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Sample records for asymptomatic young women

  1. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

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    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  2. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

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    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion : Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  3. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

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    Sudha Biradar Kerure

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Methods: A total of 500 pregnant women were studied over a period of one year. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected into a sterile container & then subjected to culture method. Results: Significant bacteriuria was noted in 45 patients (9%. 3% patients had insignificant bacteriuria. Growth of contaminants was noted in 8%. 80% samples were sterile with no growth. E. coli was the most common etiological agent, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon in antenatal patients. All pregnant women should be screened by urine culture to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria at their first visit to prevent overt UTI & other complications in both mother & fetus. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 213-216

  4. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women

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    Lavanya S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 500 antenatal women in their first or second trimesters were screened over a period of 2 years for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Out of them, 8.4% (42 were culture positive. A control group of 100 non-pregnant women, both married and unmarried, was also simultaneously screened. The control group yielded an overall culture positivity of 3% (4% in the married non-pregnant women and 2% in the unmarried women. Primigravida had highest percent culture positivity of 66.6%. The incidence was higher in less than 20 years age group i.e. 71.42%. Of the screening tests, Gram stained smear when compared with the standard loop method, showed the highest sensitivity of 95.2%. The specificity of the screening tests was high [Gram stained smear (98.6%, catalase test (97.1% and pus cell count(96.5%]. Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated in the test and control groups. The organisms were sensitive to cephalexin, nitrofurantoin, amoxycillin and norfloxacin in decreasing order. Incidence of prematurity was 75% and that of low birth weight was 50% in untreated patients.

  5. Consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with diabetes mellitus

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    Geerlings, SE; Stolk, RP; Camps, MJL; Netten, PM; Collet, JT; Schneeberger, PM; Hoepelman, AIM

    2001-01-01

    Background: Women with diabetes mellitus (DM) have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) more often than women without DM. It is unknown, however, what the consequences of ASB are in these women. Objectives: To compare women with DM with and without ASB for the development of symptomatic urinary tract infe

  6. Histopathologic assessment of the entire endometrium in asymptomatic women

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    Mingels, M.J.J.M.; Geels, Y.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Tilborg, A.A. Van; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of the endometrium in women without symptoms of endometrial disease is poor. Therefore, the aim of this prospective study was to describe the endometrium of a cohort of asymptomatic women. The entire endometrium of premenopausal and postmenopausal women was embedded for histo

  7. Asymptomatic young man with Danon disease.

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    Kim, Jiwon; Parikh, Parag; Mahboob, Mohammad; Arrighi, James A; Atalay, Michael K; Rowin, Ethan J; Maron, Martin S

    2014-06-01

    Danon disease is a rare, codominant X-linked genetic disorder characterized by the triad of left ventricular hypertrophy, mental retardation, and peripheral myopathy. This disease is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes lysosomal associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), a deficiency of which results in the accumulation of autophagic granular débris within the vacuoles of muscle cells. This is a report of an asymptomatic 19-year-old man with Danon disease in the absence of mental retardation or clinically significant skeletal myopathy. This case underscores the importance of accurate diagnosis of unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, in order to establish an appropriate treatment plan and to advise genetic counseling.

  8. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in postmenopausal women with diabetes mellitus

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    George Kasyan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An evaluation of efficacy of the management of urinary tract infections by using local forms of Estriol in postmenopausal women with type II diabetes and asymptomatic bacteriuria.Material and methods. The study was conducted in two stages. The first stage: a prospective cross–sectional study to identify patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria. During this stage, 414 postmenopausal women with type II diabetes, but without clinical symptoms of urinary tract infection, were investigated. In the second stage, women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (87 women were randomized to two groups: the first group was the main group receiving 0.5 mg of Estriol as a vaginal cream, the second group was the control group. The study lasted 12 months.Results. After 12 months of the study, asymptomatic bacteriuria was revealed in 19.4% of women in the group 1 and 68.4% of women in the group 2 (р <0.001, and symptomatic urinary tract infection in 8.3% of women in the group 1 and 18.4% of women in the group 2 (р <0.001. There was no connection revealed between asymptomatic bacteriuria and НвА1с. Using Estriol in group 1 led to an increase in VHI, the appearance of lactobacilli in the vaginal smear, and the decrease of symptom frequency in atrophic vaginitis. In group 2, there were no significant changes revealed.Conclusions. Usage of local forms of Estriol effectively prevents and decreases the frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women suffering with diabetesmellitus.

  9. Asymptomatic endoalveolar hemorrhage in a young male

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    Alain Kafyeke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a young male affected by granulomatosis with polyangiitis presenting with non-specific complaints and complicated by the occurrence of a diffuse endoalveolar hemorrhage characterized by atypical clinical and radiological features. The importance of a rapid and aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic approach has to be strongly underlined. Available data regarding prevalence, clinical and radiological characteristics and treatment of this uncommon manifestation have also been hereby reviewed.

  10. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

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    Ana Laura Calderón-Garcidueñas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast density (BD is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate ( and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170, fibroglandular 29% (87, heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17, and dense pattern 8.6% (26. Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117 and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183. Patterns of high breast density (BD (dense + heterogeneously dense were observed in 25.6% (30/117 of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183 of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300. Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300 of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300 of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%, and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%. Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns.

  11. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

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    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ2) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns. PMID:23346398

  12. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections in women : focus on diabetes mellitus and pregnancy

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    Schneeberger, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    There is a shortage of evidence for clinical guidelines on diagnosis and management of both asymptomatic bacteriuria (the presence of bacteria in urine without symptoms of an infection) and urinary tract infections in women with diabetes and pregnant women. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract

  13. Asymptomatic Malaria Correlates with Anaemia in Pregnant Women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.

  14. Breast Cancer in Young Women

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    ... NPCR 2017 CDC National Cancer Conference Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  15. Isolated Asymptomatic Short Sternum in a Healthy Young Girl

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    Francesco Turturro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital sternal defects are rare deformities frequently associated with other anomalies of the chest wall and other organ systems. Although pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, and cleft sternum can present as isolated deformity, in most cases they are associated with heart and inner organs anomalies and described as symptoms of syndromes like Marfan syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Poland anomaly, and Cantrell pentalogy. In contrast, the etiology of an isolated defect is not well understood. We observed a short sternum (dysmorphic manubrium, hypoplastic body, and complete absence of the xiphoid process in a completely asymptomatic 13-year-old woman. A comprehensive instrumental exams panel was performed to exclude associated anomalies of the heart and of the other organ systems. The patient was completely asymptomatic and she did not need any medical or surgical treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated short sternum reported in literature.

  16. Young women's use of medicines

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    Hansen, Dana Lee; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2009-01-01

    Medicine use among youths is widespread and on the increase. This is especially true for young females, whose utilization of a variety of medications grows considerably during the teenage years. This user perspective study aims to obtain a greater understanding of what young women perceive as the...

  17. Young Women, Sports, and Science

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    Hanson, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources…

  18. Prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus infection in asymptomatic women in Liaoning province, China.

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    Xue, Hui; Lin, Xuyong; Li, Tianren; Yan, Xiaoxia; Guo, Kejun; Zhang, Yi

    2015-07-01

    Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection in Chinese women who were asymptomatic for cervical diseases. Cervical cytology samples were collected from 6479 asymptomatic Chinese women of Liaoning province, and tested for various HPV genotypes using a chip hybridization assay. HPV was found in 10.3% of all the asymptomatic women studied, with the prevalence of high risk HPV (HR HPV) and low risk HPV (LR HPV) being 9.5% and 1.1%, respectively. HPV genotypes 16, 52, and 58 were found the most frequently genotypes in the HR HPV positive women, and were present in 26.2%, 19.4% and 13.8%, respectively. A graph of HR HPV positive infection rates as a function of age is U-shaped, with a peak in women less than 30 years old and a second peak among women older than 50 years. Nearly half of the women infected with either HR HPV or LR HPV presented a normal looking cervix upon visual examination. The current study demonstrates that the epidemiology of HPV infection in asymptomatic Chinese women in Liaoning province is different from that in women from other regions, even from patients with cervical lesions in the same region. These findings could be used to guide the generation and design of an HPV vaccine for this population.

  19. Vulvovaginal Candida: a study of (a)symptomatic women

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    Engberts, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns presence of asymptomatic vaginal Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by abnormal growth of yeasts in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Acute vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge are the usua

  20. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may be considered a complication in women with diabetes

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    Geerlings, SE; Stolk, RP; Camps, MJL; Netten, PM; Hoekstra, JBL; Bouter, KP; Bravenboer, B; Collet, JT; Jansz, AR; Hoepelman, AIM

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To study the prevalence of and risk factors for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in women with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 636 nonpregnant women with diabetes (type 1 and type 2) who were 18-75 years of age and had no abnormalities of the urinary tract, a

  1. History taking and leukocyturia predict the presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with diabetes mellitus

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    Meiland, R; Geerlings, SE; Stolk, RP; Hoes, AW; Hoepelman, AIM

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the accuracy of history taking to diagnose asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in diabetic women, and the added value of leukocyturia. Methods: Data were obtained from a multicenter study including 465 women with diabetes. Many patient characteristics were considered as potentia

  2. Asymptomatic papillary fibroelastoma of the Aortic valve in a young woman - a case report

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    Pitsis Antonis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Echocardiography represents an invaluable diagnostic tool for the detection of intracardiac masses while simultaneously provides information about their size, location, mobility and attachment site as well as the presence and extent of any consequent hemodynamic derangement. A 29-year-old asymptomatic young woman with incidental transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE discovery of an aortic valve mass is presented. The 2-dimensional TTE showed a mobile, pedunculated mass, attached by a thin stalk to the aortic surface of the right coronary aortic cusp at the junction of its base with the anterior aortic wall. The importance of valve sparing tumour resection even in asymptomatic patients is emphasised.

  3. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections in special patient groups : women with diabetes mellitus and pregnant women

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    Schneeberger, Caroline; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of reviewAsymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women with diabetes mellitus and during pregnancy are common and can have far-reaching consequences for the woman and neonate. This review describes epidemiology, risk factors, complications and treatment of UTI a

  4. Young Women and Politics: An Oxymoron?

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    Briggs, Jacqueline Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Building upon the literature that examines young people and politics, this article examines the extent to which young women are interested in politics. The hypothesis is that young women might not necessarily be interested in mainstream party politics but that, when questioned, they are actually interested in political issues. This ties in with…

  5. Prevalence of cystic paraurethral structures in asymptomatic women at endovaginal and perineal sonography

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    Cross, Justin J.L.; Fynes, Michelle; Berman, Laurence; Perera, Divaka

    2001-07-01

    AIM: To prospectively assess the prevalence of paraurethral cystic structures in asymptomatic adult women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty consecutive women undergoing endovaginal sonography with no history of lower urinary tract symptoms. RESULTS: Paraurethral cystic structures were identified in 4/140 subjects (2.9%). Ultrasound assessment allowed rapid definition of the site, size and vascularity of these lesions and was well tolerated by the patient. CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective ultrasound study to determine the prevalence of paraurethral cystic structures in a large consecutive cohort of asymptomatic women. Our findings are in accordance with previously published post-mortem data and surgical series which have estimated the prevalence of paraurethral cystic structures to be between 1 and 6%. Cross, J.J.L. et al.(2001)

  6. Young Women With Anorexia Nervosa

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    Elisabeth Dahlborg Lyckhage

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe how young women living with self-identified anorexia narrate about their lives by blogging. Thirteen Swedish blogs were chosen and analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. The results described falling ill, the illness itself, and the path to recovery. Low self-esteem, depressed state of mind, and self-destructive behavior were typical signs at the start of the illness. The women’s lives were characterized by a need for controlling their body by tormenting it and by the illness demanding all their concentration and energy. The women suffered from the feeling of being a disappointment to their family members. The illness was like an enemy that had to be defeated with the help of family members, health care professionals, and by means of therapy. A turning point occurred when the women felt at their worst or had tired of the illness and could concentrate on something other than their body and the eating disorder. Suffering from self-identified anorexia was described as experiencing low self-esteem. The illness took all of the women’s time and energy. For a turning point to be reached, the women needed support from family, friends, and health care professionals, including the use of distractions.

  7. Frequency of Chlamydia Trachomatis in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Non-pregnant Women in Golestan Province

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    Samira Okhli (MSc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common causes of genital infection in men and women. Genital chlamydial infections in women are clinically asymptomatic in 70-80% of the cases; therefore, the lack of timely diagnosis and treatment leads to complications such as infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of chlamydial infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic women in the Golestan province. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 cervical swab samples obtained from 150 women referred to the clinic, after obtaining written consent and completion of questionnaires. The swab samples were transferred to laboratory in phosphate-buffered saline solution and DNA extraction was carried out using phenol-chloroform and boiling methods. The frequency of chlamydial infection was evaluated by PCR. Results: None of the tested samples were found as Chlamydia-positive. Conclusion: The findings require that some more extensive research with larger sample sizes and dispersed population be performed to determine the true prevalence. Considering the serious complications of chlamydial infections and its asymptomatic nature, a highly sensitive and specific method such as PCR should be used to detect Chlamydia. It is suggested that this method be used along with a complementary test to obtain the results that are more accurate. Furthermore, conducting simultaneous studies on other populations at risk will be very helpful in obtaining representable national data.

  8. The utility of endometrial thickness measurement in asymptomatic postmenopausal women with endometrial fluid.

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    Seckin, B; Ozgu-Erdinc, A S; Dogan, M; Turker, M; Cicek, M N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of sonographic endometrium thickness measurement in asymptomatic postmenopausal women with endometrial fluid collection. Fifty-two asymptomatic postmenopausal women with endometrial fluid, who underwent endometrial sampling were evaluated. Histopathological findings revealed that 25 (48.1%) women had insufficient tissue, 20 (38.4%) had atrophic endometrium and 7 (13.5%) had endometrial polyps. No case of malignancy was found. There was no statistically significant difference between the various histopathological categories (insufficient tissue, atrophic endometrium and polyp) with regard to the mean single-layer endometrial thickness (1.54 ± 0.87, 2.04 ± 1.76 and 1.79 ± 0.69 mm, respectively, p = 0.436). Out of 44 patients with endometrial thickness of less than 3 mm, 38 (86.4%) had atrophic changes or insufficient tissue and 6 (13.6%) had endometrial polyps. In conclusion, if the endometrial thickness is 3 mm or less, endometrial sampling is not necessary in asymptomatic postmenopausal women with endometrial fluid.

  9. Asymptomatic Genital Infection of Human Papillomavirus in Pregnant Women and the Vertical Transmission Route

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    DENG Dongrui; WEN Liangzhen; CHEN Wen; LING Xiazhen

    2005-01-01

    Summary: To further investigate the vertical transmission route of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the indication for the choice of mode of delivery, the infective status of 152 asymptomatic pregnant wemen and the maternal-fetal transmission were studied. By using general primers in polymerase chain reaction (GP-PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, HPV DNA positive rate in cervical secretions and venous blood in asymptomatic pregnant women was 36.21 % and 52.78 %, respectively, and the identified genotypes were mainly HPV16 and 18. The maternal-fetal transmission rate of HPV via genital tract as well as blood was 40.91 % and 57.89 %, respectively. It was concluded that besides the transmission route of genital tract and amniotic fluid, there was also transplacental transmission of HPV in utero. Therefore,in our opinion, it is not an absolut indication to perform a cesarean delivery for the pregnant women with HPV asymtomatic genital infection.

  10. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic women: relationship to history, contraception, and cervicitis.

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    Bontis, J; Vavilis, D; Panidis, D; Theodoridis, T; Konstantinidis, T; Sidiropoulou, A

    1994-12-01

    The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen was examined in 400 endocervical samples collected from an equal number of asymptomatic sexually active women. The overall prevalence was found to be 4%, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Chlamydia infection was correlated with younger age (5.8%, p 0.05), condom (0%, p Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with younger age, intense sexual life, and use of oral contraceptives. Given that the majority of infected women revealed cervical pathology, the detection of chlamydia in the high-risk female population with cervical changes seems to be essential.

  11. The Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Iranian Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Mahin Ghafari

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is defined as the presence of bacteria in urine without having signs and symptoms. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among Iranian pregnant women.Major national and international databases were searched up to November 2015, including Scientific Information Database, MagIran, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Science Direct and Ovid. The checklist of the STROBE statement was used for evaluating the quality of reporting. The extracted data were analyzed and the results were reported using a random-effects model with 95% confidence interval (CI.From 3709 obtained studies, 20 included in the meta-analysis, which involved 15108 pregnant women. The overall prevalence of ASB was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17. The prevalence of ASB in the northern and southern regions of Iran was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.18 and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16, respectively.Prevalence of ASB among Iranian pregnant women is considerable. Due to the complications of ASB for pregnant women and their children, preventative planning and control of ASB among pregnant women in Iran is necessary.

  12. Embodied Subjectivities: Nine Young Women Talking Dance

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    O'Flynn, Gabrielle; Pryor, Zoe; Gray, Tonia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine nine Australian young women's embodied experiences of dance. The young women were all amateur dancers involved in weekly jazz, tap, and ballet dance classes at the same dance studio. In this paper, embodiment is defined as multidimensional (Burkitt 1999). The authors explore the ways the corporeal and the…

  13. Vaginal progesterone in women with an asymptomatic sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester decreases preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity

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    Romero, Roberto; Nicolaides, Kypros; Conde-Agudelo, Agustin;

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the use of vaginal progesterone in asymptomatic women with a sonographic short cervix (≤ 25 mm) in the midtrimester reduces the risk of preterm birth and improves neonatal morbidity and mortality.......To determine whether the use of vaginal progesterone in asymptomatic women with a sonographic short cervix (≤ 25 mm) in the midtrimester reduces the risk of preterm birth and improves neonatal morbidity and mortality....

  14. Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia does not induce additional oxidative stress in pregnant women of South East Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uchenna Ifeanyi Nwagha; Tochukwu Christopher Okeke; Theresa Ukamaka Nwagha; FidelisEbeleEjezie; SylvesterOgbonnaOgbodo; CyrilChukwudiDim; BondUgochukwuAnyaehie

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the relationship between asymptomatic malaria parasitemia and some oxidative stress parameters in pregnant Nigerian women. Methods:This is a cross-sectional study involving 130 normal pregnant women at various trimesters, who were attending antenatal clinic at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) and Kenechukwu Specialist Hospital in Enugu. A comparable group (control), made of 30 non pregnant women was also recruited. After a 24 hour dietary recall, serum levels of vitamin A, C and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by colorimetric method, while vitamin E was determined by absorptiometric method. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in age, parity, estimated calorie, vitamins A, C and E intake between the pregnant and non pregnant groups (P>0.05). The serum level of the vitamins (umol/L) and MDA (umol/L) in control, 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively were:(1)Vitamin A:1.6±0.36 vs 0.6±0.26 vs 0.62±0.33 vs 0.46±0.21 (P0.05). Conclusions:Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia does not induce additional oxidative stress on pregnant women in Nigeria. The enormity of acute and complicated attack should be further investigated.

