. Although single-finger CA has been shown to improve tactile acuity, asynchronous CA of all fingers of the hand had the opposite effect, suggesting the need for synchrony in multifinger CA for improving tactile acuity.

  15. Synchronous and Asynchronous E-Language Learning: A Case Study of Virtual University of Pakistan

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    Ayesha Perveen


    Full Text Available This case study evaluated the impact of synchronous and asynchronous E-Language Learning activities (ELL-tivities in an E-Language Learning Environment (ELLE at Virtual University of Pakistan. The purpose of the study was to assess e-language learning analytics based on the constructivist approach of collaborative construction of knowledge. The courses selected for random sampling were English Comprehension (Eng101, Business & Technical English (Eng201 and Business Communication (Eng301. Three methods were employed to collect the data: observation of the communication and performance on given channels, students’ opinions on Graded Discussion Board (GDB, and a survey questionnaire. Out of a total population of 9919, 1025 responses were received for the survey questionnaire. The findings revealed that asynchronous e-language learning was quite beneficial for second language (L2 learners, but with some limitations which could be scaffolded by synchronous sessions. Based on the findings, the researcher suggested a blend of both synchronous and asynchronous paradigms to create an ideal environment for e-language learning in Pakistan.

  16. Asynchronous slip-ring motor synchronized with permanent magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinka Tadeusz


    Full Text Available The electric LSPMSM motor presented in the paper differs from standard induction motor by rotor design. The insulated start-up winding is located in slots along the rotor circumference. The winding ends are connected to the slip-rings. The rotor core contains permanent magnets. The electromechanical characteristics for synchronous operation were calculated, as were the start-up characteristics for operation with a short-circuited rotor winding. Two model motors were used for the calculations, the V-shaped Permanent Magnet (VPM – Fig. 3, and the Linear Permanent Magnet (IPM – Fig. 4, both rated at 14.5 kW. The advantages of the investigated motor are demonstrated in the conclusions.

  17. Effects of synchronous versus asynchronous mode of propulsion on wheelchair basketball sprinting. (United States)

    Faupin, Arnaud; Borel, Benoit; Meyer, Christophe; Gorce, Philippe; Watelain, Eric


    This study aimed to first investigate synchronous (SYN) versus asynchronous (ASY) mode of propulsion and, second, investigate the wheel camber effects on sprinting performance as well as temporal parameters. Seven wheelchair basketball players performed four maximal eight-second sprints on a wheelchair ergometer. They repeated the test according to two modes of propulsion (SYN and ASY) and two wheel cambers (9° and 15°). The mean maximal velocity and push power output was greater in the synchronous mode compared to the asynchronous mode for both camber angles. However, the fluctuation in the velocity profile is inferior for ASY versus SYN mode for both camber angles. Greater push time/cycle time (Pt/Ct) and arm frequency (AF) for synchronous mode versus asynchronous mode and inversely, lesser Ct and rest time (Rt) values for the synchronous mode, for which greater velocity were observed. SYN mode leads to better performance than ASY mode in terms of maximal propulsion velocity. However, ASY propulsion allows greater continuity of the hand-rim force application, reducing fluctuations in the velocity profile. The camber angle had no effect on ASY and SYN mean maximal velocity and push power output. The study of wheelchair propulsion strategies is important for better understanding physiological and biomechanical impacts of wheelchair propulsion for individuals with disabilities. From a kinematical point of view, this study highlights synchronous mode of propulsion to be more efficient, with regards to mean maximal velocity reaching during maximal sprinting exercises. Even if this study focuses on well-trained wheelchair athletes, results from this study could complement the knowledge on the physiological and biomechanical adaptations to wheelchair propulsion and therefore, might be interesting for wheelchair modifications for purposes of rehabilitation.

  18. Effects of Synchronous and Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) Oral Conversations on English Language Learners' Discourse Functions (United States)

    AbuSeileek, Ali Farhan; Qatawneh, Khaleel


    This study aimed to explore the effects of synchronous and asynchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) oral discussions on question types and strategies used by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. The participants were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions/groups; the first group used synchronous CMC, while the second…

  19. Distributed embedded controller development with petri nets application to globally-asynchronous locally-synchronous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Moutinho, Filipe de Carvalho


    This book describes a model-based development approach for globally-asynchronous locally-synchronous distributed embedded controllers.  This approach uses Petri nets as modeling formalism to create platform and network independent models supporting the use of design automation tools.  To support this development approach, the Petri nets class in use is extended with time-domains and asynchronous-channels. The authors’ approach uses models not only providing a better understanding of the distributed controller and improving the communication among the stakeholders, but also to be ready to support the entire lifecycle, including the simulation, the verification (using model-checking tools), the implementation (relying on automatic code generators), and the deployment of the distributed controller into specific platforms. Uses a graphical and intuitive modeling formalism supported by design automation tools; Enables verification, ensuring that the distributed controller was correctly specified; Provides flex...

  20. Synchronization of Hierarchical Time-Varying Neural Networks Based on Asynchronous and Intermittent Sampled-Data Control. (United States)

    Xiong, Wenjun; Patel, Ragini; Cao, Jinde; Zheng, Wei Xing

    In this brief, our purpose is to apply asynchronous and intermittent sampled-data control methods to achieve the synchronization of hierarchical time-varying neural networks. The asynchronous and intermittent sampled-data controllers are proposed for two reasons: 1) the controllers may not transmit the control information simultaneously and 2) the controllers cannot always exist at any time . The synchronization is then discussed for a kind of hierarchical time-varying neural networks based on the asynchronous and intermittent sampled-data controllers. Finally, the simulation results are given to illustrate the usefulness of the developed criteria.In this brief, our purpose is to apply asynchronous and intermittent sampled-data control methods to achieve the synchronization of hierarchical time-varying neural networks. The asynchronous and intermittent sampled-data controllers are proposed for two reasons: 1) the controllers may not transmit the control information simultaneously and 2) the controllers cannot always exist at any time . The synchronization is then discussed for a kind of hierarchical time-varying neural networks based on the asynchronous and intermittent sampled-data controllers. Finally, the simulation results are given to illustrate the usefulness of the developed criteria.

  1. Exploring effectiveness of team communication: Balancing synchronous and asynchronous communication in design teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Otter, Ad; Emmitt, Stephen


    Effective teams use a balance of synchronous and asynchronous communication. Team communication is dependent on the communication acts of team members and the ability of managers to facilitate, stimulate and motivate them. Team members from organizations using different information systems tend...... to have different understanding, opinions, and rates of adoption and skills levels regarding specific IT tools. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effective use of tools for communication in design teams and the strategies for the use of specific tools....

  2. Survey is based on Synchronized and Asynchronized Approach of MAC Protocols in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Chaurasia


    Full Text Available A wireless network is made of spatially distributed autonomous devices. These devices are called sensors. The sensor is used for monitoring physical or environmental conditions. The potential application of wireless sensor network is environmental monitoring, healthcare applications and tactical systems. In this paper focus is on the MAC protocol for WSN. Wireless sensor network is deployed for wide range to send and receive data with the help of medium. Here literature survey of MAC protocol based on the synchronized and asynchronized approach is described which is used to meet different objective like access a medium, statistical channel allocation, spectrum utilization


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the influences of a training programme’s instructional delivery method (synchronous and asynchronous on Greek in-service physical educators’ cognitive understanding on student assessment. Forty nine participants were randomly divided into synchronous, asynchronous, and control group. The experimental groups participated in the same training programme with different online instructional method. The control group received no intervention. A 17-item questionnaire was completed before and after programme implementation by the entire sample. A two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures on the last factor was used for data analysis. The methods x measures interaction effect were significant. Both experimental groups, unlike the control, presented a similar significant increase in their understanding. Conclusively, synchronous and asynchronous instructional approaches of a training programme enhance equally Greek physical educators’ cognitive understanding.

  4. Merging the Forces of Asynchronous Tutoring and Synchronous Conferencing: A Qualitative Study of Arab ESL Academic Writers Using E-Tutoring (United States)

    Alqadoumi, Omar Mohamed


    Previous studies in the field of e-tutoring dealt either with asynchronous tutoring or synchronous conferencing as modes for providing e-tutoring services to English learners. This qualitative research study reports the experiences of Arab ESL tutees with both asynchronous tutoring and synchronous conferencing. It also reports the experiences of…

  5. Asynchronous and synchronous teleconsultation for diabetes care: a systematic literature review. (United States)

    Verhoeven, Fenne; Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin; Nijland, Nicol; Eysenbach, Gunther; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette


    A systematic literature review, covering publications from 1994 to 2009, was carried out to determine the effects of teleconsultation regarding clinical, behavioral, and care coordination outcomes of diabetes care compared to usual care. Two types of teleconsultation were distinguished: (1) asynchronous teleconsultation for monitoring and delivering feedback via email and cell phone, automated messaging systems, or other equipment without face-to-face contact; and (2) synchronous teleconsultation that involves real-time, face-to-face contact (image and voice) via videoconferencing equipment (television, digital camera, webcam, videophone, etc.) to connect caregivers and one or more patients simultaneously, e.g., for the purpose of education. Electronic databases were searched for relevant publications about asynchronous and synchronous tele-consultation [Medline, Picarta, Psychinfo, ScienceDirect, Telemedicine Information Exchange, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science, Google Scholar]. Reference lists of identified publications were hand searched. The contribution to diabetes care was examined for clinical outcomes [e.g., hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), dietary values, blood pressure, quality of life], for behavioral outcomes (patient-caregiver interaction, self-care), and for care coordination outcomes (usability of technology, cost-effectiveness, transparency of guidelines, equity of access to care). Randomized controlled trials with HbA1c as an outcome were pooled using standard meta-analytical methods. Of 2060 publications identified, 90 met inclusion criteria for electronic communication between (groups of) caregivers and patients with type 1 and 2 or gestational diabetes. Studies that evaluated teleconsultation not particularly aimed at diabetes were excluded, as were those that described interventions aimed solely at clinical improvements (e.g., HbA1c or lipid profiles). In 63 of 90 interventions, the interaction had an asynchronous teleconsultation

  6. The Effectiveness of Synchronous and Asynchronous Written Corrective Feedback on Grammatical Accuracy in a Computer-Mediated Environment (United States)

    Shintani, Natsuko; Aubrey, Scott


    This study extends research on written corrective feedback (CF) by investigating how timing of CF affects grammar acquisition. Specifically, it examined the relative effects of synchronous and asynchronous CF on the accurate use of the hypothetical conditional structure. Participants were 68 intermediate-level students of English at a university…

  7. The flipped classroom: a modality for mixed asynchronous and synchronous learning in a residency program. (United States)

    Young, Timothy P; Bailey, Caleb J; Guptill, Mindi; Thorp, Andrea W; Thomas, Tamara L


    A "flipped classroom" educational model exchanges the traditional format of a classroom lecture and homework problem set. We piloted two flipped classroom sessions in our emergency medicine (EM) residency didactic schedule. We aimed to learn about resident and faculty impressions of the sessions, in order to develop them as a regular component of our residency curriculum. We evaluated residents' impression of the asynchronous video component and synchronous classroom component using four Likert items. We used open-ended questions to inquire about resident and faculty impressions of the advantages and disadvantages of the format. For the Likert items evaluating the video lectures, 33/35 residents (94%, 95% CI 80%-99%) responded that the video lecture added to their knowledge about the topic, and 33/35 residents felt that watching the video was a valuable use of their time. For items evaluating the flipped classroom format, 36/38 residents (95%, 95% CI 82%-99%) preferred the format to a traditional lecture on the topic, and 38/38 residents (100%, 95% CI 89%-100%) felt that the small group session was effective in helping them learn about the topic. Most residents preferred to see the format monthly in our curriculum and chose an ideal group size of 5.5 (first session) and 7 (second session). Residents cited the interactivity of the sessions and access to experts as advantages of the format. Faculty felt the ability to assess residents' understanding of concepts and provide feedback were advantages. Our flipped classroom model was positively received by EM residents. Residents preferred a small group size and favored frequent use of the format in our curriculum. The flipped classroom represents one modality that programs may use to incorporate a mixture of asynchronous and interactive synchronous learning and provide additional opportunities to evaluate residents.

  8. The Flipped Classroom: A Modality for Mixed Asynchronous and Synchronous Learning in a Residency Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Young


    Full Text Available Introduction: A “flipped classroom” educational model exchanges the traditional format of a classroom lecture and homework problem set. We piloted two flipped classroom sessions in our emergency medicine (EM residency didactic schedule. We aimed to learn about resident and faculty impressions of the sessions, in order to develop them as a regular component of our residency curriculum. Methods: We evaluated residents’ impression of the asynchronous video component and synchronous classroom component using four Likert items. We used open-ended questions to inquire about resident and faculty impressions of the advantages and disadvantages of the format. Results: For the Likert items evaluating the video lectures, 33/35 residents (94%, 95% CI 80%-99% responded that the video lecture added to their knowledge about the topic, and 33/35 residents felt that watching the video was a valuable use of their time. For items evaluating the flipped classroom format, 36/38 residents (95%, 95% CI 82%-99% preferred the format to a traditional lecture on the topic, and 38/38 residents (100%, 95% CI 89%-100% felt that the small group session was effective in helping them learn about the topic. Most residents preferred to see the format monthly in our curriculum and chose an ideal group size of 5.5 (first session and 7 (second session. Residents cited the interactivity of the sessions and access to experts as advantages of the format. Faculty felt the ability to assess residents’ understanding of concepts and provide feedback were advantages. Conclusion: Our flipped classroom model was positively received by EM residents. Residents preferred a small group size and favored frequent use of the format in our curriculum. The flipped classroom represents one modality that programs may use to incorporate a mixture of asynchronous and interactive synchronous learning and provide additional opportunities to evaluate residents. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:-0.

  9. Computationally Efficient Blind Code Synchronization for Asynchronous DS-CDMA Systems with Adaptive Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chang Hu


    Full Text Available A novel space-time adaptive near-far robust code-synchronization array detector for asynchronous DS-CDMA systems is developed in this paper. There are the same basic requirements that are needed by the conventional matched filter of an asynchronous DS-CDMA system. For the real-time applicability, a computationally efficient architecture of the proposed detector is developed that is based on the concept of the multistage Wiener filter (MWF of Goldstein and Reed. This multistage technique results in a self-synchronizing detection criterion that requires no inversion or eigendecomposition of a covariance matrix. As a consequence, this detector achieves a complexity that is only a linear function of the size of antenna array (J, the rank of the MWF (M, the system processing gain (N, and the number of samples in a chip interval (S, that is, 𝒪(JMNS. The complexity of the equivalent detector based on the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE or the subspace-based eigenstructure analysis is a function of 𝒪((JNS3. Moreover, this multistage scheme provides a rapid adaptive convergence under limited observation-data support. Simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance and convergence behavior of the proposed detector with the size of the J-element antenna array, the amount of the L-sample support, and the rank of the M-stage MWF. The performance advantage of the proposed detector over other DS-CDMA detectors is investigated as well.

  10. Blind Synchronization in Asynchronous UWB Networks Based on the Transmit-Reference Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leus Geert


    Full Text Available Ultra-wideband (UWB wireless communication systems are based on the transmission of extremely narrow pulses, with a duration inferior to a nanosecond. The application of transmit reference (TR to UWB systems allows to side-step channel estimation at the receiver, with a tradeoff of the effective transmission bandwidth, which is reduced by the usage of a reference pulse. Similar to CDMA systems, different users can share the same available bandwidth by means of different spreading codes. This allows the receiver to separate users, and to recover the timing information of the transmitted data packets. The nature of UWB transmissions—short, burst-like packets—requires a fast synchronization algorithm, that can accommodate several asynchronous users. Exploiting the fact that a shift in time corresponds to a phase rotation in the frequency domain, a blind and computationally effcient synchronization algorithm that takes advantage of the shift invariance structure in the frequency domain is proposed in this paper. Integer and fractional delay estimations are considered, along with a subsequent symbol estimation step. This results in a collision-avoiding multiuser algorithm, readily applicable to a fast acquisition procedure in a UWB ad hoc network.

  11. Determining sociability, social space, and social presence in (a)synchronous collaborative groups. (United States)

    Kreijns, Karel; Kirschner, Paul A; Jochems, Wim; Van Buuren, Hans


    The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group dynamics. Though now known to be important, this aspect is often ignored, denied or forgotten by educators and researchers who tend to concentrate on cognitive processes and on-task contexts. This "one-sided" educational focus largely determines the set of requirements in the design of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments resulting in functional CSCL environments. In contrast, our research is aimed at the design and implementation of sociable CSCL environments which may increase the likelihood that a sound social space will emerge. We use a theoretical framework that is based upon an ecological approach to social interaction, centering on the concept of social affordances, the concept of the sociability of CSCL environments, and social presence theory. The hypothesis is that the higher the sociability, the more likely that social interaction will take place or will increase, and the more likely that this will result in an emerging sound social space. In the present research, the variables of interest are sociability, social space, and social presence. This study deals with the construction and validation of three instruments to determine sociability, social space, and social presence in (a)synchronous collaborating groups. The findings suggest that the instruments have potential to be useful as measures for the respective variables. However, it must be realized that these measures are "first steps."

  12. Synchronization, retiming and time-division multiplexing of an asynchronous 10 gigabit NRZ Ethernet packet to Terabit Ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen


    An asynchronous 10 Gb/s Ethernet packet with maximum packet size of 1518 bytes is synchronized and retimed to a master clock with 200 kHz frequency offset using a time lens. The NRZ packet is simultaneously converted into an RZ packet, then further pulse compressed to a FWHM of 400 fs and finally....../s of the Ethernet packet is achieved. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  13. The Nature of Elementary Science Teachers' Experiences with Synchronous Online, Asynchronous Online and Face-to-Face Coaching (United States)

    Gilbert, Amanda M.

    This study investigated the nature of instructional coaching interactions in three formats: online synchronous, online asynchronous, and face-to-face. Knight's (2007) Seven Partnership Principles of Instructional Coaching were used as a framework to analyze and compare the coaching interactions between coach and teacher to determine whether online coaching may be a viable option to provide support for the teachers unprepared to teach the new science standards. Some previous research has suggested that online communication can result in deeper personal interactions (Walther, 1996), while other studies suggest that interactions are more natural and easier in formats that are more similar to face-to-face interactions (Kock, 2005). The findings of this study support the media naturalness theory (Kock, 2005) and suggest that collaboration may be especially difficult in asynchronous online communication. Although differences were noted in the actual interactions, teacher perception remained fairly consistently positive across the three formats. Research beyond this exploratory study is needed to make findings generalizable.

  14. A Performance Study on Synchronous and Asynchronous Update Rules for A Plug-In Direct Particle Swarm Repetitive Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufnalski Bartlomiej


    Full Text Available In this paper two different update schemes for the recently developed plug-in direct particle swarm repetitive controller (PDPSRC are investigated and compared. The proposed approach employs the particle swarm optimizer (PSO to solve in on-line mode a dynamic optimization problem (DOP related to the control task in the constant-amplitude constant-frequency voltage-source inverter (CACF VSI with an LC output filter. The effectiveness of synchronous and asynchronous update rules, both commonly used in static optimization problems (SOPs, is assessed and compared in the case of PDPSRC. The performance of the controller, when synthesized using each of the update schemes, is studied numerically.

  15. Determining sociability, social space, and social presence in (A)synchronous collaborative groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreijns, K.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.; Buuren, H. van


    The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group

  16. Determining sociability, social space, and social presence in (A)synchronous collaborative groups


    Kreijns, K.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.; Buuren, H. van


    The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group dynamics. Though now known to be important, this aspect is often ignored, denied or forgotten by educators and researchers who tend to concentrate on cognitive processes and on-task contexts. This...

  17. Coexisting synchronous and asynchronous states in locally coupled array of oscillators by partial self-feedback control (United States)

    Bera, Bidesh K.; Ghosh, Dibakar; Parmananda, Punit; Osipov, G. V.; Dana, Syamal K.


    We report the emergence of coexisting synchronous and asynchronous subpopulations of oscillators in one dimensional arrays of identical oscillators by applying a self-feedback control. When a self-feedback is applied to a subpopulation of the array, similar to chimera states, it splits into two/more sub-subpopulations coexisting in coherent and incoherent states for a range of self-feedback strength. By tuning the coupling between the nearest neighbors and the amount of self-feedback in the perturbed subpopulation, the size of the coherent and the incoherent sub-subpopulations in the array can be controlled, although the exact size of them is unpredictable. We present numerical evidence using the Landau-Stuart system and the Kuramoto-Sakaguchi phase model.

  18. Dual applicator thermal ablation at 2.45 GHz: a numerical comparison and experiments on synchronous versus asynchronous and switched-mode feeding. (United States)

    Biffi Gentili, Guido; Ignesti, Cosimo


    This paper compares the results obtained with numerical simulations and ex vivo experiments involving a dual applicator microwave thermal ablation system operating at a 2.45 GHz frequency, both in synchronous and asynchronous modes. Our purpose was to demonstrate that at this frequency an asynchronous or switched-mode system performs essentially as well as the synchronous one, in spite of the prevailing belief that coherence would assure better thermal (TH) synergy. Numerical analysis: The calculations of temperature fields were based on the Pennes bioheat equation, taking into account the effects of blood perfusion by means of a full-wave 3D simulator that allows numerical electromagnetic (EM) and TH analyses. Experiments were done using a 100 W microwave (MW) power generator and a fast switched-mode sequential 'active' power splitter. By adding a further passive power splitter we arranged a test bed for an accurate experimental comparison of synchronous versus switched-mode TH ablations. The experimental ablation zones produced by a dual applicator array on ex vivo swine tissue corresponded well with the simulated ones, confirming that the simplifications assumed in the full-wave analysis were compatible with the aim of our work. Numerical simulations and experiments show that at a 2.45 GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) frequency, synchronous, asynchronous and switched-mode multi-probe systems are substantially equivalent in terms of ablative performance. Moreover, the switched-mode solution offers simpler operation along with lesser sensitivity to the placement of applicators in the tissue.

  19. Applications of New Surrogate Global Optimization Algorithms including Efficient Synchronous and Asynchronous Parallelism for Calibration of Expensive Nonlinear Geophysical Simulation Models. (United States)

    Shoemaker, C. A.; Pang, M.; Akhtar, T.; Bindel, D.


    New parallel surrogate global optimization algorithms are developed and applied to objective functions that are expensive simulations (possibly with multiple local minima). The algorithms can be applied to most geophysical simulations, including those with nonlinear partial differential equations. The optimization does not require simulations be parallelized. Asynchronous (and synchronous) parallel execution is available in the optimization toolbox "pySOT". The parallel algorithms are modified from serial to eliminate fine grained parallelism. The optimization is computed with open source software pySOT, a Surrogate Global Optimization Toolbox that allows user to pick the type of surrogate (or ensembles), the search procedure on surrogate, and the type of parallelism (synchronous or asynchronous). pySOT also allows the user to develop new algorithms by modifying parts of the code. In the applications here, the objective function takes up to 30 minutes for one simulation, and serial optimization can take over 200 hours. Results from Yellowstone (NSF) and NCSS (Singapore) supercomputers are given for groundwater contaminant hydrology simulations with applications to model parameter estimation and decontamination management. All results are compared with alternatives. The first results are for optimization of pumping at many wells to reduce cost for decontamination of groundwater at a superfund site. The optimization runs with up to 128 processors. Superlinear speed up is obtained for up to 16 processors, and efficiency with 64 processors is over 80%. Each evaluation of the objective function requires the solution of nonlinear partial differential equations to describe the impact of spatially distributed pumping and model parameters on model predictions for the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater contaminants. The second application uses an asynchronous parallel global optimization for groundwater quality model calibration. The time for a single objective

  20. Solvent effect on the degree of (a)synchronicity in polar Diels-Alder reactions from the perspective of the reaction force constant analysis. (United States)

    Yepes, Diana; Martínez-Araya, Jorge I; Jaque, Pablo


    In this work, we computationally evaluated the influence of six different molecular solvents, described as a polarizable continuum model at the M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) level, on the activation barrier/reaction rate, overall energy change, TS geometry, and degree of (a)synchronicity of two concerted Diels-Alder cycloadditions of acrolein (R1) and its complex with Lewis acid acrolein···BH3 (R2) to cyclopentadiene. In gas-phase, we found that both exothermicity and activation barrier are only reduced by about 2.0 kcal mol-1, and the asynchronicity character of the mechanism is accentuated when BH3 is included. An increment in the solvent's polarity lowers the activation energy of R1 by 1.3 kcal mol-1, while for R2 the reaction rate is enhanced by more than 2000 times at room temperature (i.e., the activation energy decreases by 4.5 kcal mol-1) if the highest polar media is employed. Therefore, a synergistic effect is achieved when both external agents, i.e., Lewis acid catalyst and polar solvent, are included together. This effect was ascribed to the ability of the solvent to favor the encounter between cyclopentadiene and acrolein···BH3. This was validated by the asymmetry of the TS which becomes highly pronounced when either both or just BH3 is considered or the solvent's polarity is increased. Finally, the reaction force constant κ(ξ) reveals that an increment in the solvent's polarity is able to turn a moderate asynchronous mechanism of the formation of the new C-C σ-bonds into a highly asynchronous one. Graphical abstract A synergistic effect is achieved when both external agents, i.e., Lewis acid catalyst and polar solvent, are included together: lowered energy barriers and increased asynchronicities.

  1. Babies know bad dancing when they see it: Older but not younger infants discriminate between synchronous and asynchronous audiovisual musical displays. (United States)

    Hannon, Erin E; Schachner, Adena; Nave-Blodgett, Jessica E


    Movement to music is a universal human behavior, yet little is known about how observers perceive audiovisual synchrony in complex musical displays such as a person dancing to music, particularly during infancy and childhood. In the current study, we investigated how perception of musical audiovisual synchrony develops over the first year of life. We habituated infants to a video of a person dancing to music and subsequently presented videos in which the visual track was matched (synchronous) or mismatched (asynchronous) with the audio track. In a visual-only control condition, we presented the same visual stimuli with no sound. In Experiment 1, we found that older infants (8-12months) exhibited a novelty preference for the mismatched movie when both auditory information and visual information were available and showed no preference when only visual information was available. By contrast, younger infants (5-8months) in Experiment 2 did not discriminate matching stimuli from mismatching stimuli. This suggests that the ability to perceive musical audiovisual synchrony may develop during the second half of the first year of infancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ER, HER2, and TOP2A expression in primary tumor, synchronous axillary nodes, and asynchronous metastases in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeanette Dupont; Knoop, Ann; Ewertz, Marianne


    with the primary tumors with respect to ER, HER2, and TOP2A. In the prospective tissue-collection study, 81 patients had biopsy from a suspected relapse. Additional archived paired material was included, leaving a total of 119 patients with paired primary tumor, synchronous axillary nodes (available in 52 patients......) and asyncronous metastases available for analysis. ER, HER2, and TOP2A expression of primary tumors, axillary nodes and metastases were re-analysed and determined centrally by immunohistochemistry, chromogenic in situ hybridization, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of the 81 patients with a biopsy from...... a suspected relapse, 65 (80%) were diagnosed with recurrent breast carcinoma, 3 (4%) were diagnosed with other malignancies, 6 (7%) had benign conditions, and in 7 (9%) patients the biopsy was non-representative. Discordance in ER, HER2, and TOP2A (aberration vs. normal) status between primary tumor...

  3. Synchronization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchronization, in simple terms, is the adjustment of rhythrns of two mutually interacting systems, such as a pair of coupled oscillators. Synchronization was discov- ered in the seventeenth century by Christiaan Huygens who observed it when working with clocks (see Box 1). He saw that two clocks (pendulums) suspended ...

  4. Phase Space Invertible Asynchronous Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Wacker


    Full Text Available While for synchronous deterministic cellular automata there is an accepted definition of reversibility, the situation is less clear for asynchronous cellular automata. We first discuss a few possibilities and then investigate what we call phase space invertible asynchronous cellular automata in more detail. We will show that for each Turing machine there is such a cellular automaton simulating it, and that it is decidable whether an asynchronous cellular automaton has this property or not, even in higher dimensions.

  5. Burst-Mode Asynchronous Controllers on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte L. Oliveira


    Full Text Available FPGAs have been mainly used to design synchronous circuits. Asynchronous design on FPGAs is difficult because the resulting circuit may suffer from hazard problems. We propose a method that implements a popular class of asynchronous circuits, known as burst mode, on FPGAs based on look-up table architectures. We present two conditions that, if satisfied, guarantee essential hazard-free implementation on any LUT-based FPGA. By doing that, besides all the intrinsic advantages of asynchronous over synchronous circuits, they also take advantage of the shorter design time and lower cost associated with FPGA designs.

  6. Asynchronous Parallelization of a CFD Solver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Abdi


    Full Text Available A Navier-Stokes equations solver is parallelized to run on a cluster of computers using the domain decomposition method. Two approaches of communication and computation are investigated, namely, synchronous and asynchronous methods. Asynchronous communication between subdomains is not commonly used in CFD codes; however, it has a potential to alleviate scaling bottlenecks incurred due to processors having to wait for each other at designated synchronization points. A common way to avoid this idle time is to overlap asynchronous communication with computation. For this to work, however, there must be something useful and independent a processor can do while waiting for messages to arrive. We investigate an alternative approach of computation, namely, conducting asynchronous iterations to improve local subdomain solution while communication is in progress. An in-house CFD code is parallelized using message passing interface (MPI, and scalability tests are conducted that suggest asynchronous iterations are a viable way of parallelizing CFD code.

  7. Technologies That Assist in Online Group Work: A Comparison of Synchronous and Asynchronous Computer Mediated Communication Technologies on Students' Learning and Community (United States)

    Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda; Wendt, Jillian


    While the benefits of online group work completed using asynchronous CMC technology is documented, researchers have identified a number of challenges that result in ineffective and unsuccessful online group work. Fewer channels of communication and lack of immediacy when compared to face-to-face group work are a few of the noted limitations. Thus,…

  8. Conversion of asynchronous 10 Gbit/s Ethernet NRZ frame into a synchronous RZ frame and multiplexing to 170 Gbit/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist


    This paper presents an optical circuit for frame synchronization and pulse compression of 10G Ethernet frames with 12000 bits and multiplexing to a 170 Gbit/s optical time division multiplexed data stream.......This paper presents an optical circuit for frame synchronization and pulse compression of 10G Ethernet frames with 12000 bits and multiplexing to a 170 Gbit/s optical time division multiplexed data stream....

  9. Interpolation algorithm for asynchronous ADC-data (United States)

    Bramburger, Stefan; Zinke, Benny; Killat, Dirk


    This paper presents a modified interpolation algorithm for signals with variable data rate from asynchronous ADCs. The Adaptive weights Conjugate gradient Toeplitz matrix (ACT) algorithm is extended to operate with a continuous data stream. An additional preprocessing of data with constant and linear sections and a weighted overlap of step-by-step into spectral domain transformed signals improve the reconstruction of the asycnhronous ADC signal. The interpolation method can be used if asynchronous ADC data is fed into synchronous digital signal processing.

  10. Generalized Asynchronous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Kudryashova


    Full Text Available The paper consider a mathematical model of a concurrent system, the special case of which is an asynchronous system. Distributed asynchronous automata are introduced here. It is proved that Petri nets and transition systems with independence can be considered as distributed asynchronous automata. Time distributed asynchronous automata are defined in a standard way by correspondence which relates events with time intervals. It is proved that the time distributed asynchronous automata generalize time Petri nets and asynchronous systems.

  11. Integrating Asynchronous Digital Design Into the Computer Engineering Curriculum (United States)

    Smith, S. C.; Al-Assadi, W. K.; Di, J.


    As demand increases for circuits with higher performance, higher complexity, and decreased feature size, asynchronous (clockless) paradigms will become more widely used in the semiconductor industry, as evidenced by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors' (ITRS) prediction of a likely shift from synchronous to asynchronous design…

  12. Designing Asynchronous Circuits for Low Power: An IFIR Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Skovby; Sparsø, Jens


    This paper addresses the design of asynchronous circuits for low power through an example: a filter bank for a digital hearing aid. The asynchronous design re-implements an existing synchronous circuit which is used in a commercial product. For comparison, both designs have been fabricated...

  13. Asynchronous readers and asynchronous writers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boode, Antoon Hendrik; Broenink, Johannes F.


    Abstract. Reading and writing is modelled in CSP using actions containing the symbols ? and !. These reading actions and writing actions are synchronous, and there is a one-to-one relationship between occurrences of pairs of these actions. In the CPA conference 2016, we introduced the

  14. Dynamic Performances of Asynchronous Machines | Ubeku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamic performance of electrical machines is affected by low and unbalanced voltages, frequency variations in its supply systems and pulsating load torques. In this paper the d-q axis model in the synchronous reference frame is used in the dynamic analysis on the performance of an asynchronous machine working ...

  15. A simple asynchronous replica-exchange implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Bussi, Giovanni


    We discuss the possibility of implementing asynchronous replica-exchange (or parallel tempering) molecular dynamics. In our scheme, the exchange attempts are driven by asynchronous messages sent by one of the computing nodes, so that different replicas are allowed to perform a different number of time-steps between subsequent attempts. The implementation is simple and based on the message-passing interface (MPI). We illustrate the advantages of our scheme with respect to the standard synchronous algorithm and we benchmark it for a model Lennard-Jones liquid on an IBM-LS21 blade center cluster.

  16. Error characterization for asynchronous computations: Proxy equation approach (United States)

    Sallai, Gabriella; Mittal, Ankita; Girimaji, Sharath


    Numerical techniques for asynchronous fluid flow simulations are currently under development to enable efficient utilization of massively parallel computers. These numerical approaches attempt to accurately solve time evolution of transport equations using spatial information at different time levels. The truncation error of asynchronous methods can be divided into two parts: delay dependent (EA) or asynchronous error and delay independent (ES) or synchronous error. The focus of this study is a specific asynchronous error mitigation technique called proxy-equation approach. The aim of this study is to examine these errors as a function of the characteristic wavelength of the solution. Mitigation of asynchronous effects requires that the asynchronous error be smaller than synchronous truncation error. For a simple convection-diffusion equation, proxy-equation error analysis identifies critical initial wave-number, λc. At smaller wave numbers, synchronous error are larger than asynchronous errors. We examine various approaches to increase the value of λc in order to improve the range of applicability of proxy-equation approach.

  17. Benefits of Synchronous Online Courses (United States)

    Moser, Scott; Smith, Phil


    Most online courses are offered as "asynchronous" courses and have no real-time contact with students. The Synchronous online alternative provides normal scheduled class time and allows students to login to a virtual online classroom with the instructor. We provide an overview of two different platforms for hosting synchronous classes…

  18. Pipelined Asynchronous Cache Design


    Nyströem, Mika


    This thesis describes the development of pipelined asynchronous cache memories. The work is done in the context of the performance characteristics of memories and transistor logic of a late 1990's high-performance asynchronous microprocessor. We describe the general framework of asynchronous memory systems, caching, and those system characteristics that make caching of growing importance and keep it an interesting research topic. Finally, we present the main contribution of this work, whi...

  19. Network algebra for synchronous and asynchronous dataflow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Stefanescu, G.


    Network algebra (NA) is proposed as a uniform algebraic framework for the description (and analysis) of dataflow networks. The core of this algebraic setting is provided by an equational theory called Basic Network Algebra (BNA). It constitutes a selection of primitives and identities from the

  20. Homoclinic Bifurcation as a Mechanism of Chaotic Phase Synchronization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.E.; Balanov, A.G.; Janson, N.B.


    This paper demonstrates a mechanism of chaotic phase synchronization in which the transition from asynchronous to synchronous chaos is associated with the collision of the asynchronous chaotic attractor with an unstable periodic orbit. This gives rise to a hysteretic transition with the two chaotic...

  1. Effects of synchronous coaching in teacher training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooreman, Ralph W.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Jochems, Wim M.G.


    Historically, the nature of coaching the teachers is asynchronously: a reflective discussion with the supervisory coach is the follow-up after a lesson has been taught. We expect that synchronous (immediate) coaching may complement and to a certain extent supplant the asynchronous feedback.

  2. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole


    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... be performed as an asynchronous (parallel) iteration: Only a few components are changed in each stepand this calculation is in general based on components from differentprevious iterates. For the asynchronous iteration it turns out thatsimple tests of existence and non-existence can be based...

  3. A Block-Asynchronous Relaxation Method for Graphics Processing Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antz, Hartwig [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Tomov, Stanimire [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Dongarra, Jack [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Heuveline, Vincent [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany)


    In this paper, we analyze the potential of asynchronous relaxation methods on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). For this purpose, we developed a set of asynchronous iteration algorithms in CUDA and compared them with a parallel implementation of synchronous relaxation methods on CPU-based systems. For a set of test matrices taken from the University of Florida Matrix Collection we monitor the convergence behavior, the average iteration time and the total time-to-solution time. Analyzing the results, we observe that even for our most basic asynchronous relaxation scheme, despite its lower convergence rate compared to the Gauss-Seidel relaxation (that we expected), the asynchronous iteration running on GPUs is still able to provide solution approximations of certain accuracy in considerably shorter time then Gauss- Seidel running on CPUs. Hence, it overcompensates for the slower convergence by exploiting the scalability and the good fit of the asynchronous schemes for the highly parallel GPU architectures. Further, enhancing the most basic asynchronous approach with hybrid schemes – using multiple iterations within the ”subdomain” handled by a GPU thread block and Jacobi-like asynchronous updates across the ”boundaries”, subject to tuning various parameters – we manage to not only recover the loss of global convergence but often accelerate convergence of up to two times (compared to the effective but difficult to parallelize Gauss-Seidel type of schemes), while keeping the execution time of a global iteration practically the same. This shows the high potential of the asynchronous methods not only as a stand alone numerical solver for linear systems of equations fulfilling certain convergence conditions but more importantly as a smoother in multigrid methods. Due to the explosion of parallelism in todays architecture designs, the significance and the need for asynchronous methods, as the ones described in this work, is expected to grow.

  4. Asynchronous Multiparty Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Geisler, Martin; Krøigaard, Mikkel


    less than n/3 players. We also present a software framework for implementation of asynchronous protocols called VIFF (Virtual Ideal Functionality Framework), which allows automatic parallelization of primitive operations such as secure multiplications, without having to resort to complicated...

  5. Asynchronous P300 BCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panicker, Rajesh; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan; Sun, Ying


    An asynchronous hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) system combining the P300 and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) paradigms is introduced. A P300 base system is used for information transfer, and is augmented to include SSVEP for control state detection. The proposed system has...

  6. Selective distortion of body image by asynchronous visuotactile stimulation. (United States)

    Perez-Marcos, Daniel; Martini, Matteo; Fuentes, Christina T; Bellido Rivas, Anna I; Haggard, Patrick; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V


    In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), a rubber hand is felt as being part of one's body. This illusion is evoked by providing synchronous visuotactile stimulation to the fake and real hands. Asynchronous visuotactile stimulation is known not to produce such an illusion of ownership, being commonly used as the control condition. Here we explored the impact of synchronous and asynchronous visuotactile stimulation on the body image. We combined the induction of the RHI with a quantitative test for the internal representation of body metrics (i.e., the positions of key fiducial points on the body relative to each other). We found a significant recalibration of the upper/lower arm lengths following asynchronous visuotactile stimulation. In particular, we observed a selective elongation of the lower arm, a distortion typical of deafferentation. Conversely, synchronous visuotactile stimulation did not alter the estimation of the arm segments' length. Our findings are consistent with a dynamic internal representation of body image that is continuously updated based on incoming multisensory information. Furthermore, the use of asynchronous multisensory stimulation as a neutral condition should be reconsidered since it introduces changes in the body image. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzan V.


    Full Text Available The paper sets out the methodology of designing an asynchronous generator with capacitive self-excitation. It is known that its design is possible on the basis of serial synchronous motor with squirrel cage rotor. With this approach, the design reworked only the stator winding of electrical machines, making it cost-effectively implement the creation of the generator. Therefore, the methodology for the design, optimization calculations, the development scheme and the stator winding excitation system gain, not only of practical interest, and may also be useful for specialists in the field of electrical machines in the design of asynchronous generators.

  8. Multiparty Asynchronous Session Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honda, Kohei; Yoshida, Nobuko; Carbone, Marco


    . This work extends the foregoing theories of binary session types to multiparty, asynchronous sessions, which often arise in practical communication-centered applications. Presented as a typed calculus for mobile processes, the theory introduces a new notion of types in which interactions involving multiple......Communication is a central elements in software development. As a potential typed foundation for structured communication-centered programming, session types have been studied over the past decade for a wide range of process calculi and programming languages, focusing on binary (two-party) sessions...... peers are directly abstracted as a global scenario. Global types retain the friendly type syntax of binary session types while specifying dependencies and capturing complex causal chains of multiparty asynchronous interactions. A global type plays the role of a shared agreement among communication peers...

  9. Low-power Implementation of an Encryption/Decryption System with Asynchronous Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Sklavos


    Full Text Available An asynchronous VLSI implementation of the International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA is presented in this paper. In order to evaluate the asynchronous design a synchronous version of the algorithm was also designed. VHDL hardware description language was used in order to describe the algorithm. By using Synopsys commercial available tools the VHDL code was synthesized. After placing and routing both designs were fabricated with 0.6 μm CMOS technology. With a system clock of up to 8 MHz and a power supply of 5 V the two chips were tested and evaluated comparing with the software implementation of the IDEA algorithm. This new approach proves efficiently the lowest power consumption of the asynchronous implementation compared to the existing synchronous. Therefore, the asynchronous chip performs efficiently in Wireless Encryption Protocols and high speed networks.

  10. Synchronicity from Synchronized Chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S. Duane


    Full Text Available The synchronization of loosely-coupled chaotic oscillators, a phenomenon investigated intensively for the last two decades, may realize the philosophical concept of “synchronicity”—the commonplace notion that related eventsmysteriously occur at the same time. When extended to continuous media and/or large discrete arrays, and when general (non-identical correspondences are considered between states, intermittent synchronous relationships indeed become ubiquitous. Meaningful synchronicity follows naturally if meaningful events are identified with coherent structures, defined by internal synchronization between remote degrees of freedom; a condition that has been posited as necessary for synchronizability with an external system. The important case of synchronization between mind and matter is realized if mind is analogized to a computer model, synchronizing with a sporadically observed system, as in meteorological data assimilation. Evidence for the ubiquity of synchronization is reviewed along with recent proposals that: (1 synchronization of different models of the same objective process may be an expeditious route to improved computational modeling and may also describe the functioning of conscious brains; and (2 the nonlocality in quantum phenomena implied by Bell’s theorem may be explained in a variety of deterministic (hidden variable interpretations if the quantum world resides on a generalized synchronization “manifold”.

