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Sample records for asymptomatic young women

  1. [The current prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among teenagers and young asymptomatic Chilean women justifies the periodic surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Milena; Ralph, Constanza; García, Patricia; Cuello, Mauricio

    2016-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection constitutes the most common sexual transmitted disease (STD) among young women. International studies demonstrate that prevalence changes over time and also according to places. To estimate the prevalence of this infection among asymptomatic Chilean women (15 to 24 years old) and correlating with risk factor occurrence. Transversal cohort study to identify C. trachomatis infection through a diagnostic kit designed to detect and amplify cryptic plasmid DNA by quantitative PCR from endocervical sample. 181 women were screened during the period of study. The overall prevalence estimate was 5.5% and founding significant estimate variations (0% to 14.6%) between recruiting centers. There was difference in number of sexual partners (4.1 vs 2.5; p<0.05) between positive and negative women. No difference was observed in age of first coitus, STD history, the use of barrier method or socioeconomic level. However, the probability of being carrier increases as greater is the number of sexual partners, especially when the use of barrier method is low. The latest is not related to the socioeconomic level. One of 12 to 18 women at this age range will have asymptomatic infection. The current prevalence and its variability substantiates the C. trachomatis screening and periodic surveillance.

  2. Predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness in asymptomatic young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Rosane; Larrúbia, Manuella Rangel; Bussade, Isabela; Pereira, Joana Rodrigues Dantas; Lima, Giovanna A Balarini; Epifanio, Marcio Antonio; Schettino, Claudio Domenico Sahione; Momesso, Denise Prado

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and clinical predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic, young adult women with type 1 DM. The study included 45 women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) (aged 36 ± 9 years) who underwent carotid Doppler ultrasound evaluation to determine the carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and to assess the occurrence of carotid artery plaques. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR), and metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined by the World Health Organization criteria. The cohort had a mean age of 36 ± 9 years, diabetes duration of 18.1 ± 9.5 years, and body mass index (BMI) of 24.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. MS was present in 44.4% of the participants. The CIMT was 0.25 ± 0.28 mm, and the prevalence of carotid artery plaques was 13%. CIMT correlated positively with hypertension (p = 0.04) and waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.37, p = 0.012). The presence of carotid artery plaques correlated positively with age (p = 0.018) and hypertension (p = 0.017). eGDR correlated negatively with CIMT (r = -0.39, p = 0.009) and carotid plaques (p = 0.04). Albuminuria showed a correlation trend with CIMT (p = 0.06). Patients with carotid artery plaques were older, had a higher prevalence of hypertension, and lower eGDR. No correlation was found between CIMT and carotid plaques with diabetes duration, MS, BMI, cholesterol profile, glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, or fibrinogen. Insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, and older age were predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic, young adult women with type 1 DM.

  3. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Biradar Kerure; Rajeshwari Surpur; Sheela S. Sagarad; Sneha Hegadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens....

  4. Pulmonary Performance In Asymptomatic Young Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary Performance In Asymptomatic Young Nigerian Population Following The Administration Of Ascorbic Acid And Salbutamol. ... Ascorbic acid was given orally at a dose of 1.50 mg /kg body weight; and salbutamol at a dose of 70 μg/kg body weight, orally. Measurements ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njps.v19i1.32635.

  5. pulmonary performance in asymptomatic young nigerian population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    1. PULMONARY PERFORMANCE IN ASYMPTOMATIC YOUNG NIGERIAN. POPULATION FOLLOWING THE ADMINISTRATION OF ASCORBIC. ACID AND SALBUTAMOL. S. O. ODEH1, I. E. AGABA2, A. M. SABO 1, and R. A. ODANAOGUN 1. 1 Department of Human Physiology, 2 Department of Medicine and Radiology,.

  6. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective ...

  7. Coronary risk variables in young asymptomatic smokers.

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    Sharma, S B; Dwivedi, S; Prabhu, K M; Singh, G; Kumar, N; Lal, M K

    2005-09-01

    Smoking plays a dominant role in premature atherosclerosis particularly among males in South Asian countries. It initiates and promotes atherosclerosis by altering cardiac haemodynamics, causing dyslipidaemia and producing oxidative damage. Not much information is available from our country. We therefore undertook this study to see the effect of smoking on electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, lipids, apolipoprotein B level and free radical activity in young asymptomatic male smokers. The study included 100 consecutive male subjects (50 smokers and 50 non smokers) aged 30-40 yr. Smoking profile, detailed cardiovascular assessment including ECG and lipid profile were evaluated in each subject. Of the 50 smokers, 22 (44%) had grade I hypertension as against 5 of 50 non smokers. Sinus tachycardia (10%) and P-pulmonale (8%) were the only notable ECG abnormalities. Dyslipidaemia was detected in 92 per cent smokers and 48 per cent non smokers (Plevels were significantly higher (Psmokers compared to non smokers. LDL-cholesterol was > or =135 mg/dl in 94 per cent dyslipidaemic smokers. However, no significant difference was found in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Smokers had significantly higher serum malondialdehyde levels (Pnon smokers. Our data indicate that young asymptomatic male smokers tend to have hypertension, dyslipidaemia and increased production of free oxygen radicals, perhaps by attenuation of oxidative stress by cigarette smoking. This makes them prone for premature coronary artery disease. However, the findings need to be confirmed on a larger sample.

  8. Consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, SE; Stolk, RP; Camps, MJL; Netten, PM; Collet, JT; Schneeberger, PM; Hoepelman, AIM

    2001-01-01

    Background: Women with diabetes mellitus (DM) have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) more often than women without DM. It is unknown, however, what the consequences of ASB are in these women. Objectives: To compare women with DM with and without ASB for the development of symptomatic urinary tract

  9. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnancy is associated with obstetric complications including preeclampsia, pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight and prematurity. Determining the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women locally is needed to justify routine screening for ASB in ...

  10. Asymptomatic endoalveolar hemorrhage in a young male

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    Alain Kafyeke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a young male affected by granulomatosis with polyangiitis presenting with non-specific complaints and complicated by the occurrence of a diffuse endoalveolar hemorrhage characterized by atypical clinical and radiological features. The importance of a rapid and aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic approach has to be strongly underlined. Available data regarding prevalence, clinical and radiological characteristics and treatment of this uncommon manifestation have also been hereby reviewed.

  11. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in pregnant women attending antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The susceptibility rate of bacterial isolate was highest for levofloxacin (83.6%), followed by nalidixic acid (64.2%) and nitrofurantoin (62.7%). The pathogens were least susceptible to co-trimoxazole (8.3%), ampilcillin (8.8%) and amoxicillin (10.4%) Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteria among the pregnant ...

  12. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may be considered a complication in women with diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus Women Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Utrecht Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, S. E.; Stolk, R. P.; Camps, M. J.; Netten, P. M.; Hoekstra, J. B.; Bouter, K. P.; Bravenboer, B.; Collet, J. T.; Jansz, A. R.; Hoepelman, A. I.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of and risk factors for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in women with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 636 nonpregnant women with diabetes (type 1 and type 2) who were 18-75 years of age and had no abnormalities of the urinary tract, and

  13. Committee Opinion No.703: Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria is an important clinical sign of urinary tract malignancy. Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria has been variably defined over the years. In addition, the evidence primarily is based on data from male patients. However, whether the patient is a man or a woman influences the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, and the risk of urinary tract malignancy (bladder, ureter, and kidney) is significantly less in women than in men. Among women, being older than 60 years, having a history of smoking, and having gross hematuria are the strongest predictors of urologic cancer. In low-risk, never-smoking women younger than 50 years without gross hematuria and with fewer than 25 red blood cells per high-power field, the risk of urinary tract malignancy is less than or equal to 0.5%. Furthermore, the evaluation may result in more harm than benefit and is unlikely to be cost effective. Thus, data support changing current hematuria recommendations in this low-risk group. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Urogynecologic Society encourage organizations producing future guidelines on the evaluation of microscopic hematuria to perform sex-specific analysis of the data and produce practical sex-specific recommendations. In the meantime, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Urogynecologic Society recommend that asymptomatic, low-risk, never-smoking women aged 35-50 years undergo evaluation only if they have more than 25 red blood cells per high-power field.

  14. Committee Opinion No. 703 Summary: Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria is an important clinical sign of urinary tract malignancy. Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria has been variably defined over the years. In addition, the evidence primarily is based on data from male patients. However, whether the patient is a man or a woman influences the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, and the risk of urinary tract malignancy (bladder, ureter, and kidney) is significantly less in women than in men. Among women, being older than 60 years, having a history of smoking, and having gross hematuria are the strongest predictors of urologic cancer. In low-risk, never-smoking women younger than 50 years without gross hematuria and with fewer than 25 red blood cells per high-power field, the risk of urinary tract malignancy is less than or equal to 0.5%. Furthermore, the evaluation may result in more harm than benefit and is unlikely to be cost effective. Thus, data support changing current hematuria recommendations in this low-risk group. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Urogynecologic Society encourage organizations producing future guidelines on the evaluation of microscopic hematuria to perform sex-specific analysis of the data and produce practical sex-specific recommendations. In the meantime, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Urogynecologic Society recommend that asymptomatic, low-risk, never-smoking women aged 35-50 years undergo evaluation only if they have more than 25 red blood cells per high-power field.

  15. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.

  16. HEPATITIS B, HIV AND SYPHILIS INFECTION IN ASYMPTOMATIC PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Karuna Yadav

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study to determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with Hepatitis b, HIV and Syphilis positivity among asymptomatic pregnant women. We also assessed maternal and fetal outcome in HBsAg, HIV and Syphilis pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study of 1000 consecutive apparently healthy asymptomatic pregnant women, who are attending the antenatal clinic of AVBRH Hospital Sawangi (Meghe during September 2014 To August 2016. The blood samples was collected after obtaining their informed written consent from those who were tested for HIV antibodies (NACO guidelines, HBsAg (ELISA test, and Syphilis (RPR SPANCARD latex kit. RESULTS The prevalence of HBsAg (1.7%, HIV (1.0%, Syphilis (0.1%. All the infection was more common in illiterate, multigravida, monogamous women of low socio-economic status, History of blood transfusion, IV/IM drug users and common in multiple sexual partner. CONCLUSION This present study clearly documented a relatively declined prevalence of HBsAg, HIV and Syphilis in pregnant women. The data reinforces the need for establishing effective preventive programs, which could lead to reduction in the prevalence of these infections.

  17. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

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    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ 2) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns. PMID:23346398

  18. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

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    Ana Laura Calderón-Garcidueñas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast density (BD is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate ( and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170, fibroglandular 29% (87, heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17, and dense pattern 8.6% (26. Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117 and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183. Patterns of high breast density (BD (dense + heterogeneously dense were observed in 25.6% (30/117 of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183 of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300. Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300 of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300 of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%, and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%. Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns.

  19. External urethral sphincter electromyography in asymptomatic women and the influence of the menstrual cycle.

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    Tawadros, Cecile; Burnett, Katherine; Derbyshire, Laura F; Tawadros, Thomas; Clarke, Noel W; Betts, Christopher D

    2015-09-01

    To investigate by electromyography (EMG), the presence of complex repetitive discharges (CRDs) and decelerating bursts (DBs) in the striated external urethral sphincter during the menstrual cycle in female volunteers with no urinary symptoms and complete bladder emptying. Healthy female volunteers aged 20-40 years, with regular menstrual cycles and no urinary symptoms were recruited. Volunteers completed a menstruation chart, urinary symptom questionnaires, pregnancy test, urine dipstick, urinary free flow and post-void ultrasound bladder scan. Exclusion criteria included current pregnancy, use of hormonal medication or contraception, body mass index of >35 kg/m(2) , incomplete voiding and a history of pelvic surgery. Eligible participants underwent an external urethral sphincter EMG, using a needle electrode in the early follicular phase and the mid-luteal phase of their menstrual cycles. Serum oestradiol and progesterone were measured at each EMG test. In all, 119 women enquired about the research and following screening, 18 were eligible to enter the study phase. Complete results were obtained in 15 women. In all, 30 EMG tests were undertaken in the 15 asymptomatic women. Sphincter EMG was positive for CRDs and DBs at one or both phases of the menstrual cycle in eight (53%) of the women. Three had CRDs and DBs in both early follicular and mid-luteal phases. Five had normal EMG activity in the early follicular phase and CRDs and DBs in the mid-luteal phase. No woman had abnormal EMG activity in the early follicular phase and normal activity in the luteal phase. There was no relationship between EMG activity and age, parity or serum levels of oestradiol and progesterone. CRDs and DB activity in the external striated urethral sphincter is present in a high proportion of asymptomatic young women. This abnormal EMG activity has been shown for the first time to change during the menstrual cycle in individual women. CRDs and DBs are more commonly found in the luteal

  20. Isolated Asymptomatic Short Sternum in a Healthy Young Girl

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    Francesco Turturro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital sternal defects are rare deformities frequently associated with other anomalies of the chest wall and other organ systems. Although pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, and cleft sternum can present as isolated deformity, in most cases they are associated with heart and inner organs anomalies and described as symptoms of syndromes like Marfan syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Poland anomaly, and Cantrell pentalogy. In contrast, the etiology of an isolated defect is not well understood. We observed a short sternum (dysmorphic manubrium, hypoplastic body, and complete absence of the xiphoid process in a completely asymptomatic 13-year-old woman. A comprehensive instrumental exams panel was performed to exclude associated anomalies of the heart and of the other organ systems. The patient was completely asymptomatic and she did not need any medical or surgical treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated short sternum reported in literature.

  1. Asymptomatic Malaria Correlates with Anaemia in Pregnant Women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.

  2. Coffee consumption and coronary artery calcium in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhang, Yiyi; Ahn, Jiin; Lima, Joao A C; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the association between regular coffee consumption and the prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic men and women. This cross-sectional study included 25 138 men and women (mean age 41.3 years) without clinically evident cardiovascular disease who underwent a health screening examination that included a validated food frequency questionnaire and a multidetector CT to determine CAC scores. We used robust Tobit regression analyses to estimate the CAC score ratios associated with different levels of coffee consumption compared with no coffee consumption and adjusted for potential confounders. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 13.4% (n=3364), including 11.3% prevalence for CAC scores 1-100 (n=2832), and 2.1% prevalence for CAC scores >100 (n=532). The mean ±SD consumption of coffee was 1.8±1.5 cups/day. The multivariate-adjusted CAC score ratios (95% CIs) comparing coffee drinkers of coffee drinkers were 0.77 (0.49 to 1.19), 0.66 (0.43 to 1.02), 0.59 (0.38 to 0.93), and 0.81 (0.46 to 1.43), respectively (p for quadratic trend=0.02). The association was similar in subgroups defined by age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, status of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolaemia. In this large sample of men and women apparently free of clinically evident cardiovascular disease, moderate coffee consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Asymptomatic papillary fibroelastoma of the Aortic valve in a young woman - a case report

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    Pitsis Antonis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Echocardiography represents an invaluable diagnostic tool for the detection of intracardiac masses while simultaneously provides information about their size, location, mobility and attachment site as well as the presence and extent of any consequent hemodynamic derangement. A 29-year-old asymptomatic young woman with incidental transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE discovery of an aortic valve mass is presented. The 2-dimensional TTE showed a mobile, pedunculated mass, attached by a thin stalk to the aortic surface of the right coronary aortic cusp at the junction of its base with the anterior aortic wall. The importance of valve sparing tumour resection even in asymptomatic patients is emphasised.

  4. Pregnancy outcome in asymptomatic women with abnormal vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tract can result in deciduitis, chorioamnionitis, amniotic fluid infection, fetal sepsis and intrauterine death. Intrauterine infection may occur early in pregnancy and remain asymptomatic and undetected for months until preterm labour or premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) occur.[3]. Abnormal genital tract colonisation ...

  5. Pattern of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections in women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The roles of gonorrhea and non-gonococcal urethritis due to Chlamydia trachomatis in the etiology of infertility due to tubal occlusion have been established by various studies. Hysterosalphingography (HSG) is done to investigate tubal patency. This study was aimed at finding the prevalence of asymptomatic sexually ...

  6. Asymptomatic genital infection among pregnant women in Sagamu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Untreated genital tract infections in pregnancy may be associated with adverse effects on foetal and maternal health leading to poor pregnancy outcome. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and microbial isolates associated with asymptomatic genital infectionsin pregnancy. Methodology: ...

  7. Vulvovaginal Candida: a study of (a)symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns presence of asymptomatic vaginal Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by abnormal growth of yeasts in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Acute vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge are the

  8. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah’s family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  9. OCT findings in young asymptomatic subjects carrying familial BEST1 gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Camacho, Oscar F; Camarillo-Blancarte, Leyla; Zenteno, Juan C

    2011-03-01

    Best disease is an autosomal dominant retinal degeneration characterized by the presence of yellow lesions in the macula causing decreased central visual acuity at later stages. Best disease is caused by heterozygous mutations in BEST1, a gene located at chromosome 11q13. In the present study, we describe the clinical and molecular analysis of two multigenerational families with Best disease and correlate the optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects carrying BEST1 mutations. Two Mexican families with 3 affected generations each were studied. Probands underwent full ophthalmologic examination including fundus examination, fluorescent angiography (FAG), and electro-oculogram (EOG). Fourier-domain 3D OCT was performed in a number of symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects from these two pedigrees. PCR amplification and automated nucleotide sequencing of the 11 exons of the BEST1 gene in genomic DNA were also performed. Eighteen members of family 1 were molecularly tested. Seven subjects, including 4 young asymptomatic patients, carried a W24C heterozygous mutation in BEST1. OCT imaging in a 6-year-old asymptomatic patient carrying this mutation did not demonstrate retinal lesions. Fifteen subjects from family 2 were molecularly tested. Four patients, including 2 asymptomatic subjects, carried a heterozygous Q293K BEST1 mutation. OCT imaging in an asymptomatic 8-year-old individual with the Q293K mutation demonstrated bilateral subfoveal lesions and unilateral serous retinal detachment. Symptomatic patients showed severe retinal lesions by OCT. Our results add to the clinical, imaging, and molecular knowledge of Best disease and suggest that OCT can recognize retinal lesions in some asymptomatic carriers of BEST1 mutations as early as 8 years of age.

  10. History taking and leukocyturia predict the presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiland, R; Geerlings, SE; Stolk, RP; Hoes, AW; Hoepelman, AIM

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the accuracy of history taking to diagnose asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in diabetic women, and the added value of leukocyturia. Methods: Data were obtained from a multicenter study including 465 women with diabetes. Many patient characteristics were considered as

  11. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may be considered a complication in women with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, SE; Stolk, RP; Camps, MJL; Netten, PM; Hoekstra, JBL; Bouter, KP; Bravenboer, B; Collet, JT; Jansz, AR; Hoepelman, AIM

    OBJECTIVE - To study the prevalence of and risk factors for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in women with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 636 nonpregnant women with diabetes (type 1 and type 2) who were 18-75 years of age and had no abnormalities of the urinary tract,

  12. Young black women: defining health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, H J; Keller, C

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elicit a definition of health as described by young Black women and to characterize the factors related to their definitions of health. The research questions were: (a) How do young Black women define health and (b) what factors are related to their definition of health? Using interviews and open-ended questions, an exploratory descriptive design examined the factors which contribute to the definition of health. Twenty-two young Black women between the ages of 21 and 40 comprised the sample. A wide range of incomes, occupations, educational levels, marital status, and family sizes were represented. The informants defined health as comprising those characteristics, behaviors, and/or activities which include: (a) having or avoiding a disease, (b) the presence or absence of obesity, (c) experiencing and reducing stress, (d) good and bad health habits, (e) eating good and bad foods, and (f) engaging (or not) in exercise.

  13. Young women and suntanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castle, Catherine M.; Skinner, T. Chas; Hampson, Sarah E.

    1999-01-01

    Adolescents' sun exposure is particularly important because of the increased risk of melanoma associated with sunburn in youth. Further education students (N=97, all women) aged 16-19 years were randomised by classroom to either receive an informational leaflet about skin cancer or not. All parti...

  14. Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnant women in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh.

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    Wasif A Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a known risk factor for malaria which is associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity in areas of moderate-high malaria transmission intensity where Plasmodium falciparum predominates. The nature and impact of malaria, however, is not well understood in pregnant women residing in areas of low, unstable malaria transmission where P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist. METHODS: A large longitudinal active surveillance study of malaria was conducted in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh. Over 32 months in 2010-2013, the period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infections was assessed by rapid diagnostic test and blood smear and compared among men, non-pregnant women and pregnant women. A subset of samples was tested for infection by PCR. Hemoglobin was assessed. Independent risk factors for malaria infection were determined using a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: Total of 34 asymptomatic P. falciparum infections were detected by RDT/smear from 3,110 tests. The period prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in pregnant women was 2.3%, compared to 0.5% in non-pregnant women and 0.9% in men. All RDT/smear positive samples that were tested by PCR were PCR-positive, and PCR detected additional 35 infections that were RDT/smear negative. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, pregnant women had 5.4-fold higher odds of infection as compared to non-pregnant women. Malaria-positive pregnant women, though asymptomatic, had statistically lower hemoglobin than those without malaria or pregnancy. Asymptomatic malaria was found to be evenly distributed across space and time, in contrast to symptomatic infections which tend to cluster. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy is a risk factor for asymptomatic P. falciparum infection in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh, and pregnancy and malaria interact to heighten the effect of each on hemoglobin. The even distribution

  15. Cost-effectiveness of partner pharmacotherapy in screening women for asymptomatic infection with Chlamydia Trachomatis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Welte, R; van den Hoek, J A; van Doornum, G J; Jager, H C; Coutinho, R A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for male partners in screening women for asymptomatic infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). METHODS AND DATA: A pharmacoeconomic decision analysis model was constructed for the health outcomes of a CT screening program, such as

  16. Implementing universal cervical length screening in asymptomatic women with singleton pregnancies: challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedretti, Michelle K.; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Dickinson, Jan E.; Mol, Ben W. J.

    2017-01-01

    Cervical length (CL) screening has been successfully utilised to identify asymptomatic women, with a singleton pregnancy, at risk of preterm birth (PTB), thereby providing an opportunity to offer interventions that may reduce that risk. Cervical length screening with ultrasound is most effectively

  17. Aspects of isometric contractions and static balance in women with symptomatic and asymptomatic joint hypermobility.

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller Mebes C; Luder G; Schmid S; Stettler M; Stutz U; Ziswiler HR; Radlinger L

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to identify the differences in strength balance and muscle activity between women with normal mobility and those with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) with and without symptoms. Methods: A total of 195 women 67 normomobile (NM) and 128 hypermobile (HM) were included in this explorative cross sectional study whereby 56 were classified as symptomatically hypermobile (HM s) and 47 as asymptomatically hypermobile (HM as). Peak force (Fmax) and rate...

  18. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women with sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-18

    Apr 18, 2013 ... Conclusions: The prevalence of ASB in pregnant women with HbAS in Enugu, Nigeria was high and did not vary significantly from that of ... [7] Furthermore, serum free iron released from sickle erythrocytes in the circulation ... sickle cell anemia, history of diabetes mellitus, symptoms of urinary tract infections ...

  19. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Xavier Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality.

  20. Association Between Lumbar Spine Sagittal Alignment and L4-L5 Disc Degeneration Among Asymptomatic Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-Reis, Rafael; Bonugli, Gustavo Perazzoli; Dalto, Vitor Faeda; da Silva Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-09-15

    Cross-sectional observational study on the relationship between the degrees of disc degeneration and sagittal alignment in asymptomatic healthy individuals. This study sought to determine whether the sagittal spine alignment subtype is related to the prevalence of lumbar disc degeneration. Sagittal balance and spinopelvic parameters might be risk factors for disc degeneration. A total of 70 asymptomatic participants (36 women and 34 men) without regular physical activity were categorized according to the four subtypes of sagittal alignment proposed by Roussouly. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine (1.5T) and panoramic radiography of the spine. The degree of disc degeneration was graded using T2-weighted images according to the Pfirrmann classification. Spinopelvic parameters and vertebral curvatures were measured on digital panoramic radiographs using Surgimap software. Interobserver analyses for the Pfirrmann classification and spinopelvic parameters were assessed using the weighted Kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. The Kappa associated with disc degeneration classification was 0.79 (95% confidence intervals 0.72-0.87). The ICCs were excellent, with small confidence intervals for all spinopelvic parameters. The type II group (flat lordosis) showed a higher frequency of degenerated discs at L4-L5 (P = 0.03) than the type IV group (long and curved lumbar spine). No significant differences in disc degeneration were observed among the four subtypes at the other disc levels. We found a negative, moderate correlation between the spinopelvic parameters and the occurrence of disc degeneration in the type II group. The Roussouly subtype II sagittal alignment is significantly associated with disc degeneration at L4-L5 in asymptomatic young adults. Our results support the hypothesis that spinal sagittal alignment plays a role in early disc degeneration. 3.

  1. Associations between measures of adiposity over 10 years and patella cartilage in population-based asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunardi, A J; Brennan, S L; Wang, Y; Cicuttini, F M; Pasco, J A; Kotowicz, M A; Nicholson, G C; Wluka, A E

    2013-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) most commonly affects the patellofemoral compartment of the knee, and is a major cause of pain and disability. Structural changes that evolve prior to the onset of symptoms can be visualised using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is little known information about the role of adiposity on the early structural changes in the patella cartilage in younger, asymptomatic adult females. One hundred and sixty asymptomatic women (20-49 years) participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study underwent knee MRI (2006-8). Weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured 10 years prior (1994-7, baseline) and at the time of MRI (current), with change over the period calculated (current-baseline). Relationships between measures of adiposity and patella cartilage volume and defects were examined. After adjustment for age and patella bone volume, there was a reduction of 13 ml (95% confidence interval (95% CI), -25.7, -0.55) in patella cartilage volume for every 1 unit increase in current BMI, and a reduction of 27 ml (95% CI -52.6, -1.5) per BMI unit increase over 10 years (P=0.04 for both). No significant association was observed between baseline BMI and patella cartilage volume (P=0.16). Increased baseline and current weight and BMI were associated with increased prevalence of patella cartilage defects (all Ppatella in young to middle-aged healthy non-osteoarthritic women. Maintaining a healthy weight and avoiding weight gain in younger asymptomatic women may be important in the prevention of patellofemoral OA.

  2. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women with sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Prevalence of ASB in HbAS and HbAA women were 32.7% (98/300) and 32% (96/300) respectively (odd ratio (OR) =1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73, 1.45]). Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated in both the HbAS group (56.1%, 55/98) and control group (61.4%, 59/96), (OR = 0.80 [95% ...

  3. Improving breast cancer detection using ultrasonography in asymptomatic women with non-fatty breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpraphong, Pornpim; Limsuwarn, Panida; Tangcharoensathien, Woranuj; Ansusingha, Tamnit; Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Chuthapisith, Suebwong

    2014-10-01

    Mammography (MX) is a reliable modality for detection of breast cancer in asymptomatic women. Use of additional whole breast ultrasonography (US) for breast cancer screening is widely recognized, in particular in women with dense breast parenchyma. To determine the subgroup of women, according to breast density and age, who receive most benefit from US following MX for detection of breast cancer in an asymptomatic condition. The study was conducted in asymptomatic women who had non-fatty breast parenchyma using MX and US during January 2006 and December 2007. Mammographic breast density was classified as recommended by ACR BI-RADS lexicon. Non-fatty breast referred to D2, D3, and D4. US was performed by the same radiologists who interpreted MX with a handheld machine during the same visit. Data on demographics, cancer detection rate (CDR), and incremental cancer detection rate (ICDR) were analyzed using 95% confident interval (CI). Of 14,483 breast cancer screenings in women who had non-fatty breast density, 115 cancers were documented. The mean age of cancer patients was 49.6 years. Of 115 cancers, 105 were evidenced on images (31 with MX alone, 19 with US alone, and 55 with both MX and US). Overall CDR was 7.9 per 1000 examination (95% CI, 6.5-9.5). CDR for MX only (MX-CDR) was 6.5 per 1000 examinations (95% CI, 5.2-7.9). Additional US could significantly improve CDR (P women for detection of breast cancer is a promising diagnostic procedure. A significant benefit was documented, in particular, in women aged 40-59 years old, and in women with D4 breast density. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Enhanced MRI and MRI-Guided Interventional Procedures in Women with Asymptomatic Silicone-Injected Breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yun-Chung; Chen, Shin-Chih; Lo, Yung-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Asymptomatic women who have received silicone injection for breast augmentation have a risk of underestimating breast cancer by palpation, mammography, or breast sonography. Enhanced breast MRI is sensitive to display certain nonspecific enhanced lesions or suspicious lesions. Such nonspecific MRI-detected lesions could be managed by American College Radiology BI-RADS lexicon and selectively with MRI-guided techniques biopsy to prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:22536144

  5. Comparison of cervical muscle thickness between asymptomatic women with and without forward head posture

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaee, Fateme; Rezasoltani,Asghar; Manshadi, Farideh D.; Naimi, Sedigheh S.; Baghban, Alireza A.; Azimi, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Background Forward head posture (FHP) is a forward positioning of the head relative to the trunk in the sagittal plane. This posture is one of the most prevalent poor postures in patients with head and neck pain. Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI) is a reliable method to objectively evaluate muscle thickness and function. Objective To compare thickness of cervical muscles that control both head and neck posture between asymptomatic women with and without FHP. Methods Seventy asymptomati...

  6. Estimation of spinopelvic muscles' volumes in young asymptomatic subjects: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Celia; Moal, Bertrand; Chtara, Oussama Arous; Pillet, Helene; Raya, Jose G; Iannessi, Antoine; Skalli, Wafa; Lafage, Virginie; Bronsard, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Muscles have been proved to be a major component in postural regulation during pathological evolution or aging. Particularly, spinopelvic muscles are recruited for compensatory mechanisms such as pelvic retroversion, or knee flexion. Change in muscles' volume could, therefore, be a marker of greater postural degradation. Yet, it is difficult to interpret spinopelvic muscular degradation as there are few reported values for young asymptomatic adults to compare to. The objective was to provide such reference values on spinopelvic muscles. A model predicting the muscular volume from reduced set of MRI segmented images was investigated. A total of 23 asymptomatic subjects younger than 24 years old underwent an MRI acquisition from T12 to the knee. Spinopelvic muscles were segmented to obtain an accurate 3D reconstruction, allowing precise computation of muscle's volume. A model computing the volume of muscular groups from less than six MRI segmented slices was investigated. Baseline values have been reported in tables. For all muscles, invariance was found for the shape factor [ratio of volume over (area times length): SD muscles' values for a reference population have been reported. A new model predicting the muscles' volumes from a reduced set of MRI slices is proposed. While this model still needs to be validated on other populations, the current study appears promising for clinical use to determine, quantitatively, the muscular degradation.

  7. Two potentially fatal surprises in the preoperative assessment of an asymptomatic young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoeiro Jorge, Antonio José; Alves do Couto, Antonio; Tinoco Mesquita, Evandro; Ribeiro, Mario Luiz; Vale de Souza Junior, Celso; de Andrade Martins, Wolney

    2016-05-01

    Isolated left ventricular non-compaction is a rare disease classified as a primary genetic cardiomyopathy and is characterized by heart failure, systemic embolism and ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis is established by Doppler echocardiography. We report the case of an asymptomatic young adult, with no history of heart disease, who underwent preoperative assessment for low-risk orthopedic surgery. The electrocardiogram showed left bundle branch block, which prompted further investigation with Doppler echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography angiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A diagnosis of isolated left ventricular non-compaction and pulmonary embolism was made. Some aspects of preoperative assessment in low-risk surgical patients are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Cholelithiasis in young Saudi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiedozi, L C; al Hadi, F H; Salem, M; Desouky, M M

    1998-03-01

    We studied some of the factors associated with gallstones in a sub population of Saudi women who presented with cholelithiasis at a rather young age, 17-30 years. We determined the weight, height, ideal weight, overweight, Quetelet index, ideal Quetelet index, and parity in 152 such women designated the study group and in another aged matched group of 152 women without biliary disease designated the control group. Although the mean weights of both groups were greater than ideal, the mean weight, level of overweight, and mean Quetelet index in the study group were greater than those of the controls at virtually all age groups (p > 0.001). In the study group, comparison of the 17-25 year olds with the 26-30 year olds showed close similarity in weight, Q index, and level of overweight (p = 0.50). There was no significant difference in parity between the study group and the controls. We conclude that obesity is a significant factor in the development of cholelithiasis in Saudi women who develop symptomatic gallstones in the age group 17-30 years.

  9. Young Women With Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Dahlborg Lyckhage

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe how young women living with self-identified anorexia narrate about their lives by blogging. Thirteen Swedish blogs were chosen and analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. The results described falling ill, the illness itself, and the path to recovery. Low self-esteem, depressed state of mind, and self-destructive behavior were typical signs at the start of the illness. The women’s lives were characterized by a need for controlling their body by tormenting it and by the illness demanding all their concentration and energy. The women suffered from the feeling of being a disappointment to their family members. The illness was like an enemy that had to be defeated with the help of family members, health care professionals, and by means of therapy. A turning point occurred when the women felt at their worst or had tired of the illness and could concentrate on something other than their body and the eating disorder. Suffering from self-identified anorexia was described as experiencing low self-esteem. The illness took all of the women’s time and energy. For a turning point to be reached, the women needed support from family, friends, and health care professionals, including the use of distractions.

  10. HPV/Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection: metagenomic analysis of cervical microbiota in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Marisa; Filardo, Simone; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Recine, Nadia; Latino, Maria Agnese; Sessa, Rosa

    2018-01-09

    HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Most infections are asymptomatic and left untreated lead to severe reproductive tract sequelae such as cervical cancer and infertility. Interestingly, C. trachomatis may also increase the susceptibility to HPV infection as well as contribute to viral persistence. Recently, a growing body of evidence has suggested that the composition of the cervico-vaginal microbiota plays a key role in the susceptibility and outcome of genital infections caused by several pathogens, including HPV and C. trachomatis. The aim of our study was to undertake a metagenomic analysis of sequenced 16s rRNA gene amplicons to characterize the cervical microbiota from asymptomatic women with HPV/C. trachomatis co-infection. The composition of the cervical microbiota from HPV-positive or C. trachomatis-positive women was also analysed. The main finding of our study showed that the cervical microbiota in HPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women had a higher microbial diversity than the cervical microbiota in healthy controls (p<0.05). In addition, Aerococcus christensenii was associated with C. trachomatis infection. In conclusion, the increased cervical microbial diversity observed in HPV/C. trachomatis co-infected women and the detection of potential microbiological biomarkers of C. trachomatis infection will open the way to innovative approaches that may be helpful to identify women at risk of co-infection.

  11. Comparison of cervical muscle thickness between asymptomatic women with and without forward head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaee, Fateme; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Manshadi, Farideh D; Naimi, Sedigheh S; Baghban, Alireza A; Azimi, Hadi

    Forward head posture (FHP) is a forward positioning of the head relative to the trunk in the sagittal plane. This posture is one of the most prevalent poor postures in patients with head and neck pain. Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI) is a reliable method to objectively evaluate muscle thickness and function. To compare thickness of cervical muscles that control both head and neck posture between asymptomatic women with and without FHP. Seventy asymptomatic women aged between 20 and 40 years, with and without FHP (35 in each group), participated in the study. The thickness of the cervical muscles (rectus capitis posterior - RCP, oblique capitis superior - OCS, semispinalis capitis - SSC, sternocleidomastoid - SCM, and longus coli - LCo) was measured using RUSI and the data was compared between the two groups. The comparison of cervical muscle thickness between women with and without FHP revealed significant difference only with regard to the muscle thickness of the SCM muscle (mean difference: 0.7mm, 95% confidence interval of the difference: 0.14, 1.26mm, p value: 0.014). The thickness of this muscle was greater in women with FHP. Tonic contraction of the SCM muscle can lead to greater thickness of this muscle in subjects with FHP. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic variation of the human urinary tract innate immune response and asymptomatic bacteriuria in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Hawn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies suggest that genetic factors are associated with human UTI susceptibility, the role of DNA variation in regulating early in vivo urine inflammatory responses has not been fully examined. We examined whether candidate gene polymorphisms were associated with altered urine inflammatory profiles in asymptomatic women with or without bacteriuria.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in 1,261 asymptomatic women ages 18-49 years originally enrolled as participants in a population-based case-control study of recurrent UTI and pyelonephritis. We genotyped polymorphisms in CXCR1, CXCR2, TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TIRAP in women with and without ASB. We collected urine samples and measured levels of uropathogenic bacteria, neutrophils, and chemokines.Polymorphism TLR2_G2258A, a variant associated with decreased lipopeptide-induced signaling, was associated with increased ASB risk (odds ratio 3.44, 95%CI; 1.65-7.17. Three CXCR1 polymorphisms were associated with ASB caused by gram-positive organisms. ASB was associated with urinary CXCL-8 levels, but not CXCL-5, CXCL-6, or sICAM-1 (P< or =0.0001. Urinary levels of CXCL-8 and CXCL-6, but not ICAM-1, were associated with higher neutrophil levels (P< or =0.0001. In addition, polymorphism CXCR1_G827C was associated with increased CXCL-8 levels in women with ASB (P = 0.004.TLR2 and CXCR1 polymorphisms were associated with ASB and a CXCR1 variant was associated with urine CXCL-8 levels. These results suggest that genetic factors are associated with early in vivo human bladder immune responses prior to the development of symptomatic UTIs.

  13. Arthrography of the wrist. Assessment of the integrity of the ligaments in young asymptomatic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, D; Sieler, S; Solonick, D; Loeb, D M; Cody, R P

    1995-08-01

    Fifty-two asymptomatic adults who were between twenty and thirty-five years old had arthrography of the wrist with use of a single injection into the radiocarpal joint. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the integrity of the triangular fibrocartilage, the scapholunate ligament, and the lunotriquetral ligament. Contrast medium was injected under fluoroscopic guidance, and posteroanterior and lateral radiographs of the wrist were made after the subjects had performed exercises of the wrist. No patient who had a history of trauma to the wrist, pain in the wrist, or inflammatory arthritis was included in the study. All of the subjects had an examination of both upper extremities that included measurement of the active motion of the wrist with a goniometer, strength-testing with a Jamar dynamometer, ballottement and testing for impingement, and palpation for tenderness. Plain radiographs were evaluated, and the ulnar variance was recorded. The arthrograms revealed an abnormal communication of the contrast medium in fourteen wrists (27 per cent), and four of the fourteen had multiple areas of communication. The abnormal communication was through the triangular fibrocartilage alone in six wrists, the scapholunate ligament alone in two wrists, the lunotriquetral ligament alone in two wrists, and in more than one of these areas in four wrists. A positive arthrogram was associated with a greater positive ulnar variance. All of the subjects had symmetrical motion of the wrists and grip strength, and none of them had tenderness in the wrist. There were no complications related to the arthrography. Perforation of a ligament in the wrist is common in young asymptomatic adults.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Mammographic density in asymptomatic menopausal women: correlation with clinical and sonographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Regina Alvares

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mammographic breast density in asymptomatic menopausal women in correlation with clinical and sonographic findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mammograms and clinical and sonographic findings of 238 asymptomatic patients were retrospectively reviewed in the period from February/2022 to June/2006. The following variables were analyzed: mammographic density patterns, sonographic findings, patients' age, parity, body mass index and use of hormone replacement therapy. RESULTS: Age, parity and body mass index showed a negative correlation with breast density pattern, while use of hormone replacement therapy showed a positive correlation. Supplementary breast ultrasonography was performed in 103 (43.2% patients. Alterations which could not be visualized at mammography were found in 34 (33% of them, most frequently in women with breast density patterns 3 and 4. CONCLUSION: The authors concluded that breast density patterns were influenced by age, parity, body mass index and time of hormone replacement therapy. Despite not having found any malignant abnormality in the studied cases, the authors have observed a predominance of benign sonographic abnormalities in women with high breast density patterns and without mammographic abnormalities, proving the relevance of supplementary ultrasonography to identify breast lesions in such patients.

  15. Altered Multifidus Recruitment During Walking in Young Asymptomatic Individuals With a History of Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jo Armour; Kulig, Kornelia

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, with a case-control, cross-sectional design. Background Individuals with low back pain have impaired activation of the multifidus during postural adjustments and increased activity of the erector spinae musculature during walking. However, it is unclear whether these alterations in muscle activity are evident during locomotion in individuals with a history of low back pain when they are between symptomatic episodes. Objectives To compare paraspinal muscle activity in young, healthy individuals and young individuals with a history of low back pain during walking turns. Methods Fourteen asymptomatic individuals with a history of low back pain and 14 controls performed 90° walking turns at both a self-selected speed and a fast speed. The duration and amplitude of activity in the deep fibers of the multifidus and the lumbar and thoracic longissimus were quantified using intramuscular electromyography. Results There was a significant speed-by-group interaction for the duration of multifidus activity (P = .013). Duration of activity increased from the self-selected speed to the fast locomotor speed in the controls, but decreased in the individuals with a history of low back pain (P = .003). Self-selected speed was the same in both groups (P = .719). There was a trend toward a significant association between group and the direction of change in the duration of deep multifidus activity (χ(2) = 0.058). Duration of thoracic longissimus activity and amplitude of multifidus and thoracic longissimus activity increased similarly in both groups from the self-selected to the faster speed. Conclusion Even between symptomatic episodes, young individuals with a history of low back pain demonstrated altered recruitment of the deep fibers of the lumbar multifidus in response to changing locomotor speed during walking turns. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):365-374. Epub 21 Mar 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6230.

  16. Profile and microbiological isolates of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onu FA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fidelis Agwu Onu,1 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu,1 Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora,1 Perpetus Chudi Ibekwe,1 Monique Iheoma Ajah2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, 2Department of Microbiology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria Background: Detecting and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB prevents urinary tract infection and its consequences. The cost-effectiveness of routine screening for ASB in pregnancy is controversial. In populations with high prevalence, however, it is worthwhile and justifiable. Aim: To determine the profile, prevalence, microbiological isolates, and risk factors of ASB among booking antenatal clinic attendees in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving booking antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, who met the inclusion criteria. This study occurred between January and December, 2012. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. Results: A total of 300 randomly selected booking antenatal clinic attendees participated in the study; 74 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 24.7%. With the exception of rural residence, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not influence the risk of ASB among the participants in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to ofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women in Abakaliki. With the exception of rural dwelling, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not significantly influence the risk of ASB among these pregnant women. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended in our environment. Keywords: asymptomatic bacteriuria, pregnant women, Abakaliki

  17. Seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic, apparently healthy, pregnant women in Dakahlya Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Yahia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a major public health problem in the developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and fatal in the third trimester. The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 asymptomatic pregnant women divided into 2 groups: Group 1 included 56 pregnant women with HCV positive serology and group 2 included 60 pregnant women with negative HCV serology were included in this study. Prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and anti-HCV were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. Results: The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was highly significant among pregnant women with chronic HCV infection 40/56 (71.42% than pregnant women free from chronic HCV infection 28/60 (46.7% (P = 0.006. Chronic HCV infection in pregnant women appeared to be a risk factor associated with HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 2.86, CI = 1.24-6.6. The seropositivity of anti-HEV IgG was significantly high in rural areas than urban areas (62.5% vs. 37.5% in group 1 and (78.58% vs. 21.42% in group 2 (P = 0.15 and OR = 2.2, CI = 0.65-7.7. A decrease in albumin level (P = 0.047 and an increase in bilirubin (P = 0.025, ALT (P = 0.032, and AST (P = 0.044 in pregnant women with positive HCV and IgG anti-HEV than the second group with negative HCV serology. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in pregnant women is high in Egypt especially in rural areas. With chronic HCV coinfection, a marked increase in anti-HEV IgG seropositivity and significant worsening of the biochemical liver indices were noted. Increased public awareness about the sound hygienic measures for a less prevalence of HEV is strongly advised. The need for HEV vaccination for those at risk, especially pregnant ladies, should be considered.

  18. Middle-aged to elderly women have a higher asymptomatic infection rate with Mycobacterium avium complex, regardless of body habitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomoyasu; Fujita-Suzuki, Yukiko; Mori, Masaaki; Carpenter, Stephen M; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Uwamino, Yoshifumi; Tamizu, Eiko; Yano, Ikuya; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is prevalent in middle-aged to elderly women with a thin body habitus. By comparing the rate of serologically diagnosed asymptomatic MAC infection and body mass index among 1033 healthy subjects, we find that middle-aged to elderly women became infected with MAC, regardless of their body habitus. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  19. Capacity of endometrial thickness measurement to diagnose endometrial carcinoma in asymptomatic postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breijer, M. C.; Peeters, J. A. H.; Opmeer, B. C.; Clark, T. J.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; Timmermans, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Measurement of endometrial thickness is an important tool in the assessment of women with postmenopausal bleeding, but the role of endometrial thickness measurement by ultrasound in asymptomatic women is unclear. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) the normal endometrial

  20. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Hawassa Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Merid, Yared; Kibret, Belayhun; Shimelis, Techalew

    2014-03-17

    Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy may cause serious complications including pyelonephritis and delivery of premature or low-birth-weight infants. However, little is known about asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, bacterial agents, and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of the Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 244 pregnant women with no sign and symptom of urinary tract infection from March 2012 to September 2012. Clean catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from all study participants using sterile containers. Urine samples were cultured using standard bacteriological methods. Identification of suspected colonies and antibiotic sensitivity testing were done. Out of 244 pregnant women, 46(18.8%) were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria (Colony Forming Unit ≥ 105/mL). There was no difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (p = 0.07) and trimester (p = 0.27).The most frequently isolated bacteria were coagulase negative Staphylococcus (32.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (26.1%), and Staphylococcus auerus (13%). The susceptibility rate of bacterial isolate was highest for norfloxacin (64.7%) and lowest for ampicillin (17.6%). The high prevalence of ASB in pregnant women warrant the need to screen all pregnant women and treat those infected with appropriate antimicrobial regimens in order to reduce its complications.

  1. The Clinical and Nonclinical Values of Nonexercise Estimation of Cardiovascular Endurance in Young Asymptomatic Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Alomari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise testing is associated with barriers prevent using cardiovascular (CV endurance (CVE measure frequently. A recent nonexercise model (NM is alleged to estimate CVE without exercise. This study examined CVE relationships, using the NM model, with measures of obesity, physical fitness (PF, blood glucose and lipid, and circulation in 188 asymptomatic young (18–40 years adults. Estimated CVE correlated favorably with measures of PF (r=0.4-0.5 including handgrip strength, distance in 6 munities walking test, and shoulder press, and leg extension strengths, obesity (r=0.2-0.7 including % body fat, body water content, fat mass, muscle mass, BMI, waist and hip circumferences and waist/hip ratio, and circulation (r=0.2-0.3 including blood pressures, blood flow, vascular resistance, and blood (r=0.2-0.5 profile including glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides. Additionally, differences (P<0.05 in examined measures were found between the high, average, and low estimated CVE groups. Obviously the majority of these measures are CV disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome components. These results enhance the NM scientific value, and thus, can be further used in clinical and nonclinical settings.

  2. Breast ultrasound in 22,131 asymptomatic women with negative mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Veronica; Tonegutti, Mara; Ciatto, Stefano; Bonetti, Franco

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate increment cancer detection rate generated by ultrasound (US). US only detected cancers were assessed for 22,131 self-referring asymptomatic women with negative mammography and subgroups by age, previous cancer, breast density. Invasive assessment and surgical biopsy rate were evaluated. The overall US detection was 1.85 per thousand (41/22,131). In the subgroups it was: 1.95 per thousand (22/11,274) in women breasts (p = 0.17) vs 1.56 per thousand (19/12,171) in fatty breasts. The US generated invasive assessment was 1.9% (422/22,131). The benign to malignant open surgical biopsy ratio was 0.17 (7/41). Adding US to negative mammography allowed for substantial incremental cancer detection rate (1.85 per thousand), particularly at age breast cancer and in dense breasts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women Language: English Español (Spanish) ... media/releases/2016/p1020-hpv-shots.html A vaccines is available to prevent the human papillomavirus (HPV) ...

  4. Elastography in predicting preterm delivery in asymptomatic, low-risk women: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Slawomir; Czuczwar, Piotr; Szkodziak, Piotr; Milart, Pawel; Wozniakowska, Ewa; Paszkowski, Tomasz

    2014-07-21

    Despite the efforts to decrease the rate of preterm birth, preterm delivery is still the main cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Identifying patients threatened with preterm delivery remains one of the main obstetric challenges. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential value of elastographic evaluation of internal cervical os stiffness at 18-22 weeks of pregnancy in low risk, asymptomatic women in the prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery. This prospective observational study included 333 low-risk, asymptomatic women presenting for the routine second trimester ultrasound scan according to the Polish Gynecological Society recommendation between 18-22 weeks of pregnancy. Ultrasound examinations of the cervix were performed transvaginally. The following data were recorded: elastographic color assessment of the internal os and ultrasound cervical length at 18-22 and 30 weeks of pregnancy; maternal age; obstetrical history; presence of cervical funneling at 30 weeks of pregnancy; gestational age at birth. Elastographic assessment of the internal os was performed using a color map: red (soft), yellow (medium soft), blue (medium hard) and purple (hard). If two colors were visible in the region of the internal os, the softer option was noted. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica software (version 10, Statsoft Poland) using the following tests: chi square test to compare frequency of preterm deliveries in various categories of internal os assessment and Spearman correlation test to determine the correlation between elastographic assessment and cervical shortening. To determine the cut off category of internal os elastography assessment in selecting high preterm delivery risk patients we have calculated the sensivity, specifity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value. The number of preterm deliveries (red and yellow groups, than in the blue and purple groups. The sensivity, specifity, NPV and PPV for both red and yellow

  5. Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberlin, David W.; Baley, Jill; Brady, Michael T.; Byington, Carrie L.; Davies, H. Dele; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Glode, Mary P.; Jackson, Mary Anne; Keyserling, Harry L.; Maldonado, Yvonne A.; Murray, Dennis L.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Schutze, Gordon E.; Willoughby, Rodney E.; Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Papile, Lu-Ann; Bhutani, Vinod K.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Cummings, James; Kumar, Praveen; Polin, Richard A.; Tan, Rosemarie C.; Wang, Kasper S.; Watterberg, Kristi L.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother’s previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

  6. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberlin, David W; Baley, Jill

    2013-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother's previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery.