  15. Genetic variation of the human urinary tract innate immune response and asymptomatic bacteriuria in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Hawn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although several studies suggest that genetic factors are associated with human UTI susceptibility, the role of DNA variation in regulating early in vivo urine inflammatory responses has not been fully examined. We examined whether candidate gene polymorphisms were associated with altered urine inflammatory profiles in asymptomatic women with or without bacteriuria. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in 1,261 asymptomatic women ages 18-49 years originally enrolled as participants in a population-based case-control study of recurrent UTI and pyelonephritis. We genotyped polymorphisms in CXCR1, CXCR2, TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TIRAP in women with and without ASB. We collected urine samples and measured levels of uropathogenic bacteria, neutrophils, and chemokines. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Polymorphism TLR2_G2258A, a variant associated with decreased lipopeptide-induced signaling, was associated with increased ASB risk (odds ratio 3.44, 95%CI; 1.65-7.17. Three CXCR1 polymorphisms were associated with ASB caused by gram-positive organisms. ASB was associated with urinary CXCL-8 levels, but not CXCL-5, CXCL-6, or sICAM-1 (P< or =0.0001. Urinary levels of CXCL-8 and CXCL-6, but not ICAM-1, were associated with higher neutrophil levels (P< or =0.0001. In addition, polymorphism CXCR1_G827C was associated with increased CXCL-8 levels in women with ASB (P = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS: TLR2 and CXCR1 polymorphisms were associated with ASB and a CXCR1 variant was associated with urine CXCL-8 levels. These results suggest that genetic factors are associated with early in vivo human bladder immune responses prior to the development of symptomatic UTIs.

  16. Mammographic density in asymptomatic menopausal women: correlation with clinical and sonographic findings

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    Beatriz Regina Alvares

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mammographic breast density in asymptomatic menopausal women in correlation with clinical and sonographic findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mammograms and clinical and sonographic findings of 238 asymptomatic patients were retrospectively reviewed in the period from February/2022 to June/2006. The following variables were analyzed: mammographic density patterns, sonographic findings, patients' age, parity, body mass index and use of hormone replacement therapy. RESULTS: Age, parity and body mass index showed a negative correlation with breast density pattern, while use of hormone replacement therapy showed a positive correlation. Supplementary breast ultrasonography was performed in 103 (43.2% patients. Alterations which could not be visualized at mammography were found in 34 (33% of them, most frequently in women with breast density patterns 3 and 4. CONCLUSION: The authors concluded that breast density patterns were influenced by age, parity, body mass index and time of hormone replacement therapy. Despite not having found any malignant abnormality in the studied cases, the authors have observed a predominance of benign sonographic abnormalities in women with high breast density patterns and without mammographic abnormalities, proving the relevance of supplementary ultrasonography to identify breast lesions in such patients.

  17. Characterization of the vaginal micro- and mycobiome in asymptomatic reproductive-age Estonian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G G; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTION IN ASYMPTOMATIC OBESE YOUNG ADULTS - PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vijetha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Obesity is emerging global epidemic in young adults who form the productive group of the society. This has been called as new world syndrome and is a massive reflection of social, economic and cultural problems currently faced by the developing and developed countries. As cardiac autonomic dysfunction often coexists with obesity, early detection of autonomic impairment by simple investigations of autonomic function, can be potentially important to prevent future complications. Objective: To identify cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in asymptomatic obese young adults. Study design: This study was conducted in the department of Physiology at Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, A.P, 30 apparently healthy obese subjects of both sex with BMI > 25 kg/sqm were taken as study group. Age and sex matched 30 normal weight subjects (BMI 18.5-22.9 kg/ sqm taken as control group. Methods: Ewing’s battery of 5 noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests were done for assessing autonomic function. These autonomic function parameters were correlated with BMI, Unpaired Student‘t’ test and Pearson correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean values of all cardiovascular reflex tests were significantly lower in the study group. Conclusion: The results indicate that cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present in otherwise healthy obese young adults.

  19. Seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic, apparently healthy, pregnant women in Dakahlya Governorate, Egypt

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    Gad Yahia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a major public health problem in the developing countries. HEV infection in pregnant women is more common and fatal in the third trimester. The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of subclinical HEV infection in asymptomatic pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 asymptomatic pregnant women divided into 2 groups: Group 1 included 56 pregnant women with HCV positive serology and group 2 included 60 pregnant women with negative HCV serology were included in this study. Prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and anti-HCV were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. Results: The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was highly significant among pregnant women with chronic HCV infection 40/56 (71.42% than pregnant women free from chronic HCV infection 28/60 (46.7% (P = 0.006. Chronic HCV infection in pregnant women appeared to be a risk factor associated with HEV IgG seropositivity (OR = 2.86, CI = 1.24-6.6. The seropositivity of anti-HEV IgG was significantly high in rural areas than urban areas (62.5% vs. 37.5% in group 1 and (78.58% vs. 21.42% in group 2 (P = 0.15 and OR = 2.2, CI = 0.65-7.7. A decrease in albumin level (P = 0.047 and an increase in bilirubin (P = 0.025, ALT (P = 0.032, and AST (P = 0.044 in pregnant women with positive HCV and IgG anti-HEV than the second group with negative HCV serology. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in pregnant women is high in Egypt especially in rural areas. With chronic HCV coinfection, a marked increase in anti-HEV IgG seropositivity and significant worsening of the biochemical liver indices were noted. Increased public awareness about the sound hygienic measures for a less prevalence of HEV is strongly advised. The need for HEV vaccination for those at risk, especially pregnant ladies, should be considered.

  20. Profile and microbiological isolates of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

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    Onu FA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fidelis Agwu Onu,1 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu,1 Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora,1 Perpetus Chudi Ibekwe,1 Monique Iheoma Ajah2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, 2Department of Microbiology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria Background: Detecting and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB prevents urinary tract infection and its consequences. The cost-effectiveness of routine screening for ASB in pregnancy is controversial. In populations with high prevalence, however, it is worthwhile and justifiable. Aim: To determine the profile, prevalence, microbiological isolates, and risk factors of ASB among booking antenatal clinic attendees in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving booking antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, who met the inclusion criteria. This study occurred between January and December, 2012. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. Results: A total of 300 randomly selected booking antenatal clinic attendees participated in the study; 74 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 24.7%. With the exception of rural residence, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not influence the risk of ASB among the participants in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to ofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women in Abakaliki. With the exception of rural dwelling, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not significantly influence the risk of ASB among these pregnant women. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended in our environment. Keywords: asymptomatic bacteriuria, pregnant women, Abakaliki

  1. Middle-aged to elderly women have a higher asymptomatic infection rate with Mycobacterium avium complex, regardless of body habitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomoyasu; Fujita-Suzuki, Yukiko; Mori, Masaaki; Carpenter, Stephen M; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Uwamino, Yoshifumi; Tamizu, Eiko; Yano, Ikuya; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is prevalent in middle-aged to elderly women with a thin body habitus. By comparing the rate of serologically diagnosed asymptomatic MAC infection and body mass index among 1033 healthy subjects, we find that middle-aged to elderly women became infected with MAC, regardless of their body habitus.

  2. Capacity of endometrial thickness measurement to diagnose endometrial carcinoma in asymptomatic postmenopausal women : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breijer, M. C.; Peeters, J. A. H.; Opmeer, B. C.; Clark, T. J.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; Timmermans, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Measurement of endometrial thickness is an important tool in the assessment of women with postmenopausal bleeding, but the role of endometrial thickness measurement by ultrasound in asymptomatic women is unclear. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) the normal endometrial thickne

  3. Young Women\\'s Anger in Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Sierra, Ana L

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated how young women "do" and "undo" gender in relation to their anger in romantic relationships. With this aim, I conducted in-depth interviews with 24 young women between the ages of 18 and 25. I interviewed participants about the characteristics of their current romantic relationships and their experiences of anger in this context. I used a constructivist grounded theory methodology involving open, axial, and theoretical coding to analyze the data collected thr...

  4. Barriers to asymptomatic screening and other STD services for adolescents and young adults: focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leone Peter A

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a major public health problem among young people and can lead to the spread of HIV. Previous studies have primarily addressed barriers to STD care for symptomatic patients. The purpose of our study was to identify perceptions about existing barriers to and ideal services for STDs, especially asymptomatic screening, among young people in a southeastern community. Methods Eight focus group discussions including 53 White, African American, and Latino youth (age 14–24 were conducted. Results Perceived barriers to care included lack of knowledge of STDs and available services, cost, shame associated with seeking services, long clinic waiting times, discrimination, and urethral specimen collection methods. Perceived features of ideal STD services included locations close to familiar places, extended hours, and urine-based screening. Television was perceived as the most effective route of disseminating STD information. Conclusions Further research is warranted to evaluate improving convenience, efficiency, and privacy of existing services; adding urine-based screening and new services closer to neighborhoods; and using mass media to disseminate STD information as strategies to increase STD screening.

  5. The Clinical and Nonclinical Values of Nonexercise Estimation of Cardiovascular Endurance in Young Asymptomatic Individuals

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    Mahmoud A. Alomari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise testing is associated with barriers prevent using cardiovascular (CV endurance (CVE measure frequently. A recent nonexercise model (NM is alleged to estimate CVE without exercise. This study examined CVE relationships, using the NM model, with measures of obesity, physical fitness (PF, blood glucose and lipid, and circulation in 188 asymptomatic young (18–40 years adults. Estimated CVE correlated favorably with measures of PF (r=0.4-0.5 including handgrip strength, distance in 6 munities walking test, and shoulder press, and leg extension strengths, obesity (r=0.2-0.7 including % body fat, body water content, fat mass, muscle mass, BMI, waist and hip circumferences and waist/hip ratio, and circulation (r=0.2-0.3 including blood pressures, blood flow, vascular resistance, and blood (r=0.2-0.5 profile including glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides. Additionally, differences (P<0.05 in examined measures were found between the high, average, and low estimated CVE groups. Obviously the majority of these measures are CV disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome components. These results enhance the NM scientific value, and thus, can be further used in clinical and nonclinical settings.

  6. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital

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    Ananthi Kasinathan

    2014-04-01

    Methods: A total of 174 antenatal women of and #8804;28 weeks of gestation who had no clinical features of urinary tract infection were recruited for this study over a period of 6 months. Midstream urine sample was collected and sent for routine examination and culture-sensitivity testing. Results: Significant bacteriuria was detected in 22 (12.6% antenatal women. Of them 13 (59.1% belonged to the age group 26-30 years. Nearly half of the culture positive cases, that is 10 (45.5% were educated upto primary school and they belonged to socioeconomic status class 4. Majorities (68% were in the second trimester of pregnancy and the commonest organism isolated was E. coli. Conclusions: Undetected and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria leads to chronic drug resistant infection, hypertension, anemia, etc. in the mother and prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction etc. in the fetus. Hence it is important to do urine culture for all women during antenatal check-up. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 437-441

  7. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING THE OUTPATIENT CLINIC OF CHITWAN MEDICAL COLLEGE TEACHING HOSPITAL, CHITWAN, NEPAL

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    Mamata Sharma Neupane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infection (UTI refers to both microbial colonization of the urine and tissue invasion of any structure of the urinary tract. Pregnancy enhances the progression from asymptomatic to symptomatic bacteriuria which could lead to pyelonephritis and adverse obstetric outcomes such as prematurity, low-birth weight, and higher fetal mortality rates. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy; its causative agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. The total number of participants who finished the study was 392. The mean age of the participants was 29.76 ± 6.71(range, 21-37 years. Of the 392 urine specimens processed, 102 (26.0% showed significant bacteriuria. The commonest organism causing bacteriuria was Escherichia coli. The sensitivity pattern of the isolated organisms revealed that all were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin at very high percentage. 200 (51.5% women had more than 5 pus cells in urine specimens from which 50 (12.75% had positive cultures. Women with higher number of pus cells in urine specimen had significantly higher asymptomatic bacteriuria (p < 0.0001.In conclusion, screening of bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in Nepalese community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

  8. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    OpenAIRE

    Trumpf, Julia; Margraf, Jürgen; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Becker, Eni S

    2009-01-01

    Background Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. Objectives The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young women in the community. Method Data came from the Dresden Predictor Study in which 1,538 German women (18–25 years) completed a diagnostic interview at two time points. Results W...

  9. Quantitative T2 magnetic resonance imaging compared to morphological grading of the early cervical intervertebral disc degeneration: an evaluation approach in asymptomatic young adults.

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    Chun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of quantitative T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for quantifying early cervical intervertebral disc (IVD degeneration in asymptomatic young adults by correlating the T2 value with Pfirrmann grade, sex, and anatomic level. METHODS: Seventy asymptomatic young subjects (34 men and 36 women; mean age, 22.80±2.11 yr; range, 18-25 years underwent 3.0-T MRI to obtain morphological data (one T1-fast spin echo (FSE and three-plane T2-FSE, used to assign a Pfirrmann grade (I-V and for T2 mapping (multi-echo spin echo. T2 values in the nucleus pulposus (NP, n = 350 and anulus fibrosus (AF, n = 700 were obtained. Differences in T2 values between sexes and anatomic level were evaluated, and linear correlation analysis of T2 values versus degenerative grade was conducted. FINDINGS: Cervical IVDs of healthy young adults were commonly determined to be at Pfirrmann grades I and II. T2 values of NPs were significantly higher than those of AF at all anatomic levels (P0.05. T2 values decreased linearly with degenerative grade. Linear correlation analysis revealed a strong negative association between the Pfirrmann grade and the T2 values of the NP (P = 0.000 but not the T2 values of the AF (P = 0.854. However, non-degenerated discs (Pfirrmann grades I and II showed a wide range of T2 relaxation time. T2 values according to disc degeneration level classification were as follows: grade I (>62.03 ms, grade II (54.60-62.03 ms, grade III (<54.60 ms. CONCLUSIONS: T2 quantitation provides a more sensitive and robust approach for detecting and characterizing the early stage of cervical IVD degeneration and to create a reliable quantitative in healthy young adults.

  10. Providing Career Guidance for Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Pamela G.

    This module is directed at personnel working or planning to work in the areas of guidance, counseling, placement and follow-through in junior and senior high school settings, grades 7-12. The module topic is career guidance for young women of junior and senior high school age, aand the focus will be on providing nonbiased career guidance which…

  11. Thermal maps of young women and men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to use thermal imaging (ThermaCAM SC500) as an effective tool in establishing a thermal map of young participants, with a high diagnostic value for medicine, physiotherapy and sport. A further aim was to establish temperature distributions and ranges on the body surface of the young women and men as standard temperatures for the examined age group, taking into account BMI, body surface area and selected parameters of body fat distribution. The participants included young, healthy and physically active women (n = 100) and men (n = 100). In the women and men, the highest Tmean temperatures were found on the trunk. The warmest were the chest and upper back, then the lower back and abdomen. The lowest Tmean were found in the distal parts of the body, especially on the lower limbs. The results showed that only in the area of the chest was Tmean significantly higher in women than in men. In the areas of the hands (front and back) Tmean were similar for women and men. In the other analyzed body surface areas, Tmean were significantly lower in women. Research showed significant differences in body surface temperature between the women and men. Among the analyzed characteristics, Tmean in the chest, upper back, abdomen, lower back (both in women and men) were mainly correlated with BMI and PBF; the correlations were negative. Difficulties in interpreting changes in temperature in selected body areas in people with various conditions can be associated with the lack of studies on large and representative populations of healthy individuals with normal weight/height parameters. Therefore, it seems that this presented research is a significant practical and cognitive contribution to knowledge on thermoregulation, and may therefore be used as a reference for other studies using thermal imaging in the evaluation of changes in body surface temperatures.

  12. Maternal Whole Blood Gene Expression at 18 and 28 Weeks of Gestation Associated with Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Asymptomatic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Craig E.; McDonald, Sheila W.; Vinturache, Angela E.; Xu, Jingxiong; Lee, Mary W. F.; Briollais, Laurent; Lyon, Andrew W.; Slater, Donna M.; Bocking, Alan D.; de Koning, Lawrence; Olson, David M.; Dolan, Siobhan M.; Tough, Suzanne C.; Lye, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity of spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) requires an interdisciplinary approach to determine potential predictive risk factors of early delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal whole blood gene expression profiles associated with spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB, <37 weeks) in asymptomatic pregnant women. The study population was a matched subgroup of women (51 SPTBs, 114 term delivery controls) who participated in the All Our Babies community based cohort in Calgary (n = 1878). Maternal blood at 17–23 (sampling time point 1, T1) and 27–33 weeks of gestation (T2) were collected. Total RNA was extracted and microarray was performed on 326 samples (165 women). Univariate analyses determined significant clinical factors and differential gene expression associated with SPTB. Thirteen genes were validated using qRT-PCR. Three multivariate logistic models were constructed to identify gene expression at T1 (Model A), T2 (Model B), and gene expression fold change from T1 to T2 (Model C) associated with SPTB. All models were adjusted for clinical factors. Model C can predict SPTB with 65% sensitivity and 88% specificity in asymptomatic women after adjusting for history of abortion and anaemia (occurring before T2). Clinical data enhanced the sensitivity of the Models to predict SPTB. In conclusion, clinical factors and whole blood gene expression are associated with SPTB in asymptomatic women. An effective screening tool for SPTB during pregnancy would enable targeted preventive approaches and personalised antenatal care. PMID:27333071

  13. Establishing a Timeline to Discontinue Routine Testing of Asymptomatic Pregnant Women for Zika Virus Infection - American Samoa, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, W Thane; Soeters, Heidi M; Hills, Susan L; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Evans, Mary E; Daley, W Randolph; Piercefield, Emily; Anesi, Magele Scott; Mataia, Mary Aseta; Uso, Anaise M; Sili, Benjamin; Tufa, Aifili John; Solaita, Jacqueline; Irvin-Barnwell, Elizabeth; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Wilken, Jason; Weidle, Paul; Toews, Karrie-Ann E; Walker, William; Talboy, Phillip M; Gallo, William K; Krishna, Nevin; Laws, Rebecca L; Reynolds, Megan R; Koneru, Alaya; Gould, Carolyn V

    2017-03-24

    The first patients with laboratory-confirmed cases of Zika virus disease in American Samoa had symptom onset in January 2016 (1). In response, the American Samoa Department of Health (ASDoH) implemented mosquito control measures (1), strategies to protect pregnant women (1), syndromic surveillance based on electronic health record (EHR) reports (1), Zika virus testing of persons with one or more signs or symptoms of Zika virus disease (fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) (1-3), and routine testing of all asymptomatic pregnant women in accordance with CDC guidance (2,3)(.) All collected blood and urine specimens were shipped to the Hawaii Department of Health Laboratory for Zika virus testing and to CDC for confirmatory testing. Early in the response, collection and testing of specimens from pregnant women was prioritized over the collection from symptomatic nonpregnant patients because of limited testing and shipping capacity. The weekly numbers of suspected Zika virus disease cases declined from an average of six per week in January-February 2016 to one per week in May 2016. By August, the EHR-based syndromic surveillance (1) indicated a return to pre-outbreak levels. The last Zika virus disease case detected by real-time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) occurred in a patient who had symptom onset on June 19, 2016. In August 2016, ASDoH requested CDC support in assessing whether local transmission had been reduced or interrupted and in proposing a timeline for discontinuation of routine testing of asymptomatic pregnant women. An end date (October 15, 2016) was determined for active mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus and a timeline was developed for discontinuation of routine screening of asymptomatic pregnant women in American Samoa (conception after December 10, 2016, with permissive testing for asymptomatic women who conceive through April 15, 2017).

  14. Correlation between lumbar lordosis angle and degree of gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite in asymptomatic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Barbosa Milani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite has been cited as a common dermatological alteration. It occurs mainly in adult women and tends to gather around the thighs and buttocks. Its presence and severity have been related to many factors, including biotype, age, sex, circulatory changes, and, as some authors have suggested, mechanical alterations such as lumbar hyperlordosis. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the degree of cellulite with the angle of lumbar lordosis in asymptomatic women. METHODS: Fifty volunteers were evaluated by digital photos, palpation, and thermograph. The degree of cellulite was classified on a scale of 1-4. Analyses were performed on the superior, inferior, right and left buttocks (SRB, IRB, SLB, ILB, and the superior right and left thighs (SRT, SLT. The volunteers underwent a lateral-view X-ray, and the angle of lumbar lordosis was measured using Cobb's method (inferior endplate of T12 and the superior endplate of S. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Spearman's correlation. A significance level of 5% was adopted. RESULTS: Volunteers had a mean age of 26.1 ± 4.4 years and a mean body mass index of 20.7 ± 1.9 kg/m². There was no significant difference in lumbar lordosis angle between those with cellulite classes 2 and 3 (p > 0.297. There was also no correlation between lumbar lordosis angle and the degree of cellulite (p > 0.085 and r > 0.246. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis suggests that there is no correlation between the degree of cellulite and the angle of lumbar lordosis as measured using Cobb's method.