  11. Mixing rich and asynchronous communication for new service development performance


    Storey, Chris; Perks, Helen


    This article explores the nature of relationships between internal communication modes, new service development (NSD) competencies (specifically learning and development competencies) and NSD performance. To do so, it draws on and advances communication theory by comparing and contrasting the contingent approach, favoured by media richness theory and media synchronicity theory, with the multiplicative manner of dual coding theory. Antecedent roles of rich and asynchronous communication modes ...

  12. Asynchronous updates can promote the evolution of cooperation on multiplex networks (United States)

    Allen, James M.; Hoyle, Rebecca B.


    We study the importance to the frequency of cooperation of the choice of updating strategies in a game played asynchronously or synchronously across layers in a multiplex network. Updating asynchronously in the public goods game leads to higher frequencies of cooperation compared to synchronous updates. How large this effect is depends on the sensitivity of the game dynamics to changes in the number of cooperators surrounding a player, with the largest effect observed when players payoffs are small. The discovery of this effect enhances understanding of cooperation on multiplex networks, and demonstrates a new way to maintain cooperation in these systems.

  13. Selective particle capture by asynchronously beating cilia (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Kanso, Eva


    Selective particle filtration is fundamental in many engineering and biological systems. For example, many aquatic microorganisms use filter feeding to capture food particles from the surrounding fluid, using motile cilia. One of the capture strategies is to use the same cilia to generate feeding currents and to intercept particles when the particles are on the downstream side of the cilia. Here, we develop a 3D computational model of ciliary bands interacting with flow suspended particles and calculate particle trajectories for a range of particle sizes. Consistent with experimental observations, we find optimal particle sizes that maximize capture rate. The optimal size depends nonlinearly on cilia spacing and cilia coordination, synchronous vs. asynchronous. These parameters affect the cilia-generated flow field, which in turn affects particle trajectories. The low capture rate of smaller particles is due to the particles' inability to cross the flow streamlines of neighboring cilia. Meanwhile, large particles have difficulty entering the sub-ciliary region once advected downstream, also resulting in low capture rates. The optimal range of particle sizes is enhanced when cilia beat asynchronously. These findings have potentially important implications on the design and use of biomimetic cilia in processes such as particle sorting in microfluidic devices.

  14. Asynchronous parallel pattern search for nonlinear optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. D. Hough; T. G. Kolda; V. J. Torczon


    Parallel pattern search (PPS) can be quite useful for engineering optimization problems characterized by a small number of variables (say 10--50) and by expensive objective function evaluations such as complex simulations that take from minutes to hours to run. However, PPS, which was originally designed for execution on homogeneous and tightly-coupled parallel machine, is not well suited to the more heterogeneous, loosely-coupled, and even fault-prone parallel systems available today. Specifically, PPS is hindered by synchronization penalties and cannot recover in the event of a failure. The authors introduce a new asynchronous and fault tolerant parallel pattern search (AAPS) method and demonstrate its effectiveness on both simple test problems as well as some engineering optimization problems

  15. Asynchronous presynaptic glutamate release enhances neuronal excitability during the post-spike refractory period. (United States)

    Iremonger, Karl J; Bains, Jaideep S


    Many excitatory synapses in the brain release glutamate with both synchronous and asynchronous components. Immediately following an action potential, neurons display a reduced excitability due to the post-spike afterhyperpolarization (AHP). This gives rise to a relative refractory period. When an action potential is evoked by glutamate synaptic input possessing asynchronous release, the delayed glutamate release events act to depolarize the neuron during the AHP and overcome the relative refractory period. These results demonstrate a new role for asynchronous release in regulating post-spike excitability and the relative refractory period in central neurons. Post-spike afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) functionally inhibit neuronal excitability for tens to hundreds of milliseconds following each action potential. This imposes a relative refractory period during which synaptic excitation is less effective at evoking spikes. Here we asked whether some synapses have mechanisms in place that allow them to overcome the AHP and drive spiking in target cells during this period of reduced excitability. We examined glutamate synapses onto oxytocin and vasopressin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These synapses can display pronounced asynchronous glutamate release following a single presynaptic spike, with the time course of release being similar to that of the post-spike AHP. To test whether asynchronous release is more effective at overcoming the relative refractory period, we evoked a single action potential with either a brief synchronous depolarization or an asynchronous potential and then assessed excitability at multiple time points following the spike. Neurons receiving asynchronous depolarizing synaptic inputs had a shorter relative refractory period than those receiving synchronous depolarizations. Our data demonstrate that synapses releasing glutamate in an asynchronous and delayed manner are ideally adapted to counter the AHP. By

  16. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge


    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  17. Grid Synchronization for Distributed Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyghami, Saeed; Mokhtari, Hossein; Blaabjerg, Frede


    interface of the different DGs is dependent on the prime energy resources, and it can be a synchronous/asynchronous generator, and a power electronic converter to control the power. However, power electronic interfaced DGs and DSs are going to be more dominant in the future power systems. All type...... of interfaces needs to be synchronized with the grid or microgird, and hence, a precise synchronization algorithm—mostly based on phase-locked loop—is required to estimate the phase angle and frequency of the voltage at the coupling point. Unlike synchronous generators, in power electronic interfaced DGs......Distributed generators (DGs) like photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines, and fuel cell modules, as well as distributed storage (DS) units introduce some advantages to the power systems and make it more reliable, flexible, and controllable in comparison with the conventional power systems. Grid...

  18. Reducing energy with asynchronous circuits


    Rivas Barragan, Daniel


    Reducing energy consumption using asynchronous circuits. The elastic clocks approach has been implemented along with a closed-feedback loop in order to achieve a lower energy consumption along with more reliability in integrated circuits.

  19. A novel asynchronous access method with binary interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Solis Jorge


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally synchronous access strategies require users to comply with one or more time constraints in order to communicate intent with a binary human-machine interface (e.g., mechanical, gestural or neural switches. Asynchronous access methods are preferable, but have not been used with binary interfaces in the control of devices that require more than two commands to be successfully operated. Methods We present the mathematical development and evaluation of a novel asynchronous access method that may be used to translate sporadic activations of binary interfaces into distinct outcomes for the control of devices requiring an arbitrary number of commands to be controlled. With this method, users are required to activate their interfaces only when the device under control behaves erroneously. Then, a recursive algorithm, incorporating contextual assumptions relevant to all possible outcomes, is used to obtain an informed estimate of user intention. We evaluate this method by simulating a control task requiring a series of target commands to be tracked by a model user. Results When compared to a random selection, the proposed asynchronous access method offers a significant reduction in the number of interface activations required from the user. Conclusion This novel access method offers a variety of advantages over traditionally synchronous access strategies and may be adapted to a wide variety of contexts, with primary relevance to applications involving direct object manipulation.

  20. Totally Asynchronous Interference Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Moshksar, Kamyar


    This paper addresses an interference channel consisting of $\\mathbf{n}$ active users sharing $u$ frequency sub-bands. Users are asynchronous meaning there exists a mutual delay between their transmitted codes. A stationary model for interference is considered by assuming the starting point of an interferer's data is uniformly distributed along the codeword of any user. The spectrum is divided to private and common bands each containing $v_{\\mathrm{p}}$ and $v_{\\mathrm{c}}$ frequency sub-bands respectively. We consider a scenario where all transmitters are unaware of the number of active users and the channel gains. The optimum $v_{\\mathrm{p}}$ and $v_{\\mathrm{c}}$ are obtained such that the so-called outage capacity per user is maximized. If $\\Pr\\{\\mathbf{n}\\leq 2\\}=1$, upper and lower bounds on the mutual information between the input and output of the channel for each user are derived using a genie-aided technique. The proposed bounds meet each other as the code length grows to infinity yielding a closed ex...

  1. An Asynchronous Time-Division-Multiplexed Network-on-Chip for Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasapaki, Evangelia

    Multi-processor architectures using networks-on-chip (NOCs) for communication are becoming the standard approach in the development of embedded systems and general purpose platforms. Typically, multi-processor platforms follow a globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) timing organization...... more flexible timing within its structure, to address signal distribution issues, using a network of synchronous routers. NOCs consist of a switching structure of routers connected by links, with network interfaces (NIs) that connect the processors to the switching structure. Argo uses a novel NI...... design that supports time-predictability, and asynchronous routers that form a time-elastic network. The NI design integrates the DMA functionality and the TDM schedule, and uses dual-ported local memories. The routers combine the router functionality and asynchronous elastic behavior. They also use...

  2. Towards behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits - an implementation template targeting syntax directed compilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Sparsø, Jens; Madsen, Jan


    domain by introducing a computation model, which resembles the synchronous datapath and control architecture, but which is completely asynchronous. The datapath and control architecture is then expressed in the Balsa-language, and using syntax directed compilation a corresponding handshake circuit...

  3. Pre-synthesis Optimization for Asynchronous Circuits Using Compiler Techniques (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Sharareh; Najibi, Mehrdad; Pedram, Hossein

    The effectiveness of traditional compiler techniques employed in high-level synthesis of synchronous circuits aiming to present a generic code is studied for asynchronous synthesis by considering the special features of these circuits. The compiler methods can be used innovatively to improve the synthesis results in both power consumption and area. The compiler methods like speculation, loop invariant code motion and condition expansion are applicable in decreasing mass of handshaking circuits and intermediate modules. Moreover, they eliminate conditional access to variables and ports and reducing the amount of completion detection circuits. The approach is superimposed on to Persia synthesis toolset as a presynthesis source-to-source transformation phase, and results shows on average 22% improvement in terms of area and 24 % in power consumption for asynchronous benchmarks.

  4. Acoustophoretic Synchronization of Mammalian Cells in Microchannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thévoz, P.; Adams, J.D.; Shea, H.


    We report the first use of ultrasonic standing waves to achieve cell cycle phase synchronization in mammalian cells in a high-throughput and reagent-free manner. The acoustophoretic cell synchronization (ACS) device utilizes volume-dependent acoustic radiation force within a microchannel...... to selectively purify target cells of desired phase from an asynchronous mixture based on cell cycle-dependent fluctuations in size. We show that ultrasonic separation allows for gentle, scalable, and label-free synchronization with high G1 phase synchrony (84%) and throughput (3 × 106 cells/h per microchannel)....

  5. Asynchronous Detection of Trials Onset from Raw EEG Signals. (United States)

    Lopez-Gordo, M A; Grima Murcia, M D; Padilla, Pablo; Pelayo, F; Fernandez, E


    Clinical processing of event-related potentials (ERPs) requires a precise synchrony between the stimulation and the acquisition units that are guaranteed by means of a physical link between them. This precise synchrony is needed since temporal misalignments during trial averaging can lead to high deviations of peak times, thus causing error in diagnosis or inefficiency in classification in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Out of the laboratory, mobile EEG systems and BCI headsets are not provided with the physical link, thus being inadequate for acquisition of ERPs. In this study, we propose a method for the asynchronous detection of trials onset from raw EEG without physical links. We validate it with a BCI application based on the dichotic listening task. The user goal was to attend the cued auditory message and to report three keywords contained in it while ignoring the other message. The BCI goal was to detect the attended message from the analysis of auditory ERPs. The rate of successful onset detection in both synchronous (using the real onset) and asynchronous (blind detection of trial onset from raw EEG) was 73% with a synchronization error of less than 1[Formula: see text]ms. The level of synchronization provided by this proposal would allow home-based acquisition of ERPs with low cost BCI headsets and any media player unit without physical links between them.

  6. Stimulus-dependent synchronization in delayed-coupled neuronal networks. (United States)

    Esfahani, Zahra G; Gollo, Leonardo L; Valizadeh, Alireza


    Time delay is a general feature of all interactions. Although the effects of delayed interaction are often neglected when the intrinsic dynamics is much slower than the coupling delay, they can be crucial otherwise. We show that delayed coupled neuronal networks support transitions between synchronous and asynchronous states when the level of input to the network changes. The level of input determines the oscillation period of neurons and hence whether time-delayed connections are synchronizing or desynchronizing. We find that synchronizing connections lead to synchronous dynamics, whereas desynchronizing connections lead to out-of-phase oscillations in network motifs and to frustrated states with asynchronous dynamics in large networks. Since the impact of a neuronal network to downstream neurons increases when spikes are synchronous, networks with delayed connections can serve as gatekeeper layers mediating the firing transfer to other regions. This mechanism can regulate the opening and closing of communicating channels between cortical layers on demand.

  7. Evaluation of Instructional Design Capabilities of Asynchronous and Synchronous Instruction (United States)

    Garrett, Kristi N.; Benson, Angela D.


    From a quantitative perspective, this study examined the instructional design knowledge of higher education instructors and others within the instructional design/technology arena who are members of a global educational based Internet forum. Results showed significant difference in opinions between genders, where males were more inclined to…

  8. Emergence of Asynchronous Local Clocks in Excitable Media. (United States)

    Gerum, Richard Carl; Fabry, Ben; Metzner, Claus


    Excitable media such as the myocardium or the brain consist of arrays of coupled excitable elements, in which the local excitation of a single element can propagate to its neighbors in the form of a non-linear autowave. Since each element has to pass through a refractory period immediately after excitation, the frequency of autowaves is self-limiting. In this work, we consider the case where each element is spontaneously excited at a fixed average rate and thereby initiates a new autowave. Although these spontaneous self-excitation events are modelled as independent Poisson point processes with exponentially distributed waiting times, the travelling autowaves lead collectively to a non-exponential, unimodal waiting time distribution for the individual elements. With increasing system size, a global 'clock' period T emerges as the most probable waiting time for each element, which fluctuates around T with an increasingly small but non-zero variance. This apparent synchronization between asynchronous, temporally uncorrelated point processes differs from synchronization effects between perfect oscillators interacting in a phase-aligning manner. Finally, we demonstrate that asynchronous local clocks also emerge in non-homogeneous systems in which the rates of self-excitation are different for all individuals, suggesting that this novel mechanism can occur in a wide range of excitable media.

  9. Asynchronous control for networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rubio, Francisco; Bencomo, Sebastián


    This book sheds light on networked control systems; it describes different techniques for asynchronous control, moving away from the periodic actions of classical control, replacing them with state-based decisions and reducing the frequency with which communication between subsystems is required. The text focuses specially on event-based control. Split into two parts, Asynchronous Control for Networked Systems begins by addressing the problems of single-loop networked control systems, laying out various solutions which include two alternative model-based control schemes (anticipatory and predictive) and the use of H2/H∞ robust control to deal with network delays and packet losses. Results on self-triggering and send-on-delta sampling are presented to reduce the need for feedback in the loop. In Part II, the authors present solutions for distributed estimation and control. They deal first with reliable networks and then extend their results to scenarios in which delays and packet losses may occur. The novel ...

  10. Developing asynchronous online interprofessional education. (United States)

    Sanborn, Heidi


    For many health programmes, developing interprofessional education (IPE) has been a challenge. Evidence on the best method for design and implementation of IPE has been slow to emerge, with little research on how to best incorporate IPE in the asynchronous online learning environment. This leaves online programmes with no clear guidance when embarking upon an initiative to integrate IPE into the curriculum. One tool that can be effective at guiding the incorporation of IPE across all learning platforms is the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) competencies. A project was designed to integrate the nationally defined IPEC competencies throughout an asynchronous, online baccalaureate nursing completion programme. A programme-wide review led to targeted revision of course and unit-level objectives, learning experiences, and assessments based on the IPEC framework. As a result of this effort, the programme curriculum now provides interprofessional learning activities across all courses. This report provides a method for using the IPEC competencies to incorporate IPE within various asynchronous learning assessments, assuring students learn about, with, and from other professions.

  11. Analysis of a Combined Antenna Arrays and Reverse-Link Synchronous DS-CDMA System over Multipath Rician Fading Channels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim Yong-Seok; Whang Keum-Chan


    We present the BER analysis of antenna array (AA) receiver in reverse-link asynchronous multipath Rician channels and analyze the performance of an improved AA system which applies a reverse-link synchronous transmission technique (RLSTT...

  12. Synaptotagmin-7 Is an Asynchronous Calcium Sensor for Synaptic Transmission in Neurons Expressing SNAP-23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Jens P; Toft-Bertelsen, Trine L; Mohrmann, Ralf


    stimulation, and can even play a dominant role in some synapses. Here, we show that substitution of SNAP-23 for SNAP-25 in mouse autaptic glutamatergic hippocampal neurons results in asynchronous release and a higher frequency of spontaneous release events (mEPSCs). Use of neurons from double-knock-out (SNAP......-25, synaptotagmin-7) mice in combination with viral transduction showed that SNAP-23-driven release is triggered by endogenous synaptotagmin-7. In the absence of synaptotagmin-7 release became even more asynchronous, and the spontaneous release rate increased even more, indicating that synaptotagmin......-7 acts to synchronize release and suppress spontaneous release. However, compared to synaptotagmin-1, synaptotagmin-7 is a both leaky and asynchronous calcium sensor. In the presence of SNAP-25, consequences of the elimination of synaptotagmin-7 were small or absent, indicating that the protein...

  13. Synchronization of

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schrader, Jared M; Shapiro, Lucy


    .... Cell cycle synchronization experiments have been used to establish the molecular events governing chromosome replication and segregation, to map a genetic regulatory network controlling cell cycle...

  14. Kick synchronization versus diffusive synchronization


    Mauroy, Alexandre; Sacré, Pierre; Sepulchre, Rodolphe


    The paper provides an introductory discussion about two fundamental models of oscillator synchronization: the (continuous-time) diffusive model, that dominates the mathematical literature on synchronization, and the (hybrid) kick model, that accounts for most popular examples of synchronization, but for which only few theoretical results exist. The paper stresses fundamental differences between the two models, such as the different contraction measures underlying the analysis, as well as impo...

  15. Neurochemical and neuropharmacological aspects of circadian disruptions: an introduction to asynchronization. (United States)

    Kohyama, Jun


    Circadian disruptions are common in modern society, and there is an urgent need for effective treatment strategies. According to standard diagnostic criteria, most adolescents showing both insomnia and daytime sleepiness are diagnosed as having behavioral-induced sleep efficiency syndrome resulting from insomnia due to inadequate sleep hygiene. However, a simple intervention of adequate sleep hygiene often fails to treat them. As a solution to this clinical problem, the present review first overviews the basic neurochemical and neuropharmachological aspects of sleep and circadian rhythm regulation, then explains several circadian disruptions from similar viewpoints, and finally introduces the clinical notion of asynchronization. Asynchronization is designated to explain the pathophysiology/pathogenesis of exhibition of both insomnia and hypersomnia in adolescents, which comprises disturbances in various aspects of biological rhythms. The major triggers for asynchronization are considered to be a combination of light exposure during the night, which disturbs the biological clock and decreases melatonin secretion, as well as a lack of light exposure in the morning, which prohibits normal synchronization of the biological clock to the 24-hour cycle of the earth and decreases the activity of serotonin. In the chronic phase of asynchronization, involvement of both wake- and sleep-promoting systems is suggested. Both conventional and alternative therapeutic approaches for potential treatment of asynchronization are suggested.

  16. State Synchronization Approaches in Web-based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grocevs Aleksejs


    Full Text Available The main objective of the article is to provide insight into technologies and approaches available to maintain consistent state on both client and server sides. The article describes basic RIA application state persistence difficulties and offers approaches to overcoming such problems using asynchronous data transmission synchronization channels and other user-available browser abilities.

  17. Skype Synchronous Interaction Effectiveness in a Quantitative Management Science Course (United States)

    Strang, Kenneth David


    An experiment compared asynchronous versus synchronous instruction in an online quantitative course. Mann-Whitney U-tests, correlation, analysis of variance, t tests, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) were utilized to test the hypothesis that more high-quality online experiential learning interactions would increase grade.…

  18. Synchronous Videoconferencing in Distance Education for Pre-Licensure Nursing (United States)

    Scarbrough, John E.


    Current nursing education practices typically include methodologies for providing access to students located at a distance from the hosting institution. The majority of methodologies make use of asynchronous formatting in which communication occurs without the benefit of simultaneous, synchronous interaction. The increasing worldwide availability…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Firago


    Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of one of the widespread types of vector control realization for the asynchronous motors with a short-circuited rotor. Of all more than 20 vector control types known presently, the following are applied most frequently: direct vector control with velocity pickup (VP, direct vector control without VP, indirect vector control with VP and indirect vector control without VP. Despite the fact that the asynchronous-motor indirect vector control without VP is the easiest and most spread, the absence of VP does not allow controlling the motor electromagnetic torque at zero velocity. This is the reason why for electric motor drives of such requirements they utilize the vector control with a velocity transducer. The systems of widest dissemination became the direct and indirect vector control systems with X-axis alignment of the synchronously rotating x–y-coordinate frame along the rotor flux-linkage vector inasmuch as this provides the simplest correlations for controlling variables. Although these two types of vector control are well presented in literature, a number of issues concerning their realization and practical application require further elaboration. These include: the block schemes adequate representation as consisted with the modern realization of vector control and clarification of the analytical expressions for evaluating the regulator parameters.The authors present a technique for evaluating the dynamics of an asynchronous electric motor drive with direct vector control and x-axis alignment along the vector of rotor flux linkage. The article offers a generalized structure of this vector control type with detailed description of its principal blocks: controlling system, frequency converter, and the asynchronous motor.The paper presents a direct vector control simulating model developed in the MatLab environment on the grounds of this structure. The authors illustrate the described technique with the results

  20. Parameterization of a synchronous generator to represent a doubly fed induction generator with chopper protection for fault studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro


    This paper addresses the representation of the wound rotor asynchronous generators by an equivalent synchronous generator, valid for short circuit current calculations. Modern wind power plants are required and designed to ride through faults in the network, subjected to fault clearing. Accurate......, the industry standard is to employ software packages where generators are represented by their equivalent synchronous generator operational impedances. Hence, it is of importance to represent non synchronous wind generators by an equivalent synchronous generator....

  1. Gigabit Ethernet Asynchronous Clock Compensation FIFO (United States)

    Duhachek, Jeff


    Clock compensation for Gigabit Ethernet is necessary because the clock recovered from the 1.25 Gb/s serial data stream has the potential to be 200 ppm slower or faster than the system clock. The serial data is converted to 10-bit parallel data at a 125 MHz rate on a clock recovered from the serial data stream. This recovered data needs to be processed by a system clock that is also running at a nominal rate of 125 MHz, but not synchronous to the recovered clock. To cross clock domains, an asynchronous FIFO (first-in-first-out) is used, with the write pointer (wprt) in the recovered clock domain and the read pointer (rptr) in the system clock domain. Because the clocks are generated from separate sources, there is potential for FIFO overflow or underflow. Clock compensation in Gigabit Ethernet is possible by taking advantage of the protocol data stream features. There are two distinct data streams that occur in Gigabit Ethernet where identical data is transmitted for a period of time. The first is configuration, which happens during auto-negotiation. The second is idle, which occurs at the end of auto-negotiation and between every packet. The identical data in the FIFO can be repeated by decrementing the read pointer, thus compensating for a FIFO that is draining too fast. The identical data in the FIFO can also be skipped by incrementing the read pointer, which compensates for a FIFO draining too slowly. The unique and novel features of this FIFO are that it works in both the idle stream and the configuration streams. The increment or decrement of the read pointer is different in the idle and compensation streams to preserve disparity. Another unique feature is that the read pointer to write pointer difference range changes between compensation and idle to minimize FIFO latency during packet transmission.

  2. Magnetoencephalography demonstrates multiple asynchronous generators during human sleep spindles. (United States)

    Dehghani, Nima; Cash, Sydney S; Rossetti, Andrea O; Chen, Chih Chuan; Halgren, Eric


    Sleep spindles are approximately 1 s bursts of 10-16 Hz activity that occur during stage 2 sleep. Spindles are highly synchronous across the cortex and thalamus in animals, and across the scalp in humans, implying correspondingly widespread and synchronized cortical generators. However, prior studies have noted occasional dissociations of the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) from the EEG during spindles, although detailed studies of this phenomenon have been lacking. We systematically compared high-density MEG and EEG recordings during naturally occurring spindles in healthy humans. As expected, EEG was highly coherent across the scalp, with consistent topography across spindles. In contrast, the simultaneously recorded MEG was not synchronous, but varied strongly in amplitude and phase across locations and spindles. Overall, average coherence between pairs of EEG sensors was approximately 0.7, whereas MEG coherence was approximately 0.3 during spindles. Whereas 2 principle components explained approximately 50% of EEG spindle variance, >15 were required for MEG. Each PCA component for MEG typically involved several widely distributed locations, which were relatively coherent with each other. These results show that, in contrast to current models based on animal experiments, multiple asynchronous neural generators are active during normal human sleep spindles and are visible to MEG. It is possible that these multiple sources may overlap sufficiently in different EEG sensors to appear synchronous. Alternatively, EEG recordings may reflect diffusely distributed synchronous generators that are less visible to MEG. An intriguing possibility is that MEG preferentially records from the focal core thalamocortical system during spindles, and EEG from the distributed matrix system.



    B. I. Firago; S. V. Aleksandrovsky


    In order to improve the power indices and to simplify the system of frequency speed control the scope of application of synchronous variable-frequency electric drives with independent frequency setting is being expanded. The synchronous motors with electromagnetic excitation and permanent magnet excitation in various industrial settings, including load-lifting machines and mechanisms, are used. As compared with the asynchronous frequency-regulated electric drives the synchronous ones have low...

  4. Self-similarity in explosive synchronization of complex networks (United States)

    Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Kurovskaya, Maria K.; Moskalenko, Olga I.; Hramov, Alexander; Boccaletti, Stefano


    We report that explosive synchronization of networked oscillators (a process through which the transition to coherence occurs without intermediate stages but is rather characterized by a sudden and abrupt jump from the network's asynchronous to synchronous motion) is related to self-similarity of synchronous clusters of different size. Self-similarity is revealed by destructing the network synchronous state during the backward transition and observed with the decrease of the coupling strength between the nodes of the network. As illustrative examples, networks of Kuramoto oscillators with different topologies of links have been considered. For each one of such topologies, the destruction of the synchronous state goes step by step with self-similar configurations of interacting oscillators. At the critical point, the invariance of the phase distribution in the synchronized cluster with respect to the cluster size is reported.

  5. The Role of Online Instructors in Asynchronous Discussion Forums (United States)

    Maddison, Sarah T.; Mazzolini, M. M.; Gay, P. L.


    We present qualitative results and advice on the role of online instructors in asynchronous discussion forums and the technologies used to support online interactive learning. Results are based on six years of designing, coordinating, evaluating and teaching into the distance learning program Swinburne Astronomy Online. We discuss why we chose to use asynchronous rather than synchronous discussion forums and how we have implemented them; how we train our online instructors and their role as a 'guide on the side'; techniques for moderating the volume of forum postings while ensuring a constructive learning environment; and methods for dealing with both mixed class preparedness and 'challenging' students within an online environment. Our research into the interaction between students and instructors in online forums provides some interesting (and often counter-intuitive) insights into the relationship between the number and length of student postings and the posting patterns of their instructors. We compare these results with qualitative feedback from both students and instructors on their perception of the online learning and teaching experience.

  6. A Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Accelerated by Asynchronous Evaluations (United States)

    Venter, Gerhard; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw


    A parallel Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is presented. Particle swarm optimization is a fairly recent addition to the family of non-gradient based, probabilistic search algorithms that is based on a simplified social model and is closely tied to swarming theory. Although PSO algorithms present several attractive properties to the designer, they are plagued by high computational cost as measured by elapsed time. One approach to reduce the elapsed time is to make use of coarse-grained parallelization to evaluate the design points. Previous parallel PSO algorithms were mostly implemented in a synchronous manner, where all design points within a design iteration are evaluated before the next iteration is started. This approach leads to poor parallel speedup in cases where a heterogeneous parallel environment is used and/or where the analysis time depends on the design point being analyzed. This paper introduces an asynchronous parallel PSO algorithm that greatly improves the parallel e ciency. The asynchronous algorithm is benchmarked on a cluster assembled of Apple Macintosh G5 desktop computers, using the multi-disciplinary optimization of a typical transport aircraft wing as an example.

  7. Asynchronous Task-Based Polar Decomposition on Manycore Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Sukkari, Dalal


    This paper introduces the first asynchronous, task-based implementation of the polar decomposition on manycore architectures. Based on a new formulation of the iterative QR dynamically-weighted Halley algorithm (QDWH) for the calculation of the polar decomposition, the proposed implementation replaces the original and hostile LU factorization for the condition number estimator by the more adequate QR factorization to enable software portability across various architectures. Relying on fine-grained computations, the novel task-based implementation is also capable of taking advantage of the identity structure of the matrix involved during the QDWH iterations, which decreases the overall algorithmic complexity. Furthermore, the artifactual synchronization points have been severely weakened compared to previous implementations, unveiling look-ahead opportunities for better hardware occupancy. The overall QDWH-based polar decomposition can then be represented as a directed acyclic graph (DAG), where nodes represent computational tasks and edges define the inter-task data dependencies. The StarPU dynamic runtime system is employed to traverse the DAG, to track the various data dependencies and to asynchronously schedule the computational tasks on the underlying hardware resources, resulting in an out-of-order task scheduling. Benchmarking experiments show significant improvements against existing state-of-the-art high performance implementations (i.e., Intel MKL and Elemental) for the polar decomposition on latest shared-memory vendors\\' systems (i.e., Intel Haswell/Broadwell/Knights Landing, NVIDIA K80/P100 GPUs and IBM Power8), while maintaining high numerical accuracy.

  8. Asynchronous replica exchange software for grid and heterogeneous computing (United States)

    Gallicchio, Emilio; Xia, Junchao; Flynn, William F.; Zhang, Baofeng; Samlalsingh, Sade; Mentes, Ahmet; Levy, Ronald M.


    Parallel replica exchange sampling is an extended ensemble technique often used to accelerate the exploration of the conformational ensemble of atomistic molecular simulations of chemical systems. Inter-process communication and coordination requirements have historically discouraged the deployment of replica exchange on distributed and heterogeneous resources. Here we describe the architecture of a software (named ASyncRE) for performing asynchronous replica exchange molecular simulations on volunteered computing grids and heterogeneous high performance clusters. The asynchronous replica exchange algorithm on which the software is based avoids centralized synchronization steps and the need for direct communication between remote processes. It allows molecular dynamics threads to progress at different rates and enables parameter exchanges among arbitrary sets of replicas independently from other replicas. ASyncRE is written in Python following a modular design conducive to extensions to various replica exchange schemes and molecular dynamics engines. Applications of the software for the modeling of association equilibria of supramolecular and macromolecular complexes on BOINC campus computational grids and on the CPU/MIC heterogeneous hardware of the XSEDE Stampede supercomputer are illustrated. They show the ability of ASyncRE to utilize large grids of desktop computers running the Windows, MacOS, and/or Linux operating systems as well as collections of high performance heterogeneous hardware devices.

  9. Asynchronous gaze-independent event-related potential-based brain-computer interface. (United States)

    Aloise, Fabio; Aricò, Pietro; Schettini, Francesca; Salinari, Serenella; Mattia, Donatella; Cincotti, Febo


    In this study a gaze independent event related potential (ERP)-based brain computer interface (BCI) for communication purpose was combined with an asynchronous classifier endowed with dynamical stopping feature. The aim was to evaluate if and how the performance of such asynchronous system could be negatively affected in terms of communication efficiency and robustness to false positives during the intentional no-control state. The proposed system was validated with the participation of 9 healthy subjects. A comparison was performed between asynchronous and synchronous classification technique outputs while users were controlling the same gaze independent BCI interface. The performance of both classification techniques were assessed both off-line and on-line by means of the efficiency metric introduced by Bianchi et al. (2007). This latter metric allows to set a different misclassification cost for wrong classifications and abstentions. Robustness was evaluated as the rate of false positives occurring during voluntary no-control states. The asynchronous classifier did not exhibited significantly higher accuracy or lower error rate with respect to the synchronous classifier (accuracy: 74.66% versus 87.96%, error rate: 7.11% versus 12.04% respectively). However, the on-line and off-line analysis revealed that the communication efficiency was significantly improved (pinterface is a promising solution to be further explored in order to increase the general usability of ERP-based BCI systems designed for severely disabled people with an impairment of the voluntary control of eye movements. In fact, the asynchronous classifier can improve communication efficiency automatically adapting the number of stimulus repetitions to the current user's state and suspending the control if he/she does not intend to select an item. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synchronous Ethernet- Considerations and Implementation of the Packet Network Management Scheme (United States)

    Gundale, A. S.; Aradhye, Ashwini


    Packet technologies were designed to work in asynchronous mode, where the oscillators in the equipment are free running. Although this allows the underlying infrastructure to operate, many applications exist that require frequency synchronization. Also, the ability to distribute synchronization from center to edge of network declines as infrastructure evolves toward a packet-based architecture. Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) is a key development of the evolution of Ethernet into a carrier grade technology suitable for the WAN environment where frequency synchronization is required. The time of the day distribution in synchronized network at the physical layer enables many useful propositions in packet handling policies and other network management aspects.

  11. Synaptotagmin-7 is an asynchronous calcium sensor for synaptic transmission in neurons expressing SNAP-23. (United States)

    Weber, Jens P; Toft-Bertelsen, Trine L; Mohrmann, Ralf; Delgado-Martinez, Ignacio; Sørensen, Jakob B


    Synchronization of neurotransmitter release with the presynaptic action potential is essential for maintaining fidelity of information transfer in the central nervous system. However, synchronous release is frequently accompanied by an asynchronous release component that builds up during repetitive stimulation, and can even play a dominant role in some synapses. Here, we show that substitution of SNAP-23 for SNAP-25 in mouse autaptic glutamatergic hippocampal neurons results in asynchronous release and a higher frequency of spontaneous release events (mEPSCs). Use of neurons from double-knock-out (SNAP-25, synaptotagmin-7) mice in combination with viral transduction showed that SNAP-23-driven release is triggered by endogenous synaptotagmin-7. In the absence of synaptotagmin-7 release became even more asynchronous, and the spontaneous release rate increased even more, indicating that synaptotagmin-7 acts to synchronize release and suppress spontaneous release. However, compared to synaptotagmin-1, synaptotagmin-7 is a both leaky and asynchronous calcium sensor. In the presence of SNAP-25, consequences of the elimination of synaptotagmin-7 were small or absent, indicating that the protein pairs SNAP-25/synaptotagmin-1 and SNAP-23/synaptotagmin-7 might act as mutually exclusive calcium sensors. Expression of fusion proteins between pHluorin (pH-sensitive GFP) and synaptotagmin-1 or -7 showed that vesicles that fuse using the SNAP-23/synaptotagmin-7 combination contained synaptotagmin-1, while synaptotagmin-7 barely displayed activity-dependent trafficking between vesicle and plasma membrane, implying that it acts as a plasma membrane calcium sensor. Overall, these findings support the idea of alternative syt∶SNARE combinations driving release with different kinetics and fidelity.

  12. Synchronizing Fireflies (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Gall, Walter; Nabb, Karen Mayumi


    "Imagine a tenth of a mile of river front with an unbroken line of trees with fireflies on ever leaf flashing in synchronism. ... Then, if one's imagination is sufficiently vivid, he may form some conception of this amazing spectacle." So wrote the naturalist Hugh Smith. In this article we consider how one might model mathematically the…

  13. Trajectory exploration within asynchronous binary asteroid systems using refined Lagrangian coherent structures (United States)

    Shang, Haibin; Wu, Xiaoyu; Cui, Pingyuan


    Ground observations have found that asynchronous systems constitute most of the population of the near-Earth binary asteroids. This paper concerns the trajectory of a particle in the asynchronous system which is systematically described using periodic ellipsoidal and spherical body models. Due to the non-autonomous characteristics of the asynchronous system, Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) are employed to identify the various dynamical behaviors. To enhance the accuracy of LCS, a robust LCS finding algorithm is developed incorporating hierarchical grid refinement, one-dimensional search and variational theory verification. In this way, the intricate dynamical transport boundaries are detected efficiently. These boundaries indicate that a total of 15 types of trajectories exist near asynchronous binary asteroids. According to their Kepler energy variations, these trajectories can be grouped into four basic categories, i.e., transitory, escape, impact and flyby trajectories. Furthermore, the influence of the ellipsoid's spin period on the dynamical behavior is discussed in the context of the change of dynamical regions. We found that the transitory and impact motions occur easily in the synchronous-like binary systems, in which the rotation period of the ellipsoid is nearly equal to that of the mutual orbit. Meanwhile, the results confirm a positive correlation between the spinning rate of the ellipsoid and the probability of the escape and flyby trajectories. The LCS also reveal a marked increase in trajectory diversity after a larger initial energy is selected.

  14. Asynchronous glaciations in arid continental climate (United States)

    Batbaatar, Jigjidsurengiin; Gillespie, Alan R.; Fink, David; Matmon, Ari; Fujioka, Toshiyuki


    Mountain glaciers at ∼26-19 ka, during the global Last Glacial Maximum near the end of the last 105 yr glacial cycle, are commonly considered on the basis of dating and field mapping in several well-studied areas to have been the largest of the late Quaternary and to have advanced synchronously from region to region. However, a numerical sensitivity model (Rupper and Roe, 2008) predicts that the fraction of ablation due to melting varies across Central Asia in proportion to the annual precipitation. The equilibrium-line altitude of glaciers across this region likely varies accordingly: in high altitude, cold and arid regions sublimation can ablate most of the ice, whereas glaciers fed by high precipitation cannot ablate completely due to sublimation alone, but extend downhill until higher temperatures there cause them to melt. We have conducted field studies and 10Be dating at five glaciated sites along a precipitation gradient in Mongolia to test the Rupper/Roe model. The sites are located in nearby 1.875 × 1.875° cells of the Rupper/Roe model, each with a different melt fraction, in this little-studied region. The modern environment of the sites ranges from dry subhumid in the north (47.7° N) to arid in the south (45° N). Our findings show that the maximum local advances in the dry subhumid conditions predated the global Last Glacial Maximum and were likely from MIS 3. However, we also found that at ∼8-7 ka a cirque glacier in one mountain range of the arid Gobi desert grew to a magnitude comparable to that of the local maximum extent. This Holocene maximum occurred during a regional pluvial period thousands of years after the retreat of the Pleistocene glaciers globally. This asynchronous behavior is not predicted by the prevailing and generally correct presumption that glacier advances are dominantly driven by temperature, although precipitation also plays a role. Our findings are consistent with and support the Rupper/Roe model, which calls for

  15. Asynchronous Two-Way Relaying Networks Using Distributed Differential Space-Time Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Qian


    Full Text Available A signal detection scheme is proposed for two-way relaying network (TWRN using distributed differential space-time coding (DDSTC under imperfect synchronization. Unlike most of existing work, which assumed perfect synchronization and channel state information (CSI at all nodes, a more realistic scenario is investigated here by considering the signals transmitted from the two source nodes arriving at the relay not exactly at the same time due to the distributed nature of the nodes, and no CSI is available at any node. The proposed signal detection scheme is then demonstrated to remove the imperfect synchronization effect significantly through simulation results. Furthermore, pairwise error probability (PEP of the asynchronous TWRN is analyzed and derived for both source nodes. Based on the simplified PEP expression, an optimum power allocation (OPA scheme is then determined to further improve the whole system performance, when neither the source nor the relay has any knowledge of the CSI.

  16. Wireless Networks with Asynchronous Users

    CERN Document Server

    Moshksar, Kamyar


    This paper addresses an interference channel consisting of $\\mathbf{n}$ active users sharing $u$ frequency sub-bands. Users are asynchronous meaning there exists a mutual delay between their transmitted codes. A stationary model for interference is considered by assuming the starting point of an interferer's data is uniformly distributed along the codeword of any user. This model is not ergodic, however, we show that the noise plus interference process satisfies an Asymptotic Equipartition Property (AEP) under certain conditions. This enables us to define achievable rates in the conventional Shannon sense. The spectrum is divided to private and common bands. Each user occupies its assigned private band and the common band upon activation. In a scenario where all transmitters are unaware of the number of active users and the channel gains, the optimum spectrum assignment is obtained such that the so-called outage capacity per user is maximized. If $\\Pr\\{\\mathbf{n}>2\\}>0$, all users follow a locally Randomized ...

  17. The rediscovery of synchronous reluctance and ferrite permanent magnet motors tutorial course notes

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrino, Gianmario; Bianchi, Nicola; Soong, Wen; Cupertino, Francesco


    This book offers an essential compendium on the analysis and design of synchronous motors for variable-speed applications. Focusing on synchronous reluctance and ferrite permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous reluctance machines, it provides a broad perspective on three-phase machines for variable speed applications, a field currently dominated by asynchronous machines and rare-earth PM synchronous machines. It also describes synchronous reluctance machines and PM machines without rare-earth materials, comparing them to state-of-the-art solutions. The book provides readers with extensive information on and finite element models of PM synchronous machines, including all relevant equations and with an emphasis on synchronous-reluctance and PM-assisted synchronous-reluctance machines. It covers ferrite-assisted machines, modeled as a subcase of PM-assistance, fractional slot combinations solutions, and a quantitative, normalized comparison of torque capability with benchmark PM machines. The book discusses a wealth o...

  18. Realistic modelling of the effects of asynchronous motion at the base of bridge piers

    CERN Document Server

    Romanelli, F; Vaccari, F


    Frequently long-span bridges provide deep valley crossings, which require special consideration due to the possibility of local amplification of the ground motion as a consequence of topographical irregularities and local soil conditions. This does in fact cause locally enhanced seismic input with the possibility for the bridge piers to respond asynchronously. This introduces special design requirements so that possible out-of-phase ground displacements and the associated large relative displacements of adjacent piers can be accommodated without excessive damage. Assessment of the local variability of the ground motion due to local lateral heterogeneities and to attenuation properties is thus crucial toward the realistic definition of the asynchronous motion at the base of the bridge piers. We illustrate the work done in the framework of a large international cooperation to assess the importance of non-synchronous seismic excitation of long structures. To accomplish this task we compute complete synthetic acc...