  7. Profile and microbiological isolates of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Abakaliki, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, Fidelis Agwu; Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka; Umeora, Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes; Ibekwe, Perpetus Chudi; Ajah, Monique Iheoma

    2015-01-01

    Detecting and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) prevents urinary tract infection and its consequences. The cost-effectiveness of routine screening for ASB in pregnancy is controversial. In populations with high prevalence, however, it is worthwhile and justifiable. To determine the profile, prevalence, microbiological isolates, and risk factors of ASB among booking antenatal clinic attendees in Abakaliki, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving booking antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, who met the inclusion criteria. This study occurred between January and December, 2012. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. A total of 300 randomly selected booking antenatal clinic attendees participated in the study; 74 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 24.7%. With the exception of rural residence, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not influence the risk of ASB among the participants in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to ofloxacin and ceftriaxone. There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women in Abakaliki. With the exception of rural dwelling, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not significantly influence the risk of ASB among these pregnant women. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended in our environment.

  8. Schistosoma haematobium infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in young South African females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Anna M. O.; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift

    2015-01-01

    infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria can both portray haematuria, proteinuria and leukocyturia. This shared set of proxy diagnostic markers could fuel routine misdiagnosis in S. haematobium endemic areas. Furthermore, S. haematobium infected individuals might be at a higher risk of contracting bacterial...... by microscopy of urine samples. Furthermore, urine samples were tested with dipslides for asymptomatic bacteriuria and with dipsticks for haematuria, proteinuria and leukocytes. We found no association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and S. haematobium infection in a sample of 1040 female primary and high...

  9. Individualized Follow-up of Pregnant Women with Asymptomatic Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Stoian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal hormones are essential for the normal fetal development during pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid disease is a frequent pathology in our iodine replete region. The aim of this study is to evaluate the occurrence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH in cases with known autoimmune thyroid disease, which were in a euthyroid state prior to pregnancy, and to assess the association between supplemental treatments administered and the outcome of the pregnancy. The study is a prospective interventional controlled study. The two cohorts comprise the interventional group, consisting of 109 pregnant women with known autoimmune asymptomatic thyroid disease, without any levothyroxine (LT4 treatment and an aged-matched control group, with an unknown thyroid disease. After the pregnancy, a monthly evaluation of TSH, FT3, and FT4 was performed. Offspring evaluation was made at birth time. 88.8% of the women developed SCH in the first four weeks of pregnancy. Average LT4 doses increased as the pregnancy progressed. The monthly adjustment was 12.5 or 25 μg. All SCH cases developed in the first trimester of pregnancy. There was no significant difference regarding the gestational week, weight, or length at birth between the interventional group and controls, when TSH values were in the optimal range, during the whole pregnancy. Premature birth was described in one case in the interventional group.

  10. [Diagnosis of a systolic murmur among young asymptomatic patient: An assessment of professional practices for the expertise in military medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeuf, M-C; Rohel, G; Lamour, G; Piquemal, M; Paleiron, N; Fouilland, X; Le Nestour, C; Vinsonneau, U; Paez, S; Paule, P

    2015-11-01

    The finding of a systolic heart murmur is common in medical military practice. Albeit often benign among young healthy adults, it can reveal a valvular or a cardiac disease, which could worsen during workout or expose to risk of a sudden death. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the military general practitioner when discovering a systolic murmur among young asymptomatic patients. During one year, this study involved all the general practitioners of the medical military centres of Brittany and the cardiologists of the military hospital in Brest. It prospectively enrolled a cohort of all military asymptomatic patients under 40, without any underlying known heart condition. Military general practitioners listed, thanks to an anonymous form, the main features of the systolic murmur and of the ECG and proposed an auscultatory diagnosis: innocent or organic murmur. Then cardiologists did the same and finally performed a transthoracic echocardiography giving the diagnosis. Fifty-eight patients were referred, 5 not meeting the inclusion criteria. Of the 53 patients included, military general practitioners found 46 innocent murmurs and 7 organic ones. Cardiologists found 51 innocent murmurs and 2 organic. Transthoracic echocardiography just took on one organic murmur (linked with a bicuspid aortic valve), spotted by the specialist, though judged innocent by the general practitioner. Most of innocent murmurs diagnosed by general practitioners (45/46) were confirmed. Regarding the seven organic murmurs, the main selected criteria (intensity over 3, orthostatic persistence, diffuse irradiation) are mostly in accordance with the literature, proving right medical instincts. Authors propose a practical management of systolic murmurs among asymptomatic young patients. Military general practitioners seem to master symptoms of organic murmur. This assessment argues for a promotion of a holistic clinical examination, which will help not only to rationalize the

  11. Accuracy of tests used to detect infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahi, Siew-Veena; Rogozińska, Ewelina; Sobhy, Soha; Khan, Khalid S

    2017-12-01

    Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy is linked to increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and preterm birth. Currently, PCR or DNA-based tests are the gold standard when detecting the infection; however, they are costly and require access to specialist equipment. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the accuracy of available tests to detect infection in an asymptomatic pregnant population. There was evidence of the superior accuracy of nucleic acid amplification tests to cell culture in nonpregnant asymptomatic women; however, there are multiple commercial nucleic acid amplification tests with varying sensitivities and specificities. There is a gap in current literature on accuracy studies in an asymptomatic pregnant population, particularly within routine antenatal settings. There is a need for a point-of-care test for Chlamydia in pregnancy. Future test accuracy studies for this population should aim to use a universally established reference standard. Further research should provide relevant evidence to guide practice.

  12. Establishing a Timeline to Discontinue Routine Testing of Asymptomatic Pregnant Women for Zika Virus Infection - American Samoa, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, W Thane; Soeters, Heidi M; Hills, Susan L; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Evans, Mary E; Daley, W Randolph; Piercefield, Emily; Anesi, Magele Scott; Mataia, Mary Aseta; Uso, Anaise M; Sili, Benjamin; Tufa, Aifili John; Solaita, Jacqueline; Irvin-Barnwell, Elizabeth; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Wilken, Jason; Weidle, Paul; Toews, Karrie-Ann E; Walker, William; Talboy, Phillip M; Gallo, William K; Krishna, Nevin; Laws, Rebecca L; Reynolds, Megan R; Koneru, Alaya; Gould, Carolyn V

    2017-03-24

    The first patients with laboratory-confirmed cases of Zika virus disease in American Samoa had symptom onset in January 2016 (1). In response, the American Samoa Department of Health (ASDoH) implemented mosquito control measures (1), strategies to protect pregnant women (1), syndromic surveillance based on electronic health record (EHR) reports (1), Zika virus testing of persons with one or more signs or symptoms of Zika virus disease (fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) (1-3), and routine testing of all asymptomatic pregnant women in accordance with CDC guidance (2,3) . All collected blood and urine specimens were shipped to the Hawaii Department of Health Laboratory for Zika virus testing and to CDC for confirmatory testing. Early in the response, collection and testing of specimens from pregnant women was prioritized over the collection from symptomatic nonpregnant patients because of limited testing and shipping capacity. The weekly numbers of suspected Zika virus disease cases declined from an average of six per week in January-February 2016 to one per week in May 2016. By August, the EHR-based syndromic surveillance (1) indicated a return to pre-outbreak levels. The last Zika virus disease case detected by real-time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) occurred in a patient who had symptom onset on June 19, 2016. In August 2016, ASDoH requested CDC support in assessing whether local transmission had been reduced or interrupted and in proposing a timeline for discontinuation of routine testing of asymptomatic pregnant women. An end date (October 15, 2016) was determined for active mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus and a timeline was developed for discontinuation of routine screening of asymptomatic pregnant women in American Samoa (conception after December 10, 2016, with permissive testing for asymptomatic women who conceive through April 15, 2017).

  13. [Ischemic stroke in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekker, M.S.; Wermer, M.J.; Riksen, N.P.; Klijn, C.J.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2016-01-01

    - In virtually all age groups, the incidence of ischemic stroke is higher in men. However, in women aged between 25-49 years the prevalence is higher than in men. Female-specific risk factors and disorders may explain this peak.- Pregnancy and the post-partum period are associated with physiological

  14. Correlation between lumbar lordosis angle and degree of gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite) in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Giovana Barbosa; Natal Filho, A'Dayr; Amado João, Sílvia Maria

    2008-08-01

    Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite) has been cited as a common dermatological alteration. It occurs mainly in adult women and tends to gather around the thighs and buttocks. Its presence and severity have been related to many factors, including biotype, age, sex, circulatory changes, and, as some authors have suggested, mechanical alterations such as lumbar hyperlordosis. To correlate the degree of cellulite with the angle of lumbar lordosis in asymptomatic women. Fifty volunteers were evaluated by digital photos, palpation, and thermograph. The degree of cellulite was classified on a scale of 1-4. Analyses were performed on the superior, inferior, right and left buttocks (SRB, IRB, SLB, ILB), and the superior right and left thighs (SRT, SLT). The volunteers underwent a lateral-view X-ray, and the angle of lumbar lordosis was measured using Cobb's method (inferior endplate of T12 and the superior endplate of S). The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Spearman's correlation. A significance level of 5% was adopted. Volunteers had a mean age of 26.1+/-4.4 years and a mean body mass index of 20.7+/-1.9 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in lumbar lordosis angle between those with cellulite classes 2 and 3 (p>or=0.297). There was also no correlation between lumbar lordosis angle and the degree of cellulite (p>or=0.085 and r>or=0.246). The analysis suggests that there is no correlation between the degree of cellulite and the angle of lumbar lordosis as measured using Cobb's method.

  15. Correlation between lumbar lordosis angle and degree of gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite in asymptomatic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Barbosa Milani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite has been cited as a common dermatological alteration. It occurs mainly in adult women and tends to gather around the thighs and buttocks. Its presence and severity have been related to many factors, including biotype, age, sex, circulatory changes, and, as some authors have suggested, mechanical alterations such as lumbar hyperlordosis. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the degree of cellulite with the angle of lumbar lordosis in asymptomatic women. METHODS: Fifty volunteers were evaluated by digital photos, palpation, and thermograph. The degree of cellulite was classified on a scale of 1-4. Analyses were performed on the superior, inferior, right and left buttocks (SRB, IRB, SLB, ILB, and the superior right and left thighs (SRT, SLT. The volunteers underwent a lateral-view X-ray, and the angle of lumbar lordosis was measured using Cobb's method (inferior endplate of T12 and the superior endplate of S. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Spearman's correlation. A significance level of 5% was adopted. RESULTS: Volunteers had a mean age of 26.1 ± 4.4 years and a mean body mass index of 20.7 ± 1.9 kg/m². There was no significant difference in lumbar lordosis angle between those with cellulite classes 2 and 3 (p > 0.297. There was also no correlation between lumbar lordosis angle and the degree of cellulite (p > 0.085 and r > 0.246. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis suggests that there is no correlation between the degree of cellulite and the angle of lumbar lordosis as measured using Cobb's method.

  16. Coronary Artery Disease in Asymptomatic Young Adults: Its Prevalence According to Coronary Artery Disease Risk Stratification and the CT Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Eun Ju; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Cheung, Joo Yeon; Shim, Sung Shine [Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    We aimed at evaluating the prevalence and CT characteristics of occult coronary artery disease (CAD) in young Korean adults under 40 years of age by performing coronary CT angiography (CCTA). We retrospectively enrolled 112 consecutive asymptomatic subjects (90 men, mean age: 35.6 {+-} 3.7 years) who underwent CCTA as part of a general health evaluation. We classified the subjects into three National Cholesterol Education Program risk categories and we assessed the plaque characteristics on CCTA according to the number of involved vessels, the location and type of plaques and vascular remodeling. Twelve individuals had CAD (11%, 11 men). The prevalence of CAD was significantly higher in the subgroups with moderate (22%) or high (25%) risk than that in the low risk subgroup (5%) (p < 0.05). Nine patients had single-vessel disease and three patients had two-vessel disease. The most common location for plaque was the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (60%). All the patients had non-significant stenosis and plaque, including the non-calcified (27%), mixed (47%) and calcified (27%) types. Positive vascular remodeling was identified in all the patients with non-calcified or mixed plaques. The prevalence of occult CAD was not negligible in the asymptomatic young adults with moderate to high risk, and this suggests the importance of management and risk factor modification in this population. All the patients had non-significant stenosis, and one fourth of the plaques did not show calcification

  17. [Fecal carriage of third-generation cephalosporins-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in asymptomatic young adults: evolution between 1999 and 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, F; Mérens, A; Delaune, D; Soler, C; Cavallo, J-D

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the fecal carriage of third generation cephalosporins resistant Enterobacteriaceae in nonhospitalized asymptomatic young adults. A total of 517 normal fecal samples were spread onto plates agar containing cefotaxime. Isolated strains were identified and studied with agar disk diffusion antibiogram, minimal inhibition concentration in liquid medium and phenotypic and molecular study. Data were compared with a previous study realised in the same conditions in 1999. In 2009, the prevalence of cefotaxime resistant enterobacteria was 4.2%. Of these 22 Enterobacteriaceae, 11 harboured overexpressed cephalosporinase and 11 produced extended-spectrum-betalactamase (ESBL). Among ESBL, six E. coli produced CTX-M from group 1 (n=6), group 2 (n=1), group 9 (n=2), one E. coli produced SHV-12 and one Klebsiella pneumoniae produced CTX-M from group 1. All ESBL were multiresistant. In 1999, all the CTX resistant isolates recovered produced a cephalosporinase and no ESBL was found. This study highlights the increasing prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL-producing enterobacteria in asymptomatic young patients in the community (0% in 1999 versus 2.1% in 2009; P<0.001). E. Coli with CTX-M from group 1 was the most frequent ESBL identified, while fecal carriage of Enterobacteteriaceae overproducing cephalosporinase was similar (2.1%). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Gait patterns of young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H; Sako, H; Mukae, H; Sato, A; Takahashi, T

    1991-06-01

    Gait patterns of 440 young Japanese women walking along a sidewalk were observed in September. Walking speed, step length and cadence were significantly greater in single walking than in group walking. Time of day, walking direction and clothes did not influence the walking patterns. Step length in heeled shoes was shorter than that in sneakers and flat shoes.

  19. Thermal maps of young women and men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to use thermal imaging (ThermaCAM SC500) as an effective tool in establishing a thermal map of young participants, with a high diagnostic value for medicine, physiotherapy and sport. A further aim was to establish temperature distributions and ranges on the body surface of the young women and men as standard temperatures for the examined age group, taking into account BMI, body surface area and selected parameters of body fat distribution. The participants included young, healthy and physically active women (n = 100) and men (n = 100). In the women and men, the highest Tmean temperatures were found on the trunk. The warmest were the chest and upper back, then the lower back and abdomen. The lowest Tmean were found in the distal parts of the body, especially on the lower limbs. The results showed that only in the area of the chest was Tmean significantly higher in women than in men. In the areas of the hands (front and back) Tmean were similar for women and men. In the other analyzed body surface areas, Tmean were significantly lower in women. Research showed significant differences in body surface temperature between the women and men. Among the analyzed characteristics, Tmean in the chest, upper back, abdomen, lower back (both in women and men) were mainly correlated with BMI and PBF; the correlations were negative. Difficulties in interpreting changes in temperature in selected body areas in people with various conditions can be associated with the lack of studies on large and representative populations of healthy individuals with normal weight/height parameters. Therefore, it seems that this presented research is a significant practical and cognitive contribution to knowledge on thermoregulation, and may therefore be used as a reference for other studies using thermal imaging in the evaluation of changes in body surface temperatures.

  20. Pelvic floor muscle tenderness in asymptomatic, nulliparous women: topographical distribution and reliability of a visual analogue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, Tilemachos; Pelikan, Stefanie; Roth, Petra; Baessler, Kaven; Schuessler, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate pelvic floor muscle pain scores in a group of healthy, asymptomatic, nulliparous women using a simple visual analogue scale, and to examine the inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the digital palpation of the pelvic floor muscle. Seventeen female volunteers were recruited. Different sites of their pelvic floor muscle were examined digitally according to the suggestions of the International Continence Society from two investigators blinded to the clinical data in two consecutive visits and pain scores were obtained. Level of agreement between investigators, inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were assessed. Overall pain scores were low. There were statistically significant differences between scores at different pelvic sites, with the levator ani showing the lowest scores. Reliability was heterogeneous among pelvic sites, varying from poor to excellent. Pain upon palpation of the pelvic floor muscle in asymptomatic, nulliparous women should be considered an uncommon finding.

  1. Women Young Scientists of INSA | Women in Science | Initiatives ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Women Young Scientists of INSA. INSA - Indian National Science Academy. Dr Rehna Augustine. National Institute of Plant Genome Research, New Delhi Year of Award: 2015. Dr Tanvi Jain. Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi Year of Award: 2015. Dr Sameena Khan. Translational Health Science and Technology ...

  2. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with autoimmune rheumatic disease: prevalence, risk factors, and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, Sarah P; Gamaletsou, Maria N; Mpanaka, Ioanna; Vlachou, Aggeliki; Goules, Andreas V; Ziogas, Dimitrios C; Syriou, Vassiliki; Tektonidou, Maria G; Kaltsas, Gregory; Manoussakis, Menelaos N; Sipsas, Nikolaos V

    2015-03-15

    Data regarding the prevalence and clinical significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) in women with autoimmune rheumatic disease (ARD) are scarce. In this prospective, case-control study, consecutive female outpatients with ARD were screened for AB. For each patient, demographics, type, duration, and treatment of underlying ARD, and risk factors for urinary tract infection (UTI), were recorded. Age-matched women with endocrine disease, without any autoimmune disease, not receiving immunosuppressive agents were used as controls. Subjects were followed up for 1 year for the development of symptomatic UTI. Two hundred sixty patients with ARD (mean age, 52.4 [standard deviation {SD}, 14.6] years) and 238 controls (mean age, 51.2 [SD, 16.5] years) were enrolled. The majority of patients with ARD (93.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 89.7%-95.9%) were receiving immunosuppressive agents. AB was detected in 24 patients with ARD (9.2%; 95% CI, 6.2%-13.4%) and in 22 controls (9.2%; 95% CI, 5.5%-12.9%) (P = 1.000). The most prevalent pathogen was Escherichia coli (16/24 [66%]). Independent predictors for AB among patients were diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 6.6; P = .008) and a longer ARD duration (>84 months; OR, 4.3; P = .018). During the 1-year follow-up, 9 patients with baseline AB remained persistently bacteriuric, whereas 11 were intermittently bacteriuric. Symptomatic UTI developed in 4 of 24 patients (16.7%; 95% CI, 6.1%-36.5%) with baseline AB vs 29 of 236 (12.3%; 95% CI, 8.6%-17.1%) without AB (P = .522). In our study, the prevalence of AB among women with ARD was not higher than that of controls, and AB was not associated with higher risk for symptomatic UTI. Risk factors for AB were longer duration of ARD and diabetes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Asymptomatic Primary Infection with Epstein-Barr Virus: Observations on Young Adult Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel J; Pachnio, Annette; Pedroza-Pacheco, Isabela; Leese, Alison M; Begum, Jusnara; Long, Heather M; Croom-Carter, Debbie; Stacey, Andrea; Moss, Paul A H; Hislop, Andrew D; Borrow, Persephone; Rickinson, Alan B; Bell, Andrew I

    2017-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is typically acquired asymptomatically in childhood. In contrast, infection later in life often leads to infectious mononucleosis (IM), a febrile illness characterized by anti-EBV IgM antibody positivity, high loads of circulating latently infected B cells, and a marked lymphocytosis caused by hyperexpansion of EBV-specific CD8 + T cells plus a milder expansion of CD56 dim NKG2A + KIR - natural killer (NK) cells. How the two situations compare is unclear due to the paucity of studies on clinically silent infection. Here we describe five prospectively studied patients with asymptomatic infections identified in a seroepidemiologic survey of university entrants. In each case, the key blood sample had high cell-associated viral loads without a marked CD8 lymphocytosis or NK cell disturbance like those seen in patients during the acute phase of IM. Two of the cases with the highest viral loads showed a coincident expansion of activated EBV-specific CD8 + T cells, but overall CD8 + T cell numbers were either unaffected or only mildly increased. Two cases with slightly lower loads, in whom serology suggests the infection may have been caught earlier in the course of infection, also showed no T or NK cell expansion at the time. Interestingly, in another case with a higher viral load, in which T and NK cell responses were undetectable in the primary blood sample in which infection was detected, EBV-specific T cell responses did not appear until several months later, by which time the viral loads in the blood had already fallen. Thus, some patients with asymptomatic primary infections have very high circulating viral loads similar to those in patients during the acute phase of IM and a cell-mediated immune response that is qualitatively similar to that in IM patients but of a lower magnitude. However, other patients may have quite different immune responses that ultimately could reveal novel mechanisms of host control. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus

  4. Correlation between lumbar intervertebral disc height and lumbar spine sagittal alignment among asymptomatic Asian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Kai; Tian, Hai-Jun; Wu, Ai-Min; Cheng, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Tang-Jun; Zhao, Jie

    2018-02-12

    To investigate the distribution and characteristics of the lumbar intervertebral disc height (IDH) in asymptomatic Asian population and to determine whether the lumbar IDH is related to the lumbar spine sagittal alignment. A cohort of 169 cases of asymptomatic volunteers was enrolled from January 2014 to July 2016. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine and panoramic radiography of the spine. Panoramic radiographs of the spine were taken to evaluate pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), and pelvic tilt (PT) using Surgimap® software. Roussouly classification was utilized to categorize all subjects according to the four subtypes of sagittal alignment. The IDH was measured on the MRI mid-saggital section of the vertebral body. The relationships between lumbar IDH and spine-pelvic parameters were also assessed using the Spearman correlation analysis. The reference value ranges of IDH in asymptomatic Asian volunteers between L1/2, L2/3, L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1 were (6.25, 10.99), (6.97, 12.08), (7.42, 13.3), (7.76, 14.57),and (7.11, 13.12) mm, respectively. Based on the above reference value, the high lumbar intervertebral space is defined as more than 14 mm. According to the Roussouly Classification, there are 33 cases in type I, 48 in type II, 66 in type III, and 22 in type IV. According to the definition of the high IDH, there are two cases in type I, three in type II, nine in type III, and eight in type IV. The results indicated that people in the Roussouly III and IV subtypes had greater values for IDH compared to those of Roussouly I and II subtypes, and the spinopelvic parameters were partly correlated with IDH in different subtypes. In addition, levels L4-L5 showed the highest IDH for all four groups followed by the L3-L4 and L5-S1 levels, and the value of L3-L4 is equivalent to that of L5-S1. All type groups showed moderate and positive correlations between the PI and IDH except the level of L1-L2 in type IV. The IDH may

  5. Pelvic floor muscle function in women with provoked vestibulodynia and asymptomatic controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Ingrid; Bø, Kari

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess vaginal resting pressure (VRP), pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and endurance, and surface EMG activity in women with and without provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). This was an assessor-masked comparison study including 70 women. Exclusion criteria were any previous pregnancy and presence of candida. Sensitivity of the vulvar vestibule was rated at three sites with Q-tip pressure measurement and a numerical rating scale for pain. VRP and PFM strength and endurance were measured with a high precision pressure transducer connected to a vaginal balloon. Pelvic floor muscle activity was measured with surface EMG. The independent samples t test was used to analyze differences between groups. The p value was set to VRP: 20.6 cmH2O (SD 7.1) versus controls: 17.3 cmH2O (SD 4.4), p = 0.02. The PVD group had significantly lower muscle activity during a 10-s holding period; PVD: 465.2 μV (SD 218.4), controls: 591.1 μV (SD 277.7), p = 0.04. Young, nulliparous women with PVD had significantly higher VRP, but this finding was not confirmed by vaginal surface EMG.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in asymptomatic family planning patients in rural New Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, T. A.; Ebenezer, M R

    1989-01-01

    We tested 98 asymptomatic women seen in state-funded contraception clinics in rural New Mexico. A fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody stain revealed Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 25% of asymptomatic unmarried women and 3% of married women (P = .03). Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected in only one woman. As in urban clinics providing contraception, the prevalence of gonorrhea is rare in rural New Mexico, but chlamydial infections are common in young unmarried women.

  7. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margraf, Jürgen; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea H.; Becker, Eni S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. Objectives The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young women in the community. Method Data came from the Dresden Predictor Study in which 1,538 German women (18–25 years) completed a diagnostic interview at two time points. Results Women with specific phobia had a twofold increase in odds of developing any anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, and any somatoform disorder during 17 months, compared to women without specific phobia. Except for depression, these associations persisted after adjustment for all comorbid mental disorders. Conclusions Specific phobia thus appears to be a risk factor for a variety of problems. The result further underpins the necessity for early intervention for specific phobia to prevent later mental health problems. PMID:19888542

  8. Comparison of gait of young women and elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, P A; Blanke, D J

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe and compare free-speed gait patterns of healthy young women with healthy elderly women. The evaluation was completed with high-speed cinematography using synchronized front and side views of 26 healthy volunteers. One group was composed of 13 subjects 20 to 35 years of age, and the other group was composed of 13 subjects 60 to 84 years of age. Each subject participated in one test session consisting of three filmed trials of free-speed ambulation down a 14-m walkway. The processed film was analyzed for 10 gait characteristics. Differences in gait characteristics between the two groups were examined using a correlated t test (p less than .01). The elderly women demonstrated significantly smaller values of step length, stride length, ankle range of motion, pelvic obliquity, and velocity when compared with the younger women. The results of our study suggest that the physical therapist should not establish similar expectations for young women and elderly women during gait rehabilitation.

  9. Lymphatic Filariasis Increases Tissue Compressibility and Extracellular Fluid in Lower Limbs of Asymptomatic Young People in Central Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Douglass

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When normal lymphatic function is hampered, imperceptible subcutaneous edema can develop and progress to overt lymphedema. Low-cost reliable devices for objective assessment of lymphedema are well accepted in clinical practice and research on breast-cancer related lymphedema but are untested in populations with lymphatic filariasis (LF. This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data in a longitudinal study on asymptomatic, LF antigen-positive and -negative young people in Myanmar. Rapid field screening was used to identify antigen-positive cases and a group of antigen-negative controls of similar age and gender were invited to continue in the study. Tissue compressibility was assessed with three tissue tonometers, and free fluids were assessed using bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS. Infection status was confirmed by Og4C3 antigen assay. At baseline (n = 98, antigen-positive cases had clinically relevant increases in tissue compressibility at the calf using a digital Indurometer (11.1%, p = 0.021, and in whole-leg free fluid using BIS (9.2%, p = 0.053. Regression analysis for moderating factors (age, gender, hydration reinforced the between-infection group differences. Results demonstrate that sub-clinical changes associated with infection can be detected in asymptomatic cases. Further exploration of these low-cost devices in clinical and research settings on filariasis-related lymphedema are warranted.

  10. Young women's sexual involvement in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paat, Yok-Fong; Margaret Markham, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Using data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life Study, this study examined the association of peer, family, attitudinal, aspirational, and attainment factors relevant to 820 young women's (aged 18-19) number of sexual partners. Overall, this study found that perceived peer norms and early onset of sexual initiation had a positive and statistically significant association with the respondents' number of lifetime sexual partners. While high school performance and college aspirations were inversely associated with the number of lifetime partners, their current level of educational attainment was not. Finally, racial disparities in the accrual of partners were contingent upon the respondents' attitude to premarital abstinence and educationally related factors. Understanding risk and protective factors may help public health policy planners and health care professionals formulate a more effective ecologically based approach to mitigate sexual health risks and social repercussion related to dating for young women.

  11. Using analgesics as tools: young women's treatment for headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dana Lee; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore the context surrounding young women's use of analgesics to deal with headache. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young women between the ages of 16 and 20 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Interviews focused on the young women's experiences with medications withi......'s findings demonstrate a need for health education programs aimed at empowering young women to better manage headaches as well as everyday stress.......In this study, the authors explore the context surrounding young women's use of analgesics to deal with headache. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young women between the ages of 16 and 20 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Interviews focused on the young women's experiences with medications within...

  12. Comparative Study on the Vaginal Flora and Incidence of Asymptomatic Vaginosis among Healthy Women and in Women with Infertility Problems of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Geethavani; Singaravelu, Balamuru Ganvelu; Srikumar, R; Reddy, Sreenivasalu V; Kokan, Afraa

    2017-08-01

    The normal vaginal flora is highly complex, dominated by lactobacilli of doderlein that plays a vital role in maintaining the women's health and inhibits other pathogenic microorganisms. Fluctuation in local environment or exposure to any exogenous and endogenous sources changes the vaginal flora over a period of time. Disruption of the vaginal ecosystem changes the microflora of the healthy vagina, altering the pH and predisposing to lower reproductive tract infections. The change in the microflora of the female genital tract by pathogenic organisms may ascend from vagina to upper genital tract and may cause infertility. Although several studies demonstrate a higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in infertile population. The role of vaginal microbiome in infertility is not clear and need to be explored further. To compare the vaginal flora and analyse the incidence of asymptomatic vaginosis among healthy women and in women with infertility problems. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of six months at Sri Lakshmi Narayana Medical College and Hospital Puducherry, India. A total of 200 high vaginal swabs were collected from Group 1 which included 84 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles without any gynaecological disorder and from Group 2, 116 women with infertility problems attending fertility clinic within the age group of 18 to 45 years. All swabs were subjected to routine aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture. Saline wet mount was performed for the detection of clue cells and Trichomonas vaginalis, 10% KOH was performed for demonstration of budding yeast cells and pseudo hyphae, Gram's staining to determine the presence of yeast cells, leucocytes and bacterial morphotypes. The smear was also graded using Nugent scoring system. The vaginal flora of Group 1 was dominated by Lactobacillus (40, 27.8 %) followed by Micrococcus (22, 15.3 %), Enterococcus (16, 11.1%), Coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (12, 8.3%). Whereas in Group 2, the

  13. Sexual function of young women with myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamé, Xavier; Moscovici, Jacques; Guillotreau, Julien; Roumiguié, Mathieu; Rischmann, Pascal; Malavaud, Bernard

    2014-06-01

    To assess the sexual function of young women with spina bifida and myelomeningocele and to determine the factors influencing their sexual function. A postal cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was performed in 44 women, mean age 27.66 ± 5.89 years, with spina bifida and myelomeningocele. The questionnaire included the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning for Women and questions about voiding mode, urinary symptoms, socioeconomic status, education level, lifestyle, and partnership. In parallel, data were also collected from the paediatric surgery records of patients who returned the questionnaire. The response rate was 56.8% (25/44). All domains of female sexual function (thoughts/desires, arousal, frequency of sexual activity, receptivity/initiation, pleasure/orgasm, relationship satisfaction) were altered. Urinary incontinence was likely to be the main factor responsible for altered sexual function and was associated with lower thoughts/desires, arousal, and receptivity/initiation scores. Wearing pads also constituted a limitation to achieving intimacy. Young myelomeningocele women report poor sexual functioning. The presence of urinary incontinence is associated with lower thoughts/desire, arousal, and receptivity/initiation. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among Young Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, Elsa-Grace V; Paul, Tracy K; Hayes, Dena; Sciacca, Robert R

    2016-11-01

    Although young women are presumed to have low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and mortality, the mortality benefits secondary to ischemic heart disease have plateaued among young women, tobacco use, hyperlipidemia, physical inactivity, and/or obesity. Anthropometrics (height, weight, waist circumference, and body mass index [BMI]); demographics; socioeconomic status, CVD risk factors, body size perception; knowledge and awareness of CV disease; and attitudes toward lifestyle perception were determined. Most were Hispanic (64.0%); non-Hispanic white (20.0%); or non-Hispanic black (8.7%), age = 35.9 ± 8.0 years. BMI was categorized as obese (≥30 kg/m2, 27.0%; 160/592); overweight (25.0-29.1 kg/m2, 29.1%; 172/592); normal weight (18.5-24.9, 41.7%; 247/592); and underweight (≤18.4; 2.2%; 13/592). More than half (57.9%; 337/582) had CVD risks: 45.9% (267/582) had >1 CVD risk factor exclusive of obesity, including physical inactivity (18.4%), hypertension (17.2%), hyperlipidemia (11.3%), current tobacco use (9.8%), and diabetes (5.6%). Regardless of CVD risk burden, most knew blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol. Women with increased CVD risk burden, however, were less likely to correctly identify body size (53.3% vs. 66.1%, p = 0.002). Obese and overweight women with CVD risk factors exclusive of obesity were more likely to cite cost (23.4% vs. 10.7%, p = 0.003) and fatigue (32.2% vs. 18.8%, p = 0.006) as barriers to weight loss. Among these young women, the majority had CVD risks and the CVD risk burden is high among young women, particularly among the overweight and obese and physically inactive. Strategies to encourage healthy lifestyles and reduce CVD risk factors among this vulnerable at-risk population are vital.

  15. Indoor Tanning Dependence in Young Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Atkins, Michael B; Ahn, Jaeil; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2017-11-01

    Background: There is mounting evidence that young people can develop a dependence on indoor tanning, but research on factors associated with indoor tanning dependence remains limited.Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated factors associated with indoor tanning dependence in a community sample of 389 non-Hispanic white young adult women ages 18 to 30 who had indoor tanned ≥1 time in the past year. Participants completed measures of indoor tanning dependence, including the modified CAGE and modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV psychiatric screening assessments, indoor tanning behavior and beliefs, and behavioral and psychiatric comorbidity.Results: Overall, 22.6% of the sample screened positive for indoor tanning dependence. In multivariable analyses, indoor tanning dependence was associated with younger age of indoor tanning initiation [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.79; P = 0.017], indoor tanning ≥20 times in the past year (aOR = 3.03; P = 0.015), stronger beliefs about the benefits of tanning (aOR = 2.15; P = 0.004), greater perceived susceptibility to indoor tanning risks (aOR = 2.72; P < 0.001), stronger beliefs about physical appearance (aOR = 1.73; P = 0.037), and depressive symptoms (aOR = 3.79; P < 0.001).Conclusions: Indoor tanning dependence among young, non-Hispanic white women is associated with behaviors that increase the risk of skin cancer, beliefs favoring the perceived benefits of tanning, and comorbid risks such as stronger beliefs about physical appearance and depressed mood.Impact: Comprehensive skin cancer prevention efforts should address indoor tanning dependence among young women and its leading risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(11); 1636-43. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Prevalence and Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome in Young Asymptomatic Gujarati Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad R. Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors leading to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS and its predictors in young and apparently healthy Gujarati individuals. Methods. This population based cross-sectional study involved a total of 1500 healthy adults of 20–40 years of age. Demographic details and clinical data such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and blood pressure were measured along with the estimations of lipoprotein (a, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, total lipid, LDL/HDL ratio, TC/HDL ratio, and fasting blood glucose (FBS. Results. Overall in young Gujarati population (20–40 years prevalence rates of MS were 16.0% (male: 21.5%; female: 10.8% where the metabolic abnormalities increased with advanced age as 9.56% of the young population (20–30 years had MS, in contrast to the 24.57% in the old (31–40 years. Odds ratio analysis had indicated BMI (1.120; 95% CI: 1.077–1.163; P<0.0001 as the strongest risk factor for MS closely followed by advancing age (1.100; 95% CI: 1.061–1.139; P<0.0001 levels. Conclusion. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in young Gujarati population reinforces the need for early life style intervention and awareness programs in this ethnic group.

  17. Prevalence of coronary artery calcium among asymptomatic men and women in a developing country: comparison with the USA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakik, Habib A; Skouri, Hadi N; Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Sibai, Tarek; Alam, Samir; Sawaya, Jaber; Nasrallah, Antoine; Wehbeh, Chadi; Ayach, Kamal; Abchee, Antoine B

    2005-11-01

    Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) correlates with atherosclerotic burden and predicts cardiac events. Most of the published data have been derived from the USA population. To study the prevalence of coronary calcium in an asymptomatic population from the eastern Mediterranean region and compare it to data obtained from a large population study in the USA. A total of 1154 asymptomatic men and women from Lebanon underwent EBCT screening because of the presence of one or more CAD risk factors. Mean CACS as well as the percentile cut-points increased consistently with increasing age and, except for those above 74 years of age, were higher in men than women in each age stratum. Age, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and smoking showed significant associations with CACS in men, while only age and hypercholesterolemia were significantly associated with CACS in women. Among men, the 75th and 90th percentile distributions were comparable to what is observed in developed countries such as the USA. Findings, from this first study in the region, suggest that despite a higher rate of diabetes and smokers in our study population, the CACS distribution in Lebanon is similar to that observed in the USA.

  18. Romantic Relationships and Body Satisfaction among Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Charlotte N.; Markey, Patrick M.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we examined associations between young women's romantic relationships and their body image. Ninety-five heterosexual couples (women's mean age=22.46 and men's mean age=24.38) participated in this study. We examined young women's satisfaction with their own bodies, their "perceptions" of their significant others' satisfaction…

  19. Postural stability in young and old women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    , National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense   INTRODUCTION: Poor postural balance control (stability) is one of the major risk factors for falling. If individuals at risk of falling are to be identified...... at an early stage, good knowledge and sensitive measurements of postural stability are essential. In addition, in order to develop effective intervention strategies such knowledge is of major importance. However, no single postural stability parameter has effectively been able to identify individuals at risk...... effectively demonstrate differences in postural balance control between physically active old and young women....

  20. Music in young Maltese women's lives

    OpenAIRE

    Chircop, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This study explores how young Maltese women give meaning to the music they listen to and how this music is incorporated in everyday discourses and identities within the differing local contexts of their lives. This area of research has not attracted the attention of researchers and this study starts to fill this gap. The research was carried out in Malta, a post-colonial island with a popu...

  1. Prevalence and Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome in Young Asymptomatic Gujarati Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sharad R; Shah, Komal H; Acharya, Himanshu N; Barot, Kaushik; Sharma, Kamal H

    2015-01-01

    Background. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors leading to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its predictors in young and apparently healthy Gujarati individuals. Methods. This population based cross-sectional study involved a total of 1500 healthy adults of 20-40 years of age. Demographic details and clinical data such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were measured along with the estimations of lipoprotein (a), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), total lipid, LDL/HDL ratio, TC/HDL ratio, and fasting blood glucose (FBS). Results. Overall in young Gujarati population (20-40 years) prevalence rates of MS were 16.0% (male: 21.5%; female: 10.8%) where the metabolic abnormalities increased with advanced age as 9.56% of the young population (20-30 years) had MS, in contrast to the 24.57% in the old (31-40 years). Odds ratio analysis had indicated BMI (1.120; 95% CI: 1.077-1.163; P Gujarati population reinforces the need for early life style intervention and awareness programs in this ethnic group.

  2. Afebrile Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia decreases absorption of fortification iron but does not affect systemic iron utilization: a double stable-isotope study in young Beninese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cercamondi, C.I.; Egli, I.; Ahouandjinou, E.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Zeder, C.; Salami, I.; Tjalsma, H.; Wiegerinck, E.; Tanno, T.; Hurrell, R.F.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) affects many young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Its etiology is multifactorial, but the major cause is low dietary iron bioavailability exacerbated by parasitic infections such as malaria. Objective: We investigated whether asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum

  3. Afebrile Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia decreases absorption of fortification iron but does not affect systemic iron utilization: a double stable-isotope study in young Beninese women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cercamondi, C.I.; Egli, I.M.; Ahouandjinou, E.; Dossa, R.; Zeder, C.; Salami, L.; Tjalsma, H.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Tanno, T.; Hurrell, R.F.; Hounhouigan, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) affects many young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Its etiology is multifactorial, but the major cause is low dietary iron bioavailability exacerbated by parasitic infections such as malaria. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum

  4. Effects of taurine intake on serum lipids in young women

    OpenAIRE

    Sadako Matsui; Chizuko Maruyama; Hiroe Arai; Sachie Hashimoto; Tamami Asakusa; Hiroshi Yoshida; Toshitsugu Ishikawa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taurine is an abundant amino acid in human cells, promoting ocular and biliary health, which is also used to treat congestive heart failure, hypertension, and hepatitis. Recently, taurine-enriched energy drinks have become popular with young adults, but the effects of taurine on serum lipids in young adults are unknown. Objective: We studied the influence of oral administration of taurine on serum lipid levels in healthy young women. Methods: Ten healthy young women with...

  5. 18S ribosomal DNA based PCR diagnostic assay for Trichomonas vaginalis infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic women in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash Dwivedi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the cases of trichomoniasis in symptomatic and asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis infected patients by PCR amplification of hypervariable 18S rRNA gene and to assess the sensitivity of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP technique for their diagnosis. Methods: We enrolled 498 women of child bearing age groups, with their pre-informed consent, attending OPD for their routine checkups and STI related problems. Trichomoniasis was diagnosed on the basis of wet mount preparations and PCR with a primer set targeting a well-conserved region in the 18S rRNA genes of T. vaginalis, respectively. Sequencing was done for differentiating the symptomatic and asymptomatic strains of axenic and clinical isolates. Results: After PCR diagnosis T. vaginalis infection was detected in 17 (3.42% out of 498 clinical isolates. Seventeen axenic and sixteen clinical strains of T. vaginalis tested were successfully detected by PCR yielding a single predicted product of 312 bp in gel electrophoresis followed by restriction digestion with restriction endonuclease HaeIII. After restriction digestion they gave two bands, one of 101 and the other of 211 bp, while there was negative response with DNA from Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Giardia lamblia, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania donovani and Entamoeba histolytica. An optimal analytical sensitivity and specificity of one T. vaginalis organism per PCR was achieved. Sequence of symptomatic and asymptomatic strains of axenic and clinical isolates are somewhat differentiated on the basis of point mutations in their 18S rRNA gene. Conclusions: Only few factors are known to predict symptoms of T. vaginalis infection, although the majority of women are infected with trichomoniasis are reported. Therefore the application of sensitive PCR based diagnosis may be quite useful for routine diagnosis of T. vaginalis strains.

  6. Dynamic measurements of cervical neural foramina during neck movements in asymptomatic young volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Victor; Basheer, Azam; Baumer, Timothy; Oravec, Daniel; McDonald, Colin P; Bey, Michael J; Bartol, Stephen; Yeni, Yener N

    2017-10-01

    Neural foraminal dimensions are considered important in nerve root compression and development of cervical radiculopathy, but baseline data regarding their range during normal motion are not available. An in vivo study of cervical foraminal motion was conducted to characterize normal 3D dynamic foraminal dimensions during physiological neck motion and compare between different tasks and intervertebral segments. Biplane X-ray imaging and computed tomography-based markerless tracking were used to measure foraminal height (FH) and width (FW) from five asymptomatic subjects during neck axial rotation and extension. FH and FW were quantified as the minimum (SI.Min and AP.Min), range (SI.Range and AP.Range), and median (SI.Med and AP.Med) of superoinferior (SI) and anteroposterior (AP) dimensions for each trial and as the coefficient of variation of these variables from three trials (SI.Med.CV and AP.Med.CV, SI.Range.CV and AP.Range.CV) at C3-4 through C6-7 levels for each subject. Differences were analyzed using mixed model ANOVA. AP.Range and AP.Med.CV were greater (P < 0.0001) while AP.Min and AP.Range.CV were smaller (P < 0.0006 and P < 0.0005) during neck extension than rotation. SI.Range and SI.Med.CV were greater for extension than rotation at C5-6 (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03), whereas SI.Med.CV was greater for rotation than extension at C3-4 (P < 0.03). AP.Range (P < 0.02), AP.Med.CV (P < 0.05), SI.Range (P < 0.0004), and SI.Med.CV (P < 0.02) were different between cervical levels, the latter two being during extension only. Patterns of FH and FW during normal motion are different between tasks and cervical levels. These findings are expected to provide a basis for future studies of spinal degeneration and surgical efficacy.

  7. Predictive value of Escherichia coli susceptibility in strains causing asymptomatic bacteriuria for women with recurrent symptomatic urinary tract infections receiving prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerepoot, M. A. J.; den Heijer, C. D. J.; Penders, J.; Prins, J. M.; Stobberingh, E. E.; Geerlings, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    A significant proportion of women develop a recurrence following an initial urinary tract infection (UTI). In women with recurrent UTI, the predictive value of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) for the development of a subsequent UTI has not yet been established and it is not known whether information

  8. Human papillomavirus genotypes in asymptomatic young women from public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Genótipos de papilomavírus humanos em mulheres jovens assintomáticas de escolas públicas do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledy Horto Santos Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this work was to survey HPV information from a random population of young women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included cervical samples from 241 female students. To determine human papillomavirus status, polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed. HPV typing was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Demographic data, life style, sexual and gynecological history were obtained through use of a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The average age of the women was 19.6 years-old (SD=3.4 years. HPV prevalence was 27.4%. Nineteen different HPV genotypes were detected, including 13 high risk types. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type (6.2%, followed by 31 (4.1 % and 66 (3.7%. Most of the oncogenic types belonged to the A9 species (28/48. The frequency of women infected by at least one oncogenic type was significantly higher than those only infected by low risk types (18.7% versus 7.5%. Cervical changes were detected in 12.5% of the sample and were significantly linked to infection with HPV types of the A9 species. Demographic variables, sexual initiation, or number of sexual partners were not associated with HPV prevalence, variety of HPV genotypes or oncogenic types. CONCLUSIONS: The relative frequency of HPV genotypes other than vaccine types in young females should be taken into account when evaluating vaccination strategies. Due to the high prevalence of HPV infection among the population studied, implementation of sex education in schools, promotion of condom use and an organized screening program to prevent cervical cancer must be encouraged for this age group.INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a infecção por HPV em uma população randômica de mulheres jovens no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Este estudo incluiu amostras cervicais de 241 jovens. A detecção de papilomavírus humanos foi realizada pela reação da

  9. [Unpredicted pregnancy among Chilean young women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Irma

    2012-03-01

    Unpredicted pregnancy is an evolution of the concepts undesired and unplanned pregnancy. It is more common among vulnerable strata of our society and related to lack of education. To explore the prevalence and social concomitants of unpredicted pregnancy among young women. Analysis of the databases of the Sixth National Youth Survey carried out by the Instituto Nacional de la Juventud in Chile during 2009. The universe corresponds to 7570 participants aged between 15 and 29 years, of both genders. Unpredicted pregnancy occurred in 43% of sexually active surveyed women. It was more common among women with a lower educational level and those aged 15 to 24 years, especially during the onset of active sexual life. There was also an inverse relationship between the degree of education, the use of contraception and the age when sexual activity starts. Unpredicted pregnancy is frequent among teenagers and more common among less educated individuals. The frequency of use of contraception is associated in greater measure to the degree of education rather than the age of onset of sexual activity.

  10. The prevalence and outcome of asymptomatic chlamydial infection screening among infertile women attending gynecological clinic in ibadan, South west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morhason-Bello, Io; Ojengbede, Oa; Oladokun, A; Adedokun, Bo; Ajayi, A; Adeyanju, Aa; Ogundepo, O; Kareem, Oi

    2014-03-01

    Chlamydial trachomatis infection is the most common cause of tubal infertility among women world-wide. Serological diagnosis of Chlamydial infection that may suggest previous, persistent or on-going infection is now incorporated into routine pre-treatment evaluation of infertile women including assisted conception. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and predictors of asymptomatic Chlamydial infection screening among infertile women and also to compare the screening outcome with findings on hysterosalpingogram (HSG). This was an observational study conducted among 132 infertile women that were attending Adeoyo Maternity Hospital Ibadan. A total volume of 2-3 ml of venous blood was collected for Chlamydia serology using ImmunoComb Bivalent immunoglobulin G kit (Code 50416002) and the results were compared with their HSG. Other information collected was socio-demographics and clinical parameters. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate tests were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15.0 (Chicago, IL USA) and statistical significance was set at (P infertile for 5 years or less. The prevalence of Chlamydial trachomatis was 20.5% (27/132). Bivariate analysis between the biosocial variables and serology result showed a significant association with education (P infertile women and it positively predict HSG blockage. The serological test may prove invaluable in predicting the presence of tubal blockage; therefore, prophylactic antibiotics may be justified to be included in their care.

  11. Ensuring Quality School-to-Work Opportunities for Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Kristin; Milgram, Donna

    This document is composed of a number of publications of Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW) that relate to high quality school-to-work opportunities for young women. Contents include the following: myths and facts about nontraditional work; a list of nontraditional occupations (NTOs) for women; and women and nontraditional work factsheet with…

  12. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of a History of Concussion Observed in Asymptomatic Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Catherine A; Albaugh, Matthew D; Watts, Richard; Garavan, Hugh; Andrews, Trevor; Nickerson, Joshua P; Gonyea, Jay; Hipko, Scott; Zweber, Cole; Logan, Katherine; Hudziak, James J

    2016-05-01

    Participation in contact sports places athletes at elevated risk for repeated head injuries and is associated with negative mental health outcomes later in life. The current study identified changes observable on neuroimaging that persisted beyond the apparent resolution of acute symptoms of concussion. Sixteen young adult ice hockey players with a remote history of concussion but no subjective complaints were compared against 13 of their teammates with no history of concussion. Participants completed a detailed phenotypic assessment and a neuroimaging battery including diffusion kurtosis imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Athletes with a history of concussion performed no differently from those without on phenotypic assessment, but showed significantly elevated fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left genu and anterior corona radiata relative to those without. Post hoc analyses revealed that elevated FA was associated with increased microstructural complexity perpendicular to the primary axon (radial kurtosis). Athletes with concussion history also showed significant differences in the organization of the default mode network (DMN) characterized by stronger temporal coherence in posterior DMN, decreased temporal coherence in anterior DMN, and increased functional connectivity outside the DMN. In the absence of deficits on detailed phenotypic assessment, athletes with a history of concussion displayed changes to the microstructural architecture of the cerebral white matter and to the functional connectivity of the brain at rest. Some of these changes are consistent with those previously associated with persisting deficits and complaints, but we also report novel, complementary changes that possibly represent compensatory mechanisms.

  13. High rates of unintended pregnancies among young women sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to examine the correlates of unintended pregnancies among young women sex workers in conflict-affected northern Uganda. Data were drawn from the Gulu Sexual Health Study, a cross-sectional study of young women engaged in sex work. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to ...