  15. Frequency of development of bacterial vaginitis in symptomatic and asymptomatic women of reproductive age, aged 18 – 45 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ioannidou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to investigate the frequency of development of bacterial vaginitis (BV in women of reproductive age, aged 18 to 45 years old. Those women undertook a microbiological examination of vaginal secretion either in the context of preventive control or because of the appearance of clinical symptoms.Material and method: A microbiological test of vaginal secretion was done in 500 women of reproductive age, aged 18 to 45 years old. Those women came for examination, either in the context of preventive control or because they had disturbing symptoms in the genital area. The following factors were recorded: age, existence of clinical symptoms such as itching, burning, excessive vaginal secretion, pain, as well as history of vaginitis. During the sample intake, the presence of pathological secretion, rush or pain were recorded. The diagnosis of bacterial vaginitis was based on the Amsel’s criteria.Results: Out of the 500 women of reproductive age, BV was detected to 145 (29% and 33% of them were asymptomatic. 86,2% of the women reported excessive smelly vaginal secretion. Furthermore, 95,8% of women were found with excessive vaginal secretion and last but not least in 73% of women, pain was detected. History of vaginitis was reported by the 83,3% of women with BV.Conclusion: It can be argued that BV was detected in a great number of women of reproductive age. The high percentages of asymptomatic women with BV, as well as the serious complications, and the fact that BV constitutes a predisposition factor for infection with HIV, impose the application of preventive laboratory control in order to avoid bacterial vaginitis.

  16. Relationship between Occlusal Force Distribution and the Activity of Masseter and Anterior Temporalis Muscles in Asymptomatic Young Adults

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    Aneta Wieczorek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy subjects have a prevalent side on which they display higher-muscle activity during clenching. The relationship between symmetry of masseter muscle (MM and anterior temporalis (TA muscle activities and occlusion has been evaluated on the basis of physiological parameters. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the symmetry of surface EMG (sEMG activity in asymptomatic young adults is related to symmetry of occlusal contacts. Material. The study population consisted of seventy-two 18-year-old subjects with no temporomandibular disorder (TMD symptoms. Method. All the participants underwent an sEMG recording with an 8-channel electromyograph (BioEMG III. A T-Scan III evolution 7.01 device was used to analyze the occlusal contact points. Results. The correlation between the activity of right (R and left (L TA and the percentage of occlusal contacts was assessed, but no significant differences were found between the RMM and LMM muscles. The differences in the medium values of sEMG between males and females were not statistically significant. Equilibrated muscular activity between RTA and LTA occurred when occlusal contacts reached the percentage of 65% on the left side. Conclusion. The symmetry of sEMG activity in asymptomatic young adults is not related to symmetry of occlusal contacts.

  17. Postural stability in young and old women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    , National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense   INTRODUCTION: Poor postural balance control (stability) is one of the major risk factors for falling. If individuals at risk of falling are to be identified...... effectively demonstrate differences in postural balance control between physically active old and young women.......USE OF VARIABILITY, SPEED AND ACCELERATION PARAMETERS TO EVALUATE POSTURAL BALANCE IN OLD VS YOUNG INDIVIDUALS   Jørgensen MG1,3, Larsen AH3, Caserotti P2,3, Nielsen OBF1, Aagaard P3   1Geriatric Department and Fall Clinic, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg Hospital; 2National Institute on Aging...

  18. Young women's perspectives on public health knowledge and adolescent bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oinas, E

    1999-12-01

    This study examines health information about adolescent bodies from the perspective of young middle-class women, with the aim of determining ways in which health and education professionals could better serve young women. This qualitative study comprised "memory work" with eight Finnish women students. The findings suggest that young women prefer the information on menstruation that is given by public health professionals, because of its impersonal form, rather than personal encounters with relatives and peers. The information provided by public health professionals does not, however, meet the women's needs. This discrepancy can be explained by the gap between the narrow medical discourse on women's bodies held by the professionals and the experiences of young women. It is argued that public health representatives need to accommodate their knowledge to the everyday life interests and needs of adolescent women.

  19. Afebrile Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia decreases absorption of fortification iron but does not affect systemic iron utilization: a double stable-isotope study in young Beninese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cercamondi, C.I.; Egli, I.; Ahouandjinou, E.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Zeder, C.; Salami, I.; Tjalsma, H.; Wiegerinck, E.; Tanno, T.; Hurrell, R.F.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) affects many young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Its etiology is multifactorial, but the major cause is low dietary iron bioavailability exacerbated by parasitic infections such as malaria. Objective: We investigated whether asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum

  20. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  1. Young Women's Responses to Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer…

  2. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  3. Ann Eliza Young: A Nineteenth Century Champion of Women's Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Jack B.

    Concentrating on the efforts of such nineteenth century women's rights advocates as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, communication researchers have largely overlooked the contributions made to the cause by Ann Eliza Young. The nineteenth wife of Mormon leader Brigham Young, Ann Eliza Young left her husband and took to the speaker's…

  4. Human papillomavirus genotypes in asymptomatic young women from public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Genótipos de papilomavírus humanos em mulheres jovens assintomáticas de escolas públicas do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledy Horto Santos Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this work was to survey HPV information from a random population of young women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included cervical samples from 241 female students. To determine human papillomavirus status, polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed. HPV typing was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Demographic data, life style, sexual and gynecological history were obtained through use of a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The average age of the women was 19.6 years-old (SD=3.4 years. HPV prevalence was 27.4%. Nineteen different HPV genotypes were detected, including 13 high risk types. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type (6.2%, followed by 31 (4.1 % and 66 (3.7%. Most of the oncogenic types belonged to the A9 species (28/48. The frequency of women infected by at least one oncogenic type was significantly higher than those only infected by low risk types (18.7% versus 7.5%. Cervical changes were detected in 12.5% of the sample and were significantly linked to infection with HPV types of the A9 species. Demographic variables, sexual initiation, or number of sexual partners were not associated with HPV prevalence, variety of HPV genotypes or oncogenic types. CONCLUSIONS: The relative frequency of HPV genotypes other than vaccine types in young females should be taken into account when evaluating vaccination strategies. Due to the high prevalence of HPV infection among the population studied, implementation of sex education in schools, promotion of condom use and an organized screening program to prevent cervical cancer must be encouraged for this age group.INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a infecção por HPV em uma população randômica de mulheres jovens no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Este estudo incluiu amostras cervicais de 241 jovens. A detecção de papilomavírus humanos foi realizada pela reação da

  5. Costs and effects of screening and treating low risk women with a singleton pregnancy for asymptomatic bacteriuria, the ASB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemier Brenda M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnancy is 2-10% and is associated with both maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes as pyelonephritis and preterm delivery. Antibiotic treatment is reported to decrease these adverse outcomes although the existing evidence is of poor quality. Methods/Design We plan a combined screen and treat study in women with a singleton pregnancy. We will screen women between 16 and 22 weeks of gestation for ASB using the urine dipslide technique. The dipslide is considered positive when colony concentration ≥105 colony forming units (CFU/mL of a single microorganism or two different colonies but one ≥105 CFU/mL is found, or when Group B Streptococcus bacteriuria is found in any colony concentration. Women with a positive dipslide will be randomly allocated to receive nitrofurantoin or placebo 100 mg twice a day for 5 consecutive days (double blind. Primary outcomes of this trial are maternal pyelonephritis and/or preterm delivery before 34 weeks. Secondary outcomes are neonatal and maternal morbidity, neonatal weight, time to delivery, preterm delivery rate before 32 and 37 weeks, days of admission in neonatal intensive care unit, maternal admission days and costs. Discussion This trial will provide evidence for the benefit and cost-effectiveness of dipslide screening for ASB among low risk women at 16–22 weeks of pregnancy and subsequent nitrofurantoin treatment. Trial registration Dutch trial registry: NTR-3068

  6. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital in Kanchipuram: evaluation of screening tests and antibiotic susceptibility pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami Lakshmy Jayachandran

    2016-02-01

    Results: Out of the 120 samples 14 (11.66% were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria. The Gram staining showed specificity and negative predictive value of 95.2% and 98.1% respectively. Pus cell count showed a specificity and negative predictive value of 96.29% and 98.11% respectively. Escherichia coli were the predominant species isolated 5 (35.7%. Among the gram negative bacteria, amikacin and nitrofurantoin showed a susceptibility of 90% and 80% each. All the staphylococcus aureus isolates showed 100% sensitivity for nitrofurantoin. Two Klebsiella spp and one Escherichia coli isolate were identified as ESBL producers. Among the S. aureus isolates 3 were identified as Methicillin resistant (MRSA. Conclusions: Urine culture should be performed for all pregnant women irrespective of the symptoms and should be treated promptly to prevent the complications arising out of ASB. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 540-544

  7. Treatment helps young women preserve fertility during breast cancer chemo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have found that young women with breast cancer were able to better preserve their fertility during cancer treatments by using hormone-blocking drug injections that put them into temporary menopause. The results announced today at the annual me

  8. Fertility considerations in young women with hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadoul, Pascale; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    The need for practice guidelines for fertility preservation in young women with hematological malignancies has been increased. To develop recommendations, publications relevant to fertility preservation and hematological cancers were identified through a PubMed database search and reviewed...

  9. Pelvic floor muscle function in women with provoked vestibulodynia and asymptomatic controls

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis: The purpose of the present study was to assess vaginal resting pressure (VRP), pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and endurance, and surface EMG activity in women with and without provoked vestibulodynia (PVD). Methods: This was an assessor-masked comparison study including 70 women. Exclusion criteria were any previous pregnancy and presence of candida. Sensitivity of the vulvar vestibule was rated at three sites with Q-tip pressure measurement and a...

  10. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of a History of Concussion Observed in Asymptomatic Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Catherine A; Albaugh, Matthew D; Watts, Richard; Garavan, Hugh; Andrews, Trevor; Nickerson, Joshua P; Gonyea, Jay; Hipko, Scott; Zweber, Cole; Logan, Katherine; Hudziak, James J

    2016-05-01

    Participation in contact sports places athletes at elevated risk for repeated head injuries and is associated with negative mental health outcomes later in life. The current study identified changes observable on neuroimaging that persisted beyond the apparent resolution of acute symptoms of concussion. Sixteen young adult ice hockey players with a remote history of concussion but no subjective complaints were compared against 13 of their teammates with no history of concussion. Participants completed a detailed phenotypic assessment and a neuroimaging battery including diffusion kurtosis imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Athletes with a history of concussion performed no differently from those without on phenotypic assessment, but showed significantly elevated fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left genu and anterior corona radiata relative to those without. Post hoc analyses revealed that elevated FA was associated with increased microstructural complexity perpendicular to the primary axon (radial kurtosis). Athletes with concussion history also showed significant differences in the organization of the default mode network (DMN) characterized by stronger temporal coherence in posterior DMN, decreased temporal coherence in anterior DMN, and increased functional connectivity outside the DMN. In the absence of deficits on detailed phenotypic assessment, athletes with a history of concussion displayed changes to the microstructural architecture of the cerebral white matter and to the functional connectivity of the brain at rest. Some of these changes are consistent with those previously associated with persisting deficits and complaints, but we also report novel, complementary changes that possibly represent compensatory mechanisms.

  11. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

  12. Fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Jennifer R; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    When a young woman is diagnosed with breast cancer, there is often a sense of urgency by the patient and her providers to initiate treatment. This article provides guidelines for incorporating the discussion of fertility preservation with newly diagnosed young women with breast cancer....

  13. Treadmill exercise testing of asymptomatic men and women without evidence of heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Chalela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of differences in performance including differences in ST-T wave changes between healthy men and women submitted to an exercise stress test. Two hundred (45.4% men and 241 (54.6% women (mean age: 38.7 ± 11.0 years were submitted to an exercise stress test. Physiologic and electrocardiographic variables were compared by the Student t-test and the chi-square test. To test the hypothesis of differences in ST-segment changes, data were ranked with functional models based on weighted least squares. To evaluate the influence of gender and age on the diagnosis of ST-segment abnormality, a logistic model was adjusted; P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Rate-pressure product, duration of exercise and estimated functional capacity were higher in men (P < 0.05. Sixteen (6.7% women and 9 (4.5% men demonstrated ST-segment upslope ≥0.15 mV or downslope ≥0.10 mV; the difference was not statistically significant. Age increase of one year added 4% to the chance of upsloping of segment ST ≥0.15 mV or downsloping of segment ST ≥0.1 mV (P = 0.03; risk ratio = 1.040, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.002-1.080. Heart rate recovery was higher in women (P < 0.05. The chance of women showing an increase of systolic blood pressure ≤30 mmHg was 85% higher (P = 0.01; risk ratio = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.1-3.05. No significant difference in the frequency of ST-T wave changes was observed between men and women. Other differences may be related to different physical conditioning.

  14. Sexual dysfunction in young women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in young women with breast cancer in the Netherlands, and to assess the relationship between sexual dysfunction, treatment methods and treatment-related complaints. Also, the interest among women with breast cancer in

  15. Kinetics of serum and local cytokine profile in experimental intravaginal trichomoniasis induced with Trichomonas vaginalis isolates from symptomatic and asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, N; Yadav, M; Gupta, I

    2007-02-01

    Trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease, is caused by infection with the protist Trichomonas vaginalis. The clinical spectrum varies from an asymptomatic to a severe symptomatic state. However, the exact factors leading to varied symptomatology have not been well elucidated. The role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of many microbial diseases has been reported. The present study reports the cytokine levels (IL-2, IL-4, IFN-gamma) on different days post infection (3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th d.p.i.) in serum and vaginal washes (VWs) of mice infected intravaginally with T. vaginalis isolates from 15 symptomatic and 15 asymptomatic women. Significantly higher production of IL-2 and IFN-gamma was observed on the 3rd to 28th d.p.i., and IL-4 on the 7th to 21st d.p.i., in infected as compared to uninfected mice. A significant increase in cytokine IL-2 and IFN-gamma was observed on the 3rd to 28th d.p.i. in serum and VWs of mice infected with T. vaginalis isolates from asymptomatic as compared to symptomatic women. IL-2 (P < 0.001) and IFN-gamma (P < 0.05) concentrations were significantly higher on the 14th d.p.i. in serum samples as compared to VWs of mice infected with T. vaginalis isolates from asymptomatic and symptomatic women, while no significant difference was observed in IL-4 concentration between the two groups of mice. The study indicates the involvement of a Th-1 (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) like response in mice infected with isolates from asymptomatic women as compared to symptomatic women and suggests that Th-1 type cytokines might be playing a role in maintaining low levels of infection.

  16. Scaffolding young Australian women's journey to motherhood: a narrative understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Gabrielle; Morrison, Paul; Down, Barry; WestBrook, Be

    2014-09-01

    Pregnant and young mothers' stories often go untold within community social and health service policy, planning and practice. Consequently, there is a significant gap between young women's experiences of motherhood and current service provision. This study was undertaken in response to a paucity of observational and contextually rich research that explores young women's experiences of pregnancy and motherhood, including the role a community service played in scaffolding their motherhood journeys. Fundamental to this study's purpose was the premise that to improve planning and delivery of more appropriate services for this group, we need to listen, consult and consider what life is like for young mothers. The purpose of this paper is to describe the role a community service played in scaffolding young women's experiences as they transitioned to motherhood. Using a narrative approach, this study draws on data collected from contextual observations of 31 informants and 11 in-depth interviews over 7 months of fieldwork in 2010 at a community service in the Peel region of Western Australia. The integral role a community service played in the young women's transition to motherhood was analysed thematically and captured in three metaphorical themes, finding a circle of friends, weaving a tapestry and turning the page. The young women's storied experiences of motherhood present a strong argument for radical re-visioning of community and social health policy, practice and service delivery for young mothers. The findings revealed that judgement-free services that foster social and supportive relationships were integral in developing positive motherhood identities. The power of narrative and social learning when working with young mothers suggests that social models of health that foster a relational, narrative approach to practice are fundamental to young mothers finding their own voices and solutions and becoming active agents in re-authoring future narratives of hope

  17. Management of breast cancer in very young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Shoshana M; Partridge, Ann H

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women age 40 and younger in developed countries, and although generally improving, survival rates for young women with breast cancer remain lower than for older women. Young women are more likely to develop more aggressive subtypes of breast cancer (more triple negative and more Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 [HER2]-positive disease) and present with more advanced stage disease. Previous research has demonstrated that young age is an independent risk factor for disease recurrence and death, although recent data suggest this may not be the case in certain tumor molecular subtypes. Recent preliminary evidence suggests potential unique biologic features of breast cancer that occurs in young women although this has yet to have been translated into treatment differences. There are clearly host differences that affect the management of breast cancer for young patients including generally being premenopausal at diagnosis, and fertility, genetics, and social/emotional issues in particular should be considered early in the course of their care. Despite an increased risk of local recurrence, young age alone is not a contraindication to breast conserving therapy given the equivalent survival seen in this population with either mastectomy or breast conservation. However, many young women in recent years are choosing bilateral mastectomy, even without a known hereditary predisposition to the disease. For those who need chemotherapy, multi-agent chemotherapy and biologic therapy targeting the tumor similar to the treatment in older women is the standard approach. Select young women will do well with hormone therapy only. Recent data from the TEXT and SOFT trials evaluating the optimal endocrine therapy for the first 5 years, and the ATTom and ATLAS trials demonstrating benefit from extended duration of tamoxifen (10 vs. 5 years), have further defined options for adjuvant endocrine therapy for young women

  18. Breast cancer in young women: poor survival despite intensive treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Fredholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is uncommon in young women and correlates with a less favourable prognosis; still it is the most frequent cancer in women under 40, accounting for 30-40% of all incident female cancer. The aim of this study was to study prognosis in young women, quantifying how much stage at diagnosis and management on the one hand, and tumour biology on the other; each contribute to the worse prognosis seen in this age group. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a registry based cohort of women aged 20-69 (n = 22 017 with a primary diagnosis of invasive breast cancer (1992-2005, women aged 20-34 (n = 471, 35-39 (n = 858 and 40-49 (n = 4789 were compared with women aged 50-69 years (n = 15 899. The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio and the relative excess mortality (RER were calculated. The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio was lowest in women aged 20-34. The RER was 2.84 for women aged 20-34 and decreased with increasing age (RER 1.76 and 1.17 for women aged 35-39 and 40-49, respectively. The excess risk was, however, present only in disease stages I and II. For women aged 20-34 with stage I disease RER was 4.63, and 6.70 in the subgroup with tumour size 1-10 mm. The absolute difference in stage I between the youngest and the reference groups amounted to nearly 8%, with a 90% 5-year survival in women aged 20-34. In stages IIa and IIb, the relative excess risk was not as dramatic, but the absolute differences approached 15%. The youngest women with small tumours generally received more aggressive treatment than women in older age groups. CONCLUSIONS: After correction for stage, tumour characteristics and treatment, age remained an independent risk factor for breast cancer death in women <35 years of age. The excess risk for young women was only seen in early stages of disease and was most pronounced in women with small tumours. Young women affected by breast cancer have a high risk of dying compared to their middle

  19. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpf, J.; Margraf, J.; Vriends, N.; Meyer, A.H.; Becker, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young wom

  20. High prevalence of oncogenic HPV-16 in cervical smears of asymptomatic women of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India: A population-based study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shikha Srivastava; Sadhana Gupta; Jagat Kumar Roy

    2012-03-01

    In developing countries like India, occurrence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer as well as in the asymptomatic population was observed to be very high. Studies on HPV prevalence have been conducted in different parts of the country but no data were available from the eastern region of Uttar Pradesh (UP). The present study aimed to determine the status of HPV prevalence and its association with different socio-demographic factors in this population. Prevalence of HPV was investigated in a total of 2424 cervical scrape samples of asymptomatic women. Primer sets from L1 consensus region of viral genome were used to detect the presence of HPV, and the positive samples were genotyped by sequencing. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate association of socio-demographic factors with HPV. 9.9% of the clinically asymptomatic women were found to be infected with HPV comprising 26 different genotypes. Among HPV-positive women, 80.8% showed single infection, while 15.4% harboured multiple infections. HPV-16 (63.7%) was the most prevalent, followed by HPV-31 (6.7%), HPV-6 (5.4%), HPV-81 (4.6%) and HPV-33 (4.2%). Significant association of HPV with non-vegetarian diet ( < 0.05) and rural residential areas ( < 0.01) were observed. High prevalence of HPV-16 in asymptomatic women of this population, a frequency comparable to invasive cervical cancers, highlights an urgent need for a therapeutic HPV vaccine covering HPV-16 and other high-risk types to provide protection against the disease.