  19. Surface-distributed low-frequency asynchronous stimulation delays fatigue of stimulated muscles. (United States)

    Maneski, Lana Z Popović; Malešević, Nebojša M; Savić, Andrej M; Keller, Thierry; Popović, Dejan B


    One important reason why functional electrical stimulation (FES) has not gained widespread clinical use is the limitation imposed by rapid muscle fatigue due to non-physiological activation of the stimulated muscles. We aimed to show that asynchronous low-pulse-rate (LPR) electrical stimulation applied by multipad surface electrodes greatly postpones the occurrence of muscle fatigue compared with conventional stimulation (high pulse rate, HPR). We compared the produced force vs. time of the forearm muscles responsible for finger flexion in 2 stimulation protocols, LPR (fL = 10 Hz) and HPR (fH = 40 Hz). Surface-distributed low-frequency asynchronous stimulation (sDLFAS) doubles the time interval before the onset of fatigue (104 ± 80%) compared with conventional synchronous stimulation. Combining the performance of multipad electrodes (increased selectivity and facilitated positioning) with sDLFAS (decreased fatigue) can improve many FES applications in both the lower and upper extremities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques for the Control of the Asynchronous Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Khammar


    Full Text Available The induction machine is experiencing a growing success for two decades by gradually replacing the DC machines and synchronous in many industrial applications. This paper is devoted to the study of advanced methods applied to the command of the asynchronous machine in order to obtain a system of control of high performance. While the criteria for response time, overtaking, and static error can be assured by the techniques of conventional control, the criterion of robustness remains a challenge for researchers. This criterion can be satisfied only by applying advanced techniques of command. After mathematical modeling of the asynchronous machine, it defines the control strategies based on the orientation of the rotor flux. The results of the different simulation tests highlight the properties of robustness of algorithms proposed and suggested to compare the different control strategies.

  1. Remote Asynchronous Message Service Gateway (United States)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan; Burleigh, Scott C.


    The Remote Asynchronous Message Service (RAMS) gateway is a special-purpose AMS application node that enables exchange of AMS messages between nodes residing in different AMS "continua," notionally in different geographical locations. JPL s implementation of RAMS gateway functionality is integrated with the ION (Interplanetary Overlay Network) implementation of the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) bundle protocol, and with JPL s implementation of AMS itself. RAMS protocol data units are encapsulated in ION bundles and are forwarded to the neighboring RAMS gateways identified in the source gateway s AMS management information base. Each RAMS gateway has interfaces in two communication environments: the AMS message space it serves, and the RAMS network - the grid or tree of mutually aware RAMS gateways - that enables AMS messages produced in one message space to be forwarded to other message spaces of the same venture. Each gateway opens persistent, private RAMS network communication channels to the RAMS gateways of other message spaces for the same venture, in other continua. The interconnected RAMS gateways use these communication channels to forward message petition assertions and cancellations among themselves. Each RAMS gateway subscribes locally to all subjects that are of interest in any of the linked message spaces. On receiving its copy of a message on any of these subjects, the RAMS gateway node uses the RAMS network to forward the message to every other RAMS gateway whose message space contains at least one node that has subscribed to messages on that subject. On receiving a message via the RAMS network from some other RAMS gateway, the RAMS gateway node forwards the message to all subscribers in its own message space.

  2. Self-synchronization and controlled synchronization


    Nijmeijer, H Henk; Blekhman, I; Fradkov, AL Alexander; Pogromsky, AY Sasha


    An attempt is made to give a general formalism for synchronization in dynamical systems encompassing most of the known definitions and applications. The proposed set-up describes synchronization of interconnected systems with respect to a set of functionals and captures peculiarities of both self-synchronization and controlled synchronization. Various illustrative examples are given

  3. Exoplanet dynamics. Asynchronous rotation of Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone of lower-mass stars. (United States)

    Leconte, Jérémy; Wu, Hanbo; Menou, Kristen; Murray, Norman


    Planets in the habitable zone of lower-mass stars are often assumed to be in a state of tidally synchronized rotation, which would considerably affect their putative habitability. Although thermal tides cause Venus to rotate retrogradely, simple scaling arguments tend to attribute this peculiarity to the massive Venusian atmosphere. Using a global climate model, we show that even a relatively thin atmosphere can drive terrestrial planets' rotation away from synchronicity. We derive a more realistic atmospheric tide model that predicts four asynchronous equilibrium spin states, two being stable, when the amplitude of the thermal tide exceeds a threshold that is met for habitable Earth-like planets with a 1-bar atmosphere around stars more massive than ~0.5 to 0.7 solar mass. Thus, many recently discovered terrestrial planets could exhibit asynchronous spin-orbit rotation, even with a thin atmosphere. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Asynchronous Task-Based Parallelization of Algebraic Multigrid

    KAUST Repository

    AlOnazi, Amani A.


    As processor clock rates become more dynamic and workloads become more adaptive, the vulnerability to global synchronization that already complicates programming for performance in today\\'s petascale environment will be exacerbated. Algebraic multigrid (AMG), the solver of choice in many large-scale PDE-based simulations, scales well in the weak sense, with fixed problem size per node, on tightly coupled systems when loads are well balanced and core performance is reliable. However, its strong scaling to many cores within a node is challenging. Reducing synchronization and increasing concurrency are vital adaptations of AMG to hybrid architectures. Recent communication-reducing improvements to classical additive AMG by Vassilevski and Yang improve concurrency and increase communication-computation overlap, while retaining convergence properties close to those of standard multiplicative AMG, but remain bulk synchronous.We extend the Vassilevski and Yang additive AMG to asynchronous task-based parallelism using a hybrid MPI+OmpSs (from the Barcelona Supercomputer Center) within a node, along with MPI for internode communications. We implement a tiling approach to decompose the grid hierarchy into parallel units within task containers. We compare against the MPI-only BoomerAMG and the Auxiliary-space Maxwell Solver (AMS) in the hypre library for the 3D Laplacian operator and the electromagnetic diffusion, respectively. In time to solution for a full solve an MPI-OmpSs hybrid improves over an all-MPI approach in strong scaling at full core count (32 threads per single Haswell node of the Cray XC40) and maintains this per node advantage as both weak scale to thousands of cores, with MPI between nodes.

  5. Asynchronous P300-based brain-computer interface to control a virtual environment: initial tests on end users. (United States)

    Aloise, Fabio; Schettini, Francesca; Aricò, Pietro; Salinari, Serenella; Guger, Christoph; Rinsma, Johanna; Aiello, Marco; Mattia, Donatella; Cincotti, Febo


    Motor disability and/or ageing can prevent individuals from fully enjoying home facilities, thus worsening their quality of life. Advances in the field of accessible user interfaces for domotic appliances can represent a valuable way to improve the independence of these persons. An asynchronous P300-based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) system was recently validated with the participation of healthy young volunteers for environmental control. In this study, the asynchronous P300-based BCI for the interaction with a virtual home environment was tested with the participation of potential end-users (clients of a Frisian home care organization) with limited autonomy due to ageing and/or motor disabilities. System testing revealed that the minimum number of stimulation sequences needed to achieve correct classification had a higher intra-subject variability in potential end-users with respect to what was previously observed in young controls. Here we show that the asynchronous modality performed significantly better as compared to the synchronous mode in continuously adapting its speed to the users' state. Furthermore, the asynchronous system modality confirmed its reliability in avoiding misclassifications and false positives, as previously shown in young healthy subjects. The asynchronous modality may contribute to filling the usability gap between BCI systems and traditional input devices, representing an important step towards their use in the activities of daily living.

  6. An Asynchronous Low Power and High Performance VLSI Architecture for Viterbi Decoder Implemented with Quasi Delay Insensitive Templates. (United States)

    Devi, T Kalavathi; Palaniappan, Sakthivel


    Convolutional codes are comprehensively used as Forward Error Correction (FEC) codes in digital communication systems. For decoding of convolutional codes at the receiver end, Viterbi decoder is often used to have high priority. This decoder meets the demand of high speed and low power. At present, the design of a competent system in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology requires these VLSI parameters to be finely defined. The proposed asynchronous method focuses on reducing the power consumption of Viterbi decoder for various constraint lengths using asynchronous modules. The asynchronous designs are based on commonly used Quasi Delay Insensitive (QDI) templates, namely, Precharge Half Buffer (PCHB) and Weak Conditioned Half Buffer (WCHB). The functionality of the proposed asynchronous design is simulated and verified using Tanner Spice (TSPICE) in 0.25 µm, 65 nm, and 180 nm technologies of Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacture Company (TSMC). The simulation result illustrates that the asynchronous design techniques have 25.21% of power reduction compared to synchronous design and work at a speed of 475 MHz.

  7. An Asynchronous Low Power and High Performance VLSI Architecture for Viterbi Decoder Implemented with Quasi Delay Insensitive Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kalavathi Devi


    Full Text Available Convolutional codes are comprehensively used as Forward Error Correction (FEC codes in digital communication systems. For decoding of convolutional codes at the receiver end, Viterbi decoder is often used to have high priority. This decoder meets the demand of high speed and low power. At present, the design of a competent system in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI technology requires these VLSI parameters to be finely defined. The proposed asynchronous method focuses on reducing the power consumption of Viterbi decoder for various constraint lengths using asynchronous modules. The asynchronous designs are based on commonly used Quasi Delay Insensitive (QDI templates, namely, Precharge Half Buffer (PCHB and Weak Conditioned Half Buffer (WCHB. The functionality of the proposed asynchronous design is simulated and verified using Tanner Spice (TSPICE in 0.25 µm, 65 nm, and 180 nm technologies of Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacture Company (TSMC. The simulation result illustrates that the asynchronous design techniques have 25.21% of power reduction compared to synchronous design and work at a speed of 475 MHz.

  8. Virtually-synchronous communication based on a weak failure suspector (United States)

    Schiper, Andre; Ricciardi, Aleta


    Failure detectors (or, more accurately Failure Suspectors (FS)) appear to be a fundamental service upon which to build fault-tolerant, distributed applications. This paper shows that a FS with very weak semantics (i.e., that delivers failure and recovery information in no specific order) suffices to implement virtually-synchronous communication (VSC) in an asynchronous system subject to process crash failures and network partitions. The VSC paradigm is particularly useful in asynchronous systems and greatly simplifies building fault-tolerant applications that mask failures by replicating processes. We suggest a three-component architecture to implement virtually-synchronous communication: (1) at the lowest level, the FS component; (2) on top of it, a component (2a) that defines new views; and (3) a component (2b) that reliably multicasts messages within a view. The issues covered in this paper also lead to a better understanding of the various membership service semantics proposed in recent literature.

  9. Asynchronous Message Service Reference Implementation (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.


    This software provides a library of middleware functions with a simple application programming interface, enabling implementation of distributed applications in conformance with the CCSDS AMS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Asynchronous Message Service) specification. The AMS service, and its protocols, implement an architectural concept under which the modules of mission systems may be designed as if they were to operate in isolation, each one producing and consuming mission information without explicit awareness of which other modules are currently operating. Communication relationships among such modules are self-configuring; this tends to minimize complexity in the development and operations of modular data systems. A system built on this model is a society of generally autonomous, inter-operating modules that may fluctuate freely over time in response to changing mission objectives, modules functional upgrades, and recovery from individual module failure. The purpose of AMS, then, is to reduce mission cost and risk by providing standard, reusable infrastructure for the exchange of information among data system modules in a manner that is simple to use, highly automated, flexible, robust, scalable, and efficient. The implementation is designed to spawn multiple threads of AMS functionality under the control of an AMS application program. These threads enable all members of an AMS-based, distributed application to discover one another in real time, subscribe to messages on specific topics, and to publish messages on specific topics. The query/reply (client/server) communication model is also supported. Message exchange is optionally subject to encryption (to support confidentiality) and authorization. Fault tolerance measures in the discovery protocol minimize the likelihood of overall application failure due to any single operational error anywhere in the system. The multi-threaded design simplifies processing while enabling application nodes to

  10. Handbook of asynchronous machines with variable speed

    CERN Document Server

    Razik, Hubert


    This handbook deals with the asynchronous machine in its close environment. It was born from a reflection on this electromagnetic converter whose integration in industrial environments takes a wide part. Previously this type of motor operated at fixed speed, from now on it has been integrated more and more in processes at variable speed. For this reason it seemed useful, or necessary, to write a handbook on the various aspects from the motor in itself, via the control and while finishing by the diagnosis aspect. Indeed, an asynchronous motor is used nowadays in industry where variation speed a

  11. Synchronization of Integrated Systems on a Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Díaz O.


    Full Text Available In the present paper, the non-conventional interconnected and coupled ring oscillators approach working as clock distribution networks to synchronize electronic systems on a chip (SoC is proposed. Typical CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor N-well 0.35 µm Austria Micro Systems process parameters were used for conventional and non-conventional clock distribution nets design and simulation. Experimental results from local and global clock distribution networks fabricated using a CMOS 0.35 µm process show that the use of interconnected rings arrays, as globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS clock distribution networks, represent an appropriate approach due to good performance regarding scalability, low clock-skew, high-speed, faults tolerant and robust under process variations, regularity, and modularity.

  12. Synchronization behind the formation of Orbital Systems (United States)

    Ruda, Jennifer; Abrams, Daniel


    This paper aims to gain a greater understanding of why planetary and galactic orbital systems form as either synchronous or asynchronous systems. We simulate the orbiting particles and their movements. We believe that it is possible Kuramoto's model for synchronization can be used to explain the behavior of the particles orbiting about the larger mass object. We believe that the difference between synchrony and asynchrony will be a function of parameters for the system. We examine the effect the parameters have on the order parameter, defined by the Kuramoto model. We additionally examine the simplest system, one with two orbiting particles. We see that there are equilibrium points, indicating the possibility of both synchrony and asynchrony, depending on the system parameters. Our results merit further investigation into the equilibrium of the system with a large number of particles.

  13. Renewal Approach to the Analysis of the Asynchronous State for Coupled Noisy Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Farkhooi, Farzad


    We develop a framework in which the activity of nonlinear pulse-coupled oscillators is posed within the renewal theory. In this approach, the evolution of inter-event density allows for a self-consistent calculation that determines the asynchronous state and its stability. This framework, can readily be extended to the analysis of systems with more state variables. To exhibit this, we study a nonlinear pulse-coupled system, where couplings are dynamic and activity dependent. We investigate stability of this system and we show it undergoes a super-critical Hopf bifurcation to collective synchronization.

  14. Growth inhibition mediated by PSP94 or CRISP-3 is prostate cancer cell line specific. (United States)

    Pathak, Bhakti R; Breed, Ananya A; Nakhawa, Vaishali H; Jagtap, Dhanashree D; Mahale, Smita D


    The prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94) has been shown to interact with cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) in human seminal plasma. Interestingly, PSP94 expression is reduced or lost in the majority of the prostate tumours, whereas CRISP-3 expression is upregulated in prostate cancer compared with normal prostate tissue. To obtain a better understanding of the individual roles these proteins have in prostate tumourigenesis and the functional relevance of their interaction, we ectopically expressed either PSP94 or CRISP-3 alone or PSP94 along with CRISP-3 in three prostate cell lines (PC3, WPE1-NB26 and LNCaP) and performed growth inhibition assays. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to screen prostate cell lines for PSP94 and CRISP-3 expression. Mammalian expression constructs for human PSP94 and CRISP-3 were also generated and the expression, localization and secretion of recombinant protein were assayed by transfection followed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay. The effect that ectopic expression of PSP94 or CRISP-3 had on cell growth was studied by clonogenic survival assay following transfection. To evaluate the effects of co-expression of the two proteins, stable clones of PC3 that expressed PSP94 were generated. They were subsequently transfected with a CRISP-3 expression construct and subjected to clonogenic survival assay. Our results showed that PSP94 and CRISP-3 could each induce growth inhibition in a cell line specific manner. Although the growth of CRISP-3-positive cell lines was inhibited by PSP94, growth inhibition mediated by CRISP-3 was not affected by the presence or absence of PSP94. This suggests that CRISP-3 may participate in PSP94-independent activities during prostate tumourigenesis.

  15. The control system of synchronous movement of the gantry crane supports (United States)

    Odnokopylov, I. G.; Gneushev, V. V.; Galtseva, O. V.; Natalinova, N. M.; Li, J.; Serebryakov, D. I.


    The paper presents study findings on synchronization of the gantry crane support movement. Asynchrony moving speed bearings may lead to an emergency mode at the natural rate of deformed metal structure alignment. The use of separate control of asynchronous motors with the vector control method allows synchronizing the movement speed of crane supports and achieving a balance between the motors. Simulation results of various control systems are described. Recommendations regarding the system further application are given.

  16. Asynchronous parallel search in global optimization problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archetti, F.; Schoen, F.


    A class of asynchronous parallel search methods is proposed in order to solve the global optimization problem on a multiprocessor system, consisting of several processors which can communicate through a set of global variables contained in a memory shared by all processors. The speed-up ratio and memory contension effects are experimentally analyzed for some algorithms of this class. 6 references.

  17. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.


    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  18. Increasing Student Engagement Using Asynchronous Learning (United States)

    Northey, Gavin; Bucic, Tania; Chylinski, Mathew; Govind, Rahul


    Student engagement is an ongoing concern for educators because of its positive association with deep learning and educational outcomes. This article tests the use of a social networking site (Facebook) as a tool to facilitate asynchronous learning opportunities that complement face-to-face interactions and thereby enable a stronger learning…

  19. E-Moderation of Synchronous Discussions in Educational Settings: A Nascent Practice (United States)

    Schwarz, Baruch B.; Asterhan, Christa S.


    E-moderation has been a common practice in asynchronous discussions of postsecondary courses. We consider here e-moderation of synchronous discussions in the school context. We adopt a design research approach to elaborate an environment, the Argunaut system, that fits the reality of classrooms in which moderation of several small-group…

  20. Physical Educators' Perspectives on Instructional Methodology of Synchronous Distance Professional Development (United States)

    Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Derri, Vassiliki


    Teachers' continuing professional development, that is an essential part of their professional career, is the subject of constant demand of them and of each educational reform interest. The rapid growth of technology and the choices of teaching and learning that it provides give possibilities for synchronous and asynchronous methods of distance…

  1. A Low-Power Asynchronous Step-Down DC-DC Converter for Implantable Devices. (United States)

    Al-Terkawi Hasib, Omar; Sawan, M; Savaria, Y


    In this paper, we present a fully integrated asynchronous step-down switched capacitor dc-dc conversion structure suitable for supporting ultra-low-power circuits commonly found in biomedical implants. The proposed converter uses a fully digital asynchronous state machine as the heart of the control circuitry to generate the drive signals. To minimize the switching losses, the asynchronous controller scales the switching frequency of the drive signals according to the loading conditions. It also turns on additional parallel switches when needed and has a backup synchronous drive mode. This circuit regulates load voltages from 300 mV to 1.1 V derived from a 1.2-V input voltage. A total of 350 pF on-chip capacitance was implemented to support a maximum of 230-μ W load power, while providing efficiency up to 80%. The circuit validating the proposed concepts was fabricated in 0.13- μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. Experimental test results confirm the expected functionality and performance of the proposed circuit.

  2. Diagnosis of hearing loss using automated audiometry in an asynchronous telehealth model: A pilot accuracy study. (United States)

    Brennan-Jones, Christopher G; Eikelboom, Robert H; Swanepoel, De Wet


    Introduction Standard criteria exist for diagnosing different types of hearing loss, yet audiologists interpret audiograms manually. This pilot study examined the feasibility of standardised interpretations of audiometry in a telehealth model of care. The aim of this study was to examine diagnostic accuracy of automated audiometry in adults with hearing loss in an asynchronous telehealth model using pre-defined diagnostic protocols. Materials and methods We recruited 42 study participants from a public audiology and otolaryngology clinic in Perth, Western Australia. Manual audiometry was performed by an audiologist either before or after automated audiometry. Diagnostic protocols were applied asynchronously for normal hearing, disabling hearing loss, conductive hearing loss and unilateral hearing loss. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were conducted using a two-by-two matrix and Cohen's kappa was used to measure agreement. Results The overall sensitivity for the diagnostic criteria was 0.88 (range: 0.86-1) and overall specificity was 0.93 (range: 0.86-0.97). Overall kappa ( k) agreement was 'substantial' k = 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.89) and significant at p audiometry provide accurate identification of disabling, conductive and unilateral hearing loss. This method has the potential to improve synchronous and asynchronous tele-audiology service delivery.

  3. Blended synchronous learning environment: Student perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conklina Sheri


    Full Text Available Distance education environments can take many forms, from asynchronous to blended synchronous environments. Blended synchronous learning environment (BSLE can be defined as an innovative setting in which students can decide to attend classes either face-to-face or via a synchronous virtual connection. Many educators are unfamiliar teaching in BSLE because of lack of experience or exposure to this delivery method. Thus, it is important to understand the optimal organisational structures and the effective management of BSLE courses to facilitate student learning and interaction. Seeking to understand this teaching method, an exploratory mixed-method study was conducted to examine graduate students’ perceptions of the BSLE. Quantitative and qualitative data was collected from a questionnaire and analysed. The findings revealed that students were satisfied with the BSLE, interactions, and the instructor. However, findings showed that the instructor divided attention between face-to-face and online synchronous students, which can cause cognitive overload and compromise the quality of instruction. Additionally, this study suggests that technical difficulties can affect students’ satisfaction with BSLE courses. Implications for further research and limitations are discussed.

  4. Asynchronous interpretation of manual and automated audiometry: Agreement and reliability. (United States)

    Brennan-Jones, Christopher G; Eikelboom, Robert H; Bennett, Rebecca J; Tao, Karina Fm; Swanepoel, De Wet


    Introduction Remote interpretation of automated audiometry offers the potential to enable asynchronous tele-audiology assessment and diagnosis in areas where synchronous tele-audiometry may not be possible or practical. The aim of this study was to compare remote interpretation of manual and automated audiometry. Methods Five audiologists each interpreted manual and automated audiograms obtained from 42 patients. The main outcome variable was the audiologist's recommendation for patient management (which included treatment recommendations, referral or discharge) between the manual and automated audiometry test. Cohen's Kappa and Krippendorff's Alpha were used to calculate and quantify the intra- and inter-observer agreement, respectively, and McNemar's test was used to assess the audiologist-rated accuracy of audiograms. Audiograms were randomised and audiologists were blinded as to whether they were interpreting a manual or automated audiogram. Results Intra-observer agreement was substantial for management outcomes when comparing interpretations for manual and automated audiograms. Inter-observer agreement was moderate between clinicians for determining management decisions when interpreting both manual and automated audiograms. Audiologists were 2.8 times more likely to question the accuracy of an automated audiogram compared to a manual audiogram. Discussion There is a lack of agreement between audiologists when interpreting audiograms, whether recorded with automated or manual audiometry. The main variability in remote audiogram interpretation is likely to be individual clinician variation, rather than automation.

  5. Sparse asynchronous cortical generators can produce measurable scalp EEG signals. (United States)

    von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Dan, Jonathan; Frauscher, Birgit; Gotman, Jean


    We investigate to what degree the synchronous activation of a smooth patch of cortex is necessary for observing EEG scalp activity. We perform extensive simulations to compare the activity generated on the scalp by different models of cortical activation, based on intracranial EEG findings reported in the literature. The spatial activation is modeled as a cortical patch of constant activation or as random sets of small generators (0.1 to 3cm(2) each) concentrated in a cortical region. Temporal activation models for the generation of oscillatory activity are either equal phase or random phase across the cortical patches. The results show that smooth or random spatial activation profiles produce scalp electric potential distributions with the same shape. Also, in the generation of oscillatory activity, multiple cortical generators with random phase produce scalp activity attenuated on average only 2 to 4 times compared to generators with equal phase. Sparse asynchronous cortical generators can produce measurable scalp EEG. This is a possible explanation for seemingly paradoxical observations of simultaneous disorganized intracranial activity and scalp EEG signals. Thus, the standard interpretation of scalp EEG might constitute an oversimplification of the underlying brain activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High frame rate ultrasound monitoring of high intensity focused ultrasound-induced temperature changes: a novel asynchronous approach. (United States)

    Liu, Hao-Li; Huang, Sheng-Min; Li, Meng-Lin


    When applying diagnostic ultrasound to guide focused ultrasound (FUS) thermal therapy, high frame rate ultrasonic temperature monitoring is valuable in better treatment control and dose monitoring. However, one of the potential problems encountered when performing ultrasonic temperature monitoring of a FUS procedure is interference between the FUS and imaging systems. Potential means of overcoming this problem include the switch between the FUS system and the imaging system (limited by a reduced frame rate of thermal imaging) or the development of complex synchronization protocols between the FUS therapeutic system and the ultrasonic imaging apparatus (limited by implementation efforts both for software and hardware designs, and low potential for widespread diffusion). In this paper, we apply an asynchronous idea to retrieving high frame rate and FUS-interference-free thermal imaging during FUS thermal therapy. Tone-burst delivery mode of the FUS energy is employed in our method, and the imaging and FUS systems are purposely operated in an asynchronous manner. Such asynchronous operation causes FUS interference to saturate sequential image frames at different A-lines; thus clean A-lines from several image frames can be extracted by a total energy-thresholding technique and then combined to reconstruct interference-free B-mode images at a high frame rate for temperature estimation. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by phantom experiments. Relationships of the FUS duty-cycle with the maximum reconstructed frame rate of thermal imaging and the corresponding maximum temperature increase are also studied. Its performance was also evaluated and compared with the existing manually synchronous and synchronous approaches. By proper selection of the FUS duty-cycle, using our method, the frame rate of thermal imaging can be increased up to tenfold compared with that provided by the manually synchronous approach. Our method is capable of pushing the frame

  7. Asynchronous spread spectrum communication paradigm for use in low-power applications: description and simulation results (United States)

    Welch, E. B.; Holmes, David R., III; Coker, Jonathan D.; Schaefer, Timothy M.; Gilbert, Barry K.; Daniel, Erik S.


    Contemporary wireless communication strategies focus on efficient use of bandwidth in order to allow more users to exploit the RF spectrum through techniques like Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (SS) and Direct-sequence SS. In many real-world applications, these methods are implemented for synchronous communication systems. To achieve synchronous communication, two-way handshaking that requires overhead circuitry is performed between the sender and receiver. In order to use spread spectrum methods for certain unconstrained and low-power applications, such as implantable and remote monitoring devices, it is necessary to refine these methods to support asynchronous communication. We have designed and modeled a SS system, which could be integrated with a custom integrated circuit that would provide elementary multi-user communication. The SS logic generates a gold-code based on address and data bits that is then modulated with a carrier to transmit the information. Because the system is asynchronous, we treat each transmitted code as an independent piece of information. The receiver decodes the information using a full correlation with the ideal known gold-codes. For efficiency purposes, the filter is applied in the frequency domain. A threshold is applied to the output of the filter to determine if a particular code is transmitted as well as the point in time/space from which the signal was sent. The method was simulated and evaluated under several scenarios including different carrier frequencies, multiple targets, and various positions relative to the receiver from the simulated receiver. The results demonstrate the utility of asynchronous SS under many different conditions.

  8. Evaluating the influence of ventilation and ventilation-compression synchronization on chest compression force and depth during simulated neonatal resuscitation. (United States)

    Dellimore, K H; Scheffer, C; Smith, J; Van Den Heever, D J; Lloyd, D L


    To investigate the influence of ventilation and ventilation-compression synchronization on compression force and sternal displacement during simulated neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (NCPR) on an infant manikin. Five Neonatal Resuscitation Program trained clinicians were recruited to perform simulated NCPR on an infant manikin using two-finger (TF) and two-thumb (TT) compression, with synchronous and asynchronous ventilation, as well as without ventilation. The sternal displacement and force were recorded and analyzed. Synchronous ventilation and compression yielded sternal displacements and forces in the range of 22.8-32.4 mm and 15.0-29.8 N, respectively, while asynchronous ventilation and compression produced depths and forces in the range of 21.2-32.4 mm and 14.0-28.8 N, respectively. Ventilation exerts a significant influence on sternal displacement and force during simulated NCPR, regardless of the compression method used. Ventilation-compression synchronization, however, is only significant during TF compression with lower compression forces measured during synchronous ventilation than in asynchronous ventilation. This occurs for two reasons: (i) the strong influence of ventilation forces on the lower magnitude compression forces produced during TF compression relative to TT compression and (ii) in asynchronous ventilation, compression and ventilation may occur simultaneously, with inflation and deflation providing an opposing force to the applied compression force.

  9. Verification of Building Blocks for Asynchronous Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek Verbeek


    Full Text Available Scalable formal verification constitutes an important challenge for the design of asynchronous circuits. Deadlock freedom is a property that is desired but hard to verify. It is an emergent property that has to be verified monolithically. We present our approach to using ACL2 to verify necessary and sufficient conditions over asynchronous delay-insensitive primitives. These conditions are used to derive SAT/SMT instances from circuits built out of these primitives. These SAT/SMT instances help in establishing absence of deadlocks. Our verification effort consists of building an executable checker in the ACL2 logic tailored for our purpose. We prove that this checker is correct. This approach enables us to prove ACL2 theorems involving defun-sk constructs and free variables fully automatically.

  10. Asynchronous Gossip for Averaging and Spectral Ranking (United States)

    Borkar, Vivek S.; Makhijani, Rahul; Sundaresan, Rajesh


    We consider two variants of the classical gossip algorithm. The first variant is a version of asynchronous stochastic approximation. We highlight a fundamental difficulty associated with the classical asynchronous gossip scheme, viz., that it may not converge to a desired average, and suggest an alternative scheme based on reinforcement learning that has guaranteed convergence to the desired average. We then discuss a potential application to a wireless network setting with simultaneous link activation constraints. The second variant is a gossip algorithm for distributed computation of the Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of a nonnegative matrix. While the first variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for an average cost controlled Markov decision problem, the second variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for risk-sensitive control. We then discuss potential applications of the second variant to ranking schemes, reputation networks, and principal component analysis.

  11. Computing by Temporal Order: Asynchronous Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vielhaber


    Full Text Available Our concern is the behaviour of the elementary cellular automata with state set 0,1 over the cell set Z/nZ (one-dimensional finite wrap-around case, under all possible update rules (asynchronicity. Over the torus Z/nZ (n<= 11,we will see that the ECA with Wolfram rule 57 maps any v in F_2^n to any w in F_2^n, varying the update rule. We furthermore show that all even (element of the alternating group bijective functions on the set F_2^n = 0,...,2^n-1, can be computed by ECA57, by iterating it a sufficient number of times with varying update rules, at least for n <= 10. We characterize the non-bijective functions computable by asynchronous rules.

  12. Overview of Cell Synchronization. (United States)

    Banfalvi, Gaspar


    The widespread interest in cell synchronization is maintained by the studies of control mechanism involved in cell cycle regulation. During the synchronization distinct subpopulations of cells are obtained representing different stages of the cell cycle. These subpopulations are then used to study regulatory mechanisms of the cycle at the level of macromolecular biosynthesis (DNA synthesis, gene expression, protein synthesis), protein phosphorylation, development of new drugs, etc. Although several synchronization methods have been described, it is of general interest that scientists get a compilation and an updated view of these synchronization techniques. This introductory chapter summarizes: (1) the basic concepts and principal criteria of cell cycle synchronizations, (2) the most frequently used synchronization methods, such as physical fractionation (flow cytometry, dielectrophoresis, cytofluorometric purification), chemical blockade, (3) synchronization of embryonic cells, (4) synchronization at low temperature, (5) comparison of cell synchrony techniques, (6) synchronization of unicellular organisms, and (7) the effect of synchronization on transfection.

  13. Asynchronous Communication Scheme For Hypercube Computer (United States)

    Madan, Herb S.


    Scheme devised for asynchronous-message communication system for Mark III hypercube concurrent-processor network. Network consists of up to 1,024 processing elements connected electrically as though were at corners of 10-dimensional cube. Each node contains two Motorola 68020 processors along with Motorola 68881 floating-point processor utilizing up to 4 megabytes of shared dynamic random-access memory. Scheme intended to support applications requiring passage of both polled or solicited and unsolicited messages.

  14. Control or non-control state: that is the question! An asynchronous visual P300-based BCI approach (United States)

    Pinegger, Andreas; Faller, Josef; Halder, Sebastian; Wriessnegger, Selina C.; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.


    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) based on event-related potentials (ERP) were proven to be a reliable synchronous communication method. For everyday life situations, however, this synchronous mode is impractical because the system will deliver a selection even if the user is not paying attention to the stimulation. So far, research into attention-aware visual ERP-BCIs (i.e., asynchronous ERP-BCIs) has led to variable success. In this study, we investigate new approaches for detection of user engagement. Approach. Classifier output and frequency-domain features of electroencephalogram signals as well as the hybridization of them were used to detect the user's state. We tested their capabilities for state detection in different control scenarios on offline data from 21 healthy volunteers. Main results. The hybridization of classifier output and frequency-domain features outperformed the results of the single methods, and allowed building an asynchronous P300-based BCI with an average correct state detection accuracy of more than 95%. Significance. Our results show that all introduced approaches for state detection in an asynchronous P300-based BCI can effectively avoid involuntary selections, and that the hybrid method is the most effective approach.

  15. Synchronization challenges in packet-based Cloud-RAN fronthaul for mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Juul, Anders Christian; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann


    In this paper, we look at reusing existing packet-based network (e.g. Ethernet) to possibly decrease deployment costs of fronthaul Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) network and cost of Baseband Unit (BBU) resources. The challenge of this solution is that it requires mobile traffic (until now...... transmitted over synchronous protocols) to traverse the asynchronous Ethernet without losing synchronization. We analyze synchronization requirements of mobile networks and present an overview of solutions that fulfill them in traditional mobile networks. Then we elaborate on challenges that packet...... bridge the gap between Ethernet and mobile network domains creating a comprehensive architectural analysis....

  16. EPOS for Coordination of Asynchronous Sensor Webs Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop, integrate, and deploy software-based tools to coordinate asynchronous, distributed missions and optimize observation planning spanning simultaneous...

  17. Highly Scalable Asynchronous Computing Method for Partial Differential Equations: A Path Towards Exascale (United States)

    Konduri, Aditya

    Many natural and engineering systems are governed by nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) which result in a multiscale phenomena, e.g. turbulent flows. Numerical simulations of these problems are computationally very expensive and demand for extreme levels of parallelism. At realistic conditions, simulations are being carried out on massively parallel computers with hundreds of thousands of processing elements (PEs). It has been observed that communication between PEs as well as their synchronization at these extreme scales take up a significant portion of the total simulation time and result in poor scalability of codes. This issue is likely to pose a bottleneck in scalability of codes on future Exascale systems. In this work, we propose an asynchronous computing algorithm based on widely used finite difference methods to solve PDEs in which synchronization between PEs due to communication is relaxed at a mathematical level. We show that while stability is conserved when schemes are used asynchronously, accuracy is greatly degraded. Since message arrivals at PEs are random processes, so is the behavior of the error. We propose a new statistical framework in which we show that average errors drop always to first-order regardless of the original scheme. We propose new asynchrony-tolerant schemes that maintain accuracy when synchronization is relaxed. The quality of the solution is shown to depend, not only on the physical phenomena and numerical schemes, but also on the characteristics of the computing machine. A novel algorithm using remote memory access communications has been developed to demonstrate excellent scalability of the method for large-scale computing. Finally, we present a path to extend this method in solving complex multi-scale problems on Exascale machines.

  18. On self-synchronization and controlled synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blekhman, I.I.; Fradkov, A.L.; Nijmeijer, Henk; Pogromsky, A.Yu.


    An attempt is made to give a general formalism for synchronization in dynamical systems encompassing most of the known definitions and applications. The proposed set-up describes synchronization of interconnected systems with respect to a set of functionals and captures peculiarities of both

  19. Self-synchronization and controlled synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Henk; Blekhman, I.I.; Fradkov, A.L.; Pogromsky, A.Y.


    An attempt is made to give a general formalism for synchronization in dynamical systems encompassing most of the known definitions and applications. The proposed set-up describes synchronization of interconnected systems with respect to a set of functionals and captures peculiarities of both

  20. Synchronous motor with hybrid permanent magnets on the rotor. (United States)

    Slusarek, Barbara; Kapelski, Dariusz; Antal, Ludwik; Zalas, Pawel; Gwoździewicz, Maciej


    Powder metallurgy allows designers of electric motors to implement new magnetic circuit structures. A relatively new concept is the use of a magnet system consisting of various types of magnets on one rotor, for example sintered and bonded magnets. This concept has been applied to the design and manufacture of the four-pole rotor of a synchronous motor with 400 W power and a rotational speed of 1500 rpm. In this motor, the stator of an asynchronous motor type Sh 71-4B is applied. The application of the new construction of the rotor resulted in an increase in motor efficiency and power factor compared to an asynchronous motor with the same volume.

  1. Implementing e-Transactions with Asynchronous Replication


    Frolund, Svend; Guerraoui, Rachid


    An e-Transaction is one that executes exactly-once despite failures. This paper describes a distributed protocol that implements the abstraction of e-Transactionsin three-tier architectures. Three-tier architectures are typically Internet-oriented architectures, where the end-user interacts with front-end clients (e.g., browsers) that invoke middle-tier application servers (e.g., web servers) to access back-end databases. We implement the e-Transaction abstraction using an asynchronous replic...

  2. A Low-Complexity Joint Synchronization and Detection Algorithm for Single-Band DS-CDMA UWB Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars P.B.


    The problem of asynchronous direct-sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) detection over the ultra-wideband (UWB) multipath channel is considered. A joint synchronization, channel-estimation and multi-user detection scheme based on the adaptive linear minimum mean-square error (LMMSE...

  3. The role of individual differences on the effect of synchronous coaching of trainee teachers in plenary situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooreman, Ralph W.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Jochems, Wim M.G.


    Historically, synchronous (direct) coaching is an addition to the traditional asynchronous (indirect) supervision of trainee teachers. The new trainee receives concrete hints on “how to proceed further” via an earpiece. In this study the role of personality traits and the orientation of learning to

  4. Blending Synchronous Face-to-Face and Computer-Supported Cooperative Learning in a Hybrid Doctoral Seminar (United States)

    Roseth, Cary; Akcaoglu, Mete; Zellner, Andrea


    Online education is often assumed to be synonymous with asynchronous instruction, existing apart from or supplementary to face-to-face instruction in traditional bricks-and-mortar classrooms. However, expanding access to computer-mediated communication technologies now make new models possible, including distance learners synchronous online…

  5. Synchronicity in elevation range shifts among small mammal and vegetation over the last century is stronger for omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira Dos Santos, Maria Joao; Thorne, James; Moritz, Craig


    In mountain ecosystems, species can be said to respond synchronously to environmental change when the elevation ranges of vegetation types and their associated vertebrates expand or contract in the same direction. Conversely, the response is asynchronous when the elevation ranges of vegetation types

  6. Cluster Synchronization Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Weiguo; Cao, Ming


    This paper presents two approaches to achieving cluster synchronization in dynamical multi-agent systems. In contrast to the widely studied synchronization behavior, where all the coupled agents converge to the same value asymptotically, in the cluster synchronization problem studied in this paper,

  7. Two Studies Examining Argumentation in Asynchronous Computer Mediated Communication (United States)

    Joiner, Richard; Jones, Sarah; Doherty, John


    Asynchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) would seem to be an ideal medium for supporting development in student argumentation. This paper investigates this assumption through two studies. The first study compared asynchronous CMC with face-to-face discussions. The transactional and strategic level of the argumentation (i.e. measures of…

  8. Considerations regarding asynchronous motor rotor parameters determination by FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivian Chiver


    Full Text Available The paper presents some considerations about asynchronous motor rotor parameters determination, using software based on finite elements method (FEM. For this, 2D magnetostatic and time harmonic analysis will be realized, at different frequencies, in case of a three phase asynchronous motor.

  9. An approach to chaotic synchronization


    Hramov, Alexander E.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.


    This paper deals with the chaotic oscillator synchronization. A new approach to the synchronization of chaotic oscillators has been proposed. This approach is based on the analysis of different time scales in the time series generated by the coupled chaotic oscillators. It has been shown that complete synchronization, phase synchronization, lag synchronization and generalized synchronization are the particular cases of the synchronized behavior called as "time-scale synchronization". The quan...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Safaryan


    Full Text Available The solution of the problem of reliable functioning of an electric power system (EPS in steady-state and transient regimes, prevention of EPS transition into asynchronous regime, maintenance and restoration of stability of post-emergency processes is based on formation and realization of mathematical models of an EPS processes. During the functioning of electric power system in asynchronous regime, besides the main frequencies, the currents and voltages include harmonic components, the frequencies of which are multiple of the difference of main frequencies. At the two-frequency asynchronous regime the electric power system is being made equivalent in a form of a two-machine system, functioning for a generalized load. In the article mathematical models of transient process of a two-machine system in natural form and in d–q coordinate system are presented. The mathematical model of two-machine system is considered in case of two windings of excitement at the rotors. Also, in the article varieties of mathematical models of EPS transient regimes (trivial, simple, complete are presented. Transient process of a synchronous two-machine system is described by the complete model. The quality of transient processes of a synchronous machine depends on the number of rotor excitation windings. When there are two excitation windings on the rotor (dual system of excitation, the mathematical model of electromagnetic transient processes of a synchronous machine is represented in a complex form, i.e. in coordinate system d, q, the current of rotor being represented by a generalized vector. In asynchronous operation of a synchronous two-machine system with two excitation windings on the rotor the current and voltage systems include only harmonics of two frequencies. The mathematical model of synchronous steady-state process of a two-machine system is also provided, and the steady-state regimes with different structures of initial information are considered.

  11. Development and implementation of an asynchronous emergency medicine residency curriculum using a web-based platform. (United States)

    Kornegay, Joshua G; Leone, Katrina A; Wallner, Clare; Hansen, Matthew; Yarris, Lalena M


    The Residency Review Committee in Emergency Medicine requires residency programs to deliver at least 5 hours of weekly didactics. Achieving at least a 70 % average attendance rate per resident is required for residency program accreditation, and is used as a benchmark for residency graduation in our program. We developed a web-based, asynchronous curriculum to replace 1 hour of synchronous didactics, and hypothesized that the curriculum would be feasible to implement, well received by learners, and improve conference participation. This paper describes the feasibility and learner acceptability of a longitudinal asynchronous curriculum, and describes its impact on postgraduate year-1(PGY-1) resident conference participation and annual in-training examination scores. Using formal curriculum design methods, we developed modules and paired assessment exercises to replace 1 hour of weekly didactics. We measured feasibility (development and implementation time and costs) and learner acceptability (measured on an anonymous survey). We compared pre- and post-intervention conference participation and in-service training examination scores using a two sample t test. The asynchronous curriculum proved feasible to develop and implement. PGY-1 resident conference participation improved compared to the pre-intervention year (85.6 vs. 62 %; 95 % CI 0.295-0.177; p curriculum changes. Strengths of the curriculum included clarity and timeliness of assignments. Weaknesses included technical difficulties with the online platform. Our curriculum is feasible to develop and implement. Despite technical difficulties, residents report high satisfaction with this new curriculum. Among PGY-1 residents there is improved conference participation compared to the prior year.