  14. Risk Perception in Young Women's Collective Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Emma; Anderson, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Heavy episodic drinking in young women has caused concern among many groups including public health professionals. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of young women's alcohol consumption so as to facilitate better health education targeting. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative descriptive study examines…

  15. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  16. In situ and invasive carcinoma identified through an opportunistic screening mammography in asymptomatic women of Mexico City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Reynoso-Noverón

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the mammographic findings and carcinoma detection rate in asymptomatic women of Mexico City, that participated in an opportunistic screening program. Materials and methods. 39 491 participants were included, with mammograms performed and interpreted in the National Cancer Institute, from 2008 to 2011. The mammographic findings, type of lesion and true positives (TP, are described by age groups. We calculated the crude effect of age on the classification BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 0 and the type of lesion. Results. The median age was 50 (45-57 years. 80.5% were classified as BIRADS 2, 11.4%(0, 4.1%(1, 3.5%(3, 0.5%(4 y 0.1%(5. Malignant lesions were detected in 1.3 and 3.3 per 1000 and the proportion of true positives (TP was 8.2% and 20.6%, in women of 41-50 and 51-70 years, respectively. Conclusions. Although some cases are detected in women 40 to 50 years, in women over 50 years the screening by mammography is more efficient, with a higher proportion of cases detected and fewer false positives.

  17. Costs and effects of screening and treating low risk women with a singleton pregnancy for asymptomatic bacteriuria, the ASB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemier Brenda M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnancy is 2-10% and is associated with both maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes as pyelonephritis and preterm delivery. Antibiotic treatment is reported to decrease these adverse outcomes although the existing evidence is of poor quality. Methods/Design We plan a combined screen and treat study in women with a singleton pregnancy. We will screen women between 16 and 22 weeks of gestation for ASB using the urine dipslide technique. The dipslide is considered positive when colony concentration ≥105 colony forming units (CFU/mL of a single microorganism or two different colonies but one ≥105 CFU/mL is found, or when Group B Streptococcus bacteriuria is found in any colony concentration. Women with a positive dipslide will be randomly allocated to receive nitrofurantoin or placebo 100 mg twice a day for 5 consecutive days (double blind. Primary outcomes of this trial are maternal pyelonephritis and/or preterm delivery before 34 weeks. Secondary outcomes are neonatal and maternal morbidity, neonatal weight, time to delivery, preterm delivery rate before 32 and 37 weeks, days of admission in neonatal intensive care unit, maternal admission days and costs. Discussion This trial will provide evidence for the benefit and cost-effectiveness of dipslide screening for ASB among low risk women at 16–22 weeks of pregnancy and subsequent nitrofurantoin treatment. Trial registration Dutch trial registry: NTR-3068

  18. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in men and women with a symptomatic or asymptomatic infection : an association with clinical manifestations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morre, SA; Rozendaal, L; van Valkengoed, IGM; Boeke, AJP; Vader, PCV; Schirm, J; de Blok, S; van den Hoek, JAR; van Doornum, GJJ; Meijer, CJLM; van den Brule, AJC

    To determine whether certain Chlamydia trachomatis serovars are preferentially associated with a symptomatic or an asymptomatic course of infection, C. trachomatis serovar distributions were analyzed in symptomatically and asymptomatically infected persons. Furthermore, a possible association

  19. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in men and women with a symptomatic or asymptomatic infection: an association with clinical manifestations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morré, S. A.; Rozendaal, L.; van Valkengoed, I. G.; Boeke, A. J.; van Voorst Vader, P. C.; Schirm, J.; de Blok, S.; van den Hoek, J. A.; van Doornum, G. J.; Meijer, C. J.; van den Brule, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether certain Chlamydia trachomatis serovars are preferentially associated with a symptomatic or an asymptomatic course of infection, C. trachomatis serovar distributions were analyzed in symptomatically and asymptomatically infected persons. Furthermore, a possible association

  20. Life experiences and expectations of young women in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the life experiences and expectations of young women of Busoga in Eastern Uganda. Using qualitative methods, a small group of young women drew, wrote stories and made videos together. The data which emerged from this exercise were analysed alongside the researcher's own observations. Basoga society's main expectation of young women is that they will work in the home. Yet, young women describe very different ideas of what they want from their lives; this includes a desire for access to a good educational experience, and different expectations for family life than cultural norms. They find, however, that there are many barriers to meeting those expectations. The study is important because it acknowledges and forefronts Ugandan young women's life expectations. Typically, development focuses on "outsider" considerations rather than "insider" views and desires. The desires of the marginalised, such as young women in Africa, are a particularly neglected subject. There is a need for continued efforts to explore and include young women's experiences and expectations countering gender inequality and as part of ongoing gender empowerment and sexual health strategies.

  1. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infections by polymerase chain reaction in asymptomatic pregnant women with special reference to the utility of the pooling of urine specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sethi

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our study detected C. trachomatis infection in 1.6 per cent asymptomatic pregnant women, and pooling of FVU specimens for PCR testing was found to be a cost-saving strategy in comparison to testing individual samples. Further evaluation and studies on the bigger sample size are warranted to validate these results.

  2. Fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Jennifer R; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    When a young woman is diagnosed with breast cancer, there is often a sense of urgency by the patient and her providers to initiate treatment. This article provides guidelines for incorporating the discussion of fertility preservation with newly diagnosed young women with breast cancer.......When a young woman is diagnosed with breast cancer, there is often a sense of urgency by the patient and her providers to initiate treatment. This article provides guidelines for incorporating the discussion of fertility preservation with newly diagnosed young women with breast cancer....

  3. Treadmill exercise testing of asymptomatic men and women without evidence of heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Chalela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of differences in performance including differences in ST-T wave changes between healthy men and women submitted to an exercise stress test. Two hundred (45.4% men and 241 (54.6% women (mean age: 38.7 ± 11.0 years were submitted to an exercise stress test. Physiologic and electrocardiographic variables were compared by the Student t-test and the chi-square test. To test the hypothesis of differences in ST-segment changes, data were ranked with functional models based on weighted least squares. To evaluate the influence of gender and age on the diagnosis of ST-segment abnormality, a logistic model was adjusted; P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Rate-pressure product, duration of exercise and estimated functional capacity were higher in men (P < 0.05. Sixteen (6.7% women and 9 (4.5% men demonstrated ST-segment upslope ≥0.15 mV or downslope ≥0.10 mV; the difference was not statistically significant. Age increase of one year added 4% to the chance of upsloping of segment ST ≥0.15 mV or downsloping of segment ST ≥0.1 mV (P = 0.03; risk ratio = 1.040, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.002-1.080. Heart rate recovery was higher in women (P < 0.05. The chance of women showing an increase of systolic blood pressure ≤30 mmHg was 85% higher (P = 0.01; risk ratio = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.1-3.05. No significant difference in the frequency of ST-T wave changes was observed between men and women. Other differences may be related to different physical conditioning.

  4. Kinetics of serum and local cytokine profile in experimental intravaginal trichomoniasis induced with Trichomonas vaginalis isolates from symptomatic and asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, N; Yadav, M; Gupta, I

    2007-02-01

    Trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease, is caused by infection with the protist Trichomonas vaginalis. The clinical spectrum varies from an asymptomatic to a severe symptomatic state. However, the exact factors leading to varied symptomatology have not been well elucidated. The role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of many microbial diseases has been reported. The present study reports the cytokine levels (IL-2, IL-4, IFN-gamma) on different days post infection (3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th d.p.i.) in serum and vaginal washes (VWs) of mice infected intravaginally with T. vaginalis isolates from 15 symptomatic and 15 asymptomatic women. Significantly higher production of IL-2 and IFN-gamma was observed on the 3rd to 28th d.p.i., and IL-4 on the 7th to 21st d.p.i., in infected as compared to uninfected mice. A significant increase in cytokine IL-2 and IFN-gamma was observed on the 3rd to 28th d.p.i. in serum and VWs of mice infected with T. vaginalis isolates from asymptomatic as compared to symptomatic women. IL-2 (P < 0.001) and IFN-gamma (P < 0.05) concentrations were significantly higher on the 14th d.p.i. in serum samples as compared to VWs of mice infected with T. vaginalis isolates from asymptomatic and symptomatic women, while no significant difference was observed in IL-4 concentration between the two groups of mice. The study indicates the involvement of a Th-1 (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) like response in mice infected with isolates from asymptomatic women as compared to symptomatic women and suggests that Th-1 type cytokines might be playing a role in maintaining low levels of infection.

  5. The periodic health examination provided to asymptomatic older women: an assessment using standardized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, P A; Dietrich, A J; Freeman, D H; Mott, L A

    1993-07-15

    To describe physical examination and cancer prevention services provided by primary care physicians in response to the request for a "checkup" by an asymptomatic 55-year-old woman seeking to establish ongoing care; to assess the effects of two interventions (education and office organization) intended to improve these services; and to assess the feasibility of using "standardized" patients to evaluate physician responses to such a request. Northern New England. Fifty-nine primary care physicians who were accepting new patients and were participating in a study of early detection and prevention of cancer. Cross sectional; observations of patient visits. Actresses trained to portray a specific patient role ("standardized" or "simulated" patients) visited each physician once. Physicians were blinded to the simulated patients' true identities. Actresses reported the components of the general physical examination and the cancer-related "checkup." Most interactions were audiotaped. Fourteen physical examination components were measured, ranging from assessment of vibratory sense (5%) to measurement of blood pressure (98%). Provision of 10 services recommended by the National Cancer Institute to standardized patients included 16% being advised to reduce dietary fat; 53% to do monthly breast self-examination; 74% to quit smoking; and 89% to obtain a mammogram. Physicians spent from 5 to 60 minutes with the patients. Two physicians did not charge, whereas others charged from $24 to $108. Study group assignment was not associated with statistical differences in provider performance. Two standardized patients (3%) were detected by physicians. Audiotapes were used to verify the actresses' ability to replicate their scenario (consistently repeat their performance) and to verify physician performance. Physician responses to an identical patient request varied widely in terms of time spent with the patient, the services provided, and the cost of the visit. Using standardized

  6. Virulence versus fitness determinants in Escherichia coli isolated from asymptomatic bacteriuria in healthy nonpregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugandha Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Escherichia coli isolated from asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU correlated genotypically and phenotypically with cystitis isolates may help in distinguishing urovirulence determinants from 'fitness factors', latter necessary only for survival of E. coli in urinary tract; for gaining insight into the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we compared genotypic (phylogroups and 15 putative virulence genes, and phenotypic profiles of ABU E. coli strains with our previously genotyped collection of cystitis isolates. Virulence score was calculated for each isolate as a number of virulence genes detected. Results: Significant differences were observed in the proportion of four phylogenetic groups (P = 0.009 amongst cystitis and ABU isolates. Average virulence score was higher for ABU isolates (6.6 than cystitis strains (4.2; and hlyA (P = 0.001, cytotoxic necrotising factor 1 (P = 0.00, fyuA (P = 0.00, ibeA (P = 0.00, kpsMII (P = 0.01, and malX/pathogenicity-associated island (P = 0.01 were more frequently present in ABU strains. Conclusions: The expression of adhesins, haemolysin, aerobactin, and capsule synthesis gene were similar in two groups suggesting their role as fitness factors. ABU isolates were better biofilm producers, reflecting its importance in silent persistence. Serum resistance gene which was more expressed in cystitis isolates may represent virulence determinant. Genetic makeup of E. coli does not change much rather genes helping in survival and colonisation are expressed equally in ABU and cystitis isolates as opposed to phenotypic attenuation of those that helps in invasion or inflammation in ABU isolates.

  7. Technology Camp for 6-8th Grade Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chess, Catherine

    2001-04-01

    As the need for technical talent grows, the number of young women pursuing technical degrees in the US is declining in spite of the fact that the number of young women earning degrees is at a record high. The attitudes of young people towards math and science are formed very early, and are strongly influenced by their personal experiences. The recommended science and math curricula for elementary education strongly encourage the use of hands-on experiences, coupled with linking the concepts being studied to real world situations, in an effort to overcome the perception that science is for the "brainy". Data indicates that this alone is insufficient for young women to overcome the widely held stereotypical view that science and technology are strictly white male domains. IBM created an initiative to reach out to middle school young women who have the potential to become scientists and engineers. The Technology Camp for Young Women was designed to provide a challenging, hands-on exposure to science, engineering and applied mathematics in a supportive environment. IBM scientists and engineers led the sessions and also serve as mentors during the school year. The program significantly improved the perceptions of the young women toward technical fields of study.

  8. Young women's decision-making process for HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscarsson, Marie G; Hannerfors, Anna-Karin; Tydén, Tanja

    2012-12-01

    To explore young women's decision-making process for HPV vaccination and to identify their beliefs about HPV vaccination. This study employs a qualitative design. Data was collected by audio-taped interviews with 16 HPV vaccinated Swedish women, 17-26 years old. The data was analysed using latent content analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: "Fear of cancer", "Reliance on vaccination" and "Mother--the main motivational factor". One of the major reasons for taking the decision to be HPV vaccinated was fear of cancer: vaccination was seen as a way to protect oneself against this. The young women's decision-making surrounding HPV vaccination was based on reliance on vaccination and trust in health care. Support from the mothers of the young women and mothers' sponsorship of costs initiated HPV vaccination. Other motivational factors were advertisements and friends. Despite having been vaccinated, the young women were unaware of the relation between cervical cancer, sexual behaviour and HPV. These HPV vaccinated young women had limited knowledge about HPV. Therefore it is important that health professionals provide comprehensible information about HPV vaccination in attaining informed consent. In order to avoid misunderstandings, health care professionals in youth clinics and schools need to initiate discussion with young women, clarifying the relation between cervical cancer, HPV and sexual transmission. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The safety of intrauterine contraception initiation among women with current asymptomatic cervical infections or at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Simmons, Katharine B; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to assess risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) among women with current asymptomatic undiagnosed cervical infection or who are at high risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), comparing those who have a copper-bearing (Cu-) or levonorgestrel (LNG-) intrauterine device (IUD) placed with women who do not. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library for articles from January 1984 through January 2016 addressing our objective. We assessed study quality using the United States Preventive Services Task Force evidence grading system. Our search strategy yielded 2220 articles, of which 10 met inclusion criteria. Two studies provided direct evidence of PID rates in women with undiagnosed gonococcal or chlamydial (GC/CT) infection or at high risk for STIs initiating IUDs versus other contraceptive methods (level II-2, fair to poor), and neither study found a difference. Eight studies provided indirect evidence (II-2 to II-3, fair to poor). One study found no difference in PID rates between initiators of Cu- versus LNG-IUDs. Five studies compared algorithms based on patient factors with laboratory GC/CT screening to predict cervical infection. Based on likelihood ratios, none of these algorithms adequately identified women at high risk of asymptomatic cervical infection who should not undergo IUD placement. Two studies compared IUD placement on the same day as STI screening with delayed placement after screening and found no difference in PID rates. Limited evidence suggests that IUD placement does not increase the risk of PID compared with no IUD placement among women with asymptomatic undiagnosed cervical infection or at high risk of STIs. Algorithms based on patient characteristics to identify women with asymptomatic GC/CT may be overly restrictive, leading to missed opportunities for IUD initiation. Historical concerns about higher PID risk among women at risk for STIs who use IUDs may not be relevant with modern devices and STI screening and

  10. Speech Act Disagreement among Young Women in Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eslami Rasekh, Abbas; Parvaresh, Vahid; Parvaresh, Vahid; Eslami Rasekh, Abbas

    2009-01-01

    In their article "Speech Act Disagreement among Young Women in Iran" Vahid Parvaresh and Abbas Eslami Rasekh investigate the effects of solidarity and deference proposed by Ronald Scollon and Suzanne...

  11. Treatment helps young women preserve fertility during breast cancer chemo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have found that young women with breast cancer were able to better preserve their fertility during cancer treatments by using hormone-blocking drug injections that put them into temporary menopause. The results announced today at the annual me

  12. Fertility considerations in young women with hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadoul, Pascale; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    The need for practice guidelines for fertility preservation in young women with hematological malignancies has been increased. To develop recommendations, publications relevant to fertility preservation and hematological cancers were identified through a PubMed database search and reviewed...

  13. Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberlin, David W.; Baley, Jill; Brady, Michael T.; Byington, Carrie L.; Davies, H Dele; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Glode, Mary P.; Jackson, Mary Anne; Keyserling, Harry L.; Maldonado, Yvonne A.; Murray, Dennis L.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Schutze, Gordon E.; Willoughby, Rodney E.; Zaoutis, Theoklis E

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother’s previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at deliver...

  14. Marital status and abortion among young women in Rupandehi, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kathryn L.; Khanal, Ram Chandra; Teixeira, Alexandra; Neupane, Shailes; Sharma, Sharad; Acre, Valerie N; Gallo, Maria F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite liberalization of the Nepal abortion law, young women continue to experience barriers to safe abortion services. We hypothesize that marital status may differentially impact such barriers, given the societal context of Nepal. Methods We evaluated differences in reproductive knowledge and attitudes by marital status with a probability-based, cross-sectional survey of young women in Rupandehi district, Nepal. Participants (N?=?600) were surveyed in 2012 on demographics, roman...

  15. Self-esteem Among Young Bisexual Women in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buer, Liliana; Anderssen, Norman; Malterud, Kirsti

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-esteem, perception of social acceptance and feeling of loneliness in a sample of young bisexual, lesbian and heterosexual women, including assessing self-esteem longitudinally across 13 years. The analyses were based on self......-completed questionnaires from the longitudinal study “Young in Norway” (13 years follow-up, 1992-2005). N=1,598 female participants at baseline and follow-up (45 bisexual women, 21 lesbian women, 1,532 heterosexual women), age 25-32 years at follow-up. At baseline, there were no differences in self-esteem, but at follow......-up bisexual women reported lower self-esteem, lower levels of perceived acceptance, and higher levels of loneliness. For bisexual women, self-esteem did not increase from adolescence to adulthood. At follow-up, loneliness had a stronger connection with self-esteem among bisexual women compared to lesbian...

  16. Factors influencing left ventricular structure and stress-corrected systolic function in men and women with asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis (a SEAS Substudy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramariuc, D.; Rieck, A.E.; Staal, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    To identify determinants of left ventricular (LV) structure and stress-corrected systolic function in men and women with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS), Doppler echocardiography was performed at baseline in 1,046 men and 674 women 28 to 86 years of age (mean 67 +/- 10) recruited in the Simvast......To identify determinants of left ventricular (LV) structure and stress-corrected systolic function in men and women with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS), Doppler echocardiography was performed at baseline in 1,046 men and 674 women 28 to 86 years of age (mean 67 +/- 10) recruited.......05). In logistic regression analyses, LV hypertrophy was independently associated with male gender, severity of AS, hypertension, higher systolic blood pressure, and lower stress-corrected midwall shortening (scMWS) or stress-corrected fractional shortening (scFS; all p values ... mass, relative wall thickness, aortic regurgitation, hypertension, and end-systolic stress (R(2) = 0.23 and 0.59, respectively, p major determinants of LV hypertrophy in patients with asymptomatic AS are male gender, severity of AS, and concomitant hypertension. Women have...

  17. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While majority of studies have explored the association between heterosexual vaginal intercourse and UTI in healthy young women, the possible association with heterosexual receptive anal intercourse has not received adequate attention despite evidence of high prevalence globally. This paper presents two young ...

  18. Early detection of testicular cancer: revisiting the role of self-efficacy in testicular self-examination among young asymptomatic males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Kanayo; Chadwick, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that self-efficacy is an important factor in behaviors that facilitate the early-detection of various cancers. In general people with high self-efficacy are more likely to attend cancer screening sessions or perform bodily self-exams. However, there is a paucity of research focusing on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination (TSE). The effect of self-efficacy on TSE remains unclear especially given the relative obscurity of the testicular cancer threat, and appropriate clinical- and self-detection procedures, in the young asymptomatic male population. Thus, the present study tested the interaction of self-efficacy with young men's appraisals of the threat of testicular cancer. The study was based on 2 × 2 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design. Over 100 young asymptomatic men were exposed to a health warning about testicular cancer and randomly assigned to high/low self-efficacy, vulnerability, and severity conditions. High self-efficacy increased motivation to perform TSE given high vulnerability, but damaged attitudes to self-exams given low vulnerability and severity estimates. High self-efficacy also facilitated subsequent TSE. Overall, these findings support preexisting notions of self-efficacy but raise new questions about the moderating effects of threat appraisals.

  19. Validity and reliability assessment of health belief scales for mammography screening in Greek asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Niakas, Dimitris; Tountas, Yannis

    2013-08-01

    The purpose was to assess the validity and reliability of health belief model variables (perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy beliefs) that are often the target of mammography screening interventions. Based on Champion's health belief model scales, questionnaire data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 408 Greek women, 40 years of age or older and with no personal history of cancer. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we found all items to load significantly on their respective factors. Standardized factor loadings ranged from 0.55 to 0.88. An analysis of localized areas of respecification of a three-factor model revealed that measurement error correlations between a few items existed. Known-groups and criterion-related validity was supported for all scales, while internal consistency reliability of the scales was satisfactory, with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.71 to 0.88. The Greek version of the scales measuring perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy beliefs is a reliable and valid tool when used to assess health beliefs for mammography screening among women. Implications for intervention strategies aimed at increasing the likelihood of mammography utilization are considered. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Scaffolding young Australian women's journey to motherhood: a narrative understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Gabrielle; Morrison, Paul; Down, Barry; WestBrook, Be

    2014-09-01

    Pregnant and young mothers' stories often go untold within community social and health service policy, planning and practice. Consequently, there is a significant gap between young women's experiences of motherhood and current service provision. This study was undertaken in response to a paucity of observational and contextually rich research that explores young women's experiences of pregnancy and motherhood, including the role a community service played in scaffolding their motherhood journeys. Fundamental to this study's purpose was the premise that to improve planning and delivery of more appropriate services for this group, we need to listen, consult and consider what life is like for young mothers. The purpose of this paper is to describe the role a community service played in scaffolding young women's experiences as they transitioned to motherhood. Using a narrative approach, this study draws on data collected from contextual observations of 31 informants and 11 in-depth interviews over 7 months of fieldwork in 2010 at a community service in the Peel region of Western Australia. The integral role a community service played in the young women's transition to motherhood was analysed thematically and captured in three metaphorical themes, finding a circle of friends, weaving a tapestry and turning the page. The young women's storied experiences of motherhood present a strong argument for radical re-visioning of community and social health policy, practice and service delivery for young mothers. The findings revealed that judgement-free services that foster social and supportive relationships were integral in developing positive motherhood identities. The power of narrative and social learning when working with young mothers suggests that social models of health that foster a relational, narrative approach to practice are fundamental to young mothers finding their own voices and solutions and becoming active agents in re-authoring future narratives of hope

  1. Young Women's Political Participation in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are responding to women's rights and gender equality. The projects under this initiative will investigate issues surrounding women's ...

  2. Caffeine Use and Young Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vener, Arthur M.; Krupka, Lawrence R.

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed college women and men and found that caffeine was consumed by a large proportion of the respondents. Women consumed a larger amount of caffeine and used more substances containing this drug. An increase in caffeine usage with increased psychic stress was observed for women only. (Author)

  3. Apparel styles suitable for young Swazi women with the prevalent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    women. Thus, this study aimed at assessing apparel styles suitable for young Swazi women with the two most prevalent body shapes. Through purposive .... The division of space with construction details, decorations, texture, colour, and printed fabric design is critical to the style of the garment (Marshall et al, 2012) and.

  4. Sexual dysfunction in young women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in young women with breast cancer in the Netherlands, and to assess the relationship between sexual dysfunction, treatment methods and treatment-related complaints. Also, the interest among women with breast cancer in

  5. Young Adult Women and the Pilgrimage of Motherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperini, Patricia T.

    2016-01-01

    Motherhood is a complex experience that can be transformative, offering women opportunities for personal enrichment and spiritual development. Because the largest incidence of births occurs to women in the Millennial or late Generation X generations, this complex, potentially transformative experience occurs at a critical time in young adult…

  6. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infections by polymerase chain reaction in asymptomatic pregnant women with special reference to the utility of the pooling of urine specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sunil; Roy, Amit; Garg, Shubha; Venkatesan, Lakshmi Sree; Bagga, Rashmi

    2017-07-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections are one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections across the world. In pregnant women, if not detected and treated early, these may result in poor pregnancy outcomes and complications. The present study was aimed to screen CT infections from first void urine (FVU) samples of asymptomatic pregnant women using molecular methods. The secondary objective was to evaluate cost-effectiveness in pooling FVU samples for their diagnostic application. FVU samples were collected from 1000 asymptomatic pregnant women over a period of three years. Pooling was done by including five specimens in one pool in the amount of 10 μl and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and further confirmed by direct fluorescent antibody assay (DFA). The age of study participants ranged from 18 to 43 yr with the median±standard deviation of 26±3.84 yr. Majority of positive participants were younger than 25 years. A total of 200 pools were prepared and 20 of these were PCR positive. When individual specimen in 20 positive pools was tested, 20 PCR-positive specimens were identified from 19 pools, of which 16 were positive by DFA. Thus, CT was detected in 1.6 per cent asymptomatic pregnant women in India and pooling strategy resulted in 70 per cent reduction in a number of tests performed. Our study detected C. trachomatis infection in 1.6 per cent asymptomatic pregnant women, and pooling of FVU specimens for PCR testing was found to be a cost-saving strategy in comparison to testing individual samples. Further evaluation and studies on the bigger sample size are warranted to validate these results.

  7. Young adult women: lifestyle and health locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schank, M J; Lawrence, D M

    1993-08-01

    A study of 76 young adult women, 38 nursing students and 38 non-nursing students, examined their lifestyle practices and health locus of control (HLOC). Findings revealed a significant difference between reported lifestyle practices and the career choice of these young adult women. The lifestyle practice areas in which the most notable differences occurred included: use of seat belts, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of junk food intake, use of illegal drugs and hours of sleep per night. While differences in HLOC were evident between nursing and non-nursing students, no relationship was found between a young woman's HLOC and her lifestyle practices. The differences in HLOC showed that nurses were more frequently pure internal whereas most non-nurses were found to be double externals. The pure chance category had the fewest number of respondents. The difference in lifestyle practices between these young adult women can be explained in part by curriculum variations, as can the difference in HLOC patterns.

  8. Young women's experiences as consumers of maternity care in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, Maggie; Miller, Yvette D; Hennegan, Julie

    2014-03-01

    Young motherhood is commonly associated with vulnerabilities, stereotyping of young women's behavior, and poor outcomes for them and their children. The objective was to understand how maternity care is experienced by this group in the transition to parenthood. Data from a large-scale 2010 survey of women's experience of maternity care were analyzed using qualitative methods with open text responses. Overall, 7,193 women responded to the survey: 237 were aged 20 years or less. Most (83%) of these young women provided open text responses. The main themes were: "being a consumer," "the quality of care," "needing support," and "pride in parenthood" whereas subthemes included "being young" and "how staff made me feel," "testimonials for staff," "not being left," and "it is all worthwhile." Many young women responding described a positive experience. For many first-time mothers this feeling marked a change in their identity. Nevertheless, staff perceptions and attitudes affected how they saw themselves and what they took away from their experience of maternity care. A key message for other women is offered, supporting and reinforcing their role as active and involved consumers who, in engaging with services, have to stand up for themselves and make their needs and wishes known. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prevalence and pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the cultured organism (89%) were sensitive to Nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women at the UPTH is high. The most prevalent organism was Klebsiella. Keywords: Asymptomatic bacteriuria, Prevalence, Pattern, Klebsiella, Nitrofurantion, Morbidity ...

  10. [The incidence of latent asymptomatic celiac disease in women with decreased fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedíková, M; Ulčová-Gallová, Z; Bibková, K; Mičanová, Z

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether patients with recurrent spontaneous abortions and IVF suffer from latent celiac disease. Perspective study. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics and Faculty Hospital, Charles University, Pilsen. Sera from 442 infertile patients aged 23-47 years and 86 healthy fertile controls aged 22-38 years were examined by commercial ELISA sets for the presence (absence) of antibodies against gliadin IgG, IgA and tissue transglutaminase in IgG and IgA. We found a statistically significant difference between the control group and patients with decreased fertility. They have a positive values in anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA (p = 0.0096). Frequent, very low positive reaction of antigliadin IgG was also found in the control group of women. Patients with unexplained repeated miscarriages and repeated unsuccessful IVF with IgA positive tissue transglutaminase have new complement of other tests for autoimmunity and examination of a total IgA, and gastroenterological examination. Eleven patients with significant positive anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA were successfully conceived only under strict gluten-free diet.

  11. Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, S.; Bjarnadottir, R. I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review methods for evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and Young infants and to discuss factors to be considered in the interpretation of their results. Design: Review of the literature regarding the various methods available for assessing iodine status. Setting: Population...... Surveys and research studies. Subjects: Pregnant women and young infants. Results. Several factors to consider when assessing iodine status in pregnant women and young infants include: 1) the urinary iodine (UI) concentration (mu g l(-1)) is not interchangeable with 24 h UI excretion (mu g per 24 h); 2...... deficiency than in the mother. Conclusions: if the iodine status Of pregnant women and small children is not to be Misjudged, the above six factors need to be taken into account....

  12. Management of breast cancer in very young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Shoshana M; Partridge, Ann H

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women age 40 and younger in developed countries, and although generally improving, survival rates for young women with breast cancer remain lower than for older women. Young women are more likely to develop more aggressive subtypes of breast cancer (more triple negative and more Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 [HER2]-positive disease) and present with more advanced stage disease. Previous research has demonstrated that young age is an independent risk factor for disease recurrence and death, although recent data suggest this may not be the case in certain tumor molecular subtypes. Recent preliminary evidence suggests potential unique biologic features of breast cancer that occurs in young women although this has yet to have been translated into treatment differences. There are clearly host differences that affect the management of breast cancer for young patients including generally being premenopausal at diagnosis, and fertility, genetics, and social/emotional issues in particular should be considered early in the course of their care. Despite an increased risk of local recurrence, young age alone is not a contraindication to breast conserving therapy given the equivalent survival seen in this population with either mastectomy or breast conservation. However, many young women in recent years are choosing bilateral mastectomy, even without a known hereditary predisposition to the disease. For those who need chemotherapy, multi-agent chemotherapy and biologic therapy targeting the tumor similar to the treatment in older women is the standard approach. Select young women will do well with hormone therapy only. Recent data from the TEXT and SOFT trials evaluating the optimal endocrine therapy for the first 5 years, and the ATTom and ATLAS trials demonstrating benefit from extended duration of tamoxifen (10 vs. 5 years), have further defined options for adjuvant endocrine therapy for young women

  13. Noor-Eesti ja naised. Young Estonia and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutt Hinrikus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early years of the 20th century, representatives of many areas of Estonian social life were coming to the understanding that the position of Estonian women was historically, socially, and culturally undefined, that it was hedged about by various limitations, and that the role of women in public life was getting in the way of the advancement of Estonian society. Articles with titles like ”The Woman Question” and ”Why the Estonian Woman Will not Awaken” were published frequently in the Estonian press at the beginning of the 20th century. The Young Estonians were not left out of these discussions: in Young Estonia’s publications, there were both fictional and non-fictional texts, novellas and essays focused on the position of woman in society. The 1905 revolution broadened this outlook and increased women’s real prospects for getting an education. Two girls’ high schools were established with Estonian as the language of instruction: one in 1906 in Tartu, and another in 1907 in Tallinn, with the goal of furthering the inclusion of women in public life. Schools of home economics were founded, and the first women’s associations were established. Comparisons with Finland served as a stimulus to the development of Estonian education and culture. In Estonia, the highest level of education for women was limited to a private course of study in university; thus whenever they had the opportunity, women went abroad to attend university, either to Germanspeaking parts of Europe or Finland (e.g. Hella Murrik. At the beginning of the 20th century several women writers had become known through the Estonianlanguage press or poetry anthologies, but on the whole, the development of Estonian literature lagged behind. There was only one woman actively involved in the discussions on culture of the Young Estonian renewal movement – Aino Kallas, who had received her education in Finland, and who participated in the movement from the beginning. Of

  14. Young Women's Political Participation in Malawi | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic ... and kin-based social organizations can be influenced to advance women's choices and entitlements as citizens, including through increased representation.

  15. Clinical performance of the Solana® Point-of-Care Trichomonas Assay from clinician-collected vaginal swabs and urine specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, C A; Schwebke, J; Dombrowski, J; Marrazzo, J; Coleman, J; Silver, B; Barnes, M; Crane, L; Fine, P

    2017-03-01

    Solana® (Quidel) is a new rapid (Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) DNA. The assay has two steps: 1) specimen preparation, and 2) amplification and detection using isothermal Helicase-Dependent Amplification (HDA). The objective was to demonstrate the performance of Solana for vaginal swabs and female urines based on comparison to wet mount and TV culture. Performance was also compared to the Aptima-TV assay. Urine and four clinician-collected vaginal swabs were collected. The first two were used for FDA composite reference (wet mount; InPouch TV Culture). The third swab was used for Solana. Sensitivity/specificity were based on the reference method. A specimen was considered positive if either test was positive. The fourth swab was for Aptima-TV. Vaginal swabs and urines were obtained from 501 asymptomatic and 543 symptomatic women. Prevalence of TV by was 11.5%. For swabs, Solana® demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity from asymptomatic (100%/98.9%) and symptomatic (98.6%/98.5%) women, as well as for urines from asymptomatic (98.0%/98.4%) and symptomatic (92.9%/97.9%) women, compared to the reference method. Compared to Aptima-TV, the sensitivity/specificity was 89.7%/99.0% for swabs and 100%/98.9% for urines. The Solana® assay performed well compared to the reference assays.

  16. Breast cancer in young women: poor survival despite intensive treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Fredholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is uncommon in young women and correlates with a less favourable prognosis; still it is the most frequent cancer in women under 40, accounting for 30-40% of all incident female cancer. The aim of this study was to study prognosis in young women, quantifying how much stage at diagnosis and management on the one hand, and tumour biology on the other; each contribute to the worse prognosis seen in this age group. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a registry based cohort of women aged 20-69 (n = 22 017 with a primary diagnosis of invasive breast cancer (1992-2005, women aged 20-34 (n = 471, 35-39 (n = 858 and 40-49 (n = 4789 were compared with women aged 50-69 years (n = 15 899. The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio and the relative excess mortality (RER were calculated. The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio was lowest in women aged 20-34. The RER was 2.84 for women aged 20-34 and decreased with increasing age (RER 1.76 and 1.17 for women aged 35-39 and 40-49, respectively. The excess risk was, however, present only in disease stages I and II. For women aged 20-34 with stage I disease RER was 4.63, and 6.70 in the subgroup with tumour size 1-10 mm. The absolute difference in stage I between the youngest and the reference groups amounted to nearly 8%, with a 90% 5-year survival in women aged 20-34. In stages IIa and IIb, the relative excess risk was not as dramatic, but the absolute differences approached 15%. The youngest women with small tumours generally received more aggressive treatment than women in older age groups. CONCLUSIONS: After correction for stage, tumour characteristics and treatment, age remained an independent risk factor for breast cancer death in women <35 years of age. The excess risk for young women was only seen in early stages of disease and was most pronounced in women with small tumours. Young women affected by breast cancer have a high risk of dying compared to their middle

  17. Blogging through cancer: young women's persistent problems shared online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Baernholdt, Marianne; Erickson, Jeanne M; Ropka, Mary E; Schroen, Anneke T; Steeves, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    Many young women have turned to illness blogs to describe their lived experience with cancer. Blogs represent an untapped source of knowledge for researchers and clinicians. The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory study was to describe the life disruptions caused by cancer among young women, as well as to understand the facilitators and barriers in accessing healthcare services during and after active treatment. Sixteen Internet illness blogs were analyzed among women, aged between 20 and 39 years, diagnosed with cancer. These blogs were analyzed based on phenomenological qualitative methods and thematic analysis. There were 4 dimensions of persistent problems that were articulated in the narratives of the young women without any relief. They included pain and fatigue, insurance and financial barriers, concerns related to fertility, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress and anxiety. The young women's narratives capture fear, uncertainty, anger, and the debilitating nature of these persistent issues. Many of the women expressed their lingering physical, psychosocial, and emotional problems. Online illness narratives are a naturalistic form of inquiry that allows nurses to understand the experience of the patient through their own words and accounts. This study provides a foundation for nursing-based interventions that transcend traditional clinic experiences.

  18. Grief and Gracefulness Regarding Cancer Experiences Among Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croson, Elizabeth; Keim-Malpass, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    To gain a unique perspective of young women with cancer aged 20-39 years who are experiencing challenges with fertility and parenting through analysis of cancer blogs.
. A secondary analysis of online narratives using a focused thematic analysis approach, comparing women who were mothers prior to diagnosis with women who are exploring the possibility of motherhood after diagnosis.
. Blogs found through websites and social media venues for young adults with cancer.
. 10 women aged 20-39 who maintained blogs about their cancer experiences.
. Thematic analysis using line-by-line coding. Construction of comparative themes and meanings were guided by the analytic framework of the stages of grief.
. Themes emerged along the grieving trajectory of denial (maintaining routines and discussing "eggs"), depression (losing motherhood and anticipatory grief), and acceptance (finding joy moment to moment and hope for pregnancy).
. Motherhood and infertility are unique experiences for young women with cancer but are expressed similarly through the stages of grief. Understanding the grief trajectories of young women with cancer will help nurses to develop screening tools and supportive interventions.

  19. When, If, and How: Young Women Contend With Orgasmic Absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sarah N; McClelland, Sara I

    2017-10-27

    While cultural ideas about "healthy" and "fulfilling" sexuality often include orgasm, many young women do not experience orgasm during partnered sex. The current study examined how women described this absence of orgasm in their sexual experiences with male partners. We examined interviews (N = 17) with women ages 18 to 28 and focused on their ideas about orgasm and their explanations concerning when and why they do not orgasm. We explored three themes that illustrate the strategies young women use to contend with orgasmic absence: (1) What's the big deal?; (2) It's just biology; and (3) Not now, but someday. We found that young women's explanations allowed them to reduce feelings of abnormality and enabled them to distance themselves from sexual expectations regarding the perceived value of orgasm. In analyzing the complicated gender and sexual dynamics surrounding orgasm, we turned to Fahs' (2014) work on sexual freedom and the importance of articulating freedom from sexual obligations as a key intervention in critical sexuality research. In our discussion, we examine the implications of our findings for critical researchers looking to better understand the role of sexual norms in how young women imagine and discuss the role of pleasure in their own sexual lives.

  20. Gaps in evidence regarding iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women and young children: summary of US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Alex R; Fan, Tina; Grossman, David C; Phipps, Maureen G

    2017-12-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) makes recommendations to primary care providers regarding preventive services for asymptomatic patients. Recommendations are based on the scientific evidence that the delivery of the preventive service leads to improvements in meaningful patient outcomes. After a review of the available evidence, the USPSTF found insufficient evidence to recommend routine iron supplementation for pregnant women or routine screening for iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women or young children. The USPSTF identified a critical evidence gap that is related to whether changing hematologic indexes in otherwise asymptomatic pregnant women or in infants within populations who are reflective of the United States leads to an improvement in maternal or child health outcomes. Future research opportunities are described to address these important evidence gaps. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Young Women With Abdominal Obesity Have Subclinical Myocardial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, Bianca L; La Gerche, André; Naughton, Geraldine A; Obert, Philippe; Kemp, Justin G

    2015-09-01

    Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The effect of abdominal obesity on myocardial function in young obese women remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate cardiac morphology and function, myocardial deformation, and mechanical indices, in young women with and without abdominal obesity. Cross-sectional analyses of 39 women with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 80 cm) and 33 nonobese control subjects (waist circumference factors including anthropometric, hypertension, biochemistry, and fitness were also assessed. Standard echocardiography results for cardiac morphology and function were similar between groups, with the exception of larger left atrial dimensions in women with abdominal obesity (P ≤ 0.05). Compared with control subjects, women with abdominal obesity also demonstrated reduced systolic and diastolic mitral annular plane velocities, increased left atrial pressure surrogates (E/diastolic mitral annular plane velocity), and prolonged timing measures of diastolic function including isovolumic relaxation time and transmitral deceleration time (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, longitudinal strain and diastolic strain rate were reduced in women with abdominal obesity (P ≤ 0.05) but circumferential deformation and myocardial mechanics (twist indices and rotation) were preserved. Markers of abdominal obesity retained an independent direct correlation with parameters of cardiac dysfunction, explaining 12%-39% of the overall variability. A young, otherwise healthy group of women with abdominal obesity displayed subclinical cardiac dysfunction indicated using selected tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking echocardiography measures. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Marital status and abortion among young women in Rupandehi, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kathryn L; Khanal, Ram Chandra; Teixeira, Alexandra; Neupane, Shailes; Sharma, Sharad; Acre, Valerie N; Gallo, Maria F

    2015-01-01

    Despite liberalization of the Nepal abortion law, young women continue to experience barriers to safe abortion services. We hypothesize that marital status may differentially impact such barriers, given the societal context of Nepal. We evaluated differences in reproductive knowledge and attitudes by marital status with a probability-based, cross-sectional survey of young women in Rupandehi district, Nepal. Participants (N = 600) were surveyed in 2012 on demographics, romantic experiences, media habits, reproductive information, and abortion knowledge and attitudes. We used logistic regression to assess differences by marital status, controlling for age. Participants, who comprised never-married (54%) and ever-married women (45%), reported good access to basic reproductive health and abortion information. Social desirability bias might have prevented reporting of premarital romantic and sexual activity given that participants reported more premarital activities for their friends than for themselves. Only 45% knew that abortion was legal, and fewer ever-married women were aware of abortion legality. Never-married women expected more negative responses from having an abortion than ever-married women. Findings highlight the need for providing sexual and reproductive health care information and services to young women regardless of marital status.

  3. Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Manne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement, lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.

  4. Invasive Breast Cancer Incidence in 2,305,427 Screened Asymptomatic Women: Estimated Long Term Outcomes during Menopause Using a Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnifred Cutler

    Full Text Available Earlier studies of breast cancer, screening mammography, and mortality reduction may have inflated lifetime and long-term risk estimates for invasive breast cancer due to limitations in their data collection methods and interpretation.To estimate the percentage of asymptomatic peri/postmenopausal women who will be diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer over their next 25 years of life.A systematic review identified peer-reviewed published studies that: 1 enrolled no study participants with a history of invasive breast cancer; 2 specified the number of women enrolled; 3 reported the number of women diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer; 4 did not overcount [count a woman multiple times]; and, 5 defined the length of follow-up. Data sources included PubMed, Cochrane Library, and an annotated library of 4,409 full-text menopause-related papers collected and reviewed by the first author from 1974 through 2008. Linear regression predicted incidence of first invasive breast cancer, based on follow-up duration in all studies that met the our inclusion criteria, and in a subset of these studies that included only women who were 1 at least 50 years old and 2 either at least 50 or less than 50 but surgically menopausal at enrollment.Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. They included a total of 2,305,427 peri/postmenopasual women. The mean cumulative incidence rate of first invasive breast cancer increased by 0.20% for each year of age (95% CI: 0.17, 0.23; p < 0.01; R2 = 0.90. Over 25 years of follow-up, an estimated 94.55% of women will remain breast cancer-free (95% CI: 93.97, 95.13. In the 12 studies (n = 1,711,178 that enrolled only postmenopausal women, an estimated 0.23% of women will be diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer each year (95% CI: 0.18, 0.28; p < 0.01, R2 = 0.88.The vast majority (99.75% of screened asymptomatic peri/postmenopasual women will not be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer each year

  5. Invasive Breast Cancer Incidence in 2,305,427 Screened Asymptomatic Women: Estimated Long Term Outcomes during Menopause Using a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Winnifred; Bürki, Regula; Kolter, James; Chambliss, Catherine; Friedmann, Erika; Hart, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies of breast cancer, screening mammography, and mortality reduction may have inflated lifetime and long-term risk estimates for invasive breast cancer due to limitations in their data collection methods and interpretation. To estimate the percentage of asymptomatic peri/postmenopausal women who will be diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer over their next 25 years of life. A systematic review identified peer-reviewed published studies that: 1) enrolled no study participants with a history of invasive breast cancer; 2) specified the number of women enrolled; 3) reported the number of women diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer; 4) did not overcount [count a woman multiple times]; and, 5) defined the length of follow-up. Data sources included PubMed, Cochrane Library, and an annotated library of 4,409 full-text menopause-related papers collected and reviewed by the first author from 1974 through 2008. Linear regression predicted incidence of first invasive breast cancer, based on follow-up duration in all studies that met the our inclusion criteria, and in a subset of these studies that included only women who were 1) at least 50 years old and 2) either at least 50 or less than 50 but surgically menopausal at enrollment. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. They included a total of 2,305,427 peri/postmenopasual women. The mean cumulative incidence rate of first invasive breast cancer increased by 0.20% for each year of age (95% CI: 0.17, 0.23; p < 0.01; R2 = 0.90). Over 25 years of follow-up, an estimated 94.55% of women will remain breast cancer-free (95% CI: 93.97, 95.13). In the 12 studies (n = 1,711,178) that enrolled only postmenopausal women, an estimated 0.23% of women will be diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer each year (95% CI: 0.18, 0.28; p < 0.01, R2 = 0.88). The vast majority (99.75%) of screened asymptomatic peri/postmenopasual women will not be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer each year. Approximately

  6. Reproductive Health Characteristics of Young Malawian Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of a total of 2,028 PAC clients, 20.9% were adolescents (age 10-19) and 29.6% were young adults (age 20-24). More than ... L'avortement est illégal au Malawi sauf quand la grossesse met en péril la vie de la mère, pourtant, les complications de l'avortement sont responsables de la majorité des admissions dans les salles ...

  7. Transvaginal ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length in asymptomatic high-risk women with a short cervical length in the previous pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, J M G; Hutchens, D

    2011-07-01

    To determine if asymptomatic women at high risk of preterm delivery who had a short cervical length in their previous pregnancy and delivered at term are at increased risk of having a short cervical length in their next pregnancy, and whether they are at increased risk of preterm birth. This retrospective cohort study included high-risk (those with a history of spontaneous preterm birth, uterine anomaly or excisional treatment for cervical dysplasia) asymptomatic women who were pregnant with a singleton gestation delivering between April 2003 and March 2010, who had had a previous pregnancy and who had transvaginal ultrasonographic cervical length measurement performed at 16-30 weeks' gestation in both pregnancies. Comparison was among women who had a short cervical length (pregnancy but delivered at term in that pregnancy (Short Term Group), women with a history of a normal cervical length (≥ 3.0 cm) in their previous pregnancy delivering at term (Long Term Group), and women who had a short cervical length (pregnancy delivering preterm (Short Preterm Group). Primary outcomes were spontaneous preterm birth at pregnancy compared with those in the Long Term Group (10/23 (43.5%) vs. 4/26 (15.4%), respectively) but not as likely as women in the Short Preterm Group (9/13 (69.2%); P=0.003). Women in the Short Term Group were not at an increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth at pregnancy compared with women in the Long Term Group (2/23 (8.7%) vs. 2/26 (7.7%), respectively), but women in the Short Preterm Group were at an increased risk (6/13 (46.2%); Prisk of threatened preterm labor (6/23 (26.1%) and 4/26 (15.4%) vs. 9/13 (69.2%), respectively; P=0.002) and of receiving corticosteroids for fetal lung maturation (6/23 (26.1%) and 4/26 (15.4%) vs. 11/13 (84.6%), respectively; Phigh-risk asymptomatic women with a short cervical length in their previous pregnancy who delivered at term are at increased risk of having a short cervix in their next pregnancy, they are not

  8. Sexual Debut of Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women: Implications for STI/HIV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Tina M.; Reed, Sarah J.; Miller, Robin Lin; Valenti, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Young Black women continue to be at high risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, little is known about the risks specifically to young Black women who primarily have sex with women (YWSW). As part of a larger sexual health project, in-depth qualitative interviews were completed with 14 Black women ages 16-24, who…

  9. Health awareness among young women vaccinated against human papillomavirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Bąk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Genital human papillomavirus (HPV infections are essentials factors in the development of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus vaccines can contribute to reducing the high incidence of this disease, provided that this form of prophylaxis is commonly accepted. Participation in vaccinations is restricted by the belief that their implementation and consequent feeling of safety will reduce women’s participation in other forms of cervical carcinoma prophylaxis and will encourage them to be sexually promiscuous. Aim of the research study : To determine the awareness of cervical carcinoma prophylaxis among young women vaccinated against HPV by comparing them with a group of unvaccinated women. Material and methods: The survey covered a group of 210 young women in the age range 18 to 20 years, who were vaccinated against HPV. Within the framework of comparison, the survey covered a group of 255 young HPV-unvaccinated women, adequately selected in respect of age and education. Results: The HPVvaccinated women declared participation in medical check-ups and cytological tests no less frequently than the unvaccinated women. In both groups, the usage of condoms, sexual partners hygiene, monogamy and smoking abstinence were determined as behaviours limiting the occurrence of cervical carcinoma. Conclusions: Awareness of the application of supplementary prophylaxis of cervical carcinoma was high among the HPV vaccinated woman and did not differ from the unvaccinated woman’s awareness. Young women did not show a tendency for promiscuous behaviours, and were more likely touse condoms in the prevention of cervical carcinoma than were the unvaccinated woman.

  10. Correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Russell, R; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine health and psychosocial correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young adult women. Research Methods and Procedures: 1830 females (n = 988 black, n = 842 white) who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study were asked to

  11. Rising pattern of breast cancer in young women | Adeniji | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To study the rising pattern of breast cancer in young women. Design: Retrospective study of cases of breast cancer from histopathological diagnosis. Setting: Department of Pathology, Ilorin Teaching Hospital Subjects: Breast cancer tissues sent to histopathology department for diagnosis Interventions: Tissue ...

  12. Exploring Young Adult Sexual Minority Women's Perspectives on LGBTQ Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N = 30, ages…

  13. General Prospectus of Agricultural Education for Young Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Dublin (Ireland).

    Designed to acquaint young men and women with the agricultural education programs currently available in Ireland's institutions of vocational and higher education, this prospectus describes the educational requirements, facilities, and programs under the auspices of Ireland's Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Specifically, this document…

  14. Comparison of serum C3 complement levels between young women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maimun Syukri

    2014-05-29

    May 29, 2014 ... f Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Received 13 February ... with infectious diseases. However, the association of C3 with recurrent urinary tract infec- ... Young women, even with normal function or anatomy of the urinary tract ...

  15. Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

  16. The Tempo of Remarriage among Young American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Frank L.; Moore, Sylvia F.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the socioeconomic determinants of the timing of remarriage for young women (N=238). While socioeconomic and demographic variables are only moderately useful predictors of remarriage, not taking into account background factors can lead to significant misstatements of the importance of various factors for interpreting the likelihood of…

  17. Combination HIV prevention options for young women in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combination HIV prevention options for young women in Africa. Cheryl Baxter, Salim Abdool Karim. Abstract. Although the number of new HIV infections has declined by over 30% in the past decade, the number of people who acquire HIV each year remains unacceptably high. In 2014 the Joint United Nations Programme ...