  1. The impact of asymptomatic vertebral fractures on quality of life in older community-dwelling women: the São Paulo Ageing & Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline B. Lopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of asymptomatic vertebral fractures on the quality of life in older women as part of the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 180 women 65 years of age or older with or without vertebral fractures. The Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis was administered to all subjects. Anthropometric data were obtained by physical examination, and the body mass index was calculated. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine X-ray scans were obtained to identify asymptomatic vertebral fractures using a semi-quantitative method. RESULTS: Women with asymptomatic vertebral fractures had lower total scores [61.4(15.3 vs. 67.1(14.2, p = 0.03] and worse physical function domain scores [69.5(20.1 vs. 77.3(17.1, p = 0.02] for the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis compared with women without fractures. The total score of this questionnaire was also worse in women classified as obese than in women classified as overweight or normal. High physical activity was related to a better total score for this questionnaire (p = 0.01. Likewise, lower physical function scores were observed in women with higher body mass index values (p<0.05 and lower physical activity levels (p,0.05. Generalized linear models with gamma distributions and logarithmic link functions, adjusted for age, showed that lower total scores and physical function domain scores for the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis were related to a high body mass index, lower physical activity, and the presence of vertebral fractures (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Vertebral fractures are associated with decreased quality of life mainly physical functioning in older community-dwelling women regardless of age, body mass index, and physical activity. Therefore, the results highlight the importance

  2. Early detection of testicular cancer: revisiting the role of self-efficacy in testicular self-examination among young asymptomatic males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Kanayo; Chadwick, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that self-efficacy is an important factor in behaviors that facilitate the early-detection of various cancers. In general people with high self-efficacy are more likely to attend cancer screening sessions or perform bodily self-exams. However, there is a paucity of research focusing on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination (TSE). The effect of self-efficacy on TSE remains unclear especially given the relative obscurity of the testicular cancer threat, and appropriate clinical- and self-detection procedures, in the young asymptomatic male population. Thus, the present study tested the interaction of self-efficacy with young men's appraisals of the threat of testicular cancer. The study was based on 2 × 2 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design. Over 100 young asymptomatic men were exposed to a health warning about testicular cancer and randomly assigned to high/low self-efficacy, vulnerability, and severity conditions. High self-efficacy increased motivation to perform TSE given high vulnerability, but damaged attitudes to self-exams given low vulnerability and severity estimates. High self-efficacy also facilitated subsequent TSE. Overall, these findings support preexisting notions of self-efficacy but raise new questions about the moderating effects of threat appraisals.

  3. Health awareness among young women vaccinated against human papillomavirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Bąk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Genital human papillomavirus (HPV infections are essentials factors in the development of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus vaccines can contribute to reducing the high incidence of this disease, provided that this form of prophylaxis is commonly accepted. Participation in vaccinations is restricted by the belief that their implementation and consequent feeling of safety will reduce women’s participation in other forms of cervical carcinoma prophylaxis and will encourage them to be sexually promiscuous. Aim of the research study : To determine the awareness of cervical carcinoma prophylaxis among young women vaccinated against HPV by comparing them with a group of unvaccinated women. Material and methods: The survey covered a group of 210 young women in the age range 18 to 20 years, who were vaccinated against HPV. Within the framework of comparison, the survey covered a group of 255 young HPV-unvaccinated women, adequately selected in respect of age and education. Results: The HPVvaccinated women declared participation in medical check-ups and cytological tests no less frequently than the unvaccinated women. In both groups, the usage of condoms, sexual partners hygiene, monogamy and smoking abstinence were determined as behaviours limiting the occurrence of cervical carcinoma. Conclusions: Awareness of the application of supplementary prophylaxis of cervical carcinoma was high among the HPV vaccinated woman and did not differ from the unvaccinated woman’s awareness. Young women did not show a tendency for promiscuous behaviours, and were more likely touse condoms in the prevention of cervical carcinoma than were the unvaccinated woman.

  4. Peer education reaches young women factory workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, K

    1993-12-01

    In Thailand, the International Center for Research on Women conducted a study comparing the effect of various HIV/AIDS prevention activities on never-married women 14-24 years old who migrated to Chiang Mai to work in the export garment industry. These young women are very vulnerable to HIV/AIDS because they are freed from traditional norms and exposed to urban peer pressure. However, focus groups revealed that the women did not consider themselves at risk and feared negative reactions if they tried to discuss condoms with their boyfriends (who would equate knowledge with prior sexual experience). Among the interventions were a comic book which couched condom negotiation information in humorous terms and a romantic novel about a factory worker diagnosed with HIV. For 3 months trained peer leaders and health promoters led weekly educational sessions that included role-play. All participants were given a certificate noting that they had completed an AIDS education course. This certificate enabled the young women to broach the subject of AIDS with their boyfriends, their families, and their friends. The project improved their communication skills, their self-confidence, and their perceptions of risk. The most significant improvements were found among the women enrolled in the groups facilitated by peer leaders. Even though the peer leaders were not as knowledgeable as the health promoters, the peer leaders were more sensitive to the needs of the women and more capable of leading group discussions and participatory learning activities.

  5. Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

  6. Exploring Young Adult Sexual Minority Women's Perspectives on LGBTQ Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N = 30, ages…

  7. General Prospectus of Agricultural Education for Young Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Dublin (Ireland).

    Designed to acquaint young men and women with the agricultural education programs currently available in Ireland's institutions of vocational and higher education, this prospectus describes the educational requirements, facilities, and programs under the auspices of Ireland's Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Specifically, this document…

  8. Orthostatic intolerance: a disorder of young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Y. S.; Daamen, N.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a cause of significant disability in otherwise healthy women seen by gynecologists. Orthostatic tachycardia is often the most obvious hemodynamic abnormality found in OI patients, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and, in some cases, fainting (syncope). It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension, and patients with OI are traditionally women of childbearing age. Estimates suggest that at least 500,000 Americans suffer from some form of OI, and such patients comprise the largest group referred to centers specialized in autonomic disorders. This article reviews recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to orthostatic intolerance, and therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients.

  9. Association between smoking and the risk of heavy drinking among young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bové, Kira Bang; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine;

    2008-01-01

    To address the association between smoking habits and the risk of later heavy drinking among young women.......To address the association between smoking habits and the risk of later heavy drinking among young women....

  10. Predictive value of Escherichia coli susceptibility in strains causing asymptomatic bacteriuria for women with recurrent symptomatic urinary tract infections receiving prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerepoot, M A J; den Heijer, C D J; Penders, J; Prins, J M; Stobberingh, E E; Geerlings, S E

    2012-04-01

    A significant proportion of women develop a recurrence following an initial urinary tract infection (UTI). In women with recurrent UTI, the predictive value of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) for the development of a subsequent UTI has not yet been established and it is not known whether information from an asymptomatic sample is useful in guiding antimicrobial therapy. To address these questions, we used data that originated from the 'Non-antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections' (NAPRUTI) study: two randomized controlled trials on the prevention of recurrent UTI in non-hospitalized premenopausal and postmenopausal women (n=445). During 15months of follow-up, no difference was observed in the time to a subsequent UTI between women with and without ASB at baseline (hazard ratio: 1.07, 95% CI 0.80-1.42). The antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern of 50 Escherichia coli strains causing a UTI were compared with those of the ASB strain isolated 1month previously. The predictive values of the susceptibility pattern of the ASB strain, based on resistance prevalence at baseline, were ≥76%, except in the case of nitrofurantoin- and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid-resistance. Asymptomatic and symptomatic isolates had similar PFGE patterns in 70% (35/50) of the patients. In the present study among women with recurrent UTI receiving prophylaxis, ASB was not predictive for the development of a UTI. However, the susceptibility pattern of E. coli strains isolated in the month before a symptomatic E. coli UTI can be used to make informed choices for empirical antibiotic treatment in this patient population.

  11. Young women selling sex online - narratives on regulating feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women's life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women's perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: "Entering - adverse life experiences"; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. "Immersion - using the body as a tool for regulating feelings"; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. "Exiting - change or die"; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Harrell W Chesson; Gift, Thomas L.; Brunham, Robert C.; Bolan, Gail

    2015-01-01

    We explored potential cost-effectiveness of a chlamydia vaccine for young women in the United States by using a compartmental heterosexual transmission model. We tracked health outcomes (acute infections and sequelae measured in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) and determined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) over a 50-year analytic horizon. We assessed vaccination of 14-year-old girls and catch-up vaccination for 15–24-year-old women in the context of an existing chlamydia sc...

  13. Stroke in young women: An interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Dorothy M; Desmond, Deirdre; Coughlan, Tara; O'Neill, Des; Collins, D Rónán

    2016-05-01

    Stroke among adults of working age is increasing. We aimed to explore the experience of stroke among young women in Ireland. In total, 12 women (aged between 18 and 50 years) participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four super-ordinate themes were identified: stroke as an illness of later life ('obviously it's for older people'), post-stroke selves, a desire for peer support and the impact of stroke on relationships. Findings indicate the importance of addressing the specific needs of younger stroke patients from admission to recovery through provision of inclusive all-age acute stroke services with tailored rehabilitation.

  14. Practical Advice for Emergency IUD Contraception in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstuck, Norman D; Wildemeersch, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Too few women are aware of the very high efficacy of intrauterine copper devices (IUDs) to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. Women who frequently engage in unprotected intercourse or seek emergency contraception (EC) are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy and possible abortion. It is therefore important that these women receive precise and accurate information about intrauterine devices as they may benefit from using an IUD for EC as continuing contraception. Copper IUDs should be used as first choice options given their rapid onset of action and their long-term contraceptive action which require minimal thought or intervention on the part of the user. In the United States, there is only one copper IUD presently available which limits treatment options. There are numerous copper IUDs available for use in EC, however, their designs and size are not always optimal for use in nulliparous women or women with smaller or narrower uteruses. Utilization of frameless IUDs which do not require a larger transverse arm for uterine retention may have distinct advantages, particularly in young women, as they will be suitable for use in all women irrespective of uterine size. This paper provides practical information on EC use with emphasis on the use of the frameless IUD.

  15. Practical Advice for Emergency IUD Contraception in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman D. Goldstuck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Too few women are aware of the very high efficacy of intrauterine copper devices (IUDs to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. Women who frequently engage in unprotected intercourse or seek emergency contraception (EC are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy and possible abortion. It is therefore important that these women receive precise and accurate information about intrauterine devices as they may benefit from using an IUD for EC as continuing contraception. Copper IUDs should be used as first choice options given their rapid onset of action and their long-term contraceptive action which require minimal thought or intervention on the part of the user. In the United States, there is only one copper IUD presently available which limits treatment options. There are numerous copper IUDs available for use in EC, however, their designs and size are not always optimal for use in nulliparous women or women with smaller or narrower uteruses. Utilization of frameless IUDs which do not require a larger transverse arm for uterine retention may have distinct advantages, particularly in young women, as they will be suitable for use in all women irrespective of uterine size. This paper provides practical information on EC use with emphasis on the use of the frameless IUD.

  16. Young Women at High Risk for Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林兆佩

    1999-01-01

    女性的青春期和更年期是两个遥相呼应的人生转折期。后者,可视作“生理落叶期”,它给女性带来的精神和心理上的痛苦的演变已经引起了整个社会的注意,而前者,则通常被称为人生之“花季”,它对女性造成的精神和心理骤变尚有待进一步的研究和重视。其实,当人体在生理上发生重大变化时,当事人的心 理和精神也势必不会“平静”。本文的研究者们对155名17-18岁的女孩作了长达5年的跟踪调查,调查结果显示: They found that about 37% of the women experienced their first bout(一回)of major clinical depression during those 5 years,and,"overall,47% of thewomen had one or more episodes or major depression." 这一时期的女孩本身已经面临“抑郁”的袭击,而此时的女孩又同时承受着academic pressures or romantic relationships,假如后者进行得不顺利,或用本文的形容词troubled来形容,那么,当事人将面临“冰上加霜”局面。

  17. [New strategies for fertility preservation in young women with cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Rebecca; De Geyter, Christian; von Wolff, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Especially young women with cancer face rising survival rates due to remarkable progress in oncologic therapies. Preserving fertility is a major concern for both patients and their next of kin. Well established reproductive technologies such as cryopreservation of fertilized oocytes after in vitro fertilization already make fertility preservation possible for some patients. This review is dedicated to the emerging techniques that are becoming widely accepted for fertility preservation in young women and girls with cancer, such as auto transplantation of ovarian tissue cryopreservation and in vitro maturation (IVM) of either oocytes or follicles. First results are encouraging. But some challenges still have to be tackled in order for these novel technologies to be routinely employed with the aim of successful fertility preservation.

  18. Risk factors for unplanned pregnancy among young women in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Calvert, Clara; Baisley, Kathy; Aoife M Doyle; Maganja, Kaballa; Changalucha, John; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Hayes, Richard J; Ross, David A

    2013-01-01

    Background With effective contraceptives available, unplanned pregnancies are preventable and educational interventions have been cited as a promising platform to increase contraceptive use through improving knowledge. However, results from trials of educational interventions have been disappointing. In order to effectively target future interventions, this study aimed to identify risk factors for unplanned pregnancy among young women in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods Data were analysed from the M...

  19. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  20. Effects of taurine intake on serum lipids in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadako Matsui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taurine is an abundant amino acid in human cells, promoting ocular and biliary health, which is also used to treat congestive heart failure, hypertension, and hepatitis. Recently, taurine-enriched energy drinks have become popular with young adults, but the effects of taurine on serum lipids in young adults are unknown. Objective: We studied the influence of oral administration of taurine on serum lipid levels in healthy young women. Methods: Ten healthy young women with a mean body mass index of 20.0kg/m2, apolipoprotein E (apoE phenotype 3/3 and normal menstrual cycles participated. Each subject was instructed to orally ingest 1g of taurine powder after each meal (3g/day in addition to their usual diets during one menstrual cycle. Before and at the end of taurine intake, physical measurements and blood collection were performed in the morning after a 12-h fast, and 3-day weighted dietary records were obtained. Concentrations of serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction were measured. Results: The subjects showed good compliance with taurine intake and none reported adverse effects during the experimental period. After taurine intake, concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, free cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB increased (p<0.05, while phospholipids tended to increase (p=0.051. Fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction also significantly increased (p<0.05. However, triglyceride, remnant-like particle cholesterol, remnant-like particle triglyceride, apoE, the apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA- 1/apoB ratio and the LDL-C/apoB ratio were unchanged. Furthermore, body weight was significantly increased (p<0.01, but did not correlate with changes either in serum lipids or nutrient intakes. Conclusion: These results suggest that high taurine intake affects lipoprotein metabolism and increases serum lipids in slightly lean young women.

  1. Adverse Trends in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality among Young New Yorkers, Particularly Young Black Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel R Smilowitz

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease (IHD mortality has been on the decline in the United States for decades. However, declines in IHD mortality have been slower in certain groups, including young women and black individuals.Trends in IHD vary by age, sex, and race in New York City (NYC. Young female minorities are a vulnerable group that may warrant renewed efforts to reduce IHD.IHD mortality trends were assessed in NYC 1980-2008. NYC Vital Statistics data were obtained for analysis. Age-specific IHD mortality rates and confidence bounds were estimated. Trends in IHD mortality were compared by age and race/ethnicity using linear regression of log-transformed mortality rates. Rates and trends in IHD mortality rates were compared between subgroups defined by age, sex and race/ethnicity.The decline in IHD mortality rates slowed in 1999 among individuals aged 35-54 years but not ≥55. IHD mortality rates were higher among young men than women age 35-54, but annual declines in IHD mortality were slower for women. Black women age 35-54 had higher IHD mortality rates and slower declines in IHD mortality than women of other race/ethnicity groups. IHD mortality trends were similar in black and white men age 35-54.The decline in IHD mortality rates has slowed in recent years among younger, but not older, individuals in NYC. There was an association between sex and race/ethnicity on IHD mortality rates and trends. Young black women may benefit from targeted medical and public health interventions to reduce IHD mortality.

  2. Self-compassion: a potential resource for young women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosewich, Amber D; Kowalski, Kent C; Sabiston, Catherine M; Sedgwick, Whitney A; Tracy, Jessica L

    2011-02-01

    Self-compassion has demonstrated many psychological benefits (Neff, 2009). In an effort to explore self-compassion as a potential resource for young women athletes, we explored relations among self-compassion, proneness to self-conscious emotions (i.e., shame, guilt-free shame, guilt, shame-free guilt, authentic pride, and hubristic pride), and potentially unhealthy self-evaluative thoughts and behaviors (i.e., social physique anxiety, obligatory exercise, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation). Young women athletes (N = 151; Mage = 15.1 years) participated in this study. Self-compassion was negatively related to shame proneness, guilt-free shame proneness, social physique anxiety, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation. In support of theoretical propositions, self-compassion explained variance beyond self-esteem on shame proneness, guilt-free shame proneness, shame-free guilt proneness, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation. Results suggest that, in addition to self-esteem promotion, self-compassion development may be beneficial in cultivating positive sport experiences for young women.

  3. Dance practice and well-being correlates in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Artero, Natàlia

    2016-10-04

    Clinical research has shown the mental health benefits of dance practice. This has become a significant subject of inquiry in psychotherapeutic settings for the elderly and adolescents. However, the relationship between dance practice and correlates of psychological well-being, such as mindfulness and life satisfaction (LS)-two relevant indicators of mental health, has been explored relatively little in young women. The present study contrasted mindfulness and LS in young women (n = 81) who practiced dance regularly in three modern dance schools in the Province of Barcelona with a control group of non-practitioners (n = 120) studying at a university in Barcelona. The data were collected during the first semester of 2015, and the total sample had an average age of 20.88 ± 3.36 years. Analyses of covariance showed higher levels of both mindfulness and LS in the dance practitioners, while a multiple regression analysis showed that, after controlling for age, dance was the factor most strongly associated with LS, explaining 28% of the variance in LS. These results are discussed in terms of the embodiment theory, and conclusions suggest that dance may be an effective gender-focused practice to enhance well-being and promote mental health in young women.

  4. Why some women look young for their age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, David A; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Murray, Peter G; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D; Tomlin, Cyrena C; Strongitharm, Barbara H; Perrett, Dave I; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E; Messenger, Andrew G; Green, Martin R; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-12-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age.

  5. Why some women look young for their age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gunn

    Full Text Available The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age.