  12. Asynchronous Task-Based Polar Decomposition on Single Node Manycore Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Sukkari, Dalal E.


    This paper introduces the first asynchronous, task-based formulation of the polar decomposition and its corresponding implementation on manycore architectures. Based on a formulation of the iterative QR dynamically-weighted Halley algorithm (QDWH) for the calculation of the polar decomposition, the proposed implementation replaces the original LU factorization for the condition number estimator by the more adequate QR factorization to enable software portability across various architectures. Relying on fine-grained computations, the novel task-based implementation is capable of taking advantage of the identity structure of the matrix involved during the QDWH iterations, which decreases the overall algorithmic complexity. Furthermore, the artifactual synchronization points have been weakened compared to previous implementations, unveiling look-ahead opportunities for better hardware occupancy. The overall QDWH-based polar decomposition can then be represented as a directed acyclic graph (DAG), where nodes represent computational tasks and edges define the inter-task data dependencies. The StarPU dynamic runtime system is employed to traverse the DAG, to track the various data dependencies and to asynchronously schedule the computational tasks on the underlying hardware resources, resulting in an out-of-order task scheduling. Benchmarking experiments show significant improvements against existing state-of-the-art high performance implementations for the polar decomposition on latest shared-memory vendors\\' systems, while maintaining numerical accuracy.

  13. An implantable closedloop asynchronous drug delivery system for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. (United States)

    Salam, Muhammad Tariqus; Mirzaei, Marjan; Ly, My Sandra; Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Sawan, Mohamad


    In this paper, we present an implantable device for intra-cerebral electroencephalography (icEEG) data acquisition and real-time epileptic seizure detection with simultaneous focal antiepileptic drug injection feedback. This implantable device includes a neural signal amplifier, an asynchronous seizure detector, a drug delivery system (DDS) including a micropump, and a hybrid subdural electrode (HSE). The asynchronous detection algorithm is based on data-dependent analysis and validated with Matlab tools. The detector and DDS have a power saving mode. The HSE contacts are made of Platinum (Pt) encapsulated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Given the heterogeneity of electrographic seizure signals and seizure suppression threshold, the implantable device provides tunable parameters facility through an external transmitter to adapt to each individual's neurophysiology prior to clinical deployment. The proposed detector and DDS were assembled in Ø 50 mm and Ø 30 mm circular printed circuit boards, respectively. The detector was validated using icEEG recordings of seven patients who had previously undergone an intracranial investigation for epilepsy surgery. The triggering of the DDS was tested and a predefined seizure suppression dose was delivered ~16 s after electrographical seizure onsets. The device's power consumption was reduced by 12% in active mode and 49% in power saving mode compared to similar seizure detection algorithms implemented with synchronous architecture.

  14. Asynchronous Group Key Distribution on top of the CC2420 Security Mechanisms for Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg


    scheme with no time synchronization requirements. The scheme decreases the number of key updates by providing them on an as needed basis according to the amount of network traffic. We evaluate the CC2420 radio security mechanism and show how to use it as a basis to implement secure group communication......A sensor network is a network consisting of small, inexpensive, low-powered sensor nodes that communicate to complete a common task. Sensor nodes are characterized by having limited communication and computation capabilities, energy, and storage. They often are deployed in hostile environments...... creating a demand for encryption and authentication of the messages sent between them. Due to severe resource constraints on the sensor nodes, efficient key distribution schemes and secure communication protocols with low overhead are desired. In this paper we present an asynchronous group key distribution...

  15. Renewal Approach to the Analysis of the Asynchronous State for Coupled Noisy Oscillators. (United States)

    Farkhooi, Farzad; van Vreeswijk, Carl


    We develop a framework in which the activity of nonlinear pulse-coupled oscillators is posed within the renewal theory. In this approach, the evolution of the interevent density allows for a self-consistent calculation that determines the asynchronous state and its stability. This framework can readily be extended to the analysis of systems with more state variables and provides a population density treatment to evolve them in their thermodynamical limits. To demonstrate this we study a nonlinear pulse-coupled system, where couplings are dynamic and activity dependent. We investigate its stability and numerically study the nonequilibrium behavior of the system after the bifurcation. We show that this system undergoes a supercritical Hopf bifurcation to collective synchronization.

  16. Comparison of systems of synchronous/asynchronous drive for electric cars; Systemvergleich Synchron-/Asynchronantrieb fuer Elektroautos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greubel, K.; Brandes, J.


    Drives for electric vehicles will develop into a new growth market for electric motors if the policy outline conditions for keeping the air in inner cities clean are made more stringent. Therefore various motor principles are at present being examined for their suitability for electric cars in comparative studies. The requirements for the drive system are determined by the driving behaviour of the electric car and by the characteristic data of the energy store. Therefore, different drive solutions will succeed, depending on the type of vehicle and the battery concept. (orig.) [Deutsch] Antriebe fuer Elektrofahrzeuge werden sich fuer elektrische Motoren zu einem neuen Wachstumsmarkt entwickeln, wenn die politischen Rahmenbedingungen zur Reinhaltung der Luft in Innenstaedten verschaerft werden. Deshalb werden derzeit in vergleichenden Studien verschiedene Motorprinzipien auf ihre Eignung im Elektroauto untersucht. Die Anforderungen an das Antriebssystem werden durch das Fahrverhalten des Elektroautos und durch die Kenndaten des Energiespeichers bestimmt. Deshalb werden sich in Abhaengigkeit von Fahrzeugtyp und Batteriekonzept unterschiedliche Antriebsloesungen durchsetzen. (orig.)

  17. Asynchronous machines. Direct torque control; Machines asynchrones. Commande par controle direct de couple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornel, B. de [Institut National Polytechnique, 31 - Toulouse (France)


    The asynchronous machine, with its low cost and robustness, is today the most widely used motor to make speed variators. However, its main drawback is that the same current generates both the magnetic flux and the torque, and thus any torque variation creates a flux variation. Such a coupling gives to the asynchronous machine a nonlinear behaviour which makes its control much more complex. The direct self control (DSC) method has been developed to improve the low efficiency of the scalar control method and for the specific railway drive application. The direct torque control (DTC) method is derived from the DSC method but corresponds to other type of applications. The DSC and DTC algorithms for asynchronous motors are presented in this article: 1 - direct control of the stator flux (DSC): principle, flux control, torque control, switching frequency of the inverter, speed estimation; 2 - direct torque control (DTC): principle, electromagnetic torque derivative, signals shape and switching frequency, some results, DTC speed variator without speed sensor, DTC application to multi-machine multi-converter systems; 3 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  18. Commande adaptive d'une machine asynchrone


    Slama-Belkhodja, I.; De Fornel, B.


    Cat article décrit une stratégie de commande adaptive indirecte à Placement de Pôles (PP), appliquée à la commande en vitesse d'une machine asynchrone alimentée par un ensemble hacheur-filtre-onduleur de tension. L'algorithme des Moindres Carrés Récursifs (MCR) est utilisé pour l'identification des modèles de comportement type entrées/sorties. Un intérêt particulier est porté à la mise en oeuvre de cet algorithme et à la discussion de ses résultats, tenant compte des erreurs de modélisation e...

  19. Research on navigation of satellite constellation based on an asynchronous observation model using X-ray pulsar (United States)

    Guo, Pengbin; Sun, Jian; Hu, Shuling; Xue, Ju


    Pulsar navigation is a promising navigation method for high-altitude orbit space tasks or deep space exploration. At present, an important reason for restricting the development of pulsar navigation is that navigation accuracy is not high due to the slow update of the measurements. In order to improve the accuracy of pulsar navigation, an asynchronous observation model which can improve the update rate of the measurements is proposed on the basis of satellite constellation which has a broad space for development because of its visibility and reliability. The simulation results show that the asynchronous observation model improves the positioning accuracy by 31.48% and velocity accuracy by 24.75% than that of the synchronous observation model. With the new Doppler effects compensation method in the asynchronous observation model proposed in this paper, the positioning accuracy is improved by 32.27%, and the velocity accuracy is improved by 34.07% than that of the traditional method. The simulation results show that without considering the clock error will result in a filtering divergence.

  20. Fast Burst Synchronization for Power Line Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe Lutz


    Full Text Available Fast burst synchronization is an important requirement in asynchronous communication networks, where devices transmit short data packets in an unscheduled fashion. Such a synchronization is typically achieved by means of a preamble sent in front of the data packet. In this paper, we study fast burst synchronization for power line communication (PLC systems operating below 500 kHz and transmitting data rates of up to about 500 kbps as it is typical in various PLC network applications. In particular, we are concerned with the receiver processing of the preamble signal and the actual design of preambles suitable for fast burst synchronization in such PLC systems. Our approach is comprehensive in that it takes into account the most distinctive characteristics of the power line channel, which are multipath propagation, highly varying path loss, and disturbance by impulse noise, as well as important practical constraints, especially the need for spectral shaping of the preamble signal and fast adjustment of the automatic gain control (AGC. In fact, we regard the explicit incorporation of these various requirements into the preamble design as the main contribution of this work. We devise an optimization criterion and a stochastic algorithm to search for suitable preamble sequences. A comprehensive performance comparison of a designed and two conventional preambles shows that the designed sequence is superior in terms of (a fast burst synchronization in various transmission environments, (b fast AGC adjustment, and (c compliance of its spectrum with the spectral mask applied to the data transmit signal.

  1. Utility of Numerical Methods in Establishing Performances of Low Power Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Vlad


    Full Text Available In case of electromechanical equipments driven by alternating current motors, it is possible to reduce the exploitation costs by choosing correctly the driving motor (asynchronous motor or permanent magnet synchronous motor. One of the objectives followed in this paper is the comparative approach from the view point of operation performances and exploitation cost obtained for the two types of motors (asynchronous motor and the permanent magnet one, with the help of some specialized computation soft-wares. The utilization of a permanent magnet synchronous motor, which has an efficiency increased with 11.2% and the power factor better with 10.6%, is a solution for reducing the exploitation cost and for preserving the drive performances.

  2. Synchronous distance interactive classroom conferencing. (United States)

    Oz, Halit Hami


    New medical schools have been opened in the eastern and southeastern regions of the country. They are also in great need of basic medical science teachers. However, due to security reasons over the past two decades, teachers from the established universities do not desire to travel to these medical schools for lectures. The objective of this study was to develop a synchronous classroom conferencing system to teach basic science courses between two general purpose technology enhanced classrooms of two different universities--Istanbul University (IU) and Istanbul and Harran University (HU), Urfa--located 1,500 miles apart in Turkey. I videostreamed the instructor, content from document camera, Power Point presentations at IU, and the students at both places, IU and HU. In addition, I synchronously broadcast two whiteboards by attaching two mimio devices to the two blackboards in the IU classroom to capture and convert everything written or drawn on them into broadcasting over the intranet. This technique is called "boardcasting," which allows users to stream ink and audio together over the Internet or intranet live. A total of 260 students at IU and 150 students at HU were involved. Off-campus HU students also have asynchronous access to the stored lecture video materials at any time. Midterm and final examinations were administered simultaneously using the same questions at both sites in two universities under the observation of the teaching faculty using the very same system. This system permitted interaction between the students in the class at IU and remote-campus students at HU and the instructor in real time. The instructors at IU were able to maintain a significant level of spontaneity in using their multimedia materials and electronic whiteboards. The mean midterm and final exam scores of students at both universities were similar. The system developed in this study can be used by the medical faculty at the main teaching hospitals to deliver their lectures in

  3. Multi-Threshold NULL Convention Logic (MTNCL: An Ultra-Low Power Asynchronous Circuit Design Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhou


    Full Text Available This paper develops an ultra-low power asynchronous circuit design methodology, called Multi-Threshold NULL Convention Logic (MTNCL, also known as Sleep Convention Logic (SCL, which combines Multi-Threshold CMOS (MTCMOS with NULL Convention Logic (NCL, to yield significant power reduction without any of the drawbacks of applying MTCMOS to synchronous circuits. In contrast to other power reduction techniques that usually result in large area overhead, MTNCL circuits are actually smaller than their original NCL versions. MTNCL utilizes high-Vt transistors to gate power and ground of a low-Vt logic block to provide for both fast switching and very low leakage power when idle. To demonstrate the advantages of MTNCL, a number of 32-bit IEEE single-precision floating-point co-processors were designed for comparison using the 1.2 V IBM 8RF-LM 130 nm CMOS process: original NCL, MTNCL with just combinational logic (C/L slept, Bit-Wise MTNCL (BWMTNCL, MTNCL with C/L and completion logic slept, MTNCL with C/L, completion logic, and registers slept, MTNCL with Safe Sleep architecture, and synchronous MTCMOS. These designs are compared in terms of throughput, area, dynamic energy, and idle power, showing the tradeoffs between the various MTNCL architectures, and that the best MTNCL design is much better than the original NCL design in all aspects, and much better than the synchronous MTCMOS design in terms of area, energy per operation, and idle power, although the synchronous design can operate faster.

  4. Refining an Asynchronous Telerehabilitation Platform for Speech-Language Pathology: Engaging End-Users in the Process. (United States)

    Hill, Annie J; Breslin, Hugh M


    Asynchronous telerehabilitation in which computer-based interventions are remotely monitored and adapted offline is an emerging service delivery model in the rehabilitation of communication disorders. The asynchronous nature of this model may hold a benefit over its synchronous counterpart by eliminating scheduling issues and thus improving efficiency in a healthcare landscape of constrained resource allocation. The design of asynchronous telerehabilitation platforms should therefore ensure efficiency and flexibility. The authors have been engaged in a program of research to develop and evaluate an asynchronous telerehabilitation platform for use in speech-language pathology. eSALT is a novel asynchronous telerehabilitation platform in which clinicians design and individualize therapy tasks for transfer to a client's mobile device. An inbuilt telerehabilitation module allows for remote monitoring and updating of tasks. This paper introduces eSALT and reports outcomes from an usability study that considered the needs of two end-user groups, people with aphasia and clinicians, in the on-going refinement of eSALT. In the study participants with aphasia were paired with clinicians who used eSALT to design and customize therapy tasks. After training on the mobile device the participants engaged in therapy at home for a period of 3 weeks, while clinicians remotely monitored and updated tasks. Following the home trial, participants, and clinicians engaged in semi-structured interviews and completed surveys on the usability of eSALT and their satisfaction with the platform. Content analysis of data involving five participants and three clinicians revealed a number of usability themes including ease of use, user support, satisfaction, limitations, and potential improvements. These findings were translated into a number of refinements of the eSALT platform including the development of a client interface for use on the Apple iPad®, greater variety in feedback options to both

  5. An Algebraic Method of Synchronous Pulsewidth Modulation for Converters for Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede


    with a continuous scheme of conventional voltage space vector modulation and with two basic variants of symmetrical discontinuous PWM. Simulations give the behaviour of the proposed method and show the advantage of algebraic synchronous PWM compared with the typical asynchronous, for low indices of the frequency......This paper describes the basic peculiarities of a new method of feedforward synchronous pulsewidth modulation (PWM) of the output voltage of converters, based on one-stage closed-form strategy of PWM with pure algebraic control dependencies. It is applied to voltage source inverters...

  6. TCDQ-TCT retraction and losses during asynchronous beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Chiara; Quaranta, Elena; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the β* reach.

  7. Verification and Planning for Stochastic Processes with Asynchronous Events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Younes, Hakan L


    .... The most common assumption is that of history-independence: the Markov assumption. In this thesis, the author considers the problems of verification and planning for stochastic processes with asynchronous events, without relying on the Markov assumption...

  8. Adaptive wavefront control with asynchronous stochastic parallel gradient descent clusters. (United States)

    Vorontsov, Mikhail A; Carhart, Gary W


    A scalable adaptive optics (AO) control system architecture composed of asynchronous control clusters based on the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) optimization technique is discussed. It is shown that subdivision of the control channels into asynchronous SPGD clusters improves the AO system performance by better utilizing individual and/or group characteristics of adaptive system components. Results of numerical simulations are presented for two different adaptive receiver systems based on asynchronous SPGD clusters-one with a single deformable mirror with Zernike response functions and a second with tip-tilt and segmented wavefront correctors. We also discuss adaptive wavefront control based on asynchronous parallel optimization of several local performance metrics-a control architecture referred to as distributed adaptive optics (DAO). Analysis of the DAO system architecture demonstrated the potential for significant increase of the adaptation process convergence rate that occurs due to partial decoupling of the system control clusters optimizing individual performance metrics.

  9. Asynchronous dentofacial development and dental crowding: a cross-sectional study in a contemporary sample of children in France. (United States)

    Yan-Vergnes, Wei; Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Dumoncel, Jean; Baron, Pascal; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Braga, José


    The causes of dental crowding are not fully understood, but it may result from an evolutionary trend towards reduced facial volume, without a proportional reduction in tooth sizes. Most previous studies conducted among modern humans have revealed a very low or non-existent correlation between tooth size and jaw size. Cross-comparison between dental age and facial skeletal age could help to provide better knowledge of the dynamic process of dental crowding. The primary objective of this research was to study the synchronism of dental maturation and skeletal facial growth in a sample of modern children living in France. The secondary objective was to assess the link between dentofacial asynchronism and dental crowding. The random sample comprised 28 subjects (16 girls, 12 boys). Mean chronological age was 13.5 years (± 2.1; range 9.2-17.6). Mean dental age was 14.2 years (± 2.8; range 7.5-17) and mean facial skeletal age was 12.8 years (± 2.6, range 7-22). In the estimations of dental age and facial skeletal age, there was no evidence of systematic bias. There were 10 subjects (9 girls, 1 boy) with asynchronous dentofacial development. Finally, there were 13 subjects (8 girls, 5 boys) with dental crowding. A significant association was found between delayed facial skeletal growth/advanced dental maturation and dental crowding (P = 0.01). Dental maturation and facial growth are not necessarily synchronous. Further understanding of the interactions between dental maturation and facial growth could have crucial implications in biological anthropology, as well as for the clinical practice of orthodontists. From an anthropological perspective, this study suggests that asynchronous dentofacial development could, at least partially, explain the frequency of dental crowding in modern populations.

  10. Control of asynchronous motors. Volume 1. Modeling, vectorial control and direct torque control; Commande des moteurs asynchrones. Volume 1. Modelisation, controle vectoriel et DTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canudas de Wit, C. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Genie Chimique, ENSIGC, 31 - Toulouse (France)


    This first volume deals with the problems of control of asynchronous motors in industrial environments: industrial environment, variable speed, asynchronous motors and power supplies, modeling, direct torque control laws, control by controlled limit cycles under frequency constraints. (J.S.)

  11. Eventual Leader Service in Unreliable Asynchronous Systems: Why? How?


    Raynal, Michel


    Providing processes with an {\\it eventual leader} service is an important issue when one has to design and implement a middleware layer on top of a failure-prone asynchronous distributed system. This invited lecture investigates this problem. It first shows that such a service cannot be built if the underlying system is fully asynchronous. Then, the paper visits several additional behavioral assumptions that have been proposed in the literature to cope with this impossibility and presents cor...

  12. Experimental 3D Asynchronous Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (United States)



  13. Synchronizing XPath Views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dennis; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    synchronization. XPath is the most commonly used language for retrieving parts of XML documents, and is thus an important cornerstone for XML view definitions. This paper presents techniques for discovering schema changes in XML data sources and synchronizing XPath-based views to reflect these schema changes...

  14. Synchronization of hyperchaotic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, A.; Cenys, A.; Mykolaitis, G.


    Synchronization of chaotic oscillators is believed to have promising applications in secure communications. Hyperchaotic systems with multiple positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs) have an advantage over common chaotic systems with only one positive LE. Three different types of hyperchaotic electronic...... oscillators are investigated demonstrating synchronization by means of only one properly selected variable....

  15. Synchronicity and Leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, Philip


    LAY SUMMARY SYNCHRONICITY AND LEADERSHIP TILBURG PHD DISSERTATION, PHILIP MERRY World’s First PhD to Research Synchronicity And Leadership Using Grounded Theory OUT OF THE BLUE COINCIDENCES: research topic Most people have had the experience of thinking of someone and then, almost magically have

  16. A Comparison of Outcomes of Virtual School Courses Offered in Synchronous and Asynchronous Formats (United States)

    Roblyer, M. D.; Freeman, John; Donaldson, Martha B.; Maddox, Melina


    As part of the formative evaluation of Alabama's pilot of its virtual schooling system (the Alabama ACCESS Distance Learning Program), the Alabama State Department of Education examined outcome data from courses offered in the two distance delivery systems: web-based course management and interactive videoconferencing (IVC). In light of Bernard et…

  17. Perceptions of Social Presence among Public University Graduate Students Enrolled in Synchronous and Asynchronous Coursework (United States)

    Lee, Daniel; Spear, Rita; Kero, Patty


    Students are accessing graduate study online in ever-increasing numbers with interactive experiences differing from those who traditionally enroll in corresponding face-to-face (F2F) classes. Soft skills such as collaboration/teamwork, communication and presentation are important to learning but difficult to practice outside the F2F environment.…

  18. Produsage in a/synchronous learner-led e-learning (United States)

    Kazmer, Michelle M.


    Creating a successful produsage environment for a required course taught via e-learning requires analyzing various factors: the learning context, learner-led education in required classes, the structure of the class, and reflections and evaluations of each semester's iteration of the course. Taking a produsage perspective, this paper analyzes the long-term development of a required graduate-level course in information organization. The course is examined closely to show how its materials, assignments, technology, instruction, and culture contribute to a learner-led produsage environment and lasting knowledge creation. The analysis leads to implications for course design and working with learners to create knowledge that may be applied in multiple settings.

  19. Surface and Deep Learning Processes in Distance Education: Synchronous versus Asynchronous Systems (United States)

    Offir, Baruch; Lev, Yossi; Bezalel, Rachel


    Distance learning is different from regular learning in the classroom. One of the main factors which influence the effectiveness of the learning process is the interaction that exists between the teacher and the student. Our research indicates that different interactions have different effects. There are two methods used for implementing distance…

  20. Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication in an Online Environment: Faculty Experiences and Perceptions (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Hsiao, E-Ling


    The purpose of this study was to examine online instructors' experiences and perceptions of online teaching and their communication with students in an online environment. More specifically, the study focused on the questions regarding: (1) instructors' general experiences and perceptions of online teaching; (2) instructors' general experiences…

  1. Reactors: A data-oriented synchronous/asynchronous programming model for distributed applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John; Marinescu, Maria-Cristina; Stefansen, Christian Oskar Erik


    Our aim is to define the kernel of a simple and uniform programming model–the reactor model–which can serve as a foundation for building and evolving internet-scale programs. Such programs are characterized by collections of loosely-coupled distributed components that are assembled on the fly to ...

  2. Asynchronous and synchronous teleconsultation for diabetes care: A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, F.; Dijkstra, K.; Nijland, N.; Eysenbach, Gunther; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.


    Aim: A systematic literature review, covering publications from 1994 to 2009, was carried out to determine the effects of teleconsultation regarding clinical, behavioral, and care coordination outcomes of diabetes care compared to usual care. Two types of teleconsultation were distinguished: (1)

  3. An Update on Discourse Functions and Syntactic Complexity in Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication (United States)

    Sotillo, Susana M.


    The following commentary presents an overview of earlier studies of discourse functions and syntactic complexity as well as recent investigations that focus on interaction and measures of syntactic and lexical complexity in learners' output in traditional classrooms and computer-mediated environments. Recent studies emphasize the need for better…

  4. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech. (United States)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T


    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Managing Asynchronous Data in ATLAS's Concurrent Framework

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00100895; The ATLAS collaboration; Baines, John; Bold, Tomasz; Calafiura, Paolo; Cranshaw, Jack; Dotti, Andrea; Farrell, Steven; Malon, David; Stewart, Graeme; Snyder, Scott; van Gemmeren, Peter; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Wynne, Benjamin


    In order to be able to make effective use of emerging hardware, where the amount of memory available to any CPU is rapidly decreasing as the core count continues to rise, ATLAS has begun a migration to a concurrent, multi-threaded software framework, known as AthenaMT. Significant progress has been made in implementing AthenaMT - we can currently run realistic Geant4 simulations on massively concurrent machines. the migration of realistic prototypes of reconstruction workflows is more difficult, given the large amounts of legacy code and the complexity and challenges of reconstruction software. These types of workflows, however, are the types that will most benefit from the memory reduction features of a multi-threaded framework. One of the challenges that we will report on in this paper is the re-design and implementation of several key asynchronous technologies whose behaviour is radically different in a concurrent environment than in a serial one, namely the management of Conditions data and the Detector D...

  6. Asynchronous Forums in EAP: Assessment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kol


    Full Text Available This paper reports on a pilot and a subsequent study that focused on the assessment of student writing in asynchronous text-stimulated forum discussions. The study, which was conducted in advanced English for Academic Purposes (EAP courses, aimed at determining suitable assessment criteria for written academic discussions. In addition, the study tapped student attitudes toward forums, checked the effect of forum participation on student writing, and characterized the text-stimulated forum discussions.Based on a content analysis of the pilot data, the constructs of reflection and interaction were selected as assessment criteria to be evaluated in the main study. These criteria were found to be usable but insufficient for student assessment in the EAP courses. A questionnaire showed that the student attitudes were positive and that most students felt that their writing improved, even though an analysis of language complexity showed no significant improvement. A qualitative analysis of the transcripts revealed deep student involvement with the content and with their peers as well as an academic register interspersed with conversational interactions.

  7. Price Asynchronization and Price Level Inertia


    Blanchard, Olivier J.


    If price decisions are taken neither continuously nor in perfect synchronization, the process of adjustment of all prices to a new nominal level will imply temporary movements in relative prices. It might then well be that, to avoid these movements in relative prices, each price setter will want to move his own price slowly compared to others. The result will be a slow movement of all prices to their new nominal level, and substantial inertia of the price level. This paper formalizes this int...

  8. Effects of stimulus-driven synchronization on sensory perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Jameson K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A subject's ability to differentiate the loci of two points on the skin depends on the stimulus-evoked pericolumnar lateral inhibitory interactions which increase the spatial contrast between regions of SI cortex that are activated by stimulus-evoked afferent drive. Nevertheless, there is very little known about the impact that neuronal interactions – such as those evoked by mechanical skin stimuli that project to and coordinate synchronized activity in adjacent and/or near-adjacent cortical columns – could have on sensory information processing. Methods The temporal order judgment (TOJ and temporal discriminative threshold (TDT of 20 healthy adult subjects were assessed both in the absence and presence of concurrent conditions of tactile stimulation. These measures were obtained across a number of paired sites – two unilateral and one bilateral – and several conditions of adapting stimuli were delivered both prior to and concurrently with the TOJ and TDT tasks. The pairs of conditioning stimuli were synchronized and periodic, synchronized and non-periodic, or asynchronous and non-periodic. Results In the absence of any additional stimuli, TOJ and TDT results obtained from the study were comparable across a number of pairs of stimulus sites – unilateral as well as bilateral. In the presence of a 25 Hz conditioning sinusoidal stimulus which was delivered both before, concurrently and after the TOJ task, there was a significant change in the TOJ measured when the two stimuli were located unilaterally on digits 2 and 3. However, in the presence of the same 25 Hz conditioning stimulus, the TOJ obtained when the two stimuli were delivered bilaterally was not impacted. TDT measures were not impacted to the same degree by the concurrent stimuli that were delivered to the unilateral or bilateral stimulus sites. This led to the speculation that the impact that the conditioning stimuli – which were sinusoidal, periodic and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Safaryan


    Full Text Available The article considers experimental and analytical determination of the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit parameters with application of the reference data. Transient processes investigation of the asynchronous machines necessitates the equivalent circuit parameters (resistance impedance, inductances and coefficient of the stator-rotor contours mutual inductance that help form the transitory-process mathematical simulation model. The reference books do not provide those parameters; they instead give the rated ones (active power, voltage, slide, coefficient of performance and capacity coefficient as well as the ratio of starting and nominal currents and torques. The noted studies on the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuits parametrization fail to solve the problems ad finem or solve them with admissions. The paper presents experimental and analytical determinations of the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit parameters: the experimental one based on the results of two measurements and the analytical one where the problem boils down to solving a system of nonlineal algebraic equations. The authors investigate the equivalent asynchronous machine input-resistance properties and adduce the dependence curvatures of the input-resistances on the slide. They present a symbolic model for analytical parameterization of the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit that represents a system of nonlineal equations and requires one of the rotor-parameters arbitrary assignment. The article demonstrates that for the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit experimental parameterization the measures are to be conducted of the stator-circuit voltage, current and active power with two different slides and arbitrary assignment of one of the rotor parameters. The paper substantiates the fact that additional measurement does not discard the rotor-parameter choice arbitrariness. The authors establish that in motoring mode there is a critical slide by which the

  10. The Synchronic Fallacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Erik W.

    of definitions. Historical linguistics ('change') is not dependent on an arbitrary synchronic theory. The two language universals polysemy and synonymy are reinterpreted and defined in accordance with the advanced definitions. Louis Hjelmslev's glossematic theory is the general horizon of the argument......The scientifc - methodological and cognitive - fallacies of modern synchronic linguistics are demonstrated. Modern synchronic linguists have reified change and since no such linguist has ever seen - sensed - a change, it is suggested to abandon the word change and replace it with existence...

  11. IHadoop: Asynchronous iterations for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam Mohamed Ibrahim


    MapReduce is a distributed programming frame-work designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop\\'s task scheduler exploits inter-iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application\\'s latency. This paper also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  12. Synchronization in complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.


    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  13. A comparison of classroom and online asynchronous problem-based learning for students undertaking statistics training as part of a Public Health Masters degree. (United States)

    de Jong, N; Verstegen, D M L; Tan, F E S; O'Connor, S J


    This case-study compared traditional, face-to-face classroom-based teaching with asynchronous online learning and teaching methods in two sets of students undertaking a problem-based learning module in the multilevel and exploratory factor analysis of longitudinal data as part of a Masters degree in Public Health at Maastricht University. Students were allocated to one of the two study variants on the basis of their enrolment status as full-time or part-time students. Full-time students (n = 11) followed the classroom-based variant and part-time students (n = 12) followed the online asynchronous variant which included video recorded lectures and a series of asynchronous online group or individual SPSS activities with synchronous tutor feedback. A validated student motivation questionnaire was administered to both groups of students at the start of the study and a second questionnaire was administered at the end of the module. This elicited data about student satisfaction with the module content, teaching and learning methods, and tutor feedback. The module coordinator and problem-based learning tutor were also interviewed about their experience of delivering the experimental online variant and asked to evaluate its success in relation to student attainment of the module's learning outcomes. Student examination results were also compared between the two groups. Asynchronous online teaching and learning methods proved to be an acceptable alternative to classroom-based teaching for both students and staff. Educational outcomes were similar for both groups, but importantly, there was no evidence that the asynchronous online delivery of module content disadvantaged part-time students in comparison to their full-time counterparts.

  14. Identification of imprinted genes using a novel screening method based on asynchronous DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawame, H.; Hansen, R.S.; Gartler, S.M. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    Genomic imprinting refers to the process of epigenetic change that occurs during germ cell development that results in either maternal- or paternal-specific gene expression. Identification of imprinted genes is of primary importance to the understanding of imprinting mechanisms and the role of specific imprinted genes in human disease. Recently, it has been established that chromosomal regions known to contain imprinted genes replicate asynchronously. We propose a novel screening method to identify imprinted genes based on replication asynchrony as a marker for imprinted domains. Dividing human cells were pulse-labeled with BrdU and separated into different fractions of S-phase by flow cytometry. A library of late-replicating inter-Alu sequences should be enriched in gene-associated sequences that replicate early on one chromosome and late on the other homologue. Clones were analyzed for replication timing by hybridization to inter-Alu replication profiles. Candidates for replication asynchrony exhibited broad or biphasic replication timing, and these were analyzed for chromosomal location by hybridizations to inter-Alu products from a hybrid mapping panel. Initial screening of 123 clones resulted in 3 asynchronously-replicating clones that localized to single chromosomes. Chromosome 17 and chromosome 19 candidates might be located in regions thought to be imprinted by synteny with mouse chromosomes. A chromosome 15 clone was further characterized because of its possible localization to the Prader-Willi/Angelman locus. This sequence was localized outside the region deleted in Prader-Willi patients, and was found to be expressed in human cell lines. Replication asynchrony for this sequence appears to be polymorphic because cells derived from some individuals indicated synchronous replication. This appears to be the first example of a polymorphism in replication asynchrony.

  15. A Binary Array Asynchronous Sorting Algorithm with Using Petri Nets (United States)

    Voevoda, A. A.; Romannikov, D. O.


    Nowadays the tasks of computations speed-up and/or their optimization are actual. Among the approaches on how to solve these tasks, a method applying approaches of parallelization and asynchronization to a sorting algorithm is considered in the paper. The sorting methods are ones of elementary methods and they are used in a huge amount of different applications. In the paper, we offer a method of an array sorting that based on a division into a set of independent adjacent pairs of numbers and their parallel and asynchronous comparison. And this one distinguishes the offered method from the traditional sorting algorithms (like quick sorting, merge sorting, insertion sorting and others). The algorithm is implemented with the use of Petri nets, like the most suitable tool for an asynchronous systems description.

  16. Body contact and synchronous diving in long-finned pilot whales. (United States)

    Aoki, Kagari; Sakai, Mai; Miller, Patrick J O; Visser, Fleur; Sato, Katsufumi


    Synchronous behavior, as a form of social interaction, has been widely reported for odontocete cetaceans observed at the sea surface. However, few studies have quantified synchronous behavior underwater. Using data from an animal-borne data recorder and camera, we described how a pair of deep-diving odontocetes, long-finned pilot whales, coordinated diving behavior. Diving data during overlapping periods of 3.7 h were obtained from two whales within a stable trio. The tagged whales made highly synchronous movements, and their dive durations differed only slightly (3±3 s). The pair of whales maintained a constant and narrow vertical separation (ca. 3 m) throughout synchronous dives. The overall fluking rate for the same travel speed during synchronous dives was virtually the same as that during asynchronous dives, suggesting that synchronous behavior did not affect locomotion effort. In addition, a possible affiliative behavior was recorded by the animal-borne camera: another individual appeared in 8% of the frames, both with and without body contact to the tagged whale. The primary type of body contact was flipper-to-body. Our study, the first on underwater synchronous behavior and body contact of pilot whales, highlights the utility of using animal-borne devices for enabling new insights into social interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Wind power systems in the MW range. Part 2. Digital control of a double-fed asynchronous generator without position control; Windkraftanlagen fuer den Megawatt-Bereich. Teil 2. Digitale Steuerung eines doppelt gespeisten Asynchrongenerators ohne Lagegeber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrenberg, J. [sci-worx GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Andresen, B.; Rebsdorf, A.V. [Vestas Wind Systems A/S (Denmark)


    While the first part investigated the characteristics of synchronous and asynchronous generators for wind power system development and presented theoretical fundamentals, part 2 discusses practical problems of synchronisation with the network and interpretation of measurements as illustrated by a prototype 2 MW wind power plant. [German] Nach einem Vergleich der Eignung von Synchron- und Asynchrongeneratoren fuer die Konzeption von Windkraftanlagen und einer Darstellung der Theoretischen Grundlagen im Teil 1 widmet sich der zweite Teil des Beitrages den praktischen Fragen der Synchronisation zum Netz und der Interpretation der Messergebnisse an dem Prototyp einer 2-MW-Windkraftanlage. (org.)

  18. On-chip constructive cell-network study (I): contribution of cardiac fibroblasts to cardiomyocyte beating synchronization and community effect. (United States)

    Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Fumimasa; Yasuda, Kenji


    To clarify the role of cardiac fibroblasts in beating synchronization, we have made simple lined-up cardiomyocyte-fibroblast network model in an on-chip single-cell-based cultivation system. The synchronization phenomenon of two cardiomyocyte networks connected by fibroblasts showed (1) propagation velocity of electrophysiological signals decreased a magnitude depending on the increasing number of fibroblasts, not the lengths of fibroblasts; (2) fluctuation of interbeat intervals of the synchronized two cardiomyocyte network connected by fibroblasts did not always decreased, and was opposite from homogeneous cardiomyocyte networks; and (3) the synchronized cardiomyocytes connected by fibroblasts sometimes loses their synchronized condition and recovered to synchronized condition, in which the length of asynchronized period was shorter less than 30 beats and was independent to their cultivation time, whereas the length of synchronized period increased according to cultivation time. The results indicated that fibroblasts can connect cardiomyocytes electrically but do not significantly enhance and contribute to beating interval stability and synchronization. This might also mean that an increase in the number of fibroblasts in heart tissue reduces the cardiomyocyte 'community effect', which enhances synchronization and stability of their beating rhythms.

  19. Design issues in the semantics and scheduling of asynchronous tasks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, Stephen L.


    The asynchronous task model serves as a useful vehicle for shared memory parallel programming, particularly on multicore and manycore processors. As adoption of model among programmers has increased, support has emerged for the integration of task parallel language constructs into mainstream programming languages, e.g., C and C++. This paper examines some of the design decisions in Cilk and OpenMP concerning semantics and scheduling of asynchronous tasks with the aim of informing the efforts of committees considering language integration, as well as developers of new task parallel languages and libraries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birladean A.A.


    Full Text Available An asynchronous machine with a massive ferromagnetic rotor of the various designs, improving its energy indicators is considered. Elaboration and experimental tests results of the asynchronous machine working in a generating mode at the lowered speed of rotation of a massive ferromagnetic rotor are presented. Conditions and possibilities of the asynchronous generator creation with capacitor excitation on the basis of the asynchronous machine with a massive rotor are shown as well.

  1. Analysis of a Combined Antenna Arrays and Reverse-Link Synchronous DS-CDMA System over Multipath Rician Fading Channels


    Kim Yong-Seok; Whang Keum-Chan


    We present the BER analysis of antenna array (AA) receiver in reverse-link asynchronous multipath Rician channels and analyze the performance of an improved AA system which applies a reverse-link synchronous transmission technique (RLSTT) in order to effectively make a better estimation of covariance matrices at a beamformer-RAKE receiver. In this work, we provide a comprehensive analysis of user capacity which reflects several important factors such as the ratio of the specular component pow...

  2. The half-speed linear machine: A new form of linear synchronous motor (United States)

    Manuk, Abde-Karim


    The behavior of an unorthodox form of linear synchronous induction machine is investigated in asynchronous and synchronous modes. The machine is inherently brushless, its single stator winding being fed with alternating and direct current for synchronous operation. The machine was studied because of the prospect it offered of controllable power factor. A mathematical model based on the two axis theory which is appropriate to the segmental form of construction of its secondary winding is developed. The model enables a critical assessment to be made of its performance particularly with regard to important machine circuit parameters. Experiments on an experimental machine confirm model validity. Notwithstanding the relatively high resistance and leakage parameters of the trial machine, the possibility of good performance, including high power factor, obtainable in larger sizes is demonstrated.

  3. Synchronized Scheme of Continuous Space-Vector PWM with the Real-Time Control Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, V.; Blaabjerg, Frede


    synchronous PWM at higher values of the fundamental frequency has also been described. Results of analysis of the spectral characteristics of the output voltage of the inverter show advantage of synchronous PWM in comparison with conventional asynchronous modulation at low indices of the frequency ratio...... their position inside clock-intervals. In order to provide smooth shock-less pulse-ratio changing and quarter-wave symmetry of the voltage waveforms, special synchronising signals are formed on the boundaries of the 60 clock-intervals. The process of gradual transition from continuous to discontinuous...... between the switching and the fundamental frequency. Special attention has been given to the analysis and comparison of the computational effectiveness of the proposed algorithms of synchronized modulation. 0...

  4. Simulation For Synchronization Of A Micro-Grid With Three-Phase Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafari Far


    Full Text Available Abstract today due to the high reliability of the micro-grids they have developed significantly. They have two states of operation the island state and connection to the main grid. Under certain circumstances the micro-grid is connected to or disconnected from the network. Synchronization of a micro-grid with the network must be done when its voltage is synchronized with the voltage in the main grid. Phase lock loops are responsible to identify the voltage phase of the micro-gird and the main grid and when these two voltages are in the same phase they connect the micro-grid to the main grid. In this research the connection of a micro-grid to the main grid in the two phases of synchronous and asynchronous voltage is simulated and investigated.

  5. Synchronization and long-time memory in neural networks with inhibitory hubs and synaptic plasticity (United States)

    Bertolotti, Elena; Burioni, Raffaella; di Volo, Matteo; Vezzani, Alessandro


    We investigate the dynamical role of inhibitory and highly connected nodes (hub) in synchronization and input processing of leaky-integrate-and-fire neural networks with short term synaptic plasticity. We take advantage of a heterogeneous mean-field approximation to encode the role of network structure and we tune the fraction of inhibitory neurons fI and their connectivity level to investigate the cooperation between hub features and inhibition. We show that, depending on fI, highly connected inhibitory nodes strongly drive the synchronization properties of the overall network through dynamical transitions from synchronous to asynchronous regimes. Furthermore, a metastable regime with long memory of external inputs emerges for a specific fraction of hub inhibitory neurons, underlining the role of inhibition and connectivity also for input processing in neural networks.

  6. Evaluation of an Asynchronous Physician Voice Mail Sign-out for Emergency Department Admissions (United States)

    Horwitz, Leora I.; Parwani, Vivek; Shah, Nidhi R.; Schuur, Jeremiah D.; Meredith, Thom; Jenq, Grace Y.; Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.