  18. Totally Private & Personal: Journaling Ideas for Girls and Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Jessica

    This book offers journaling ideas for girls and young women ages 11-16, although it states that others who like to "journal" will find something here for them, too. The book discusses the reasons for journaling, including that it can serve as a good release when angry, sad, troubled, or even happy. The book also states that a journal is…

  19. Young Women's Emigration from Borena Woreda (District) to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teachers. The replies of these respondents are displayed below. Table 7: Replies of Respondents to young emigrants influence on the increasing number of .... disagreement and conflict between families caused by who is responsible to be guardian of the child. The parents of emigrant women want to be guardian for.

  20. Young women's experiences and perceptions of cunnilingus during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y; Fava, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that cunnilingus may be as prevalent as fellatio among American adolescents. Despite this approximate equivalence in rates, there is an imbalance in the amount and type of attention paid to fellatio and cunnilingus. Furthermore, there has been little empirical examination of young women's experiences and perceptions of cunnilingus during adolescence. Two studies in response to this gap in knowledge were conducted. In Study 1, regression analyses indicated that a young woman's sexual assertiveness was linked to having more lifetime cunnilingus partners, as well as more cunnilingus experiences in the past three months. Study 2 explored young women's perceptions of cunnilingus and their speculations about their male partners' perceptions thereof. Linear mixed modeling revealed that participants had highly favorable impressions of cunnilingus, which they believed their male partners shared. These findings are considered in terms of positive adolescent sexual development and cultural norms regarding female sexuality.

  1. Condom negotiation: experiences of sexually active young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Leah; Jackson, Debra; O'Brien, Louise; Peters, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study of sexually active young women's experiences of negotiating condom use both before and after diagnosis of a sexually transmitted infection. The male condom is the most efficient method in preventing and reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. However, condom use can be hindered by factors including societal norms and gender roles, which can create difficulties for women in initiating and negotiating condom use in heterosexual partnerships. A feminist narrative approach was used, and ten women's stories were collected via online interviews in 2007. None of the women initiated or negotiated use of the male condom for various reasons. Some relied on their male partners to initiate condom use, some were unable to practise safer sex due to the abuse and unequal gender dynamics that existed in their sexual relationships, and some thought that condom use was not necessary because of a belief that they were in safe and monogamous relationships. Even following diagnosis of a sexually transmitted infection, some women said that they were not empowered enough to initiate condom use with subsequent sexual partners, resulting in continued high-risk sexual behaviour. Successful condom promotion relies on the recognition of the gender factors that impede young women's condom negotiation and use. Strategies that overcome gender dynamics and empower women to negotiate condom use have the ability to promote condom use among this group. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Salience of physical appearance characteristics among young women in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongmuang, Daravan; Corte, Colleen; McCreary, Linda L; Park, Chang G; Miller, Arlene; Gallo, Agatha

    2011-09-01

    Our aim in the present study was to identify key components of physical appearance among young Thai women. Free listings, focus groups and pile sorting were used. One-hundred twenty young women generated 78 unique physical appearance characteristics. Ninety-four nursing students validated these characteristics in focus groups and then sorted them into piles that reflected separate domains of physical appearance and labeled them. Salience analysis revealed that facial appearance (e.g., bright facial skin, high nose bridge, big eyes) was the most important domain, followed by body weight and shape, skin color and texture, hair (color, texture, length), and 'other' physical appearance (e.g., slender neck, slim fingers). This is the first study to identify aspects of physical appearance that are most salient to young Thai women and that may differ from women in other cultural contexts. These findings could be used to develop culturally grounded measures of physical appearance in Thai women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is associated with coronary calcium in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Rampal, Sanjay; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Zhao, Di; Cho, Juhee; Choi, Yuni; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lim, So Yeon; Bruguera, Jordi; Elosua, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a convenient, non-radiating, readily available measurement of arterial stiffness, and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a reliable marker of coronary atherosclerosis, in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults; and to assess the incremental value of baPWV for detecting prevalent CAC beyond traditional risk factors. Cross-sectional study of 15,185 asymptomatic Korean adults who voluntarily underwent a comprehensive health screening program including measurement of baPWV and CAC. BaPWV was measured using an oscillometric method with cuffs placed on both arms and ankles. CAC burden was assessed using a multi-detector CT scan and scored following Agatston's method. The prevalence of CAC > 0 and CAC > 100 increased across baPWV quintiles. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC > 0 comparing baPWV quintiles 2-5 versus quintile 1 were 1.06 (0.87-1.30), 1.24 (1.02-1.50), 1.39 (1.15-1.69) and 1.60 (1.31-1.96), respectively (P trend  100 were 1.30 (0.74-2.26), 1.59 (0.93-2.71), 1.74 (1.03-2.94) and 2.59 (1.54-4.36), respectively (P trend  100, the area under the ROC curve for baPWV alone was 0.71 (0.68-0.74), and the addition of baPWV to traditional risk factors significantly improved the discrimination and calibration of models for detecting prevalent CAC > 0 and CAC > 100. BaPWV was independently associated with the presence and severity of CAC in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults. BaPWV may be a valuable tool for identifying apparently low-risk individuals with increased burden of coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of relationship context on contraceptive use among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ushma D; Raifman, Sarah; Raine-Bennett, Tina

    2016-07-01

    To understand how relationship status influences contraceptive use among young people. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study on hormonal contraception among unmarried adolescent and young women who wanted to avoid pregnancy for at least one year, recruited at family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. Follow-up surveys were completed at 3, 6, and 12months. Longitudinal analysis was used to examine whether relationship characteristics, including type and length of sexual relationship are associated with current use of effective contraception. Among women with a partner at baseline, 78%, 70%, and 61% had the same partner at 3, 6, and 12months follow up, respectively. Women in casual relationships were less likely to use effective contraceptive methods, compared to women in consistent relationships (AOR=0.67, pcontraceptive methods (AOR=0.60, pcontraception. These effects remained even after controlling for condom use. Relationship type and length are independently significantly associated with current effective contraceptive use among adolescent and young women. Women in casual relationships and new relationships were significantly less likely to use effective contraceptive methods. Family planning providers should discuss women's relationship context and association with contraceptive use in order to help women think of contraception as a long-term personal strategy. Since relationship status affects contraceptive use, providers and programs that aim to reduce unintended pregnancy can consider strategies to create a paradigm shift around contraceptive use that focuses on the woman's reproductive goals, current life stage, and life goals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Women's Status and Violence against Young Married Women in Rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamang Jyotsna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies conducted around the world consistently show the existence of violence against women. Despite the increasing number of studies being conducted on violence against young married women elsewhere, this subject has received little attention from researchers and policy makers in Nepal. This paper assesses the prevalence of violence among young married women in rural Nepal. Specifically, it examines [factors related to] women's status in order to better understand the risk of violence. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 among 1,296 young married women aged 15-24 years in four major ethnic groups. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the association between selected risk factors and violence. Results More than half the women (51.9% reported having experienced some form of violence in their lifetime. One-fourth (25.3% reported physical violence and nearly half (46.2% reported sexual violence. Likewise, one-third (35.8% of women reported experiencing some form of violence in the past 12 months. No or little inter-spousal communication and low autonomy of women significantly increases the odds of experiencing violence among married women. Conclusions The violence against women is quite common among young married women in rural Nepal. Although the Domestic Violence and Punishment Act 2066 has been enacted, equal attention needs to be given to increasing women's autonomy and activities that encourage inter-spousal communication. Furthermore, more research is required in Nepal that examines dynamics of violence perpetrated by husbands.

  6. Young Women, Sexual Behaviour and Sexual Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Hoggart

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers young people's sexual decision-making in the context of New Labour's policies on teenage pregnancy. In 1999, the newly formed Social Exclusion Unit sought to understand why the UK had the highest number of teenage conceptions in Europe (SEU 1999. One of the conclusions was that young people in the UK are engaging in "risky" rather than "safe" sex. Although New Labour has since developed policies designed to help young people avoid what is seen as risky sexual activity, there is a tension in sexual health policy between the overall aim of providing young people with the knowledge and confidence to practice "safe sex", and an underlying belief amongst many in the undesirability of "underage sex". This is partly a legacy of disagreements evident in the 1980s and 1990s when some organisations argued against sex education and contraceptive provision for young people on the grounds that it encouraged promiscuous and risky behaviour. The paper shows how alternative meanings of risk and responsibility are present in young mothers' own representations of their sexual decision-making. It does this through an analysis of two research projects on Young Women, Sex and Choices. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601283

  7. Measurement of coronary flow response to cold pressor stress in asymptomatic women with cardiovascular risk factors using spiral velocity-encoded cine MRI at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroules, Christopher D.; Peshock, Ronald M. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)), e-mail: Ron.Peshock@UTSouthwestern.edu; Chang, Alice Y.; Kontak, Andrew (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); Dimitrov, Ivan; Kotys, Melanie (Dept. of Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH (United States))

    2010-05-15

    Background: Coronary sinus (CS) flow in response to a provocative stress has been used as a surrogate measure of coronary flow reserve, and velocity-encoded cine (VEC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established technique for measuring CS flow. In this study, the cold pressor test (CPT) was used to measure CS flow response because it elicits an endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation that may afford greater sensitivity for detecting early changes in coronary endothelial function. Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and reproducibility of CS flow reactivity (CSFR) to CPT using spiral VEC MRI at 3 Tesla in a sample of asymptomatic women with cardiovascular risk factors. Material and Methods: Fourteen asymptomatic women (age 38 years +- 10) with cardiovascular risk factors were studied using 3D spiral VEC MRI of the CS at 3 T. The CPT was utilized as a provocative stress to measure changes in CS flow. CSFR to CPT was calculated from the ratio of CS flow during peak stress to baseline CS flow. Results: CPT induced a significant hemodynamic response as measured by a 45% increase in rate-pressure product (P<0.01). A significant increase in CS volume flow was also observed (baseline, 116 +- 26 ml/min; peak stress, 152 +- 34 ml/min, P=0.01). CSFR to CPT was 1.31 +- 0.20. Test-retest variability of CS volume flow was 5% at baseline and 6% during peak stress. Conclusion: Spiral CS VEC MRI at 3 T is a feasible and reproducible technique for measuring CS flow in asymptomatic women at risk for cardiovascular disease. Significant changes in CSFR to CPT are detectable, without demanding pharmacologic stress

  8. Young women's preferences for market work: responses to marital events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitze, G D; Waite, L J

    1981-01-01

    A causal model of changes in women's longrun tastes for paid employment was developed. It is based on the premise that women have a certain preference for market versus home work at the beginning of a year and that during the year some women experience a marital event, which may be a 1st marriage, a 1st birth, or the breakup of an existing marriage. This marital event may then cause some of the women experiencing it to revise their relative tastes for employment and work in the home. It is argued that changes in the level of such resources as time and money and changes in feelings of personal fulfillment that occur as a result of marriage, 1st birth, or divorce are responsible for alterations in market work preferences. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women were used to examine how women's relative preference for market work and home work are affected by the transitions of 1st marriage, marital dissolution, and 1st birth. This survey includes yearly data on over 5000 young women over a recent 5 year period. Personal interviews were conducted with a national probability sample of the noninstitutionalized female population age 14-24 in 1968, with yearly reinterviews through 1973. The impact of a 1st marriage during a year on preference for market work at the end of that year was consistently negative from ages 14 through 23. The likelihood that a young woman prefers market to home work at age 35 decreases from 10-20 percentage points upon 1st marriage. Women who first marry beyond age 24 experience no change in preferences for labor force participation. The positive impact of marital dissolution on a young woman's preference for labor force participation was substantial--between 18 and 29 percentage points--and tended to be higher the later it occurred. The experience of marital dissolution causes women to need to prepare for work. The results suggest that it also increases their desire to work. A 1st birth had no immediate impact but was followed

  9. High pulse pressure and metabolic syndrome are associated with proteinuria in young adult women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity and metabolic syndrome play causative roles in the increasing prevalence of proteinuria in the general population. However, in young adult women the clinical significance of incidentally discovered proteinuria and its association with metabolic syndrome are unclear. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for proteinuria in this population. Methods A total of 10,385 women aged 20 to 39 years who underwent health screenings were surveyed. Each patient was tested for proteinuria with a dipstick (−, ±, 1+, 2+, or 3+), and proteinuria was defined as 1+ or greater. Persistent proteinuria was established by confirming proteinuria in a subsequent test. Metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asia. Results The mean age was 28.9 ± 5.5 years, and the prevalence of persistent proteinuria was 1.0%. Among these subjects with persistent proteinuria, obesity and metabolic syndrome were found in 10.4% and 5.2%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome, as well as its components of hypertension, hyperglycemia, central obesity, low high-density lipoprotein levels, and high triglyceride levels, was closely related to the presence of proteinuria. In addition, a wide pulse pressure of ≥40 mmHg was another independent risk factor for proteinuria [odds ratio (OR) 3.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–11.91)]. This had an additive effect on metabolic syndrome in terms of predicting proteinuria. Even in subjects without metabolic syndrome, the influence of an increased pulse pressure was consistent (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.03–8.61). Conclusions Specific attention to proteinuria may be necessary in asymptomatic young women aged 20 to 39 years if they have metabolic syndrome or a wide pulse pressure. PMID:23433013

  10. Young women selling sex online - narratives on regulating feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women's life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women's perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: "Entering - adverse life experiences"; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. "Immersion - using the body as a tool for regulating feelings"; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. "Exiting - change or die"; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting.

  11. Predictors of Stature Concerns among Young Chinese Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stature concerns are a prominent source of body dissatisfaction for Chinese teenagers and young adults, yet little is known about the psychological factors that account for it. Therefore, this study examined social cultural model and objectification theory as explanations for stature concerns in a sample of undergraduate men and women from a university in Henan, China. Given height is a salient physical attribute for Chinese adolescents and young adults, we extended past studies on objectification theory by adding separate measures for stature surveillance. Participants (231 men, 473 women completed a questionnaire assaying measures of sociocultural model features (appearance pressure from mass media and close interpersonal networks, appearance social comparisons, objectified body consciousness (body surveillance, body shame, stature surveillance, and stature concerns. In multiple regression models for each gender, appearance pressure from the mass media and stature surveillance were robust predictors of stature concerns for both genders, independent of reported height. Body surveillance predicted stature concerns for women but not men. These findings contribute to the broader field of multicultural body image research and may help to account for specific culturally salient appearance concerns within samples of young Chinese women and men.

  12. Swimsuit issues: promoting positive body image in young women's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Elizabeth Reid; Moncrieff-Boyd, Jessica

    2011-08-01

    This preliminary study reviews the promotion of healthy body image to young Australian women, following the 2009 introduction of the voluntary Industry Code of Conduct on Body Image. The Code includes using diverse sized models in magazines. A qualitative content analysis of the 2010 annual 'swimsuit issues' was conducted on 10 Australian young women's magazines. Pictorial and/or textual editorial evidence of promoting diverse body shapes and sizes was regarded as indicative of the magazines' upholding aspects of the voluntary Code of Conduct for Body Image. Diverse sized models were incorporated in four of the seven magazines with swimsuit features sampled. Body size differentials were presented as part of the swimsuit features in three of the magazines sampled. Tips for diverse body type enhancement were included in four of the magazines. All magazines met at least one criterion. One magazine displayed evidence of all three criteria. Preliminary examination suggests that more than half of young women's magazines are upholding elements of the voluntary Code of Conduct for Body Image, through representation of diverse-sized women in their swimsuit issues.

  13. Why some women look young for their age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, David A; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2009-01-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely...... unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun......-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked...

  14. Vegetarianism in young women: another means of weight control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbody, S M; Kirk, S F; Hill, A J

    1999-07-01

    To investigate the links between vegetarianism (meat avoidance) and weight control in young women. Self-reported food habits (indicating meat avoidance and weight loss dieting) and dietary restraint (using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire [DEBQ]) were collected from 131 young adult women. Restraint scores and weight loss behavior were compared between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. In addition, reasons for meat avoidance were identified in the vegetarian subjects. Vegetarianism, broadly defined, was reported by 34.3% of participants. Vegetarians had significantly higher dietary restraint, but did not differ in current dieting. The relationship between vegetarianism and weight control is complex. Vegetarianism may be best seen as a method for complicating the normalization of eating rather than a simple risk factor for eating disorders.

  15. Young adult women's experiences of body image after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janet F; Hoegh-Petersen, Mette; Larsen, Tine B

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To understand the lived experience of body image in young women after obesity surgery. BACKGROUND: Quantitative studies have documented that health-related quality of life and body image are improved after bariatric surgery, probably due to significant weight loss. Female obesity surgery...... candidates are likely to be motivated by dissatisfaction regarding physical appearance. However, little is known about the experience of the individual woman, leaving little understanding of the association between bariatric surgery and changes in health-related quality of life and body image. DESIGN......: A qualitative descriptive phenomenological study. METHODS: Data were collected over 4 months during 2010. Selection for interview was carried out through purposeful sampling. The participants were five young women who underwent bariatric surgery (range: 1-12 months). In-depth, semi-structured interviews were...

  16. Acute Coronary Syndrome: The Risk to Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Beatrice; Cenko, Edina; Vasiljevic, Zorana; Stankovic, Goran; Kedev, Sasko; Kalpak, Oliver; Vavlukis, Marija; Zdravkovic, Marija; Hinic, Sasa; Milicic, Davor; Manfrini, Olivia; Badimon, Lina; Bugiardini, Raffaele

    2017-12-22

    Although acute coronary syndrome (ACS) mainly occurs in patients >50 years, younger patients can be affected as well. We used an age cutoff of 45 years to investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes of "young" patients with ACS. Between October 2010 and April 2016, 14 931 patients with ACS were enrolled in the ISACS-TC (International Survey of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Transitional Countries) registry. Of these patients, 1182 (8%) were aged ≤45 years (mean age, 40.3 years; 15.8% were women). The primary end point was 30-day all-cause mortality. Percentage diameter stenosis of ≤50% was defined as insignificant coronary disease. ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction was the most common clinical manifestation of ACS in the young cases (68% versus 59.6%). Young patients had a higher incidence of insignificant coronary artery disease (11.4% versus 10.1%) and lesser extent of significant disease (single vessel, 62.7% versus 46.6%). The incidence of 30-day death was 1.3% versus 6.9% for the young and older patients, respectively. After correction for baseline and clinical differences, age ≤45 years was a predictor of survival in men (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.58), but not in women (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-3.62). This pattern of reversed risk among sexes held true after multivariable correction for in-hospital medications and reperfusion therapy. Moreover, younger women had worse outcomes than men of a similar age (odds ratio, 6.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.07-17.53). ACS at a young age is characterized by less severe coronary disease and high prevalence of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Women have higher mortality than men. Young age is an independent predictor of lower 30-day mortality in men, but not in women. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01218776. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  17. Effects of taurine intake on serum lipids in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadako Matsui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taurine is an abundant amino acid in human cells, promoting ocular and biliary health, which is also used to treat congestive heart failure, hypertension, and hepatitis. Recently, taurine-enriched energy drinks have become popular with young adults, but the effects of taurine on serum lipids in young adults are unknown. Objective: We studied the influence of oral administration of taurine on serum lipid levels in healthy young women. Methods: Ten healthy young women with a mean body mass index of 20.0kg/m2, apolipoprotein E (apoE phenotype 3/3 and normal menstrual cycles participated. Each subject was instructed to orally ingest 1g of taurine powder after each meal (3g/day in addition to their usual diets during one menstrual cycle. Before and at the end of taurine intake, physical measurements and blood collection were performed in the morning after a 12-h fast, and 3-day weighted dietary records were obtained. Concentrations of serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction were measured. Results: The subjects showed good compliance with taurine intake and none reported adverse effects during the experimental period. After taurine intake, concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, free cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB increased (p<0.05, while phospholipids tended to increase (p=0.051. Fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction also significantly increased (p<0.05. However, triglyceride, remnant-like particle cholesterol, remnant-like particle triglyceride, apoE, the apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA- 1/apoB ratio and the LDL-C/apoB ratio were unchanged. Furthermore, body weight was significantly increased (p<0.01, but did not correlate with changes either in serum lipids or nutrient intakes. Conclusion: These results suggest that high taurine intake affects lipoprotein metabolism and increases serum lipids in slightly lean young women.

  18. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  19. Non-Heterosexuality, Relationships, and Young Women's Contraceptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ela, Elizabeth J; Budnick, Jamie

    2017-06-01

    Non-heterosexual young women have a higher rate of unintended pregnancy than their heterosexual peers, but their fertility behaviors are understudied. We use longitudinal data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study to investigate mechanisms contributing to non-heterosexual women's higher pregnancy risk. These data include weekly reports of relationships, sex, and contraceptive use over 30 months. We compare the relationships and fertility behaviors of three groups: exclusively heterosexual (consistent heterosexual behavior, identity, and attraction); mostly heterosexual (heterosexual identity with same-sex behavior and/or same-sex attraction); and LGBTQ (any non-heterosexual identity). We find that mostly heterosexual and LGBTQ women behave differently from exclusively heterosexual women in ways likely to elevate their risk of unintended pregnancy: more distinct partners during the study period, more sexual intercourse with men, less frequent contraceptive use, less use of a dual method (condom plus hormonal method), and more gaps in contraceptive coverage. Mostly heterosexual women resemble LGBTQ women in their contraceptive behavior but have significantly more intercourse with men, which may increase their pregnancy risk relative to both LGBTQ and exclusively heterosexual women. We conclude by considering implications for LGBTQ health and the measurement of sexual minority populations.

  20. Practical Advice for Emergency IUD Contraception in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstuck, Norman D; Wildemeersch, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Too few women are aware of the very high efficacy of intrauterine copper devices (IUDs) to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. Women who frequently engage in unprotected intercourse or seek emergency contraception (EC) are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy and possible abortion. It is therefore important that these women receive precise and accurate information about intrauterine devices as they may benefit from using an IUD for EC as continuing contraception. Copper IUDs should be used as first choice options given their rapid onset of action and their long-term contraceptive action which require minimal thought or intervention on the part of the user. In the United States, there is only one copper IUD presently available which limits treatment options. There are numerous copper IUDs available for use in EC, however, their designs and size are not always optimal for use in nulliparous women or women with smaller or narrower uteruses. Utilization of frameless IUDs which do not require a larger transverse arm for uterine retention may have distinct advantages, particularly in young women, as they will be suitable for use in all women irrespective of uterine size. This paper provides practical information on EC use with emphasis on the use of the frameless IUD.

  1. Practical Advice for Emergency IUD Contraception in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman D. Goldstuck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Too few women are aware of the very high efficacy of intrauterine copper devices (IUDs to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. Women who frequently engage in unprotected intercourse or seek emergency contraception (EC are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy and possible abortion. It is therefore important that these women receive precise and accurate information about intrauterine devices as they may benefit from using an IUD for EC as continuing contraception. Copper IUDs should be used as first choice options given their rapid onset of action and their long-term contraceptive action which require minimal thought or intervention on the part of the user. In the United States, there is only one copper IUD presently available which limits treatment options. There are numerous copper IUDs available for use in EC, however, their designs and size are not always optimal for use in nulliparous women or women with smaller or narrower uteruses. Utilization of frameless IUDs which do not require a larger transverse arm for uterine retention may have distinct advantages, particularly in young women, as they will be suitable for use in all women irrespective of uterine size. This paper provides practical information on EC use with emphasis on the use of the frameless IUD.

  2. Dance practice and well-being correlates in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Artero, Natàlia

    2017-01-01

    Clinical research has shown the mental health benefits of dance practice. This has become a significant subject of inquiry in psychotherapeutic settings for the elderly and adolescents. However, the relationship between dance practice and correlates of psychological well-being, such as mindfulness and life satisfaction (LS)-two relevant indicators of mental health, has been explored relatively little in young women. The present study contrasted mindfulness and LS in young women (n = 81) who practiced dance regularly in three modern dance schools in the Province of Barcelona with a control group of non-practitioners (n = 120) studying at a university in Barcelona. The data were collected during the first semester of 2015, and the total sample had an average age of 20.88 ± 3.36 years. Analyses of covariance showed higher levels of both mindfulness and LS in the dance practitioners, while a multiple regression analysis showed that, after controlling for age, dance was the factor most strongly associated with LS, explaining 28% of the variance in LS. These results are discussed in terms of the embodiment theory, and conclusions suggest that dance may be an effective gender-focused practice to enhance well-being and promote mental health in young women.

  3. Why Some Women Look Young for Their Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, David A.; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Murray, Peter G.; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D.; Tomlin, Cyrena C.; Strongitharm, Barbara H.; Perrett, Dave I.; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Green, Martin R.; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age. PMID:19956599

  4. Why some women look young for their age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gunn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age.

  5. Asymptomatic dystrophinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrone, A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Florence (Italy); Hoffman, E.P.; Hoop, R.C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-03-31

    A 4-year-old girl was referred for evaluation for a mild but persistent serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation detected incidentally during routine blood screening for a skin infection. Serum creatine kinase activity was found to be increased. Immuno-histochemical study for dystrophin in her muscle biopsy showed results consistent with a carrier state for muscular dystrophy. Molecular work-up showed the proposita to be a carrier of a deletion mutation of exon 48 of the dystrophin gene. Four male relatives also had the deletion mutation, yet showed no clinical symptoms of muscular dystrophy (age range 8-58 yrs). Linkage analysis of the dystrophin gene in the family showed a spontaneous change of an STR45 allele, which could be due to either an intragenic double recombination event, or CA repeat length mutation leading to identical size alleles. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of an asymptomatic dystrophinopathy in multiple males of advanced age. Based on molecular findings, this family would be given a diagnosis of Becker muscular dystrophy. This diagnosis implies the development of clinical symptoms, even though this family is clearly asymptomatic. This report underscores the caution which must be exercised when giving presymptomatic diagnoses based on molecular studies. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Social Provisions and Young Women's Health-Related Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvick, Jocelyn D; Spink, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors involved in being active enough for health benefits is necessary to promote health-related physical activity. Given the documented role of social support in women's activity (Molloy et al. 2010), this study examined the relationship between Weiss's (1974) social provisions and health-related physical activity in young women. College undergraduate women (N = 136) from a kinesiology course completed a modified Social Provisions Scale (Cutrona and Russell 1987) and reported on the physical activity they engaged in with others over a 4-week period in the fall of 2011. We used average daily energy expenditure, calculated based on participants' reported activity involvement, to classify participants as either sufficiently or insufficiently active (Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Research Institute 1999). A logistic regression using sufficient/insufficient activity levels for health as the dependent variable revealed that the six provisions reliably differentiated between those who were active enough for health benefits versus not. Of the six, two provisions were significantly associated with health-related physical activity--specifically, those who held higher perceptions of reassurance of worth and social integration were more likely to be in the sufficiently-active group. These results provide an initial indication of the specific social provisions associated with young women who are active enough to achieve health benefits.

  7. Breast cancer, psychological distress and life events among young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoham-Vardi Ilana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 1983, studies have suggested an interaction between the severe life events, psychological distress and the etiology of Cancer. However, these associations are still under dispute. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between life events, psychological distress and Breast Cancer (BC among young women. Methods A case control study. The study population included 622 women, under the age of 45 years. 255 were diagnosed for BC, and 367 were healthy women. A validated Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI and Life Event Questionnaire were used. Results The cases presented significantly higher scores of depression compared to the controls and significant lower scores of happiness and optimism. A significant difference was found when comparing the groups according to the cumulative number of life events (two or more events. A multivariate analysis suggest that exposure to more than one life event is positively associated with BC [Odds Ratio(OR :1.62 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.09–2.40], and that a general feeling of happiness and optimism has a "protective effect" on the etiology of BC. (OR-0.75, 95% CI:0.64–0.86. Conclusion Young women who were exposed to a number of life events, should be considered as a risk group for BC and treated accordingly.

  8. Maintaining fertility in young women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulvat, Melissa C; Jeruss, Jacqueline S

    2009-12-01

    Breast cancer effects nearly 200,000 American women each year, with 9% of these women still in their childbearing years. For this subset of future survivors, the issue of fertility may be a significant quality-of-life concern. Both the causes and treatments for infertility in young breast cancer patients must be thoroughly understood by the multidisciplinary team caring for these women in order for the caregivers to be effective advocates for their patients. Radiation, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy all effect ovarian function to greater or lesser degrees, with the incidence of permanent post-treatment amenorrhea following systemic treatment for breast cancer in women age 50 or younger estimated as between 33% and 76%. The science of fertility preservation continues to experience significant advances in terms of the success of oocyte, embryo, and ovarian tissue preservation, and it is crucial that physicians and patients are aware of the available fertility preservation options. The optimal time to address the possibility of treatment-related infertility and strategies to combat this with younger patients is prior to treatment, rather than after cancer therapy has begun, and a full knowledge of the available technologies is a prerequisite for an informed discussion. Causes of ovarian suppression and options for treatment, including consideration of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and alternative parenting approaches are also discussed to assist the clinician caring for young patients with cancer.

  9. "Sexual pleasure on equal terms": young women's ideal sexual situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmerstig, Eva; Wijma, Barbro; Sandell, Kerstin; Berterö, Carina

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify young women's ideal images of sexual situations and expectations on themselves in sexual situations. We conducted audio-taped qualitative individual interviews with 14 women aged 14 to 20 years, visiting two youth centers in Sweden. Data were analysed with constant comparative analysis, the basis of grounded theory methodology. The women's ideal sexual situations in heterosexual practice were characterized by sexual pleasure on equal terms, implying that no one dominates and both partners get pleasure. There were obstacles to reaching this ideal, such as influences from social norms and demands, and experiences of the partner's "own run". An incentive to reach the ideal sexual situation was the wish to experience the well of pleasure. Our research further accentuates the importance of finding ways to focus on the complexity of unequal gender norms in youth heterosexuality. A better understanding of these cognitions is essential and useful among professionals working with youths' sexual health.

  10. Alcohol use potentiates marijuana problem severity in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael D; Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    Most young adult women who smoke marijuana also drink alcohol. Marijuana-related problems are associated with marijuana use frequency. We hypothesized that increased alcohol use frequency potentiates the association between frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problem severity. We recruited women aged 18 to 24 who smoked marijuana at least monthly and were not treatment seeking. Marijuana and alcohol use were measured using the timeline follow-back method. Problems associated with marijuana use were assessed using the Marijuana Problems Scale. Participants (n = 332) averaged 20.5 ± 1.8 years of age, were 66.7% non-Hispanic White, and reported using marijuana on 51.5 ± 30.6 and alcohol on 18.9 ± 16.8 of the 90 previous days. Controlling for education, ethnicity, years of marijuana use, and other drug use, frequency of marijuana use (b = .22; p < .01) and frequency of alcohol use (b = 0.13; p < .05) had significant, positive effects on marijuana problem severity. In a separate multivariate model, the linear by linear interaction of marijuana by alcohol use frequency was significant (b = 0.18; p < .01), consistent with the hypothesis. Concurrent alcohol use impacts the experience of negative consequences from marijuana use in a community sample of young women. Discussions of marijuana use in young adults should consider the possible potentiating effects of alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Specialized programs to support young women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Martinez-Cannon, Bertha Alejandra; Platas, Alejandra; Ramos-Elias, Pier

    2015-09-01

    Because of the recognized impact of breast cancer and its treatment on a young woman's life, initiatives are being established worldwide. The main aim of this review was to describe existing specialized programs that support young women with breast cancer (YWBC), advances to date, current challenges and future actions. Current programs for YWBC are now educating professionals, patients, and communities on their specific needs. Also, support groups have helped break isolation and connect YWBC together. Research on biology, treatment, adverse effects, risk factors, genetics, and social aspects on YWBC is now being actively conducted. In low- and middle-income countries, the particular issues of young women are, however, still not systematically addressed, because of scarce funding, lack of awareness of YWBC needs, and deficient provider training. Practice guidelines and algorithms should be disseminated and available for their widespread use to allow standard clinical and supportive care for YWBC even in oncologic centers where no specific programs exist. Also, cancer centers should formally commit to financing, at least partially, dedicated services, and existing programs for YWBC, guaranteeing their continuity. Finally, interinstitutional and international collaborations should be encouraged to facilitate adequately powered research, to avoid repetitive efforts, and to promote knowledge sharing and translation.

  12. Young women selling sex online – narratives on regulating feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944

  13. Antecedents of Young Women's Sexual Risk Taking in Tourist Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdychevsky, Liza

    2015-11-17

    The purpose of this phenomenological exploration was to shed light on the constellation of factors anteceding young women's sexual risk taking during their tourist experiences. A total of 15 in-depth interviews (1.5 to 2.5 hours each) with 13 women were conducted and analyzed through the lens of transcendental phenomenology. An analysis of antecedent factors revealed a confluence of sociopersonal characteristics (e.g., sexual definitions, attitudes, double standards, and age) and touristic attributes (e.g., the sense of temporariness/ephemerality, anonymity, and fun-oriented mentality depending on length, destination, and type of tourist experience) that underlie women's proclivity for and perceptions of sexual risk taking in certain travel scenarios. These result in myriad effects on physical, sexual health, sociocultural, mental, and emotional aspects of women's health and well-being. While the sociopersonal antecedents highlight the cross-pollination between sex-related perceptions in everyday life and touristic environments, the touristic antecedents emphasize the uniqueness of tourist experiences as the contexts for sexual risk taking. The findings address an underresearched topic in sex and tourism scholarship and offer implications for health education and intervention programs, pointing to the value of constructing the context-specific and gender-sensitive sexual health messages underpinned by the ideas of women's empowerment and sexual agency.

  14. Young women's experiences of intrusive behavior in 12 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Lorraine; Scott, Adrian J; Roberts, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides international comparisons of young women's (N = 1,734) self-reported experiences of intrusive activities enacted by men. Undergraduate psychology students from 12 countries (Armenia, Australia, England, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Scotland, and Trinidad) indicated which of 47 intrusive activities they had personally experienced. Intrusive behavior was not uncommon overall, although large differences were apparent between countries when women's personal experiences of specific intrusive activities were compared. Correlations were carried out between self-reported intrusive experiences, the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), and Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures. The primary associations were between women's experiences of intrusive behavior and the level of power they are afforded within the 12 countries. Women from countries with higher GEM scores reported experiencing more intrusive activities relating to courtship and requests for sex, while the experiences of women from countries with lower GEM scores related more to monitoring and ownership. Intrusive activities, many of them constituent of harassment and stalking, would appear to be widespread and universal, and their incidence and particular form reflect national level gender inequalities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Determination of Optimum Vitamin D Nutrition in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    2009 10/1/2009 No 60017 crampinq in leqs 10/1/2009 11/1/2009 No 60018 headaches 10/5/2009 No 65 60019 sleep apnea ( obstructive & central...completed the study one year later. The final results show the response to oral vitamin D is the same in both Caucasian and African American young women. The...recommendations. Below is the background to the IOM Part of science standard for federal nutrition guidance HHS/USDA [Department of Health and Human Services

  16. Girls and Young Women Living in the Slums of Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence and correlates of victimization among girls and young women in Kampala. The study population, a convenience sample of youth living in the slums, were 14 to 24 years of age, and participants in community-based drop-in centers (N = 313. Overall, the prevalence of physical fights (37%, being threatened or injured with a weapon (28%, and being raped (30% was high and increased with age. Multivariate analyses revealed that sadness, drunkenness, and hunger were associated with multiple forms of victimization. Findings suggest that additional services are needed to address the cumulative impact of victimizations, depression, and living conditions.

  17. Introduction to workshop on iron screening and supplementation in iron-replete pregnant women and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christine L; Brannon, Patsy M

    2017-12-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements convened a public workshop on iron screening and supplementation in iron-replete pregnant women and young children in 2016 in Bethesda, Maryland. The starting point for the workshop was the recent reports from the US Preventive Services Task Force concluding that there was insufficient evidence to evaluate the benefits and harms associated with iron screening and routine supplementation among asymptomatic pregnant women and young children (6-24 mo old) in the United States. The goal of the workshop was to explore and refine understanding about the existing knowledge gaps and research needs associated with these preventive services for these groups. Given the focus on the United States, planning for the workshop took into account the higher iron status in the United States compared with developing countries and, in turn, included a focus on iron-replete individuals consistent with the U-shaped risk curve for nutrient-health relations. Topic areas included adaptations in iron homeostasis associated with pregnancy and young childhood, the impact of inflammation, measurement of iron status, current estimates of iron status for pregnant women and young children in the United States and in Europe, and emerging evidence suggesting adverse effects associated with iron supplementation of iron-replete individuals. A crosscutting dialogue conducted at the close of the workshop formed the basis for a workshop summary that specified evidence gaps and research needs in a range of areas centered on the relation of these adaptations of iron homeostasis with the response to and risk from iron supplementation as well as the need for indicators informative of the full continuum of iron status and based on health outcomes, not just erythropoiesis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Young women selling sex online – narratives on regulating feelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonsson LS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Linda S Jonsson,1 Carl Göran Svedin,1 Margareta Hydén2 1Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden Abstract: The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9. Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help

  19. Physics education: Understanding the barriers for young women in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainhood, Lindsay Ann

    In nearly all countries of the world, at every level of education, physics as a field of science is failing to recruit and retain women. This phenomenon is believed to relate to girls' educational experiences from K-12, but the reasons for the gender gap in physics are not fully understood. The purpose of this phenomenological research is to explore and understand the barriers encountered by Ontario female high school students during their physics education and the meanings attributed to those barriers by these young women. This research is guided by social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and uses the concept of physics identity as a lens through which the influence of contextual barriers can be understood. Nine participants, selected via snowball sampling from an Eastern Ontario university, together participated in four semi-structured focus group meetings and individually participated in a single in-depth, one-on-one interview. Audio data was transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a general inductive approach. Emergent themes are descriptively presented as the findings of the research study: perceiving the high school physics experience, experiencing high school physics education, and identity and gender in the high school physics experience. Sub-themes presented include limited prior experiences, negative perceptions of physics, images of physics learners, decision-making, reactions to pedagogy, learning needs, physics identity, gender-dependent influences, and making meaning of the experiences in high school physics. The shared experience of high school physics education for young women is understood as both a richly challenging and rewarding experience. Based on the findings of this research, recommendations are made for practical and research settings, and for future work in this area. Drawing on literature on underrepresentation of women in physics, this research contributes to the physics education research community and beyond; it offers voices of Ontario

  20. International summit on the nutrition of adolescent girls and young women: consensus statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Nancy; Bagby, Susan; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Dewey, Kathryn; Fall, Caroline; Gregory, Fred; Hay, William; Rhuman, Lisa; Caldwell, Christine Wallace

    2017-01-01

    An international summit focusing on the difficult challenge of providing adequate nutrition for adolescent girls and young women in low‐ and middle‐income countries was held in Portland, Oregon in 2015. Sixty‐seven delegates from 17 countries agreed on a series of recommendations that would make progress toward improving the nutritional status of girls and young women in countries where their access to nutrition is compromised. Delegate recommendations include: (1) elevate the urgency of nutrition for girls and young women to a high international priority, (2) raise the social status of girls and young women in all regions of the world, (3) identify major knowledge gaps in the biology of adolescence that could be filled by robust research efforts, (4) and improve access to nutrient‐rich foods for girls and young women. Attention to these recommendations would improve the health of young women in all nations of the world. PMID:28722768

  1. Molecular evaluation of 7 sexually transmissible microorganisms in symptomatic and asymptomatic Italian childbearing age women: is Ureaplasma parvum a real innocent bystander?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Avolio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Symptoms of most common bacterial and parasitic sexually transmitted infections tend to be non-specific and typically have a variety of different potential causal agents that may require different treatments. In this field the pathogenic potential of genital Ureaplasma species is still uncertain and debated. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and Ureaplasma parvum (UP in a cohort of symptomatic and asymptomatic childbearing age women and to assess the relationships between bacterial vaginosis and symptoms with both UU and UP. Materials and Methods: DNA of 2735 endocervical specimens was consecutively analysed by a commercial multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of 7 multiple target sequences simultaneously: CT, NG, TV, MG, MH, UU and UP. Results: Out of the total number of population studied (n=2735, UP was found to be the species with highest prevalence (30.9% followed by MH (6.5%, UU (6.3%, CT (2.6%, MG (0.8% and TV (0.9%. UP single species detection was extremely significant in symptomatic women with normal flora (P<0.0001. The correlation of UP in symptomatic women with bacterial vaginosis was not significant (P=0.3387. Conclusions: Our results suggest a potential specific etiological role to UP, still considered rightly or wrongly innocent bystander, despite the lack so far of specific-species culture tests.

  2. Security lies in obedience - Voices of young women of a slum in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson Eva; Hamid Saima; Rubenson Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Existing literature shows that young people, especially women, have poor knowledge about sexuality and reproductive health. Many of the difficulties young women experience are related to beliefs and expectations in society making them more vulnerable to reproductive ill health. The objective of this study was to explore how young women living in a slum in Islamabad are prepared for marriage and how they understand and perceive their transition to marriage and the start of ...

  3. Recollections of puberty and disordered eating in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah R; McKone, Kirsten M P; Mendle, Jane

    2016-12-01

    Puberty begins a period of vulnerability for disordered eating that is maintained and amplified through adolescence and early adulthood. In the present study, we test the association between young women's recollections of physical maturation and disordered eating outcomes in early adulthood. Participants comprised N = 421 female undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university in the United States (Mage = 19.7 years). Three models assessed the relative contributions of recollected puberty (perceptions of changes and preparedness, and timing of puberty), current contextual (social support, romantic bond, sorority or sport participation), and demographic (race, socioeconomic status, family structure) variables to three eating-disorder outcomes. Recollections of feeling unprepared and disliking the physical changes of puberty predicted eating disorder symptoms more than any other demographic or current contextual factor. Results indicate that how young women experience the pubertal transition is related to eating disorder symptoms many years later. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Breast Cancer in Young Women: Clinical Decision-Making in the Face of Uncertainty: 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathryn J Ruddy; Ann H Partridge

    2009-01-01

      Dr. Peppercorn reviews significant controversies regarding optimal care for young women with breast cancer, emphasizing the fragile balance between maximizing reduction of recurrence risk and minimizing...

  5. Effect of stress on pain perception in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Kholoud S; Al-Sheikh, Mona H

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of physical and mental stressors on pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pressure pain tolerance (PTOL) values, and to compare these different types of stressors on its ability to affect PPT and PTOL values in young women. We also correlated body mass index (BMI) with PPT and PTOL in young women. This was a self-controlled study carried out on 79 second-year female medical students in the Department of Physiology, King Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia during the year 2007. The students were assessed before, and after they were subjected to a mental (exam), and 2 physical stressors. Measurements of PPT and PTOL were carried out using a pressure algometer. The 2 physical stressors used were: cold water immersion and isometric exercise (ISO EX) with a dynamometer. Students' body mass indices were measured in addition to the measurement of blood pressure and heart rate for each student before, and after exposure to the stressors. All 3 stressors significantly increased the PPT values (p=0.000). The PTOL was also significantly increased immediately after exposure to the physical stressors (p=0.000), while for the mental stressor, the PTOL readings were not significantly increased. Among the 3 types of stressors, the cold water immersion was the most effective in increasing PPT and PTOL. Moreover, a significant (p=0.009) negative correlation was demonstrated between the BMI and PTOL readings. Various types of physical and mental stressors significantly increased PPT and PTOL readings in young female adults, in addition to the significant findings that students with higher body mass indices tolerated pain less.

  6. Acute coronary syndrome in young women under 55 years of age: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda; Diamond, Jamie; Montgomery, Daniel; Krishnan, Sangeetha; Eagle, Kim; Jackson, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Young women with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may represent a high risk group, but little is known about specific age and sex differences in clinical characteristics, treatment, outcomes, and trends over time. Data from 3237 men and women admitted with an ACS event from 1999 to 2006 were analyzed. Patients were grouped by sex and age less than 55 years. Demographics, presentation, treatment, and outcomes at 6 months were analyzed. Primary outcomes included mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction, rehospitalization, and stroke at 6 months. Secondary analyses assessed risk factors, management, and trends over time. Women under 55 years represented 8% of the entire cohort, and 26% of patients under age 55 years. Compared to older women, young women were more likely to be smokers (51 vs. 14%, p < 0.001) and obese (44 vs. 34%, p = 0.006). Young women had more diabetes and hypertension than young men. Mortality was lowest among young women and did not change over time. Young women received less treatment with aspirin, beta blockers, lipid-lowering agents, and ACE inhibitors, and underwent less coronary angiography and stenting than young men (44 vs. 59%, p < 0.001). Rehospitalization was higher among young women than young men (37 vs. 27%, p < 0.001), with no change over time. Modifiable risk factors such as smoking, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension should be addressed in young women. Following ACS, young women received fewer evidence-based medications, were treated less invasively, and had higher readmission rates within 6 months compared to young men.

  7. Interactions between risky decisions, impulsiveness and smoking in young tattooed women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kertzman, Semion; Kagan, Alex; Vainder, Michael; Lapidus, Rina; Weizman, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    ... conducted. This study investigates whether risk taking decision-making is associated with the self-assessment impulsiveness in tattooed women. Young women (aged 18-35 years) with (N = 60) and without (N = 60...

  8. Evaluation of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis among young women in primary health care services in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Dária; Sabidó, Meritxell; Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Benzaken, Nina Schwartz; Jardim, Lucília; Ferreira, Cynthia; Leturiondo, André; Santos, Camila Gurgel Dos; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2016-10-20

    Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis is not routinely offered to young asymptomatic women in Brazil. This study evaluated the performance, usefulness, and operational suitability of the Digene Hybrid Capture II (HCII) CT-ID DNA-test as an opportunistic screening tool to detect C. trachomatis in the public health system in Manaus, Amazonas State. Women aged 14-25 years who attended primary health care services were interviewed and one cervical specimen was collected during cytological screening. The HCII CT test was evaluated for its ability to detect the presence of C. trachomatis and against real-time PCR (q-PCR) in a subset of samples. Operational performance was assessed through interviews with providers and patients. Overall, 1,187 women were screened, and 1,169 had a HCII CT-ID test result (292 of these were also tested by q-PCR). Of those, 13.1% (n = 153) were positive. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of HCII CT were 72.3% (95%CI: 65.4-78.6), 91.3% (95%CI: 84.1-95.9), 93.8% (95%CI: 88.5-97.1), and 64.4% (95%CI: 56.0-72.1), respectively. Sample collection caused discomfort in 19.7% of women. Among health professionals (n = 52), the main barriers reported included positive cases who did not return for results (56.4%), unwillingness to screen without an appointment (45.1%), and increase in their workload (38.8%). HCII CT-ID identified a high proportion of C. trachomatis cases among young women in Manaus. However, its moderate sensitivity limits its use as an opportunistic screening tool in primary health care settings in Manaus. Screening was well accepted although the barriers we identified, especially among health professionals, challenge screening detection and treatment efforts.

  9. Evaluation of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis among young women in primary health care services in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dária Neves

    Full Text Available Abstract: Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis is not routinely offered to young asymptomatic women in Brazil. This study evaluated the performance, usefulness, and operational suitability of the Digene Hybrid Capture II (HCII CT-ID DNA-test as an opportunistic screening tool to detect C. trachomatis in the public health system in Manaus, Amazonas State. Women aged 14-25 years who attended primary health care services were interviewed and one cervical specimen was collected during cytological screening. The HCII CT test was evaluated for its ability to detect the presence of C. trachomatis and against real-time PCR (q-PCR in a subset of samples. Operational performance was assessed through interviews with providers and patients. Overall, 1,187 women were screened, and 1,169 had a HCII CT-ID test result (292 of these were also tested by q-PCR. Of those, 13.1% (n = 153 were positive. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of HCII CT were 72.3% (95%CI: 65.4-78.6, 91.3% (95%CI: 84.1-95.9, 93.8% (95%CI: 88.5-97.1, and 64.4% (95%CI: 56.0-72.1, respectively. Sample collection caused discomfort in 19.7% of women. Among health professionals (n = 52, the main barriers reported included positive cases who did not return for results (56.4%, unwillingness to screen without an appointment (45.1%, and increase in their workload (38.8%. HCII CT-ID identified a high proportion of C. trachomatis cases among young women in Manaus. However, its moderate sensitivity limits its use as an opportunistic screening tool in primary health care settings in Manaus. Screening was well accepted although the barriers we identified, especially among health professionals, challenge screening detection and treatment efforts.

  10. Activation of antioxidant defenses in whole saliva by psychosocial stress is more manifested in young women than in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Tsuber

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men.

  11. Keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in young African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Quaker E; Laughlin, Shannon K; Baird, Donna D

    2013-01-01

    Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF), is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic) scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid) and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number) and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3%) and fibroids (23.3%) were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 0.7 (0.5-1.1)] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.

  12. Keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in young African American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaker E Harmon

    Full Text Available Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women.The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF, is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests.Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3% and fibroids (23.3% were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval: 0.7 (0.5-1.1] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring.Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.

  13. Young Women's Conference in STEM: Our starting point for getting women into STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Deedee; Zwicker, Andrew; Greco, Shannon; Dominguez, Arturo

    2015-11-01

    The number of women in STEM careers is staggeringly low; just one in seven engineers are female and only 27% of all computer science jobs are held by women. A recent US Dept. of Commerce report found that between 2000-2011 women experienced no employment growth in STEM jobs. According to the AIP, the percentage of women in physics overall is 26% and women make up less than 7% of the fusion energy workforce. To address this problem we have, since 2001, run a conference to introduce young women to the wide range of careers in STEM fields in a way that is not part of their typical education. By introducing students in a meaningful way to successful women in STEM, from graduate students to senior researchers, the intent of the conference is to foster interest, develop mentoring relationships, and to provide role models that will have a positive influence on future educational and career choices. Data from surveys indicate that this is indeed the impact. For example, 86% of 2015 attendees indicated they are more likely to major in a scientific field after attending the conference then they were before. We are now in the process of expanding and improving the conference in order to reach more students and increase the overall impact.

  14. Feelings and perceptions about the relationship among young palestinians and young israeli women

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Casarotti Peirano; EST

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this essay is based on a personal concern and interest in young women. Being in Israel/Palestine my interest gained a fundamental and regional orientation's sit to illustrate this point: the Israeli State celebrates sixty years of its foundation while the Palestinians commemorate sixty years of Nakba - Nakba is an Arabic word that means catastrophe or disaster and it is used to designate the Palestinian exodus due to the Arab-Israeli war in 1948. Both sides are suffering from this ...