  6. Measurement of coronary flow response to cold pressor stress in asymptomatic women with cardiovascular risk factors using spiral velocity-encoded cine MRI at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroules, Christopher D.; Peshock, Ronald M. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)), e-mail: Ron.Peshock@UTSouthwestern.edu; Chang, Alice Y.; Kontak, Andrew (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); Dimitrov, Ivan; Kotys, Melanie (Dept. of Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH (United States))

    2010-05-15

    Background: Coronary sinus (CS) flow in response to a provocative stress has been used as a surrogate measure of coronary flow reserve, and velocity-encoded cine (VEC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established technique for measuring CS flow. In this study, the cold pressor test (CPT) was used to measure CS flow response because it elicits an endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation that may afford greater sensitivity for detecting early changes in coronary endothelial function. Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and reproducibility of CS flow reactivity (CSFR) to CPT using spiral VEC MRI at 3 Tesla in a sample of asymptomatic women with cardiovascular risk factors. Material and Methods: Fourteen asymptomatic women (age 38 years +- 10) with cardiovascular risk factors were studied using 3D spiral VEC MRI of the CS at 3 T. The CPT was utilized as a provocative stress to measure changes in CS flow. CSFR to CPT was calculated from the ratio of CS flow during peak stress to baseline CS flow. Results: CPT induced a significant hemodynamic response as measured by a 45% increase in rate-pressure product (P<0.01). A significant increase in CS volume flow was also observed (baseline, 116 +- 26 ml/min; peak stress, 152 +- 34 ml/min, P=0.01). CSFR to CPT was 1.31 +- 0.20. Test-retest variability of CS volume flow was 5% at baseline and 6% during peak stress. Conclusion: Spiral CS VEC MRI at 3 T is a feasible and reproducible technique for measuring CS flow in asymptomatic women at risk for cardiovascular disease. Significant changes in CSFR to CPT are detectable, without demanding pharmacologic stress

  7. Breast cancer, psychological distress and life events among young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoham-Vardi Ilana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 1983, studies have suggested an interaction between the severe life events, psychological distress and the etiology of Cancer. However, these associations are still under dispute. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between life events, psychological distress and Breast Cancer (BC among young women. Methods A case control study. The study population included 622 women, under the age of 45 years. 255 were diagnosed for BC, and 367 were healthy women. A validated Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI and Life Event Questionnaire were used. Results The cases presented significantly higher scores of depression compared to the controls and significant lower scores of happiness and optimism. A significant difference was found when comparing the groups according to the cumulative number of life events (two or more events. A multivariate analysis suggest that exposure to more than one life event is positively associated with BC [Odds Ratio(OR :1.62 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.09–2.40], and that a general feeling of happiness and optimism has a "protective effect" on the etiology of BC. (OR-0.75, 95% CI:0.64–0.86. Conclusion Young women who were exposed to a number of life events, should be considered as a risk group for BC and treated accordingly.

  8. Why some women look young for their age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, David A; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2009-01-01

    unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun......-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked...... young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic...

  9. Effects of yoga practice on muscular endurance in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Juliana Costa; Bezerra, Lídia Mara Aguiar

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a systematized yoga practice on muscular endurance in young women. Twenty six women (24 ± 3.5 years old) participated in six weeks of yoga classes, and twenty one women (25 ± 5.1 years old) participated as the control group. The yoga intervention was composed of eighteen sessions, three times per week, at 1 h per session. The muscular endurance of upper limbs (push-up) and abdominal (sit-up) was assessed through the protocol suggested by Gettman (1989) [1] and Golding, Myers and Sinning (1989) [2] to the maximum repetitions performed in 1 min. To verify the significant differences intra groups and between groups a SPANOVA was performed, and the level of significance was p ≤ 0.05. The findings suggest that yoga provides improvement in upper limb and in abdominal muscular endurance.

  10. The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…

  11. Mating strategies of young women: role of physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devendra

    2004-02-01

    The female physical attractiveness stereotype has been reported to contain both desirable (sociable, poised, interesting) and undesirable (snobbish, likely to request divorce and have extra-marital affairs) personal qualities. To investigate whether such an attractiveness stereotype is cross-cultural, I asked men and women from Azore Island, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, and the U.S. to judge the attractiveness of female figures differing in body weight and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and to rank these figures according to perceived personal attributes. There was a strong cross-cultural consensus for attractiveness; figures with low WHR were judged to be more attractive than figures with high WHR within each weight category. Participants also judged attractive figures as less faithful than less-attractive figures. To explore the basis of a possible 'darker side ' of the attractiveness stereotype, behavior tactics of young U.S. women were examined. Compared to women with high WHRs, low-WHR women reported engaging in more flirting to make dates jealous, suggesting some truth to the attractiveness stereotype. Taken together, these findings suggest that female attractiveness influences the type of mating strategies employed by women.

  12. Antecedents of Young Women's Sexual Risk Taking in Tourist Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdychevsky, Liza

    2015-11-17

    The purpose of this phenomenological exploration was to shed light on the constellation of factors anteceding young women's sexual risk taking during their tourist experiences. A total of 15 in-depth interviews (1.5 to 2.5 hours each) with 13 women were conducted and analyzed through the lens of transcendental phenomenology. An analysis of antecedent factors revealed a confluence of sociopersonal characteristics (e.g., sexual definitions, attitudes, double standards, and age) and touristic attributes (e.g., the sense of temporariness/ephemerality, anonymity, and fun-oriented mentality depending on length, destination, and type of tourist experience) that underlie women's proclivity for and perceptions of sexual risk taking in certain travel scenarios. These result in myriad effects on physical, sexual health, sociocultural, mental, and emotional aspects of women's health and well-being. While the sociopersonal antecedents highlight the cross-pollination between sex-related perceptions in everyday life and touristic environments, the touristic antecedents emphasize the uniqueness of tourist experiences as the contexts for sexual risk taking. The findings address an underresearched topic in sex and tourism scholarship and offer implications for health education and intervention programs, pointing to the value of constructing the context-specific and gender-sensitive sexual health messages underpinned by the ideas of women's empowerment and sexual agency.

  13. Young women's experiences of intrusive behavior in 12 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Lorraine; Scott, Adrian J; Roberts, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides international comparisons of young women's (N = 1,734) self-reported experiences of intrusive activities enacted by men. Undergraduate psychology students from 12 countries (Armenia, Australia, England, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Scotland, and Trinidad) indicated which of 47 intrusive activities they had personally experienced. Intrusive behavior was not uncommon overall, although large differences were apparent between countries when women's personal experiences of specific intrusive activities were compared. Correlations were carried out between self-reported intrusive experiences, the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), and Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures. The primary associations were between women's experiences of intrusive behavior and the level of power they are afforded within the 12 countries. Women from countries with higher GEM scores reported experiencing more intrusive activities relating to courtship and requests for sex, while the experiences of women from countries with lower GEM scores related more to monitoring and ownership. Intrusive activities, many of them constituent of harassment and stalking, would appear to be widespread and universal, and their incidence and particular form reflect national level gender inequalities.

  14. Contraceptive strategies for young women in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruusuvaara, L; Johansson, E D

    1999-12-01

    Safe, effective and affordable contraceptives have been available for a few decades, yet, in many countries, the struggle for reproductive rights continues. Children, still, are forced to give birth to children in many nations. In most industrialized countries, where contraceptive counselling and abortions have been options, fertility rates have reached all time lows. Effective contraception improves health and well-being as well and may be used for conditions other than birth control. Young girls often initially take oral contraceptives primarily to reduce menstrual pain and blood loss; they also welcome a contraceptive that eliminates menstrual bleeding. Women using oral contraceptives and Norplant experience about 50% reduction in menstrual blood; 90% reduction in blood loss is achieved with the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena). Teenagers and their parents are often misinformed about the side-effects of oral contraceptives and birth control in general, which may adversely affect compliance. Adequate, user-friendly and supportive information about contraception is necessary to ensure proper use of the pill and other birth control methods. In addition, emergency contraceptives should be easily accessible. The mortality and morbidity of young women would be dramatically reduced by the global use of medical abortion as well. Only a combined effort by policy makers, educators, parents and health-care providers can enhance the reproductive (and future!) health of both young females and males.

  15. Shifting Motivations: Young Women's Reflections on Physical Activity over Time and across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were…

  16. "I'm Not Like Indian Women": Reflections of Young European Women in Varanasi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Korpela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to look at the ways in which young European women staying in the city of Varanasi for long periods of time talk about India and how they negotiate their place and role as women there. There is a common travellers’ discourse that sees India as a difficult and dangerous place to a vulnerable traveler, and the encounters of colonial women with “otherness” have been widely analysed. This article brings this discussion to the post colonial era and endeavors to initiate a discussion about how to understand the encounters between visiting Western women and the locals in India today. The article is based on nine interviews which Korpela conducted in Varanasi, and on her participant observation.

  17. Pattern integrations in young depressed women: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeber, L S

    1996-06-01

    The enduring patterns of interpersonal relations between young depressed women and their significant others create a theater for early interventions. As noted by Hildegard Peplau, interpersonal relations include patterns that are organized around appraisals from significant others, ultimately forming the internal sense of self-regard that is deeply disrupted in depression. Pattern integrations, or the "fit" of the woman and her significant others become maintained as a way of avoiding anxiety and negative appraisals. Complementary, mutual, alternating, and antagonistic patterns have been identified by Peplau, and the relationship to anxiety, the maintenance of self-worth, and the therapeutic use of these patterns by the nurse are explored.

  18. Girls and Young Women Living in the Slums of Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence and correlates of victimization among girls and young women in Kampala. The study population, a convenience sample of youth living in the slums, were 14 to 24 years of age, and participants in community-based drop-in centers (N = 313. Overall, the prevalence of physical fights (37%, being threatened or injured with a weapon (28%, and being raped (30% was high and increased with age. Multivariate analyses revealed that sadness, drunkenness, and hunger were associated with multiple forms of victimization. Findings suggest that additional services are needed to address the cumulative impact of victimizations, depression, and living conditions.

  19. Young women selling sex online – narratives on regulating feelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonsson LS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Linda S Jonsson,1 Carl Göran Svedin,1 Margareta Hydén2 1Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden Abstract: The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9. Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help

  20. Young Women's Conference in STEM: Our starting point for getting women into STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Deedee; Zwicker, Andrew; Greco, Shannon; Dominguez, Arturo

    2015-11-01

    The number of women in STEM careers is staggeringly low; just one in seven engineers are female and only 27% of all computer science jobs are held by women. A recent US Dept. of Commerce report found that between 2000-2011 women experienced no employment growth in STEM jobs. According to the AIP, the percentage of women in physics overall is 26% and women make up less than 7% of the fusion energy workforce. To address this problem we have, since 2001, run a conference to introduce young women to the wide range of careers in STEM fields in a way that is not part of their typical education. By introducing students in a meaningful way to successful women in STEM, from graduate students to senior researchers, the intent of the conference is to foster interest, develop mentoring relationships, and to provide role models that will have a positive influence on future educational and career choices. Data from surveys indicate that this is indeed the impact. For example, 86% of 2015 attendees indicated they are more likely to major in a scientific field after attending the conference then they were before. We are now in the process of expanding and improving the conference in order to reach more students and increase the overall impact.

  1. Stress fracture injury in young military men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David W; Rue, John-Paul H; Wilckens, John H; Frassica, Frank J

    2004-09-01

    Approximately 5% of all military recruits incur stress fracture injuries during intense physical training, predominately in the lower extremity. We compared young men and women with stress fracture injury (subjects) to a matched group of uninjured volunteers (controls) during a summer training program at the United States Naval Academy to identify possible risk factors for stress fracture injury. The subject group was composed of 13 female and 18 male plebes with training-induced stress fracture injury verified by plain radiographs and/or nuclear bone scan. The control group was composed of 13 female and 18 male plebes who remained without injury during plebe summer training but who were matched with the 31 injured plebes for the Initial Strength Test (1-mi run time, means: women, 7.9 min; men, 6.4 min) and body mass index (means: women, 23.4; men, 23.8). We found that the subjects lost significant body weight (mean, 2.63 +/- 0.54 kg) between Day 1 and the date of their diagnosis of a stress fracture (mean, Day 35) and that they continued to lose weight until the date of their DEXA scan (mean, Day 49). Among female plebes, there was no evidence of the female athlete triad (eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, or low bone density). Thigh girth was significantly smaller in female subjects than in female controls and trended to be lower in male subjects than in male controls. Total body bone mineral content was significantly lower in the male subjects than in male controls. Bone mineral density of the distal tibia and femoral neck were not significantly different between the groups. DEXA-derived structural geometric properties were not different between subjects and controls. Because, on average, tibias were significantly longer in male subjects than in male controls, the mean bone strength index in male subjects was significantly lower than that of male controls. We conclude that significant, acute weight loss combined with regular daily physical training among

  2. Microsatellite Instability in Young Women with Endometrioid type Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Abbaszadegan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: This study was designed to determine the frequency of Microsatellite Instability (MSI in young Iranian pa­tients with endometrial carcinoma and to evaluate its association with histopathologic and clinical features of disease."nMethods: Microsatellite status was analyzed in 23 patients with endometrioid type endometrial cancer who were less than 55 years. Clinicopathologic characteristics such as age, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetric (FIGO grad­ing and staging of tumor, family history of Hereditary Non-polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC, oral conception (OC consump­tion, number of pregnancies, fertility, menstrual cycles and underlying disease were considered. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to find the significant relationships."nResults: MSI analysis showed 8 patients (34.8% were MSS (Microsatellite Stable, 15 patients (62.5% were MSI positive. Among cases with MSI phenotype, 4 cases (17.4% had low instability (MSI-L and 11 cases (47.8% had high instability (MSI-H. Three cases with MSI-H had family history of HNPCC related cancers. Five cases (21.7% had infertility in which 4 of them (80% had MSI phenotype. There was no statistically significant relationship between MSI phenotype and tumor grade and stage."nConclusion: Few studies reported high frequency of MSI among young patients. Some studies mentioned similar results in endo­metrioid type of tumor. This study showed even higher frequency (65% when MSI analyzed in young endometrioid type endometrial patients. Most cases with infertility had MSI-H phenotype. It may suggest that beside women with family his­tory of HNPCC, EC screening using MSI would be beneficial in infertile women too.  

  3. Qigong improves balance in young women:a pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    María Victoria González López-Arza; Enrique Varela-Donoso; Jesús Montanero-Fernández; Juan Rodríguez-Mansilla; Blanca González-Sánchez; Luis González López-Arza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Balance problems are common in people of all ages and can lead to falls,thus causing fractures with consequent disability.Qigong practice has long been part of daily life in Chinese culture,and has good effects on physical health maintenance.OBJECTIVE:The present work describes the change in balance in young,healthy women after practising Qigong for eight weeks.DESIGN,SETTING,PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS:The study took the form of a controlled,randomised longitudinal trial,and involved 30 women aged 18-25 years.The subjects had no prior experience of Qigong or Tai Chi and were unaware of the aims of the study.Subjects were randomly assigned to a Qigong intervention group or a control group.Those in the Qigong intervention group performed "exercises in 20 figures for health and long-life" (Wang Ziping) for 1 h twice per week,for 4 weeks.The control group undertook no exercise at all.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The main outcome measure was the stabilometry values.These were obtained in a unipodal support test,using a plantar pressure platform with optical sensors.RESULTS:The Qigong subjects showed a significant improvement in their stabilometry results (40.1% pre-intervention and 56.4% post-intervention) (P<0.045),while no improvement was seen in the control group (51.2% pre-intervention and 53.5% post-intervention).At the beginning of the intervention,the stabilometry values recorded for the Qigong intervention group were worse than those recorded for the control group (40.15% and 51.21% respectively; P=0.121).However,a comparison of the post-intervention values between these groups showed that these differences have disappeared (P=0.653).CONCLUSION:Qigong can improve balance in healthy,young women.

  4. Keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in young African American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaker E Harmon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. STUDY DESIGN: The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF, is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. RESULTS: Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3% and fibroids (23.3% were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval: 0.7 (0.5-1.1] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. CONCLUSION: Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.

  5. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Joly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45 of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61 of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability.

  6. "Lamyai" teaches young Thai women about AIDS and STDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, K; Anasuchatkul, B; Busayawong, W

    1994-01-01

    The young women 13-21 years of age who migrate in large numbers from villages in Northern Thailand to obtain employment in urban factories comprise a group at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To encourage these women to protect themselves from infection, workplace projects were developed in textile factories in Chiang Mai. Pre-project research conducted among 250 female factory workers revealed good awareness of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) coupled with a perception of personal invulnerability and a reluctance to request that partners use condoms due to fears of being considered promiscuous. To address these issues, a romantic illustrated novel about a factory worker who is infected with the AIDS virus by her fiance and a humorous comic book featuring "Brother Protector Condom" were prepared. The materials were introduced to groups of 10 or more women led by either trained peer educators or health promoters. Participants overcame initial shyness about the explicit pictures and reported the group meetings gave them confidence to talk to their sexual partners about condom use. Post-intervention evaluation showed that peer-led groups were most effective in improving self-esteem, communication skills, and commitment to AIDS prevention. Although the health promoters had more in-depth knowledge of AIDS and human reproduction, they tended to lecture rather than facilitate discussion. Moreover, the age and educational differences between the factory workers and health promoters impeded the trust and open discussion that developed in peer-led groups.

  7. The energy cost of cycling in young obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortuna, Claudio L; Proietti, Marco; Agosti, Fiorenza; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2006-05-01

    In order to evaluate the difference in the energy cost of submaximal cycling between normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) females, nine OB (age 23.2 years+/-1.6 SE, BMI 40.4+/-1.2 kg/m2) and nine NW (age 25.6 years+/-1.8, BMI 21.7+/-0.6 kg/m2) healthy young women were studied during a graded bicycle ergometer test at 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W. At rest and at all workloads, oxygen uptake VO2 was higher in OB than in NW women (Student's t test, Pobesity, but suggesting that the increased mass of body segments involved in cycling movements may be chiefly responsible for the higher energy cost of this type of exercise. Comparison of the actual VO2 presently measured with that predicted by available cycle ergometry equations at the different workloads indicated inaccuracy of various degrees ranging from 8.4 to -31.9%. It is concluded that the lower mechanical efficiency displayed by obese women in cycling has to be taken into account when prescribing exercise through methods predicting the metabolic load.

  8. Activation of antioxidant defenses in whole saliva by psychosocial stress is more manifested in young women than in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Tsuber

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men.

  9. Asymptomatic dystrophinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrone, A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Florence (Italy); Hoffman, E.P.; Hoop, R.C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-03-31

    A 4-year-old girl was referred for evaluation for a mild but persistent serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation detected incidentally during routine blood screening for a skin infection. Serum creatine kinase activity was found to be increased. Immuno-histochemical study for dystrophin in her muscle biopsy showed results consistent with a carrier state for muscular dystrophy. Molecular work-up showed the proposita to be a carrier of a deletion mutation of exon 48 of the dystrophin gene. Four male relatives also had the deletion mutation, yet showed no clinical symptoms of muscular dystrophy (age range 8-58 yrs). Linkage analysis of the dystrophin gene in the family showed a spontaneous change of an STR45 allele, which could be due to either an intragenic double recombination event, or CA repeat length mutation leading to identical size alleles. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of an asymptomatic dystrophinopathy in multiple males of advanced age. Based on molecular findings, this family would be given a diagnosis of Becker muscular dystrophy. This diagnosis implies the development of clinical symptoms, even though this family is clearly asymptomatic. This report underscores the caution which must be exercised when giving presymptomatic diagnoses based on molecular studies. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Girls and Young Women Leading the Way: 20 True Stories about Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, Frances A.; Bean, Suzanne M.; Wallner, Rosemary, Ed.

    This book offers 20 contemporary biographies of young women across the United States who are making a difference in their schools and communities through community service. Examples of community action include feeding the hungry, recycling, saving the bluebirds, and promoting literacy. The girls and young women emerge as leaders in an area of…

  11. "I'd rather not take it, but . . .": young women's perceptions of medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dana Lee; Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about healthy young women's everyday experiences with medicine use and their general perceptions of medicines. In this article, we describe a user-perspective study involving in-depth qualitative interviews with 20 young women between the ages of 16 and 20 in Copenhagen, Denmark. ...