    Background Communication failures contribute to errors in the transfer of patients from the emergency department (ED) to inpatient medicine units. Oral (synchronous) communication has numerous benefits but is costly and time-consuming. Taped (asynchronous) communication may be more reliable and efficient, but lacks interaction. We evaluated a new asynchronous physician-physician sign-out compared to the traditional synchronous sign-out. Methods A voicemail-based, semi-structured sign-out for routine ED admissions to internal medicine was implemented in October, 2007 at an urban, academic medical center. Outcomes were obtained by pre- and post-intervention surveys of ED and IM housestaff, physician assistants and hospitalist attendings; and by examination of access logs and administrative data. Outcome measures included utilization; physician perceptions of ease, accuracy, content, interaction and errors; and rate of transfers to intensive care from the floor within 24 hours of ED admission. Results were analyzed both quantitatively, and qualitatively using standard qualitative analytic techniques. Results During September-October, 2008 (one year post-intervention), voicemails were recorded regarding 90.5% of medicine admissions; 69.7% of these were accessed at least once by admitting physicians. The median length of each sign-out was 2.6 minutes (IQR 1.9 to 3.5). We received 117/197 responses (59%) to the pre-intervention survey and 113/206 responses (55%) to the post-intervention survey. A total of 73/101 (72%) respondents reported dictated sign-out was easier than oral sign-out and 43/101 (43%) reported it was more accurate. However, 70/101 (69%) reported interaction among participants was worse. There was no change in the rate of ICU transfer within 24 hours of admission from the ED in April-June, 2007 (65/6,147; 1.1%) versus April-June 2008 (70/6,263; 1.1%); difference of 0%, 95% CI, −0.4% to 0.3%. The proportion of internists reporting at least one perceived

  7. Synchronization of sound sources. (United States)

    Abel, Markus; Ahnert, Karsten; Bergweiler, Steffen


    Sound generation and interaction are highly complex, nonlinear, and self-organized. Nearly 150 years ago Rayleigh raised the following problem: two nearby organ pipes of different fundamental frequencies sound together almost inaudibly with identical pitch. This effect is now understood qualitatively by modern synchronization theory M. Abel et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 2467 (2006)10.1121/1.2170441]. For a detailed investigation, we substituted one pipe by an electric speaker. We observe that even minute driving signals force the pipe to synchronization, thus yielding three decades of synchronization-the largest range ever measured to our knowledge. Furthermore, a mutual silencing of the pipe is found, which can be explained by self-organized oscillations, of use for novel methods of noise abatement. Finally, we develop a reconstruction method which yields a perfect quantitative match of experiment and theory.

  8. Development of Client Environments for a Synchronization System based on Events; Desarrollo de Entornos Cliente para un Sistema de Sincronizacion Basado en Eventos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Vega, J.


    The Asynchronous Event Distribution System (AEDS) was built to provides synchronization resources within the TJ-II local area network. It is a software system developed to add soft synchronization capabilities to the TJ-II data acquisition, control and analysis environments Soft synchronization signifies that AEDS is not a realtime system. In fact, AEDS is based on TCP/IP over ETHERNET networks. However, its response time is adequate for practical purposes when synchronization requirements can support some delay between event dispatch and message reception. Event broadcasters (or synchronization servers in AEDS terminology) are Windows computers. Destination computers (or synchronization clients) were also Windows machines in the first version of AEDS. However, this fact imposed a very important limitation on synchronization capabilities. to overcome this situation, synchronization clients for different environments have been added to AEDS: time-sharing operating systems (UNIX and LINUX), real-time operating systems (OS9 and VxWorks) and Java applications. The synchronization primitives that operate in these systems are very different between them and therefore, several approaches were chosen in order to provide the same functionality to the various environments. POSLX thread library with its basic synchronization primitives (mutex and conditions variables) was used to accomplish this task on UNIX/LINUX systems, IPC mechanisms for concurrent processes on OS9 and VxWorks real time operating systems, and synchronized-wait/notify primitives on Java virtual machines. (Author) 11 refs.

  9. Analysis of synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, TA


    Analysis of Synchronous Machines, Second Edition is a thoroughly modern treatment of an old subject. Courses generally teach about synchronous machines by introducing the steady-state per phase equivalent circuit without a clear, thorough presentation of the source of this circuit representation, which is a crucial aspect. Taking a different approach, this book provides a deeper understanding of complex electromechanical drives. Focusing on the terminal rather than on the internal characteristics of machines, the book begins with the general concept of winding functions, describing the placeme

  10. Promoting and Scaffolding Argumentation through Reflective Asynchronous Discussions (United States)

    Lin, Huann-shyang; Hong, Zuway-R.; Lawrenz, Frances


    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to explore the impact of asynchronous discussion on the quality and complexity of college students' arguments. Three different cohorts of students registered in a physical science course in 2009 Fall, 2010 Spring, and 2010 Fall semesters were briefly supported with scaffolding in class and then…

  11. Asynchronous online foresight panels: the case of wildfire management (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Robert L. Olson


    Text-based asynchronous online conferencing involves structured online discussion and deliberation among multiple participants from multiple sites in which there is a delay in interaction between contributors. This method has been widely used for a variety of purposes in higher education and other settings, but has not been commonly used in futures research. This paper...

  12. Numerical simulation of three phase asynchronous motor to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical simulation of three phase asynchronous motor to diagnose precisely the stator unbalanced voltage anomaly. ... First, the stator currents data pattern is used as a preliminary diagnosis. ... This similarity leads to uncertainty in the detection of the fault, which makes imperative the use of complementary technique.

  13. Study of a centrifugal pump, asynchronous motor and inverter, using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... concept to the study of a three-phase inverter, asynchronous motor and centrifugal pump. It presents the realization of the rectangular control using a micro controller (ATMEGA 168). The signals generated by the micro controller have been used to program the parallel port of a computer. By reading the recorded bits of the ...

  14. Student Moderators in Asynchronous Online Discussion: A Question of Questions (United States)

    Zingaro, Daniel


    Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…

  15. Asynchronous updating of threshold-coupled chaotic neurons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study a network of chaotic model neurons incorporating threshold- activated coupling. We obtain a wide range of spatiotemporal patterns under varying degrees of asynchronicity in the evolution of the neuronal components. For instance, we find that sequential updating of threshold-coupled chaotic neurons ...

  16. Asynchronous updating of threshold-coupled chaotic neurons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study a network of chaotic model neurons incorporating threshold activated coupling. We obtain a wide range of spatiotemporal patterns under varying degrees of asynchronicity in the evolution of the neuronal components. For instance, we find that sequential updating of threshold-coupled chaotic neurons can yield ...

  17. Designing Communities of Learners for Asynchronous Distance Education. (United States)

    Moller, Leslie


    Describes the need for learning communities within the context of asynchronous distance education. Highlights include the relationship of community and distance learners; community as social reinforcement and as information exchange; and types of communities, including academic support communities, intellectual support communities, and…

  18. Cyber Asynchronous versus Blended Cyber Approach in Distance English Learning (United States)

    Ge, Zi-Gang


    This study aims to compare the single cyber asynchronous learning approach with the blended cyber learning approach in distance English education. Two classes of 70 students participated in this study, which lasted one semester of about four months, with one class using the blended approach for their English study and the other only using the…

  19. Asynchronous Assessment in a Large Lecture Marketing Course (United States)

    Downey, W. Scott; Schetzsle, Stacey


    Asynchronous assessment, which includes quizzes or exams online or outside class, offers marketing educators an opportunity to make more efficient use of class time and to enhance students' learning experiences by giving them more flexibility and choice in their assessment environment. In this paper, we examine the performance difference between…

  20. Designing a Web-Based Asynchronous Innovation/Entrepreneurism Course (United States)

    Ghandforoush, Parviz


    Teaching an online fully asynchronous information technology course that requires students to ideate, build an e-commerce website, and develop an effective business plan involves a well-developed and highly engaging course design. This paper describes the design, development, and implementation of such a course and presents information on…

  1. Numerical simulation of three phase asynchronous motor to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simulation numérique du moteur asynchrone triphasé pour diagnostiquer précisément le défaut du déséquilibre de ..... carrying more energy [9]. This severity index assumes values ..... its spectrum in normal circumstance. It was theoretically predicted that in this condition, the EPVA signature would be free from any spectral.

  2. Reconceptualising Moderation in Asynchronous Online Discussions Using Grounded Theory (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Panos; Cowan, John


    This article reports a grounded theory study of the moderation of asynchronous online discussions, to explore the processes by which tutors in higher education decide when and how to moderate. It aims to construct a theory of e-moderation based on some key factors which appear to influence e-moderation. It discusses previous research on the…

  3. Adding the Human Touch to Asynchronous Online Learning (United States)

    Glenn, Cynthia Wheatley


    For learners to actively accept responsibility in a virtual classroom platform, it is necessary to provide special motivation extending across the traditional classroom setting into asynchronous online learning. This article explores specific ways to do this that bridge the gap between ground and online students' learning experiences, and how…

  4. Miscellany of Students' Satisfaction in an Asynchronous Learning Environment (United States)

    Larbi-Siaw, Otu; Owusu-Agyeman, Yaw


    This study investigates the determinants of students' satisfaction in an asynchronous learning environment using seven key considerations: the e-learning environment, student-content interaction, student and student interaction, student-teacher interaction, group cohesion and timely participation, knowledge of Internet usage, and satisfaction. The…

  5. An improved modelling of asynchronous machine with skin-effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conventional method of analysis of Asynchronous machine fails to give accurate results especially when the machine is operated under high rotor frequency. At high rotor frequency, skin-effect dominates causing the rotor impedance to be frequency dependant. This paper therefore presents an improved method of ...

  6. User satisfaction with asynchronous telemedicine: a study of users of Santa Catarina's system of telemedicine and telehealth. (United States)

    von Wangenheim, Aldo; de Souza Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Tognoli, Heitor; Nassar, Silvia Modesto; Ho, Kendall


    User satisfaction analyses in synchronous telemedicine and teleconsultation environments have been widely performed and generally show satisfied users. In the field of asynchronous telemedicine, however, satisfaction studies were performed only in one single location or with a restricted set of users. With the aim of offering an exemplar evaluation of the impact of the statewide use of a large-scale asynchronous telemedicine network on the satisfaction of the involved users, this study presents the results obtained from a survey of the perceived quality of the service by both patients and healthcare staff. For this purpose, a survey with satisfaction questionnaires was performed with 564 patients from seven upstate municipalities and 56 healthcare professionals from 46 municipalities, using a methodology from the process improvement field. The collected data were quantified and underwent statistical analysis, which showed a clear perception of the improvement in the quality of service by both patients and healthcare professionals. The present findings also showed that both patients and healthcare professionals felt that introducing these new technologies was a positive step, even in upstate areas and when they involved great changes in the usual processes of primary care.

  7. Synchronous Acromegaly and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüsniye Başer


    Full Text Available Acromegaly is a rare endocrine disorder characterized by the manifestations of sustained hypersecretion of growth hormone and concomitant elevations in circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1. It has been reported that patients with acromegaly are at the increased risk of developing malignant tumors, particularly colorectal cancer. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. An association between gastrointestinal stromal tumors and insulin-like growth factor system has been reported. Here, we report a patient diagnosed with synchronous acromegaly and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. A 59-year-old man with iron deficiency anemia presented with enlarged hands, coarse facial feature and several skin tags. Thyroid function tests were within normal range. Growth hormone was 5.14 ng/mL, insulin-like growth factor-1 was 820 ng/mL, and no growth hormone suppression was observed on 75g oral glucose tolerance test. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging revealed microadenoma, and the patient was diagnosed with acromegaly. Upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy revealed an ulcerovegetan mass in the duodenum and the results of the histopathologcal analysis was consistent with gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The association of synchronous and asynchronous gastrointestinal stromal tumors with other malignancies have been reported. The most common accompanying neoplasms are colorectal and gastric adenocarcinomas, as well as pancreatic tumors. However, in the literature, the number of reported cases of synchronous acromegaly and gastrointestinal stromal tumor are limited, and there are no sufficient data on this association. Turk Jem 2014; 2: 52-55

  8. Order release in synchronous manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, J.


    Synchronous manufacturing aims at achieving the benefits of intermittent production lines in production situations that operate without lines. Benefits such as short and constant throughput times and predictable capacity loading can be acquired through an appropriate design of the synchronous

  9. Synchronizing Hyperchaotic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, Arunas; Cenys, Antanas; Namajunas, Audrius


    Regarding possible applications to secure communications the technique of synchronizing hyperchaotic circuits with a single dynamical variable is discussed. Several specific examples including the fourth-order circuits with two positive Lyapunov exponents as well as the oscillator with a delay line...

  10. Synchronization of respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garssen, B.

    In order to study synchronization of respiration, three different videofragments were presented to 21 normal subjects. Each fragment showed a ‘therapeutic interview’ specially performed for this purpose, with a ‘patient’ breathing in a particular way. The respiration of model 1 was deep, slow and

  11. Synchronization of networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... We study the synchronization of coupled dynamical systems on networks. The dynamics is governed by a local nonlinear oscillator for each node of the network and interactions connecting different nodes via the links of the network. We consider existence and stability conditions for both single- and ...

  12. Time Delay and Long-Range Connection Induced Synchronization Transitions in Newman-Watts Small-World Neuronal Networks (United States)

    Qian, Yu


    The synchronization transitions in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks (SWNNs) induced by time delay and long-range connection (LRC) probability have been investigated by synchronization parameter and space-time plots. Four distinct parameter regions, that is, asynchronous region, transition region, synchronous region, and oscillatory region have been discovered at certain LRC probability as time delay is increased. Interestingly, desynchronization is observed in oscillatory region. More importantly, we consider the spatiotemporal patterns obtained in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs are the competition results between long-range drivings (LRDs) and neighboring interactions. In addition, for moderate time delay, the synchronization of neuronal network can be enhanced remarkably by increasing LRC probability. Furthermore, lag synchronization has been found between weak synchronization and complete synchronization as LRC probability is a little less than 1.0. Finally, the two necessary conditions, moderate time delay and large numbers of LRCs, are exposed explicitly for synchronization in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs. PMID:24810595

  13. Asynchronous onset of eutrophication among shallow prairie lakes of the Northern Great Plains, Alberta, Canada. (United States)

    Maheaux, Heather; Leavitt, Peter R; Jackson, Leland J


    Coherent timing of agricultural expansion, fertilizer application, atmospheric nutrient deposition, and accelerated global warming is expected to promote synchronous fertilization of regional surface waters and coherent development of algal blooms and lake eutrophication. While broad-scale cyanobacterial expansion is evident in global meta-analyses, little is known of whether lakes in discrete catchments within a common lake district also exhibit coherent water quality degradation through anthropogenic forcing. Consequently, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether agricultural development since ca. 1900, accelerated use of fertilizer since 1960, atmospheric deposition of reactive N, or regional climate warming has resulted in coherent patterns of eutrophication of surface waters in southern Alberta, Canada. Unexpectedly, analysis of sedimentary pigments as an index of changes in total algal abundance since ca. 1850 revealed that while total algal abundance (as β-carotene, pheophytin a) increased in nine of 10 lakes over 150 years, the onset of eutrophication varied by a century and was asynchronous across basins. Similarly, analysis of temporal sequences with least-squares regression revealed that the relative abundance of cyanobacteria (echinenone) either decreased or did not change significantly in eight of the lakes since ca. 1850, whereas purple sulfur bacteria (as okenone) increased significantly in seven study sites. These patterns are consistent with the catchment filter hypothesis, which posits that lakes exhibit unique responses to common forcing associated with the influx of mass as water, nutrients, or particles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mutual and asynchronous anticipation and action in sports as globally competitive and locally coordinative dynamics (United States)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Isaka, Tadao; Kouzaki, Motoki; Yamamoto, Yuji


    Humans interact by changing their actions, perceiving other’s actions and executing solutions in conflicting situations. Using oscillator models, nonlinear dynamics have been considered for describing these complex human movements as an emergence of self-organisation. However, these frameworks cannot explain the hierarchical structures of complex behaviours between conflicting inter-agent and adapting intra-agent systems, especially in sport competitions wherein mutually quick decision making and execution are required. Here we adopt a hybrid multiscale approach to model an attack-and-defend game during which both players predict the opponent’s movement and move with a delay. From both simulated and measured data, one synchronous outcome between two-agent (i.e. successful defence) can be described as one attractor. In contrast, the other coordination-breaking outcome (i.e. successful attack) cannot be explained using gradient dynamics because the asymmetric interaction cannot always assume a conserved physical quantity. Instead, we provide the asymmetric and asynchronous hierarchical dynamical models to discuss two-agent competition. Our framework suggests that possessing information about an opponent and oneself in local-coordinative and global-competitive scale enables us to gain a deeper understanding of sports competitions. We anticipate developments in the scientific fields of complex movement adapting to such uncontrolled environments.

  15. An asynchronous writing method for restart files in the gysela code in prevision of exascale systems*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomine O.


    Full Text Available The present work deals with an optimization procedure developed in the full-f global GYrokinetic SEmi-LAgrangian code (GYSELA. Optimizing the writing of the restart files is necessary to reduce the computing impact of crashes. These files require a very large memory space, and particularly so for very large mesh sizes. The limited bandwidth of the data pipe between the comput- ing nodes and the storage system induces a non-scalable part in the GYSELA code, which increases with the mesh size. Indeed the transfer time of RAM to data depends linearly on the files size. The necessity of non synchronized writing-in-file procedure is therefore crucial. A new GYSELA module has been developed. This asynchronous procedure allows the frequent writ- ing of the restart files, whilst preventing a severe slowing down due to the limited writing bandwidth. This method has been improved to generate a checksum control of the restart files, and automatically rerun the code in case of a crash for any cause.

  16. Enhancement of asynchronous release from fast-spiking interneuron in human and rat epileptic neocortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Jiang

    Full Text Available Down-regulation of GABAergic inhibition may result in the generation of epileptiform activities. Besides spike-triggered synchronous GABA release, changes in asynchronous release (AR following high-frequency discharges may further regulate epileptiform activities. In brain slices obtained from surgically removed human neocortical tissues of patients with intractable epilepsy and brain tumor, we found that AR occurred at GABAergic output synapses of fast-spiking (FS neurons and its strength depended on the type of connections, with FS autapses showing the strongest AR. In addition, we found that AR depended on residual Ca²⁺ at presynaptic terminals but was independent of postsynaptic firing. Furthermore, AR at FS autapses was markedly elevated in human epileptic tissue as compared to non-epileptic tissue. In a rat model of epilepsy, we found similar elevation of AR at both FS autapses and synapses onto excitatory neurons. Further experiments and analysis showed that AR elevation in epileptic tissue may result from an increase in action potential amplitude in the FS neurons and elevation of residual Ca²⁺ concentration. Together, these results revealed that GABAergic AR occurred at both human and rat neocortex, and its elevation in epileptic tissue may contribute to the regulation of epileptiform activities.

  17. A synchronous communication experiment within an online distance learning program: a case study. (United States)

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Taylor, Andrea D; Breton, Alice


    Student-teacher and student-student interactions in purely asynchronous distance learning courses are much lacking compared to similar interactions found in face-to-face teaching, causing learners to experience feelings of isolation, thus reducing motivation and increasing dropout rates. We used PalTalk, an Internet text and audio chat client from AVM Software, Inc. (New York, NY), to offer our students live virtual classroom sessions within a unit of our online distance learning M.Sc. program in Healthcare Informatics. On-demand replays of audio excerpts from the sessions were also provided to accommodate absenteeism and for student review. Five students completed an evaluation questionnaire. Our results highlighted the potential merits of using synchronous conferencing to assist in fostering a sense of belonging to one supportive learning community among distance learners and improve educational outcomes. Students were very positive toward the real-time human interaction and voted for a 95/5 (asynchronous/synchronous percentages) blended delivery approach for a typical unit in our program. They also praised PalTalk's voice quality and ease of use. This paper presents educational and technological perspectives about this experiment in the form of a state-of the- art review, without intending to be statistically rigorous. However, robust research evidence is still required to convince educators fully about the benefits of synchronous communication tools and help them decide on the most suitable solutions for their particular circumstances.

  18. Temporal Expression of a Master Regulator Drives Synchronous Sporulation in Budding Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghao Chia


    Full Text Available Yeast cells enter and undergo gametogenesis relatively asynchronously, making it technically challenging to perform stage-specific genomic and biochemical analyses. Cell-to-cell variation in the expression of the master regulator of entry into sporulation, IME1, has been implicated to be the underlying cause of asynchronous sporulation. Here, we find that timing of IME1 expression is of critical importance for inducing cells to undergo sporulation synchronously. When we force expression of IME1 from an inducible promoter in cells incubated in sporulation medium for 2 hr, the vast majority of cells exhibit synchrony during premeiotic DNA replication and meiotic divisions. Inducing IME1 expression too early or too late affects the synchrony of sporulation. Surprisingly, our approach for synchronous sporulation does not require growth in acetate-containing medium, but can be achieved in cells grown in rich medium until saturation. Our system requires solely IME1, because the expression of the N6-methyladenosine methyltransferase IME4, another key regulator of early sporulation, is controlled by IME1 itself. The approach described here can be combined easily with other stage-specific synchronization methods, and thereby applied to study specific stages of sporulation, or the complete sporulation program.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Malyar


    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of a mathematical model that enables to detect resonance modes during asynchronous startup of salient-pole synchronous motors, in which capacitors are switched on to increase the electromagnetic moment in the circuit of the excitation winding. Methodology. The asynchronous mode is described by a system of differential equations of the electric equilibrium of motor circuits written in orthogonal coordinate axes. The basis of the developed algorithm is the mathematical model of the high-level adequacy motor and the projection method for solving the boundary value problem for the equations of the electric equilibrium of the circuits written in orthogonal coordinate axes, taking into account the presence of capacitors in the excitation winding. The coefficients of differential equations are the differential inductances of the motor circuits, which are determined on the basis of the calculation of its magnetic circuit. As a result of the asymmetry of the rotor windings in the asynchronous mode, the current coupling and currents change according to the periodic law. The problem of its definition is solved as a boundary one. Results. A mathematical model for studying the asynchronous characteristics of synchronous motors with capacitors in an excitation winding is developed, by means of which it is possible to investigate the influence of the size of the capacity on the motor's starting properties and the resonance processes which may arise in this case. Scientific novelty. The developed method of mathematical modeling is based on a fundamentally new mathematical basis for the calculation of stationary dynamic modes of nonlinear electromagnetic circuits, which enables to obtain periodic coordinate dependencies, without resorting to the calculation of the transients. The basis of the developed algorithm is based on the approximation of state variables by cubic splines, the projection method of decomposition for the boundary value

  20. Synchronizing Strategies under Partial Observability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri


    Embedded devices usually share only partial information about their current configurations as the communication bandwidth can be restricted. Despite this, we may wish to bring a failed device into a given predetermined configuration. This problem, also known as resetting or synchronizing words, has...... been intensively studied for systems that do not provide any information about their configurations. In order to capture more general scenarios, we extend the existing theory of synchronizing words to synchronizing strategies, and study the synchronization, short-synchronization and subset...

  1. Synchronization of Sound Sources (United States)

    Abel, Markus; Ahnert, Karsten; Bergweiler, Steffen


    Sound generation and interaction are highly complex, nonlinear, and self-organized. Nearly 150 years ago Rayleigh raised the following problem: two nearby organ pipes of different fundamental frequencies sound together almost inaudibly with identical pitch. This effect is now understood qualitatively by modern synchronization theory M. Abel et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 2467 (2006)JASMAN0001-496610.1121/1.2170441]. For a detailed investigation, we substituted one pipe by an electric speaker. We observe that even minute driving signals force the pipe to synchronization, thus yielding three decades of synchronization—the largest range ever measured to our knowledge. Furthermore, a mutual silencing of the pipe is found, which can be explained by self-organized oscillations, of use for novel methods of noise abatement. Finally, we develop a reconstruction method which yields a perfect quantitative match of experiment and theory.

  2. LHC synchronization test successful

    CERN Multimedia

    The synchronization of the LHC's clockwise beam transfer system and the rest of CERN's accelerator chain was successfully achieved last weekend. Tests began on Friday 8 August when a single bunch of a few particles was taken down the transfer line from the SPS accelerator to the LHC. After a period of optimization, one bunch was kicked up from the transfer line into the LHC beam pipe and steered about 3 kilometres around the LHC itself on the first attempt. On Saturday, the test was repeated several times to optimize the transfer before the operations group handed the machine back for hardware commissioning to resume on Sunday. The anti-clockwise synchronization systems will be tested over the weekend of 22 August.Picture:

  3. Optimixing Synchronous Systems. (United States)


    Flavio Rose of MIT. Several hosts. A natural extension to the model of synchronous systems is the inclusion of multiple, independent hosts. The...but just use the Retiming Lemma to improve its clock period as much as possible. With Flavio Rose, we have obtained the following results...than 10 ). Acknowledgment Thanks to Jon Bcntlcy, Dan Hocy, and Flavio Rose for comments and suggestions. Thanks also to S. Rao Kosaraju for

  4. Asynchronous Multi-Party Computation with Quadratic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirt, Martin; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Przydatek, Bartosz


    We present an efficient protocol for secure multi-party computation in the asynchronous model with optimal resilience. For n parties, up to t < n/3 of them being corrupted, and security parameter κ, a circuit with c gates can be securely computed with communication complexity O(cn^2k) bits, which...... circuit randomization due to Beaver (Crypto’91), and an abstraction of certificates, which can be of independent interest....

  5. Marine Forces Reserve: Accelerating Knowledge Flow through Asynchronous Learning Technologies (United States)


    Substantial evidence indicates that—with informed instruction design and appropriate pedagogy —the efficacy of online education and training is...efficacy of online education and training is at least 3 comparable to that of classroom teaching. Indeed, the educational psychology literature is...learning in an education environment, and we adapt such highly effective asynchronous learning techniques and technologies to the I-I training task


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this work, we present the application of artificial neural networks to the identification and control of the asynchronous motor, which is a complex nonlinear system with variable internal dynamics.  We show that neural networks can be applied to control the stator currents of the induction motor.  The results of the different simulations are presented to evaluate the performance of the neural controller proposed.

  7. Dynamic modeling of an asynchronous squirrel-cage machine; Modelisation dynamique d'une machine asynchrone a cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerette, D.


    This document presented a detailed mathematical explanation and validation of the steps leading to the development of an asynchronous squirrel-cage machine. The MatLab/Simulink software was used to model a wind turbine at variable high speeds. The asynchronous squirrel-cage machine is an electromechanical system coupled to a magnetic circuit. The resulting electromagnetic circuit can be represented as a set of resistances, leakage inductances and mutual inductances. Different models were used for a comparison study, including the Munteanu, Boldea, Wind Turbine Blockset, and SimPowerSystem. MatLab/Simulink modeling results were in good agreement with the results from other comparable models. Simulation results were in good agreement with analytical calculations. 6 refs, 2 tabs, 9 figs.

  8. Synchronization properties of coupled chaotic neurons: The role of random shared input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rupesh [School of Computational and Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Bilal, Shakir [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Ramaswamy, Ram [School of Computational and Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)


    Spike-time correlations of neighbouring neurons depend on their intrinsic firing properties as well as on the inputs they share. Studies have shown that periodically firing neurons, when subjected to random shared input, exhibit asynchronicity. Here, we study the effect of random shared input on the synchronization of weakly coupled chaotic neurons. The cases of so-called electrical and chemical coupling are both considered, and we observe a wide range of synchronization behaviour. When subjected to identical shared random input, there is a decrease in the threshold coupling strength needed for chaotic neurons to synchronize in-phase. The system also supports lag–synchronous states, and for these, we find that shared input can cause desynchronization. We carry out a master stability function analysis for a network of such neurons and show agreement with the numerical simulations. The contrasting role of shared random input for complete and lag synchronized neurons is useful in understanding spike-time correlations observed in many areas of the brain.

  9. Control of synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul


    Synchronous motors are indubitably the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. Their control law is thus critical for combining at the same time high productivity to reduced energy consummation. As far as possible, the control algorithms must exploit the properties of these actuators. Therefore, this work draws on well adapted models resulting from the Park's transformation, for both the most traditional machines with sinusoidal field distribution and for machines with non-sinusoidal field distribution which are more and more used in

  10. Emergent synchronous bursting of oxytocin neuronal network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Rossoni


    Full Text Available When young suckle, they are rewarded intermittently with a let-down of milk that results from reflex secretion of the hormone oxytocin; without oxytocin, newly born young will die unless they are fostered. Oxytocin is made by magnocellular hypothalamic neurons, and is secreted from their nerve endings in the pituitary in response to action potentials (spikes that are generated in the cell bodies and which are propagated down their axons to the nerve endings. Normally, oxytocin cells discharge asynchronously at 1-3 spikes/s, but during suckling, every 5 min or so, each discharges a brief, intense burst of spikes that release a pulse of oxytocin into the circulation. This reflex was the first, and is perhaps the best, example of a physiological role for peptide-mediated communication within the brain: it is coordinated by the release of oxytocin from the dendrites of oxytocin cells; it can be facilitated by injection of tiny amounts of oxytocin into the hypothalamus, and it can be blocked by injection of tiny amounts of oxytocin antagonist. Here we show how synchronized bursting can arise in a neuronal network model that incorporates basic observations of the physiology of oxytocin cells. In our model, bursting is an emergent behaviour of a complex system, involving both positive and negative feedbacks, between many sparsely connected cells. The oxytocin cells are regulated by independent afferent inputs, but they interact by local release of oxytocin and endocannabinoids. Oxytocin released from the dendrites of these cells has a positive-feedback effect, while endocannabinoids have an inhibitory effect by suppressing the afferent input to the cells.

  11. Behavioral Synthesis of Asynchronous Circuits Using Syntax Directed Translation as Backend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Sparsø, Jens; Madsen, Jan


    The current state-of-the art in high-level synthesis of asynchronous circuits is syntax directed translation, which performs a one-to-one mapping of a HDL-description into a corresponding circuit. This paper presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits which builds on top...... of syntax directed translation, and which allows the designer to perform automatic design space exploration guided by area or speed constraints. The paper presents an asynchronous implementation template consisting of a data-path and a control unit and its implementation using the asynchronous hardware...

  12. Medical issues in synchronized skating. (United States)

    Abbott, Kristin; Hecht, Suzanne


    Synchronized skating is a unique sport of team skating and currently represents the largest competitive discipline in U.S. Figure Skating. Synchronized skating allows skaters to compete as part of a team with opportunities to represent their country in international competitions. As the popularity of the sport continues to grow, more of these athletes will present to sports medicine clinics with injuries and illnesses related to participation in synchronized skating. The purpose of this article is to review the common injuries and medical conditions affecting synchronized skaters.

  13. Sample Data Synchronization and Harmonic Analysis Algorithm Based on Radial Basis Function Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiqing Zhang


    Full Text Available The spectral leakage has a harmful effect on the accuracy of harmonic analysis for asynchronous sampling. This paper proposed a time quasi-synchronous sampling algorithm which is based on radial basis function (RBF interpolation. Firstly, a fundamental period is evaluated by a zero-crossing technique with fourth-order Newton’s interpolation, and then, the sampling sequence is reproduced by the RBF interpolation. Finally, the harmonic parameters can be calculated by FFT on the synchronization of sampling data. Simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm has high accuracy in measuring distorted and noisy signals. Compared to the local approximation schemes as linear, quadric, and fourth-order Newton interpolations, the RBF is a global approximation method which can acquire more accurate results while the time-consuming is about the same as Newton’s.

  14. Asynchronous parallel generating set search for linearly-constrained optimization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolda, Tamara G.; Griffin, Joshua; Lewis, Robert Michael


    We describe an asynchronous parallel derivative-free algorithm for linearly-constrained optimization. Generating set search (GSS) is the basis of ourmethod. At each iteration, a GSS algorithm computes a set of search directionsand corresponding trial points and then evaluates the objective function valueat each trial point. Asynchronous versions of the algorithm have been developedin the unconstrained and bound-constrained cases which allow the iterations tocontinue (and new trial points to be generated and evaluated) as soon as anyother trial point completes. This enables better utilization of parallel resourcesand a reduction in overall runtime, especially for problems where the objec-tive function takes minutes or hours to compute. For linearly-constrained GSS,the convergence theory requires that the set of search directions conform to the3 nearby boundary. The complexity of developing the asynchronous algorithm forthe linearly-constrained case has to do with maintaining a suitable set of searchdirections as the search progresses and is the focus of this research. We describeour implementation in detail, including how to avoid function evaluations bycaching function values and using approximate look-ups. We test our imple-mentation on every CUTEr test problem with general linear constraints and upto 1000 variables. Without tuning to individual problems, our implementationwas able to solve 95% of the test problems with 10 or fewer variables, 75%of the problems with 11-100 variables, and nearly half of the problems with100-1000 variables. To the best of our knowledge, these are the best resultsthat have ever been achieved with a derivative-free method. Our asynchronousparallel implementation is freely available as part of the APPSPACK software.4

  15. a Beat Perioid Observation of the Asynchronous Polar by Cam. (United States)

    Rainger, Jonathan

    We propose to observe the hard X-ray bright asynchronous polar BY Cam throughout its beat cycle in order to investigate the changes in the magnetic capture of the accretion stream as the secondary star changes in azimuth with respect to the white dwarf. Regular snap-shots of the light curve will reveal the order behind the chaos. Previous observations have been taken in 3 days or less, our monitoring plan over 21 days offers the only real hope of understanding these difficult systems.

  16. Creating video-annotated discussions: An asynchronous alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig D. Howard


    Full Text Available In this article the authors illustrate the design and development of a pedagogical intervention using video annotations in a pre-service teacher education courrse. An annotation platform was selected and video was shot to create a video backdrop on which asynchronous discussions would take place. The article addresses design considerations in the selection of video, the editing process, and the development of a tutorial to lead learners through their first experience with this form of discussion. Learner participation samples were collected, and an analysis of the design process concludes the article.

  17. Positive semidefinite integrated covariance estimation, factorizations and asynchronicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauri, Orimar; Lunde, Asger; Laurent, Sébastien


    An estimator of the ex-post covariation of log-prices under asynchronicity and microstructure noise is proposed. It uses the Cholesky factorization of the covariance matrix in order to exploit the heterogeneity in trading intensities to estimate the different parameters sequentially with as many...... observations as possible. The estimator is positive semidefinite by construction. We derive asymptotic results and confirm their good finite sample properties by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. In the application we forecast portfolio Value-at-Risk and sector risk exposures for a portfolio of 52 stocks. We...

  18. The braided Ptolemy-Thompson group $T^*$ is asynchronously combable


    Funar, Louis; Kapoudjian, Christophe


    The braided Ptolemy-Thompson group $T^*$ is an extension of the Thompson group $T$ by the full braid group $B_{\\infty}$ on infinitely many strands. This group is a simplified version of the acyclic extension considered by Greenberg and Sergiescu, and can be viewed as a mapping class group of a certain infinite planar surface. In a previous paper we showed that $T^*$ is finitely presented. Our main result here is that $T^*$ (and $T$) is asynchronously combable. The method of proof is inspired ...

  19. Biologically Inspired Intercellular Slot Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tyrrell


    Full Text Available The present article develops a decentralized interbase station slot synchronization algorithm suitable for cellular mobile communication systems. The proposed cellular firefly synchronization (CelFSync algorithm is derived from the theory of pulse-coupled oscillators, common to describe synchronization phenomena in biological systems, such as the spontaneous synchronization of fireflies. In order to maintain synchronization among base stations (BSs, even when there is no direct link between adjacent BSs, some selected user terminals (UTs participate in the network synchronization process. Synchronization emerges by exchanging two distinct synchronization words, one transmitted by BSs and the other by active UTs, without any a priori assumption on the initial timing misalignments of BSs and UTs. In large-scale networks with inter-BS site distances up to a few kilometers, propagation delays severely affect the attainable timing accuracy of CelFSync. We show that by an appropriate combination of CelFSync with the timing advance procedure, which aligns uplink transmission of UTs to arrive simultaneously at the BS, a timing accuracy within a fraction of the inter-BS propagation delay is retained.

  20. Business cycle synchronization in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Jonung, Lars


    In this paper we study business cycle synchronization in the three Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden prior to, during and after the Scandinavian Currency Union 1873–1913. We find that the degree of synchronization tended to increase during the currency union, thus supporting earlier...

  1. Exploiting Schemas in Data Synchronization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, J. Nathan; Greenwald, Michael B.; Kirkegaard, Christian


    Increased reliance on optimistic data replication has led to burgeoning interest in tools and frameworks for disconnected updates to replicated data.We have implemented a generic synchronization framework, called HARMONY, that can be used to build state-based synchronizers for a wide variety of t...

  2. Quantum Synchronization Blockade: Energy Quantization Hinders Synchronization of Identical Oscillators. (United States)

    Lörch, Niels; Nigg, Simon E; Nunnenkamp, Andreas; Tiwari, Rakesh P; Bruder, Christoph


    Classically, the tendency towards spontaneous synchronization is strongest if the natural frequencies of the self-oscillators are as close as possible. We show that this wisdom fails in the deep quantum regime, where the uncertainty of amplitude narrows down to the level of single quanta. Under these circumstances identical self-oscillators cannot synchronize and detuning their frequencies can actually help synchronization. The effect can be understood in a simple picture: Interaction requires an exchange of energy. In the quantum regime, the possible quanta of energy are discrete. If the extractable energy of one oscillator does not exactly match the amount the second oscillator may absorb, interaction, and thereby synchronization, is blocked. We demonstrate this effect, which we coin quantum synchronization blockade, in the minimal example of two Kerr-type self-oscillators and predict consequences for small oscillator networks, where synchronization between blocked oscillators can be mediated via a detuned oscillator. We also propose concrete implementations with superconducting circuits and trapped ions. This paves the way for investigations of new quantum synchronization phenomena in oscillator networks both theoretically and experimentally.

  3. A Scheduling Discipline for Latency and Bandwidth Guarantees in Asynchronous Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens


    Guaranteed services (GS) are important in that they provide predictability in the complex dynamics of shared communication structures. This paper discusses the implementation of GS in asynchronous Network-on-Chip. We present a novel scheduling discipline called Asynchronous Latency Guarantee (ALG...

  4. Adding effect of current displacement and magnetic circuit saturation in an asynchronous motor mathematical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Tsodik


    Full Text Available A methodology of an asynchronous motor mathematical model synthesis is described. Experiments are suggested to be conducted in the following sequence. Geometrical models are first built in AutoCAD, then imported to Comsol Multiphysics, and further processed in Matlab with computation of coefficients and dependences applied in the asynchronous motor mathematical model.

  5. Using Television Sitcoms to Facilitate Asynchronous Discussions in the Online Communication Course (United States)

    Tolman, Elizabeth; Asbury, Bryan


    Asynchronous discussions are a useful instructional resource in the online communication course. In discussion groups students have the opportunity to actively participate and interact with students and the instructor. Asynchronous communication allows for flexibility because "participants can interact with significant amounts of time between…

  6. Analysing High School Students' Participation and Interaction in an Asynchronous Online Project-Based Learning Environment (United States)

    Lang, Quek Choon


    This study aims to replicate and extend a previous study which was conducted on primary school students' asynchronous online project-based learning. In this study, 276 high school students' participation and interaction in a project-based learning environment was mediated by an asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool. The students'…

  7. Formation of the wide asynchronous binary asteroid population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Seth A. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, UCB 391, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Scheeres, Daniel J.; McMahon, Jay [Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, UCB 429, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)


    We propose and analyze a new mechanism for the formation of the wide asynchronous binary population. These binary asteroids have wide semimajor axes relative to most near-Earth and main belt asteroid systems. Confirmed members have rapidly rotating primaries and satellites that are not tidally locked. Previously suggested formation mechanisms from impact ejecta, from planetary flybys, and directly from rotational fission events cannot satisfy all of the observations. The newly hypothesized mechanism works as follows: (1) these systems are formed from rotational fission, (2) their satellites are tidally locked, (3) their orbits are expanded by the binary Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (BYORP) effect, (4) their satellites desynchronize as a result of the adiabatic invariance between the libration of the secondary and the mutual orbit, and (5) the secondary avoids resynchronization because of the YORP effect. This seemingly complex chain of events is a natural pathway for binaries with satellites that have particular shapes, which define the BYORP effect torque that acts on the system. After detailing the theory, we analyze each of the wide asynchronous binary members and candidates to assess their most likely formation mechanism. Finally, we suggest possible future observations to check and constrain our hypothesis.

  8. An Asynchronous IEEE Floating-Point Arithmetic Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Noche


    Full Text Available An asynchronous floating-point arithmetic unit is designed and tested at the transistor level usingCadence software. It uses CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor and DCVS (differentialcascode voltage switch logic in a 0.35 µm process using a 3.3 V supply voltage, with dual-rail data andsingle-rail control signals using four-phase handshaking.Using 17,085 transistors, the unit handles single-precision (32-bit addition/subtraction, multiplication,division, and remainder using the IEEE 754-1985 Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, withrounding and other operations to be handled by separate hardware or software. Division and remainderare done using a restoring subtractive algorithm; multiplication uses an additive algorithm. Exceptionsare noted by flags (and not trap handlers and the output is in single-precision.Previous work on asynchronous floating-point arithmetic units have mostly focused on single operationssuch as division. This is the first work to the authors' knowledge that can perform floating-point addition,multiplication, division, and remainder using a common datapath.

  9. Asynchronous cracking with dissimilar paths in multilayer graphene. (United States)

    Jang, Bongkyun; Kim, Byungwoon; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Sumigawa, Takashi; Kitamura, Takayuki


    Multilayer graphene consists of a stack of single-atomic-thick monolayer graphene sheets bound with π-π interactions and is a fascinating model material opening up a new field of fracture mechanics. In this study, fracture behavior of single-crystalline multilayer graphene was investigated using an in situ mode I fracture test under a scanning electron microscope, and abnormal crack propagation in multilayer graphene was identified for the first time. The fracture toughness of graphene was determined from the measured load-displacement curves and the realistic finite element modelling of specimen geometries. Nonlinear fracture behavior of the multilayer graphene is discussed based on nonlinear elastic fracture mechanics. In situ scanning electron microscope images obtained during the fracture test showed asynchronous crack propagation along independent paths, causing interlayer shear stress and slippages. We also found that energy dissipation by interlayer slippages between the graphene layers is the reason for the enhanced fracture toughness of multilayer graphene. The asynchronous cracking with independent paths is a unique cracking and toughening mechanism for single-crystalline multilayer graphene, which is not observed for the monolayer graphene. This could provide a useful insight for the design and development of graphene-based composite materials for structural applications.

  10. Asynchronously sampled blind source separation for coherent optical links (United States)

    Detwiler, Thomas F.; Searcy, Steven M.; Stark, Andrew J.; Ralph, Stephen E.; Basch, Bert E.


    Polarization multiplexing is an integral technique for generating spectrally efficient 100 Gb/s and higher optical links. Post coherent detection DSP-based polarization demultiplexing of QPSK links is commonly performed after timing recovery. We propose and demonstrate a method of asynchronous blind source separation using the constant modulus algorithm (CMA) on the asynchronously sampled signal to initially separate energy from arbitrarily aligned polarization states. This method lends well to implementation as it allows for an open-loop sampling frequency for analog-to-digital conversion at less than twice the symbol rate. We show that the performance of subsequent receiver functions is enhanced by the initial pol demux operation. CMA singularity behavior is avoided through tap settling constraints. The method is applicable to QPSK transmissions and many other modulation formats as well, including general QAM signals, offset-QPSK, and CPM, or a combination thereof. We present the architecture and its performance under several different formats and link conditions. Comparisons of complexity and performance are drawn between the proposed architecture and conventional receivers.