  15. "Lamyai" teaches young Thai women about AIDS and STDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, K; Anasuchatkul, B; Busayawong, W

    1994-01-01

    The young women 13-21 years of age who migrate in large numbers from villages in Northern Thailand to obtain employment in urban factories comprise a group at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To encourage these women to protect themselves from infection, workplace projects were developed in textile factories in Chiang Mai. Pre-project research conducted among 250 female factory workers revealed good awareness of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) coupled with a perception of personal invulnerability and a reluctance to request that partners use condoms due to fears of being considered promiscuous. To address these issues, a romantic illustrated novel about a factory worker who is infected with the AIDS virus by her fiance and a humorous comic book featuring "Brother Protector Condom" were prepared. The materials were introduced to groups of 10 or more women led by either trained peer educators or health promoters. Participants overcame initial shyness about the explicit pictures and reported the group meetings gave them confidence to talk to their sexual partners about condom use. Post-intervention evaluation showed that peer-led groups were most effective in improving self-esteem, communication skills, and commitment to AIDS prevention. Although the health promoters had more in-depth knowledge of AIDS and human reproduction, they tended to lecture rather than facilitate discussion. Moreover, the age and educational differences between the factory workers and health promoters impeded the trust and open discussion that developed in peer-led groups.

  16. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Lauren E.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336

  17. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Joly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45 of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61 of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability.

  18. Diagnostic Value of PCR and ELISA for Chlamydia trachomatis in a Group of Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Women in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Jenab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent sexually transmittedbacterial infections (STI in the world that lead to a cause of tubal factor infertility in women. Theaim of this study is to determine the presence of C.trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction (PCRand ELISA.Materials and Methods: Endocervical swabs were collected from 80 women; 22 of them wereasymptomatic and 58 symptomatic. Samples were examined by PCR designed to detect Chlamydialplasmid using specific KL1 and KL2 primers. Serum IgG and IgA antibodies to C.trachomatiswere detected by ELISA. Since elevated CRP levels are a marker for inflammation, the presence ofC- Reactive protein (CRP has also been evaluated in all samples.Results: The rate of C.trachomatis infection by PCR was revealed to be 27.2% and 18.9% inasymptomatic and symptomatic women, respectively The χ2 test shows no significant difference(p value= 0.22. Serological screening was done on all samples. The high level of IgG and IgAto C.trachomatis infection was 29.4% and 17.6%, respectively. The presence of high levels ofCRP, as a serological marker of persistence infection, was 31.8% and 34.4% in asymptomaticand symptomatic women, respectively. The high rate of CRP level in the samples indicates acuteinfections in both groups.Conclusion: Genital C.trachomatis infection is the leading cause of tubal factor infertility. Thepresent study shows that C.trachomatis infection could be present in symptomatic as well asasymptomatic women. Therefore, a screening test for C.trachomatis infection is recommended forall women who refer to gynecologic outpatient departments in Isfahan and other parts of Iran.

  19. Young African women must have empowering and receptive social environments for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Cath

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study which explored the lives of young Ugandan women through their voices, and related the findings to HIV prevention paradigms. The research was conducted in the context of the continuing vulnerability of young Ugandan women to HIV; reflected in disproportionately high prevalence compared to young men. The participants of the study were 15 young women aged 15-19 years, from Busoga Region in Eastern Uganda. Given the focus on young women's voices within norms of gender inequality, a narrative methodology was used as a safe space for participants to speak about their lives, expanding on research experiences with young people. The methods used included drawing; written stories and drama; aspirational writing and diary keeping. Forty-eight narratives, in image and word form, represented everyday experiences in young women's lives, as well as difficult experiences of inequality and resistance. Young women portrayed considerable social barriers to empowerment, and a challenging environment of poverty and educational limitations. Young women's representations were analysed using a gender empowerment and positive sexuality framework. The resulting analysis was then critically applied to HIV prevention paradigms. Evidence from the study showed that prevailing HIV prevention paradigms reinforce the difficulties faced by young women in their sexual lives. This research adds to calls for alternative and wider approaches to HIV prevention, underpinned by gender empowerment. Alternative approaches need to build young African women's voices in the spaces of homes, schools and communities. It is vital, however, that such efforts are embedded in more radical change leading to social environments receptive to the needs of young women.

  20. Lower peripheral circulation in eumenorrheic young women with premenstrual symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsumi Noriyuki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A majority of women from all cultures and socioeconomic levels experience diverse psychosomatic and behavioral symptoms premenstrually, a phenomenon commonly termed premenstrual syndrome, although symptoms and discomfort levels vary from woman to woman. The underlying pathological mechanisms of premenstrual syndrome remain unknown; however, altered function or even slight disorder of the blood circulation system, which contributes to the orchestrations of the human internal environment, could cause bio-psychological changes leading to complaints and ultimately compromising a woman's overall health. The present study, therefore, investigates to what extent and how the menstrual cyclicity of peripheral circulation is associated with premenstrual symptomatology. Methods Twenty-one eumenorrheic young women participated in this study. All subjects were investigated during the follicular and late luteal phases. Cycle phase was determined by the onset of menstruation and oral temperature and was verified by concentrations of ovarian hormones, estrone, and pregnanediol in a urine sample taken early in the morning. Peripheral circulation was evaluated with the Astrim (Sysmex, Kobe, a portable non-invasive monitoring device using the principle of near-infrared spectroscopy, which calculates the venous oxygenation index (VOI based on the ratio of light absorption of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, a proven reliable indicator of peripheral blood circulation. The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was applied to measure physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms accompanying the menstrual cycle of the subjects. Results The oral temperature and urinary ovarian hormones adjusted for creatinine significantly increased in the late luteal phase in all subjects. While 10 subjects experienced no symptoms during the menstrual cycle, 11 subjects had apparent physical and psychological discomfort in the late luteal phase. We found that VOI

  1. Occurrence of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Young Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Menezes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although acute leukaemia is rare in pregnancy its importance lies in its life-threatening potential, both to the child and the mother. The possibility of vertical transmission of leukemic cells increases the attention devoted to these patients and their offspring. Three cases of pregnant young women (15-17 years of age with AML are presented. This series of cases is the first report where gene abnormalities such as ITD mutations of the FLT3 gene and AML1/ETO fusion genes were screened in pregnant AML patients and their babies, so far. Unfortunately, very poor outcomes have been associated to similar cases described in literature, and the same was true to the patients described herein. Although very speculative, we think that the timing and possible similar exposures would be involved in all cases.

  2. [An asymptomatic chronic hypokalaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Marie-Pierre; Cheminel, Valérie; Crevon, Lionel; Dubourg, Laurence; Hadj-Aissa, Aoumeur; Mounier, Chantal; Prevosto, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic patient presenting a severe chronic renal hypokalaemia. Once being sure of no diuretics use, two hypothesis can be mentioned for a normotensive patient presenting an hypokalaemia associated with a metabolic alcalosis: Bartter syndrome or Gitelman syndrome. The highlighting of low magnesaemia and hypocalciuria strongly concentrates the diagnosis on Gitelman syndrome. First, this has been strengthened by the results of renal function tests and later it has confirmed by molecular diagnosis with the identification of a known homozygous mutation on SLC12A3 gene. In the patient family, the same chromosomal abnormality has been found in the young sister. For these two patients the treatment ordered is an antikaliuretic diuretic, magnesium and potassium supplements. This case shows the difficulty to diagnose Gitelman syndrome: it is frequently mistaken for Bartter syndrome. The main differences between these two syndromes are magnesaemia and calciuria. Furthemore , patients with Gitelman syndrome are often asymptomatic, this explains why prevalence of this illness is probably underestimated.

  3. Does a Baby Help Young Women Transition out of Homelessness? Motivation, Coping, and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Homeless young women experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homeless young women for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…

  4. "I'd rather not take it, but . . .": young women's perceptions of medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dana Lee; Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about healthy young women's everyday experiences with medicine use and their general perceptions of medicines. In this article, we describe a user-perspective study involving in-depth qualitative interviews with 20 young women between the ages of 16 and 20 in Copenhagen, Denmark. ...

  5. Gender, Family Negotiations and Academic Success of Young Moroccan Women in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrés, Marta Bertran; Ponferrada-Arteaga, Maribel; Rovira, Jordi Pàmies

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the lives of pioneering young women from Morocco, the first to enjoy educational and social success in Catalonia, by analyzing the family negotiations entered into during this process. The study is based on the life stories of these young Moroccan women and on ideas that emerge from discussion groups involving the women…

  6. Kujichagalia! Self-Determination in Young African American Women with Disabilities during the Transition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, La Tonya L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the young women's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological…

  7. Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n…

  8. Feasibility of a rubella screening and vaccination programme for unvaccinated young women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, W.L.M.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Hahne, S.J.; Binnendijk, R.S. van; Velden, J. van der

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of a rubella screening and vaccination programme for unvaccinated young women was assessed after the 2004/2005 epidemic in The Netherlands. All 640 young women in two villages with low vaccination coverage were invited for a rubella seroprevalence test. Information on vaccination

  9. Gendered and cultural patterns of suicidal behaviour. Young Hindustani immigrant women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, D.D.; Smit, J.H.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Saharso, S.

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of suicidal behavior vary among cultures and along gender. Young Hindustani immigrant women attempt suicide four times more often than young Dutch women. This article explores multi-disciplinary explanations for suicidal behavior in this group. The interconnection of Durkheimian concepts of

  10. 77 FR 68782 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... number of phone lines available. Purpose: The committee provides advice and guidance to the Secretary... (particularly among those at heightened risk) and promote the early detection and support of young women who...

  11. Single Muscle Fibre Contractile Properties in Young and Old Men and Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott Trappe; Philip Gallagher; Matthew Harber; John Carrithers; James Fluckey; Todd Trappe

    2003-01-01

    ...) single muscle fibres. Vastus lateralis muscle fibres from six young men (YM; 25 ± 1 years), six young women (YW; 25 ± 1 years), six old men (OM; 80 ± 4 years) and six old women (OW; 78 ± 2 years) were studied at 15...

  12. The Causes of Marital Disruption among Young American Women: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Frank L.; Moore, Sylvia F.

    Using the National Longitudinal Survey of young women aged 14 to 24 in 1968 who were interviewed annually over a five-year period, a study was conducted to examine the relative importance of economic and noneconomic factors in determining the likelihood of marital disruption for young black and white women. A literature review showed that previous…

  13. Evaluation of single whole inclusion serum test for IgG antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic women.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, M P; Amortegui, A J

    1987-01-01

    IgG antibody titres against Chlamydia trachomatis were measured using a whole inclusion assay (Electro-Nucleonics Laboratories, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) in single serum samples of patients who presented for termination of pregnancy with evidence of infection with this organism (case group) and of 30 women with no evidence of infection (control group). Case and control patients were matched for age, race, marital status, history of sexually transmitted diseases, number of lifetime sexual partn...

  14. Breast cancer in young women: special considerations in multidisciplinary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chantal Reyna, Marie Catherine Lee Comprehensive Breast Program, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in females, and 5%–7% of breast cancer cases occur in women under 40 years of age. Breast cancer in the young has gained increased attention with an attempt to improve diagnosis and prognosis. Young patients tend to have different epidemiology, presenting with later stages and more aggressive phenotypes. Diagnostic imaging is also more difficult in this age group. Multidisciplinary care generally encompasses surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and social workers. Other special considerations include reconstruction options, fertility, genetics, and psychosocial issues. These concerns enlarge the already diverse multidisciplinary team to incorporate new expertise, such as reproductive specialists and genetic counselors. This review encompasses an overview of the current multimodal treatment regimens and the unique challenges in treating this special population. Integration of diagnosis, treatment, and quality of life issues should be addressed and understood by each member in the interdisciplinary team in order to optimize outcomes. Keywords: diagnosis, interdisciplinary, quality of life, treatment, premenopausal, fertility preservation

  15. Young Women Living with HIV: Outcomes from a Targeted Secondary Prevention Empowerment Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Jennifer; Hotton, Anna L; Hosek, Sybil G; Harper, Gary W; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2016-05-01

    Women account for 1 in 5 new HIV infections in the US, make up 24% of people living with HIV, and represent a quarter of AIDS diagnoses. Despite the need for continued prevention among young women living with HIV, there is very little in the literature on how best to reduce sexual risk and increase the health and well-being of young women living with HIV. This article explores the primary and secondary outcomes of a randomized controlled pilot trial of an intervention entitled Young Women Taking Charge and Growing Stronger. This behavioral intervention aimed to decrease sexual risk and empower young women living with HIV by enhancing young women's knowledge and skills pertaining to HIV risk reduction as well as to the factors that increase women's vulnerability, such as sexual inequality, gender, and power imbalances. Findings from this trial demonstrate that group-based behavioral interventions for young women living with HIV have promise to reduce the total number of sexual partners and reduce unprotected vaginal and anal intercourse. However, more work is needed to understand how best to address the challenges young women face in their day to day lives that impact their sexual risk as well as their overall health and access to care and treatment.

  16. Careers in Drug and Alcohol Research: AN Innovative Program for Young Appalachian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Melody Powers; Leukefeld, Carl; Reid, Caroline

    Supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the University of Kentucky's Center on Drug and Alcohol Research developed the Young Women in Science Program to encourage young women from Appalachia to pursue scientific careers гп drug and alcohol research. This 3-year program, which involved 26 young women entering the ninth grade in 13 counties in southeastern Kentucky, included a summer residential program, community educational sessions, and matching students with mentors. When participants' scores prior to and after the 3-week residential program were compared, it was found that participants increased their science knowledge and improved their scores on confidence in science. Other significant changes occurred as well. These preliminary data indicated that some positive changes resulted from the program, even though contact time with the young women has been modest to date. The program shows considerable promise for providing the encouragement and skills needed for these young women to pursue careers in drug and alcohol research.

  17. Gender, self and pleasure: young women's discourse on masturbation in contemporary Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuxin, Pei; Ho Sik Ying, Petula

    2009-06-01

    This study examines views and experiences of young Shanghai women with respect to masturbation. Through in-depth interviews with forty young women in Shanghai aged 22 to 39 from May 2004 to July 2007, the study explores women's understandings of masturbation, their desires and their lives as modern Chinese women. The focus of the analysis is on how women talk about their masturbation experiences and make sense of their experiences in the context of their sexual relationships and lifestyle choices. By analysing women's narratives about masturbation, the paper suggests that women's self-articulation is actually an engagement in self-image construction. The strategies they use to position themselves in relation to different social discourses on masturbation, how they describe and perform the acts and how they articulate their experiences of masturbation are examined to illustrate how young women in Shanghai perform gender and sexual intimacies in a fast changing city.

  18. Excessive internet use in young women: What are the implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei Nik; Bahar, Norharlina; Ibrahim, Normala; Wan Ismail, Wan Salwina; Baharudin, Azlin

    2017-07-01

    There are considerable gender differences in youth engaging in excessive internet use (EIU). This review provides updates based on the recent literature focusing on the EIU in young women to describe its implications including what it constitutes of, its correlates, sequelae and preventive and/or treatment strategies. Definition of EIU and its conceptualization still requires refinement. Recent studies indicate a changing trend towards female predominance of EIU. Women also differ in their internet use compared with men regarding their preference in the internet content and online activities, motives of use and factors related to access to the internet, including the device, sociocultural restrictions, etc. The correlates and sequelae of EIU encompass psychological, physical, biological, family and social domains that could form the basis of identifying individuals at risk and strategizing treatment. The findings indicate the need for standardization in definition and measures of EIU for better recognition of EIU and identification of its at-higher-risk females. Effective preventive and treatment measures are still limited by various methodology flaws outlined here.

  19. Autobiographical memory functions in young Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Yayoi; Demiray, Burcu; Janssen, Steve M J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether the three major functions of autobiographical memory observed in Western societies (i.e., directing-behaviour, social-bonding and self-continuity) also exist in an East Asian society. Two self-report measures were used to assess the autobiographical memory functions of Japanese men and women. Japanese young adults (N = 451, ages 17-28 years) first completed the original Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Questionnaire. They subsequently received three TALE items that represented memory functions and attempted to recall a specific instance of memory recall for each item. Confirmatory factor analyses on the TALE showed that the three functions were replicated in the current sample. However, Japanese participants reported lower levels of all three functions than American participants in a previous study. We also explored whether there was an effect of gender in this Japanese sample. Women reported higher levels of the self-continuity and social-bonding functions than men. Finally, participants recalled more specific instances of memory recall for the TALE items that had received higher ratings on the TALE, suggesting that the findings on the first measure were supported by the second measure. Results are discussed in relation to the functional approach to autobiographical memory in a cross-cultural context.

  20. Behaviorally and perinatally HIV-infected young women: targets for preconception counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echenique, Marisa; Rodriguez, Violeta J; LaCabe, Richard P; Privette, C Kyle; Jones, Deborah L; Potter, JoNell Efantis; Fischl, Margaret A

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to describe demographic and psychological characteristics among HIV-infected young women, and to identify knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors associated with conception, with the goal of informing interventions or programmatic decisions regarding preconception counseling methods for young women living with HIV. Behaviorally and perinatally HIV-infected young women (n = 34) were conveniently sampled in Miami, Florida. Participants were asked to complete measures of reproductive knowledge, attitudes toward conception, and risk behaviors, as well as measures of depression and cognitive functioning. Perinatally and behaviorally HIV-infected young women were very similar in important areas of health preconception practices such as conception-related health literacy and conception-related communication with providers. Behaviorally infected women, however, were somewhat more likely to have been pregnant in the past, and had greater knowledge of healthy contraception practices and family planning. Despite the difference among groups, both the perinatally and behaviorally acquired women demonstrated having adequate overall knowledge. Depression was higher and consistent with moderate depression among the behaviorally HIV-infected women in comparison to perinatally infected women. This study found that that despite adequate reproductive knowledge, most young HIV-infected women were not using contraception. Given the consequences of presentation of advanced HIV during pregnancy, the need for both treatment adherence and preconception counseling is essential. Results suggest that interventions or programmatic decisions regarding preconception counseling methods for young women living with HIV are necessary and potentially transferrable between populations.

  1. Nutritional adequacy of energy restricted diets for young obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Helen; Munas, Zahra; Griffin, Hayley; Rooney, Kieron; Cheng, Hoi Lun; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    Energy restricted meal plans may compromise nutrient intake. This study used diet modelling to assess the nutritional adequacy of energy restricted meal plans designed for weight management in young obese women. Diet modelling of 6000 kJ/d animal protein based meal plans was performed using Australian nutrient databases with adequacy compared to the Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) for women (19-30 years). One diet plan was based on the higher carbohydrate (HC) version of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating for women 19-60 years. An alternative higher protein (HP) plan was adapted from the CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet. Vegan and lacto-ovo versions of these plans were also modelled and compared to the appropriate vegetarian NRVs. Both animal protein diets met the estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) for all nutrients analysed. The recommended dietary intake (RDI) was also satisfied, except for iron. HC met 75±30% and HP 81±31% of the iron RDI when red meat and iron fortified cereal were both included three days a week, and remained below the RDI even when red meat was increased to seven days. Iron for the modified vegan (57±5% HC; 66±4% HP) and lacto-ovo (48±6% HC; 59±7% HP) plans was below the RDI and zinc below the EAR for the vegan (76±8% HC; 84±9% HP) plans. The 6000 kJ/d animal protein meal plans met the RDI for all nutrients except iron. Iron and zinc failed to meet the vegetarian RDI and EAR respectively for the vegan plans.

  2. Low concentration of circulating antimüllerian hormone is not predictive of reduced fecundability in young healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper; Vestergaard, Sonja; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women.......To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women....

  3. Why so few young women in mathematics, science, and technology classes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieda, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    Many factors influence the success of women in scientific and technical careers. Women represent over 50% of the U.S. population, yet less than 16% of women are employed in scientific and technical careers. Research over the last decade makes it clear that disparities exist in the participation, achievement, and attitudes of young men and young women in science classes. Young women are as interested in science experiences as young men up until age nine. After that age, the number of young women interested in science, mathematics, and technology classes drops. Not enrolling in science and mathematics classes in high school limits career options for young women, and their chance to succeed in a scientific or technical field becomes remote. Why is this happening? What can we, as educators, scientists, and parents do to address this problem? The literature identifies three principal factors that relate to the lack of female involvement in science classes: culture, attitude, and education. This paper reviews these factors and provides examples of programs that Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and others have developed to increase the number of young women entering college ready and wanting to pursue a career in a scientific or technical field.

  4. Barriers to modern contraceptive methods uptake among young women in Kenya: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ochako, Rhoune; Mbondo, Mwende; Aloo, Stephen; Kaimenyi, Susan; Thompson, Rachel; Temmerman, Marleen; Kays, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Young women in Kenya experience a higher risk of mistimed and unwanted pregnancy compared to older women. However, contraceptive use among youth remains low. Known barriers to uptake include side effects, access to commodities and partner approval. Methods: To inform a youth focussed behaviour change communication campaign, Population Services Kenya developed a qualitative study to better understand these barriers among young women. The study was carried out in Nyanza, Coast, ...

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Guleria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common disorder in women of reproductive age group. Insulin resistance and the consequent hyperinsulinemia seem to be the central pathophysiological mechanism that links PCOS to its associated metabolic derangements. Women with PCOS exhibit a number of risk factors for coronary artery disease. We studied risk of CVD using two surrogate markers, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD. Aims and objectives: To study cardiovascular disease risk in young women (18-35 years age with PCOS using CIMT and FMD. Materials and Methods: Sixty women with PCOS (age: 23.8 ± 4.5 years; body mass index [BMI]: 23.5 ± 4.2 kg/m 2 were compared with 30 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls (age: 26.3 ± 5.4 years; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.8 kg/m 2 . Diagnosis of PCOS was made using the Rotterdam criteria. Fasting blood sample was analyzed for glucose, insulin, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, high molecular weight adiponectin (HMWADP, and interleukin 6 (IL6. CIMT and FMD were performed. Results: PCOS patients had a higher waist to hip ratio (W/H [0.86 ± .07 vs. 0.80 ± .05] and free testosterone index (FTI [6.6 ± 6.5 vs. 2.0 ± 1.0] in comparison to controls. There was no difference in the two groups in lipid profile parameters and HOMA IR. CIMT was significantly higher (0.59 ± .1 mm vs. 0.50 ± .05 mm, P value <.001 and FMD lower (10.3 ± 3.9% vs. 15.2 ± 5.5%, P value < .001 in cases when compared to controls. FMD negatively correlated with W/H ratio (r: -0.257 and hsCRP (r: -0.347, while IMT showed positive correlation with IL6 (r: 0.325 and hsCRP (r: 0.303 and a negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein (HDL [r: -0.224], all P values < .05. Conclusions: Patients with PCOS have evidence for increased CVD risk as shown by endothelial dysfunction manifested by increased CIMT and a lower FMD.

  6. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which ...

  7. Postponing Marriage: The Influence of Schooling, Working, and Work Plans for Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherlin, Andrew

    The paper examines trends of postponement of marriage among women in their early twenties. Data for the study were taken from a national longitudinal study of 5,159 women (ages 14 to 24) who were interviewed from 1968 to 1975. The author specifically examined the young women for three characteristics: current employment status, level of education,…

  8. Identifying mild and severe preeclampsia in asymptomatic pregnant women by levels of cell-free fetal DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Tanja Roien; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Rode, Line

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate whether women who develop preeclampsia can be identified in a routine analysis when determining fetal RHD status at 25 weeks' gestation in combination with PAPP-A levels at the first-trimester combined risk assessment for Trisomy 21. STUDY DESIGN......-A was measured at 11 to 14 weeks. Information about pregnancy outcome and complications was obtained from the National Fetal Medicine Database, medical charts, and discharge letters. RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) of developing severe preeclampsia given a cffDNA level above the 90th percentile compared to cff......DNA below the 90th percentile was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-25.5). The OR of developing mild preeclampsia given a cffDNA level below the 5th percentile compared to cffDNA levels above the 5th percentile was 3.6 (95% CI, 1.1-11.7). PAPP-A levels below the 5th percentile were associated with mild...

  9. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  10. Physiological demands of young women's competitive gymnastic routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, M; Rodríguez, F A

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological indices of competitive routines in women's artistic gymnastics by characterizing post-exercise heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2) and peak blood lactate concentration (Lmax) in a group of eight young elite-oriented female gymnasts. HR was continuously monitored with Polar RS400 monitors during the test event simulating a competition environment. Within 5 s of the end of each routine, the breath-by-breath gas analyser mask was placed on the face to record VO2. VO2max was calculated by the backward extrapolation method of the VO2 recovery curve. Lmax was obtained during recovery (min 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10) subsequent to each event. One week later, HR, VO2 and Lmax were measured during an incremental continuous treadmill test. The treadmill test was confirmed as the assessment with the highest physiological demand. The gymnasts reached their highest values of HR (183-199 beats · min(-1)), VO2/Bm (33-44 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) and Lmax (7-9 mmol · l(-1)) in the floor and uneven bars exercises. The vault was the event with the lowest HR (154-166 beats · min(-1)) and Lmax (2.4-2.6 mmol · l(-1)), and the balance beam had the lowest VO2 (27-35 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)). The mean relative peak intensities attained in the different events, which ranged from 65 to 85% of the individual VO2max and HRmax recorded in the laboratory, suggest that cardiorespiratory and metabolic demands are higher than previously indicated. The high percentage of VO2 measured, particularly after the floor event, suggests that aerobic power training should not be neglected in women's artistic gymnastics.

  11. Prevalence of urogenital chlamydia infection among asymptomatic male and female young adults; results of a sponsored study: »i don’t have it, do you?«

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Kobal

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urogenital infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is among more common curable sexually transmitted diseases (STD in Slovenia; however, the data on the prevalence of asymptomatic infections are insufficient. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic chlamydia infection among male and female young adults in various Slovenian urban environments and to determine the risk factors for the infection.Methods: The study took place between October 15 and November 15 2004 in selected medical centres in Ljubljana, Maribor and Izola. Subjects were volunteers and were sexually active healthy males and females who appeared to be healthy and were aged between 18 and 35. All subjects gave consent to participation in the study. All participants filled in an anonymous questionnaire which included questions on education, sexual behaviour patterns, use of contraceptives and contraceptive methods and history of STDs. The presence of CT in urine samples was determined by the nucleic acid amplification test PCR. All positive subjects were appropriately treated. Significant risk factors were determined by logistic regression.Results: 2027 volunteers participated in the study. They gave a urine sample and filled in the questionnaire. The prevalence of chlamydia infection was 5.8 %. Age analysis showed a 6.5 % prevalence among subjects under 25 years of age and, among subjects above 25, 4.8 %. Both groups revealed similarities in sexual behaviour patterns and use of barrier contraceptives which was 10.9 % in younger and 9.1 % in older participants. Independent factors related to the asymptomatic chlamydia infection were shown to be the number of sexual partners in the past (p = 0.008, more than one sexual partner in the last three months (p = 0.000 and improper use of condoms (p = 0.032.Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of chlamydia infection among asymptomatic participants demonstrates that the problem is

  12. Cerebral small vessel diseases: manifestations in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelstein, E Bernd; Knecht, Stefan

    2006-02-01

    Cerebral small vessel diseases are responsible for 20-30% of ischemic strokes as well as for a considerable proportion of cerebral hemorrhages and encephalopathies. Less known than the manifestations in old age are those in young women comprising posterior encephalopathy and Susac's syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging has allowed us to identify posterior encephalopathy, characterized by headache, seizures, visual disturbances and hypertension, as a frequent complication of preeclampsia/eclampsia syndrome in the perinatal and postpartum period. Magnetic resonance findings are pathognomonic with bilateral cortical-subcortical lesions in the posterior hemispheres typically sparing the calcarine fissure. Conversely, white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging particularly involving the corpus callosum, and a (subclinical) sensorineural hearing loss are diagnostic of the retinocochleocerebral vasculopathy called Susac's syndrome. Posterior encephalopathy can also follow from a broad spectrum of endotheliotoxic conditions like chemotherapy, immunosuppression and sepsis. Early recognition of the disorder is decisive for a benign outcome since therapy consists of removal of precipitating factors, lowering of blood pressure and treatment with magnesium sulfate. The retinocochleocerebral vasculopathy appears to be underdiagnosed. An autoimmune-mediated arteriolopathy is presumed and the disease is nearly always monophasic. A variety of therapeutic approaches have been recommended, none of which, however, is based on anything other than anecdotal evidence.

  13. Cognitive orientation and genital infections in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, S; Kreitler, H; Schwartz, R

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to explore the psychological determinants of common genital infections in young women. The study was done in the framework of the cognitive orientation theory which assumes that cognition guides behavior and provides predictions of behaviors and psychophysiological phenomena. We expected that beliefs of four types (about self, norms, goals, and general) would predict the occurrence and/or frequency of 17 gynecological symptoms (e.g., itching, swelling, different vaginal discharges, abscesses). The subjects were 195 female volunteers, undergraduates, about 23 years old, without gross gynecological disorders, mostly (87.7%) unmarried, mostly (83.6%) having had intercourse. They were administered anonymously questionnaires about demographic variables, frequency and treatment of gynecological symptoms and 3 urological ones (for control), and about cognitive orientation that referred to pretested themes (e.g., assertiveness, hypochondriasis). Stepwise discriminant and regression analyses showed that the belief types enabled predicting the occurrence and frequency of all symptoms, with a mean 34.5% improvement over the 50% chance level, accounting for 45.7-67.2% of the variance. Also the urological symptoms were predicted although at a lower level. Discussion focuses on the specificity of cognitive-motivational determinants and their role in producing conditions favoring physical pathology.

  14. Regional differences in physical appearance identity among young adult women in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongmuang, Daravan; McElmurry, Beverly J; McCreary, Linda L; Park, Chang G; Miller, Arlene G; Corte, Colleen

    2011-02-01

    Physical appearance concerns lead to serious health compromising behaviors among women in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in physical appearance identity among young women in four regions of Thailand based on 30 physical appearance characteristics generated and validated in two previous samples of young Thai women. Using Q methodology, 200 Thai young women sorted the physical appearance characteristics in terms of importance. Across-region differences exist for the most important physical appearance characteristics. Regional differences in physical appearance identity may explain the variety of behaviors used by Thai women to enhance their physical appearance. Further research should focus on regional factors that contribute to these aspects of physical appearance becoming a dominant source of self-definition so that effective prevention strategies can be developed and targeted to women at high risk.

  15. Prevalence of anemia in women with asymptomatic malaria parasitemia at first antenatal care visit at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TU Agan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available TU Agan1, JE Ekabua1, AE Udoh1, EI Ekanem1, EE Efiok1, MA Mgbekem21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Nursing, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, NigeriaBackground: Anemia in pregnancy in malaria endemic areas is a public health challenge that has contributed either directly or indirectly to maternal morbidity and mortality in our environment. Anemia and malaria during pregnancy are highly preventable and treatable.Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of anemia in asymptomatic malaria parasitemic women at first antenatal visit in a tertiary hospital facility.Method: The study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria over a three-month period. Five hundred and forty-five pregnant women were recruited after obtaining an informed consent. A structured questionnaire was administered to each participant and two thin and thick blood films were used to identify the malaria parasites and estimate density. The average of two packed cell volumes at booking was determined using two capillary tubes and read from a Hawksleys microhematocrit reader.Results: A total of 545 pregnant women participated in the study. The mean ages of primigravidas and multigravidas were 21.4 ± 3.1 and 24.3 ± 4.0 years. Two hundred and ninety (53.2% were primigravidas while 255 (46.8% were multigravidas. The parasite density in primigravidas was 1297 ± 1234 while that for multigravidas was 661 ± 497 (t = 7.7, P < 0.001. The prevalence of anemia in the study population was 59.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of anemia among the primigravidas (60.3% and the multigravidas (58.8% (χ2 = 1.3, P = 0.08. There was a statistically significant association between severity of parasitemia and degree of anemia (χ2 = 441.1, P < 0.001. There was a statistically significant association between antimalarials use before booking and

  16. PCR based diagnostic assay targeting the beta tubulin gene for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in vaginal swab samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic women in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash Dwivedi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop an in-house PCR based diagnostic assay for identification of strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects of India, targeting the 毬 -tubulin gene using specific primers. Methods: In the present study a primer set is designed to target a well-conserved region in the beta-tubulin gene of Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis. All strains of T. vaginalis were tested and successfully detected by PCR yielding a single predicted product of 198 bp in gel electrophoresis, while there was negative response with DNA from Giardia lamblia, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania donovani and Entamoeba histolytica. The sensitivity and specificity for a single T. vaginalis cell per PCR was achieved. Axenic Culture, performed with long term axenized T. vaginalis culture system, was routinely examined to identify T. vaginalis. Results: The PCR based investigations with 498 vaginal swab samples from women attending OPD clinics of Halberg Hospital Moradabad and Queen Mary ’s Hospital, Lucknow, India and 17 long term axenic cultures maintained at PGIMER, Chandigarh, India using primer set BTUB 1 & BTUB 2 showed sensitivity and specificity response of 98% and 100%, respectively, while wet preparation in clinically isolated samples responded up to 62.5%. The PCR product sequencing result of symptomatic strains (SS1 of T. vaginalis (744 bp long was submitted to NCBI (Accession No: JF513200. It shows maximum identity 98 % with XM_001284521 Trichomonas vaginalis G-3 beta-tubulin (btub putative partial mRNA. Conclusions: The data gathered in the present study entail that the diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection by PCR may be established as a sensitive and specific protocol, to be incorporated into a joint strategy for the screening of multiple STDs by employing molecular amplification technique. The merits and precautions of the protocol have been discussed.

  17. 'Hardcore drinking': portrayals of alcohol consumption in young women's and men's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Antonia C; Dalton, Sue I; Hoy, Anna

    2006-03-01

    Young adults and young women in particular are drinking more alcohol than ever before, with implications for risky behaviours and long-term health. This study explored the ways in which alcohol and drinking were represented in six monthly UK magazines (three targeted at young men, three at young women) across a three-month period (18 magazines). We identified three main discourses across the texts, namely the drug alcohol; masculinity and machismo; and drinking as normality. These discourses constructed women's and men's drinks and drinking behaviours in sharp contrast. Drinking was aligned with traditional masculine images, although new kinds of drinks were aligned with traditional feminine images--and derided in men's magazines. Findings highlight how gender, constructed in relation to the other, is an important aspect of representations of drinking patterns in young adults.

  18. 'I am a mother': young women's negotiation of femininity and risk in the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    In studies of sexual risk behaviour among youth, the role of dominant conceptions of masculinity and femininity has received increasing attention. However, where research has sought to explore femininity, it has predominantly focused on adolescent girls. This paper departs from previous research by offering insights into how young women negotiate their femininity as they transition from adolescence to adulthood and encounter changing social contexts. Drawing on data from ethnographic enquiry, it argues that as young women transition out of school and into emerging adulthood, their options for negotiating different types of femininity become constrained, with consequences for engagement in sexual risk behaviours. This may to some extent explain why in some South African contexts older young women are more vulnerable to HIV infection than adolescent girls. The paper offer insights into future prospects for youth development programming seeking to reduce young women's vulnerability to risk.

  19. Body composition of healthy sedentary and trained, young and older men and women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohrt, W M; Malley, M T; Dalsky, G P; Holloszy, J O

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the effects of age and physical activity on body composition and fat distribution by comparing differences between young and older endurance trained men and women with differences...

  20. Coming of age on the streets: survival sex among homeless young women in Hollywood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warf, Curren W; Clark, Leslie F; Desai, Mona; Rabinovitz, Susan J; Agahi, Golnaz; Calvo, Richard; Hoffmann, Jenny

    2013-12-01

    This study examined childhood physical or sexual abuse, involvement in dependency or delinquency systems, psychiatric hospitalization, and suicide as possible risk factors for survival sex among homeless young women. Homeless young women were found to have similarly high rates of childhood sexual abuse, dependency and delinquency systems involvement, and psychiatric hospitalization. Homeless young women involved in survival sex disclosed higher rates of attempted suicide and reported marginally higher rates of childhood physical abuse. Analysis of qualitative data showed that those engaged in survival sex were motivated primarily by desperation to meet basic needs including a place to stay, food and money, and one third mentioned that peers commonly were influential in decisions to engage in survival sex. Others were influenced by coercion (10%) or pursuit of drugs (10%). Young women engaged in survival sex generally experienced regret and shame about their experience. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. "Without the Internet, I never would have sold sex": Young Women Selling Sex Online

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonsson, Linda; Svedin, Carl-Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    .... This study aimed to examine what role the Internet and the use of smartphones play in young women selling sex online, focusing on the method of contact and the characteristics of the communication...

  2. Attitude towards assisted reproductive technology - surrogacy at todays young women (Qualitative research)

    OpenAIRE

    LAVIČKOVÁ, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    The Bachelor thesis describes the implementation of surrogate maternity. It observe at it from the ethical and legal perspective. The research shows the attitude of today´s young women to the substitute maternity.

  3. Life Plan Development in Young Adult Women: An Exploration Using Grounded Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christina M Zambrano-Varghese

    2017-01-01

    .... This research question was answered with Charmaz's (2006) model of grounded theory by conducting 13 interviews with young adult women approaching college graduation, followed by one focus group which was used to validate emergent themes...

  4. Perceptions of disordered eating and associated help seeking in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Annamaria J; Menna, Rosanne

    2017-04-27

    Disordered eating is common among young women, but rates of help-seeking are remarkably low. Studies attempting to understand how disordered eating is perceived by young women have exposed participants to fictional vignettes that describe characters exhibiting eating pathologies, and assessed beliefs about the women's issues. These studies have informed our understanding of how young women perceive disordered eating in other women, but do not address the question of how disordered eating is perceived in oneself. In the present study, we randomly assigned 204 young women (ages 18-25 years) to one of two conditions (self or other). In each condition, participants read a hypothetical vignette in which the main character (the participant herself [self] or another female student [other]) exhibited disordered eating, and answered questions about her behavior and her need for help. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlations, chi square tests, multiple regression analyses, multinomial logistic regressions, and independent samples t-tests. Overall, results supported the existence of a broad discrepancy in how young women perceive disordered eating in themselves versus in other women. Specifically, relative to women who read the vignette about another individual, women who read the vignette about themselves were more likely to attribute their behavior to a general mental health issue (as opposed to an eating disorder); to believe that they were able to cope with their problem alone; and to believe that they did not need to seek help for their eating behaviors (despite perceiving fewer barriers to doing so). These findings highlight the need for empirical research to consider this self-other discrepancy when using findings to inform the development of disordered eating prevention and intervention programs; if not considered, we risk developing programs based on information that may not accurately represent the young women in need of services.

  5. Diabetes Insipidus in Young Women with Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Pradipta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA 25 year old, unmarried, Indonesian woman came to the emergency department Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital with shock condition. Initially assessed as septic condition, the patient was then diagnosed as diabetes insipidus (DI. It was concurrently found that the patient also had several sexual intercourse before and not until later that the patient diagnosed with stage IB cervical cancer. Cervical cancer (CC is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and primarily affects young adult women, with consequences not only individually but also socially. DI is a rare disease that causes frequent urination that is not freqently related with CC. Concurrent incidence of DI with CC can only be seen in several case reports. It has not yet been established whether these two conditions are concurrent or having a cause-effect relationship. DI is not a common case, hence knowing its clinical sign and syptoms are very important. In fund limited setting in third world countries, the laboratory examination can be simplified by examining the osmolality of the serum and urine condition. These low level of serum can be very helpful in diagnosing  DIwith  treatment can be as simple as fluid restriction. Regarding the CC, radical trachelectomy can be done with surveilance must be done every 3-6 month for 2 years and every 6-12 month for 3-5 years with cytology.Keywords: CC, diabetes insipidusAbstrakSeorang perempuan Indonesia, 25 tahun, belum menikah datang ke IGD RSCM dengan keadaan syok. Awalnya dinilai sebagai keadaan sepsis namun akhirnya didiagnosis sebagai diabetes insipidus (DI. Didapatkan riwayat berhubungan seksual sebelumnya dan kemudian diketahui menderita kanker serviks stadium IB. Kanker serviks merupakan kanker ketiga tersering pada perempuan di seluruh dunia dan terutama menyerang dewasa muda, dengan konsekuensi individual dan sosial. DI merupakan penyakit yang menyebabkan seringberkemih dan jarang berhubungan dengan kanker serviks

  6. Screening Bleeding Disorders in Adolescents and Young Women with Menorrhagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakı Kılıç, Suar; Sarper, Nazan; Zengin, Emine; Aylan Gelen, Sema

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Chronic menorrhagia causes anemia and impairment of life quality. In this study the aim was the screening of bleeding disorders in adolescents and young women with menorrhagia. Materials and Methods: The study was performed prospectively by pediatric hematologists. A form including demographic characteristics of the patients, bleedings other than menorrhagia, familial bleeding history, characteristics of the menorrhagia, and impairment of life quality due to menorrhagia was filled out by the researcher during a face-to-face interview with the patient. A pictorial blood assessment chart was also used for evaluation of blood loss. All patients underwent pelvic ultrasound sonography testing and women also received pelvic examination by gynecologists. Whole blood count, peripheral blood smear, blood group, serum transaminases, urea, creatinine, ferritin, PFA-100, PT, aPTT, INR, TT, fibrinogen, VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo, FVIII, and platelet aggregation assays were performed. Platelet aggregations were studied by lumiaggregometer. Results: Out of 75 patients enrolled, 60 patients completed the study. The mean age was 20.68±10.34 (range: 10-48) years and 65% (n=39) of the patients were younger than 18 years. In 18 (46%) of the adolescents, menorrhagia subsided spontaneously. In 20% (n=12) of the patients, a bleeding disorder was detected (1 case of type 3 von Willebrand disease, 2 patients with low VWF:Ag, 1 case of probable von Willebrand disease, 3 cases of Bernard-Soulier syndrome, 2 cases of Glanzmann thrombasthenia, 2 cases of immune thrombocytopenic purpura, 1 case of congenital factor VII deficiency). Conclusion: In patients with menorrhagia, at least complete blood count, peripheral smear, aPTT, PT, VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo, FVIII, and fibrinogen assays must be performed. When there is history of nose and gum bleeding, platelet function assay by lumiaggregometer must also be performed. In nearly 50% of adolescents, menorrhagia is dysfunctional and transient. Detailed

  7. Obesity is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation among fertile young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karasoy, Deniz; Jensen, Thomas Bo; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but whether this risk is also prevalent in younger individuals is unknown. We therefore investigated the risk of AF in relation to body mass index (BMI) among young fertile women.......Obesity has been associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but whether this risk is also prevalent in younger individuals is unknown. We therefore investigated the risk of AF in relation to body mass index (BMI) among young fertile women....

  8. Pregnancy in young women with congenital heart disease: Lesion-specific considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Rachel M; Sermer, Mathew; Colman, Jack M

    2011-01-01

    Young women with heart disease are increasingly being seen in obstetrical referral centres owing, in large part, to the dramatic improvements in survival of young adults with congenital heart disease in recent years. Although pregnancies in most women with heart disease result in favourable outcomes, there are important exceptions that must be recognized. These exceptions pose a significant mortality risk to the mother and/or the fetus. The present article provides a general framework for the...

  9. Vicarious Birth Experiences and Childbirth Fear: Does It Matter How Young Canadian Women Learn About Birth?

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In our secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey, we explored predictors of childbirth fear for young women (n = 2,676). Young women whose attitudes toward pregnancy and birth were shaped by the media were 1.5 times more likely to report childbirth fear. Three factors that were associated with reduced fear of birth were women’s confidence in reproductive knowledge, witnessing a birth, and learning about pregnancy and birth through friends. Offering age-appropriate birth education during ...

  10. A reduction of CETP activity, not an increase, is associated with modestly impaired postprandial lipemia and increased HDL-cholesterol in adult asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Eliane S; Urban, Aline; Panzoldo, Natalia B; Nakamura, Rui T; Oliveira, Rogério; de Faria, Eliana C

    2011-05-24

    The relationship between CETP and postprandial hyperlipemia is still unclear. We verified the effects of varying activities of plasma CETP on postprandial lipemia and precocious atherosclerosis in asymptomatic adult women. Twenty-eight women, selected from a healthy population sample (n = 148) were classified according to three CETP levels, all statistically different: CETP deficiency (CETPd ≤ 4.5%, n = 8), high activity (CETPi ≥ 23.8, n = 6) and controls (CTL, CETP ≥ 4.6% and ≤ 23.7%, n = 14). After a 12 h fast they underwent an oral fat tolerance test (40 g of fat/m² of body surface area) for 8 hours. TG, TG-rich-lipoproteins (TRL), cholesterol and TRL-TG measurements (AUC, AUIC, AR, RR and late peaks) and comparisons were performed on all time points. Lipases and phospholipids transfer protein (PLTP) were determined. Correlation between carotid atherosclerosis (c-IMT) and postprandial parameters was determined. CETP TaqIB and I405V and ApoE-ε3/ε2/ε4 polymorphisms were examined. To elucidate the regulation of increased lipemia in CETPd a multiple linear regression analysis was performed. In the CETPi and CTL groups, CETP activity was respectively 9 and 5.3 higher compared to the CETPd group. Concentrations of all HDL fractions and ApoA-I were higher in the CETPd group and clearance was delayed, as demonstrated by modified lipemia parameters (AUC, AUIC, RR, AR and late peaks and meal response patterns). LPL or HL deficiencies were not observed. No genetic determinants of CETP deficiency or of postprandial lipemia were found. Correlations with c-IMT in the CETPd group indicated postprandial pro-atherogenic associations. In CETPd the regression multivariate analysis (model A) showed that CETP was largely and negatively predicted by VLDL-C lipemia (R² = 92%) and much less by TG, LDL-C, ApoAI, phospholipids and non-HDL-C. CETP (model B) influenced mainly the increment in ApoB-100 containing lipoproteins (R² = 85% negatively) and phospholipids (R² = 13

  11. "I Was the Special Ed. Girl": Urban Working-Class Young Women of Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent criticism of the over-representation of minority students in special education do not adequately account for gender, despite the fact that urban special education classrooms in the USA are largely populated by young men of colour. In fact, we know very little about how being female shapes the experiences and understandings of young women of…

  12. Providers, Unmarried Young Women, and Post-Abortion Care in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Egesa, Carolyne P; Kabiru, Caroline W; Sidze, Estelle M

    2017-09-22

    Young women and girls in Kenya face challenges in access to abortion care services. Using in-depth and focus group interviews, we explored providers' constructions of these challenges. In general, providers considered abortion to be commonplace in Kenya; reported being regularly approached to offer abortion-related care and services; and articulated the structural, contextual, and personal challenges they faced in serving young post-abortion care (PAC) patients. They also considered induced abortion among young unmarried girls to be especially objectionable; stressed premarital fertility and out-of-union sexual activity among unmarried young girls as transgressive of respectable femininity and proper adolescence; blamed young women and girls for the challenges they reported in obtaining PAC services; and linked these challenges to young women's efforts to conceal their failures related to gender and adolescence, exemplified by pre-marital pregnancy and abortion. This study shows how providers' distinctive emphasis that young abortion care-seekers are to blame for their own difficulties in accessing PAC may add to the ongoing crisis of post-abortion care for young women and adolescent girls in Kenya. © 2017 The Authors. Studies in Family Planning published by The Population Council, Inc.

  13. 77 FR 16232 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young.... Purpose: The committee provides advice and guidance to the Secretary, HHS; the Assistant Secretary for... heightened risk) and promote the early detection and support of young women who develop the disease. The...

  14. 76 FR 47590 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young... by the space available. Purpose: The committee provides advice and guidance to the Secretary, HHS... (particularly among those at heightened risk) and promote the early detection and support of young women who...

  15. 76 FR 787 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... support of young women who develop the disease. The advice provided by the Committee will assist in... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young...: Open to the public, limited only by the space available. ] Purpose: The committee provides advice and...

  16. 78 FR 18601 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... detection and support of young women who develop the disease. The advice provided by the Committee will... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young... advice and guidance to the Secretary, HHS; the Assistant Secretary for Health; and the Director, CDC...

  17. 78 FR 75923 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... early detection and support of young women who develop the disease. The advice provided by the Committee... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young... provides advice and guidance to the Secretary, HHS; the Assistant Secretary for Health; and the Director...

  18. 78 FR 57391 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young... available. Purpose: The committee provides advice and guidance to the Secretary, HHS; the Assistant... those at heightened risk) and promote the early detection and support of young women who develop the...

  19. A Qualitative Study of Communication between Young Women with Disorders of Sex Development and Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Health communication is a critical aspect of care for both providers and recipients having a direct influence on engagement and outcomes. Communicating which in this context includes talking and listening in order to share information or support young women to understand their DSD can be difficult especially since the topic area is sensitive. Methods. In this qualitative study thirteen young women (aged 14–19 years with a disorder of sex development who engaged with health care professionals were purposively recruited between 2011 and 2012 from three specialist centres across the United Kingdom. The young women either were interviewed or completed a diary about their experiences of communication with a range of health care professionals. An interpretative phenomenological approach was used to analyse these data. Results. By analysis of data the young women were able to clearly articulate the qualities and skills health professional needed in relation to communication. Two main categories focused on the duty in which professionals have to share information and their role in supporting young women to manage this information. Discussion and Conclusion. The study results revealed that these young women with a DSD expected to meet skilled professionals who could recognise the emotional aspects of dialogues in the short and longer term.

  20. Security lies in obedience - Voices of young women of a slum in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Eva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing literature shows that young people, especially women, have poor knowledge about sexuality and reproductive health. Many of the difficulties young women experience are related to beliefs and expectations in society making them more vulnerable to reproductive ill health. The objective of this study was to explore how young women living in a slum in Islamabad are prepared for marriage and how they understand and perceive their transition to marriage and the start of sexual and childbearing activity. Methods Twenty qualitative interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted with young women residing in a slum of Islamabad. Content analysis was used to explore how the participants represented and explained their situation and how decisions about their marriage were made. Results The main theme identified was security lies in obedience. The two sub-themes contributing to the main theme were socialization into submissiveness and transition into adulthood in silence. The theme and the sub-themes illustrate the situation of young women in a poor setting in Pakistan. Conclusion The study demonstrates how, in a culture of silence around sexuality, young women's socialization into submissiveness lays the foundation for the lack of control over the future reproductive health that they experience.