  12. Associations Between Childhood ADHD and Other Mental Disorders in Young Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhl, U.E.; Rentsch, A.; Bernardi, C.; Türke, V.; Becker, E.S.; Kirch, W.; Margraf, J.; Hach, I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence rates of Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADHD) and comorbidity in a representative sample of young women. Methods: 2064 young women, aged 18–25 years, living in Dresden (Germany), were interviewed with a structured psychological interview, F-DIPS, for diagnosing axi

  13. Kujichagalia! Self-Determination in Young African American Women with Disabilities during the Transition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, La Tonya L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the young women's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological…

  14. Does a Baby Help Young Women Transition out of Homelessness? Motivation, Coping, and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Homeless young women experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homeless young women for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…

  15. Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n…

  16. Gender, self and pleasure: young women's discourse on masturbation in contemporary Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuxin, Pei; Ho Sik Ying, Petula

    2009-06-01

    This study examines views and experiences of young Shanghai women with respect to masturbation. Through in-depth interviews with forty young women in Shanghai aged 22 to 39 from May 2004 to July 2007, the study explores women's understandings of masturbation, their desires and their lives as modern Chinese women. The focus of the analysis is on how women talk about their masturbation experiences and make sense of their experiences in the context of their sexual relationships and lifestyle choices. By analysing women's narratives about masturbation, the paper suggests that women's self-articulation is actually an engagement in self-image construction. The strategies they use to position themselves in relation to different social discourses on masturbation, how they describe and perform the acts and how they articulate their experiences of masturbation are examined to illustrate how young women in Shanghai perform gender and sexual intimacies in a fast changing city.

  17. Factors related to induced abortion among young women in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nancy; Winfrey, William; Chatterji, Minki; Moreland, Scott; Dougherty, Leanne; Okonofua, Friday

    2006-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest death rate from induced abortion in the world, and young women in southern Nigeria are particularly likely to terminate their pregnancies. This study assesses the prevalence of and factors associated with induced abortion among 602 young women aged 15-24 who were surveyed in Edo State, Nigeria, in 2002. We find that 41 percent of all pregnancies reported by the young women surveyed were terminated, and we estimate the age-specific abortion rate for 15-19-year-olds in Edo State at 49 abortions per 1,000 women, which is slightly higher than previous local estimates and nearly double the countrywide estimate for women aged 15-49. We construct explanatory multivariate models to predict the likelihood that a young woman has experienced sexual intercourse, has become pregnant, and has undergone an induced abortion, controlling for important demographic and risk-behavior factors. Young women unmarried at the time of the interview are found to be significantly more likely than married women to have had an abortion. Young women who have experienced transactional or forced sex are also significantly more likely to report ever having had an abortion, as are young women who have experienced more than one pregnancy. We conclude with suggestions for modifying the content and target populations of behavioral change messages and programs in the area.

  18. Study on asymptomatic rotavirus infection in infants and young children%婴幼儿轮状病毒无症状感染的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵长安; 刘作义; 程茜; 邓一平

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and significance of asymtomatic rotavirus infection in infants and young children. Methods Fecal specimens collected from 509 infants and young children without diarrhea were investigated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Meanwhile, 100 rotavirus positive fecal specimens, which were identified by enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA),were analyzed in comparison. Results The overall prevalence of asymtomatic rotavirus infection in this study was 18.5% (94/509). Asymptomatic rotavirus infection rate in epidemic season was far higher than in non-epidemic season(P<0.001 ). The rate in the early stage of the epidemic season was higher than in late stage. (P<0.05). The rate had a significant difference between different epidemic seasons( P<0.001). The major electropherotypes between asymptomatic and symptomatic rotavirus infections in infants and young children had no significant difference (P >0.05). Conclusion The rate and the major electropherotypes of asyrnptomatic rotavirus infection in infants and young children at the early stage of an epidemic season may predict the prevalence scale and the electropherotypes of rotavirus infection of the same epidemic season.%目的探讨婴幼儿轮状病毒无症状感染的状况和意义。方法采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(PAGE)技术,对509例非腹泻婴幼儿粪便标本进行检测;同时用100例经酶联免疫吸附试验测定(ELISA)轮状病毒阳性的婴幼儿轮状病毒肠炎的腹泻粪便标本作电泳型对照。结果婴幼儿轮状病毒无症状感染率为18.47%(94/509)。流行期为23 25%(93/400)远高于非流行期的0.92%(1/109),P<0.001;流行早期为30.83%(41/133)明显高于流行末期的16.70%(22/131),P<0.05;不同流行年份婴幼儿轮状病毒无症状感染率差异有非常显著性(P<0.001)。婴幼儿轮状病毒无症状感染的RNA电泳型的主要构成与同期轮状病毒有症状感染

  19. A study of anemia in women with asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia at their first antenatal care visit at the General Hospital, Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ekanem EI; Agan TU; Efiok EE; Ekott MI; Okodi E

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of anemia and asymptomatia malaria parasitemia and the effect of prior antimalarials therapy on the parasite density in pregnant women at their first antenatal visit at the secondary level health care facility in Nigeria. Methods:This cross sectional observational study was carried out in the antenatal clinic of General Hospital, Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria for 3 months period (1st June to 31st August, 2009). Five hundred and fourteen women attending their first antenatal registration visits in the hospital were recruited in the study. Socio-demographic information was obtained using pre-tested questionnaires. The malaria parasite was obtained by examining thick and thin blood films prepared on 2 glass slides while the hematocrit was obtained through 2 capillary tubes read by a Hawksleys microhematocrit reader. Results:A total of 514 pregnant women participated in the study with a mean maternal age of 21.4 years and a mean gestational age at booking of 18.3 weeks. The primigravid women booked at significantly lower gestational age than multigravidae (16.2 weeks vs 21.6 weeks). Most of the women (59.3%) were anemic, out of which 60.4%were primigravida. More than half of the women had moderate to high parasite density and only 6.8%had no malaria parasitemia. All patients with severe anemia were parasitemic. Out of the 479 (93.2%) women with parasitemia, a third had taken antimalarial drugs. A majority (60.3%) of those without prior antimalarial drugs had moderate to high density parasitemia. Conclusions:This study shows high prevalence of anemia in women with asymptomatic malarial parasitemia, particularly the primigravida. The severity of anemia is directly related to the density of malaria parasitemia. Those with effective antimalarial therapy appear to have low density parasitemia and therefore mild anemia. Routine screening for anemia and malaria parasites at booking, prompt parasite clearance and correction of anemia

  20. Being targeted: Young women's experience of being identified for a teenage pregnancy prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Mitchell, Kirstin

    2016-06-01

    Research on the unintended consequences of targeting 'high-risk' young people for health interventions is limited. Using qualitative data from an evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers Pregnancy Prevention programme, we explored how young women experienced being identified as at risk for teenage pregnancy to understand the processes via which unintended consequences may occur. Schools' lack of transparency regarding the targeting strategy and criteria led to feelings of confusion and mistrust among some young women. Black and minority ethnic young women perceived that the assessment of their risk was based on stereotyping. Others felt their outgoing character was misinterpreted as signifying risk. To manage these imposed labels, stigma and reputational risks, young women responded to being targeted by adopting strategies, such as distancing, silence and refusal. To limit harmful consequences, programmes could involve prospective participants in determining their need for intervention or introduce programmes for young people at all levels of risk.

  1. Diagnostic Value of PCR and ELISA for Chlamydia trachomatis in a Group of Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Women in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Jenab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent sexually transmittedbacterial infections (STI in the world that lead to a cause of tubal factor infertility in women. Theaim of this study is to determine the presence of C.trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction (PCRand ELISA.Materials and Methods: Endocervical swabs were collected from 80 women; 22 of them wereasymptomatic and 58 symptomatic. Samples were examined by PCR designed to detect Chlamydialplasmid using specific KL1 and KL2 primers. Serum IgG and IgA antibodies to C.trachomatiswere detected by ELISA. Since elevated CRP levels are a marker for inflammation, the presence ofC- Reactive protein (CRP has also been evaluated in all samples.Results: The rate of C.trachomatis infection by PCR was revealed to be 27.2% and 18.9% inasymptomatic and symptomatic women, respectively The χ2 test shows no significant difference(p value= 0.22. Serological screening was done on all samples. The high level of IgG and IgAto C.trachomatis infection was 29.4% and 17.6%, respectively. The presence of high levels ofCRP, as a serological marker of persistence infection, was 31.8% and 34.4% in asymptomaticand symptomatic women, respectively. The high rate of CRP level in the samples indicates acuteinfections in both groups.Conclusion: Genital C.trachomatis infection is the leading cause of tubal factor infertility. Thepresent study shows that C.trachomatis infection could be present in symptomatic as well asasymptomatic women. Therefore, a screening test for C.trachomatis infection is recommended forall women who refer to gynecologic outpatient departments in Isfahan and other parts of Iran.

  2. Why so few young women in mathematics, science, and technology classes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieda, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    Many factors influence the success of women in scientific and technical careers. Women represent over 50% of the U.S. population, yet less than 16% of women are employed in scientific and technical careers. Research over the last decade makes it clear that disparities exist in the participation, achievement, and attitudes of young men and young women in science classes. Young women are as interested in science experiences as young men up until age nine. After that age, the number of young women interested in science, mathematics, and technology classes drops. Not enrolling in science and mathematics classes in high school limits career options for young women, and their chance to succeed in a scientific or technical field becomes remote. Why is this happening? What can we, as educators, scientists, and parents do to address this problem? The literature identifies three principal factors that relate to the lack of female involvement in science classes: culture, attitude, and education. This paper reviews these factors and provides examples of programs that Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and others have developed to increase the number of young women entering college ready and wanting to pursue a career in a scientific or technical field.

  3. Prothrombotic coagulation defects and cardiovascular risk factors in young women with acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, BC; Bloemenkamp, DGM; van den Bosch, MAAJ; Kemmeren, JM; Algra, A; van de Graaf, Y; Rosendaal, FR

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the effect of prothrombotic coagulation defects in combination with smoking and other conventional risk factors on the risk of myocardial infarction in young women. In 217 women with a first myocardial infarction before the age of 50 years and 763 healthy control women from a populat

  4. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Guleria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common disorder in women of reproductive age group. Insulin resistance and the consequent hyperinsulinemia seem to be the central pathophysiological mechanism that links PCOS to its associated metabolic derangements. Women with PCOS exhibit a number of risk factors for coronary artery disease. We studied risk of CVD using two surrogate markers, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD. Aims and objectives: To study cardiovascular disease risk in young women (18-35 years age with PCOS using CIMT and FMD. Materials and Methods: Sixty women with PCOS (age: 23.8 ± 4.5 years; body mass index [BMI]: 23.5 ± 4.2 kg/m 2 were compared with 30 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls (age: 26.3 ± 5.4 years; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.8 kg/m 2 . Diagnosis of PCOS was made using the Rotterdam criteria. Fasting blood sample was analyzed for glucose, insulin, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, high molecular weight adiponectin (HMWADP, and interleukin 6 (IL6. CIMT and FMD were performed. Results: PCOS patients had a higher waist to hip ratio (W/H [0.86 ± .07 vs. 0.80 ± .05] and free testosterone index (FTI [6.6 ± 6.5 vs. 2.0 ± 1.0] in comparison to controls. There was no difference in the two groups in lipid profile parameters and HOMA IR. CIMT was significantly higher (0.59 ± .1 mm vs. 0.50 ± .05 mm, P value <.001 and FMD lower (10.3 ± 3.9% vs. 15.2 ± 5.5%, P value < .001 in cases when compared to controls. FMD negatively correlated with W/H ratio (r: -0.257 and hsCRP (r: -0.347, while IMT showed positive correlation with IL6 (r: 0.325 and hsCRP (r: 0.303 and a negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein (HDL [r: -0.224], all P values < .05. Conclusions: Patients with PCOS have evidence for increased CVD risk as shown by endothelial dysfunction manifested by increased CIMT and a lower FMD.

  6. What HIV-positive young women want from behavioral interventions: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosek, Sybil; Brothers, Jennifer; Lemos, Diana

    2012-05-01

    Young women living with HIV in the United States face many social and psychological challenges, including involvement in health care and secondary prevention efforts. The factors that put these young women at risk for HIV acquisition initially, such as poverty, gender roles, cultural norms, and limited perceived control over sexual relationships, continue to place them at risk for both adverse mental and physical health outcomes that impact their daily lives and secondary prevention efforts. This study utilized focus groups with young HIV-positive women in order to better understand their perceived problems and pressures and to inform a developmentally appropriate secondary prevention intervention for young HIV-positive women that could be implemented in clinical care settings. Focus groups with young HIV-positive women were convened in three U.S. cities: Baltimore, Chicago, and Tampa. A total of 17 young, HIV-positive women, age range 17–24 (mean age=21), participated in the focus groups. This article describes the psychological and social challenges these young women face as well as their suggestions regarding secondary HIV prevention intervention components.

  7. FRUSTRATION FEATURES OF THE CITY STUDYING YOUTH – young men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Tigranovna Dzhaneryan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study aimed at research of social frustration of personality of city studying youth – pupils of the 10th grade of secondary school, college students, high school students, working and getting additional education young men and women.Methods: testing, survey, statistical data processing.Results. The article summarizes aspects of the frustration research, substantiates the possibility of studying the social frustration of personality and empirical criteria for its expressiveness: high values and the relationship of frustration indicators under the influence of external (interpersonal and internal (intrapersonal frustrators, the relationship of frustration indicators and indicators of social adaptation / disadaptation of personality. Empirically proven increase in number of frustrated young people among the students and working person, compared with school and college students; high frustration of young women – schoolgirls and female college students, compared with young men – schoolboys and college students, as well as a very high frustration of working young men. Depending on the social status and sexual differentiation of young people set the dynamics of expression of social frustration; differences in the content of leading frustrators in each of life spheres of young men and women; summation of interpersonal and intrapersonal frustrators, associated with the expressiveness of social adaptation / disadaptation of young men and women. Highlighted the psychological characteristics of young men and women, enhancing expressiveness of their social frustration.Application of the results: psychological services in high schools and personnel services in different companies.

  8. Study of Coping-competence among Unmarried Pregnant Young Women in Three Big Cites in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei WEI; Xiao-ming YU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the coping-competence among unmarried pregnant young women.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the setting of clinics-based.A total of 1391 unmarried young women were recruited as the sample in Youth Clinics of 3 maternal care hospitals in Beijing,Jinan,and Guangzhou respectively in China."Behavioral Attributes of Psychosocial Competence Scale-Condensed Form" was administered to identify the coping-competence of these women.All these women were aged 10-24 years old and were divided into three groups based on whether or not they had sex and pregnancy.The three groups were named as follows:pregnancy group with young women having had both sex and pregnancy,sex group with young women having had only sex but not pregnancy,and non-sex group with young women having no sex experience.Results Among the adolescents aged 10-19 years old,the coping-competence was different among the three groups(P=0.050).Compared with the pregnancy group,the non-sex group were more inclined to active coping(P=0.026).Among all the pregnant women aged 10-24 years old,the coping-competence was various by region(P<0.001):the women in Jinan were more inclined to active coping than the women in another two cites(P=0.009,P<0.001),and there was no difference between the women from Beijing and Guangzhou(P=0.324).Conclusion This is the first study of coping among unmarried pregnant young women in China.The results supported the point of view that the pregnant adolescents were more inclined to passive coping,and the coping had regional differences.

  9. Young women's experiences with complementary therapies during cancer described through illness blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Albrecht, Tara A; Steeves, Richard H; Danhauer, Suzanne C

    2013-11-01

    Many young women with cancer have a high symptom burden and negative psychosocial consequences as a result of their disease. To offset some of these experiences, a growing number of young women with cancer are writing about their experience with complementary therapies through online illness blogs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine descriptions of complementary therapy use among young women (diagnosed between 20 and 39 years of age) who maintained an online cancer blog. Women's narratives describe several themes of the experience of using complementary therapies including awakening, new identities (that incorporate loss), the good stuff, and release. Online illness blogs allow researchers to understand the complete experience of the patient through personal accounts and substantially contributes to the body of knowledge surrounding cancer in young adulthood and complementary therapy use.

  10. Attitude towards assisted reproductive technology - surrogacy at todays young women (Qualitative research)

    OpenAIRE

    LAVIČKOVÁ, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    The Bachelor thesis describes the implementation of surrogate maternity. It observe at it from the ethical and legal perspective. The research shows the attitude of today´s young women to the substitute maternity.

  11. Identifying mild and severe preeclampsia in asymptomatic pregnant women by levels of cell-free fetal DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Tanja Roien; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Rode, Line;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate whether women who develop preeclampsia can be identified in a routine analysis when determining fetal RHD status at 25 weeks' gestation in combination with PAPP-A levels at the first-trimester combined risk assessment for Trisomy 21. STUDY DESIGN......-A was measured at 11 to 14 weeks. Information about pregnancy outcome and complications was obtained from the National Fetal Medicine Database, medical charts, and discharge letters. RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) of developing severe preeclampsia given a cffDNA level above the 90th percentile compared to cff......DNA below the 90th percentile was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-25.5). The OR of developing mild preeclampsia given a cffDNA level below the 5th percentile compared to cffDNA levels above the 5th percentile was 3.6 (95% CI, 1.1-11.7). PAPP-A levels below the 5th percentile were associated with mild...

  12. Mapping the social determinants of substance use for pregnant-involved young Aboriginal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahram, Sana Z; Bottorff, Joan L; Oelke, Nelly D; Kurtz, Donna L M; Thomas, Victoria; Spittal, Patricia M; And For The Cedar Project Partnership

    2017-12-01

    There is a dearth of knowledge about the social determinants of substance use among young pregnant-involved Indigenous women in Canada from their perspectives. As part of life history interviews, 17 young pregnant-involved Indigenous women with experiences with substances completed a participant-generated mapping activity CIRCLES (Charting Intersectional Relationships in the Context of Life Experiences with Substances). As women created their maps, they discussed how different social determinants impacted their experiences with pregnancy and substance use. The social determinants identified and used by women to explain determinants of their substance use were grouped into 10 themes: traumatic life histories; socioeconomic status; culture, identity and spirituality; shame and guilt; mental wellness; family connections; romantic and platonic relationships; strength and hope; mothering; and the intersections of determinants. We conclude that understanding the context and social determinants of substance use from a woman-informed perspective is paramount to informing effective and appropriate programs to support young Indigenous women who use substances.

  13. The Risk Environment of Heroin Use Initiation: Young Women, Intimate Partners, and "Drug Relationships".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayock, Paula; Cronly, Jennifer; Clatts, Michael C

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines young women's initiation to heroin use in the context of an intimate relationship based on data from a small-scale ethno-epidemiology of heroin use in Ireland, 2007-2009. The epidemiological sample included 120 young people, and life history interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 40 youth aged 16-25 years. A detailed analysis of the "risk environment" of young women's heroin initiation highlights a complex interplay between women's agency and intimate partner influence. It is argued that dichotomous representations of women as victims or emancipated consumers do not adequately capture the complexity of women's initiation journeys. The study's limitations are noted and implications for drug use prevention and harm reduction strategies are discussed.

  14. Security lies in obedience - Voices of young women of a slum in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Eva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing literature shows that young people, especially women, have poor knowledge about sexuality and reproductive health. Many of the difficulties young women experience are related to beliefs and expectations in society making them more vulnerable to reproductive ill health. The objective of this study was to explore how young women living in a slum in Islamabad are prepared for marriage and how they understand and perceive their transition to marriage and the start of sexual and childbearing activity. Methods Twenty qualitative interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted with young women residing in a slum of Islamabad. Content analysis was used to explore how the participants represented and explained their situation and how decisions about their marriage were made. Results The main theme identified was security lies in obedience. The two sub-themes contributing to the main theme were socialization into submissiveness and transition into adulthood in silence. The theme and the sub-themes illustrate the situation of young women in a poor setting in Pakistan. Conclusion The study demonstrates how, in a culture of silence around sexuality, young women's socialization into submissiveness lays the foundation for the lack of control over the future reproductive health that they experience.