  11. Spatiotemporal Features for Asynchronous Event-based Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eLagorce


    Full Text Available Bio-inspired asynchronous event-based vision sensors are currently introducing a paradigm shift in visual information processing. These new sensors rely on a stimulus-driven principle of light acquisition similar to biological retinas. They are event-driven and fully asynchronous, thereby reducing redundancy and encoding exact times of input signal changes, leading to a very precise temporal resolution. Approaches for higher-level computer vision often rely on the realiable detection of features in visual frames, but similar definitions of features for the novel dynamic and event-based visual input representation of silicon retinas have so far been lacking. This article addresses the problem of learning and recognizing features for event-based vision sensors, which capture properties of truly spatiotemporal volumes of sparse visual event information. A novel computational architecture for learning and encoding spatiotemporal features is introduced based on a set of predictive recurrent reservoir networks, competing via winner-take-all selection. Features are learned in an unsupervised manner from real-world input recorded with event-based vision sensors. It is shown that the networks in the architecture learn distinct and task-specific dynamic visual features, and can predict their trajectories over time.

  12. Nutritional recommendations for synchronized swimming. (United States)

    Robertson, Sherry; Benardot, Dan; Mountjoy, Margo


    The sport of synchronized swimming is unique, because it combines speed, power, and endurance with precise synchronized movements and high-risk acrobatic maneuvers. Athletes must train and compete while spending a great amount of time underwater, upside down, and without the luxury of easily available oxygen. This review assesses the scientific evidence with respect to the physiological demands, energy expenditure, and body composition in these athletes. The role of appropriate energy requirements and guidelines for carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients for elite synchronized swimmers are reviewed. Because of the aesthetic nature of the sport, which prioritizes leanness, the risks of energy and macronutrient deficiencies are of significant concern. Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport and disordered eating/eating disorders are also of concern for these female athletes. An approach to the healthy management of body composition in synchronized swimming is outlined. Synchronized swimmers should be encouraged to consume a well-balanced diet with sufficient energy to meet demands and to time the intake of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to optimize performance and body composition. Micronutrients of concern for this female athlete population include iron, calcium, and vitamin D. This article reviews the physiological demands of synchronized swimming and makes nutritional recommendations for recovery, training, and competition to help optimize athletic performance and to reduce risks for weight-related medical issues that are of particular concern for elite synchronized swimmers.

  13. Emergent hybrid synchronization in coupled chaotic systems. (United States)

    Padmanaban, E; Boccaletti, Stefano; Dana, S K


    We evidence an interesting kind of hybrid synchronization in coupled chaotic systems where complete synchronization is restricted to only a subset of variables of two systems while other subset of variables may be in a phase synchronized state or desynchronized. Such hybrid synchronization is a generic emergent feature of coupled systems when a controller based coupling, designed by the Lyapunov function stability, is first engineered to induce complete synchronization in the identical case, and then a large parameter mismatch is introduced. We distinguish between two different hybrid synchronization regimes that emerge with parameter perturbation. The first, called hard hybrid synchronization, occurs when the coupled systems display global phase synchronization, while the second, called soft hybrid synchronization, corresponds to a situation where, instead, the global synchronization feature no longer exists. We verify the existence of both classes of hybrid synchronization in numerical examples of the Rössler system, a Lorenz-like system, and also in electronic experiment.

  14. Synchronization analysis of choir singing (United States)

    Tokuda, Isao; Kuwahara, Akihiro

    Synchronization plays an essential role in choir singing. Fundamental frequencies of the singing voices should satisfy a rational frequency relationship to produce harmony. The present study attempts to clarify basic properties of synchronization that may influence the chorus quality. As the key features of synchronization, frequency mismatch and timing mismatch were considered. Combining the synthesis technique of choir singing, which can precisely control the detailed frequency structure of the singing voice, with psychoacoustic experiment, criterions were obtained to roughly discriminate good choruses from bad ones. To examine the reliability of the psychoacoustic experiment, acoustic analysis of the singing voices in real chorus was further carried out.

  15. Analysis and control of excitation, field weakening and stability in direct torque controlled electrically excited synchronous motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrhoenen, O.


    Direct torque control (DTC) is a new control method for rotating field electrical machines. DTC controls directly the motor stator flux linkage with the stator voltage, and no stator current controllers are used. With the DTC method very good torque dynamics can be achieved. Until now, DTC has been applied to asynchronous motor drives. The purpose of this work is to analyse the applicability of DTC to electrically excited synchronous motor drives. Compared with asynchronous motor drives, electrically excited synchronous motor drives require an additional control for the rotor field current. The field current control is called excitation control in this study. The dependence of the static and dynamic performance of DTC synchronous motor drives on the excitation control has been analysed and a straightforward excitation control method has been developed and tested. In the field weakening range the stator flux linkage modulus must be reduced in order to keep the electro motive force of the synchronous motor smaller than the stator voltage and in order to maintain a sufficient voltage reserve. The dynamic performance of the DTC synchronous motor drive depends on the stator flux linkage modulus. Another important factor for the dynamic performance in the field weakening range is the excitation control. The field weakening analysis considers both dependencies. A modified excitation control method, which maximises the dynamic performance in the field weakening range, has been developed. In synchronous motor drives the load angle must be kept in a stabile working area in order to avoid loss of synchronism. The traditional vector control methods allow to adjust the load angle of the synchronous motor directly by the stator current control. In the DTC synchronous motor drive the load angle is not a directly controllable variable, but it is formed freely according to the motor`s electromagnetic state and load. The load angle can be limited indirectly by limiting the torque

  16. Frog: Asynchronous Graph Processing on GPU with Hybrid Coloring Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xuanhua; Luo, Xuan; Liang, Junling; Zhao, Peng; Di, Sheng; He, Bingsheng; Jin, Hai


    GPUs have been increasingly used to accelerate graph processing for complicated computational problems regarding graph theory. Many parallel graph algorithms adopt the asynchronous computing model to accelerate the iterative convergence. Unfortunately, the consistent asynchronous computing requires locking or atomic operations, leading to significant penalties/overheads when implemented on GPUs. As such, coloring algorithm is adopted to separate the vertices with potential updating conflicts, guaranteeing the consistency/correctness of the parallel processing. Common coloring algorithms, however, may suffer from low parallelism because of a large number of colors generally required for processing a large-scale graph with billions of vertices. We propose a light-weight asynchronous processing framework called Frog with a preprocessing/hybrid coloring model. The fundamental idea is based on Pareto principle (or 80-20 rule) about coloring algorithms as we observed through masses of realworld graph coloring cases. We find that a majority of vertices (about 80%) are colored with only a few colors, such that they can be read and updated in a very high degree of parallelism without violating the sequential consistency. Accordingly, our solution separates the processing of the vertices based on the distribution of colors. In this work, we mainly answer three questions: (1) how to partition the vertices in a sparse graph with maximized parallelism, (2) how to process large-scale graphs that cannot fit into GPU memory, and (3) how to reduce the overhead of data transfers on PCIe while processing each partition. We conduct experiments on real-world data (Amazon, DBLP, YouTube, RoadNet-CA, WikiTalk and Twitter) to evaluate our approach and make comparisons with well-known non-preprocessed (such as Totem, Medusa, MapGraph and Gunrock) and preprocessed (Cusha) approaches, by testing four classical algorithms (BFS, PageRank, SSSP and CC). On all the tested applications and

  17. Incoherence-Mediated Remote Synchronization (United States)

    Zhang, Liyue; Motter, Adilson E.; Nishikawa, Takashi


    In previously identified forms of remote synchronization between two nodes, the intermediate portion of the network connecting the two nodes is not synchronized with them but generally exhibits some coherent dynamics. Here we report on a network phenomenon we call incoherence-mediated remote synchronization (IMRS), in which two noncontiguous parts of the network are identically synchronized while the dynamics of the intermediate part is statistically and information-theoretically incoherent. We identify mirror symmetry in the network structure as a mechanism allowing for such behavior, and show that IMRS is robust against dynamical noise as well as against parameter changes. IMRS may underlie neuronal information processing and potentially lead to network solutions for encryption key distribution and secure communication.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Firago


    Full Text Available In order to improve the power indices and to simplify the system of frequency speed control the scope of application of synchronous variable-frequency electric drives with independent frequency setting is being expanded. The synchronous motors with electromagnetic excitation and permanent magnet excitation in various industrial settings, including load-lifting machines and mechanisms, are used. As compared with the asynchronous frequency-regulated electric drives the synchronous ones have lower power loss, harder mechanical characteristic without feedback for speed and the simplest law of frequency control, i. e., a proportional one that, however, provides the maximum electromagnetic torque of the motor constant at all frequencies, due to the constant magnetic flux. The article concerns an analytical study of transient processes of synchronous electric drive with consideration of the influence of damping winding when the motor supply voltage frequency varies linearly during the transient time. As a result of the analysis the formulas have been obtained that make it possible to calculate the angular velocity of the rotor and the electromagnetic torque of the motor at start-up, braking, and impingement and discharge of loads, evaluating the quality of the transition process and tracking the maximum value of the electromagnetic torque, that must not exceed the permissible value. Validation of the developed technique of calculation of transient processes of synchronous electric drive has been obtained by comparison of calculations according to the formulas with the simulation results of the electric drive on the basis of the synchronous motor of the SD3 13-34-6 type (power of 500 kW and voltage of 6 kV.



    Grigorash O. V.; Korzenkov P. G.; Popuchieva M. A.


    Synchronous generators are the primary source of electrical power autonomous electrosupply systems, including backup systems. They are also used in a structure of rotating electricity converters and are widely used in renewable energy as part of wind power plants of small, mini and micro hydroelectric plants. Increasing the speed and the accuracy of the system of the voltage regulation of synchronous generators is possible due to the development of combined systems containing more stabilizers...

  20. Synchronous Photodiode-Signal Sampler (United States)

    Primus, Howard K.


    Synchronous sampling circuit increases signal-to-noise ratio of measurements of chopped signal of known phase and frequency in presence of low-frequency or dc background noise. Used with linear array of photoelectric sensors for locating edge of metal plate. Multiplexing circuit cycles through 16 light-emitting-diode/photodiode pairs, under computer control. Synchronized with multiplexer so edge detector makes one background-subtracted signal measurement per emitter/detector pair in turn.

  1. Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajesh Kumar


    The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital

  2. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid ...

  3. Multiswitching combination–combination synchronization of chaotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a novel synchronization scheme is investigated for a class of chaotic systems. Themultiswitching synchronization scheme is extended to the combination–combination synchronization scheme such that the combination of state variables of two drive systems synchronize with different combination of state ...

  4. An Asynchronous Cellular Automata-Based Adaptive Illumination Facility (United States)

    Bandini, Stefania; Bonomi, Andrea; Vizzari, Giuseppe; Acconci, Vito

    The term Ambient Intelligence refers to electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people; in the described scenario the environment itself is endowed with a set of sensors (to perceive humans or other physical entities such as dogs, bicycles, etc.), interacting with a set of actuators (lights) that choose their actions (i.e. state of illumination) in an attempt improve the overall experience of these users. The model for the interaction and action of sensors and actuators is an asynchronous Cellular Automata (CA) with memory, supporting a self-organization of the system as a response to the presence and movements of people inside it. The paper will introduce the model, as well as an ad hoc user interface for the specification of the relevant parameters of the CA transition rule that determines the overall system behaviour.

  5. Research on the displacement control method of asynchronous modular contactor (United States)

    He, Gong; Ming, Zong


    Ac contactor is a kind of low voltage electrical appliances with large usage and wide application. Because of the frequent operation, contactor life must be long enough to ensure the reliable operation of power system. The electrical life of the contactor, as the key to affect the service life of the contactor, is mainly affected by the arc developed in the breaking and closing course. This paper concentrates on a new type of asynchronous modular contactor. To get the contactor movement characteristics, the dynamic model of the electromagnetic system is established by MATLAB/SIMULINK. Then, according to the displacement curve of contactor, the breaking process and closing process is planned. The thought of closed loop control, by adjusting the parameters of PID controller, enables the contactor to operate as the planning displacement curve. In addition, to achieve no arc or micro arc breaking and no bounce or micro bounce closing , a displacement closed loop control system for contactor is designed.

  6. Label-acquired magnetorotation for biosensing: An asynchronous rotation assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, Ariel, E-mail: hecht@umich.ed [University of Michigan, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2200 Bonisteel, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2099 (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Chemistry, 930 North University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Kinnunen, Paivo, E-mail: pkkinn@umich.ed [University of Michigan, Department of Chemistry, 930 North University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); University of Michigan, Applied Physics Program, 2477 Randall Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); McNaughton, Brandon, E-mail: bmcnaugh@umich.ed [University of Michigan, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2200 Bonisteel, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2099 (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Chemistry, 930 North University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); University of Michigan, Applied Physics Program, 2477 Randall Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Kopelman, Raoul, E-mail: kopelman@umich.ed [University of Michigan, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2200 Bonisteel, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2099 (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Chemistry, 930 North University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); University of Michigan, Applied Physics Program, 2477 Randall Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States)


    This paper presents a novel application of magnetic particles for biosensing, called label-acquired magnetorotation (LAM). This method is based on a combination of the traditional sandwich assay format with the asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR) method. In label-acquired magnetorotation, an analyte facilitates the binding of a magnetic label bead to a nonmagnetic solid phase sphere, forming a sandwich complex. The sandwich complex is then placed in a rotating magnetic field, where the rotational frequency of the sandwich complex is a function of the amount of analyte attached to the surface of the sphere. Here, we use streptavidin-coated beads and biotin-coated particles as analyte mimics, to be replaced by proteins and other biological targets in future work. We show this sensing method to have a dynamic range of two orders of magnitude.

  7. Estimation of delays in generalized asynchronous Boolean networks. (United States)

    Das, Haimabati; Layek, Ritwik Kumar


    A new generalized asynchronous Boolean network (GABN) model has been proposed in this paper. This continuous-time discrete-state model captures the biological reality of cellular dynamics without compromising the computational efficiency of the Boolean framework. The GABN synthesis procedure is based on the prior knowledge of the logical structure of the regulatory network, and the experimental transcriptional parameters. The novelty of the proposed methodology lies in considering different delays associated with the activation and deactivation of a particular protein (especially the transcription factors). A few illustrative examples of some well-studied network motifs have been provided to explore the scope of using the GABN model for larger networks. The GABN model of the p53-signaling pathway in response to γ-irradiation has also been simulated in the current paper to provide an indirect validation of the proposed schema.

  8. H∞ Controller Design for Asynchronous Hybrid Systems with Multiple Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Sun


    Full Text Available Solutions for the H∞ synthesis problems of asynchronous hybrid systems with input-output delays are proposed. The continuous-time lifting approach of sampled-data systems is extended to a hybrid system with multiple delays, and some feasible formulas to calculate the operators of the equivalent discrete-time (DT system are given. Different from the existing methods derived from symplectic pair theory or by state augmentation, a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional to solve the synthesis problem is explicitly constructed. The delay-dependent stability conditions we obtained can be described in terms of nonstrict linear matrix inequalities (LMIs, which are much more convenient to be solved by LMI tools.

  9. A parallel asynchronous decomposition for on-line contingency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, V.C. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; Talukdar, S.N. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Engineering Design Research Center


    Traditional formulations of security-constrained-optimal-power-flows represent contingencies by hard constraints. The disadvantages are four-fold. First, the conflicts among contingencies must be arbitrated apriori, before their effects are known. Second, the feasible region shrinks with increase in the number of contingencies. Third, computational time increases with the number of contingencies. Fourth, hard constraints provide poor models of fuzzy quantities such as equipment ratings and operating guidelines. This paper develops a modeling framework without these disadvantages. Specifically, it allows for soft constraints and always has feasible solutions. The effects of conflicts among contingencies are displayed so system operators can arbitrate them in an informed manner. Moreover, each contingency can be handled asynchronously and in parallel. In other words, the computational time, for handling an arbitrarily large number of contingencies, remains the same as for performing an optimal power flow without any contingencies (provided that a computer is dedicated to each contingency).

  10. A parallel asynchronous decomposition for on-line contingency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, V.C. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; Talukdar, S.N. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Engineering Design Research Center


    Traditional formulations of security-constrained-optimal-power-flows represent contingencies by hard constraints. The disadvantages are four-fold. First, the conflicts among contingencies must be arbitrated a priori, before their effects are known. Second, the feasible region shrinks with increase in the number of contingencies. Third, computational time increases with the number of contingencies. Fourth, hard constraints provide poor models of fuzzy quantities such as equipment ratings and operating guidelines. This paper develops a modeling framework without these disadvantages. Specifically, it allows for soft constraints and always has feasible solutions. The effects of conflicts among contingencies are displayed so system operators can arbitrate them in an informed manner. Moreover, each contingency can be handled asynchronously and in parallel. In other words, the computational time, for handling an arbitrarily large number of contingencies, remains the same as for performing an optimal power flow without any contingencies (provided that a computer is dedicated to each contingency).

  11. Sideband-Harmonic Instability of Paralleled Inverters with Asynchronous Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Dongsheng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Paralleled inverters with asynchronous carriers are increasingly emerging into renewable power plants and other power-electronic-based power systems. The sideband harmonics resulting from the pulse width modulation tend to be different from one inverter to another, which may trigger sideband-harmonic...... resonances among the paralleled inverters. To address the sideband-harmonic instability, the nonlinearity of the digital pulse width modulator is analyzed first in this paper based on the harmonic balance principle. It is revealed that the dynamic sideband components corresponding to a given small......-signal perturbation can be far below the Nyquist frequency, and they may not be effectively attenuated by anti-aliasing filters. A multi-frequency impedance model is then developed for the inverter, which characterizes the dynamic coupling between the perturbed frequency component and the sideband frequency component...

  12. Indoor Positioning for Smartphones Using Asynchronous Ultrasound Trilateration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Carswell


    Full Text Available Modern smartphones are a great platform for Location Based Services (LBS. While outdoor LBS for smartphones has proven to be very successful, indoor LBS for smartphones has not yet fully developed due to the lack of an accurate positioning technology. In this paper we present an accurate indoor positioning approach for commercial off-the-shelf (COTS smartphones that uses the innate ability of mobile phones to produce ultrasound, combined with Time-Difference-of-Arrival (TDOA asynchronous trilateration. We evaluate our indoor positioning approach by describing its strengths and weaknesses, and determine its absolute accuracy. This is accomplished through a range of experiments that involve variables such as position of control point microphones, position of phone within the room, direction speaker is facing and presence of user in the signal path. Test results show that our Lok8 (locate mobile positioning system can achieve accuracies better than 10 cm in a real-world environment.

  13. Realization of station for testing asynchronous three-phase motors (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Surma, W.


    Nowadays, you cannot imagine the construction and operation of machines without the use of electric motors [13-15]. The proposed position is designed to allow testing of asynchronous three-phase motors. The position consists of a tested engine and the engine running as a load, both engines combined with a mechanical clutch [2]. The value of the load is recorded by measuring shaft created with Strain Gauge Bridge. This concept will allow to study the basic parameters of the engines, visualization motor parameters both vector and scalar controlled, during varying load drive system. In addition, registration during the variable physical parameters of the working electric motor, controlled by a frequency converter or controlled by a contactor will be possible. Position is designed as a teaching and research position to characterize the engines. It will be also possible selection of inverter parameters.

  14. Vector control structure of an asynchronous motor at maximum torque (United States)

    Chioncel, C. P.; Tirian, G. O.; Gillich, N.; Raduca, E.


    Vector control methods offer the possibility to gain high performance, being widely used. Certain applications require an optimum control in limit operating conditions, as, at maximum torque, that is not always satisfied. The paper presents how the voltage and the frequency for an asynchronous machine (ASM) operating at variable speed are determinate, with an accent on the method that keeps the rotor flux constant. The simulation analyses consider three load types: variable torque and speed, variable torque and constant speed, constant torque and variable speed. The final values of frequency and voltage are obtained through the proposed control schemes with one controller using the simulation language based on the Maple module. The dynamic analysis of the system is done for the case with P and PI controller and allows conclusions on the proposed method, which can have different applications, as the ASM in wind turbines.

  15. Graduate Students' Experiences of Challenges in Online Asynchronous Discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Murphy


    Full Text Available This paper presents one of five categories of findings of a qualitative study of students' experiences of challenges encountered in a web-based graduate program. The findings relate to the category of experiences with online asynchronous discussions. Data collection relied on a discussion, questionnaire and interview all conducted within WebCTTM. The category's findings were grouped into four sub-categories of challenges as follows: student behaviour; text-only, online communication; purpose and quality of the discussion; and forum features. Challenges related to students' behaviour included domination of the discussion by individual students or groups of students resulting in feelings of exclusion, frustration and inadequacy. Text-only communication caused difficulties related to misinterpretation and conveying and deriving intent. Challenges related to the purpose and value of the discussion resulted from low quality and high quantities of postings to meet grade requirements. Technical features that presented challenges included the inability to delete messages.

  16. Exploring Asynchronous Many-Task Runtime Systems toward Extreme Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Samuel [O8953; Baker, Gavin Matthew; Gamell, Marc [Rutgers U; Hollman, David [08953; Sjaardema, Gregor [SNL; Kolla, Hemanth [SNL; Teranishi, Keita; Wilke, Jeremiah J; Slattengren, Nicole [SNL; Bennett, Janine Camille


    Major exascale computing reports indicate a number of software challenges to meet the dramatic change of system architectures in near future. While several-orders-of-magnitude increase in parallelism is the most commonly cited of those, hurdles also include performance heterogeneity of compute nodes across the system, increased imbalance between computational capacity and I/O capabilities, frequent system interrupts, and complex hardware architectures. Asynchronous task-parallel programming models show a great promise in addressing these issues, but are not yet fully understood nor developed su ciently for computational science and engineering application codes. We address these knowledge gaps through quantitative and qualitative exploration of leading candidate solutions in the context of engineering applications at Sandia. In this poster, we evaluate MiniAero code ported to three leading candidate programming models (Charm++, Legion and UINTAH) to examine the feasibility of these models that permits insertion of new programming model elements into an existing code base.

  17. Asynchronous machine rotor speed estimation using a tabulated numerical approach (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu Phuc; De Miras, Jérôme; Charara, Ali; Eltabach, Mario; Bonnet, Stéphane


    This paper proposes a new method to estimate the rotor speed of the asynchronous machine by looking at the estimation problem as a nonlinear optimal control problem. The behavior of the nonlinear plant model is approximated off-line as a prediction map using a numerical one-step time discretization obtained from simulations. At each time-step, the speed of the induction machine is selected satisfying the dynamic fitting problem between the plant output and the predicted output, leading the system to adopt its dynamical behavior. Thanks to the limitation of the prediction horizon to a single time-step, the execution time of the algorithm can be completely bounded. It can thus easily be implemented and embedded into a real-time system to observe the speed of the real induction motor. Simulation results show the performance and robustness of the proposed estimator.

  18. Asynchronous Messaging and Data Transfer in a Spacecraft: An Implementation (United States)

    Moholt, Joseph M.


    Data transfer and messaging is an important part of a spacecraft. Creating a standard protocol for messaging that can be used for a variety of applications is an extremely beneficial project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Asynchronous Messaging Service (AMS) is a protocol outlining how subsystems initialize and conduct communication between each other. There are currently two implementations of AMS in the works. At JPL, my task is to get a working implementation of AMS onto vxWorks as a proof of concept. An Autocoder, a program used to convert visually created state chart diagrams to C++, has also been created to accomplish a part of the implementation. I was assigned to make the program portable on any Unix type environment. Lastly, I was to develop a program to demonstrate messaging between two FireWire cards running vxworks.

  19. Reliable Asynchronous Image Transfer Protocol in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Bum Jung


    Full Text Available In the paper, we propose a reliable asynchronous image transfer protocol, RAIT. RAIT applies a double sliding window method to node-to-node transfer, with one sliding window for the receiving queue, which is used to prevent packet loss caused by communication failure between nodes, and another sliding window for the sending queue, which prevents packet loss caused by network congestion. The routing node prevents packet loss between nodes by preemptive scheduling of multiple packets for a given image. RAIT implements a double sliding window method by means of a cross-layer design between the RAIT layer, routing layer, and queue layer. We demonstrate that RAIT guarantees a higher reliability of image transmission compared to the existing protocols.

  20. Reliable asynchronous image transfer protocol in wireless multimedia sensor networks. (United States)

    Lee, Joa-Hyoung; Jung, In-Bum


    In the paper, we propose a reliable asynchronous image transfer protocol, RAIT. RAIT applies a double sliding window method to node-to-node transfer, with one sliding window for the receiving queue, which is used to prevent packet loss caused by communication failure between nodes, and another sliding window for the sending queue, which prevents packet loss caused by network congestion. The routing node prevents packet loss between nodes by preemptive scheduling of multiple packets for a given image. RAIT implements a double sliding window method by means of a cross-layer design between the RAIT layer, routing layer, and queue layer. We demonstrate that RAIT guarantees a higher reliability of image transmission compared to the existing protocols.

  1. Asynchronous learning: student utilization out of sync with their preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward K. Lew


    Full Text Available Background: Asynchronous learning is gaining popularity. Data are limited regarding this learning method in medical students rotating in emergency medicine (EM. In EM, faculty time is limited to give in-person lectures. The authors sought to create an online curriculum that students could utilize as an additional learning modality. Objective: The goal was to evaluate effectiveness, participation, and preference for this mode of learning. Methods: We developed five online, narrated PowerPoint presentations. After orientation, access to the online curriculum was provided to the students, which they could review at their leisure. Results: One hundred and seven fourth-year medical students participated. They reported the curriculum to be of high quality. Pretest scores were similar for those that viewed all lectures – compliant group (CG (9.5 [CI 4.8–14.1] and those that did not view any – non-compliant group (NCG (9.6 [CI 5.9–13.4]. There was no statistical significant difference in posttest scores between the groups although there was improvement overall: CG 14.6 (CI 6.9–22.1; NCG 11.4 (CI 5.7–17.1. A majority (69.2% favored inclusion of asynchronous learning, but less than a quarter (22.4% reported viewing all five modules and more than a third (36.4% viewed none. Conclusion: Despite student-expressed preference for an online curriculum, they used the online resource less than expected. This should give pause to educators looking to convert core EM topics to an online format. However, when high-quality online lectures are utilized as a learning tool, this study demonstrates that they had neither a positive nor a negative impact on test scores.

  2. Unidirectional synchronization of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo-Perez, Octavio [Division de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Computacionales, IPICYT, Apdo. Postal 3-74 Tangamanga, 78231 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Femat, Ricardo [Division de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Computacionales, IPICYT, Apdo. Postal 3-74 Tangamanga, 78231 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    Synchronization dynamics of two noiseless Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neurons under the action of feedback control is studied. The spiking patterns of the action potentials evoked by periodic external modulations attain synchronization states under the feedback action. Numerical simulations for the synchronization dynamics of regular-irregular desynchronized spiking sequences are displayed. The results are discussed in context of generalized synchronization. It is also shown that the HH neurons can be synchronized in face of unmeasured states.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban Vlad


    Full Text Available The asynchronous systems are the non-deterministic real timebinarymodels of the asynchronous circuits from electrical engineering.Autonomy means that the circuits and their models have no input.Regularity means analogies with the dynamical systems, thus such systems may be considered to be real time dynamical systems with a’vector field’, Universality refers to the case when the state space of the system is the greatest possible in the sense of theinclusion. The purpose of this paper is that of defining, by analogy with the dynamical systems theory, the omega-limit sets, the invariance and the basins of attraction of the universal regular autonomous asynchronous systems.

  4. Modeling and Analysis of Asynchronous Systems Using SAL and Hybrid SAL (United States)

    Tiwari, Ashish; Dutertre, Bruno


    We present formal models and results of formal analysis of two different asynchronous systems. We first examine a mid-value select module that merges the signals coming from three different sensors that are each asynchronously sampling the same input signal. We then consider the phase locking protocol proposed by Daly, Hopkins, and McKenna. This protocol is designed to keep a set of non-faulty (asynchronous) clocks phase locked even in the presence of Byzantine-faulty clocks on the network. All models and verifications have been developed using the SAL model checking tools and the Hybrid SAL abstractor.

  5. Asynchronous Video Interviewing as a New Technology in Personnel Selection: The Applicant's Point of View. (United States)

    Brenner, Falko S; Ortner, Tuulia M; Fay, Doris


    The present study aimed to integrate findings from technology acceptance research with research on applicant reactions to new technology for the emerging selection procedure of asynchronous video interviewing. One hundred six volunteers experienced asynchronous video interviewing and filled out several questionnaires including one on the applicants' personalities. In line with previous technology acceptance research, the data revealed that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use predicted attitudes toward asynchronous video interviewing. Furthermore, openness revealed to moderate the relation between perceived usefulness and attitudes toward this particular selection technology. No significant effects emerged for computer self-efficacy, job interview self-efficacy, extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  6. On the estimation of phase synchronization, spurious synchronization and filtering. (United States)

    Rios Herrera, Wady A; Escalona, Joaquín; Rivera López, Daniel; Müller, Markus F


    Phase synchronization, viz., the adjustment of instantaneous frequencies of two interacting self-sustained nonlinear oscillators, is frequently used for the detection of a possible interrelationship between empirical data recordings. In this context, the proper estimation of the instantaneous phase from a time series is a crucial aspect. The probability that numerical estimates provide a physically relevant meaning depends sensitively on the shape of its power spectral density. For this purpose, the power spectrum should be narrow banded possessing only one prominent peak [M. Chavez et al., J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 149 (2006)]. If this condition is not fulfilled, band-pass filtering seems to be the adequate technique in order to pre-process data for a posterior synchronization analysis. However, it was reported that band-pass filtering might induce spurious synchronization [L. Xu et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 065201(R), (2006); J. Sun et al., Phys. Rev. E 77, 046213 (2008); and J. Wang and Z. Liu, EPL 102, 10003 (2013)], a statement that without further specification causes uncertainty over all measures that aim to quantify phase synchronization of broadband field data. We show by using signals derived from different test frameworks that appropriate filtering does not induce spurious synchronization. Instead, filtering in the time domain tends to wash out existent phase interrelations between signals. Furthermore, we show that measures derived for the estimation of phase synchronization like the mean phase coherence are also useful for the detection of interrelations between time series, which are not necessarily derived from coupled self-sustained nonlinear oscillators.

  7. Bodily Synchronization Underlying Joke Telling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Schmidt


    Full Text Available Advances in video and time series analysis have greatly enhanced our ability to study the bodily synchronization that occurs in natural interactions. Past research has demonstrated that the behavioral synchronization involved in social interactions is similar to dynamical synchronization found generically in nature. The present study investigated how the bodily synchronization in a joke telling task is spread across different nested temporal scales. Pairs of participants enacted knock-knock jokes and times series of their bodily activity were recorded. Coherence and relative phase analyses were used to evaluate the synchronization of bodily rhythms for the whole trial as well as at the subsidiary time scales of the whole joke, the setup of the punch line, the two-person exchange and the utterance. The analyses revealed greater than chance entrainment of the joke teller’s and joke responder’s movements at all time scales and that the relative phasing of the teller’s movements led those of the responder at the longer time scales. Moreover, this entrainment was greater when visual information about the partner’s movements was present but was decreased particularly at the shorter time scales when explicit gesturing in telling the joke was performed. In short, the results demonstrate that a complex interpersonal bodily dance occurs during structured conversation interactions and that this dance is constructed from a set of rhythms associated with the nested behavioral structure of the interaction.

  8. Computation emerges from adaptive synchronization of networking neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Zanin

    Full Text Available The activity of networking neurons is largely characterized by the alternation of synchronous and asynchronous spiking sequences. One of the most relevant challenges that scientists are facing today is, then, relating that evidence with the fundamental mechanisms through which the brain computes and processes information, as well as with the arousal (or progress of a number of neurological illnesses. In other words, the problem is how to associate an organized dynamics of interacting neural assemblies to a computational task. Here we show that computation can be seen as a feature emerging from the collective dynamics of an ensemble of networking neurons, which interact by means of adaptive dynamical connections. Namely, by associating logical states to synchronous neuron's dynamics, we show how the usual Boolean logics can be fully recovered, and a universal Turing machine can be constructed. Furthermore, we show that, besides the static binary gates, a wider class of logical operations can be efficiently constructed as the fundamental computational elements interact within an adaptive network, each operation being represented by a specific motif. Our approach qualitatively differs from the past attempts to encode information and compute with complex systems, where computation was instead the consequence of the application of control loops enforcing a desired state into the specific system's dynamics. Being the result of an emergent process, the computation mechanism here described is not limited to a binary Boolean logic, but it can involve a much larger number of states. As such, our results can enlighten new concepts for the understanding of the real computing processes taking place in the brain.

  9. Asynchronous Free-Space Optical CDMA Communications System for Last-mile Access Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Raddo, Thiago R.; Sanches, Anderson L.


    We propose a new hybrid asynchronous OCDMA-FSO communications system for access network solutions. New ABER expressions are derived under gamma-gamma scintillation channels, where all users can surprisingly achieve error-free transmissions when FEC is employed....

  10. Asynchronous abdomino-parasacral resection of a giant pelvic lipoma protruding to the left buttock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Sato


    CONCLUSION: The asynchronous abdomino-parasacral approach with several turnings of the patient's body and plastic bag packing of the tumor were advantageous to manage en bloc resection of the giant pelvic lipoma presented in this case study.

  11. Asynchronous Sensor fuSion for Improved Safety of air Traffic (ASSIST) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI proposes to develop, implement and test a collision detection system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), referred to as the Asynchronous Sensor fuSion for...

  12. Mathematical Description of an Asynchronous Motor with the Indirect Control of the Output Mechanical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazachev A.V.


    Full Text Available The article gives the mathematical description of an asynchronous motor with the indirect control of the output mechanical variables of an asynchronous motor in the electric drive. To determine the electromagnetic torque and angular velocity of the asynchronous motor in the electric drive the mathematical description is used in which the values are determined by the readings of the motor and easily measured values by means of known in practice devices. The proposed in the article the mathematical description for the indirect measuring the electromagnetic torque and angular velocity of the asynchronous motor in the electric drive does not contain the integral components that introduce the great error into the value of the controlled electromagnetic torque and angular velocity.

  13. Commande directe de couple d’un moteur asynchrone à base de techniques intelligentes


    GDAIM, Soufien


    Design and Experimental Implementation of DTC of an Induction Machine Based on artificial intelligence Control on FPGA; Implémentation sur FPGA de la Commande directe de couple d’un moteur asynchrone à base de techniques intelligentes

  14. Students experiences with collaborative learning in asynchronous computer-supported collaborative learning environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewiyanti, Silvia; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Jochems, Wim; Broers, Nick


    Dewiyanti, S., Brand-Gruwel, S., Jochems, W., & Broers, N. (2007). Students experiences with collaborative learning in asynchronous computer-supported collaborative learning environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 496-514.

  15. 106-17 Telemetry Standards. Annex A.4. Asynchronous Recorder Multiplexer Output Re-Constructor (ARMOR) (United States)


    Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Annex A .4, July 2017 ANNEX A .4 Asynchronous Recorder Multiplexer Output Re-Constructor (ARMOR...Acronyms ............................................................................................................................... A .4-iii 1...General ........................................................................................................................ A .4-1 1.1. Setup on Tape

  16. Active control strategy for synchronization and anti-synchronization of a fractional chaotic financial system (United States)

    Huang, Chengdai; Cao, Jinde


    This paper is concerned with the issues of synchronization and anti-synchronization for fractional chaotic financial system with market confidence by taking advantage of active control approach. Some sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee the synchronization and anti-synchronization for the proposed fractional system. Moreover, the relationship between the order and synchronization(anti-synchronization) is demonstrated numerically. It reveals that synchronization(anti-synchronization) is faster as the order increases. Finally, two illustrative examples are exploited to verify the efficiency of the obtained theoretical results.

  17. On the Distribution of Control in Asynchronous Processor Architectures


    Rebello, Vinod


    The effective performance of computer systems is to a large measure determined by the synergy between the processor architecture, the instruction set and the compiler. In the past, the sequencing of information within processor architectures has normally been synchronous: controlled centrally by a clock. However, this global signal could possibly limit the future gains in performance that can potentially be achieved through improvements in implementation technology. T...

  18. Global exponential stability and lag synchronization for delayed memristive fuzzy Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural networks with impulses. (United States)

    Yang, Wengui; Yu, Wenwu; Cao, Jinde; Alsaadi, Fuad E; Hayat, Tasawar


    This paper investigates the stability and lag synchronization for memristor-based fuzzy Cohen-Grossberg bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with mixed delays (asynchronous time delays and continuously distributed delays) and impulses. By applying the inequality analysis technique, homeomorphism theory and some suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, some new sufficient conditions for the uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point are established. Furthermore, we obtain several sufficient criteria concerning globally exponential lag synchronization for the proposed system based on the framework of Filippov solution, differential inclusion theory and control theory. In addition, some examples with numerical simulations are given to illustrate the feasibility and validity of obtained results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phase synchronization in railway timetables (United States)

    Fretter, C.; Krumov, L.; Weihe, K.; Müller-Hannemann, M.; Hütt, M.-T.


    Timetable construction belongs to the most important optimization problems in public transport. Finding optimal or near-optimal timetables under the subsidiary conditions of minimizing travel times and other criteria is a targeted contribution to the functioning of public transport. In addition to efficiency (given, e.g., by minimal average travel times), a significant feature of a timetable is its robustness against delay propagation. Here we study the balance of efficiency and robustness in long-distance railway timetables (in particular the current long-distance railway timetable in Germany) from the perspective of synchronization, exploiting the fact that a major part of the trains run nearly periodically. We find that synchronization is highest at intermediate-sized stations. We argue that this synchronization perspective opens a new avenue towards an understanding of railway timetables by representing them as spatio-temporal phase patterns. Robustness and efficiency can then be viewed as properties of this phase pattern.

  20. How to suppress undesired synchronization (United States)

    Louzada, V. H. P.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.


    Examples of synchronization can be found in a wide range of phenomena such as neurons firing, lasers cascades, chemical reactions, and opinion formation. However, in many situations the formation of a coherent state is not pleasant and should be mitigated. For example, the onset of synchronization can be the root of epileptic seizures, traffic congestion in networks, and the collapse of constructions. Here we propose the use of contrarians to suppress undesired synchronization. We perform a comparative study of different strategies, either requiring local or total knowledge, and show that the most efficient one solely requires local information. Our results also reveal that, even when the distribution of neighboring interactions is narrow, significant improvement is observed when contrarians sit at the highly connected elements. The same qualitative results are obtained for artificially generated networks and two real ones, namely, the Routers of the Internet and a neuronal network.

  1. AP-IO: Asynchronous Pipeline I/O for Hiding Periodic Output Cost in CFD Simulation


    Xiaoguang, Ren; Xinhai, Xu


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation often needs to periodically output intermediate results to files in the form of snapshots for visualization or restart, which seriously impacts the performance. In this paper, we present asynchronous pipeline I/O (AP-IO) optimization scheme for the periodically snapshot output on the basis of asynchronous I/O and CFD application characteristics. In AP-IO, dedicated background I/O processes or threads are in charge of handling the file write in pip...

  2. Violation of the equivalence principle for stressed bodies in asynchronous relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Martins, R. de (Centro de Logica, Epistemologia e Historia da Ciencia, Campinas (Brazil))


    In the recently developed asynchronous formulation of the relativistic theory of extended bodies, the inertial mass of a body does not explicitly depend on its pressure or stress. The detailed analysis of the weight of a box filled with a gas and placed in a weak gravitational field shows that this feature of asynchronous relativity implies a breakdown of the equivalence between inertial and passive gravitational mass for stressed systems.

  3. Control of non-conventional synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul


    Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,

  4. Inhibition potentiates the synchronizing action of electrical synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pfeuty


    Full Text Available In vivo and in vitro experimental studies have found that blocking electrical interactions connecting GABAergic interneurons reduces oscillatory activity in the µ range in cortex. However, recent theoretical works have shown that the ability of electrical synapses to promote or impede synchrony, when alone, depends on their location on the dendritic tree of the neurons, the intrinsic properties of the neurons and the connectivity of the network. The goal of the present paper is to show that this versatility in the synchronizing ability of electrical synapses is greatly reduced when the neurons also interact via inhibition. To this end, we study a model network comprising two-compartment conductance-based neurons interacting with both types of synapses. We investigate the effect of electrical synapses on the dynamical state of the network as a function of the strength of the inhibition. We find that for weak inhibition, electrical synapses reinforce inhibition-generated synchrony only if they promote synchrony when they are alone. In contrast, when inhibition is sufficiently strong, electrical synapses improve synchrony even if when acting alone they would stabilize asynchronous firing. We clarify the mechanism underlying this cooperative interplay between electrical and inhibitory synapses. We show that it is relevant in two physiologically observed regimes: spike-to-spike synchrony, where neurons fire at almost every cycle of the population oscillations, and stochastic synchrony, where neurons fire irregularly and at a rate which is substantially lower than the frequency of the global population rhythm.

  5. State observer for synchronous motors (United States)

    Lang, Jeffrey H.


    A state observer driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents for estimating the angular orientation of a rotor of a synchronous motor such as a variable reluctance motor (VRM). Phase voltages and currents are detected and serve as inputs to a state observer. The state observer includes a mathematical model of the electromechanical operation of the synchronous motor. The characteristics of the state observer are selected so that the observer estimates converge to the actual rotor angular orientation and velocity, winding phase flux linkages or currents.

  6. Cluster synchronization in networks of identical oscillators with α -function pulse coupling (United States)

    Chen, Bolun; Engelbrecht, Jan R.; Mirollo, Renato


    We study a network of N identical leaky integrate-and-fire model neurons coupled by α -function pulses, weighted by a coupling parameter K . Studies of the dynamics of this system have mostly focused on the stability of the fully synchronized and the fully asynchronous splay states, which naturally depends on the sign of K , i.e., excitation vs inhibition. We find that there is also a rich set of attractors consisting of clusters of fully synchronized oscillators, such as fixed (N -1 ,1 ) states, which have synchronized clusters of sizes N -1 and 1, as well as splay states of clusters with equal sizes greater than 1. Additionally, we find limit cycles that clarify the stability of previously observed quasiperiodic behavior. Our framework exploits the neutrality of the dynamics for K =0 which allows us to implement a dimensional reduction strategy that simplifies the dynamics to a continuous flow on a codimension 3 subspace with the sign of K determining the flow direction. This reduction framework naturally incorporates a hierarchy of partially synchronized subspaces in which the new attracting states lie. Using high-precision numerical simulations, we describe completely the sequence of bifurcations and the stability of all fixed points and limit cycles for N =2 -4 . The set of possible attracting states can be used to distinguish different classes of neuron models. For instance from our previous work [Chaos 24, 013114 (2014), 10.1063/1.4858458] we know that of the types of partially synchronized states discussed here, only the (N -1 ,1 ) states can be stable in systems of identical coupled sinusoidal (i.e., Kuramoto type) oscillators, such as θ -neuron models. Upon introducing a small variation in individual neuron parameters, the attracting fixed points we discuss here generalize to equivalent fixed points in which neurons need not fire coincidently.