  1. Security lies in obedience--voices of young women of a slum in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Saima; Johansson, Eva; Rubenson, Birgitta

    2010-03-26

    Existing literature shows that young people, especially women, have poor knowledge about sexuality and reproductive health. Many of the difficulties young women experience are related to beliefs and expectations in society making them more vulnerable to reproductive ill health. The objective of this study was to explore how young women living in a slum in Islamabad are prepared for marriage and how they understand and perceive their transition to marriage and the start of sexual and childbearing activity. Twenty qualitative interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted with young women residing in a slum of Islamabad. Content analysis was used to explore how the participants represented and explained their situation and how decisions about their marriage were made. The main theme identified was security lies in obedience. The two sub-themes contributing to the main theme were socialization into submissiveness and transition into adulthood in silence. The theme and the sub-themes illustrate the situation of young women in a poor setting in Pakistan. The study demonstrates how, in a culture of silence around sexuality, young women's socialization into submissiveness lays the foundation for the lack of control over the future reproductive health that they experience.

  2. Security lies in obedience - Voices of young women of a slum in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Existing literature shows that young people, especially women, have poor knowledge about sexuality and reproductive health. Many of the difficulties young women experience are related to beliefs and expectations in society making them more vulnerable to reproductive ill health. The objective of this study was to explore how young women living in a slum in Islamabad are prepared for marriage and how they understand and perceive their transition to marriage and the start of sexual and childbearing activity. Methods Twenty qualitative interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted with young women residing in a slum of Islamabad. Content analysis was used to explore how the participants represented and explained their situation and how decisions about their marriage were made. Results The main theme identified was security lies in obedience. The two sub-themes contributing to the main theme were socialization into submissiveness and transition into adulthood in silence. The theme and the sub-themes illustrate the situation of young women in a poor setting in Pakistan. Conclusion The study demonstrates how, in a culture of silence around sexuality, young women's socialization into submissiveness lays the foundation for the lack of control over the future reproductive health that they experience. PMID:20346107

  3. The Markers and Meanings of Growing Up: Contemporary Young Women's Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Growing up in the shadow of the women's movement has created contradictory life course and identity possibilities for young women. Although prior research has examined the formal markers of adulthood, we know little about how young women themselves perceive these markers. Forty-two in-depth interviews revealed that the subjective meanings of young women's transition to adulthood are actually far more complex than previously assumed. While becoming a parent and becoming financially independent were seen by interviewees as reflecting an adult orientation, completing schooling was tied to class-differentiated views of growing up. In addition, beginning full-time work was subjectively linked to future career uncertainty, and getting married did not diminish young women's emphasis on self-development and independence from men. Taken together, these findings indicate that there is a disjuncture between women's objective and subjective transition to adulthood. This study suggests that our previous understandings of the transition to adulthood do not reflect the full complexity of how young women subjectively experience it or the extent to which class impacts these perceptions.

  4. Determinants of utilization of antenatal care services among adolescent girls and young women in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Ferry; Chen, Ching-Min; Kurniati, Anna; Berliana, Sarni Maniar

    2017-01-01

    Due to the high number of maternal deaths, provision of antenatal care services (ANC) in Indonesia is one of the key aims of the post-Millennium Development Goals agenda. This study aimed to assess the key factors determining use of ANC by adolescent girls and young women in Indonesia. Data from the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2012 were used, with a focus on married adolescent girls (aged 15-19 years, n = 543) and young women (20-24 years, n = 2,916) who were mothers. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with ANC use. The findings indicated that adolescents were less likely to make ANC visits than young women. Richer women were more likely to make four ANC visits in both groups compared to the poorer women. Living in urban areas, higher educational attainment, and lower birth order were also all associated with higher levels of receiving ANC among young women. The results showed that socio-economic factors were related to the use of ANC among adolescent girls and young women. Ongoing health-care interventions should thus put a priority on adolescent mothers coming from poor socio-economic backgrounds.

  5. Examining the Personal Nature of the K-14 Engineering Pipeline for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurski, Jennifer Sue

    This mixed-methods study examined young women's perceptions of their K-14 STEM pipeline experiences and their resulting choice to enter and persist in an engineering major. Despite the increase of women in the STEM workforce, women remain underrepresented among engineering majors (Beasley & Fischer, 2012; Heilbronner, 2012; Neihart & Teo, 2013). Few studies exist that utilize a retrospective approach to understand how the culmination of young women's K-14 experiences have influenced their formation of individually held perceptions that lead to engineering persistence. It is this study's aim to utilize a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research question: How do young women's perceptions of their K-14 STEM experiences influence their decision to enroll and persist in an engineering major? These perceptions are explored through an ethnographic approach focusing on young women enrolled in engineering programs during their junior and senior years of study at a small private liberal arts university with eight engineering majors. The mixed-methods approach follows a sequential design method (Creswell, 2013) and utilizes questions in a quantitative Likert-type survey from the Academic Pathways for People Learning Engineering (APPLES) survey (Eris, Chachra, Chen, Sheppard, & Ludlow, 2010) and the Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991). The quantitative study results will lead to the development of open-ended, structured questions for conducting a qualitative focus group. Anonymity of all participants is maintained. Keywords: STEM, young women, perceptions, pipeline, intervention, underrepresentation, engineering, persistence, retrospective, self-efficacy.

  6. Tetanus toxoid antibody level in asymptomatic Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate if the presence of asymptomatic malaria parasiteamia in pregnant women will compromise their ability to respond to full dose of tetanus toxoid immunization during their antenatal clinic visits. Hence, 90 apparently healthy pregnant women who had completed the tetanus toxoid ...

  7. The Effect of Menstrual Issues on Young Women with Angelman Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskowitz, Alexa P; Dendrinos, Melina; Murray, Pamela J; Quint, Elisabeth H; Ernst, Susan

    2016-08-01

    To characterize menstrual health issues and their effect in young women with Angelman syndrome (AS). Our secondary objective was to compare them with young women with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Cross-sectional convenience sample survey. An institutional review board-approved Web-based survey of young female members of the Angelman Syndrome Foundation. Caregivers of young women with AS, aged 12-25 years. None. Symptom characterization and effect of menses on young women with AS. Menstrual and premenstrual symptoms were common among young women with AS, but infrequently caused problems at home or school. Less than half of the subjects used hormones to control their flow. Of those who used hormones, 75% used them continuously. Caregivers were satisfied with their method to control periods. Girls with seizures were more likely to use hormonal methods to control menses than those without seizures. Menstrual-associated morbidity in young women with ASD and AS was fairly similar, but with greater morbidity in the ASD group than in the AS group. However, girls with AS had more problems with menstrual hygiene with almost all of them requiring full assistance for managing hygiene. In this group of young women with AS, who have moderate to severe neurodevelopmental disabilities and cannot manage their own hygiene, menstruation is not associated with significant problems. Menstrual management by hormones is used by less than half. When hormonal therapy is used, it is most commonly used continuously to suppress menses. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Menstrual Issues on Young Women with Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskowitz, Alexa P.; Dendrinos, Melina; Murray, Pamela J.; Quint, Elisabeth H.; Ernst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective To characterize menstrual health issues and their effect in young women with Angelman syndrome (AS). Our secondary objective was to compare them with young women with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Design Cross-sectional convenience sample survey. Setting An institutional review board–approved Web-based survey of young female members of the Angelman Syndrome Foundation. Participants Caregivers of young women with AS, aged 12–25 years. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Symptom characterization and effect of menses on young women with AS. Results Menstrual and premenstrual symptoms were common among young women with AS, but infrequently caused problems at home or school. Less than half of the subjects used hormones to control their flow. Of those who used hormones, 75% used them continuously. Caregivers were satisfied with their method to control periods. Girls with seizures were more likely to use hormonal methods to control menses than those without seizures. Menstrual-associated morbidity in young women with ASD and AS was fairly similar, but with greater morbidity in the ASD group than in the AS group. However, girls with AS had more problems with menstrual hygiene with almost all of them requiring full assistance for managing hygiene. Conclusion In this group of young women with AS, who have moderate to severe neurodevelopmental disabilities and cannot manage their own hygiene, menstruation is not associated with significant problems. Menstrual management by hormones is used by less than half. When hormonal therapy is used, it is most commonly used continuously to suppress menses. PMID:26718530

  9. Knowledge of young Polish women of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Biała

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HPV infection is the most frequent sexually transmitted disease and a major epidemiological problem in the world. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are responsible for over 70.0% cases of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of young women concerning HPV infection as well as possibilities of cervical cancer prevention. Moreover, the study had to determine which groups of young women especially required educational campaigns. Material and methods. The questionnaire survey was carried out among 126 young Polish women aged 18–35. The results were statistically analyzed. Results. The survey found that 41.3% women had heard about HPV before interview. Nearly 38.5% of women correctly indicated the occurrence of cancer which is associated with HPV infection. About 23.0% of women received a vaccination against HPV, only 19.2% of women correctly identified who should be subjected to vaccination. The best knowledge about cervical cancer and disease prevention was manifested among female university graduates and groups living in urban areas. Those women also more often underwent cytological screening. Conclusions. Educational campaigns should particularly include group of women living in the rural areas and women with primary and secondary education.

  10. Imagining the Political : Young Women, Participation and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Women's Rights and Citizenship (WRC) program initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democracy and governance institutions are responding to women's rights and gender equality. This project will investigate issues and challenges surrounding women's participation in ...

  11. Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... political parties, civil society and kin-based social organizations can be influenced to advance women's choices and entitlements as citizens, including through increased representation. The end of the civil war in Sierra Leone in 2002 was facilitated in many ways by women through women's pro-democracy movements.

  12. Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The end of the civil war in Sierra Leone in 2002 was facilitated in many ways by women through women's pro-democracy movements. These movements will continue to be pivotal in the gradual strengthening of democratic governance structures. Irrespective of the immense barriers that they face, women of all ages have ...

  13. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  14. Young Women and Political Participation in Tunisia : Institutional ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Women's Rights and Citizenship (WRC) program initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democracy and governance institutions are responding to women's rights and gender equality. This project will investigate issues and challenges surrounding women's participation in ...

  15. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in metabolically healthy obese young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) have been limited to postmenopausal white women. We sought to determine whether PA and SB differ between MHO and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO), in young black and white women....

  16. An Assessment of the HIV Prevention Needs of Young Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Salazar, Laura F.; Geter, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the reliability of nine scales assessing psychosocial mediators of HIV-risk and protective behaviors of young minority women in New York City. Sixty-nine age-eligible women were approached during clinical sessions, 90% (n = 62) agreed to participate, and 83% (n = 57) completed a web-based survey. With one exception, scale…

  17. Incidence and Weight Trajectories of Binge Eating Disorder among Young Women in the Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustelin, Linda; Raevuori, Anu; Hoek, Hans Wijbrand; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the population prevalence and incidence of binge eating disorder (BED) among young women. Method: In a nationwide longitudinal study of Finnish twins born 1975-1979, the women participated in five surveys from age 16 until their mid-thirties. At Wave 4 (mean age 24 years), the

  18. Evaluation of Three Osteoporosis Prevention Programs for Young Women: Application of the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Donald H.; Turner, Lori; Wilroy, Jereme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of theory-based osteoporosis prevention programs on calcium and vitamin D intakes and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Methods: Women (N = 152) aged 19 to 25 years were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a brochure group (n = 51), a computer-tailored program group…

  19. Urinary endogenous sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women after caloric restriction in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, SG; Onland-Moret, NC; Peeters, PHM; Rinaldi, S; Kaaks, R; Grobbee, DE; van Noord, PAH

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the 1944-1945 Dutch famine has affected postmenopausal sex hormone concentrations with data from 163 women (young adults during the famine). Urinary sex hormone concentrations showed modest elevations with increasing famine exposure. Effects were absent in parous women, but

  20. The effect of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms on quality of life in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, CH; de Leeuw, JRJ; Roovers, JPWR; Heintz, APM

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the consequences that the symptoms of urinary incontinence and an overactive bladder have on the quality of life in young, community-dwelling women. Subjects and methods A population-based, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in women aged 20-45 years. Urogenital symptoms

  1. The effect of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms on quality of life in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, C. H.; de Leeuw, J. R. J.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.; Heintz, A. P. M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the consequences that the symptoms of urinary incontinence and an overactive bladder have on the quality of life in young, community-dwelling women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in women aged 20-45 years. Urogenital

  2. Relative risk of HIV infection among young men and women in a South African township

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    MacPhail, C

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available as other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and answered a behavioural questionnaire. The age-prevalence of HIV infection differs between men and women with considerably higher rates of increase with age among young women. The age of sexual debut did...

  3. Lifestyle factors influencing bone health in young adult women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Abstract. Aim: To analyze risk factors leading to osteopenia and osteoporosis among young female students. Methods: Quantitative Ultrasonography measurements were performed in the calcaneal region of 101 young Saudi females. Dietary habits ...

  4. New Directions for Young Women in the Juvenile Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglia, Rebecca

    1996-01-01

    Identifies specific needs of girls in the justice system. Through understanding the characteristics of young female offenders, it is possible to tailor programming to meet the needs of this at-risk population. The role of relationships and mentoring of young girls is emphasized. Identifies national model programs. (LSR)

  5. Violence Against Young Women in Non-urban Areas of Australia: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Leesa; Theobald, Jacqui; Anderson, Karen; Billet, Paulina; Baron, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Violence against women is globally prevalent and harmful to women's health and well-being. Younger women are at higher risk of abuse, especially those from non-urban areas who may face specific barriers to disclosure and support. The aim of this review was to map the breadth and nature of the "violence against women" literature particular to young non-urban Australian women and identify research gaps to inform future research with young people. A comprehensive scoping review methodology, as outlined by Arksey and O'Malley, was adopted. English language, peer-reviewed articles were identified from five databases between January 2000 and July 2015. Grey literature was also examined. Inclusion criteria for the review included young women (15-24 years) from non-urban areas of Australia. Twenty-four full-text articles were included in this review. Themes identified include prevalence and type of abuse, experiences and response to violence, and the consequences of abuse. Recommendations from the review which are relevant to a global audience include the need for improved service access, improved data collection on the prevalence of violence, and a focus on more research with young women in non-urban areas. There is limited research on violence against young women living in non-urban areas of Australia. Evidence to date consists of predominantly quantitative data generated from general population surveys. There is a lack of qualitative research on this topic, and we argue that more is needed to gain a better understanding of the violence that young women experience.

  6. Web-based survey of fertility issues in young women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Ann H; Gelber, Shari; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Sampson, Ebonie; Knudsen, Katherine; Laufer, Marc; Rosenberg, Randi; Przypyszny, Michele; Rein, Alison; Winer, Eric P

    2004-10-15

    Young women with breast cancer often seek advice about whether treatment will affect their fertility. We sought to gain a better understanding of women's attitudes about fertility and how these concerns affect decision making. We developed a survey about fertility issues for young women with a history of early-stage breast cancer. The survey was e-mailed to all registered Young Survival Coalition survivor members (N = 1,702). E-mail reminders were used. Six hundred fifty-seven eligible respondents completed the survey. Mean age at breast cancer diagnosis was 32.9 years; mean current age was 35.8 years. Ninety percent of women were white; 62% were married; 76% were college graduates. Stages at diagnosis were as follows: 0, 10%; I, 27%; II, 47%; III, 13%. Sixty-two percent of women were within 2 years of diagnosis. Fifty-seven percent recalled substantial concern at diagnosis about becoming infertile with treatment. In multivariate logistic regression, greater concern about infertility was associated with wish for children/more children (odds ratio [OR], 120; P conceiving (OR, 1.86; P = .08). Twenty-nine percent of women reported that infertility concerns influenced treatment decisions. Seventy-two percent of women reported discussing fertility concerns with their doctors; 51% felt their concerns were addressed adequately. Women seemed to overestimate their risk of becoming postmenopausal with treatment. Fertility after treatment is a major concern for young women with breast cancer. There is a need to communicate with and educate young patients regarding fertility issues at diagnosis and a need for future research directed at preserving fertility for young breast cancer survivors.

  7. Violence against young women attending primary care services in Spain: prevalence and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Baena, David; Montero-Piñar, Isabel; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    There are a significant number of studies assessing the negative health consequences of violence against women. However, a limited number of studies analyse the health consequences of violence committed against young women by different types of aggressors. The goal of this study is to assess the prevalence of interpersonal violence against young women in Spain and analyse its impact on the physical and mental health of the victims. A total of 1076 women aged 18-25 years attending Spanish primary care services were selected. We estimated the prevalence of interpersonal violence and compared the health data and demographic characteristics of abused and non-abused young women, multi-logistic regression models were fitted. The Wald test was used to assess whether there were differences in the negative health consequences of intimate partner (IPV) versus non-IPV. As many as 27.6% young women reported a history of abuse, of whom 42.7% had been assaulted by their partner, 41.1% by someone other than their partner and 16.2% both by their partner and another person. The distribution of social and demographic characteristics was similar for IPV and non-IPV victims. Young abused women were three times more likely to suffer psychological distress and have somatic complaints, and they were four times more likely to use medication as compared to non-abused women. Our results suggest that all forms of violence compromise young women's health seriously. Including patients' history of abuse in their health record may help make more informed clinical decisions and provide a more integrated care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Masturbation among young women and associations with sexual health: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Harriet; Ingham, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Much research into young people's developing sexuality is concerned with risk avoidance and the reduction of negative outcomes. Little research has been conducted into sexual self-exploration and, in particular, masturbation among young people, and this has generally been concerned merely with its prevalence. Little is known about the potential role of masturbation in relation to young people's developing sexuality, especially among young women. This study aimed to explore, using a qualitative approach, how young women reported their experiences of masturbation and whether and how these related to other aspects of their sexual activity. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was employed to identify the range of reported experiences across participants, as well as the relations between various aspects of sexual development and experiences within participants. The findings revealed a broad continuum of views and opinions on female masturbation, which had strong links with parent and partner communication and the young women's beliefs and values concerning their sexual selves. The article concludes by drawing attention to the apparent relation between positive early childhood communication, young women's positive views of their sexual self, and their subsequent sexual activity.

  9. THE DELINKING OF SEX AND MARRIAGE: PATHWAYS TO FERTILITY AMONG YOUNG FILIPINO WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Jessica D; Hicks, Andrew L

    2017-01-01

    Partnership and fertility patterns of young Filipinos have changed dramatically from previous generations, with a widening gap between sexual initiation and marriage, and concurrent increases in teenage pregnancy and unwanted fertility. Further understanding of young adults' social contexts and partnership patterns are needed to inform reproductive health programmes and policies affecting young Filipinos. Multivariate Poisson regression models were conducted with longitudinal and inter-generational data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (1998-2009) to examine the predictors of young women's fertility. Age at first sex, and number and duration of partnerships each independently and significantly predicted women's fertility by 2009 after controlling for contextual influences. Young women with more conservative attitudes towards dating, sex and marriage, and who perceived their mothers to have more conservative attitudes, had higher fertility than their peers, as did young women with mothers who reported more adolescent sexual behaviours. In contrast, fertility was lower among daughters who had higher levels of communication with their mothers. Given high levels of unintended fertility and teenage pregnancy in the Philippines, the findings indicate that the interval between sexual initiation and first and subsequent partnerships may be ideal intervention points for reproductive health services for young Filipinos.

  10. Hormonal Contraceptive Use as Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Young Javanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Fitria Kusuma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous study from 351 Indonesian women shown that they had breast cancers at younger age compared with western. In this study we investigate role of hormonal contraceptive as risk factor for Indonesian Javanese young breast cancer cases. However, the presence different life style between ethnic alter their risk as causal factors across populations. Diagnostic and prognostic study findings, including breast cancer prediction rules, must therefore be validated in Asian women. We undertook case-control study to determine population-based distributions of breast cancer among young Javanese people, one of the largest populations in Indonesia (Southeast Asia. A total of 500 women diagnosed with breast cancer participated in this study, divided in to two group young (less 40 years old and mature breast cancer. Data for hormonal contraceptive, clinico-pathological characteristics and other risk factors were collected. We found that young Javanese women who use hormonal contraceptive for more than 10 years had a 4,67 fold increased risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer in young age (p<0,01. We didn’t found any differences between this two groups in menarche and parity. Interestingly for Javanese women who breast feeding more than 18 months increase 1,74 fold increased risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer in young age (p<0,01.

  11. Association between adolescent marriage and intimate partner violence: a study of young adult women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosfequr; Hoque, Md Aminul; Mostofa, Md Golam; Makinoda, Satoru

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the association between adolescent marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adult women using 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data. The analyses are restricted to young women 20 to 24 years old. Logistic regression analyses are constructed to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between adolescent marriage and IPV in the past year. show that there is a strong significant relationship between adolescent marriage and experience of physical IPV in the past year among this population. Association between sexual IPV and adolescent marriage is insignificant. Adolescent marriage puts women at increased risk of physical IPV into their young adult period. Government agencies need to enforce existing law on the minimum age at marriage to reduce IPV among adolescent and young adult girls.

  12. Clothing preference affects vitamin D status of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukuslu, Nihal; Esin, Kubra; Hizli, Hilal; Sunal, Nihal; Yigit, Pakize; Garipagaoglu, Muazzez

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with several chronic diseases, which include cardiovascular, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Several factors such as exposure to sunlight, skin color, dietary habits, and cultural factors affect serum vitamin D levels. We hypothesized that serum vitamin D levels in young women are associated with clothing styles and investigated this via a cross-sectional study that included 100 female students at Istanbul Medipol University. Our study used a questionnaire in order to collect demographic information. Serum calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels were determined via standard laboratory tests. We deployed bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body composition, and we then determined the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and total body fat values. The mean age was 20.9 ± 2.1 years. Subjects' data were divided into 2 groups based on their clothing styles: covered (Muslim style clothing) and uncovered. Muslim style clothing, which covers the whole body but leaves the face and hands exposed, was worn by 40.0% of the undergraduate students. The mean BMI (in kilograms per meter squared) of the subjects was 23.0 ± 3.6. The BMI value for the covered students was 24.0 ± 4.0, and that for the uncovered students was 22.3 ± 3.1. Of the subjects, 28.0% had a BMI of at least 25 kg/m(2) (overweight). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (in nanograms per milliliter), parathyroid hormone (in picograms per milliliter), alkaline phosphatase (in units per liter), and calcium levels (in milligrams per deciliter) were 21.1 ± 6.7, 27.5 ± 9.2, 65.9 ± 10.9, and 9.0 ± 0.2 for covered students, respectively, and 29.7 ± 3.1, 24.3 ± 6.1, 62.8 ± 13.2, and 9.0 ± 0.4, respectively, for uncovered students. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiencies was 55.0% for covered and 20.0% for uncovered students. The vitamin D status was found to be statistically significant and had a negative correlation with the

  13. Pregnancy in young women with congenital heart disease: Lesion-specific considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Rachel M; Sermer, Mathew; Colman, Jack M

    2011-05-01

    Young women with heart disease are increasingly being seen in obstetrical referral centres owing, in large part, to the dramatic improvements in survival of young adults with congenital heart disease in recent years. Although pregnancies in most women with heart disease result in favourable outcomes, there are important exceptions that must be recognized. These exceptions pose a significant mortality risk to the mother and/or the fetus. The present article provides a general framework for the classification of congenital heart lesions in pregnant women as well as a detailed lesion-specific review.

  14. Young women's education and behavioural risk trajectories: clarifying their association with unintended-pregnancy resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Scott, Jessica; Cooney, Teresa M

    2014-06-01

    In the USA, most pregnancies occurring to teenage women are unplanned, making both the decisions regarding their resolution and the consequences of those decisions important topics of inquiry. Substantial debate surrounds the potential consequences for young women of either carrying an unintended pregnancy to term or voluntarily terminating it. The present study utilises data from The US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health prospectively to examine the predictors of pregnancy resolution decisions in terms of young women's educational goals and their engagement in risk behaviours. Additionally, the long-term consequences of these decisions for education and risk-taking behaviours are identified. Results indicate that young women with strong educational goals have a greater likelihood of terminating an unintended pregnancy than those with low aspirations, and that pregnancy termination predicts higher educational attainment compared to motherhood. Risk behaviours did not predict pregnancy-resolution decisions, but young women who became mothers reported lower rates of subsequent substance use and fewer sexual partners post-pregnancy than those who terminated the pregnancy or who had never been pregnant. Motherhood appears to be a catalyst for lifestyle change among young women, limiting substance use and sexual partnering, in contrast to abortion, which appears to allow adolescents to continue risk-taking trajectories.

  15. Mammography: review of the controversy, health disparities, and impact on young african american women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, April D; Colbert, Alison M; Jatoi, Ismail

    2015-06-01

    Ongoing debate about mammography screening for women in their 40s has brought awareness to the opportunities and challenges for achieving optimal breast health in young African American women and in battling health inequities that place them at greater risk for mortality from breast cancer. Despite the screening controversy, a need exists to understand the complex issues related to mammography knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of young minority women, while empowering them to take an active role in their breast health care. The purpose of this article is to describe the complicated issues related to screening in young African American women within the context of the uncertainty about the evidence surrounding screening practices. Literature was reviewed to garner a comprehensive update of the mammography screening controversy and its impact on mammography practices. Nurses should be aware of the mammography screening controversy and breast cancer risk assessment and how they affect young women's participation in mammography screening. Mammography screening should be a shared decision between the patient and healthcare provider. A better understanding of breast health and its effect on young minority women is needed. Nurses have a prominent role to advocate for, empower, and educate patients as they face the task of deciding whether to begin or continue mammography in their 40s.

  16. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Mixed methods cross-sectional design. African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Mixed methods convergent parallel design. The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  17. Prevalência de lesões endometriais em mulheres obesas assintomáticas Prevalence of endometrial injury in asymptomatic obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alves da Cruz Gouveia

    2007-08-01

    endometrial pathology. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of endometrial injuries, such as polyps, hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in asymptomatic obese women, as well as to recognize the associated risk factors . METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2004 and February 2006. Ninety-four obese (body mass index > 30 kg/m² women were evaluated, divided in two groups of 47 participants each: pre-menopausal and postmenopausal women. Clinical characteristics, physical exams (anthropometric and gynecological, blood count and endometrial assessment by vaginal ultrasonography, biopsy, and hysteroscopy (only for confirmed endometrial pathology, were the variables appraised. RESULTS: In pre-menopausal women, 12.8% of cases had endometrial pathology statistically associated to age, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and LDL-c increase. In the post-menopausal women, 40.4% of cases had a pathology identified as statistically associated with hypertension, LDL-c and estrone increase. Two cases of endometrial cancer were identified, one in each group. CONCLUSIONS: The increased incidence of obesity over recent years has increased risk factors of endometrial cancer. In pre-menopausal women only a small number of cases with endometrial alterations was observed. Therefore, it is suggested that greater attention be given to those over 40 years of age, associated with hypertension and/or higher LDL-c . The menopausal status increases risk of endometrial injury, and when associated with hypertension, LDL-c and/or estrone increase, women become candidates to biopsy aiming for an early diagnosis of cancer, a decisive factor for a favorable prognosis.

  18. Domestic Violence and Sexual Health among Young Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and evaluating their associations with key health outcomes among Zambian young females aged 15–24 years.Data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic Health Survey was utilized. The survey was carried out by Central Statistical Office with ...

  19. Intersection of suicidality and substance abuse among young Asian-American women: implications for developing interventions in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice "disempowering parenting styles," (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications - Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is imperative for professionals in the fields of public health, mental health

  20. Intersection of suicidality and substance abuse among young Asian-American women: implications for developing interventions in young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Design/methodology/approach Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. Findings We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. Practical implications The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is

  1. Risk Factors for Pregnancy and Childbearing in Single Young Women: Evidence from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial predictors of early pregnancy and childbearing in single young women, consistent with the Eriksonian developmental perspective. Two mail-out surveys assessing reproductive behaviour and sociodemographic, education/competence, psychosocial well-being, and aspiration factors were completed 4 years apart by 2635…

  2. Black-White Differences in Attitudes Related to Pregnancy among Young Women1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Yarger, Jennifer Eckerman; Gatny, Heather H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use newly available data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) study to compare a wide range of attitudes related to pregnancy for 961 Black and white young women. We also investigate the extent to which race differences are mediated by, or net of, family background, childhood socioeconomic status, adolescent experiences related to pregnancy, and current socioeconomic status. Black women are less positive, in general, than white women, toward young non-marital sex, contraception, and childbearing, and have less desire for sex in the upcoming year. This is largely because Black women are more religious than white women, and in part because they are more socioeconomically disadvantaged in young adulthood. However, in spite of these less positive attitudes, Black women are more likely to expect sex without contraception in the next year, and to expect more positive consequences if they were to become pregnant, relative to white women. This is largely because, relative to white women, Black women have higher rates of sex without contraception in adolescence, and in part because they are more likely to have grown up with a single parent. It is unclear whether attitudes toward contraception and pregnancy preceded or are a consequence of adolescent sex without contraception. Some race differences remain unexplained – net of all potential mediators in our models, Black women have less desire for sex in the upcoming year, but are less willing to refuse to have sex with a partner if they think it would make him angry, and expect more positive personal consequences of a pregnancy, relative to white women. In spite of these differences, Black women's desires to achieve and to prevent pregnancy are very similar to white women's desires. PMID:25962867

  3. Cost effectiveness analysis of a population based screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women by means of home obtained urine specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, I.G.M.; Postma, M.J.; Morre, S.A.; van den Brule, A.J.C.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Bouter, L.M.; Boeke, A.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a systematic screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in a female inner city population. To determine the sensitivity of the cost effectiveness analysis to variation in the probability of developing sequelae. Methods: A

  4. Being targeted: Young women's experience of being identified for a teenage pregnancy prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Mitchell, Kirstin

    2016-06-01

    Research on the unintended consequences of targeting 'high-risk' young people for health interventions is limited. Using qualitative data from an evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers Pregnancy Prevention programme, we explored how young women experienced being identified as at risk for teenage pregnancy to understand the processes via which unintended consequences may occur. Schools' lack of transparency regarding the targeting strategy and criteria led to feelings of confusion and mistrust among some young women. Black and minority ethnic young women perceived that the assessment of their risk was based on stereotyping. Others felt their outgoing character was misinterpreted as signifying risk. To manage these imposed labels, stigma and reputational risks, young women responded to being targeted by adopting strategies, such as distancing, silence and refusal. To limit harmful consequences, programmes could involve prospective participants in determining their need for intervention or introduce programmes for young people at all levels of risk. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A reduction of CETP activity, not an increase, is associated with modestly impaired postprandial lipemia and increased HDL-Cholesterol in adult asymptomatic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Faria Eliana C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between CETP and postprandial hyperlipemia is still unclear. We verified the effects of varying activities of plasma CETP on postprandial lipemia and precocious atherosclerosis in asymptomatic adult women. Methods Twenty-eight women, selected from a healthy population sample (n = 148 were classified according to three CETP levels, all statistically different: CETP deficiency (CETPd ��� 4.5%, n = 8, high activity (CETPi ≥ 23.8, n = 6 and controls (CTL, CETP ≥ 4.6% and ≤ 23.7%, n = 14. After a 12 h fast they underwent an oral fat tolerance test (40 g of fat/m2 of body surface area for 8 hours. TG, TG-rich-lipoproteins (TRL, cholesterol and TRL-TG measurements (AUC, AUIC, AR, RR and late peaks and comparisons were performed on all time points. Lipases and phospholipids transfer protein (PLTP were determined. Correlation between carotid atherosclerosis (c-IMT and postprandial parameters was determined. CETP TaqIB and I405V and ApoE-ε3/ε2/ε4 polymorphisms were examined. To elucidate the regulation of increased lipemia in CETPd a multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Results In the CETPi and CTL groups, CETP activity was respectively 9 and 5.3 higher compared to the CETPd group. Concentrations of all HDL fractions and ApoA-I were higher in the CETPd group and clearance was delayed, as demonstrated by modified lipemia parameters (AUC, AUIC, RR, AR and late peaks and meal response patterns. LPL or HL deficiencies were not observed. No genetic determinants of CETP deficiency or of postprandial lipemia were found. Correlations with c-IMT in the CETPd group indicated postprandial pro-atherogenic associations. In CETPd the regression multivariate analysis (model A showed that CETP was largely and negatively predicted by VLDL-C lipemia (R2 = 92% and much less by TG, LDL-C, ApoAI, phospholipids and non-HDL-C. CETP (model B influenced mainly the increment in ApoB-100 containing lipoproteins (R2

  6. Inequalities in maintenance of health and performance between young adult women and men in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löve, Jesper; Dellve, Lotta; Eklöf, Mats; Hagberg, Mats

    2009-04-01

    Because of ageing populations, most high-income countries are facing an imminent scarcity of labour. Maintenance of health and performance in young adults therefore becomes a crucial prerequisite for sustainable societies. One major obstruction to this accomplishment is the striking health inequalities between young women and young men. Previously these inequalities have mainly been studied in a cross-sectional way, focusing on ill-health. In this study, we compared the prevalence of maintained health and performance between young adult women and men and the predictors for this outcome. The cohort consisted of 1266 participants from a homogenous sample of university students in Sweden. A combined assessment of self-rated 'very good' health and un-impaired performance took place at three time points (i.e. maintained health and performance). Potential predictors covered stable conditions in health-related behaviours, conditions at work/school and work-home interference. Young women had less maintained health and performance than young men. No major differences in predictors were found. However, there was a tendency for psychosocial factors to be the most important predictors, especially in women. That young women had less maintained health and performance in a homogenous sample beyond well-known differentiating factors suggests explanations other than observable structural differences between the sexes. This was also indicated by the importance attached to perceived demands, and work-home interference, especially in women. The combination of less scheduled, and more unscheduled, schoolwork (i.e. time-flexibility) negatively affected the maintenance of health and performance in our study population, suggesting a focus for future studies.

  7. Obesity, school obesity prevalence, and adolescent childbearing among U.S. young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jennifer B; Frisco, Michelle L

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, adolescent obesity reduces young women's odds of forming romantic and sexual partnerships but increases the likelihood of risky sexual behavior when partnerships occur. This led us to conduct a study examining the relationship between adolescent obesity and adolescent childbearing. Our study has two aims. We draw from prior research to develop and test competing hypotheses about the association between adolescent obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth. Drawing from risk regulation theory, we also examine whether the association between obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth may vary across high schools with different proportions of obese adolescents. Multilevel logistic regression models are used to analyze data from 4242 female students in 102 U.S. high schools who participated in Wave I (1994-1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results are the first to show that obesity reduces female adolescents' odds of childbearing, but that this association is not uniform across schools with different proportions of obese students. As the obesity prevalence in a school increases, so do obese young women's odds of childbearing. We conclude that understanding whether and how obesity is associated with young women's odds of having an adolescent birth requires attention to the weight context of high schools. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures

    OpenAIRE

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weig...

  9. The Obstacles Facing Young Saudi Men and Women Getting jobs in Small Businesses Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayef Saleh Al-Ghamri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Small businesses are considered the backbone of the national economy due to their role in creating job opportunities for young men and women who seek private sector employment. However, a series of obstacles face young Saudi male and female citizens in getting jobs in small businesses sector. The present research focuses on studies which discuss the definitions of small businesses and how they are related to the creation of employment opportunities for young men and women, their effect on improving young adults’ economic and social levels by boosting their morale and kindling their entrepreneurial spirit. The research also sets out the proposed mechanisms for the removal of obstacles faced by young small business would-be entrepreneurs. Furthermore, it endeavors to develop solutions, based on hypotheses and primary assumptions, which may contribute to a better understanding of the employment issue of Saudi young men and women. Solutions are set within a comprehensive strategy framework based on the integration and encouragement of young people to initiate small businesses, raise their standard of living, reduce the unemployment phenomenon and its consequences and repercussions which can result in domestic discord and moral degeneration– which may sometimes lead to misanthropy and suicide, as is the case in some societies such as Japan.

  10. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    to expose it to increased chances of trauma during sexual intercourse4. Uncomplicated UTI is common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, but the mean incidence peaks in the 15 to 39 year age bracket5. This is also the period of maximum sexual and reproductive activity in many women's lives. About 40-50% ...

  11. Metabolic abnormalities in young Egyptian women with polycystic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moushira Zaki

    2015-06-25

    Jun 25, 2015 ... with PCOS and evaluate their relation with adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) variants and body fat adi- posity pattern. Materials and methods: The present study included 80 PCOS women and 80 healthy women with similar age and body mass index. All participants underwent clinical, anthropometric, ...

  12. Computer Equity for Young Women in Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Walter M.; Winkle, Linda Wyrick

    1982-01-01

    Describes four external and internal barriers regarding computer literacy that are limiting rural women: institutionalized sexism, females' negative self-concepts concerning computer technology, lack of knowledge about the technology, and rural women's sex-stereotyped attitudes about computer-related careers. Outlines actions rural schools can…

  13. Association between smoking and the risk of heavy drinking among young women: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bové, Kira Bang; Larsen, Katrine Strandberg

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To address the association between smoking habits and the risk of later heavy drinking among young women. METHODS: Repeated assessments of alcohol and smoking habits were obtained in 1991-93 and 1999-2000 in a Danish representative cohort in Copenhagen. A total of 6369 non- to moderate...... is an important predictor of later heavy drinking among young women and that this relatively elevated risk is most pronounced among women with an early sexual debut.......-drinking Danish women, aged 20-29 years at baseline, attended a follow-up examination and were included in the study. The risk of becoming a heavy drinker (more than 14 drinks per week) 8 years after enrolment was analyzed by means of logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 177 women became heavy drinkers during...

  14. Young women's recent experience of labour and birth care in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, Maggie; Hennegan, Julie; Miller, Yvette

    2014-07-01

    young parenthood continues to be an issue of concern in terms of clinical and psychosocial outcomes for mothers and their babies, with higher rates of medical complications such as preterm labour and hypertensive disease and a higher risk of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate how young age impacts on women's experience of intrapartum care. secondary analysis of data collected in a population based survey of women who had recently given birth in Queensland, comparing clinical and interpersonal aspects of the intrapartum maternity care experience for 237 eligible women aged 15-20 years and 6534 aged more than 20 years. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were undertaken. in the univariate analysis a number of variables were significantly associated with clinical aspects of labour and birth and perceptions of care: young women were more likely to birth in a public facility, to travel for birth and to live in less economically advantaged areas, to have a normal vaginal birth and to have one carer through labour. They were also less likely to report being treated with respect and kindness and talked to in a way they could understand. In logistic regression models, after adjustment for parity, other socio-demographic factors and mode of birth, younger mothers were still more likely to birth in a public facility, to travel for birth, to be more critical about interpersonal and aspects of care and the hospital or birth centre environment. this study shows how experience of care during labour and birth is different for young women. Young women reported poorer quality interpersonal care which may well reflect an inferior care experience and stereotyping by health professionals, indicating a need for more effective staff engagement with young women at this time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the relationship to adiposity in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Bruce W; Perkins, Annette; Tucker, Larry A; LeCheminant, James D; Tucker, Jared M; Moncur, Breckann

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relationship between adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and adiposity in young women with and without statistical adjustment for physical activity (PA). Participants included 324 young women (aged 17-25 years). The researchers measured dietary intake using the Dietary History Questionnaire and determined diet quality using the 2010 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010). BOD POD (Cosmed, Rome, Italy, 2006) and accelerometry were used to assess body fat and PA, respectively. Women in the top quartile of HEI-2010 had significantly lower percent body fat than women in the lowest 3 quartiles (F = 3.36; P = .03). Controlling for objectively measured PA weakened this relationship by 20%. These young women (top quartile of HEI-2010) also had 0.37 odds (95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.85) of having body fat > 32%. Young women whose diets most closely meet the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans have lower adiposity. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Examining the Relationship Between Physical Activity Intensity and Adiposity in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Bruce W; Borup, Pamela; LeCheminant, James D; Tucker, Larry A; Bromley, Jacob

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between intensity of physical activity (PA) and body composition in 343 young women. Physical activity was objectively measured using accelerometers worn for 7 days in women 17 to 25 years. Body composition was assessed using the BOD POD. Young women who spent less than 30 minutes a week performing vigorous PA had significantly higher body fat percentages than women who performed more than 30 minutes of vigorous PA per week (F = 4.54, P = .0113). Young women who spent less than 30 minutes per day in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) had significantly higher body fat percentages than those who obtained more than 30 minutes per day of MVPA (F = 7.47, P = .0066). Accumulating more than 90 minutes of MVPA per day was associated with the lowest percent body fat. For every 10 minutes spent in MVPA per day, the odds of having a body fat percentage above 32% decreased by 29% (P = .0002). Vigorous PA and MVPA are associated with lower adiposity. Young women should be encouraged to accumulate at least 30 minutes of MVPA per day, however getting more than 90 minutes a day is predictive of even lower levels of adiposity.

  17. Physical activity correlates in young women with depressive symptoms: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleland Verity J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young women are at high risk for developing depression and participation in physical activity may prevent or treat the disorder. However, the influences on physical activity behaviors of young women with depression are not well understood. The aim of this study was to gather in-depth information about the correlates of physical activity among young women with and without depressive symptoms. Methods A sample of 40 young women (aged 18-30 years, 20 with depressive symptoms (assessed using the CES-D 10 and 20 without depressive symptoms participated in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. A social-ecological framework was used, focusing on the individual, social and physical environmental influences on physical activity. Thematic analyses were performed on transcribed interview data. Results The results indicated several key themes that were unique to women with depressive symptoms. These women more often described negative physical activity experiences during their youth, more barriers to physical activity, participating in more spontaneous than planned activity, lower self-efficacy for physical activity and being influenced by their friends' and family's inactivity. Conclusions Interventions designed to promote physical activity in this important target group should consider strategies to reduce/overcome early life negative experiences, engage support from family and friends and plan for activity in advance.

  18. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  19. Ethnic differences in family trajectories of young adult women in the Netherlands: Timing and sequencing of events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleinepier, T; de Valk, H.A.G

    2016-01-01

    ...) and predictive for outcomes later in life. Objective: We provide a comprehensive insight into ethnic differences in family behavior of young adults, focusing on Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, and Antillean second-generation women and native Dutch women...

  20. "Mean mugging": an exploration of young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, Jennifer L; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F

    2015-08-01

    Bullying among youth is rampant and research suggests that young Aboriginal women may be particularly susceptible to bullying. Sport participation has been identified as a possible mechanism to prevent bullying behaviors, yet few researchers have explored bullying within the context of sport. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to explore young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports. Eight young Aboriginal women participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews and follow-up phone interviews. Data were analyzed using a content analysis, and findings were represented by five themes: (1) mean mugging, (2) sport specific, (3) happens all the time, (4) team bonding to address bullying, and (5) prevention through active coaches. The detailed descriptions shared by participants provide insight into a broad range of bullying experiences and serve as a foundation for addressing the bullying that occurs in sport.

  1. Social identity of young women from countryside: The example of the village Dudovica - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Suzana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the status, role and identity of young countryside women and their impact on the family and organization of a social life in a village Dudovica. Findings of the survey carried out during 2003 are presented. Understanding the specific social and private life from an angle of young countryside women was the basic aim of this case study. The results are compared with the findings of the survey conducted earlier by Maja Korac. The survey findings show that traditional identity pattern is not predominant, although it still exists together with traditional values and preferences and is in the process of transformation. Young women are not marginalized in their personal and social life, but have public, private and family life, which is partly a result of their higher educational and economic level and certain independence, which was not the case fifteen years ago.

  2. Young lesbian and bisexual women resisting discrimination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention ... The increasing media focus on 'corrective rape' has also resulted in the ... on the lives of black lesbian women, the experiences of black lesbian youth remain marginal.

  3. Chastity and Sexual Honesty of Young Women from the Judicial Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Fondevila

    2008-01-01

    In this article it is analyzed the way in which the judicial scope has outlined the acceptable sexual behavior of young women in the Mexican society. Since the beginning of the 20th century up to now, the constitutive elements of sexual crimes have served to construct a socially acceptable (moral) ideal of sexuality for young people. In this sense, social judgments as much as, judicial decisions agree in defining this ideal under the form of chastity, sexual honesty and purity.

  4. [Factors related to life satisfaction in young-old, old, and oldest-old women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kae-Hwa; Lee, Hyun Ji

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of life satisfaction and the significant factors which impact on life satisfaction of young-old (60-69 yr), old (70-79 yr), and oldest-old (80 yr or above) women. The participants for this study were 289 elderly Korean women living in the city of Daegu and Kyongpook province. The data were collected using structured questionnaires. ANOVA, Chi-square, and multiple regression with the SPSS program were used to analyze the data. There were statistically significant differences among young-old, old, and oldest-old women regarding the existence of spouse, income, educational status, and religions. The model including variables related to physical, psychological, financial, and social aspects of life, explained variance of life satisfaction of elderly women differently, such as 55% of young-old, 37% of old, and 66% of oldest-old. Finally, self-esteem was the only predictor in explaining the level of life satisfaction among old women regardless age. Based on the findings of the study, implications for practical services for elderly women and recommendations of further study are provided. Nursing interventions should be developed to improve life satisfaction of elderly women according to age differences.

  5. Constructions and experiences of sexual health among young, heterosexual, unmarried Muslim women immigrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Anneke; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Minority ethnic immigrant women are frequently vulnerable to poor sexual health outcomes, due to poor use of sexual health services, lack of knowledge and social stigma associated with the discussion of sexuality. This paper explores the sexual health accounts provided by a group of young, unmarried heterosexual Muslim women immigrants residing and studying in Sydney, an under-researched group in the Australian context. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted, focusing on sex before marriage, spouse selection and contraceptive use. Feminist discourse analysis identified 'purity versus corruption' as the primary construction of women's sexuality, where women positioned their sexual behaviour as that of purity and uninvolvement or corruption through unwedded participation. The subthemes 'maintaining ignorance and naivety', 'remaining virginal', 'sex segregation' and 'the fallen woman' capture women's personal sexuality-related experiences and values within the context of their religious and cultural communities. Additional research with this community is needed to examine the effects of negative social constructions of sex on young sexually active Muslim women, as well as further research on young women's sexual health within immigrant communities.

  6. Subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedde, H; van de Wiel, H B M; Weijmar Schultz, W C M; Wijsen, C

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically describe the nature and context of subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Data on sexual behavior and subjective sexual well-being were collected through an internet questionnaire. Respondents were included if they had been diagnosed with breast cancer within the past 6 years and were currently 45 years of age or younger. Results were compared with a representative sample of the general Dutch population. In comparison with the general Dutch population of women, young women still undergoing breast cancer treatment are less sexually active and have a more negative experience of sexuality. While women who had already finished their treatment had more or less the same amount of sexual activity as the general Dutch population, there were still major differences in their experience of sexuality. Particularly strong associations were found between these women's sexual well-being in relation to their relationship satisfaction, and sexual interaction competence. In the wake of breast cancer treatment, young women have difficulty enjoying sex; it is evidently hard for them to resume their sex lives after breast cancer. In particular, women who find it hard to discuss sexual wishes and the possibilities and impossibilities associated with breast cancer with their partner experience negative consequences when trying to resume their sex lives.

  7. DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE AND ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST IN YOUNG WOMEN: IS IT RELATED TO EACH OTHER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M AMINI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this study we wanted to compare the means of area under the curve (AVC of glucose tolerance test in young women depending on dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA levels. Methods. Selected subjects were examined for DHEA and glucose tolerance test. At first, they were divided into two groups (under the mean of DHEA vs above the mean of DHEA and then into three groups (under the mean-SD, between the mean±SD, above the mean + SD. 37 young women with no abnormality whose 8MI was below 30 Kg/m2 they were refered to research center of endocrinology and metabolism of IUMSHS. Results. The mean of DHEA was 2895±1113 ng/ml. The mean of AUC was 745±104.7 mmol/l/min in women under the mean of DHEA and 670±51.9 mmol/l/min in women above the mean of DHEA (P < 0.05. In comparison of women based on mean±SD, the AVe was 786±88.3, 691. 7 ± 77.5 and 670.8±92.5 mmol/l/min, respectively. Results showed a significant decrease of AVC in women above the mean+ SO of DHEA (P < 0.05. Discussion. This study suggests that in young healthy women DHEA can increase the glucose tolerance.

  8. Lifestyle factors influencing bone health in young adult women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acterized by a reduction in the bone mass density predis- posing to an increased risk of fractures5. Peak bone mass is achieved at its 90% by late adolescence6. Therefore, prevention of osteopenia and osteoporosis should begin at young adult age which is considered as the most ade- quate time to invest in bone health.

  9. Breast cancer in young women in Ibadan, Nigeria | Ntekim | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    85%) were income earners, out of these, 132(70%) had monthly income less than 12,500.00 Nigerian Naira (~100USD). The number of young patients who were married was 166 (75%) but 6 (4%) of the married ones had no children while the ...

  10. Lifestyle factors influencing bone health in young adult women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Quantitative Ultrasonography measurements were performed in the calcaneal region of 101 young Saudi females. ... analysis showed that T-score and Z-score were negatively associated with soft drink intake and positively associated with exercising, milk and dairy products consumption, and calcium and vitamin ...

  11. CSIR Young Scientist Award for 2008 | Women in Science ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CSIR Young Scientist Award for 2008. Following is the list of awardees: Year: 2008. Dr. Beena Pillai Institute of Genomics & Integrative Biology, Delhi. Year: 2008. Dr. Melepurath Deepa National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi. Year: 2008. Dr. Sinai Khandeparkar Lidita Dilip National Institute of Oceanography, Goa.