  15. Examining the Personal Nature of the K-14 Engineering Pipeline for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurski, Jennifer Sue

    This mixed-methods study examined young women's perceptions of their K-14 STEM pipeline experiences and their resulting choice to enter and persist in an engineering major. Despite the increase of women in the STEM workforce, women remain underrepresented among engineering majors (Beasley & Fischer, 2012; Heilbronner, 2012; Neihart & Teo, 2013). Few studies exist that utilize a retrospective approach to understand how the culmination of young women's K-14 experiences have influenced their formation of individually held perceptions that lead to engineering persistence. It is this study's aim to utilize a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research question: How do young women's perceptions of their K-14 STEM experiences influence their decision to enroll and persist in an engineering major? These perceptions are explored through an ethnographic approach focusing on young women enrolled in engineering programs during their junior and senior years of study at a small private liberal arts university with eight engineering majors. The mixed-methods approach follows a sequential design method (Creswell, 2013) and utilizes questions in a quantitative Likert-type survey from the Academic Pathways for People Learning Engineering (APPLES) survey (Eris, Chachra, Chen, Sheppard, & Ludlow, 2010) and the Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991). The quantitative study results will lead to the development of open-ended, structured questions for conducting a qualitative focus group. Anonymity of all participants is maintained. Keywords: STEM, young women, perceptions, pipeline, intervention, underrepresentation, engineering, persistence, retrospective, self-efficacy.

  16. Life Transitions and Mental Health in a National Cohort of Young Australian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in…

  17. Losing Self to the Future? Young Women's Strategic Responses to Adulthood Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    The multiple and conflicting identity pressures that young women in western society face have been remarked upon in the literature. Adolescence is a time when identity development activity intensifies, and this process can present young people with challenges. In this paper a social constructionist and interpretive frame is applied to such…

  18. Knowledge of young Polish women of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Biała

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HPV infection is the most frequent sexually transmitted disease and a major epidemiological problem in the world. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are responsible for over 70.0% cases of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of young women concerning HPV infection as well as possibilities of cervical cancer prevention. Moreover, the study had to determine which groups of young women especially required educational campaigns. Material and methods. The questionnaire survey was carried out among 126 young Polish women aged 18–35. The results were statistically analyzed. Results. The survey found that 41.3% women had heard about HPV before interview. Nearly 38.5% of women correctly indicated the occurrence of cancer which is associated with HPV infection. About 23.0% of women received a vaccination against HPV, only 19.2% of women correctly identified who should be subjected to vaccination. The best knowledge about cervical cancer and disease prevention was manifested among female university graduates and groups living in urban areas. Those women also more often underwent cytological screening. Conclusions. Educational campaigns should particularly include group of women living in the rural areas and women with primary and secondary education.

  19. Prevalence of anemia in women with asymptomatic malaria parasitemia at first antenatal care visit at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TU Agan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available TU Agan1, JE Ekabua1, AE Udoh1, EI Ekanem1, EE Efiok1, MA Mgbekem21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Nursing, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, NigeriaBackground: Anemia in pregnancy in malaria endemic areas is a public health challenge that has contributed either directly or indirectly to maternal morbidity and mortality in our environment. Anemia and malaria during pregnancy are highly preventable and treatable.Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of anemia in asymptomatic malaria parasitemic women at first antenatal visit in a tertiary hospital facility.Method: The study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria over a three-month period. Five hundred and forty-five pregnant women were recruited after obtaining an informed consent. A structured questionnaire was administered to each participant and two thin and thick blood films were used to identify the malaria parasites and estimate density. The average of two packed cell volumes at booking was determined using two capillary tubes and read from a Hawksleys microhematocrit reader.Results: A total of 545 pregnant women participated in the study. The mean ages of primigravidas and multigravidas were 21.4 ± 3.1 and 24.3 ± 4.0 years. Two hundred and ninety (53.2% were primigravidas while 255 (46.8% were multigravidas. The parasite density in primigravidas was 1297 ± 1234 while that for multigravidas was 661 ± 497 (t = 7.7, P < 0.001. The prevalence of anemia in the study population was 59.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of anemia among the primigravidas (60.3% and the multigravidas (58.8% (χ2 = 1.3, P = 0.08. There was a statistically significant association between severity of parasitemia and degree of anemia (χ2 = 441.1, P < 0.001. There was a statistically significant association between antimalarials use before booking and

  20. Breast Cancer in Young Women: Research Priorities. A Report of the Young Survival Coalition Research Think Tank Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korde, Larissa A; Partridge, Ann H; Esser, Michelle; Lewis, Stacy; Simha, Joy; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer in young women is a significant issue-7% of all female breast cancer is diagnosed in women under 40 years of age. Young women with breast cancer (YWBC) face significant and unique challenges, including a higher likelihood of biologically aggressive disease and metastatic disease at diagnosis, leading to poorer prognosis, more aggressive treatment and long-term treatment-related toxicities, and unique psychosocial concerns. This article summarizes the Young Survival Coalition (YSC) Research Think Tank Meeting, held in Arlington, Virginia, in February 2013, and presents the process that led to YSC's priorities for YWBC research. The meeting's participants focused on six broad categories of investigation in which additional advancements in research on YWBC are crucial: risk factors; treatment; fertility; pregnancy-associated breast cancer; quality of life and survivorship; and metastasis. Several key themes emerged from this meeting. Researchers and advocates felt that a large-scale data registry focused on YWBC is necessary to collect quality information to guide future research for YWBC. This database should include clinical data, genomic profiling of primary tumor and metastatic sites, and an increased focus on fertility and pregnancy following breast cancer treatment. The participants also felt that more must be done to elucidate how and why YWBC develop more aggressive tumors, and to what degree treatment should be modified for young women. The discussions summarized here led to the formulation of YSC's Research Agenda, published in May 2014.

  1. The effect of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms on quality of life in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, CH; de Leeuw, JRJ; Roovers, JPWR; Heintz, APM

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the consequences that the symptoms of urinary incontinence and an overactive bladder have on the quality of life in young, community-dwelling women. Subjects and methods A population-based, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in women aged 20-45 years. Urogenital symptoms

  2. An Assessment of the HIV Prevention Needs of Young Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Salazar, Laura F.; Geter, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the reliability of nine scales assessing psychosocial mediators of HIV-risk and protective behaviors of young minority women in New York City. Sixty-nine age-eligible women were approached during clinical sessions, 90% (n = 62) agreed to participate, and 83% (n = 57) completed a web-based survey. With one exception, scale…

  3. Incidence and Weight Trajectories of Binge Eating Disorder among Young Women in the Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustelin, Linda; Raevuori, Anu; Hoek, Hans Wijbrand; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the population prevalence and incidence of binge eating disorder (BED) among young women. Method: In a nationwide longitudinal study of Finnish twins born 1975-1979, the women participated in five surveys from age 16 until their mid-thirties. At Wave 4 (mean age 24 years), the w

  4. Urinary endogenous sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women after caloric restriction in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, SG; Onland-Moret, NC; Peeters, PHM; Rinaldi, S; Kaaks, R; Grobbee, DE; van Noord, PAH

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the 1944-1945 Dutch famine has affected postmenopausal sex hormone concentrations with data from 163 women (young adults during the famine). Urinary sex hormone concentrations showed modest elevations with increasing famine exposure. Effects were absent in parous women, but m

  5. Evaluation of Three Osteoporosis Prevention Programs for Young Women: Application of the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Donald H.; Turner, Lori; Wilroy, Jereme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of theory-based osteoporosis prevention programs on calcium and vitamin D intakes and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Methods: Women (N = 152) aged 19 to 25 years were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a brochure group (n = 51), a computer-tailored program group…

  6. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  7. Hormonal Contraceptive Use as Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Young Javanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Fitria Kusuma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous study from 351 Indonesian women shown that they had breast cancers at younger age compared with western. In this study we investigate role of hormonal contraceptive as risk factor for Indonesian Javanese young breast cancer cases. However, the presence different life style between ethnic alter their risk as causal factors across populations. Diagnostic and prognostic study findings, including breast cancer prediction rules, must therefore be validated in Asian women. We undertook case-control study to determine population-based distributions of breast cancer among young Javanese people, one of the largest populations in Indonesia (Southeast Asia. A total of 500 women diagnosed with breast cancer participated in this study, divided in to two group young (less 40 years old and mature breast cancer. Data for hormonal contraceptive, clinico-pathological characteristics and other risk factors were collected. We found that young Javanese women who use hormonal contraceptive for more than 10 years had a 4,67 fold increased risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer in young age (p<0,01. We didn’t found any differences between this two groups in menarche and parity. Interestingly for Javanese women who breast feeding more than 18 months increase 1,74 fold increased risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer in young age (p<0,01.

  8. Cystic lung changes in a thin section CT in an asymptomatic young adult with unilateral pulmonary vein atresia: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Choul; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Jeong Hee [Konkuk Univ. Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia is a rare anomaly, usually associated with symptoms of recurrent hemoptysis and pneumonia in early childhood. Only one report of an asymptomatic adult patient can be found in the literature. We present the case of an asymptomatic patient with unilateral right pulmonary vein atresia in a 20 year old man. Chest radiograph and multidetector computed tomography showed not only pulmonary vein atresia, pulmonary artery hypoplasia, but also cystic lung changes on thin section CT, along with septal and bronchovascular bundle thickening, and ground-glass opacity. Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia could be another disease which can show cystic lung changes on thin section chest CT.

  9. Masturbation among young women and associations with sexual health: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Harriet; Ingham, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Much research into young people's developing sexuality is concerned with risk avoidance and the reduction of negative outcomes. Little research has been conducted into sexual self-exploration and, in particular, masturbation among young people, and this has generally been concerned merely with its prevalence. Little is known about the potential role of masturbation in relation to young people's developing sexuality, especially among young women. This study aimed to explore, using a qualitative approach, how young women reported their experiences of masturbation and whether and how these related to other aspects of their sexual activity. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was employed to identify the range of reported experiences across participants, as well as the relations between various aspects of sexual development and experiences within participants. The findings revealed a broad continuum of views and opinions on female masturbation, which had strong links with parent and partner communication and the young women's beliefs and values concerning their sexual selves. The article concludes by drawing attention to the apparent relation between positive early childhood communication, young women's positive views of their sexual self, and their subsequent sexual activity.

  10. Gender and cultural patterns of suicidal behavior: young Hindustani immigrant women in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Diana D; Smit, Johannes H; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Saharso, Sawitri

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of suicidal behavior vary among cultures and along gender. Young Hindustani immigrant women attempt suicide four times more often than young Dutch women. This article explores multi-disciplinary explanations for suicidal behavior in this group. The interconnection of Durkheimian concepts of social integration and regulation with ecological insights into family relations and psychological and psychiatric theories on individual distress are relevant. It is suggested that young Hindustani women who display suicidal behavior possess certain personality and cognitive constellations that are interlocked with specific parenting styles in stressful family environments. These families are embedded in a context of moral transformations resulting from migration to a Western culture and may be facing difficulties accompanying the transitional processes encountered in the West, particularly those regarding gender roles. Durkheimian fatalistic and anomic suicides elucidate this. The Hindustani women who appear most at risk are those facing contradictory norms and overregulation, which prevent them from developing autonomy.

  11. Sexual Objectification and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…

  12. Life skills: evaluation of a theory-driven behavioral HIV prevention intervention for young transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Johnson, Amy K; Kuhns, Lisa M; Cotten, Christopher; Joseph, Heather; Margolis, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Young transgender women are at increased risk for HIV infection due to factors related to stigma/marginalization and participation in risky sexual behaviors. To date, no HIV prevention interventions have been developed or proven successful with young transgender women. To address this gap, we developed and pilot tested a homegrown intervention "Life Skills," addressing the unique HIV prevention needs of young transgender women aged 16-24 years. Study aims included assessing the feasibility of a small group-based intervention with the study population and examining participant's engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors pre- and 3-months-post-intervention. Fifty-one (N = 51) young transgender women enrolled in the study. Our overall attendance and retention rates demonstrate that small group-based HIV prevention programs for young transgender women are both feasible and acceptable. Trends in outcome measures suggest that participation in the intervention may reduce HIV-related risk behaviors. Further testing of the intervention with a control group is warranted.

  13. Analysis on the reproductive health situation of unmarried floating young women in cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao-song; Zhao Geng-li; Wang Lin-hong; Wu Jiu-ling; Peter Xenos

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To understand the prevalence of RTIs/STIs, the incidence of sex violence and the KAP of the sex and reproductive health among unmarried floating young women.Methods: During Ocb.2002 to Feb.2003, in the maternal and child health hospital of Beijing, Shenzhen, Nanning and Zhengzhou, 1,219 unmarried floating young women who wanted termination of pregnancy and was under 24 years old before induced abortion received gynecological and laboratory examination. At the same time, they also answered a self-questionnaire. Results: The mean age of all respondents was (22.0±1.6) years old. The respondents' average age of having first sexual activity was (20.3±1.8) years old. The rate of induced abortion history was 38.7%. 17.5% of young women had never used contraception. The incidence of sex violence was 15.6%. The prevalence of RTIs and STIs was 56.1% and 9.7%, respectively. Young women were lack of the knowledge about reproductive health care. Conclusions: The reproductive health situation of unmarried floating young women was serious, especially on sex violence and RTIs/STIs and higher rate of induced abortion.

  14. Intersection of suicidality and substance abuse among young Asian-American women: implications for developing interventions in young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Design/methodology/approach Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. Findings We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. Practical implications The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is

  15. 绝经后妇女无症状子宫内膜增厚相关影响因素分析%Analysis of factors influencing asymptomatic endometrial hyperplasia in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿红光; 韩燕燕; 单卫东

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate factors influencing asymptomatic endometrial hyperplasia in postmenopausal women. Methods Postmenopausal women with asymptomatic endometrial hyperplasia were collected and the correlation of endometrial hyperplasia with age, age of menarche, menopausal age, body weight index, birth history and history of type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension were .studied. Results Women with asymptomatic endometrial hyperplasia showed higher age, higher BMI and higher percentage of early age of menarche and late age of menopause, higher percentage of nulliparous women and. history of type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (P < 0. 05 ).Conclusion Elder age, early age of menarche, late menopausal age, higher body weight index, nulliparous history and history of type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension may be correlated with asymptomatic endometrial hyperplasia in postmenopausal women. So, regular examination of women with those dangerous factors for endometrium thickness may be helpful for inchoate discovery and inchoate cure of disease.%目的 评价绝经后妇女无症状子宫内膜增厚相关的影响因素.方法 收集经阴道超声检测的无症状子宫内膜增厚的绝经后妇女作为研究对象,观察受检者的年龄、初潮年龄、绝经年龄、体重指数、生育史、2型糖尿病病史、高血压病史等一般资料与绝经后子宫内膜增厚的关系.结果 子宫内膜增厚的绝经后妇女年龄较高、初潮年龄较早,绝经年龄较晚,体重指数较高,而且未生育、2型糖尿病、高血压的比例有所增高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 初潮早、绝经晚、未生育、高体重指数、糖尿病和高血压是绝经后子宫内膜增厚的危险因素.对以上人群定期检测子宫内膜厚度,有助于子宫内膜疾病的早期发现.

  16. Factors affecting decision making of low-income young women with unplanned pregnancies in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naravage, Wanapa; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Sakulbumrungsil, Rungpetch C; Van der Putten, Marc

    2005-05-01

    Unplanned pregnancy is one of the most difficult life experiences for young women. Women are often confused and seek help and support. When the problem occurs, a woman has three choices: parenting the baby, planning for adoption, or terminating the pregnancy. Choosing one of these three options is often difficult. This study aimed to identify the factors (variables) influencing women's decision making when choosing the options available to them. The study was conducted in five shelters and low-income communities in the Bangkok area. Data were collected for five months, November 2003 to March 2004. Young women, age 13-24, who experienced an unplanned pregnancy at least once, or currently experiencing an unplanned pregnancy, were recruited into the study. One hundred and twenty volunteer cases were recruited. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the factors that affecting the choices of young women with unplanned pregnancies. There were 6 potential influencing variables, in three broad categories of factors that influenced their choices. In this study, the influencing factors from the personal history variables were, age of the most recent unplanned pregnancy. The individual psychosocial variables were: attitude towards unplanned pregnancy, attitude towards contraception, and making a decision without consultation. The relationship variables were: relationship with partner, and consulting partner when having a problem. The results from discriminant analysis yielded 68.3% predictive accuracy. This result was satisfactory compared with a 33% chance of accuracy (classified as chance alone would yield a 33% accuracy). Knowing the influencing factors for the choices of young women with unplanned pregnancies allows us to understand the women's decisions and their utilization of services with some degree of confidence. The program managers or implementers should do as much as possible to support the decision making process in these young women in order to provide

  17. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  18. Prevalência de lesões endometriais em mulheres obesas assintomáticas Prevalence of endometrial injury in asymptomatic obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alves da Cruz Gouveia

    2007-08-01

    endometrial pathology. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of endometrial injuries, such as polyps, hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in asymptomatic obese women, as well as to recognize the associated risk factors . METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2004 and February 2006. Ninety-four obese (body mass index > 30 kg/m² women were evaluated, divided in two groups of 47 participants each: pre-menopausal and postmenopausal women. Clinical characteristics, physical exams (anthropometric and gynecological, blood count and endometrial assessment by vaginal ultrasonography, biopsy, and hysteroscopy (only for confirmed endometrial pathology, were the variables appraised. RESULTS: In pre-menopausal women, 12.8% of cases had endometrial pathology statistically associated to age, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and LDL-c increase. In the post-menopausal women, 40.4% of cases had a pathology identified as statistically associated with hypertension, LDL-c and estrone increase. Two cases of endometrial cancer were identified, one in each group. CONCLUSIONS: The increased incidence of obesity over recent years has increased risk factors of endometrial cancer. In pre-menopausal women only a small number of cases with endometrial alterations was observed. Therefore, it is suggested that greater attention be given to those over 40 years of age, associated with hypertension and/or higher LDL-c . The menopausal status increases risk of endometrial injury, and when associated with hypertension, LDL-c and/or estrone increase, women become candidates to biopsy aiming for an early diagnosis of cancer, a decisive factor for a favorable prognosis.

  19. Constructions and experiences of sexual health among young, heterosexual, unmarried Muslim women immigrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Anneke; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Minority ethnic immigrant women are frequently vulnerable to poor sexual health outcomes, due to poor use of sexual health services, lack of knowledge and social stigma associated with the discussion of sexuality. This paper explores the sexual health accounts provided by a group of young, unmarried heterosexual Muslim women immigrants residing and studying in Sydney, an under-researched group in the Australian context. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted, focusing on sex before marriage, spouse selection and contraceptive use. Feminist discourse analysis identified 'purity versus corruption' as the primary construction of women's sexuality, where women positioned their sexual behaviour as that of purity and uninvolvement or corruption through unwedded participation. The subthemes 'maintaining ignorance and naivety', 'remaining virginal', 'sex segregation' and 'the fallen woman' capture women's personal sexuality-related experiences and values within the context of their religious and cultural communities. Additional research with this community is needed to examine the effects of negative social constructions of sex on young sexually active Muslim women, as well as further research on young women's sexual health within immigrant communities.