  7. Selection of G1 Phase Yeast Cells for Synchronous Meiosis and Sporulation. (United States)

    Stuart, David T


    Centrifugal elutriation is a procedure that allows the fractionation of cell populations based upon their size and shape. This allows cells in distinct cell cycle stages can be captured from an asynchronous population. The technique is particularly helpful when performing an experiment to monitor the progression of cells through the cell cycle or meiosis. Yeast sporulation like gametogenesis in other eukaryotes initiates from the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Conveniently, S. cerevisiae arrest in G1 phase when starved for nutrients and so withdrawal of nitrogen and glucose allows cells to abandon vegetative growth in G1 phase before initiating the sporulation program. This simple starvation protocol yields a partial synchronization that has been used extensively in studies of progression through meiosis and sporulation. By using centrifugal elutriation it is possible to isolate a homogeneous population of G1 phase cells and induce them to sporulate synchronously, which is beneficial for investigating progression through meiosis and sporulation. An additionally benefit of this protocol is that cell populations can be isolated based upon size and both large and small cell populations can be tested for progression through meiosis and sporulation. Here we present a protocol for purification of G1 phase diploid cells for examining synchronous progression through meiosis and sporulation.

  8. A Network Model of the Periodic Synchronization Process in the Dynamics of Calcium Concentration in GnRH Neurons (United States)


    Mathematical neuroendocrinology is a branch of mathematical neurosciences that is specifically interested in endocrine neurons, which have the uncommon ability of secreting neurohormones into the blood. One of the most striking features of neuroendocrine networks is their ability to exhibit very slow rhythms of neurosecretion, on the order of one or several hours. A prototypical instance is that of the pulsatile secretion pattern of GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone), the master hormone controlling the reproductive function, whose origin remains a puzzle issue since its discovery in the seventies. In this paper, we investigate the question of GnRH neuron synchronization on a mesoscopic scale, and study how synchronized events in calcium dynamics can arise from the average electric activity of individual neurons. We use as reference seminal experiments performed on embryonic GnRH neurons from rhesus monkeys, where calcium imaging series were recorded simultaneously in tens of neurons, and which have clearly shown the occurrence of synchronized calcium peaks associated with GnRH pulses, superposed on asynchronous, yet oscillatory individual background dynamics. We design a network model by coupling 3D individual dynamics of FitzHugh–Nagumo type. Using phase-plane analysis, we constrain the model behavior so that it meets qualitative and quantitative specifications derived from the experiments, including the precise control of the frequency of the synchronization episodes. In particular, we show how the time scales of the model can be tuned to fit the individual and synchronized time scales of the experiments. Finally, we illustrate the ability of the model to reproduce additional experimental observations, such as partial recruitment of cells within the synchronization process or the occurrence of doublets of synchronization. PMID:23574739

  9. Asynchronous web-based patient-centered home telemedicine system. (United States)

    Lau, Christopher; Churchill, R Sean; Kim, Janice; Matsen, Frederick A; Kim, Yongmin


    A web-based system for asynchronous multimedia messaging between shoulder replacement surgery patients at home and their surgeons was developed and tested. A web browser plug-in simplifies the process of capturing video and transferring it to a web site for novice computer users. The design of the video capture plug-in can be reused to acquire and securely transfer any type of data over the web. For example, readings from home biosensor instruments (e.g., glucometers and spirometers) that can be connected to a personal computer can be transferred to a home telemedicine web site. Both patients and doctors can access this web site to monitor health status longitudinally. Six patients, whose familiarity with computers ranged from no experience to expert users, used the system. All of the subjects were able to use the system to check treatment reminders and to send at least one message with video to their surgeons. The surgeons monitored the system regularly and always responded to messages within 24 h during the six-month trial period.

  10. Asynchronous BCI control using high-frequency SSVEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laciar Leber Eric


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP is a visual cortical response evoked by repetitive stimuli with a light source flickering at frequencies above 4 Hz and could be classified into three ranges: low (up to 12 Hz, medium (12-30 and high frequency (> 30 Hz. SSVEP-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI are principally focused on the low and medium range of frequencies whereas there are only a few projects in the high-frequency range. However, they only evaluate the performance of different methods to extract SSVEP. Methods This research proposed a high-frequency SSVEP-based asynchronous BCI in order to control the navigation of a mobile object on the screen through a scenario and to reach its final destination. This could help impaired people to navigate a robotic wheelchair. There were three different scenarios with different difficulty levels (easy, medium and difficult. The signal processing method is based on Fourier transform and three EEG measurement channels. Results The research obtained accuracies ranging in classification from 65% to 100% with Information Transfer Rate varying from 9.4 to 45 bits/min. Conclusions Our proposed method allows all subjects participating in the study to control the mobile object and to reach a final target without prior training.

  11. Photonic analog-to-digital converter via asynchronous oversampling (United States)

    Carver, Spencer; Reeves, Erin; Siahmakoun, Azad; Granieri, Sergio


    This paper presents a hybrid opto-electronic asynchronous delta-sigma modulator, implemented in the form of a fiber-optic Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC). This architecture was chosen for its independence of an external clock and ease of demodulation through a single low-pass filter stage. The fiber-optic prototype consists of an input laser (wavelength λ1) which is modulated with an input RF signal, a high-speed comparator circuit working as bi-stable quantizer, and a fiber-optic loop that includes a SOA and a band-pass filter that act as a leaky integrator. The fiber-optic loop acts as a fiber-ring resonator (FRR), and defines the resonance wavelength λ2 of the system. The gain within this loop is modified through cross-gain modulation (XGM) by the input wavelength λ1, and thus achieves the desired modulation effect. The proposed architecture has been constructed and characterized at a sampling rate of 15.4 MS/s processing input analog signals in the range of dc-3 MHz with a signal-to-noise ratio of 36 dB and an effective number of bits of 5.7.

  12. Commande vectorielle d'un moteur asynchrone sans capteur (United States)

    Ourth, T.


    A field-oriented control strategy for induction machines which does not use mechanical sensors is presented. The rotor flux is observed by a reduced-order Luenberger-type observer based on a model using a stator-fixed reference frame. An estimate of the rotation speed is derived from the flux vector, the measured stator currents and the field orientation angle. Simulations demonstrate that this control strategy performs well even in the presence of parameter variations up to ± 50% (resistances). Ce papier présente la commande par flux orienté d'une machine asynchrone sans capteur de vitesse ou de position. Le flux rotorique est évalué grâce à un observateur d'ordre réduit d'un type voisin de Luenberger travaillant dans un repère fixe statorique. L'estimation de la vitesse est obtenue à partir du module du flux rotorique, des courants statoriques mesurés et de l'angle d'orientation du flux rotorique. Cette étude basée sur des simulations démontre un comportement acceptable de la commande malgré la variation des paramètres comme les résistances de la machine.

  13. Obstacle avoidance in social groups: new insights from asynchronous models. (United States)

    Croft, Simon; Budgey, Richard; Pitchford, Jonathan W; Wood, A Jamie


    For moving animals, the successful avoidance of hazardous obstacles is an important capability. Despite this, few models of collective motion have addressed the relationship between behavioural and social features and obstacle avoidance. We develop an asynchronous individual-based model for social movement which allows social structure within groups to be included. We assess the dynamics of group navigation and resulting collision risk in the context of information transfer through the system. In agreement with previous work, we find that group size has a nonlinear effect on collision risk. We implement examples of possible network structures to explore the impact social preferences have on collision risk. We show that any social heterogeneity induces greater obstacle avoidance with further improvements corresponding to groups containing fewer influential individuals. The model provides a platform for both further theoretical investigation and practical application. In particular, we argue that the role of social structures within bird flocks may have an important role to play in assessing the risk of collisions with wind turbines, but that new methods of data analysis are needed to identify these social structures. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. FACT. Normalized and asynchronous mirror alignment for Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sebastian Achim [ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Buss, Jens [TU Dortmund (Germany)


    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need fast and large imaging optics to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted in cosmic ray air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors are inexpensive, lightweight and offer good image quality. However, alignment of the mirror facets remains a challenge. A good alignment is crucial in IACT observations to separate gamma rays from hadronic cosmic rays. We present a star tracking alignment method which is not restricted to clear nights. It normalizes the mirror facet reflections to be independent of the reference star or the cloud coverage. It records asynchronously of the telescope drive which makes the method easy to integrate in existing telescopes. It can be combined with remote facet actuation, but it does not need one to work. Furthermore, it can reconstruct all individual mirror facet point spread functions. We present the method and alignment results on the First Geiger-mode Photo Diode Avalanche Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) on the Canary Island of La Palma, Spain.

  15. Performance Studies for Protection Against Asynchronous Dumps in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M


    The LHC beam dump system has to safely dispose all beams in a wide energy range of 450 GeV to 7 TeV. A 3 ms abort gap in the beam structure for the switch-on of the extraction kicker field ideally allows a loss-free extraction under normal operating conditions. However, a low number of asynchronous beam aborts is to be expected from reliability calculations and from the first year's operational experience with the beam dump kickers. For such cases, MAD-X simulations including all optics and alignment errors have been performed to determine loss patterns around the LHC as a function of the position of the main protection elements in interaction region six. Special attention was paid to the beam load on the tungsten collimators which protect the triplets in the LHC experimental insertions, and the tracking results compared with semi-analytical numerical estimates. The simulations are also compared to the results of beam commissioning of these protection devices.

  16. Tracking Transition: Issues in Asynchronous E-Mail Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muir Houston


    Full Text Available The purpose and focus of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the methodological issues involved with tracking a mobile population, namely students graduating from university; whose patterns of residence may for some time be transitory in nature. The second is to provide some details from a small sample of graduates on the issues raised in the transition from undergraduate study. The paper will tackle the two issues in order. First, an examination of recent methods of qualitative data collection which the development of information technology, in the form of Computer Mediated Communication (CMC, has allowed is undertaken. Second, the results of using one of these techniques (asynchronous e-mail to gather information on the transition from undergraduate study are reported. In addition, advantages and disadvantages that can arise in the use of these new techniques are reported. This paper engages with the overall theme of transition in a number of ways. First, the students are in a process of transition in status; from undergraduate to graduate. Second, in many cases, they may well be in transition in terms of location; from the university location either back home, or away to a new location. Third, they are in transition in terms of activity; either seeking or into employment or engaging in further study at a higher level. Finally, they may be in transition in relation to developing new social networks. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802116

  17. ACK filling void first algorithm and performance for asynchronous OPS (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Shi, Yonghe; Chen, Qianbin; Pan, Yingjun


    OPS with feedback shared FDL buffer produce large voids due to FDL buffers only supplying discrete step delay and causing FDL queue virtually occupation. By analyzing the TCP traffic and ACK packets feature, the ACK packet void filling first scheduling is presented to decrease packet loss rate and to reduce the FDL voids. When the FDL buffer void size is fit for the ACK packet, the ACK packet is scheduled to FDL immediately. An ACK and non-ACK packets difference and process flow is designed according the TCP packet frame structure. Compared with the conventional FIFO scheduling and smallest FDL void first scheduling, the algorithm reduces greatly the number of ACK occupying the FDL buffer and eliminates large numbers of ACK's bad influence on efficiency of IP data transmission under different FDL buffer depth and traffic load. The results of simulation show that the proposed scheduling makes use of ACK packets first void filling scheduling mechanism to reduce FDL excess load, increases output utilization and reduce packet loss ratio for asynchronous optical network. This approach is shown to minimize the FDL numbers with the feature of high stabilization and photonic integration and to improve real time TCP traffic performance for Internet network.

  18. Enhancing Critical Thinking in Graduate Nursing Online Asynchronous Discussions. (United States)

    Novotny, Nancy L; Stapleton, Stephen J; Hardy, Elaine C


    Graduate nursing students in online courses often have limited success in developing the critical thinking (CT) skills essential for advanced roles. This study describes the use of complementary strategies in a graduate-level nursing course to enhance CT in online discussions. Using Paul and Elder's framework for understanding the components of CT, the authors designed an asynchronous online course using multiple strategies to promote CT. We used mixed methods to collect descriptive and numerical data and content and repeated measures analyses to identify changes in CT skills and student perceptions across the semester. CT scores increased significantly and aligned with students' perceived improvements in CT. Evidence of CT in online discussions increased significantly across the semester with the use of multiple instructional strategies and substantial student and faculty efforts. The findings are a useful benchmark for future studies comparing combinations of strategies to identify those most effective and least arduous. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(9):514-521.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Learning Management System In Distance Learning And Design Process Of A Synchronous Learning Platform: Case of Karadeniz Technical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Baki


    Full Text Available The fact that web based distance learning concept has recently gained more and more significance has required the establishment of virtual campuses at universities and the provision of synchronous and asynchronous education facilities to be used in these campuses. While applying distance learning methods, the universities should adopt genuine learning management systems that could reflect their own characteristics and meet their own needs which are also adaptable to mid and long-term technological changes. The universities should also have synchronous education facilities integrated to the system.1. MethodologyAs is required by the nature of the research problem itself, this study bears a qualitative feature. “Action research”, which is one of the qualitative research approaches has been used in this study. Documents and observations have been used as data collection instruments. The diaries of the students who participated to the research during the design of the system have been analysed using document analysis technique. The research has been conducted with the participation of 14 M.A. students from Karadeniz Technical University, Fatih Faculty of Education, Department of Computer and Instructional Technologies during 2008-2009 spring term. During the research students‟ individual diaries, have been coded and qualitatively analysed. The results of the qualitative analysis indicate similar and different cases experienced by two different students groups during the study.2. System Design ProcessIt has turned out that specific software with synchronous and asynchronous features should be employed in order to ensure effective use of the present distance learning system. The preparation of synchronous and asynchronous chapters has required different coding and design features therefore two different groups have been formed.The synchronous and asynchronous working groups have made a literature review regarding their own fields of study. The

  20. Research on bit synchronization based on GNSS (United States)

    Yu, Huanran; Liu, Yi-jun


    The signals transmitted by GPS satellites are divided into three components: carrier, pseudocode and data code. The processes of signal acquisition are acquisition, tracking, bit synchronization, frame synchronization, navigation message extraction, observation extraction and position speed calculation, among which bit synchronization is of greatest importance. The accuracy of bit synchronization and the shortening of bit synchronization time can help us to use satellite to realize positioning and acquire the information transmitted by satellite signals more accurately. Even under the condition of weak signal, how to improve bit synchronization performance is what we need to research. We adopt a method of polymorphic energy accumulation minima so as to find the bit synchronization point, as well as complete the computer simulation to conclude that under the condition of extremely weak signal power, this method still has superior synchronization performance, which can achieve high bit edge detection rate and the optimal bit error rate.

  1. Blended synchronous learning environment: Student perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheri Conklina; Beth Oyarzun; Daisyane Barreto


    .... Blended synchronous learning environment (BSLE) can be defined as an innovative setting in which students can decide to attend classes either face-to-face or via a synchronous virtual connection...

  2. Pinning Synchronization of Switched Complex Dynamical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Du


    Full Text Available Network topology and node dynamics play a key role in forming synchronization of complex networks. Unfortunately there is no effective synchronization criterion for pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. In this paper, pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology is studied. Two basic problems are considered: one is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks under arbitrary switching; the other is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any individual connection topology alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and single Lyapunov function method are used respectively, some global synchronization criteria are proposed and the designed switching law is given. Finally, simulation results verify the validity of the results.

  3. Synchronizing Web Documents with Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Guimarães (Rodrigo); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); A.J. Jansen (Jack)


    htmlabstractIn this paper we report on our efforts to define a set of document extensions to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) that allow for structured timing and synchronization of elements within a Web page. Our work considers the scenario in which the temporal structure can be decoupled from the

  4. Epidemic Synchronization in Robotic Swarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Ngo, Trung Dung


    Clock synchronization in swarms of networked mobile robots is studied in a probabilistic, epidemic framework. In this setting communication and synchonization is considered to be a randomized process, taking place at unplanned instants of geographical rendezvous between robots. In combination wit...

  5. Synchronized whistlers recorded at Varanasi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 1273–1277. Synchronized whistlers recorded at Varanasi. RAJESH SINGH, ASHOK K SINGH and R P SINGH. Physics Department, Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Banaras Hindu University,. Varanasi 221 005 ... An attempt has been made to explain the dynamic spectra using lightning discharge generated.

  6. Sports Medicine Meets Synchronized Swimming. (United States)

    Wenz, Betty J.; And Others

    This collection of articles contains information about synchronized swimming. Topics covered include general physiology and cardiovascular conditioning, flexibility exercises, body composition, strength training, nutrition, coach-athlete relationships, coping with competition stress and performance anxiety, and eye care. Chapters are included on…

  7. Memory formation by neuronal synchronization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axmacher, N.; Mormann, F.; Fernandez, G.; Elger, C.E.; Fell, J.


    Cognitive functions not only depend on the localization of neural activity, but also on the precise temporal pattern of activity in neural assemblies. Synchronization of action potential discharges provides a link between large-scale EEG recordings and cellular plasticity mechanisms. Here, we focus

  8. Learning through synchronous electronic discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanselaar, G.; Veerman, A.L.; Andriessen, J.E.B.


    This article reports a study examining university student pairs carrying out an electronic discussion task in a synchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) system (NetMeeting). The purpose of the assignment was to raise students' awareness concerning conceptions that characterise effective

  9. Fermi Timing and Synchronization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, R.; Staples, J.; Doolittle, L.; Byrd, J.; Ratti, A.; Kaertner, F.X.; Kim, J.; Chen, J.; Ilday, F.O.; Ludwig, F.; Winter, A.; Ferianis, M.; Danailov, M.; D' Auria, G.


    The Fermi FEL will depend critically on precise timing of its RF, laser and diagnostic subsystems. The timing subsystem to coordinate these functions will need to reliably maintain sub-100fs synchronicity between distant points up to 300m apart in the Fermi facility. The technology to do this is not commercially available, and has not been experimentally demonstrated in a working facility. Therefore, new technology must be developed to meet these needs. Two approaches have been researched by different groups working with the Fermi staff. At MIT, a pulse transmission scheme has been developed for synchronization of RF and laser devices. And at LBL, a CW transmission scheme has been developed for RF and laser synchronization. These respective schemes have advantages and disadvantages that will become better understood in coming years. This document presents the work done by both teams, and suggests a possible system design which integrates them both. The integrated system design provides an example of how choices can be made between the different approaches without significantly changing the basic infrastructure of the system. Overall system issues common to any synchronization scheme are also discussed.

  10. Analysis, synchronization and FPGA implementation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karthikeyan Rajagopal


    Dec 2, 2017 ... thus switch between chaotic and/or periodical systems can be triggered [36]. Time-delayed differential equations play important roles in some engineering applications [37–42]. Sta- bility analysis of delayed differential equations have been discussed in [38]. Synchronization of such time- delayed systems is ...

  11. Neural synchronization via potassium signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry E; Ryazanova, Ludmila S; Mosekilde, Erik


    Using a relatively simple model we examine how variations of the extracellular potassium concentration can give rise to synchronization of two nearby pacemaker cells. With the volume of the extracellular space and the rate of potassium diffusion as control parameters, the dual nature...... junctional coupling, potassium signaling gives rise to considerable changes of the cellular response to external stimuli....

  12. Asynchronous vs didactic education: it's too early to throw in the towel on tradition. (United States)

    Jordan, Jaime; Jalali, Azadeh; Clarke, Samuel; Dyne, Pamela; Spector, Tahlia; Coates, Wendy


    Asynchronous, computer based instruction is cost effective, allows self-directed pacing and review, and addresses preferences of millennial learners. Current research suggests there is no significant difference in learning compared to traditional classroom instruction. Data are limited for novice learners in emergency medicine. The objective of this study was to compare asynchronous, computer-based instruction with traditional didactics for senior medical students during a week-long intensive course in acute care. We hypothesized both modalities would be equivalent. This was a prospective observational quasi-experimental study of 4th year medical students who were novice learners with minimal prior exposure to curricular elements. We assessed baseline knowledge with an objective pre-test. The curriculum was delivered in either traditional lecture format (shock, acute abdomen, dyspnea, field trauma) or via asynchronous, computer-based modules (chest pain, EKG interpretation, pain management, trauma). An interactive review covering all topics was followed by a post-test. Knowledge retention was measured after 10 weeks. Pre and post-test items were written by a panel of medical educators and validated with a reference group of learners. Mean scores were analyzed using dependent t-test and attitudes were assessed by a 5-point Likert scale. 44 of 48 students completed the protocol. Students initially acquired more knowledge from didactic education as demonstrated by mean gain scores (didactic: 28.39% ± 18.06; asynchronous 9.93% ± 23.22). Mean difference between didactic and asynchronous = 18.45% with 95% CI [10.40 to 26.50]; p = 0.0001. Retention testing demonstrated similar knowledge attrition: mean gain scores -14.94% (didactic); -17.61% (asynchronous), which was not significantly different: 2.68% ± 20.85, 95% CI [-3.66 to 9.02], p = 0.399. The attitudinal survey revealed that 60.4% of students believed the asynchronous modules were educational and 95

  13. Robust synchronization of chaotic systems via feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Femat, Ricardo [IPICYT, San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Dept. de Matematicas Aplicadas; Solis-Perales, Gualberto [Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Univ. de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierias (Mexico). Div. de Electronica y Computacion


    This volume includes the results derived during last ten years about both suppression and synchronization of chaotic -continuous time- systems. Along this time, the concept was to study how the intrinsic properties of dynamical systems can be exploited to suppress and to synchronize the chaotic behaviour and what synchronization phenomena can be found under feedback interconnection. A compilation of these findings is described in this book. This book shows a perspective on synchronization of chaotic systems. (orig.)

  14. 40 CFR 93.128 - Traffic signal synchronization projects. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic signal synchronization... synchronization projects. Traffic signal synchronization projects may be approved, funded, and implemented without... include such regionally significant traffic signal synchronization projects. ...

  15. Modified function projective synchronization of multistable systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design of generalized form of control functions capable of engineering desired form of synchronization such as complete synchronization, antisynchronization, projective synchronization and function projective has very important applications in real life situations. Inspired by practical application of generalized form of ...

  16. Global chaos synchronization of coupled parametrically excited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the synchronization behaviour of two linearly coupled parametrically excited chaotic pendula. The stability of the synchronized state is examined using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI); and some sufficient criteria for global asymptotic synchronization are derived from which ...

  17. Lag Synchronization of Coupled Multidelay Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Qun


    Full Text Available Chaos synchronization is an active topic, and its possible applications have been studied extensively. In this paper we present an improved method for lag synchronization of chaotic systems with coupled multidelay. The Lyapunov theory is used to consider the sufficient condition for synchronization. The specific examples will demonstrate and verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Possibilities of implementation of synchronous Ethernet in popular Ethernet version using timing and interference constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetaiah KILARU


    Full Text Available Popular network architectures are following packet based architectures instead of conventional Time division multiplexing. The existed Ethernet is basically asynchronous in nature and was not designed based on timing transfer constraints. To achieve the challenge of next generation network with respect to efficient bandwidth and faster data rates, we have to deploy the network which has less latency. This can be achieved by Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE. In Sync-E, Phase Locked Loop (PLL was used to recover the incoming jitter from clock recovery circuit. Then feed the PLL block to transmission device. We have to design the network in an unaffected way that the functions of Ethernet should run in normal way even we introduced timing path at physical layer. This paper will give detailed outlook on how Sync-E is achieved from Asynchronous format. Reference model of 100 Base-TX/FX was analyzed with respect to timing and interference constraints. Finally, it was analyzed with the data rate improvement with the proposed method.

  19. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda A [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN


    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  20. Research on inverter test system of synchronous motor using modbus communication (United States)

    Cao, Wenlun; Chen, Bei; He, Yuyao


    In this paper, the hardware architecture of the servo system composed by self-made inverter and permanent magnet synchronous motor is introduced as well as its measurement and control system software features. Basing on the Modbus-RTU protocols which contain the CRC data verification between IPC and the inverter, we have built a communication system. The measurement and control software of servo system are realized, which consists of self-made inverter and PMSM. Compared with the servo system which consists of Schindler's ATV31 inverter and SIMO's asynchronous motor, the results are given. The experiment parameters include harmonic content which is contained by phase current and voltage, and also the motor speed. The results show that the measurement and control system are stable and reliable. Both the harmonic content of the Inverter output and the motor speed meet the requirements.

  1. Commande optimale à flux libre des machines asynchrones (United States)

    Biedinger, J. M.; Poullain, S.; Yvon, J. P.


    The subject of this paper is the optimal control with unconstrained flux of an induction motor being considered as a distributed parameter system described by a nonlinear diffusion equation. This approach allows to describe the electrodynamic state of the motor by taking into account, in a natural way, the influence of saturation and eddy-currents, as well as the nonlinearities due to the variable flux operation. Equations are approximated via a finite element formulation which leads to a finite dimensional dynamical system to which the techniques of optimal control may be applied. The generality of the methodology allows to treat various criteria. The objective aimed in this paper is to force the motor torque to follow a given input, especially under initially demagnetized conditions and with, naturally, constraints on the currents. For this purpose the criterion will be chosen as a norm of the difference between the electromagnetic torque and a given reference torque. Numerical simulations are presented for the case of a squirrel-cage rotor and for a solid iron rotor. Results are compared with those deduced from strategies based on lumped-parameter models. Torque responses obtained with field-oriented control method adapted to the case of flux-variable operation are also presented. Finally a modification of the criterion is proposed for identifying the command which allows to obtain the larger torque during transient states. Dans cet article on traite le problème du contrôle optimal à flux libre d'un moteur asynchrone considéré comme un système à paramètres répartis gouverné par une équation de diffusion non linéaire. Cette approche permet de décrire l'état électrodynamique de la machine en prenant naturellement en compte les effets de la saturation et des courants induits, ainsi que les non-linéarités liées au fonctionnement à flux variable. La formulation éléments finis est utilisée pour traduire le problème continu sous la forme d

  2. iHadoop: Asynchronous Iterations Support for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam


    MapReduce is a distributed programming framework designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop\\'s task scheduler exploits inter- iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application\\'s latency. This thesis also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  3. Features of the Asynchronous Correlation between the China Coal Price Index and Coal Mining Accidental Deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuecheng Huang

    Full Text Available The features of the asynchronous correlation between accident indices and the factors that influence accidents can provide an effective reference for warnings of coal mining accidents. However, what are the features of this correlation? To answer this question, data from the China coal price index and the number of deaths from coal mining accidents were selected as the sample data. The fluctuation modes of the asynchronous correlation between the two data sets were defined according to the asynchronous correlation coefficients, symbolization, and sliding windows. We then built several directed and weighted network models, within which the fluctuation modes and the transformations between modes were represented by nodes and edges. Then, the features of the asynchronous correlation between these two variables could be studied from a perspective of network topology. We found that the correlation between the price index and the accidental deaths was asynchronous and fluctuating. Certain aspects, such as the key fluctuation modes, the subgroups characteristics, the transmission medium, the periodicity and transmission path length in the network, were analyzed by using complex network theory, analytical methods and spectral analysis method. These results provide a scientific reference for generating warnings for coal mining accidents based on economic indices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Kulagin


    Full Text Available Development of mathematical model of asynchronous machines in (d, q coordinate system with taking into account the saturation of magnetic circuits is performed. In the paper, we used the method of dynamic inductances, which is connected with the use of a systematic study of motor properties. An analytical model of asynchronous motor magnetic circuit, which is taken into account action of the tangential and radial dynamic inductances is created. On the basis of this the sensor dynamic inductances of rich machine, which was recorded in (d, q coordinate system of equations of rotor and stator circles of asynchronous motor with the saturation were built. The author suggests to use the method of dynamic inductances at construction of asynchronous engine mathematical model, that allows to take into account the saturation of the main magnetic path for the modes with a wide range of changes in the flow of mutual induction between the stator and the rotor, saturation flow path, the scattering modes that are characterized by large current circuits of the machine, induction, due to processes of saturation, between mutually perpendicular to the contours of the machine, as well as the joint saturation worker thread and threads scattering modes that are characterized by the significant size of the workflow and large values of currents contours of the machine. The mathematical model allows to take into account the change of the magnetic state of asynchronous motor as necessity to build adequate systems of control drives and driving

  5. Producing Newborn Synchronous Mammalian Cells (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Helmstetter, Charles E.; Thornton, Maureen


    A method and bioreactor for the continuous production of synchronous (same age) population of mammalian cells have been invented. The invention involves the attachment and growth of cells on an adhesive-coated porous membrane immersed in a perfused liquid culture medium in a microgravity analog bioreactor. When cells attach to the surface divide, newborn cells are released into the flowing culture medium. The released cells, consisting of a uniform population of synchronous cells are then collected from the effluent culture medium. This invention could be of interest to researchers investigating the effects of the geneotoxic effects of the space environment (microgravity, radiation, chemicals, gases) and to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies involved in research on aging and cancer, and in new drug development and testing.

  6. Solidarity, synchronization and collective action

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggeman, Jeroen


    For people to act collectively in actual situations -- in contrast to public goods experiments -- goal ambiguity, diversity of interests, and uncertain costs and benefits stand in their way. Under such conditions, people seem to have few reasons to cooperate, yet the Arab revolutions, as conspicuous examples, show that collective action can take place despite the odds. I use the Kuramoto model to show how people in a cohesive network topology can synchronize their salient traits (emotions, interests, or other), and that synchronization happens in a phase transition, when group solidarity passes a critical threshold. This yields more precise predictions of outbursts of collective action under adverse conditions, and casts a new light on different measures of social cohesion.

  7. New Solutions for Synchronized Domineering (United States)

    Bahri, Sahil; Kruskal, Clyde P.

    Cincotti and Iida invented the game of Synchronized Domineering, and analyzed a few special cases. We develop a more general technique of analysis, and obtain results for many more special cases. We obtain complete results for board sizes 3 ×n, 5 ×n, 7 ×n, and 9 ×n (for n large enough) and partial results for board sizes 2×n, 4 ×n, and 6 ×n.

  8. Digital-data receiver synchronization (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F.; Turner, Gary W.


    Digital-data receiver synchronization is provided with composite phase-frequency detectors, mutually cross-connected comparison feedback or both to provide robust reception of digital data signals. A single master clock can be used to provide frequency signals. Advantages can include fast lock-up time in moderately to severely noisy conditions, greater tolerance to noise and jitter when locked, and improved tolerance to clock asymmetries.

  9. Calibration of asynchronous smart phone cameras from moving objects (United States)

    Hagen, Oksana; Istenič, Klemen; Bharti, Vibhav; Dhali, Maruf Ahmed; Barmaimon, Daniel; Houssineau, Jérémie; Clark, Daniel


    Calibrating multiple cameras is a fundamental prerequisite for many Computer Vision applications. Typically this involves using a pair of identical synchronized industrial or high-end consumer cameras. This paper considers an application on a pair of low-cost portable cameras with different parameters that are found in smart phones. This paper addresses the issues of acquisition, detection of moving objects, dynamic camera registration and tracking of arbitrary number of targets. The acquisition of data is performed using two standard smart phone cameras and later processed using detections of moving objects in the scene. The registration of cameras onto the same world reference frame is performed using a recently developed method for camera calibration using a disparity space parameterisation and the single-cluster PHD filter.

  10. Schedule-based sequential localization in asynchronous wireless networks (United States)

    Zachariah, Dave; De Angelis, Alessio; Dwivedi, Satyam; Händel, Peter


    In this paper, we consider the schedule-based network localization concept, which does not require synchronization among nodes and does not involve communication overhead. The concept makes use of a common transmission sequence, which enables each node to perform self-localization and to localize the entire network, based on noisy propagation-time measurements. We formulate the schedule-based localization problem as an estimation problem in a Bayesian framework. This provides robustness with respect to uncertainty in such system parameters as anchor locations and timing devices. Moreover, we derive a sequential approximate maximum a posteriori (AMAP) estimator. The estimator is fully decentralized and copes with varying noise levels. By studying the fundamental constraints given by the considered measurement model, we provide a system design methodology which enables a scalable solution. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the proposed AMAP estimator by numerical simulations emulating an impulse-radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) wireless network.

  11. Multiband study of RX J0838-2827 and XMM J083850.4-282759: a new asynchronous magnetic cataclysmic variable and a candidate transitional millisecond pulsar (United States)

    Rea, N.; Zelati, F. Coti; Esposito, P.; D'Avanzo, P.; de Martino, D.; Israel, G. L.; Torres, D. F.; Campana, S.; Belloni, T. M.; Papitto, A.; Masetti, N.; Carrasco, L.; Possenti, A.; Wieringa, M.; Wilhelmi, E. De Oña; Li, J.; Bozzo, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Linares, M.; Tauris, T. M.; Hernanz, M.; Ribas, I.; Monelli, M.; Borghese, A.; Baglio, M. C.; Casares, J.


    In a search for the counterpart to the Fermi-LAT source 3FGL J0838.8-2829, we performed a multiwavelength campaign: in the X-ray band with Swift and XMM-Newton; in the infrared and optical with OAGH, ESO-NTT and IAC80; and in the radio with ATCA observations. We also used archival hard X-ray data obtained by INTEGRAL. We report on three X-ray sources consistent with the position of the Fermi-LAT source. We confirm the identification of the brightest object, RX J0838-2827, as a magnetic cataclysmic variable that we recognize as an asynchronous system (not associated with the Fermi-LAT source). RX J0838-2827 is extremely variable in the X-ray and optical bands, and timing analysis reveals the presence of several periodicities modulating its X-ray and optical emission. The most evident modulations are interpreted as being caused by the binary system orbital period of ˜1.64 h and the white dwarf spin period of ˜1.47 h. A strong flux modulation at ˜15 h is observed at all energy bands, consistent with the beat frequency between spin and orbital periods. Optical spectra show prominent Hβ, He i and He ii emission lines that are Doppler-modulated at the orbital period and at the beat period. Therefore, RX J0838-2827 accretes through a disc-less configuration and could be either a strongly asynchronous polar or a rare example of a pre-polar system on its way to reaching synchronism. Regarding the other two X-ray sources, XMM J083850.4-282759 showed a variable X-ray emission, with a powerful flare lasting for ˜600 s, similar to what is observed in transitional millisecond pulsars during the subluminous disc state: this observation possibly means that this source can be associated with the Fermi-LAT source.

  12. Distance Synchronous Information Systems Course Delivery (United States)

    Peslak, Alan R.; Lewis, Griffith R.; Aebli, Fred


    Teaching computer information systems via distance education is a challenge for both student and faculty. Much research work has been performed on methods of teaching via distance education. Today we are faced with a variety of options for course delivery. Asynchronous delivery via online or lesson instruction still remains most common. But…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Kitade


    Full Text Available In order to demonstrate how learners utilize the text-based asynchronous attributes of the Bulletin Board System, this study explored Japanese-as-a-second-language learners' metalanguage episodes (Swain & Lapkin, 1995, 1998 in offline verbal peer speech and online asynchronous discussions with their Japanese key pals. The findings suggest the crucial role of offline collaborative dialogue, the interactional modes in which the episodes occur, and the unique discourse structure of metalanguage episodes concerning online and offline interactions. A high score on the posttest also suggests the high retention of linguistic knowledge constructed through offline peer dialogue. In the offline mode, the learners were able to collaboratively construct knowledge with peers in the stipulated time, while simultaneously focusing on task content in the online interaction. The retrospective interviews and questionnaires reveal the factors that could affect the benefits of the asynchronous computer-mediated communication medium for language learning.

  14. GPU-Accelerated Asynchronous Error Correction for Mixed Precision Iterative Refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antz, Hartwig [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Luszczek, Piotr [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Dongarra, Jack [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Heuveline, Vinent [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany)


    In hardware-aware high performance computing, block- asynchronous iteration and mixed precision iterative refinement are two techniques that are applied to leverage the computing power of SIMD accelerators like GPUs. Although they use a very different approach for this purpose, they share the basic idea of compensating the convergence behaviour of an inferior numerical algorithm by a more efficient usage of the provided computing power. In this paper, we want to analyze the potential of combining both techniques. Therefore, we implement a mixed precision iterative refinement algorithm using a block-asynchronous iteration as an error correction solver, and compare its performance with a pure implementation of a block-asynchronous iteration and an iterative refinement method using double precision for the error correction solver. For matrices from theUniversity of FloridaMatrix collection,we report the convergence behaviour and provide the total solver runtime using different GPU architectures.

  15. Asynchronous Cholinergic Drive Correlates with Excitation-Inhibition Imbalance via a Neuronal Ca2+ Sensor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Zhou


    Full Text Available Excitation-inhibition imbalance in neural networks is widely linked to neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, how genetic factors alter neuronal activity, leading to excitation-inhibition imbalance, remains unclear. Here, using the C. elegans locomotor circuit, we examine how altering neuronal activity for varying time periods affects synaptic release pattern and animal behavior. We show that while short-duration activation of excitatory cholinergic neurons elicits a reversible enhancement of presynaptic strength, persistent activation results to asynchronous and reduced cholinergic drive, inducing imbalance between endogenous excitation and inhibition. We find that the neuronal calcium sensor protein NCS-2 is required for asynchronous cholinergic release in an activity-dependent manner and dampens excitability of inhibitory neurons non-cell autonomously. The function of NCS-2 requires its Ca2+ binding and membrane association domains. These results reveal a synaptic mechanism implicating asynchronous release in regulation of excitation-inhibition balance.

  16. Dual stator winding variable speed asynchronous generator: magnetic equivalent circuit with saturation, FEM analysis and experiments (United States)

    Tutelea, L. N.; Muntean, N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Cunţan, C. D.


    The authors carried out a theoretical and experimental study of dual stator winding squirrel cage asynchronous generator (DSWA) behaviour in the presence of saturation regime (non-sinusoidal) due to the variable speed operation. The main aims are the determination of the relations of calculating the equivalent parameters of the machine windings, FEM validation of parameters and characteristics with free FEMM 4.2 computing software and the practice experimental tests for verifying them. Issue is limited to three phase range of double stator winding cage-asynchronous generator of small sized powers, the most currently used in the small adjustable speed wind or hydro power plants. The tests were carried out using three-phase asynchronous generator having rated power of 6 [kVA].

  17. Asynchronous control of discrete-time impulsive switched systems with mode-dependent average dwell time. (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Hongbin; Wang, Gang; Dang, Chuangyin; Zhong, Sijun


    This paper mainly studies the asynchronous control problem for a class of discrete-time impulsive switched systems, where "asynchronous" means the switching of the controllers has a lag to the switching of system modes. By using multiple Lyapunov functions (MLFs), the much looser asymptotic stability result of closed-loop systems is derived with a mode-dependent average dwell time (MDADT) technique. Based on the stability result obtained, the problem of asynchronous control is solved under a proper switching law. Moreover, the stability and stabilization results are formulated in form of matrix inequalities that are numerically feasible. Finally, an illustrative numerical example is presented to show the effectiveness of the obtained stability results. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Concerted and asynchronous mechanism of ground state proton transfer in alcohol mediated 7-hydroxyquinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Baotao [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Du-Jeon [Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Yong, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Reaction rate constants obtained by DFT agree with experimental ones quite well. • Experimental postulate of concerted and asynchronous GSPT was confirmed. • The GSPT reaction can be decomposed into three asynchronous steps. - Abstract: Alcohols mediated 7-hydroxyquinoline (7-HQ) complex has received enormous attractions on the issue of proton transfer reaction in the ground and excited states. In the present paper, concentrating on the ground state proton transfer (GSPT), density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to investigate the intrinsic insight into the reaction mechanism. We found that the GSPT is concerted and asynchronous process and can be accelerated by more acidic alcohol. Such GSPT was initiated by the proton transfer from alcohol to keto group of 7-HQ and finished by the proton transfer from nitrogen to alcohol. Our findings were in agreement with experimental conclusions quite well. Our results would be helpful to understand the proton transfer reaction for 7-HQ and related systems.

  19. Methodological Reflections on the Use of Asynchronous Online Focus Groups in Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williams PhD


    Full Text Available The Internet is increasingly used as a tool in qualitative research. In particular, asynchronous online focus groups are used when factors such as cost, time, or access to participants can make conducting face-to-face research difficult. In this article we consider key methodological issues involved in using asynchronous online focus groups to explore experiences of health and illness. The written nature of Internet communication, the lack of physical presence, and the asynchronous, longitudinal aspects enable participants who might not normally contribute to research studies to reflect on their personal stories before disclosing them to the researcher. Implications for study design, recruitment strategies, and ethics should be considered when deciding whether to use this method.

  20. The design of an asynchronous Tiny RISC TM/TR4101 microprocessor core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais; Jensen, P.; Korger, P.


    This paper presents the design of an asynchronous version of the TR4101 embedded microprocessor core developed by LSI Logic Inc. The asynchronous processor, called ARISC, was designed using the same CAD tools and the same standard cell library that was used to implement the TR4101. The paper...... reports on the design methodology, the architecture, the implementation, and the performance of the ARISC. This includes a comparison with the TR4101, and a detailed breakdown of the power consumption in the ARISC. ARISC is our first attempt at an asynchronous implementation and a number of simplifying...... decisions were made up front. Throughout the entire design we use four-phase handshaking in combination with a normally opaque latch controller. All logic is implemented using static logic standard cells. Despite this the ARISC performs surprisingly well: In 0.35 μm CMOS performance is 74-123 MIPS depending...

  1. Determining the degree of synchronism for intermittent phase synchronization in human electroencephalography data (United States)

    Koloskova, A. D.; Moskalenko, O. I.


    The phenomenon of intermittent phase synchronization during development of epileptic activity in human beings has been discovered based on EEG data. The presence of synchronous behavior phases has been detected both during spike-wave discharges and in the regions of background activity of the brain. The degree of synchronism in the intermittent phase-synchronization regime in both cases has been determined, and it has been established that spike-wave discharges are characterized by a higher degree of synchronism than exists in the regions of background activity of the brain. To determine the degree of synchronism, a modified method of evaluating zero conditional Lyapunov exponents from time series is proposed.

  2. Enhancing Discussions in the Asynchronous Online Classroom: The Lack of Face-to-Face Interaction Does Not Lessen the Lesson (United States)

    Comer, Debra R.; Lenaghan, Janet A.