  12. Contraceptive Embarrassment and Contraceptive Behavior among Young Single Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Edward S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper determined factors predictive of contraceptive embarrassment, and the relationship of contraceptive embarrassment to contraceptive use among young unmarried females. The most important predictors found were parental attitude to premarital intercourse and sexual guilt. The embarrassment scale had significant correlations with…

  13. Complex symptomatology among young women who present with stress-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömbäck, Maria; Wiklund, Maria; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt

    2015-06-01

    In Scandinavia and globally, mental health and stress-related problems among adolescent girls and young women are public health concerns that need attention. The aim of this study was to investigate mental health and somatic symptoms with a special focus on internalised problems, self-image and body-mind aspects of body perception in a group of adolescent girls and young women presenting with stress-related problems at a youth-friendly Swedish health centre, and to compare them with normative and clinical reference groups. The participants were 47 adolescent girls and young women, aged 17-25 years. The adult self-report (ASR), social analysis of social behaviour (SASB) and body perception questionnaire (BPQ) were used to measure multiple symptom areas. Compared to reference groups, adolescent girls and young women report complex symptomatology with high levels of internalised problems such as anxiousness, depression and somatic complaints. This manifested in attention problems, negative self-image and perceived bodily discomfort and distrust. Adolescent girls and young women emerging into adulthood present complex symptomatology of stress-related problems. This study gathered valuable information about their symptoms when they were seeking help. These young women showed higher symptom frequency than normative groups, and similar or higher symptom frequency than other clinical groups. Our findings of internalised and cognitive problems, including impaired self-image and body perceptions, point to the need for preventive strategies and tailored multidisciplinary interventions involving body-based methods to meet this complexity. Using tenets of stress theory, the complex symptomatology may be understood as logical responses to overwhelming stimuli and demands that exceed their ability to cope and disturb their 'equilibrium'. However, the complex gendered interplays between various external/internal stressors and a broad range of stress responses and health outcomes

  14. Influence of a support group for young women with disabilities on sense of belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, Norma J; Gill, Carol J; Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa

    2014-04-01

    Women and girls with disabilities face obstacles to community participation and social acceptance. Consequently, as adolescent women with disabilities mature into adulthood, they may have difficulty feeling that they belong both in the general community and in the community of all women. The positive impact of peer support groups for young women with disabilities on their sense of belonging has been underinvestigated. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 9 members of a well-established empowerment support group for young women with disabilities to explore how the group might foster a sense of belonging to the general community as well as a sense of shared womanhood. Results revealed that self-confidence and disability pride stemming from participation in the group were essential in helping the women counteract exclusionary messages from the outside world. The group provided an opportunity to develop a positive disability identity and to gain new information regarding the ability and right to identify as women. Reciprocal bonds with other group members helped cultivate feelings of belonging. In turn, the women communicated their empowered identities and the disability rights information they learned in the group to their friends, family, and community members. The group offered the women various platforms to assert their right to belong and, therefore, to participate in the world as women and as independent members of their broader communities. These results show how peer support groups for young women with disabilities can positively influence their sense of belonging both within the group and in the world outside the group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually nonexistent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a nonprobability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self- identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the Internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women's health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25 years. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A tissue microRNA signature that predicts the prognosis of breast cancer in young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Hironaka-Mitsuhashi

    Full Text Available Since breast cancers in young women are generally aggressive, young patients tend to be intensively treated with anti-cancer drugs. To optimize the strategy for treatment, particularly in young women, prognostic biomarkers are urgently required. The objective of this study was to identify a tissue microRNA (miRNA signature that predicts prognosis in young breast cancer patients. Total RNA from 45 breast cancer patients aged 0.7. Five of the miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR, and the expression levels of three of those five (miR-183-5p, miR-194-5p, and miR-1285-5p, both alone and in combination, were associated with OS. In conclusion, we identified three candidate miRNAs that could be used separately or in combination as prognostic biomarkers in young breast cancer patients. This miRNA signature may enable selection of better treatment choices for young women with this disease.

  17. Aortic dimensions in girls and young women with turner syndrome: a magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Mortensen, Kristian H; Holm, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the dimensions of the thoracic aorta and the predictors of aortic dimensions in girls and young women with Turner syndrome (TS). A cross-sectional study was performed at a secondary care center. The study compared 41 TS patients with 50 healthy age-matched control.......03). The presence of bicuspid aortic valves correlated at the descending part of the aorta (R = 0.38; p girls or young TS patients. The BSA predicted aortic size at all positions. The prevalence of aortic dilation and aneurysm was lower...... in this population of girls and younger women with TS than in older TS populations....

  18. ESO-ESMO 3rd international consensus guidelines for breast cancer in young women (BCY3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Pagani, Olivia; Partridge, Ann H; Abulkhair, Omalkhair; Cardoso, Maria-João; Dent, Rebecca Alexandra; Gelmon, Karen; Gentilini, Oreste; Harbeck, Nadia; Margulies, Anita; Meirow, Dror; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Senkus, Elzbieta; Spanic, Tanja; Sutliff, Medha; Travado, Luzia; Peccatori, Fedro; Cardoso, Fatima

    2017-10-01

    The 3rd International Consensus Conference for Breast Cancer in Young Women (BCY3) took place in November 2016, in Lugano, Switzerland organized by the European School of Oncology (ESO) and the European Society of Medical Oncologists (ESMO). Consensus recommendations for the management of breast cancer in young women were updated from BCY2 with incorporation of new evidence to inform the guidelines, and areas of research priorities were identified. This manuscript summarizes the ESO-ESMO international consensus recommendations, which are also endorsed by the European Society of Breast Specialists (EUSOMA). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV risk, partner violence, and relationship power among Filipino young women: testing a structural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucea, Marguerite B; Hindin, Michelle J; Kub, Joan; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2012-01-01

    A person's ability to minimize HIV risk is embedded in a complex, multidimensional context. In this study, we tested a model of how relationship power impacts IPV victimization, which in turn impacts HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed data from 474 young adult women (aged 15-31) in Cebu Province, Philippines, using structural equation modeling, and demonstrated good fit for the models. High relationship power is directly associated with increased IPV victimization, and IPV victimization is positively associated with increased HIV risk. We highlight in this article the complex dynamics to consider in HIV risk prevention among these young women.

  20. Risk factors for breast cancer among young women in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Reza; Maram, Esfandiar Setoudeh; Tahmasebi, Sedigheh; Tabatabaee, Seyed Hamid Reza

    2011-09-15

    Age standardized incidence rates of breast cancer in developed countries is nearly threefold higher than in developing countries. Iran has had one of the lowest incidence rates for breast cancer in the world, but during the last four decades increasing incidence rates of breast cancer made it the most prevalent cancer in Iranian women. After adjustment for age, Iranian young women are at relatively higher risk of breast cancer than their counterparts in developed countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate some established risk factors of breast cancer in Iranian young women. A hospital-based case control study comprising 521 women with histologically confirmed, incident breast cancer and 521 controls frequency-matched by age and province of residence was conducted. Logistic regression performed to investigate associations of reproductive and anthropometric factors with breast cancer risk. In multivariate analysis, family history [odds ratio (OR): 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-2.42], oral contraceptives (OC) usage (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.11-2.08), low parity (OR parity ≥ 3 vs. 1-2: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.23-0.49), employment (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.05-3.23) and shorter period of breast feeding (OR ≥ 37 months vs. breast cancer in young women. This was the first study focusing on risk factors of breast cancer in Iranian young women. The trend of decreasing parity and shortened duration of breast feeding along with OC usage might partly explain the rapid rising of breast cancer incidence in Iranian young women. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  1. Heart rate variability under resting conditions in postmenopausal and young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.F. Ribeiro

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the modulation of heart rate in a group of postmenopausal women to that of a group of young women under resting conditions on the basis of R-R interval variability. Ten healthy postmenopausal women (mean ± SD, 58.3 ± 6.8 years and 10 healthy young women (mean ± SD, 21.6 ± 0.82 years were submitted to a control resting electrocardiogram (ECG in the supine and sitting positions over a period of 6 min. The ECG was obtained from a one-channel heart monitor at the CM5 lead and processed and stored using an analog to digital converter connected to a microcomputer. R-R intervals were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis from the ECG recording in real time using a signal-processing software. Heart rate variability (HRV was expressed as standard deviation (RMSM and mean square root (RMSSD. In the supine position, the postmenopausal group showed significantly lower (P<0.05 median values of RMSM (34.9 and RMSSD (22.32 than the young group (RMSM: 62.11 and RMSSD: 49.1. The same occurred in the sitting position (RMSM: 33.0 and RMSSD: 18.9 compared to RMSM: 57.6 and RMSSD: 42.8 for the young group. These results indicate a decrease in parasympathetic modulation in postmenopausal women compared to young women which was possibly due both to the influence of age and hormonal factors. Thus, time domain HRV proved to be a noninvasive and sensitive method for the identification of changes in autonomic modulation of the sinus node in postmenopausal women.

  2. Hormonal contraception and regulation of menstruation: a study of young women's attitudes towards 'having a period'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Victoria Louise; Hoggart, Lesley

    2015-07-01

    Irregular bleeding is one of the most common side effects of hormonal contraception and a key reason for the discontinuation of hormonal methods. A qualitative study in which 12 young women volunteered to be interviewed in depth, along with six focus group discussions (23 participants). The study had two main research objectives: to document and investigate what young women think and feel about menstruation and contraception, and to explore young women's preferences regarding the intersection of contraceptives and bleeding patterns. Although participants held a broad view that menstruation can be an inconvenience, they did ascribe positive values to having a regular bleed. Bleeding was seen as a signifier of non-pregnancy and also an innate part of being a woman. A preference for a 'natural' menstruating body was a strong theme, and the idea of selecting a hormonal contraceptive that might stop the bleeding was not overly popular, unless the young woman suffered with painful natural menstruation. Contraceptives that mimicked the menstrual cycle were acceptable to most, suggesting that cyclic bleeding still holds a symbolic function for women. When counselling young women about the effect of different contraceptive modalities on their bleeding, practitioners should explore how the women feel about their bleeding, including how they might feel if their bleeding stopped or if they experienced erratic bleeding patterns. Practitioners also need to recognise the subjective understanding of the 'natural body' as held by some women, and in these cases to support them in their seeking out of non-hormonal methods of contraception. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Breast Cancer in Young Brazilian Women: Challenge for the Oncology Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Andréia Franca Gravena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate and compare aspects of breast cancer in young women (40 years old. Methods. Retrospective, cross-sectional, analytical, and exploratory study based on data from 2009 to 2012 obtained from the Breast Cancer Information System (SISMAMA and the Unified Health System Information Data (DATASUS. The studied population consisted of women (n=31.195 with malignant breast cancer. The analysed variables were education level, race, nodule detection at the clinical examination or image studies, presence of palpable axillary lymph nodes, surgical approach, and tumor histological type and grade. Results. There was increasing detection of breast cancer cases in young women among the studied years. Young women had more palpable lymph nodes (OR 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18–1.39, ductal carcinoma as the most frequent histologic type (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.53, and grades II and III tumor (OR 16.01 , 95% CI: 13.30 to 19.28 . The lesion detection by clinical examination was higher in women <40 years (OR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.24 to 1.45. Conclusion. Although there are early detection measures related to breast cancer, they are not the usual practice of the young female public, suggesting the need for a review of existing public policies in the country.

  4. Home screening for sexually transmitted diseases in high-risk young women: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). AIM: To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high-risk sample of young women. METHODS......: In this randomised controlled trial, 403 young women (mean age 18.9 years, 70% black) with a recent STD or with STD-related risk factors were enrolled. Participants were recruited from clinics and high-prevalence neighbourhoods and then randomly assigned to receive either a home testing kit or an invitation...... to attend a medical clinic for testing at 6, 12 and 18 months after enrollment. Over 80% of women were followed for 2 years. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT 00177437. RESULTS: Of 197 women in the intervention group, 140 (71%) returned at least one home test and 25 of 249 (10...

  5. Determinants of institutional delivery among young married women in Nepal: Evidence from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabuddin, Asm; De Brouwere, Vincent; Adhikari, Ramesh; Delamou, Alexandre; Bardaj, Azucena; Delvaux, Therese

    2017-04-13

    To identify the determinants of institutional delivery among young married women in Nepal. Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data sets 2011 were analysed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using a subset of 1662 ever-married young women (aged 15-24 years). Place of delivery. The rate of institutional delivery among young married women was 46%, which is higher than the national average (35%) among all women of reproductive age. Young women who had more than four antenatal care (ANC) visits were three times more likely to deliver in a health institution compared with women who had no antenatal care visit (OR: 3.05; 95% CI: 2.40 to 3.87). The probability of delivering in an institution was 69% higher among young urban women than among young women who lived in rural areas. Young women who had secondary or above secondary level education were 1.63 times more likely to choose institutional delivery than young women who had no formal education (OR: 1.626; 95% CI: 1.171 to 2.258). Lower use of a health institution for delivery was also observed among poor young women. Results showed that wealthy young women were 2.12 times more likely to deliver their child in an institution compared with poor young women (OR: 2.107; 95% CI: 1.53 to 2.898). Other factors such as the age of the young woman, religion, ethnicity, and ecological zone were also associated with institutional delivery. Maternal health programs should be designed to encourage young women to receive adequate ANC (at least four visits). Moreover, health programs should target poor, less educated, rural, young women who live in mountain regions, are of Janajati ethnicity and have at least one child as such women are less likely to choose institutional delivery in Nepal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. What do young Australian women want (when talking to doctors about contraception)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhammer, Denisa L; Fraser, Catriona; Wigginton, Britta; Harris, Melissa L; Bateson, Deborah; Loxton, Deborah; Stewart, Mary; Coombe, Jacqueline; Lucke, Jayne C

    2017-03-15

    Access to most contraceptives in Australia requires a prescription from a doctor, and it has been shown that doctors can influence women's decision-making with respect to contraception. However, little research has documented how women experience their interactions with doctors within the context of a contraceptive consultation. Understanding such experiences may contribute to our knowledge of factors that may influence women's contraceptive decisions more broadly. We report on findings from the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intentions and Decisions (CUPID) survey of young Australian women, a large-scale longitudinal study of 3,795 women aged 18-23 years. We performed a computer-assisted search for occurrences of words that indicated an interaction within the 1,038 responses to an open-ended question about contraception and pregnancy. We then applied a combination of conventional and summative content analysis techniques to the 158 comments where women mentioned an interaction about contraception with a doctor. Our analysis showed that women desire consistent and accurate contraception information from doctors, in addition to information about options other than the oral contraceptive pill. Some young women reported frustrations about the choice limitations imposed by doctors, perceived by these women to be due to their young age. Several women expressed disappointment that their doctor did not fully discuss the potential side-effects of contraceptives with them, and that doctors made assumptions about the woman's reasons for seeking contraception. Some women described discomfort in having contraception-related discussions, and some perceived their doctor to be unsupportive or judgmental. Both the content and the process of a contraceptive consultation are important to young Australian women, and may be relevant contributors to their choice and ongoing use of a contraceptive method. These findings provide useful insights into aspects of the patient

  7. Sexual desire and relationship duration in young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sarah H; Milhausen, Robin R

    2012-01-01

    Sexual desire is often present at the beginning of a romantic relationship. However, research is divided regarding whether, and how, desire is experienced as a relationship progresses. The authors examined relationship duration and its effect on sexual desire in a sample of 170 undergraduate men and women between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Hierarchical multiple regression results indicated that women's sexual desire was significantly and negatively predicted by relationship duration after controlling for age, relationship satisfaction, and sexual satisfaction. Men's sexual desire, however, was not significantly affected by the duration of their romantic relationships. These findings suggest that men and women may have different experiences with sexual desire as relationships progress and that sexual desire might be affected by different factors depending on one's gender. Possible reasons for these results are suggested and therapeutic implications are discussed.

  8. Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Shonni J.; Walker, Marcella D.; Bilezikian, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The clinical profile of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) as it is seen in the United States and most Western countries has evolved significantly over the past half century. The introduction of the multichannel serum autoanalyzer in the 1970s led to the recognition of a cohort of individuals with asymptomatic hypercalcemia, in whom evaluation led to the diagnosis of PHPT. The term “asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism” was introduced to describe patients who lack obvious signs and symptoms referable to either excess calcium or parathyroid hormone. Although it was expected that asymptomatic patients would eventually develop classical symptoms of PHPT, observational data suggest that most patients do not evolve over time to become overtly symptomatic. In most parts of the world, the asymptomatic phenotype of PHPT has replaced classical PHPT. This report is a selective review of data on asymptomatic PHPT: its demographic features, presentation and natural history, as well as biochemical, skeletal, neuromuscular, psychological, and cardiovascular manifestations. In addition, we will summarize available information on treatment indications and options for those with asymptomatic disease. PMID:23374736

  9. Detection of non-palpable breast cancer in asymptomatic women by using unenhanced diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted MR imaging: comparison with mammography and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Matsuo, Yoshio; Sunami, Shunya; Kamitani, Takeshi; Kawanami, Satoshi; Setoguchi, Taro; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Sakai, Shuji [Kyushu University, Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Kubo, Makoto [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Oncology and Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Tokunaga, Eriko [Kyushu University, Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamoto, Hidetaka [Kyushu University, Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    To compare the detectability of non-palpable breast cancer in asymptomatic women by using mammography (MMG), dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and unenhanced MR imaging with combined diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted images (DWI + T2WI). Forty-two lesions in 42 patients with non-palpable breast cancer in asymptomatic women were enrolled. For the reading test, we prepared a control including 13 normal and 8 benign cases. Each imaging set included biplane MMG, DCE-MRI and DWI + T2WI. Five readers were asked to rate the images on a scale of 0 to 100 for the likelihood of the presence of cancer and the BI-RADS category. Confidence level results were used to construct receiver operating characteristic analysis. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each technique. DWI + T2WI showed higher observer performances (area under the curve, AUC, 0.73) and sensitivity (50%) for the detection of non-palpable breast cancer than MMG alone (AUC 0.64; sensitivity 40%) but lower than those of DCE-MRI (AUC 0.93; sensitivity 86%). A combination of MMG and DWI + T2WI exhibited higher sensitivity (69%) compared with that of MMG alone (40%). DWI + T2WI could be useful in screening breast cancer for patients who cannot receive contrast medium and could be used as a new screening technique for breast cancer. (orig.)

  10. Detection of non-palpable breast cancer in asymptomatic women by using unenhanced diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted MR imaging: comparison with mammography and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Matsuo, Yoshio; Sunami, Shunya; Kamitani, Takeshi; Kawanami, Satoshi; Setoguchi, Taro; Sakai, Shuji; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Kubo, Makoto; Tokunaga, Eriko; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Honda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    To compare the detectability of non-palpable breast cancer in asymptomatic women by using mammography (MMG), dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and unenhanced MR imaging with combined diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted images (DWI+T2WI). Forty-two lesions in 42 patients with non-palpable breast cancer in asymptomatic women were enrolled. For the reading test, we prepared a control including 13 normal and 8 benign cases. Each imaging set included biplane MMG, DCE-MRI and DWI+T2WI. Five readers were asked to rate the images on a scale of 0 to 100 for the likelihood of the presence of cancer and the BI-RADS category. Confidence level results were used to construct receiver operating characteristic analysis. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each technique. DWI+T2WI showed higher observer performances (area under the curve, AUC, 0.73) and sensitivity (50%) for the detection of non-palpable breast cancer than MMG alone (AUC 0.64; sensitivity 40%) but lower than those of DCE-MRI (AUC 0.93; sensitivity 86%). A combination of MMG and DWI+T2WI exhibited higher sensitivity (69%) compared with that of MMG alone (40%). DWI+T2WI could be useful in screening breast cancer for patients who cannot receive contrast medium and could be used as a new screening technique for breast cancer.

  11. Fertility Preservation: A Key Survivorship Issue for Young Women with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M Angarita; Cynae Alonia Lillian Johnson; Amanda eNickles Fader; Christianson, Mindy S.

    2016-01-01

    Fertility preservation in the young cancer survivor is recognized as a key survivorship issue by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Thus, health-care providers should inform women about the effects of cancer therapy on fertility and should discuss the different fertility preservation options available. It is also recommended to refer women expeditiously to a fertility specialist in order to improve counseling. Women’s age, diagnosis, p...

  12. Impact of oral contraceptive pills on central corneal thickness in young women

    OpenAIRE

    Bengi Ece Kurtul; Besime Inal; Pinar Altiaylik Ozer; Emrah Utku Kabatas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Hormonal changes during oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use may affect central corneal thickness (CCT) values. We aimed to evaluate the impact of OCP use on CCT values in healthy young women. Materials and Methods: Fifty women subjects who use OCP for contraception (Group 1) and forty control subjects (Group 2) who do not use OCP were included in this prospective study. None of the patients had any history of systemic or ocular diseases. The CCT values measured by ultrasonic pach...

  13. Preferences in e-Commerce Among Men, Women, and Mothers of Young Children in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Tina; Stankus, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of our research is to examine differences in e-commerce preferences between men, women, and mothers with small children (in the US). Various website factors have been established in previous studies as critical to e-commerce success. However, there are few studies that investigate how these factors vary in importance among different user groups, for example men, women, or mothers with young children. Increased understanding of these group’s preferences can help companies market th...

  14. Seeking Health Information Online: Association with Young Australian Women's Physical, Mental, and Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Ingrid Jean; Loxton, Deborah; Dobson, Annette; Mishra, Gita Devi

    2015-05-18

    Relatively little is known about the extent to which young adults use the Internet as a health information resource and whether there are factors that distinguish between those who do and do not go online for health information. The aim was to identify the sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with young women's use of the Internet for health information. We used data from 17,069 young women aged 18-23 years who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with searching the Internet for health information. Overall, 43.54% (7433/17,069) of women used the Internet for health information. Women who used the Internet had higher odds of regular urinary or bowel symptoms (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.36-1.54), psychological distress (very high distress: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13-1.37), self-reported mental health diagnoses (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.23), and menstrual symptoms (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.36) than women who did not use the Internet for health information. Internet users were less likely to have had blood pressure checks (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.93) and skin cancer checks (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.97) and to have had a live birth (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.86) or pregnancy loss (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.98) than non-Internet users. Women experiencing "stigmatized" conditions or symptoms were more likely to search the Internet for health information. The Internet may be an acceptable resource that offers "anonymized" information or support to young women and this has important implications for health service providers and public health policy.

  15. Asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infection in Tierralta, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucunubá, Zulma Milena; Guerra, Angela Patricia; Rahirant, Sonia Judith; Rivera, Jorge Alonso; Cortés, Liliana Jazmín; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago

    2008-11-01

    With the aim of determining the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infection by thick smear and PCR and its association with demographic and epidemiological characteristics in the village of Nuevo Tay, Tierralta, Córdoba, Colombia, a cross-sectional population study was carried out, using random probabilistic sampling. Venous blood samples were taken from 212 people on day 0 for thick smear and PCR. Clinical follow-up and thick smears were carried out on days 14 and 28. The prevalence of Plasmodium spp. infection was 17.9% (38/212; 95% CI: 12.5-23.3%) and the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodiumspp. infection was 14.6% (31/212; 95% CI: 9.6-19.6%). Plasmodium vivax was found more frequently (20/31; 64.5%) than Plasmodium falciparum (9/31; 29%) and mixed infections (2/31; 6.5%). A significantly higher prevalence of asymptomatic infection was found in men (19.30%) than in women (9.18%) (prevalence ratio: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.01-4.34%; p = 0.02). People who developed symptoms had a significantly higher parasitemia on day 0 than those who remained asymptomatic, of 1,881.5 +/- 3,759 versus 79 +/- 106.9 (p = 0.008). PCR detected 50% more infections than the thick smears. The presence of asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infection highlights the importance of carrying out active searches amongst asymptomatic populations residing in endemic areas.

  16. Effects of early and later marriage on women's alcohol use in young adulthood: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Collins, Rebecca L; Ellickson, Phyllis L; Martino, Steven C; Klein, David J

    2005-11-01

    Previous research shows that marriage leads to reductions in alcohol use, especially for women. Because marriage prior to age 20 (early marriage) is a marker for deviance, the protective effects of marriage may not extend to those who marry in adolescence. We compared the effects of marriage in adolescence versus young adulthood on alcohol consumption, negative alcohol-related consequences and heavy episodic drinking at age 29. We analyzed data from 1,138 women in a longitudinal cohort followed from ages 18 to 29. The original sample was recruited from 30 California and Oregon middle schools and first surveyed at age 13. Women who had not married, had married early or had married between ages 20 and 29 did not differ on alcohol use at age 18. Women who married as young adults were less likely than singles to engage in any alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking or experience negative consequences and reported less alcohol use at age 29. Women who married in adolescence reported fewer negative consequences at age 29 than did singles and (if they had not divorced) were less likely to engage in heavy episodic drinking or experience any negative consequences, reported fewer consequences and consumed less alcohol. The protective effects of marriage in young adulthood were observed whether or not women divorced. Parenthood and college attendance before age 23 did not explain the marriage effect. Results support role theory, which posits that individuals who marry are socialized into conventional adult roles that discourage deviant behavior.

  17. Evaluation of lifestyle of underweight, normal weight and overweight young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronka, Iwona; Suliga, Edyta; Pawliñska-Chmara, Romana

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare eating and lifestyle habits between underweight, normal weight and overweight young women. Data obtained from a survey of 1129 students of the three higher education institutions in Kielce, Kraków and Opole (Southern Poland) were analysed. BMI was used to define underweight, overweight and obesity. Eating and lifestyle habits were assessed based on the information received from surveyed students. The study group consisted of women of childbearing-age and a special attention was paid to analyse habits correlated with the risk factor for pregnant women (low consumption of dairy products, meat, fish, fruits and vegetables, cigarette smoking, alcohol and caffeine intake). In the studied group, the prevalence of underweight was higher than the prevalence of overweight and obesity (11.1% vs. 7.0%). There were no significant differences in nutritional habits between the three weight groups. The responding students, regardless their weight status, presented numerous unhealthy eating habits. Underweight students more frequently took multivitamin supplements, less frequently followed an alternative diet, smoked cigarettes or drank larger amounts of coffee than normal weight and overweight women. Underweight and normal weight women more frequently participated in sports activities than overweight and obese women. However, 39.2 percent of the surveyed women declared that they seldom or never perform any sport activities. The results show that majority of young women present numerous unhealthy behaviours. Unhealthy habits occur with the same frequency among underweight students as among normal weight students or overweight ones.

  18. Transgressive women don't deserve protection: young men's narratives of sexual violence against women in rural Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A

    2016-11-01

    Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.

  19. Metabolic abnormalities in young Egyptian women with polycystic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder. It is associated with high prevalence of metabolic risk factors, but little is known about the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components among Egyptian PCOS women. The objective of the study was to determine the ...

  20. Metabolic abnormalities in young Egyptian women with polycystic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moushira Zaki

    2015-06-25

    Jun 25, 2015 ... variants, metabolic markers and their significance in obesity- related diseases.'' Eighty women controls of similar age and BMI of patients were selected. All subjects were sedentary and were not partic- ipating in any specific diet plan. The mean age of attaining menarche in PCOS patients was 12.83 ± 1.11 ...

  1. reactive Protein and Endothelial Function in Young Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduces hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, hyperandrogenemia, and systolic blood pressure, while facilitating normal menses and pregnancy. Metabolism 1994; 43: 647-54. 9. Kiddy DS, Hamilton-Fairley D, Seppälä M. Diet-induced changes in sex hormone binding globulin and free testosterone in women with normal or ...

  2. Experiences of sexual relationships of young black women in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many African societies operate via a hegemonic masculinity, with patriarchal governance and female subordination being the norm, placing women at even ... The atmosphere within which these participants negotiate their sexual agency is thus heavily informed by male control, coercion and the threat of violence or rape.

  3. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy in osogbo with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is a common clinical entity in pregnancy but the prevalence due to S. saprophyticus, an established uro-pathogen in sexually active women, remained largely unknown in Nigeria. The prevalence of asymptomatic significant bacteriuria due to S. saprophyticus was therefore determined among 431 ...

  4. Young Singaporean women's knowledge of cervical cancer and pap smear screening: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Juanna; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Mackey, Sandra

    2013-12-01

    To assess the knowledge of young female Singaporeans regarding cervical cancer and pap smear, the intention to participate in pap smear and whether there is any relationship between knowledge and intention to participate in pap smear screening. While cervical cancer has poor prognosis in the later stages, pap smear is effective in identifying precancerous lesions, which are more treatable. Pap smear screening is available to women in Singapore, but its uptake is opportunistic. Research has shown that knowledge about pap smear and cervical cancer is important determinant of screening behaviour in Singaporean women. Cross-sectional descriptive correlational design was used. Three hundred and ninety-three young Singaporean undergraduates, aged 18-25 years, were recruited via convenience sampling from a local university over a four-month period. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. Majority of the participants knew the term 'pap smear' and its function. However, knowledge of the risk factors for cervical cancer was lacking among the young women. Knowledge of pap smear and cervical cancer had a weak correlation with the intention to go for the future uptake of pap smear. Educational efforts among younger Singaporean women on the knowledge of pap smear and risk factors for cervical cancer are needed. Improving knowledge will enable them to understand the importance of reducing exposure to risk factors and regular pap smear screening. All health professionals working with young Asian women should be prepared to educate and counsel young women to participate in pap smear screening according to current guidelines. In particular, knowledge of the age to attend the first pap smear and the recommended frequency for screening need to be targeted for health education. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Obstacles in Advancement of Young Female Geoscientists: Research Results from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    While the number of women receiving advanced degrees in the geosciences has been rising, the faces of scientific leaders in academia remain dominantly male. Women are currently underrepresented in tenure-track positions in Earth science departments at research universities. Additionally, women are less likely to have more senior positions within their academic institutions. ESWN is a peer-mentoring network of early career women in the Earth sciences. We conducted a survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young female geoscientists. We also conducted a survey of the co-ed Earth Science Jobs list also run by ESWN and used its male and female members as comparison samples. The survey data provide insight into critical career junctures for women in geosciences and identify salient issues that institutions will need to address to successfully recruit, retain and promote women scientists. Prior research has shown that women are subjected to unintended and unrecognized biases that can have an ultimate impact on their productivity, advancement, and success. Our data corroborate these findings: women consistently rated the professional atmosphere in their departments and their interactions with colleagues less favorably than men. Moreover, women indicated lower rates of collaboration with colleagues in their unit compared to their male peers. Possibly due to this discrepancy in collaboration, women also reported lower research productivity than men in our study. Attaining work/life balance is a particular concern to early-career scientists, especially since tenure clock and the biological clock can coincide and reduce the opportunity for women to achieve tenure and have children. Family issues may impact the success of women in academic careers, such as travel to meetings and field work. Our research shows that women's partners more often worked in STEM fields, potentially complicating women's careers by

  6. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Genital Infection among Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the isolates except Streptococcus faecalis were resistant to ampicillin. These results show a high rate of asymptomatic genital tract infections among pregnant women in Benin City, which have implications for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. (Afr J Reprod Health 2002; 6[3]: 93-97) Résumé Prévalence de ...

  7. Young urban women and the nutrition transition in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanat, Hala N; Lindsay, Ryan; Campbell, Tiffany

    2011-04-01

    To determine the nutrition transition stage of female Jordanian college students. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess eating styles, disordered eating attitudes and behaviours, body esteem and dissatisfaction, and media influence. Public and private universities in Jordan. A total of 255 subjects were recruited through a government-initiated youth campaign. The majority of participants had a normal BMI (70.6%) with almost all (99.4%) reporting restrained eating behaviour. Scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) indicated that 45.2% of these female college students should be screening for eating disorders. Subscales of the Body Esteem Scale (BES) showed that these women did not have substantial body esteem issues and mean scores on the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3) indicated that overall these women did not feel the media was dictating the way their body should look. Where Jordanian women did feel pressure from Western media, there was a 6.7-fold increase in the likelihood that they wanted to lose weight. In addition, 48.2% of the female college students desired to lose weight and 14.4% desired weight gain, indicating a certain level of body dissatisfaction. With low levels of overweight and obesity and a propensity towards eating based on external hunger cues, college-aged Jordanian women may be less advanced in their development through the nutrition transition than the general population of women. However, high levels of restrained eating and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours indicate the need for an intervention to address healthy weight-loss strategies, assess eating disorders and help maintain healthy body esteem.

  8. Barriers to Higher Education: Commonalities and Contrasts in the Experiences of Hindu and Muslim Young Women in Urban Bengaluru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Jeffery, Patricia; Nakkeeran, N.

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequalities in educational attainment have attracted considerable attention and this article aims to contribute to our understanding of young women's access to higher education. The article is based on our in-depth interviews with 26 Hindu and Muslim young women attending colleges in urban Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore), south India, and…

  9. Early predictors of daily smoking in young women : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorhees, CC; Schreiber, GB; Schumann, BC; Biro, F; Crawford, PB

    Background. Smoking is highly prevalent in young women and little is known about early multilevel independent risk or protective factors that are predictive of daily smoking in young women. Methods. Multiple logistic regression was conducted on data from NGHS, a 10-year cohort study of Black (1,213)

  10. Biopedagogies and Indigenous Knowledge: Examining Sport for Development and Peace for Urban Indigenous Young Women in Canada and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Lyndsay M. C.; Giles, Audrey R.; Wright, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses transnational postcolonial feminist participatory action research (TPFPAR) to examine two sport for development and peace (SDP) initiatives that focus on Indigenous young women residing in urban areas, one in Vancouver, Canada, and one in Perth, Australia. We examine how SDP programs that target urban Indigenous young women and…

  11. High Risk Human Papillomavirus Persistence Among HIV-infected Young Women in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Adler

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: HIV-infected young women in our cohort had a seven-fold increased rate of persistence of HR-HPV overall at 12 months, indicating an increased risk for incident and progressive precancerous lesions. Identification of persistent infection with HR-HPV may complement cytological findings in determining the need for colposcopy.

  12. Keep Calm and Contracept! Addressing Young Women's Pleasure in Sexual Health and Contraception Consultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbury, Ali; Eastham, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Clinical sexual health consultations with young women often focus on avoiding "risks;" namely pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection transmission. They also typically fail to explore how contraception use can impact on the capacity to enjoy sexual relationships. In contrast, this paper argues that sexual pleasure should be a…

  13. Healthy food consumption in young women : The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  14. Healthy food consumption in young women: The influence of others’ eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  15. Communicating breast cancer risk information to young adult women: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Jennifer K; Hullmann, Stephanie E; Sparks, Glenn G

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a health promotion flyer to increase awareness of breast cancer risk and physical activity as a risk reduction strategy in young adult women. Young adult women (N = 123) viewed one of five health promotion flyers online and then completed measures of perceived breast cancer risk (PR) and perceived informativeness (PI) and a qualitative thought-listing activity. Differences were observed in PI such that the control and low risk/low information messages were significantly less informative than the others. Qualitative analyses revealed two general themes: message content and flyer design. Additional analyses of the flyer design comments revealed four sub-themes: negative thoughts about the image, positive thoughts about the image, misunderstanding breast cancer risk information, and social comparison. Exploratory analyses controlling for message type indicated that image appraisal predicted PI such that those who commented on the image found the flyer to be less informative. Results suggest that the flyer was informative but did not impact young women's breast cancer risk perceptions. Additionally, the image may have distracted young women from the intended message. Evaluating the acceptability of images used in health promotion materials is recommended before testing the effectiveness of the intervention.

  16. Material Realities in the Basic Writing Classroom: Intersections of Discovery for Young Women Reading "Persepolis 2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Susan Naomi

    2008-01-01

    This essay focuses on how young women students in a first-year, first-quarter basic reading and writing course wrote about their connections to the process of identity development as portrayed in the graphic novel "Persepolis 2: The Story of a Return" by Marjane Satrapi. While the circumstances of becoming a student in a required…

  17. Delayed beta-cell response and glucose intolerance in young women with Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerrild, Britta E; Holst, Jens Juul; Juhl, Claus B

    2011-01-01

    similar. In addition we found low IGF-I, higher levels of cortisol and norepinephrine and an increased waist-hip ratio in TS. CONCLUSIONS: Young normal weight TS women show significant glucose intolerance in spite of normal insulin secretion during hyperglycaemic clamping and normal insulin sensitivity...

  18. Appearance Concerns and Smoking in Young Men and Women: Going beyond Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Sarah; Hartley, Louise; Conner, Mark; Fry, Gary; Gough, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the link between appearance concerns and smoking in young men and women. Methods: A total of 244, 17-34-year-olds completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Sub-Scales (MBSRQ-AS). Findings: Smokers scored significantly lower than non-smokers on appearance evaluation and…

  19. Dietary calcium and bone density in adolescent girls and young women in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Ando, S.; Charles, P.; Charzewska, J.; Rotily, M.; Väänänen, K.; Erp-Baart, A.M.J. van; Heikkinen, J.; Thomsen, J.; Maggiolini, M.; Deloraine, A.; Chabros, E.; Juvin, R.; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between dietary calcium intake and radial bone density among young women, over the whole range of intake and at different levels of calcium intake. The study design was a cross-sectional, observational multicenter investigation in six

  20. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  1. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nee, R.L. van; Larsen, J.K.; Fisher, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues

  2. "Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The…

  3. Evaluation of a Computer-Tailored Osteoporosis Prevention Intervention in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Donald H., Jr.; Clark, Diane; Turner, Lori W.; Kohler, Connie L.; Snyder, Scott; Morgan, Sarah L.; Schoenberger, Yu-Mei M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based computer-tailored osteoporosis prevention program on calcium and vitamin D intake and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Additionally, this study tested whether adding bone density testing to the intervention improved the outcomes. Methods: One hundred…

  4. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Nutritional Intervention in Young Women with Eating Disorders: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleavey, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders in young women are often associated with a number of comorbid conditions, including mood disorders and cognitive problems. Although group therapy is often used as part of overall treatment for eating disorders in many types of settings, specific nutritional interventions used in such settings have rarely been evaluated. In this…

  6. The Influence of Maternal Loss on Young Women's Experience of Identity Development in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Lara E.

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative approach was used to study the influence of adolescent maternal loss on identity development in 6 young women. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed for recurrent themes. Three metathemes emerged from the narratives: Loss of Mother Impacts Identity, Relatedness on the Path of Identity…

  7. Relationships and betrayal among young women: theoretical perspectives on adolescent dating abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Candace W; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rankin, Sally H; Rehm, Roberta S; Humphreys, Janice C

    2011-06-01

    Adolescent dating abuse is not specifically described by any current nursing theory, and this article presents discussion of some existing theories that could inform a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse. To account for the effects of gender, this discussion is limited to young women. Adolescent dating abuse is an important and understudied international issue for nursing. Theoretical frameworks can support development of nursing scholarship for such issues. No single theory yet exists in nursing to explain the experiences and health ramifications of dating abuse among young women. A summary table of theories is provided. Literature was gathered via database search and bibliographic snowballing from reference lists of relevant articles. Included literature dates from 1982 through 2010. Theories of relationship formation and function are discussed, including attachment, investment, feminist and gender role conflict theories. Betrayal trauma theory is considered as a mechanism of injury following an abusive dating experience. Gender, relationship and adolescence combine in a complex developmental moment for young women. To improve nursing care for those at risk for or in the throes of abusive relationships, it is critical to develop specific nursing approaches to understanding these relationships. Existing theories related to relationship and traumatic experiences can be combined in the development of a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse among young women. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Health discourses, slimness ideals, and attitudes to physical activities: Perspectives of young women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; With-Nielsen, Ninna; Lenneis, Verena

    2017-01-01

    they ascribed great importance. The internalization of current ideals of the slim and fit body fueled aspirations but did not necessarily lead to the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. We conclude that health messages and body ideals often cause anxieties and guilt among young women, which may...

  9. Prevalence and comorbidity of major depressive disorder in young black and white women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Barton, BA; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC; Iachan, R; Crawford, PB; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH

    Objective This study reports the prevalence and comorbidity of depression in two large samples of black and white young adult women. Method Clinical interviews of participants in a follow-up study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS-Wave II; N = 378) were

  10. "Two's up and Poncing Fags": Young Women's Smoking Practices, Reciprocity and Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Fin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade much has been written by journalists, policy makers, and academics, about young women's leisure time pursuits. A great deal of this interest has focused around a concern that teenage girls in the UK are taking up smoking in larger numbers than their male peers. This paper draws on findings from my small-scale doctoral research…

  11. Suicidality of young ethnic minority women with an Immigrant background: The role of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, van D.D.; Saharso, S.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had

  12. Ideabook for Mentors. Hand in Hand: Mentoring Young Women. Book 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddis, Bonnie; And Others

    This document is one of three products developed as part of a 2-year project designed to increase the motivation of minority young women to pursue occupations and careers that will be in demand in the future. It is hoped that these products will help schools and businesses to cooperate in conducting a mentoring program. This ideabook was written…

  13. Student Career Journal. Hand in Hand: Mentoring Young Women. Book 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. Center for Sex Equity.

    This document is one of three products developed as part of a 2-year project designed to increase the motivation of minority young women to pursue occupations and careers that will be in demand in the future. It is hoped that these products will help schools and businesses to cooperate in conducting a mentoring program. This workbook was designed…

  14. Growth in Motion: Supporting Young Women's Embodied Identity and Cognitive Development through Dance after School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira-Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This article highlights the perspectives of young women who have participated in dance for many years. Their viewpoints reveal the unique multimodal nature of embodied learning; in dance classes, teachers and learners communicate through a variety of modes: visual, auditory, kinesthetic, spatial, musical, tactile, gestural, and linguistic. The…

  15. Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

    2011-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…

  16. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Response to Shallow Water Exercise in Young and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer A.; D'Acquisto, Leo J.; D'Acquisto, Debra M.; Cline, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the metabolic and cardiovascular responses of young and older women while performing shallow water exercise (SWE). Overall, SWE elicited metabolic and cardiovascular responses that met American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for establishing health benefits. Older females self-selected a greater relative exercise intensity during…

  17. “Seek any means, and keep it your secret”: Young women's attempts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young mothers, whether married or not, generally had much more access to modern contraceptives than childless single women, because they visited health facilities for prenatal check-ups and their children's health care, and health facility staff specifically targeted them for contraceptive advice. However, only a minority of ...

  18. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  19. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  20. Subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.

    The aim of this study was to systematically describe the nature and context of subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Data on sexual behavior and subjective sexual well-being were collected through an internet questionnaire. Respondents were included if

  1. Diaspora Literacies: An Exploration of What Reading Means to Young African Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Liv Thorstensson

    2015-01-01

    This research study explored two young African immigrant women English learners' perspectives on reading, and literacy more broadly, in relation to motivation and identity during a year-long qualitative study at a large, urban high school in the U.S. southeast. Data were collected through interviews and observations that focused on reading…

  2. Suicidality of young ethnic minority women with an immigrant background : The role of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, Diana D.; Saharso, Sawitri

    Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had

  3. Comparative data from young men and women on masseter muscle fibres, function and facial morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, A.; Bakke, M.; Pinholt, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The primary aim was to relate information about masseter muscle fibres and function to aspects of facial morphology in a group of healthy young men. The secondary aim was to investigate possible sex differences using data previously obtained from a comparable group of age-matched, healthy women...... and some measures of facial morphology. Thus data from men and women should not be pooled uncritically. The greater bite force in men than women corresponded with the greater diameter and cross-sectional area of type II fibres. Further, the males had more anteriorly inclined mandibles and shorter anterior...

  4. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    requis pour une infection de la vessie peut être facilitée par les rapports sexuels, ce qui a été démontré pour comme étant un facteur de risque important et un indice .... A diagnosis of acute UTI was made. A urine test showed leucocyte count of .... Urinary Tract Infection in Post-Menopausal Women. J. Gen Intern Med 2008; ...

  5. All-cause mortality in young women with endometrial cancer receiving progesterone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Maria P; Huang, Yongmei; Hou, June Y; Tergas, Ana I; Burke, William M; Ananth, Cande V; Neugut, Alfred I; Hershman, Dawn L; Wright, Jason D

    2017-08-24

    Uterine-preserving therapy with progesterone may be used in young women with endometrial cancer who desire fertility preservation. Such therapy delays definitive treatment with hysterectomy. We examined the use and safety of progestational therapy in young women with endometrial cancer. The primary outcome of the analysis was overall survival. We identified women ≤49 years of age with stage I endometrial cancer in the National Cancer Database from 2004 through 2014. Women treated with hormonal therapy with or without hysterectomy were compared to women treated with hysterectomy. After propensity score weighting, overall survival was examined using proportional hazards models. A total of 23,231 patients, including 872 (3.8%) women treated with hormonal therapy were identified. Use of hormonal therapy was 2.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.3%) in 2004 and increased over time to 5.9% (95% confidence interval, 5.0-6.9%) by 2014 (P women were more likely to receive hormonal therapy while Medicaid recipients were less likely to receive hormonal therapy. The 5-year survival for patients treated with hormonal therapy was 96.4% (95% confidence interval, 94.3-98.0%) compared to 97.2% (95% confidence interval, 96.9-97.4%) for hysterectomy. In a multivariable model, women treated with hormonal therapy were 92% (hazard ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-3.19) more likely to die compared to women who underwent primary hysterectomy. When stratified by stage, hormonal therapy was associated with increased mortality in women with stage IB and I-not otherwise specified tumors but not for stage IA neoplasms. Use of progestational therapy is increasing. Its use was associated with decreased survival, particularly in women with stage IB tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexually related behaviors as predictors of HPV vaccination among young rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Laurel A; Vanderpool, Robin C; Crosby, Richard A

    2011-12-01

    To explore whether sexually related behaviors predict refusal of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among a sample of women aged 18-26 in Appalachian Kentucky. Using a convenience sample, young women attending health clinics and a community college in southeastern Kentucky were recruited to participate in a Women's Health Study. After completing a questionnaire, women received a free voucher for the three-dose HPV vaccine series. Completion of dose one served as the outcome variable. Women with a history of an abnormal Pap test were almost two times more likely to decline the HPV vaccine (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-3.20, p=0.015), and women who reported they had never had a Pap test were four times more likely to decline the vaccine (AOR 4.02, 95% CI 1.13-14.32, p=0.032). Women engaging in mutual masturbation were nearly two times more likely to decline the free vaccine (AOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.17-3.10, p=0.009). Use of hormonal birth control showed a protective effect against refusal of the free HPV vaccine (AOR 0.593, 95% CI 0.44-0.80, p=0.001). Among this sample of Appalachian women, those engaging in behaviors that increase their risk for HPV infection were more likely to refuse the vaccine. Conversely, those women engaging in protective health behaviors were more likely to accept the vaccine. These findings suggest that those women not being vaccinated may be the very group most likely to benefit from vaccination. Cervical cancer prevention programs need to be creative in efforts to reach young women most in need of the vaccine based on a higher profile of sexually related behaviors and the proxy measure of this risk (having an abnormal Pap test result).

  7. Sexual function in young women with type 1 diabetes: the METRO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorino, M I; Bellastella, G; Castaldo, F; Petrizzo, M; Giugliano, D; Esposito, K

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in young women with type 1 diabetes treated with different intensive insulin regimens. Type 1 diabetic women aged 18-35 years were included in this study if they had stable couple relationship and no oral contraceptive use. All women were asked to complete the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and other validated multiple-choice questionnaires assessing sexual-related distress (Female Sexual Distress Scale, FSDS), quality of life (SF-36 Health Survey), physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, SRDS) and diabetes-related problems (Diabetes Integration Scale ATT-19). FSD was diagnosed according to a FSFI score higher than 26.55 and a FSDS score lower than 15. The overall prevalence of FSD in diabetic and control women was 20 and 15 %, respectively (P = 0.446). Compared with the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion group and control women, diabetic women on multiple daily injections (MDI) had lower global FSFI score (P = 0.007), FSDS score (P = 0.045) and domains such as arousal (P = 0.006), lubrication and satisfaction scores (P independent predictors of FSFI score in the overall diabetic women. Young women with type 1 diabetes wearing an insulin pump show a prevalence of sexual dysfunction similar to that of healthy age-matched women, but sexual function was significantly impaired in diabetic women on MDI therapy. Depression and the mental health status were independent predictors for FSD in diabetic women.

  8. Demographic, psychosocial, and contextual factors associated with sexual risk behaviors among young sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Amy; Kuhns, Lisa; Kinsky, Suzanne; Johnson, Amy; Garofalo, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Young sexual minority women are at risk for negative sexual health outcomes, including sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies, yet little is known about these risks. We examined factors that may influence sexual risk from a psychosocial and contextual perspective. Analyses were conducted to examine within group relationships between sexual behaviors, negative outcomes, and related factors in a sample of young sexual minority women. Participants (N = 131) were young (mean = 19.8) and diverse in terms of race/ethnicity (57% non-White). Sex under the influence, having multiple partners, and having unprotected sex were common behaviors, and pregnancy (20%) and sexually transmitted infection (12%) were common outcomes. Risk behaviors were associated with age, alcohol abuse, and older partners. Results support the need for further research to understand how these factors contribute to risk in order to target risk reduction programs for this population.

  9. Headache classification and aspects of reproductive life in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M. Melhado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To classify headaches as a function of the menstrual cycle and to contrast aspects relating to the reproductive cycle as a function of headache type. Method: Participants responded to a structured questionnaire consisting of 44 questions. Detailed headache information, enabling the classification of headaches, and questions relating to the menstrual cycle were obtained. Results: The sample consisted of 422 students. Menstrual headaches were experiencedby 31.8%. Migraine without aura (MO occurred in 13.3%, migraine with aura (MA in 7.8%, and probable migraine in 6.4%. Women with MA were significantly more likely to have reached menarche at earlier ages than women without headaches (p=0.03. Use of a hormonal contraceptive was related to the function of having MA headaches or not. Conclusion: Most female college students are affected by menstrualheadaches. Although the vast majority experience MO, other headaches also occur. Women with MA are equally likely to receive hormonal contraceptives as others.