    This article addresses educators' concerns about using asynchronous online discussions in lieu of face-to-face discussions. Drawing from research on asynchronous online education and Bloom's taxonomy, the authors introduce the system of "original examples" and "value-added comments" that they have developed to promote engaging and meaningful…

  3. Heating calculation features at self-start of large asynchronous motor (United States)

    Shevchenko, A. A.; Temlyakova, Z. S.; Grechkin, V. V.; Vilberger, M. E.


    The article proposes a method for optimizing the incremental heating calculation in the active volume of a large asynchronous motor for certain kinds of load characteristics. The incremental heating calculation is conditioned by the need to determine the aging level of the insulation and to predict a decrease in the electric machine service life. The method for optimizing the incremental heating calculation of asynchronous motor active volume is based on the automation of calculating the heating when simulating the self-starting process of the motor after eliminating an AC drop.

  4. Numerical modeling of a pulsed asynchronous generator with iron-free cylindrical solid rotor (United States)

    Guettafi, A.; Delmas, A.; Quichaud, G.


    This article presents the numerical simulation with finite element method of the transient regime of an asynchronous generator with iron-free cylindrical solid rotor. During this operation kinetic energy of the rotor is transferred through the ideal rectifier bridge to a load-inductance in order to create a high magnetic field pulse. The interest of this device is the less value of capacitors battery for self-oscillations of the asynchronous generator compared to this one necessary for direct transfer of its energy to the load-inductance.

  5. Asynchronous teaching of psychomotor skills through VR annotations: evaluation in digital rectal examination. (United States)

    Rissanen, Mikko J; Kume, Naoto; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Yoshimura, Koji; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki


    Many VR technology based training systems use expert's motion data as the training aid, but would not provide any short-cut to teaching medical skills that do not depend on exact motions. Earlier we presented Annotated Simulation Records (ASRs), which can be used to encapsulate experts' insight on psychomotor skills. Annotations made to behavioural parameters in training simulators enable asynchronous teaching instead of just motion training in a proactive way to the learner. We evaluated ASRs for asynchronous teaching of Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) with 3 urologists and 8 medical students. The ASRs were found more effective than motion-based training with verbal feedback.

  6. State assignment for asynchronous FSMs with the use of the incompatibility and complement graph (United States)

    Kulisz, Józef


    The paper presents an application of a novel concept of graph - the Incompatibility and Complement Graph - to state assignment for asynchronous FSMs. A specific feature of the graph is that it contains two kinds of edges: connecting mutually incompatible nodes, and connecting mutually complementing nodes. The graph can be useful in certain class of optimization problems, in which compatibility of bit patterns both in the true, and in the complemented form has to be analyzed. An example of such a problem is covering analysis in state assignment for asynchronous FSMs. The paper presents a simple example explaining the method. Appropriate algorithms for the graph building and coloring are also presented.

  7. Numerical modeling of a pulsed asynchronous generator with iron-free cylindrical solid rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guettafi, A. [Inst. d' Electrotechnique, Univ. de Batna, Batna (Algeria); Delmas, A.; Quichaud, G. [Lab. de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, Univ. Paris Sud, Orsay (France)


    This article presents the numerical simulation with finite element method of the transient regime of an asynchronous generator with iron-free cylindrical solid rotor. During this operation kinetic energy of the rotor is transferred through the ideal rectifier bridge to a load-inductance in order to create a high magnetic field pulse. The interest of this device is the less value of capacitors battery for self-oscillations of the asynchronous generator compared to this one necessary for direct transfer of its energy to the load-inductance. (orig.)

  8. The effects of synchronous class sessions on students' academic achievement and levels of satisfaction in an online introduction to computers course (United States)

    LeShea, Andrea Valene

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental static-group comparison study was to test the theory of transactional distance that relates the inclusion of synchronous class sessions into an online introductory computer course to students' levels of satisfaction and academic achievement at a post-secondary technical college. This study specifically looked at the effects of adding live, synchronous class sessions into an online learning environment using collaboration software such as Blackboard Collaborate and the impact that this form of live interaction had on students' overall levels of satisfaction and academic achievement with the course. A quasi-experiment using the post-test only, static-group comparison design was utilized and conducted in an introductory computer class at a local technical college. It was determined that incorporating live, synchronous class sessions into an online course did not increase students' levels of achievement, nor did it result in improved test scores. Additionally, the study revealed that there was no significant difference in students' levels of satisfaction between those taking online courses using live, synchronous methods and those experiencing traditional online methods. In light of this evidence, further research needs to be conducted to determine if students prefer a completely asynchronous online learning experience or if, when, and how they would prefer a blended approach that offers synchronous sessions as well.

  9. A chimeric path to neuronal synchronization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essaki Arumugam, Easwara Moorthy; Spano, Mark L. [School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-9709 (United States)


    Synchronization of neuronal activity is associated with neurological disorders such as epilepsy. This process of neuronal synchronization is not fully understood. To further our understanding, we have experimentally studied the progression of this synchronization from normal neuronal firing to full synchronization. We implemented nine FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons (a simplified Hodgkin-Huxley model) via discrete electronics. For different coupling parameters (synaptic strengths), the neurons in the ring were either unsynchronized or completely synchronized when locally coupled in a ring. When a single long-range connection (nonlocal coupling) was introduced, an intermediate state known as a chimera appeared. The results indicate that (1) epilepsy is likely not only a dynamical disease but also a topological disease, strongly tied to the connectivity of the underlying network of neurons, and (2) the synchronization process in epilepsy may not be an “all or none” phenomenon, but can pass through an intermediate stage (chimera)

  10. Control for a synchronization-desynchronization switch (United States)

    He, Zhiwei; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Guo-Yong; Zhan, Meng


    How to freely enhance or suppress synchronization of networked dynamical systems is of great importance in many disciplines. A unified precise control method for a synchronization-desynchronization switch, called the pull-push control method, is suggested. Namely, synchronization can be achieved when the original systems are desynchronous by pulling (or protecting) one node or a certain subset of nodes, whereas desynchronization can be accomplished when the systems are already synchronous by pushing (or kicking) one node or a certain subset of nodes. With this method, the controlled nodes should be chosen by the generalized eigenvector centrality of the critical synchronization mode of the Laplacian matrix. Compared with existing control methods for synchronization, it displays high efficiency, flexibility, and precision as well.

  11. Stock Return Synchronicity and Analysts’ Forecast Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong-Seok Cho


    Full Text Available Using stock return synchronicity as a measure of a firm’s information environment, our research investigates how the firms’ stock return synchronicity affects analysts’ forecast properties for the accuracy and optimism of the analysts’ annual earnings forecasts. Stock return synchronicity represents the degree to which market and industry information explains firm-level stock return variations. A higher stock return synchronicity indicates the higher quality of a firm’s information environment, because a firm’s stock price reflects more market-level and industry-level information relative to firm-specific information. Our study shows that stock return synchronicity positively affects the forecast properties. Our finding shows that when stock return synchronicity is high, analysts’ annual earnings forecasts are more accurate and less optimistically biased.

  12. Explosive synchronization coexists with classical synchronization in the Kuramoto model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danziger, Michael M., E-mail:; Havlin, Shlomo [Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Moskalenko, Olga I.; Kurkin, Semen A. [Faculty of Nonlinear Processes, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya, 83, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Politehnicheskaya, 77, Saratov 410054 (Russian Federation); Zhang, Xiyun [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Boccaletti, Stefano [CNR-Institute of Complex Systems, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); The Italian Embassy in Israel, 25 Hamered Street, 68125 Tel Aviv (Israel)


    Explosive synchronization has recently been reported in a system of adaptively coupled Kuramoto oscillators, without any conditions on the frequency or degree of the nodes. Here, we find that, in fact, the explosive phase coexists with the standard phase of the Kuramoto oscillators. We determine this by extending the mean-field theory of adaptively coupled oscillators with full coupling to the case with partial coupling of a fraction f. This analysis shows that a metastable region exists for all finite values of f > 0, and therefore explosive synchronization is expected for any perturbation of adaptively coupling added to the standard Kuramoto model. We verify this theory with GPU-accelerated simulations on very large networks (N ∼ 10{sup 6}) and find that, in fact, an explosive transition with hysteresis is observed for all finite couplings. By demonstrating that explosive transitions coexist with standard transitions in the limit of f → 0, we show that this behavior is far more likely to occur naturally than was previously believed.

  13. Fitness for synchronization of network motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vega, Y.M.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; Pacheco, A.F.


    We study the synchronization of Kuramoto's oscillators in small parts of networks known as motifs. We first report on the system dynamics for the case of a scale-free network and show the existence of a non-trivial critical point. We compute the probability that network motifs synchronize, and fi...... that the fitness for synchronization correlates well with motifs interconnectedness and structural complexity. Possible implications for present debates about network evolution in biological and other systems are discussed....

  14. A True Open-Loop Synchronization Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.


    Synchronization techniques can be broadly classified into two major categories: Closed-loop and open-loop methods. The open-loop synchronization (OLS) techniques, contrary to the closed-loop ones, are unconditionally stable and benefit from a fast dynamic response. Their performance, however, tends...... is to develop a true OLS (and therefore, unconditionally stable) technique without any need for the calculation of sine and cosine functions. The effectiveness of the proposed synchronization technique is confirmed through the simulation and experimental results....

  15. Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension. (United States)

    Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y


    Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects׳ attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects׳ task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synchronization Techniques for Chaotic Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jovic, Branislav


    Since the early 1990s, when synchronization of chaotic communication systems became a popular research subject, a vast number of scientific papers have been published. However, most of today's books on chaotic communication systems deal exclusively with the systems where perfect synchronization is assumed, an assumption which separates theoretical from practical, real world, systems. This book is the first of its kind dealing exclusively with the synchronization techniques for chaotic communication systems. It describes a number of novel robust synchronization techniques, which there is a lack

  17. Coupled lasers: phase versus chaos synchronization. (United States)

    Reidler, I; Nixon, M; Aviad, Y; Guberman, S; Friesem, A A; Rosenbluh, M; Davidson, N; Kanter, I


    The synchronization of chaotic lasers and the optical phase synchronization of light originating in multiple coupled lasers have both been extensively studied. However, the interplay between these two phenomena, especially at the network level, is unexplored. Here, we experimentally compare these phenomena by controlling the heterogeneity of the coupling delay times of two lasers. While chaotic lasers exhibit deterioration in synchronization as the time delay heterogeneity increases, phase synchronization is found to be independent of heterogeneity. The experimental results are found to be in agreement with numerical simulations for semiconductor lasers.

  18. High Speed Frame Synchronization and Viterbi Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, Erik; Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.


    The purpose of Phase 1 of the study is to describe the system structure and algorithms in sufficient detail to allow drawing the high level architecture of units containing frame synchronization and Viterbi decoding. The systems we consider are high data rate space communication systems. Also...... components. Node synchronization performed within a Viterbi decoder is discussed, and algorithms for frame synchronization are described and analyzed. We present a list of system configurations that we find potentially useful. Further, the high level architecture of units that contain frame synchronization...

  19. Pilotless Frame Synchronization Using LDPC Code Constraints (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Vissasenor, John


    A method of pilotless frame synchronization has been devised for low- density parity-check (LDPC) codes. In pilotless frame synchronization , there are no pilot symbols; instead, the offset is estimated by ex ploiting selected aspects of the structure of the code. The advantag e of pilotless frame synchronization is that the bandwidth of the sig nal is reduced by an amount associated with elimination of the pilot symbols. The disadvantage is an increase in the amount of receiver data processing needed for frame synchronization.

  20. Public-channel cryptography using chaos synchronization. (United States)

    Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang


    We present a key-exchange protocol that comprises two parties with chaotic dynamics that are mutually coupled and undergo a synchronization process, at the end of which they can use their identical dynamical state as an encryption key. The transferred coupling- signals are based nonlinearly on time-delayed states of the parties, and therefore they conceal the parties' current state and can be transferred over a public channel. Synchronization time is linear in the number of synchronized digits alpha, while the probability for an attacker to synchronize with the parties drops exponentially with alpha. To achieve security with finite alpha we use a network.

  1. Synchronization of coupled metronomes on two layers (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Yu, Yi-Zhen; Wang, Xin-Gang


    Coupled metronomes serve as a paradigmatic model for exploring the collective behaviors of complex dynamical systems, as well as a classical setup for classroom demonstrations of synchronization phenomena. Whereas previous studies of metronome synchronization have been concentrating on symmetric coupling schemes, here we consider the asymmetric case by adopting the scheme of layered metronomes. Specifically, we place two metronomes on each layer, and couple two layers by placing one on top of the other. By varying the initial conditions of the metronomes and adjusting the friction between the two layers, a variety of synchronous patterns are observed in experiment, including the splay synchronization (SS) state, the generalized splay synchronization (GSS) state, the anti-phase synchronization (APS) state, the in-phase delay synchronization (IPDS) state, and the in-phase synchronization (IPS) state. In particular, the IPDS state, in which the metronomes on each layer are synchronized in phase but are of a constant phase delay to metronomes on the other layer, is observed for the first time. In addition, a new technique based on audio signals is proposed for pattern detection, which is more convenient and easier to apply than the existing acquisition techniques. Furthermore, a theoretical model is developed to explain the experimental observations, and is employed to explore the dynamical properties of the patterns, including the basin distributions and the pattern transitions. Our study sheds new lights on the collective behaviors of coupled metronomes, and the developed setup can be used in the classroom for demonstration purposes.

  2. Synchronized Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee


    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used for monitoring and data collection purposes. A key challenge in effective data collection is to schedule and synchronize the activities of the nodes with global clock. This paper proposes the Synchronized Data Aggregation Algorithm (SDA) using spanning tree...... mechanism. It provides network-wide time synchronization for sensor network. In the initial stage algorithm established the hierarchical structure in the network and then perform the pair - wise synchronization. SDA aggregate data with a global time scale throughout the network. The aggregated packets...

  3. Price synchronization in retailing: some empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Resende


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the synchronization of price changes in the context of retail tire dealers in São Paulo-Brazil and selected items in supermarkets for cleaning supplies and food in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. Results indicate similar and non-negligible synchronization for different brands, although magnitudes are distant from a perfect synchronization pattern. We find interesting patterns in inter-firm competition, with similar magnitudes across different tire types. Intra-chain synchronization is substantial, indicating that a common price adjustment policy tends to be sustained for each chain across different products.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Le Ngo


    Full Text Available Classical method of designing electric motors help to achieve functional motor, but doesn’t ensure minimal cost in manufacturing and operating. Recently optimization is becoming an important part in modern electric motor design process. The objective of the optimization process is usually to minimize cost, energy loss, mass, or maximize torque and efficiency. Most of the requirements for electrical machine design are in contradiction to each other (reduction in volume or mass, improvement in efficiency etc.. Optimization in design permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is a multi-objective optimization problem. There are two approaches for solving this problem, one of them is evolution algorithms, which gain a lot of attentions recently. For designing PMSM, evolution algorithms are more attractive approach. Genetic algorithm is one of the most common. This paper presents components and procedures of genetic algorithms, and its implementation on computer. In optimization process, analytical and finite element method are used together for better performance and precision. Result from optimization process is a set of solutions, from which engineer will choose one. This method was used to design a permanent magnet synchronous motor based on an asynchronous motor type АИР112МВ8.

  5. Virtual Classroom: Strategi Pembelajaran Berbasis Synchronous E-Learning


    Suranto, Beni


    Synchronous learning adalah interaksi yang berorientasi pada pembelajaran dan difasilitasi denganintruksi-intruksi secara langsung, real-time dan biasanya terjadwal. Synchronous learning berbeda dengankuliah biasa, demo atau penawaran suatu produk, dan aktivitas-aktivitas penyampaian informasi yang lainnya.Synchronous e-Learning adalah Synchronous learning yang dilaksanakan dengan memanfaatkan perangkatelektronik, khususnya komputer dan Internet. Synchronous e-Learning dapat dilaksanakan deng...

  6. Using Reflective Peer Assessment to Promote Students' Conceptual Understanding through Asynchronous Discussions (United States)

    Lin, Huann-shyang; Hong, Zuway-R; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Lee, Sung-Tao


    This study explores the impact of using assessment items with competing theories to encourage students to practice evaluative reflection and collaborative argumentation in asynchronous discussions. Thirty undergraduate students from various departments worked in small groups and took turns collaboratively discussing the given item's answer,…

  7. Router Designs for an Asynchronous Time-Division-Multiplexed Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasapaki, Evangelia; Sparsø, Jens; Sørensen, Rasmus Bo


    In this paper we explore the design of an asynchronous router for a time-division-multiplexed (TDM) network-on-chip (NOC) that is being developed for a multi-processor platform for hard real-time systems. TDM inherently requires a common time reference, and existing TDM-based NOC designs are either...

  8. Synthesis and Layout of an Asynchronous Network-on-Chip using Standard EDA Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Christoph; Kasapaki, Evangelia; Sørensen, Rasmus Bo


    is the key role that clock signals play in specifying time-constraints for the synthesis. In this paper explain how we handled the synthesis and layout of an asynchronous network-on-chip for a multi-core platform. Focus is on the design process while the actual NOC-design and its performance are presented...

  9. Participation in Asynchronous Online Discussion Forums Does Improve Student Learning of Gross Anatomy (United States)

    Green, Rodney A.; Farchione, Davide; Hughes, Diane L.; Chan, Siew-Pang


    Asynchronous online discussion forums are common in blended learning models and are popular with students. A previous report has suggested that participation in these forums may assist student learning in a gross anatomy subject but it was unclear as to whether more academically able students post more often or whether participation led to…

  10. Effects of Asynchronous Music on Students' Lesson Satisfaction and Motivation at the Situational Level (United States)

    Digelidis, Nikolaos; Karageorghis, Costas I.; Papapavlou, Anastasia; Papaioannou, Athanasios G.


    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of asynchronous (background) music on senior students' motivation and lesson satisfaction at the situational level. A counterbalanced mixed-model design was employed with two factors comprising condition (three levels) and gender (two levels). Two hundred students (82 boys, 118 girls; M [subscript…

  11. Credit Hours with No Set Time: A Study of Credit Policies in Asynchronous Online Education (United States)

    Prasuhn, Frederick Carl


    U.S. public university system policies were examined to learn how credit hours were determined for asynchronous online education. Findings indicated that (a) credit hour meaning and use are not consistent, (b) primary responsibility for credit hour decisions was at the local level, and (c) no policies exist to guide credit hour application for…

  12. Three Interaction Patterns on Asynchronous Online Discussion Behaviours: A Methodological Comparison (United States)

    Jo, I.; Park, Y.; Lee, H.


    An asynchronous online discussion (AOD) is one format of instructional methods that facilitate student-centered learning. In the wealth of AOD research, this study evaluated how students' behavior on AOD influences their academic outcomes. This case study compared the differential analytic methods including web log mining, social network analysis…

  13. Beyond Social Presence: Facelessness and the Ethics of Asynchronous Online Education (United States)

    Rose, Ellen


    In this position paper, I argue that a focus on achieving and increasing social presence in online courses tends to derail a consideration of the ethical implications and dimensions of the essential facelessness of asynchronous education. Drawing upon the work of Emmanuel Levinas and Nel Noddings, who contended that the face is the basis of…

  14. Thematic Analysis of the "Games" Students Play in Asynchronous Learning Environments (United States)

    MacMillan, Thalia; Forte, Michele; Grant, Cynthia


    The dynamics of the student-student relationship within the asynchronous online classroom, as evidenced by conversations in an online discussion board, is a balancing act potentially more complex than those occurring in real-time. In order for learning to truly be considered effective, a collaborative, safe environment needs to exist among…

  15. Factors Related to Cognitive, Emotional, and Behavioral Engagement in the Online Asynchronous Classroom (United States)

    Pilotti, Maura; Anderson, Stephanie; Hardy, Pamela; Murphy, Pamela; Vincent, Pamela


    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships among measures of student engagement, instructor engagement, student performance, and properties of the online classroom. The authors assessed behavioral, cognitive, and emotional engagement of students and instructors in asynchronous discussion forums and collected measures of…

  16. A Coding Scheme to Analyse the Online Asynchronous Discussion Forums of University Students (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele


    The current study describes the development of a content analysis coding scheme to examine transcripts of online asynchronous discussion groups in higher education. The theoretical framework comprises the theories regarding knowledge construction in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) based on a sociocultural perspective. The coding…

  17. Digging beneath the Surface: Analyzing the Complexity of Instructors' Participation in Asynchronous Discussion (United States)

    Clarke, Lane Whitney; Bartholomew, Audrey


    The purpose of this study was to investigate instructor participation in asynchronous discussions through an in-depth content analysis of instructors' postings and comments through the Community of Inquiry (COI) framework (Garrison et. al, 2001). We developed an analytical tool based on this framework in order to better understand what instructors…

  18. Using the Community of Inquiry Model to Investigate Students' Knowledge Construction in Asynchronous Online Discussions (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Jen; Yang, Shu Ching


    This study used the Community of Inquiry (CoI) model proposed by Garrison to investigate students' level of knowledge construction in asynchronous discussions. The participants included 36 senior students (27 males) majoring in information management. The students attended 18 weeks of an online information ethics course. In this study, four types…

  19. Questions as Indicators of Ocean Literacy: Students' Online Asynchronous Discussion with a Marine Scientist (United States)

    Fauville, Géraldine


    In this article, 61 high-school students learned about ocean acidification through a virtual laboratory followed by a virtual lecture and an asynchronous discussion with a marine scientist on an online platform: VoiceThread. This study focuses on the students' development of ocean literacy when prompted to ask questions to the scientist. The…

  20. The Role of Beliefs and Motivation in Asynchronous Online Learning in College-Level Classes (United States)

    Xie, Kui; Huang, Kun


    Epistemic and learning beliefs were found to affect college students' cognitive engagement and study strategies, as well as motivation in classroom settings. However, the relationships between epistemic and learning beliefs, motivation, learning perception, and students' actual learning participation in asynchronous online settings have been…

  1. Collaborative Learning Processes in an Asynchronous Environment: An Analysis through Discourse and Social Networks (United States)

    Tirado, Ramon; Aguaded, Ignacio; Hernando, Angel


    This article analyses an experience in collaborative learning in an asynchronous writing environment through discussion forums on a WebCt platform of the University of Huelva's virtual campus, and was part of an innovative teaching project in 2007-08. The main objectives are to describe the processes of collaborative knowledge construction and the…

  2. Asynchronous Web Discussions in Teacher Training Courses: Promoting Collaborative Learning--Or Not? (United States)

    Biesenbach-Lucas, Sigrun


    Over the past few years, asynchronous web-based technologies have been examined for their usefulness in promoting collaborative learning among university students. Variations in implementation of this technology will determine to what extent students' learning is actually collaborative. This article discusses curricular adaptations made in the…

  3. An Examination of Computer Engineering Students' Perceptions about Asynchronous Discussion Forums (United States)

    Ozyurt, Ozcan; Ozyurt, Hacer


    This study was conducted in order to reveal the usage profiles and perceptions of Asynchronous Discussion Forums (ADFs) of 126 computer engineering students from the Computer Engineering Department in a university in Turkey. By using a mixed methods research design both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Research…

  4. Multithreaded Asynchronous Graph Traversal for In-Memory and Semi-External Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Pearce, Roger


    Processing large graphs is becoming increasingly important for many domains such as social networks, bioinformatics, etc. Unfortunately, many algorithms and implementations do not scale with increasing graph sizes. As a result, researchers have attempted to meet the growing data demands using parallel and external memory techniques. We present a novel asynchronous approach to compute Breadth-First-Search (BFS), Single-Source-Shortest-Paths, and Connected Components for large graphs in shared memory. Our highly parallel asynchronous approach hides data latency due to both poor locality and delays in the underlying graph data storage. We present an experimental study applying our technique to both In-Memory and Semi-External Memory graphs utilizing multi-core processors and solid-state memory devices. Our experiments using synthetic and real-world datasets show that our asynchronous approach is able to overcome data latencies and provide significant speedup over alternative approaches. For example, on billion vertex graphs our asynchronous BFS scales up to 14x on 16-cores. © 2010 IEEE.

  5. Defining the Symmetry of the Universal Semi-Regular Autonomous Asynchronous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban E. Vlad


    Full Text Available The regular autonomous asynchronous systems are the non-deterministic Boolean dynamical systems and universality means the greatest in the sense of the inclusion. The paper gives four definitions of symmetry of these systems in a slightly more general framework, called semi-regularity, and also many examples.

  6. Using Asynchronous Learning Technology To Make the Connections among Faculty, Students, and Teachers. (United States)

    McMullen, David W.; Goldbaum, Howard; Wolffe, Robert J.; Sattler, Joan L.

    This paper traces the evolution and application of asynchronous teaching and learning tools at Bradley University (Illinois), emphasizing their use in teacher education. The paper details the utilization of e-mail, the World Wide Web, and CyberProf, highlighting collaborative projects that emphasize mentoring and professional development. In the…

  7. Pedagogical dimensions of effective online asynchronous teacher communication in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.; Voogt, J.; Rutledge, D.; Slykhuis, D.


    In this research teacher behaviour in online asynchronous discussions is studied. To this end teachers’ online messages were analyzed and correlated to measures of student satisfaction. Findings show a positive relation between student satisfaction and the presence of content knowledge, multiple

  8. Ecological Affordance and Anxiety in an Oral Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Environment (United States)

    McNeil, Levi


    Previous research suggests that the affordances (van Lier, 2000) of asynchronous computer-mediated communication (ACMC) environments help reduce foreign language anxiety (FLA). However, FLA is rarely the focus of these studies and research has not adequately addressed the relationship between FLA and the affordances that students use. This study…

  9. Flipping the Online Classroom with Web 2.0: The Asynchronous Workshop (United States)

    Cummings, Lance


    This article examines how Web 2.0 technologies can be used to "flip" the online classroom by creating asynchronous workshops in social environments where immediacy and social presence can be maximized. Using experience teaching several communication and writing classes in Google Apps (Google+, Google Hangouts, Google Drive, etc.), I…

  10. Comparing Face-To-Face and Asynchronous Online Communication as Mechanisms for Critical Reflective Dialogue (United States)

    Salter, Susan; Douglas, Tracy; Kember, David


    Two mechanisms for engaging in critical reflective dialogue are discussed and compared: face-to-face meetings and asynchronous online discussion. The context is an umbrella action research project, with over 20 participants, which aimed to improve practices in online teaching and contribute to the development of graduate attributes. The article…

  11. Type of Positive Interdependence and Affiliation Motive in an Asynchronous, Collaborative Learning Environment (United States)

    Brewer, Susan; Klein, James D.


    In this study, we investigated the effect of type of positive interdependence (roles, rewards, roles-plus-rewards, or no structure) and affiliation motives (high vs. low) in an asynchronous, collaborative learning environment. College reentry students worked together in small, fully online discussion groups that lasted for seven days. Results…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Tokmakov


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to development of numerical method of electromechanical transient processes calculation in asynchronous motors. Electromechanical transient processes might be quite continuous that causes the calculation time increase and accumulation of errors due to use of modern software solutions. The aim of this work is to design more accelerated method of calculation of electromechanical transient processes in asynchronous motors and to create the convenient and practical model scheme of method. The method is based on approximation of state equations solution with the help of expansion of the solution with orthogonal Chebyshev’s polynomials. The scheme interpretation of this method is presented; it considers the rotor rotation frequency as some current. The given method allows to substitute operations with momentary values of currents by operations with currents images, which are interpreted as constant currents at equivalent circuit. As the result the initial integro-differential equations of state are substituted by the algebraic equations of current images. Also there is method of calculation of production image of the currents which are present at electrical machine. CPU time is decreased more than twice compared to common methods due to calculation of transient process in asynchronous motor according to the given method. Considered method is convenient for calculations of transient processes in complex circuits that include not only asynchronous motors but other electrical machines

  13. An Asynchronous P300 BCI With SSVEP-Based Control State Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panicker, Rajesh C.; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan; Sun, Ying


    In this paper, an asynchronous brain–computer interface (BCI) system combining the P300 and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) paradigms is proposed. The information transfer is accomplished using P300 event-related potential paradigm and the control state (CS) detection is achieved...

  14. Introducing group-based asynchronous learning to business education : Reflections on effective course design and delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Walker, R.


    This paper explores the contribution of virtual tools to student learning within full-time management programmes. More specifically, the paper focuses on asynchronous communication tools, considering the scope they offer for group-based collaborative learning outside the classroom. We report on the

  15. Exploring Change in Graduate Students' Perceptions of Web-Based Education throughout an Asynchronous Course (United States)

    Timotheou, Maria Mama


    This paper presents the main findings of a UK study exploring graduate students' perceptions of web-based education, with a specific focus on their change over time, throughout an asynchronous course. Data were collected through online messages and interviews, and analyzed qualitatively, following content and thematic analyses. Participant pre-…

  16. Exploring Singapore Primary School Students' Perceptions of Chinese Asynchronous Online Discussions (United States)

    Chin, Wong Wan; Sum, Cheung Wing; Foon, Hew Khe


    Background: Asynchronous online discussion (AOD) has found widespread use in tertiary education and adult learning environment; however, there has been little research on its use in elementary school, especially in the context of the teaching of the Chinese Language. This study explores the use of AOD in a Chinese Language class in a primary…

  17. The Effect of Instructor Information Provision on Critical Thinking in Students Using Asynchronous Online Discussion (United States)

    Klisc, Chris; McGill, Tanya; Hobbs, Valerie


    The facilitation of critical thinking is one of the most frequently discussed potential benefits of the asynchronous online discussion environment, but many studies have reported that it does not occur to any great extent. This study investigated the effect of information provided to students on the facilitation of their critical thinking outcomes…

  18. A newly proposed disease condition produced by light exposure during night: asynchronization. (United States)

    Kohyama, Jun


    The bedtime of preschoolers/pupils/students in Japan has become progressively later with the result sleep duration has become progressively shorter. With these changes, more than half of the preschoolers/pupils/students in Japan recently have complained of daytime sleepiness, while approximately one quarter of junior and senior high school students in Japan reportedly suffer from insomnia. These preschoolers/pupils/students may be suffering from behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome due to inadequate sleep hygiene. If this diagnosis is correct, they should be free from these complaints after obtaining sufficient sleep by avoiding inadequate sleep hygiene. However, such a therapeutic approach often fails. Although social factors are often involved in these sleep disturbances, a novel clinical notion--asynchronization--can further a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of these disturbances. The essence of asynchronization is a disturbance in various aspects (e.g., cycle, amplitude, phase and interrelationship) of the biological rhythms that normally exhibit circadian oscillation, presumably involving decreased activity of the serotonergic system. The major trigger of asynchronization is hypothesized to be a combination of light exposure during the night and a lack of light exposure in the morning. In addition to basic principles of morning light and an avoidance of nocturnal light exposure, presumable potential therapeutic approaches for asynchronization involve both conventional ones (light therapy, medications (hypnotics, antidepressants, melatonin, vitamin B12), physical activation, chronotherapy) and alternative ones (kampo, pulse therapy, direct contact, control of the autonomic nervous system, respiration (qigong, tanden breathing), chewing, crawling). A morning-type behavioral preference is described in several of the traditional textbooks for good health. The author recommends a morning-type behavioral lifestyle as a way to reduce

  19. Control of partial synchronization in chaotic oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 7, 2015 ... Abstract. A design of coupling is proposed to control partial synchronization in two chaotic oscil- lators in a driver–response mode. A control of synchrony between one response variables is made possible (a transition from a complete synchronization to antisynchronization via amplitude death and vice ...

  20. Have business cycles become more synchronized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J; Inklaar, R; Sleijpen, O

    Will further integration make business cycles in EMU countries more similar? This article answers the question by analysing to what extent business cycles in US and German states have become more synchronized and by examining whether synchronization in OECD countries is affected by trade intensity

  1. Inflation Targeting and Business Cycle Synchronization


    Flood, Robert P; Rose, Andrew K


    Inflation targeting seems to have a small but positive effect on the synchronization of business cycles; countries that target inflation seem to have cycles that move slightly more closely with foreign cycles. Thus the advent of inflation targeting does not explain the decoupling of global business cycles, for two reasons. Indeed business cycles have not in fact become less synchronized across countries.

  2. Modified function projective combination synchronization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 8, 2017 ... tography, secure communications [6,7], etc. Many ap- proaches have been proposed for the synchronization ... more secure communication. Hyperchaotic systems characterized by more than one positive ... We define the modified function projective synchronization error system e(t) as e(t) = z − f(t)y. (5).

  3. A clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Visser, P.M.; Broenink, Johannes F.


    This paper presents a clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI (Real Time Application Interface). The skeleton is a thin layer that provides unified but extendible interfaces to the underlying operating system, the synchronization algorithms and the upper level applications in need of clock

  4. Projective synchronization of chaotic systems with bidirectional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a new scheme for constructing bidirectional nonlinear coupled chaotic systems which synchronize projectively. Conditions necessary for projective synchronization (PS) of two bidirectionally coupled chaotic systems are derived using Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed PS scheme is discussed by ...

  5. Development of Network Synchronization Predicts Language Abilities. (United States)

    Doesburg, Sam M; Tingling, Keriann; MacDonald, Matt J; Pang, Elizabeth W


    Synchronization of oscillations among brain areas is understood to mediate network communication supporting cognition, perception, and language. How task-dependent synchronization during word production develops throughout childhood and adolescence, as well as how such network coherence is related to the development of language abilities, remains poorly understood. To address this, we recorded magnetoencephalography while 73 participants aged 4-18 years performed a verb generation task. Atlas-guided source reconstruction was performed, and phase synchronization among regions was calculated. Task-dependent increases in synchronization were observed in the theta, alpha, and beta frequency ranges, and network synchronization differences were observed between age groups. Task-dependent synchronization was strongest in the theta band, as were differences between age groups. Network topologies were calculated for brain regions associated with verb generation and were significantly associated with both age and language abilities. These findings establish the maturational trajectory of network synchronization underlying expressive language abilities throughout childhood and adolescence and provide the first evidence for an association between large-scale neurophysiological network synchronization and individual differences in the development of language abilities.

  6. Identical synchronization of coupled Rossler systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanchuk, S.; Maistrenko, Y.; Mosekilde, Erik


    Analyzing the transverse stability of low periodic orbits embedded in the synchronized chaotic state for a system of two coupled Rössler oscillators, we obtain the conditions for synchronization and determine the coupling parameters for which riddled basins of attraction may arise. It is shown how...

  7. Synchronization in Quantum Key Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Pljonkin


    Full Text Available In the description of quantum key distribution systems, much attention is paid to the operation of quantum cryptography protocols. The main problem is the insufficient study of the synchronization process of quantum key distribution systems. This paper contains a general description of quantum cryptography principles. A two-line fiber-optic quantum key distribution system with phase coding of photon states in transceiver and coding station synchronization mode was examined. A quantum key distribution system was built on the basis of the scheme with automatic compensation of polarization mode distortions. Single-photon avalanche diodes were used as optical radiation detecting devices. It was estimated how the parameters used in quantum key distribution systems of optical detectors affect the detection of the time frame with attenuated optical pulse in synchronization mode with respect to its probabilistic and time-domain characteristics. A design method was given for the process that detects the time frame that includes an optical pulse during synchronization. This paper describes the main quantum communication channel attack methods by removing a portion of optical emission. This paper describes the developed synchronization algorithm that takes into account the time required to restore the photodetector’s operation state after the photon has been registered during synchronization. The computer simulation results of the developed synchronization algorithm were analyzed. The efficiency of the developed algorithm with respect to synchronization process protection from unauthorized gathering of optical emission is demonstrated herein.

  8. Development of a synchronous subset of AADL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filali, Mamoun; Lawall, Julia


    We study the definition and the mapping of an AADL subset: the so called synchronous subset. We show that the data port protocol used for delayed and immediate connections between periodic threads can be interpreted in a  synchronous way. In this paper, we formalize this interpretation and study ...

  9. Standardization of Inter-Destination Media Synchronization


    Stokking, H.M.; Brandenburg, R.; Boronat, F.; Montagud, M.


    Inter-Destination Media Synchronization (IDMS) is a process in which various receivers of the same content are synchronized in their playout. Standardization of an IDMS solution helps to enable interoperability between receivers manufactured by different companies. This paper describes the efforts by ETSI TISPAN and by the IETF AVTCORE working group on standardization of IDMS.

  10. Standardization of Inter-Destination Media Synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Brandenburg, R. van; Boronat, F.; Montagud, M.


    Inter-Destination Media Synchronization (IDMS) is a process in which various receivers of the same content are synchronized in their playout. Standardization of an IDMS solution helps to enable interoperability between receivers manufactured by different companies. This paper describes the efforts

  11. Synchronization of oscillators in complex networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theory of identical or complete synchronization of identical oscillators in arbitrary networks is introduced. In addition, several graph theory concepts and results that augment the synchronization theory and a tie in closely to random, semirandom, and regular networks are introduced. Combined theories are used to explore ...

  12. Synchronization of coupled chaotic dynamics on networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review some recent work on the synchronization of coupled dynamical systems on a variety of networks. When nodes show synchronized behaviour, two inter- esting phenomena can be observed. First, there are some nodes of the floating type that show intermittent behaviour between getting attached to some ...

  13. Examining Interactivity in Synchronous Virtual Classrooms (United States)

    Martin, Florence; Parker, Michele A.; Deale, Deborah F.


    Interaction is crucial to student satisfaction in online courses. Adding synchronous components (virtual classroom technologies) to online courses can facilitate interaction. In this study, interaction within a synchronous virtual classroom was investigated by surveying 21 graduate students in an instructional technology program in the…

  14. Projective synchronization of chaotic systems with bidirectional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a coupled chaotic system composed of identical chaotic oscillators was first reported by. Fujisaka and Yamada [1,2] and later by Pecora and Carroll [3]. Synchronization is a uni- versal phenomenon in a variety of natural and engineering systems [4]. Over the past two decades, chaos synchronization has received much ...

  15. Electrotonic vascular signal conduction and nephron synchronization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, D.J.; Toma, I.; Sosnovtseva, Olga


    frequencies of both pair members to converge to a common value. The myogenic oscillations also synchronized, and the synchronization between the TGF and the myogenic oscillations showed an increased stability against parameter perturbations. Electronic vascular signal propagation is a plausible mechanism...

  16. Complexity in synchronized and non-synchronized states: A comparative analysis and application (United States)

    Palit, Sanjay K.; Fataf, Nur Aisyah Abdul; Md Said, Mohd Rushdan; Mukherjee, Sayan; Banerjee, Santo


    This analysis shows the dynamics of a hyperchaotic system changes from its original state to a synchronized state with nonlinear controller. The decreasing complexity of the coupled systems also quantifies the loss of information from its original state to the synchronized state. We proposed and modified a chaos synchronization based secure communication scheme to implement in case of non synchronization. The scheme is designed and illustrated using examples and simulations. Security analysis of the proposed scheme is also investigated. This analysis gives a new direction on chaos based cryptography in case of the coupled systems completely in non synchronized state.

  17. Synchronization and anti-synchronization of chaotic systems: A differential and algebraic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guerra, Rafael [Departamento de Control Automatico, Cinvestav-IPN A. P. 14-740, Av. IPN 2508, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail:; Pasaye, Jose Juan Rincon [Departamento de Control Automatico, Cinvestav-IPN A. P. 14-740, Av. IPN 2508, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail:


    Chaotic systems synchronization and anti-synchronization problems are tackled by means of differential and algebraic techniques for nonlinear systems. An algebraic observer is proposed for systems satisfying an algebraic observability condition. This observer can be used as a slave system whose states are synchronized with the master (chaotic) system. This approach has the advantages of being independent of the chaotic nature of the master system, it uses a reduced set of measurable signal from the master system and it also solves the anti-synchronization problem as a straightforward extension of the synchronization one. A Colpitts oscillator is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the suggested approach.

  18. Interdependencies of Neural Impulse Pattern and Synchronization (United States)

    Braun, Hans; Postnova, Svetlana; Schneider, Horst


    Neuronal synchronization plays a crucial role in many physiological functions such as information binding and wake-sleep transitions as well as in pathophysiological processes like Parkinson's disease and epileptic seizures. The occurrence of synchronized activity is often associated with significant alterations of the neuronal impulse pattern, mostly with a transition from tonic firing to burst discharges. We have used Hodgkin-Huxley type simulations to study how alterations of individual neurons' dynamics influence the synchronization in electrotonic coupled networks. The individual neurons have been tuned from tonic firing to bursting with chaotic dynamics in between. Our results demonstrate that these transitions have significant impact on the neurons' synchronization. Vice versa, the synchronization state can essentially modify the impulse pattern. The most remarkably effects appear when the individual neurons operate in a periodically tonic firing regime close to the transition to chaos.

  19. Synchronization of noisy systems by stochastic signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiman, A.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Moss, F. [Center for Neurodynamics, University of Missouri at St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 (United States); Schimansky-Geier, L. [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University at Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 110, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Shulgin, B.; Collins, J.J. [Center for BioDynamics and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)


    We study, in terms of synchronization, the {ital nonlinear response} of noisy bistable systems to a stochastic external signal, represented by Markovian dichotomic noise. We propose a general kinetic model which allows us to conduct a full analytical study of the nonlinear response, including the calculation of cross-correlation measures, the mean switching frequency, and synchronization regions. Theoretical results are compared with numerical simulations of a noisy overdamped bistable oscillator. We show that dichotomic noise can instantaneously synchronize the switching process of the system. We also show that synchronization is most pronounced at an optimal noise level{emdash}this effect connects this phenomenon with aperiodic stochastic resonance. Similar synchronization effects are observed for a stochastic neuron model stimulated by a stochastic spike train. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Synchronization Dynamics in a Designed Open System (United States)

    Yokoshi, Nobuhiko; Odagiri, Kazuki; Ishikawa, Akira; Ishihara, Hajime


    We theoretically propose a unifying expression for synchronization dynamics between two-level constituents. Although synchronization phenomena require some substantial mediators, the distinct repercussions of their propagation delays remain obscure, especially in open systems. Our scheme directly incorporates the details of the constituents and mediators in an arbitrary environment. As one example, we demonstrate the synchronization dynamics of optical emitters on a dielectric microsphere. We reveal that the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) bridge the well-separated emitters and accelerate the synchronized fluorescence, known as superfluorescence. The emitters are found to overcome the significant and nonuniform retardation, and to build up their pronounced coherence by the WGMs, striking a balance between the roles of resonator and intermediary. Our work directly illustrates the dynamical aspects of many-body synchronizations and contributes to the exploration of research paradigms that consider designed open systems.