  10. Women and young adults suffer most from other people's drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtanen, Petri; Tigerstedt, Christoffer

    2012-11-01

    Research on alcohol-related harm has predominantly focused on harm suffered by the drinker and priority has been given to health-related harms. In comparison, studies on alcohol's harms to others than the drinker are scarce. This study sought to examine the human sufferings from other people's drinking both in the public and in the private sphere. The data of our study come from the Finnish Drinking Habits Survey carried out by face-to-face interviews from two separate simple random samples among Finns aged 15-69. In 2000 the response rate was 78% (n = 1932) and in 2008 74% (n = 2725). Women experience much more negative consequences from others' drinking than men do in both public and private spaces. Regarding public places, people under the age of 30 experience harm most frequently. In the private sphere, harms experienced by women were more prevalent and more serious in character. Women carry a notably heavier burden of problems related to other peoples' drinking. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Why are young women less likely to breastfeed? Evidence from an Australian population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Mary Anne; Yelland, Jane Susanne; Brown, Stephanie Janne

    2014-09-01

    Younger mothers are less likely to continue breastfeeding compared with older mothers. However, few studies have explored this finding. The aim of this study was to investigate breastfeeding initiation and duration among women aged under 25 and 25 years or older, and assess the extent to which any differences associated with maternal age were explained by other factors. All women who gave birth in September and October 2007 in two Australian states were mailed questionnaires 6 months after the birth. Women were asked about infant feeding, maternity care experiences, sociodemographic characteristics, and exposure to stressful life events and social health issues. We examined the association between maternal age, breastfeeding initiation, and breastfeeding at 6 months, while adjusting for a range of social and obstetric risk factors. While younger women were just as likely to initiate breastfeeding as older women (AdjOR 1.13; 95% CI 0.63-2.05), they had almost twice the odds of not breastfeeding at 6 months (AdjOR 1.76; 95% CI 1.34-2.33). Several psychosocial factors may explain why young women are less likely to breastfeed for longer periods. Given the complexity of young childbearing women's lives, supporting them to breastfeed will require a multisectorial approach that addresses social disadvantage and resulting health inequalities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparison of family-planning service quality reported by adolescents and young adult women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darney, Blair G; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Lozano, Rafael; Rodriguez, Maria I

    2016-07-01

    Associations between age and patient-reported quality of family planning services were examined among young women in Mexico. A repeated cross-sectional analysis of survey data collected in 2006, 2009, and 2014 was performed. Data from women aged 15-29years who had not undergone sterilization and were currently using a modern contraceptive method were included. The primary outcome was high-quality care, defined as positive responses to all five quality items regarding contraceptive services included in the survey. Multivariable logistic regression and marginal probabilities were used to compare adolescents and women aged 20-29years. The responses of respondents using different contraceptive methods were compared. Data were included from 15 835 individuals. The multivariable analysis demonstrated lower odds of reporting high-quality care among women aged 15-19years (odds ratio 0.73; 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.88) and 20-24years (odds ratio 0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.75-0.96) compared with women aged 25-29years. Adolescents using hormonal and long-acting reversible contraception had significantly lower odds of reporting high-quality care compared with women aged 25-29. Adolescents in Mexico reported a lower quality of family planning services compared with young adult women. Continued research and policies are needed to improve the quality of contraceptive services. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Are young arab women eating a healthy diet? A qualitative dietary study among college hostel students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, P; Al-Kunji, A A; Al-Saffar, B M; Al-Abdul Karim, H M; Al-Thawadi, M I

    1999-07-01

    Two recent studies conducted on young College Arab Women showed a trend towards over nutrition. It is well known that good eating habits adopted early in life not only improve health and control obesity in the youthful years but also promote healthy eating behaviours in later life. To investigate the dietary habits of young college women and identify specific areas for nutrition education. A self-administered questionnaire containing 20 items related to qualitative dietary history was distributed to all the college (King Faisal University, Dammam) women residing in the hostel during a one-week period in April 1998. Out of a total of 56 women, 50.7% frequently missed out on breakfast and lunch. To satisfy their state of hunger, frequent snacking with deserts/carbohydrate-rich food items (21.4%) and consumption of regular cola drinks (32.1%) was common. Fast food rich in fat and calories from restaurants was popular among a majority (98.2%) of the students. On the other hand, there was a deficient intake of protective foods and nutrients for repair, maintenance and growth, such as fruits (73.2%), vegetables (85.6%), milk and milk products (66.1%) and protein-rich foods (82.1%). To decrease the risk of malnutrition among young college women, there is a need to target them for nutrition education and adoption of healthy eating practices within the context of a healthy life style.

  14. Fractured Identity: A Framework for Understanding Young Asian American Women's Self-harm and Suicidal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of "disempowering parenting styles" that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescriptive parenting. Tied to these family dynamics is the double bind that participants suffer. Exposed to multiple types of negative parenting, the women felt paralyzed by opposing forces, caught between a deep desire to satisfy their parents' expectations as well as societal expectations and to simultaneously rebel against the image of "the perfect Asian woman." Torn by the double bind, these women developed a "fractured identity," which led to the use of "unsafe coping" strategies. Trapped in a "web of pain," the young women suffered alone and engaged in self-harm and suicidal behaviors.

  15. Exploring the concept of uncertain fertility, reproduction and motherhood after cancer in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Lesley E; Boughton, Maureen A

    2011-06-01

    Exploring the concept of uncertain fertility, reproduction and motherhood after cancer in young adult women The topics of uncertainty in illness and infertility--as separate entities--are well covered and critiqued in the literature. Conversely, no research has been identified that specifically relates to the uncertain fertility, reproduction and motherhood challenges faced by young women after cancer. Therefore, there has been no opportunity to extend understanding, adequately acknowledge or effectively manage the needs of young women who may face unique reproductive uncertainties after cancer. The objective of this article is to provide a descriptive review of the literature and present what is currently known about uncertainty in the context of cancer and in relation to fertility, reproduction and motherhood. This article sets out the need for an increased research focus into this aspect of cancer survivorship to minimise the unique psychosocial challenges these women often face. Raising awareness and acknowledging the significance and impact of uncertain reproductive capacity on younger women's psychosocial health will aid cancer co-ordinators, nurses and other health professionals to formulate and deliver timely and appropriate education, management and support. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The influence of high- and low-heeled shoes on balance in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Anna; Oleksy, Łukasz; Kielnar, Renata; Świerczek, Marta

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of two different heel heights on static balance and on limits of stability during functional reach test, with both the eyes open and eyes closed, in young women (age 22-27) who did not wear heeled shoes habitually. Thirtyone young women (age 22-27) performed balance tests on a stabilometric platform without footwear and in shoes with 4 cm and 10 cm heels. The center of pressure (COP) deviations range and velocity in anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions were assessed. The limits of stability were measured when the subject leaned the body in sagittal plane. The ranges of COP deviations in AP and ML directions were already significantly higher in 4 cm heels in comparison to the barefoot condition. COP deviation velocity significantly raised with increasing heel height as well as when the eyes were closed. A more pronounced increase of COP deviation velocity than COP deviation range when measurement conditions become more difficult may indicate that young women anticipate postural corrections by stimulation of ankle proprioception when heeled shoes are worn. High-heeled shoes may lead to alterations in velocity feedback balance mechanism, which may increase the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Observed in our study adverse effect of heeled footwear on balance may predispose women to falls and injuries. Permanent use of stiletto high heels should be avoided by women.

  17. Deadly in pink: the impact of cigarette packaging among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxey, Juliana; Hammond, David

    2011-09-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of cigarette packaging on young women, including the impact of 'plain' packaging. Participants were randomised to view eight cigarette packs designed according to one of four experimental conditions: fully-branded female brands; the same brands without descriptors (eg, 'slims'); the same brands without brand imagery or descriptors (ie, 'plain' packs); and fully branded non-female brands as a control condition. Participants rated packs on perceived appeal, taste, tar, health risks and smoker 'traits'. Fully-branded female packs were rated as significantly more appealing than 'no descriptor' packs, 'plain' packs and non-female branded packs. Female branded packs were associated with a greater number of positive attributes including glamour, slimness and attractiveness, compared to brands without descriptors and 'plain' packs. Women who viewed plain packs were less likely to believe that smoking helps people control their appetite--an important predictor of smoking among young women--compared to women who viewed branded female packs. 'Plain' packaging--removing colours and design elements--and removing descriptors such as 'slims' from packs may reduce brand appeal and thereby susceptibility to smoking among young women.

  18. Concepts of contraception for adolescent and young adult women with chronic illness and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald E; Pratt, Helen D; Patel, Dilip R

    2012-05-01

    Sexual behavior is common in adolescents and young adults with or without chronic illness or disability, resulting in high levels of unplanned pregnancy and STDs. Individuals with chronic illness or disability should not receive suboptimal preventive health care. These individuals have a need for counseling regarding issues of sexuality and contraception. Sexually active adolescent and young adult women can be offered safe and effective contraception if they wish to avoid pregnancy. Women with chronic illnesses and disabilities who are sexually active should also be offered contraception based on their specific medical issues. Condoms are also recommended to reduce STD risks. Table 36 summarizes basic principles of contraception application for specific illnesses, which have been identified since the release of the combined OC in 1960. Clinicians should also consider the noncontraceptive benefits of this remarkable and life-changing technology that allows all reproductive age women to improve their lives, including those with chronic illnesses and disabilities.

  19. Interference of high-heeled shoes in static balance among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Susana Bacelete; Costa, Rafael Vital; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Pasini, Hugo; Marconi, Nádia Fernanda; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the use of high-heeled shoes on static balance in young adult women. Fifty-three women between 18 and 30 years of age and accustomed to wearing high-heeled shoes participated in the study. None of the participants had any orthopedic or neurologic alterations. Static balance was assessed using a force plate. Oscillations from the center of pressure in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions were measured both when barefoot and when wearing high-heeled shoes [7 centimeters (cm) in height and 1cm in diameter] under the conditions of eyes open and eyes closed. Two-way analysis of variance was employed for the statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at 5% (pstatic balance in the healthy young women analyzed, increasing the oscillation of the center of pressure, regardless of visual restriction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Attitudes and Decision Making Related to Pregnancy Among Young Women with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, Traci M; Gmelin, Theresa; Slocum, Breonna; Borrero, Sonya; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Introduction The number of female patients with CF able to consider pregnancy has increased with improved therapies. This study explored attitudes and decision making regarding pregnancy among young women with CF. Methods Twenty-two women with CF ages 18-30 years completed semi-structured, in-person interviews exploring experiences with preconception counseling and reproductive care in the CF setting. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using a thematic analysis approach. Results Participants indicated CF is a major factor in pregnancy decision making. Although women acknowledged that CF influences attitudes toward pregnancy, many expressed confusion about how CF can affect fertility/pregnancy. Many perceived disapproval from CF providers regarding pregnancy and were dissatisfied with reproductive care in the CF setting. Discussion Young female patients with CF reported poor understanding of the effect of CF on fertility and pregnancy and limited preconception counseling in CF care. Improvements in female sexual and reproductive health care in CF are warranted.

  1. Sexting behaviors among young Hispanic women: incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-09-01

    Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.

  2. The relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiglio, Laura; Jackson, Frances; Florio, Ann

    2012-07-01

    In the United States, African-American women are at disproportionate risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and face the most profound burden of HIV infection. Reducing the risk of exposure to HIV in African-American women is a priority for health-care providers. The findings of this study add to the existing literature by examining the relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. Lack of self-esteem was one of the themes that emerged from a larger study that investigated how African-American women define HIV-risky behavior. In the current study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a convenience sample of 33 African-American women (N = 33) from three metropolitan regions within Michigan. Findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between self-esteem and its implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention.

  3. The association between circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone and follicle number, androgens, and menstrual cycle characteristics in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and other reproductive parameters in young women.......To investigate the association between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and other reproductive parameters in young women....

  4. [Postcoital contraception or abortion? A longitudinal study of young women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy

    2007-12-13

    The use of postcoital contraception or emergency contraception has increased in many countries. This has been linked to an expected reduction in the abortion rates, but so far there is no evidence of such an association. A possible explanation could be that women who are in the risk zone for abortion typically do not use emergency contraception. The aim of study was to investigate possible differences between the two groups. 768 Norwegian women (a representative sample) were followed up from they were 15 to 27 years. Data were collected through surveys on; emergency contraception and induced abortion, sociodemographic characteristics, family relationships, and individual aspects previously reported to be associated with an increased risk of induced abortion (education level, conduct problems and depression). Women who use emergency prevention are recruited (more often than expected) from families with a high income (OR 2.0; 95 % CI 1.3 - 2.9), but otherwise have no characteristics that discriminate them from the rest of the population. Induced abortion was however associated with risk factors such as depression (OR 3.2; 95 % CI 1.7 - 6.0) and deviant peer groups (OR 2.5; 95 % CI 1.3 - 4.8), and they rarely have education at a university- or college level (OR 0.2; 95 % CI 0.1 - 0.7). Emergency contraception appears to be used by others than those with typical risk factors for abortion. One should consider targeted preventive interventions to increase the use of emergency contraception in groups at-risk for induced abortion.

  5. Suffering in silence: consequences of sexual violence within marriage among young women in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the grave consequences of sexual violence, and it's persistence both within and outside marriages, this subject has received relatively little attention from researchers, policy makers, and programme managers in Nepal. This paper explores the definition of sexual violence and its various forms and consequences as reported by young married women in Nepal. In addition, it describes the coping mechanisms used by young married women to avoid sexual violence perpetrated against them by their husbands. Methods This paper analyzes data collected during the qualitative study on "Sexual violence among young couples in Nepal", conducted amongst two major ethnic groups - Brahmin/Chhetri and Tharu - between 2006 and 2007. The data is comprised of 39 free-lists and 15 in-depth case histories with married women aged 15-24 years. The average rank and Smith's Salience were calculated from the free-listing data. The thematic analysis approach was used for the analysis of information from the case histories. Results Approximately three-quarters (74% of the young women mentioned 'sex against one's wishes' as sexual violence within marriage (SVWM. Sixty-two percent of respondents described 'forced sex during illness' and 'forced sex after consumption of alcohol' as SVWM. About half of young women (48.7% who participated in the free-listing exercise reported having experienced SVWM. The types of SVWM ranged from unwanted sexual touch to forced sex. Backache, headache, lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding and thoughts of suicide were the most commonly reported negative physical and psychological health consequences of SVWM. Women reported various coping strategies including 'trying to convince husbands', 'sleeping in a separate room', 'visiting maternal home', 'waking up the children', and 'using pretexts such as being ill or menstruating', to avoid SVWM. However, in most cases, women reported that these coping strategies were

  6. Suffering in silence: consequences of sexual violence within marriage among young women in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Mahesh; Tamang, Jyotsna; Shah, Iqbal

    2011-01-12

    Despite the grave consequences of sexual violence, and it's persistence both within and outside marriages, this subject has received relatively little attention from researchers, policy makers, and programme managers in Nepal. This paper explores the definition of sexual violence and its various forms and consequences as reported by young married women in Nepal. In addition, it describes the coping mechanisms used by young married women to avoid sexual violence perpetrated against them by their husbands. This paper analyzes data collected during the qualitative study on "Sexual violence among young couples in Nepal", conducted amongst two major ethnic groups--Brahmin/Chhetri and Tharu--between 2006 and 2007. The data is comprised of 39 free-lists and 15 in-depth case histories with married women aged 15-24 years. The average rank and Smith's Salience were calculated from the free-listing data. The thematic analysis approach was used for the analysis of information from the case histories. Approximately three-quarters (74%) of the young women mentioned 'sex against one's wishes' as sexual violence within marriage (SVWM). Sixty-two percent of respondents described 'forced sex during illness' and 'forced sex after consumption of alcohol' as SVWM. About half of young women (48.7%) who participated in the free-listing exercise reported having experienced SVWM. The types of SVWM ranged from unwanted sexual touch to forced sex. Backache, headache, lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding and thoughts of suicide were the most commonly reported negative physical and psychological health consequences of SVWM. Women reported various coping strategies including 'trying to convince husbands', 'sleeping in a separate room', 'visiting maternal home', 'waking up the children', and 'using pretexts such as being ill or menstruating', to avoid SVWM. However, in most cases, women reported that these coping strategies were unsuccessful. Almost all women experiencing SVWM were socially

  7. Barriers to modern contraceptive methods uptake among young women in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochako, Rhoune; Mbondo, Mwende; Aloo, Stephen; Kaimenyi, Susan; Thompson, Rachel; Temmerman, Marleen; Kays, Megan

    2015-02-10

    Young women in Kenya experience a higher risk of mistimed and unwanted pregnancy compared to older women. However, contraceptive use among youth remains low. Known barriers to uptake include side effects, access to commodities and partner approval. To inform a youth focussed behaviour change communication campaign, Population Services Kenya developed a qualitative study to better understand these barriers among young women. The study was carried out in Nyanza, Coast, and Central regions. Within these regions, urban or peri-urban districts were purposively selected based on having contraceptive prevalence rate close to the regional average and having a population with low socioeconomic profiles. In depth interviews were conducted with a sample of sexually active women aged 15-24, both users and non-users, that were drawn from randomly selected households. All the respondents in the study were familiar with modern methods of contraception and most could describe their general mechanisms of action. Condoms were not considered as contraception by many users. Contraception was also associated with promiscuity and straying. Fear of side effects and adverse reactions were a major barrier to use. The biggest fear was that a particular method would cause infertility. Many fears were based on myths and misconceptions. Young women learn about both true side effects and myths from their social networks. Findings from this research confirm that awareness and knowledge of contraception do not necessarily translate to use. The main barriers to modern contraceptive uptake among young women are myths and misconceptions. The findings stress the influence of social network approval on the use of family planning, beyond the individual's beliefs. In such settings, family planning programming should engage with the wider community through mass and peer campaign strategies. As an outcome from this study, Population Services Kenya developed a mass media campaign to address key myths and

  8. Young women?s perceptions of transactional sex and sexual agency: a qualitative study in the context of rural South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganathan, M; Macphail, C.; Pettifor, A; Kahn, K; Khoza, N; Twine, R; Watts, C; Heise, L

    2017-01-01

    Background Evidence shows that HIV prevalence among young women in sub-Saharan Africa increases almost five-fold between ages 15 and 24, with almost a quarter of young women infected by their early-to mid-20s. Transactional sex or material exchange for sex is a relationship dynamic that has been shown to have an association with HIV infection. Methods Using five focus group discussions and 19 in-depth interviews with young women enrolled in the HPTN 068 conditional cash transfer trial (2011?2...

  9. Asymptomatic inhaled foreign body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Muhammad U.; Asghar, Asif; Tareen, Irum; Azhar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    It is very rare to have a big foreign body in the lungs without any complications or symptoms for 2 years. A 14-year-old male with episodes of minor hemoptysis for 4 weeks had a history of inhalation of a bullet 2 years earlier. He had asymptomatic for lung complications for 2 years. The bullet was removed by right thoracotomy and non-anatomical wedge stapled resection, and he followed an uneventful recovery. An aspirated foreign body although big can remain asymptomatic for a long time, especially if it has migrated to the periphery. PMID:27652366

  10. Young, southern women's perceptions of STEM careers: Examining science, technology, engineering & mathematics as a gendered construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth

    Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in

  11. Body Composition and Hydration Status in Young Elderly Women after 6 Weeks’ Monavie Juice Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Pokora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the influence of 6 weeks’ MonaVie juice supplementation on body composition and hydration status in young elderly physically active women. Sixteen women, students of University of Third Age, were recruited for this study. All women were physically active (daily energy expenditure 1681.8 ± 297.6 kcal/d. Women were divided into 2 groups: 8 of them applied a supplement MonaVie juice (100 ml/d (S for 6 weeks, while the eight other women were allocated to the control group (C. There were measured: BW, Fat%, TBW, Hb, HCT and erythrocyte indices: RBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC. Based on Hb and HCT were calculated changes: blood (del BV%, plasma (del PV% and cell (del CV% volumes in C and S group. Before experiment all body components and hematologic indices were similar in C and S group. After 6 weeks of MonaVie supplementation no significant changes in body composition but significant decrease: (MCH, (MCHC and an increase cell volume CV% + 2.89 ± 1.24% were found. In control group after 6 weeks period there were no significant changes in body components and hematological indices. These observations suggest that MonaVie supplementation does not induce significant changes in body composition and hydration status in young elderly women, however causes an increase of cells volume and a decrease of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration.

  12. Association between adolescent marriage and marital violence among young adult women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Lawrence, Danielle; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G

    2010-07-01

    To assess whether a history of adolescent marriage (women in young adulthood in India at increased risk of physical or sexual marital violence. Cross-sectional analysis was performed on data from a nationally representative household study of 124385 Indian women aged 15-49 years collected in 2005-2006. The analyses were restricted to married women aged 20-24 years who participated in the marital violence (MV) survey module (n=10514). Simple regression models and models adjusted for participant demographics were constructed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between adolescent marriage and MV. Over half (58%) of the participants were married before 18 years of age; 35% of the women had experienced physical or sexual violence in their marriage; and 27% reported such abuse in the last year. Adjusted regression analyses revealed that women married as minors were significantly more likely than those married as adults to report ever experiencing MV (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.61-1.95) and in the last 12 months (adjusted OR 1.51; 95% CI, 1.36-1.67). Women who were married as adolescents remain at increased risk of MV into young adulthood. Copyright (c) 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synchronous Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer in Young Women: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Askin; Schultheis, Beate; Rezniczek, Günther A; Hilal, Ziad; Cetin, Cem; Häusler, Günther; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2017-03-01

    Young women with endometrial cancer (EC) have an increased risk of synchronous ovarian cancer. The prognosis of women with synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancer (SEOC) is good. A high proportion of affected women have hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer syndrome (HNPCC). We present the case of a 45-year-old woman with histologically proven endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (pT1B, G2, R0 without lymphovascular space invasion). She underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Final histology revealed a synchronous bilateral endometrioid ovarian cancer (pT1A, G2, R0). HNPCC analysis by immunohistochemistry showed no microsatellite instability in MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2. No adjuvant therapy was administered, clinical follow-up with regular gynecological examinations was recommended. In a systematic literature review, 2,904 cases of women with SEOC were identified with 1,035 (36%) of them being premenopausal or ovarian cancer. Thus, in young women with EC, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy or careful histological assessment of both ovaries are recommended in order to confirm or rule out SEOC. HNPCC testing should be offered to all women. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Sex of First Child and Breast Cancer Survival in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jon C; Bogdan, Gregory F; Tuthill, Robert W; Nasca, Philip C

    2015-08-14

    Two studies have reported that young women with breast cancer face increased risk of early mortality if their first child was male rather than female. An immunological mechanism has been suggested. We sought to confirm these results in a larger, historical cohort study of 223 parous women who were aged <45 years at breast cancer diagnosis during 1983-1987. Subjects were identified through the Maine Cancer Registry. Follow-up data were obtained from hospitals, physicians, and death certificates. Reproductive history data were obtained from the next of kin of the deceased women, birth certificates, physicians, hospitals, and lastly, subjects. With a 7-year follow-up, multivariate modeling found a lower mortality risk in women with a male first child (hazard ratio [HR] 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.32-0.81, log-rank comparison). The survival advantage remained for at least 13 years in women with a male firstborn. Thus, previous studies were not confirmed. Mortality risk in young women with breast cancer is not increased by having borne a male first child rather than a female first child.

  15. Physical attractiveness, attitudes toward career, and mate preferences among young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Teng, Fei; Chan, Darius K-S; Zhang, Denghao

    2014-02-13

    We examined young Chinese women's mate preferences as a function of their self-perceived attractiveness and career attitudes. A total of 264 young Chinese women rated their own attractiveness, reported their attitudes toward career, and rated the importance of 20 mate characteristics. The characteristics encompassed four facets that individuals typically consider when seeking a long-term mate: good-genes indicators, good investment ability indicators, good parenting indicators, and good partner indicators. We found that both self-perceived attractiveness and attitudes toward career were positively associated with the importance attached to several of the characteristics. Moreover, women who had high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to intelligence, ambition, and industriousness than women who had low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness; women with low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to physical attractiveness in a mate than women with high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness. We discussed the limitations of our research and directions for future research.

  16. The Views of Young Women on HPV Vaccine Communication in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Dafina; Brunton, Carol Gray; Jaeger, Moritz; Lenneis, Anita; Munoz, Rocio; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Todorova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) and can cause cervical cancer. Two vaccines are available to protect against the most common strands of the virus. Vaccination programs differ across Europe but most neglect young adults, who are the group with the highest risk of contracting STIs. Our aim was to explore the views of young women from four European countries—Scotland, Spain, Serbia, and Bulgaria - about the HPV vaccine communication strategy. These countries are characterized by different cervical cancer prevalence and vaccine implementation policies. We conducted focus group discussions with young women (aged 18-26) with various vaccination histories in a purposive sample. We subjected the data to thematic analysis with the purpose of identifying themes related to communication about the HPV vaccine. We recorded the information sources mentioned by participants. Participants discussed numerous sources of vaccine-related information. They approached information critically rather than naively and questioned the sources' trustworthiness and motives. Participants desired transparent information about the risks of the virus and the risks and benefits of the vaccine. These risks and benefits were individualized in view of personal and external factors. Particular aspects of the vaccine and the way information was communicated resulted in feelings of uncertainty. There were notable cross-cultural differences in experiences with HPV vaccine communication. Our results suggest that transparent risk communication about the HPV vaccine is valued by young women. In addition, both individual and culturally-dependent factors influenced experiences with, and preference for information.

  17. [Age of puberty and western young women sexuality].

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    Tresch, C; Ohl, J

    2015-02-01

    The onset of menarche and age of first sexual experience have both lowered over the past century. Does the age of puberty influence the sexuality of the girl/young occidental woman? If so, to what degree? Besides, is the acquisition of reproductive function, regardless of age, a sign of sufficient maturity to engage in sexual activity? Studies show that early puberty, early sex, unprotected sexual intercourse in adolescence and number of sexual partners in early adulthood are closely related. These early sexual experiences could be stimulated by early drug use as well as by depressive disorders. The age of puberty has a real influence on sexuality but this link will be modulated by a number of social behavioral factors and it is not sustainable. The age of puberty is not a good indicator of maturity for teenage sexuality; early maturation and early sexual activity are usually associated with risky behaviors. However, other studies on the subject are required, including a consideration of the issues associated with delayed puberty, a subject virtually absent from the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Breast cancer in young Asian women: study on survival.

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    Foo, Chek Siang; Su, David; Chong, Chee Keong; Chng, Hong Chee; Tay, Khoon Hean; Low, Sze Chuan; Tan, Su Ming

    2005-07-01

    Breast cancer in young patients is often associated with a poorer prognosis, but there has been a paucity of published data in an Asian population. One hundred and six patients (12.6%) under the age of 40 years with breast cancer (group V) were compared with 737 patients with breast cancer aged 40 years or more (group W). Demographics, presentations, pathological profiles, treatment and survival measures were analysed. Median tumour size was similar in both groups. Group V had more patients with grade 3 tumours and nodal involvement compared to group W (51.5% vs 38.1%, P = 0.012 and 52.5% vs 41.8%, P = 0.045). The mean Nottingham prognostic index (NPI) score was significantly higher in group V compared to group W (4.75 vs 4.26, P < 0.001). The incidences of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in group V were higher than group W (69.2% vs 35.2%, P < 0.001 and 41.1% vs 24.4%, P = 0.002). There were no differences in overall survival and disease-free survival (local recurrence). Patients below 40 years with breast cancer have tumours with a poorer prognostic profile. However, this did not translate into a poorer overall survival, and this might be attributable to more aggressive adjuvant treatment of younger patients.

  19. Taking account of what young women want from school sex education: two groups from Scotland and Uganda.

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    Cook, Sinead

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to explore what young women want from their school-based sex education. Qualitative methods were used to explore the perspectives of two groups of young women from Uganda and Scotland. Of particular importance to all the young women were: a diverse sex education curriculum appropriate to the ages of the students, being taught by an outside female facilitator, single-sex classes and access to a female teacher. Furthermore, they proposed that discussion between small groups of friends is very useful. The Scottish group said that having a young teacher, teaching about emotions and relationships and being guided through their own decision making is also important. The Ugandan group emphasized the importance of being taught by female family members and having written materials provided on sex education. The study showed that young women from different backgrounds have strong opinions about sex education, and are an important resource for policy makers.

  20. Poverty, food insufficiency and HIV infection and sexual behaviour among young rural Zimbabwean women.

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    Pascoe, Sophie J S; Langhaug, Lisa F; Mavhu, Webster; Hargreaves, James; Jaffar, Shabbar; Hayes, Richard; Cowan, Frances M

    2015-01-01

    Despite a recent decline, Zimbabwe still has the fifth highest adult HIV prevalence in the world at 14.7%; 56% of the population are currently living in extreme poverty. Cross-sectional population-based survey of 18-22 year olds, conducted in 30 communities in south-eastern Zimbabwe in 2007. To examine whether the risk of HIV infection among young rural Zimbabwean women is associated with socio-economic position and whether different socio-economic domains, including food sufficiency, might be associated with HIV risk in different ways. Eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a finger-prick blood sample tested for antibodies to HIV and HSV-2. The relationship between poverty and HIV was explored for three socio-economic domains: ability to afford essential items; asset wealth; food sufficiency. Analyses were performed to examine whether these domains were associated with HIV infection or risk factors for infection among young women, and to explore which factors might mediate the relationship between poverty and HIV. 2593 eligible females participated in the survey and were included in the analyses. Overall HIV prevalence among these young females was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.7-8.7); HSV-2 prevalence was 11.2% (95% CI: 9.9-12.4). Lower socio-economic position was associated with lower educational attainment, earlier marriage, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders and increased reporting of higher risk sexual behaviours such as earlier sexual debut, more and older sexual partners and transactional sex. Young women reporting insufficient food were at increased risk of HIV infection and HSV-2. This study provides evidence from Zimbabwe that among young poor women, economic need and food insufficiency are associated with the adoption of unsafe behaviours. Targeted structural interventions that aim to tackle social and economic constraints including insufficient food should be developed and evaluated alongside behaviour and biomedical

  1. Poverty, food insufficiency and HIV infection and sexual behaviour among young rural Zimbabwean women.

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    Sophie J S Pascoe

    Full Text Available Despite a recent decline, Zimbabwe still has the fifth highest adult HIV prevalence in the world at 14.7%; 56% of the population are currently living in extreme poverty.Cross-sectional population-based survey of 18-22 year olds, conducted in 30 communities in south-eastern Zimbabwe in 2007.To examine whether the risk of HIV infection among young rural Zimbabwean women is associated with socio-economic position and whether different socio-economic domains, including food sufficiency, might be associated with HIV risk in different ways.Eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a finger-prick blood sample tested for antibodies to HIV and HSV-2. The relationship between poverty and HIV was explored for three socio-economic domains: ability to afford essential items; asset wealth; food sufficiency. Analyses were performed to examine whether these domains were associated with HIV infection or risk factors for infection among young women, and to explore which factors might mediate the relationship between poverty and HIV.2593 eligible females participated in the survey and were included in the analyses. Overall HIV prevalence among these young females was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.7-8.7; HSV-2 prevalence was 11.2% (95% CI: 9.9-12.4. Lower socio-economic position was associated with lower educational attainment, earlier marriage, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders and increased reporting of higher risk sexual behaviours such as earlier sexual debut, more and older sexual partners and transactional sex. Young women reporting insufficient food were at increased risk of HIV infection and HSV-2.This study provides evidence from Zimbabwe that among young poor women, economic need and food insufficiency are associated with the adoption of unsafe behaviours. Targeted structural interventions that aim to tackle social and economic constraints including insufficient food should be developed and evaluated alongside behaviour

  2. 'Women are supposed to be the leaders': intersections of gender, race and colonisation in HIV prevention with Indigenous young people.

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    Oliver, Vanessa; Flicker, Sarah; Danforth, Jessica; Konsmo, Erin; Wilson, Ciann; Jackson, Randy; Restoule, Jean-Paul; Prentice, Tracey; Larkin, June; Mitchell, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on gender, race and colonialism, this paper foregrounds the voices of Indigenous young people, their histories of oppression, their legacies of resistance and the continuing strengths rooted in Indigenous peoples, their cultures and their communities. Exploring the relationship between gender and colonialism, the paper speaks to the lived realities of young people from Indigenous communities across Canada. Over 85 young people participated in six different Indigenous community workshops to create artistic pieces that explored the connections between HIV, individual risk and structural inequalities. In the course of the research, Indigenous young people, and young Indigenous women in particular, talked about how gender intersects with race and colonisation to create experiences that are, at times, especially difficult for them. In this paper, young people discuss the ways in which colonialism has demeaned women's roles and degraded women's sexuality, and how continuing cultural erasure and assimilationist policies impact on their lives and on their bodies.

  3. "No respecter of youth": over-representation of young women in Australian television coverage of breast cancer.

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    MacKenzie, Ross; Chapman, Simon; Holding, Simon; Stiven, Annie

    2010-12-01

    Ninety four percent of new breast cancer cases in Australian women occur in those aged over 40. Mammographic breast screening programs target women over 40, especially those aged 50-69, but participation rates in this age group have recently declined. To test the hypothesis that young women, at low risk for breast cancer, are overrepresented in television news, we analyzed all televised news reports on age and breast cancer shown on five free-to-air Sydney television stations, from 3 May 2005 to 28 February 2007, to determine the age of women shown with, or at risk for, the disease. Over half (55%) of statements about age and breast cancer referred to young women stated or known to be aged under 40. Sixty seven percent of images of women in breast cancer reports were known or judged to be women aged under 40. Three cases in young celebrity women accounted for 53% of all statements and 24% of all images about young women and breast cancer. Overrepresentation of young women with breast cancer in television news coverage does not reflect the epidemiology of the disease. This imbalance may contribute to public uncertainty regarding screening policy.

  4. Possible Contribution of PTSD to Altered Cortisol Activity in Young Adult Obese African-American Women.

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    Taylor, Teletia R; Van Kirk, Kendra; Tapscott, Denia; Bernard, Monet; Llano, Juliana; Mellman, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    African-Americans have been found to experience increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and flatter diurnal cortisol slopes compared to other demographic groups. Further exploration, however, is needed to understand how PTSD impacts diurnal cortisol activity in obese African-American women. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and PTSD in a sample of obese young adult African-American women and to examine how depression and insomnia influence the relationship. Thirty-four young adult African-American women (mean age = 24.0 years; mean BMI = 37.4 kg/m(2), 6/34 of the sample had a score of 40 or above on the PTSD Checklist (PCL) representing clinically significant PTSD) filled out questionnaires assessing PTSD, lifetime exposure to traumatic events, insomnia severity, and depression. A home-based assessment of salivary cortisol was provided upon awakening at 30 min and 1, 3, 6, and 12 h. There was a significant interaction between PTSD status and diurnal cortisol activity (p cortisol levels at awakening (p significance of the interaction between PTSD and cortisol was attenuated by co-varying for depression and insomnia (p > 0.05). PTSD, influenced by depression and insomnia symptoms, has an impact on diurnal cortisol activity in obese young adult African-American women.

  5. Association between perception of maternal bonding styles and social anxiety disorder among young women

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    Rochele D. Castelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between social anxiety disorder (SAD and perceived maternal bonding styles among young women during pregnancy and 30 months after childbirth. Methods: A cohort of young women from the city of Pelotas, Brazil was followed up from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. The Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus was used to assess SAD and the Parental Bonding Instrument was administered to measure maternal bonding styles. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for multivariable analysis. Results: After adjusting for potential confounding factors, SAD prevalence was 6.39 times higher among young women who perceived their mothers as neglectful (prevalence ratio [PR] 6.39; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.2-32.0, and 5.57 times higher in women who perceived their mothers as affectionless controlling (PR = 5.57; 95%CI 1.5-19.7 when compared with those who received optimal care. Conclusion: Maternal bonding style may have an influence on the development of SAD. Therefore, support and early prevention strategies should be offered to the family.

  6. Evidence of Syndemics and Sexuality-Related Discrimination Among Young Sexual-Minority Women.

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    Coulter, Robert W S; Kinsky, Suzanne M; Herrick, Amy L; Stall, Ron D; Bauermeister, José A

    2015-09-01

    Syndemics, or the co-occurrence and interaction of health problems, have been examined extensively among young men who have sex with men, but their existence remain unexamined, to our knowledge, among sexual-minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) women. Thus, we investigated if syndemics were present among young sexual-minority women, and if sexual-orientation discrimination was an independent variable of syndemic production. A total of 467 sexual-minority women between the ages of 18 and 24 completed a cross-sectional online survey regarding their substance use, mental health, sexual behaviors, height, weight, and experiences of discrimination. We used structural equation modeling to investigate the presence of syndemics and their relationship to sexual-orientation discrimination. Heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, ecstasy use, hallucinogen use, depressive symptoms, multiple sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) comprised syndemics in this population (chi-square=24.989, P=.201; comparative fit index [CFI]=0.946; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.023). Sexual-orientation discrimination is significantly and positively associated with the latent syndemic variable (unstandardized coefficient=0.095, Pdiscrimination (unstandardized coefficient=0.602, P>.05). Syndemics appear to be present and associated with sexual-orientation discrimination among young sexual-minority women. Interventions aimed at reducing discrimination or increasing healthy coping may help reduce substance use, depressive symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors in this population.

  7. Alcohol and drug abuse and risky sexual behaviours in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Branco, Camil; Parera, Nuria; Mendoza, Nicolás; Pérez-Campos, Ezequiel; Lete, Iñaki

    2014-08-01

    To assess alcohol abuse as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adult women, a high-risk population for unintended pregnancies. Totally 3163 adolescent and young adult women, 18-29 years, were assessed on sociodemographics, alcohol and drug use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants answered a structured questionnaire on their leisure habits, drug and alcohol consumption, contraception and sexual behaviors. Most of the young adult women perceive that sexuality is an important part of their life but not a main concern (77.6%) and that alcohol removes the barriers to have sex (62.3%). Additionally, 77.0% claimed that contraception had "a lot" (53.4%) and "quite" (23.6%) influence on the quality of their sexuality. However, up to a 38.4% of the interviewed women had had sex without using any contraception and 29.6% of them acknowledged that had taken alcohol and of these, 40.7% said that alcohol was responsible for not using contraception. Alcohol abuse predicted an increase in risky sexual behaviours (4.45 CI: 2.01-9.75, p sexual risk behavior.

  8. Consent and coercion: examining unwanted sex among married young women in India.

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    Santhya, K G; Haberland, Nicole; Ram, F; Sinha, R K; Mohanty, S K

    2007-09-01

    Although there is a growing body of research examining the issue of nonconsensual sex among adolescents, few studies have looked at coerced sex within marriage in settings where early marriage is common, or at sex that may not be perceived as forced, but that is unwanted. A cross-sectional study, using both survey research and in-depth interviews, was conducted among 1,664 married young women in Gujarat and West Bengal, India. Descriptive data and multinomial logistic regression were used to identify the prevalence and risk factors for occasional and frequent unwanted sex. Qualitative data were analyzed to examine the context in which unwanted sex takes place. Twelve percent of married young women experienced unwanted sex frequently; 32% experienced it occasionally. The risk of experiencing unwanted sex was lower among women who knew their husband fairly well at the time of marriage, regularly received support from their husband in conflicts with other family members or lived in economically better-off households. Frequent unwanted sex was associated with not yet having had a child or having become pregnant, with lower education and with agreeing with norms that justify wife beating. For married young women, sex is not always consensual or wanted. Further research is required to determine the effects of unwanted sex on sexual and reproductive health outcomes and to help programs develop the best strategies for dealing with coerced sex within marriage.

  9. Satellite cells and myonuclei in young and elderly women and men.

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    Kadi, Fawzi; Charifi, Nadia; Denis, Christian; Lexell, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to assess the effects of aging on the satellite cell population. Muscle biopsies were taken from the tibialis anterior muscle of healthy, moderately active young (age range, 20-32 years; n = 31) and elderly (age range, 70-83 years; n = 27) women and men with comparable physical activity pattern. Satellite cells and myonuclei were visualized using a monoclonal antibody against neural cell adhesion molecule and counterstained with Mayer's hematoxylin. An average of 211 (range, 192-241) muscle fibers were examined for each individual. Compared with the young women and men, the elderly subjects had a significantly lower (P < 0.011) number of satellite cells per muscle fiber but a significantly higher (P < 0.004) number of myonuclei per muscle fiber. The number of satellite cells relative to the total number of nuclei [satellite cells/(myonuclei + satellite cells)] was significantly lower in the elderly than in the young women and men. These results imply that a reduction in the satellite cell population occurs as a result of increasing age in healthy men and women.

  10. Talking with death at a diner: young women's online narratives of cancer.

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    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Steeves, Richard H

    2012-07-01

    To gain a unique perspective of the experiences of young women with cancer (age 20-39 years at diagnosis) through analysis of their online illness blogs. A qualitative analysis of online narratives based on hermeneutic phenomenology. Online illness blogs found through young adult cancer Web sites and social media sites such Twitter. 16 women, aged 20-39 years, who self-identified as being diagnosed with cancer and who initiated and maintained an illness blog based on their cancer experience. Ethnographic immersion in online culture, thematic analysis based on line-by-line coding, and construction of themes and meanings. Transitions from diagnosis, through treatment, to long-term survivorship. Themes were identified as the women processed their diagnosis: living in the middle, new normal, urgency, and transition into the abyss. The narratives shared on illness blogs offer an online place for expression of emotion, information exchange, and online social support. Emotional catharsis in the young women's narrative elucidated the experiences of transition through diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship that allow a better understanding of their emotional and psychosocial needs. Illness narratives are a naturalistic form of inquiry that allow nurses to understand the experience of the patient beyond the traditional clinic setting. This initial study provides a point for understanding the content of online narratives and has vast implications for nursing-based interventions.

  11. Cytology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer in symptomatic young women: a retrospective review.

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    Lim, Anita Ww; Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Dudding, Nick; Sasieni, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer in young women presents a diagnostic challenge because gynaecological symptoms are common but underlying disease is rare. To explore the potential for using cytology as a diagnostic aid for cervical cancer in young women. Retrospective review of primary care records and cytology data from the national cervical screening database and national audit of cervical cancers. Four datasets of women aged 20-29 years in England were examined: primary care records and national screening data from an in-depth study of cervical cancers; cytology from the national audit of cervical cancers; whole-population cytology from the national screening database; and general-population primary care records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The authors explored the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of symptomatic cytology (earliest cytology. Cytology has value beyond screening, and could be used as a diagnostic aid for earlier detection of cervical cancer in young women with gynaecological symptoms by ruling in urgent referral. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  12. Weight-Related Perceptions and Experiences of Young Adult Women in Southwest Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Rebecca C; Raskind, Ilana G; Ballard, Denise; Battle, Glenda; Haardörfer, Regine; Kegler, Michelle C

    2018-01-01

    Young adulthood is a period of pronounced weight gain, though few weight management interventions exist for this population. This qualitative study explored how young adult women feel about their weight, what kinds of weight-related advice they have received, and concerns about future weight gain to inform the adaptation of a weight gain prevention intervention. Forty women completed semistructured, in-depth interviews, which were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Participants were women aged 20 to 29 years, primarily overweight (12.5%) or obese (55.0%), and African American (65.0%). Participants expressed dissatisfaction with their current weight and reported receiving advice to lose weight from multiple sources. Direct, health-focused advice from health care professionals tended to be received more positively than indirect, appearance-focused advice from family members and romantic partners. Participants expressed concern about future weight gain, either as a result of a family history of obesity or chronic disease, pregnancy, and child-rearing, or unhealthy lifestyle patterns. Future weight gain was anticipated to impact chronic disease risk, changes in physical appearance, and interference with daily activities. Results suggest that young adult women may be receptive to participating in weight management interventions and that health care systems may be strategic implementation partners.

  13. Understanding the low uptake of long-acting reversible contraception by young women in Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Cameryn C; Keogh, Louise A; Kavanagh, Anne; Tomnay, Jane; Hocking, Jane S

    2015-09-10

    Australia has high rates of teenage pregnancy compared with many Western countries. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) offers an effective method to help decrease unintended pregnancies; however, current uptake remains low. The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to LARC use by young women in Australia. Healthcare professionals were recruited through publicly available sources and snowball sampling to complete an interview about young women's access to and use of LARC. The sample consisted of general practitioners, nurses, medical directors of reproductive and sexual health organisations, a sexual health educator, and health advocates. In addition, four focus groups about LARC were conducted with young women (aged 17-25 years) recruited via health organisations and a university. The data were analysed thematically. Fifteen healthcare professionals were interviewed and four focus groups were conducted with 27 young women. Shared barriers identified included norms, misconceptions, bodily consequences, and LARC access issues. An additional barrier identified by young women was a perceived lack of control over hormones entering the body from LARC devices. Healthcare professionals also raised as a barrier limited confidence and support in LARC insertions. Strategies identified to increase contraceptive knowledge and access included increasing nurses' role in contraceptive provision and education, improving sex education in schools, and educating parents. Challenges remain for young women to be able to make informed choices about contraception and easily access services. More research is needed around innovative approaches to increase LARC knowledge and access, including examining the role of nurses in enhancing young women's reproductive health.

  14. Trends and determinants of Comprehensive HIV and AIDS knowledge among urban young women in Kenya

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    Kimetu Steven

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa remains the region most heavily affected by HIV. In 2008, the region accounted for 67% of HIV infections worldwide, the region also accounted for 72% of the world's AIDS-related deaths in 2008. Young people aged 15-24 years accounted for an estimated 45% of the new HIV infections. In sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya is among countries affected by the HIV and AIDS pandemic which led to the declaration of AIDS as a national disaster in 1999. Given these scenario the study was undertaken to examine trends in HIV and AIDS comprehensive knowledge and identify the main correlates of comprehensive HIV and AIDS knowledge among Kenyan urban young women. Methods Data used was drawn from the 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008/09 Kenya Demographic & Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used for analysis. Results While comprehensive HIV and AIDS knowledge is low among urban young women in Kenya, the results show a significant increase in comprehensive knowledge from 9% in 1993 to 54% in 2008/09. The strongest predictors for having comprehensive knowledge were found to be 1 education; 2 having tested for HIV; 3 knowing someone with HIV, and/or 4 having a small or moderate to great risk perception. Conclusion The response to HIV and AIDS can only be successful if individuals adopt behaviours that will protect against infection. Currently, efforts are underway in Kenya to ensure that young people have comprehensive knowledge. As evident from the results, comprehensive HIV and AIDS knowledge has increased over the 15 year period among urban young women from 9% in 1993 to 54% in 2008/09. Despite this improvement, a lot more needs to be done to attain the target of 90% threshold set by UNGASS. While both young women and men should be targeted with education on HIV prevention, concerted efforts should be directed at young women as many continue to get infected due to low levels of comprehensive HIV knowledge.

  15. Breast Cancer in Young Women in Latin America: An Unmet, Growing Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Christian; Magallanes-Hoyos, Maria C.; Mohar, Alejandro; Bargalló, Enrique; Meneses, Abelardo; Cazap, Eduardo; Gomez, Henry; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Chávarri-Guerra, Yanin; Murillo, Raúl; Barrios, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of malignancy-related deaths among women aged ≤45 years. There are unexplored and uncertain issues for BC in this particular group in Latin America. The aim of this study is to evaluate BC incidence and mortality among young women and related clinicopathological and survivorship aspects in this region. Materials and Methods. Data were obtained from Globocan 2008 and the International Agency for Research on Cancer's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series plus databases. We requested collaboration from the 12 different national cancer institutes in Latin America through SLACOM, the Latin American and Caribbean Society of Medical Oncology, and conducted a systematic literature review to obtain local data regarding the prevalence of BC among young women and their characteristics, outcomes, and survivorship-related issues. Results. BC incidence and mortality proportions for Latin American women aged <44 years were higher when compared with those of developed countries (20% vs. 12% and 14% vs. 7%, respectively). We found only a few Latin American series addressing this topic, and prevalence varied between 8% and 14%. Stage II and III disease, high histological grade, and triple-negative and HER2 BC were features frequently observed among young Latin American BC patients. Conclusion. The rising incidence and mortality of BC in young Latin American women is a call to action in the region. It is necessary to monitor the epidemiological and clinical data through reliable cancer registries and to consider the implementation of protocols for education of patients and health professionals. This unmet, growing burden must be considered as a top priority of the national programs in the fight against BC, and models of specialized units should be implemented for this particular group of patients to provide better care for this emergent challenge. PMID:24277771

  16. Chastity and Sexual Honesty of Young Women from the Judicial Perspective

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    Gustavo Fondevila

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is analyzed the way in which the judicial scope has outlined the acceptable sexual behavior of young women in the Mexican society. Since the beginning of the 20th century up to now, the constitutive elements of sexual crimes have served to construct a socially acceptable (moral ideal of sexuality for young people. In this sense, social judgments as much as, judicial decisions agree in defining this ideal under the form of chastity, sexual honesty and purity.

  17. Asymptomatic ocular sarcoidosis

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    Luiz Guilherme Azevedo de Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic systemic granulomatous disease. It commonly affects the skin, lungs, kidneys, and central nervous system. In the eyes it primarily affects the uveal tract, conjunctiva, lacrimal glands and optic nerve. Here in we describe the case of a patient with systemic sarcoidosis and asymptomatic eye inflammation.

  18. Workplace Stress and Working from Home Influence Depressive Symptoms Among Employed Women with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Bell, Janice F; Basu, Anirban; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Harris, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Poor balance between work and family can be a major stressor for women with young children and have a negative impact on emotional well-being. Family-friendly workplace attributes may reduce stress and depressive symptoms among this population. However, few studies have analyzed the role of specific workplace attributes on mental health outcomes among women with young children because available data are limited. This study examines the impact of workplace attributes on changes in depressive symptoms among working women with young children between 6 and 24 months of age. This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) collected between 1991 and 1993 to examine the effects of work intensity, work schedule (night/day/variable), schedule flexibility, working from home, and work stress on changes in depressive symptoms among a national US sample of 570 women who returned to work within 6 months after childbirth. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D score. Treatment effects were estimated using fixed effects regression models. Working from home and work stress predicted within-individual changes in depressive symptoms between 6 and 24 months postchildbirth. Women who worked from home reported a statistically significant decrease in depression scores over time (β = -1.36, SE = 0.51, p = 0.002). Women who reported a one-unit increase in job concerns experienced, on average, a 2-point increase in depression scores over time (β = 1.73, SE = 0.37, p flexibility were not associated with changes in depressive symptoms. This study is one of the few to use longitudinal data and causal-inference techniques to examine whether specific workplace attributes influence depressive symptoms among women with young children. Reducing stress in the workplace and allowing women to work from home may improve mental health among women who transition back

  19. Sustained High HIV Incidence in Young Women in Southern Africa: Social, Behavioral and Structural Factors and Emerging Intervention Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Abigail; Colvin, Christopher J.; Kuo, Caroline; Swartz, Alison; Lurie, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Young women in southern Africa experience some of the highest incidence rates of HIV infection in the world. Across southern Africa, HIV prevalence among women increases rapidly between the teenage years and young adulthood. Adult HIV prevalence is 16.8 percent in South Africa, 23 percent in Botswana, 23 percent in Lesotho and 26.5 percent in Swaziland. Existing research has illuminated some of the key social, behavioral and structural factors associated with young women's disproportionate HIV risk, including gendered social norms that advantage male power in sexual relationships, and age disparities in relationships between younger women and older male partners. Important structural factors include the region's history of labor migration and legacy of family disruption, and entrenched social and economic inequalities. New interventions are emerging to address these high levels of HIV risk in the key population of young women, including structural interventions, biomedical prevention such as PrEP, and combined HIV prevention approaches. PMID:25855338

  20. Barriers to higher education: commonalities and contrasts in the experiences of Hindu and Muslim young women in urban Bengaluru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Jeffery, Patricia; Nakkeeran, N

    2017-03-04

    Gender inequalities in educational attainment have attracted considerable attention and this article aims to contribute to our understanding of young women's access to higher education. The article is based on our in-depth interviews with 26 Hindu and Muslim young women attending colleges in urban Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore), south India, and explores the barriers they confronted in fulfilling their aspirations. We highlight the similarities amongst the young women, as well as the distinctive experiences of the Hindu and Muslim interviewees. Financial constraints, lack of safety for women in public space, and gender bias, gossip and social control within the family and the local community affected Hindu and Muslim interviewees in substantially similar ways. For the Muslim interviewees, however, gender disadvantage was compounded by their minority status. This both underlines the importance of incorporating communal politics into our analysis and undermines popular discourses that stereotype Muslims in India as averse to girls' and young women's education.