  20. DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE AND ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST IN YOUNG WOMEN: IS IT RELATED TO EACH OTHER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M AMINI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this study we wanted to compare the means of area under the curve (AVC of glucose tolerance test in young women depending on dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA levels. Methods. Selected subjects were examined for DHEA and glucose tolerance test. At first, they were divided into two groups (under the mean of DHEA vs above the mean of DHEA and then into three groups (under the mean-SD, between the mean±SD, above the mean + SD. 37 young women with no abnormality whose 8MI was below 30 Kg/m2 they were refered to research center of endocrinology and metabolism of IUMSHS. Results. The mean of DHEA was 2895±1113 ng/ml. The mean of AUC was 745±104.7 mmol/l/min in women under the mean of DHEA and 670±51.9 mmol/l/min in women above the mean of DHEA (P < 0.05. In comparison of women based on mean±SD, the AVe was 786±88.3, 691. 7 ± 77.5 and 670.8±92.5 mmol/l/min, respectively. Results showed a significant decrease of AVC in women above the mean+ SO of DHEA (P < 0.05. Discussion. This study suggests that in young healthy women DHEA can increase the glucose tolerance.

  1. Exploring young women's understandings of the development of difficulties: a narrative biographical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Emily; Dallos, Rudi

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research study which used in-depth interviews to elicit young women's narratives about the meanings they hold regarding the important experiences in their lives, and their understandings of the development of difficulties that have led them to be in contact with Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). Five young women (aged 15-17 years) who were current users of CAMHS were interviewed. A narrative analysis was conducted on the data. The findings revealed how contact with services may have impacted on their developing sense of self during this important transitional period of their lives. The young women's stories differed in the extent to which they drew on themes of difficulties as indicators of illness or the result of difficult life events. Their sense-making appeared to be influenced by the relationships, contexts and discourses which they were exposed to and embedded within.

  2. "Mean mugging": an exploration of young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, Jennifer L; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F

    2015-08-01

    Bullying among youth is rampant and research suggests that young Aboriginal women may be particularly susceptible to bullying. Sport participation has been identified as a possible mechanism to prevent bullying behaviors, yet few researchers have explored bullying within the context of sport. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to explore young Aboriginal women's experiences of bullying in team sports. Eight young Aboriginal women participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews and follow-up phone interviews. Data were analyzed using a content analysis, and findings were represented by five themes: (1) mean mugging, (2) sport specific, (3) happens all the time, (4) team bonding to address bullying, and (5) prevention through active coaches. The detailed descriptions shared by participants provide insight into a broad range of bullying experiences and serve as a foundation for addressing the bullying that occurs in sport.

  3. Normal reference value of hemoglobin of young women and geographical factors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GEMiao

    2003-01-01

    A research is conducted on the relationship between the normal reference value of 20,475 examples of hemoglobin of young women and five geographical factors in 208 areas in China, the normal reference value is determined by the hemoglobincyanide method. It is found that the correlation of geographical factors and the normal reference value of hemoglobin of young women are quite significant (F=142.81). By using the method of multiple linear regression analysis, one regression equation is inferred. If geographical values are obtained in some areas, the normal reference value of hemoglobin of young women of this area can be reckoned by using the regression equation. Furthermore, depending on the geographical factors, China can be divided into six regions:Oinghai-Tibet (Qingzang) Plateau. Southwest. Northwest. Southeast. North and Northeast China.

  4. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA AND PYURIA IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahimkhani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nPregnant women are at increased risk for urinary tract infection (UTI but in many cases infection is asymptomatic. This study was performed to determine the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria in pregnant women. A total of 86 pregnant women during first trimester and 56 nonpregnant women were evaluated. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected for both groups. Urine samples were examined microscopically and were cultured. Bacteriological examination revealed asymptomatic bacteriuria in 25 (29.1% and 3 (5.4% of the study group and controls, respectively (P < 0.05. Microscopic analysis of urine revealed pyuria in 18 (20.9% and 3 (5.4% of the study group and controls, respectively (P < 0.05. In study group, Escherichia coli were found in 20%, Staphylococcus epidermidis in 36%, Staphylococcus haemolyticus in 12%, streptococcus group D in 12%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus in 12% and Proteus mirabilis in 8%. In control group, E. coli were found in 33.3% and S. epidermidis in 66.7%. Our results show that the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria is significantly higher in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. The main finding in the present study was that 29.1% of the pregnant women who were in first trimester had asymptomatic bacteriuria which is much higher than figures reported from other countries. The use of microscopic urinanalysis was not an effective method of detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria and urine culture is necessary for screening these pregnant women.

  5. Diet quality, measured by fruit and vegetable intake, predicts weight change in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadani, Haya M; Patterson, Amanda; Sibbritt, David; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Jensen, Megan E; Collins, Clare E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between diet quality and weight gain in young women. Young women (n = 4,287, with 1,356 women identified as plausible subsample aged 27.6 ± 1.5 years at baseline) sampled from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health study completed food frequency questionnaires in 2003, which were used to evaluate diet quality using three indices: Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), Australian Diet Quality Index (Aus-DQI), and Fruit and Vegetable Index (FAVI). Weight was self-reported in 2003 and 2009. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between tertiles of each diet quality index and weight change from 2003 to 2009. The ARFS and FAVI were significant predictors of 6-year weight change in this group of young women, while Aus-DQI did not predict weight change (P > 0.05). In the fully adjusted model, those who were in the top tertile of the ARFS significantly gained lower weight gain compared with the lower tertile for the plausible TEI sub-sample (β = -1.6 kg (95% CI: -2.67 to -0.56), P = 0.003). In the fully adjustment model, young women were classified in the highest FAVI tertile and gained significantly less weight than those in the lowest tertile for the plausible TEI (β = -1.6 kg (95% CI: -2.4 to -0.3) P = 0.01). In conclusion, overall diet quality measured by the ARFS and the frequency and variety of fruit and vegetable consumption may predict long-term weight gain in young women. Therefore, health promotion programs encouraging frequent consumption of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables are warranted.

  6. Anorexia as a Psychoemotional Pathology of Young Women of the 21 Century

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anorexia nervosa characterized by deliberate weight loss, induced and sustained by the patient. It occurs most commonly in adolescent girls and young women, but adolescent boys and young men may also be affected. The investigation of anorexia is caused by increase of the number of people with this pathology within the last decade, difficulties of its diagnostics and treatment as well as long-lasting and complicated rehabilitation and possible relapsing course. METHODS The intervent...

  7. Real-world outcomes in young women with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Bargallo-Rocha, Juan Enrique; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Lasa-Gonsebatt, Federico; Arce-Salinas, Claudia; Lara-Medina, Fernando; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Matus-Santos, Juan; Cabrera, Paula; Alvarado-Miranda, Alberto; Mohar, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer in young women has been shown to have an aggressive behavior and worse prognosis. Studies evaluating young women enrolled in clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy have shown that age is a determinant factor in the achievement of a pathological complete response (pCR). In this study, we sought to analyze the outcomes of young patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at a single institution. 1639 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were included. 316 patients ≤40 years were compared with 1323 patients aged >40 years regarding the achievement of a pCR (defined as no invasive residual tumor in the breast or lymph nodes). Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival were compared between groups according to pCR status and subtype, defined by hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 status. Young women were more likely to have a pCR than their older counterparts (37.4 vs. 26.3 %, P world clinical setting, the achievement of a pCR was an independently significant protective factor for recurrence across all subtypes and ages, except for HR+, HER2- disease in young women.

  8. Home screening for sexually transmitted diseases in high-risk young women: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). AIM: To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high-risk sample of young women. METHODS: In this......OBJECTIVE: Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). AIM: To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high-risk sample of young women. METHODS...

  9. Rates and predictors of remission in young women with specific phobia: a prospective community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpf, Julia; Becker, Eni S; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea H; Margraf, Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    This prospective study reports rates and predictors of remission in young women with specific phobia. Data came from a prospective community study, in which German women (aged 18-25 years) completed an extended version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS-IV-L) at two time points. Of the 137 women with specific phobia at baseline, 41.6% were partially remitted and an additional 19.0% were fully remitted at follow-up, defined as absence of any specific fears. A remitting course of specific phobia was predicted by residual protective factors at baseline, especially participants' positive mental health and life satisfaction. Baseline levels of stress, coping skills, cognitive factors, psychopathology, and specific phobia characteristics did not predict remission. Results show that specific phobia in young women rarely takes a stable course at the full diagnostic threshold. The factors that influence remission of specific phobia are different from those that predict the incidence.

  10. Effect of submaximal repetitive exercise on knee coactivation in young and middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Joanne N; Plashkes, Tova E; Franklin, Regan A; Hickey, Heather K; Maly, Monica R

    2014-04-01

    Coactivation of the knee extensors and flexors increases knee joint contact forces, which may lead to degradation of the articular surfaces. This study investigated the effect of neuromuscular fatigue induced by submaximal, repetitive, dynamic contractions on coactivation of knee musculature in young and middle-aged women. Data from 10 young women (24.6±1.8 years) and 8 middle-aged women (55.4±4.2 years) were analyzed. Measures included peak knee extension and flexion torques and the average amplitude of surface electromyography of rectus femoris and biceps femoris. Coactivation ratios were calculated from these activations. To induce fatigue, participants completed up to ten sets of 50 concentric knee extension and flexion contractions at 60°/s. A two-factor analysis of variance was used to determine the effect of age and fatigue. The young group showed higher peak torque compared with the middle-aged group (Pknee extension compared with young women (P=.066). This coactivation likely contributed to extension torque decrements in middle-aged women.

  11. Transgressive women don't deserve protection: young men's narratives of sexual violence against women in rural Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A

    2016-11-01

    Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.

  12. A reduction of CETP activity, not an increase, is associated with modestly impaired postprandial lipemia and increased HDL-Cholesterol in adult asymptomatic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Faria Eliana C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between CETP and postprandial hyperlipemia is still unclear. We verified the effects of varying activities of plasma CETP on postprandial lipemia and precocious atherosclerosis in asymptomatic adult women. Methods Twenty-eight women, selected from a healthy population sample (n = 148 were classified according to three CETP levels, all statistically different: CETP deficiency (CETPd ��� 4.5%, n = 8, high activity (CETPi ≥ 23.8, n = 6 and controls (CTL, CETP ≥ 4.6% and ≤ 23.7%, n = 14. After a 12 h fast they underwent an oral fat tolerance test (40 g of fat/m2 of body surface area for 8 hours. TG, TG-rich-lipoproteins (TRL, cholesterol and TRL-TG measurements (AUC, AUIC, AR, RR and late peaks and comparisons were performed on all time points. Lipases and phospholipids transfer protein (PLTP were determined. Correlation between carotid atherosclerosis (c-IMT and postprandial parameters was determined. CETP TaqIB and I405V and ApoE-ε3/ε2/ε4 polymorphisms were examined. To elucidate the regulation of increased lipemia in CETPd a multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Results In the CETPi and CTL groups, CETP activity was respectively 9 and 5.3 higher compared to the CETPd group. Concentrations of all HDL fractions and ApoA-I were higher in the CETPd group and clearance was delayed, as demonstrated by modified lipemia parameters (AUC, AUIC, RR, AR and late peaks and meal response patterns. LPL or HL deficiencies were not observed. No genetic determinants of CETP deficiency or of postprandial lipemia were found. Correlations with c-IMT in the CETPd group indicated postprandial pro-atherogenic associations. In CETPd the regression multivariate analysis (model A showed that CETP was largely and negatively predicted by VLDL-C lipemia (R2 = 92% and much less by TG, LDL-C, ApoAI, phospholipids and non-HDL-C. CETP (model B influenced mainly the increment in ApoB-100 containing lipoproteins (R2

  13. Obstacles in Advancement of Young Female Geoscientists: Research Results from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    While the number of women receiving advanced degrees in the geosciences has been rising, the faces of scientific leaders in academia remain dominantly male. Women are currently underrepresented in tenure-track positions in Earth science departments at research universities. Additionally, women are less likely to have more senior positions within their academic institutions. ESWN is a peer-mentoring network of early career women in the Earth sciences. We conducted a survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young female geoscientists. We also conducted a survey of the co-ed Earth Science Jobs list also run by ESWN and used its male and female members as comparison samples. The survey data provide insight into critical career junctures for women in geosciences and identify salient issues that institutions will need to address to successfully recruit, retain and promote women scientists. Prior research has shown that women are subjected to unintended and unrecognized biases that can have an ultimate impact on their productivity, advancement, and success. Our data corroborate these findings: women consistently rated the professional atmosphere in their departments and their interactions with colleagues less favorably than men. Moreover, women indicated lower rates of collaboration with colleagues in their unit compared to their male peers. Possibly due to this discrepancy in collaboration, women also reported lower research productivity than men in our study. Attaining work/life balance is a particular concern to early-career scientists, especially since tenure clock and the biological clock can coincide and reduce the opportunity for women to achieve tenure and have children. Family issues may impact the success of women in academic careers, such as travel to meetings and field work. Our research shows that women's partners more often worked in STEM fields, potentially complicating women's careers by

  14. Early predictors of daily smoking in young women : The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorhees, CC; Schreiber, GB; Schumann, BC; Biro, F; Crawford, PB

    2002-01-01

    Background. Smoking is highly prevalent in young women and little is known about early multilevel independent risk or protective factors that are predictive of daily smoking in young women. Methods. Multiple logistic regression was conducted on data from NGHS, a 10-year cohort study of Black (1,213)

  15. Diet Quality, Measured by Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Predicts Weight Change in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haya M. Aljadani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between diet quality and weight gain in young women. Young women (, with 1,356 women identified as plausible subsample aged 27.6 ± 1.5 years at baseline sampled from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health study completed food frequency questionnaires in 2003, which were used to evaluate diet quality using three indices: Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS, Australian Diet Quality Index (Aus-DQI, and Fruit and Vegetable Index (FAVI. Weight was self-reported in 2003 and 2009. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between tertiles of each diet quality index and weight change from 2003 to 2009. The ARFS and FAVI were significant predictors of 6-year weight change in this group of young women, while Aus-DQI did not predict weight change (. In the fully adjusted model, those who were in the top tertile of the ARFS significantly gained lower weight gain compared with the lower tertile for the plausible TEI sub-sample ( kg (95% CI: −2.67 to −0.56, . In the fully adjustment model, young women were classified in the highest FAVI tertile and gained significantly less weight than those in the lowest tertile for the plausible TEI ( kg (95% CI: −2.4 to −0.3 . In conclusion, overall diet quality measured by the ARFS and the frequency and variety of fruit and vegetable consumption may predict long-term weight gain in young women. Therefore, health promotion programs encouraging frequent consumption of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables are warranted.

  16. Young Pakistani Muslim Women's Reflections on Difference, Future, and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation employs data collected from multiple sites in Southern California over a period of nine months. Several in-depth ethnographic interviews and participant observations were conducted with Pakistani Muslim women (age 17-22) and their parents in an effort to better understand the influence that parents and ethno-religious communities…

  17. Cost effectiveness analysis of a population based screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women by means of home obtained urine specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, IGM; Postma, MJ; Morre, SA; van den Brule, AJC; Meijer, CJLM; Bouter, LM; Boeke, AJP

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a systematic screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia, trachomatis infections in a female inner city population. To determine the sensitivity of the cost effectiveness analysis to variation in the probability of developing sequelae. Methods: A

  18. Effect of zinc supplementation on inflammatory markers and adipokines in young obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Ahn, Juhee

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a chronic inflammatory state characterized by altered adipokine production and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. The study explored the effect of zinc supplementation on inflammatory markers and adipocyte hormones in young obese women. Twenty five non-obese women and forty obese women (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)) aged 19-28 years were recruited for this study. Twenty obese women of the study group took 30 mg/day of supplemental zinc as zinc gluconate for 8 weeks and 20 obese women of control group took placebo. Usual dietary zinc intake was estimated from 3-day diet records. Serum zinc and urinary zinc concentration were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Inflammatory markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6 and adipocyte hormones such as lepin and adiponectin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Inflammatory markers and leptin were significantly higher, but adiponectin was significantly lower in obese women than non-obese women. Zinc supplementation increased serum zinc by 15% and urinary zinc by 56% (P zinc supplementation, but not in placebo group. Serum leptin and plasma adiponectin concentration did not differ with either zinc supplementation or placebo. The levels of IL-6 and leptin were inversely associated with dietary zinc intake. These results suggest that zinc may have a favorable effect on obesity-related inflammation in young adults.

  19. Arterial oxygen desaturation response to repeated bouts of sprint exercise in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyoshi, Shimpei; Endoh, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Minoru; Endoh, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The decline in arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin during exercise has been termed exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH). We examined whether repeated bouts of sprint exercise (SprE) would induce EIAH in healthy young men and women. Ten men and 11 women (20.4 +/- 0.3 year) performed an anaerobic power test (three bouts of 10 s cycling with 120 s intervals) using a cycle ergometer. Arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin measured by pulse oximeter (SpO(2)), heart rate (HR), rate perceived exertion (RPE), and the blood lactate concentration ([La](b)) were assessed at rest, during, and 5 min after repeated bouts of SprE. Women exhibited a lower maximal anaerobic power (MAnP) compared to men (498 +/- 23 vs. 759 +/- 22 watts, respectively, p women were comparable with those in men throughout the test. However, the only significant decline in SpO(2) after a single bout of SprE (95.5 +/- 0.7%) from the resting value (97.9 +/- 0.2%) was observed in women, and further declines occurred following heavier SprE (women, mild to moderate EIAH developed, whereas only 2 men showed mild EIAH. Thus, these findings suggest that repeated bouts of SprE might induce mild EIAH in young women but not men.

  20. "Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The…

  1. Designing from Their Own Social Worlds: The Digital Story of Three African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ted

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I examine the literacy work of three African American young women (through data drawn from a larger qualitative study), particularly their ways of knowing, such as double consciousness (Du Bois, 1989), and the multiple subject positions they occupy as they write themselves into a digitally created story. My analysis is guided by the…

  2. Subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically describe the nature and context of subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Data on sexual behavior and subjective sexual well-being were collected through an internet questionnaire. Respondents were included if t

  3. "Too Pretty to Do Math!" Young Women in Movement and Pedagogical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    The article points out some pedagogical challenges in supporting girls and young women in their emancipatory movements today. It spotlights a specific section in gender pedagogy by focusing on the aim of self-determination (rather than achievement) in the field of social-pedagogy and it refers to the concept of "girls work" in Germany. A…

  4. Public/private negotiations in the media uses of young Muslim women in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltorp, Karen

    2013-01-01

    media by a group of young Muslim women in the area. These second-generation female immigrants partake in self-presentation and interpersonal audiencing through mobile technologies on an unprecedented scale, impacting in the process on the understandings and appropriations of the city, where physical...

  5. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  6. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  7. Appearance Concerns and Smoking in Young Men and Women: Going beyond Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Sarah; Hartley, Louise; Conner, Mark; Fry, Gary; Gough, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the link between appearance concerns and smoking in young men and women. Methods: A total of 244, 17-34-year-olds completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire Appearance Sub-Scales (MBSRQ-AS). Findings: Smokers scored significantly lower than non-smokers on appearance evaluation and…

  8. "Two's up and Poncing Fags": Young Women's Smoking Practices, Reciprocity and Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Fin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade much has been written by journalists, policy makers, and academics, about young women's leisure time pursuits. A great deal of this interest has focused around a concern that teenage girls in the UK are taking up smoking in larger numbers than their male peers. This paper draws on findings from my small-scale doctoral research…

  9. A Qualitative Exploration of Autonomy and Engagement for Young Women of Color in Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lisa Hale; Sellars-Mulhern, Precious; Jones, Cynthia; Trinidad, America; Pierre-Louis, Joanne; Okomba, Adhiambo

    2014-01-01

    Given the nationwide concern about college persistence and graduation rates, this article reviews pertinent literature related to autonomous learning as well as social and academic engagement. It also presents findings of a qualitative study of young community college women of color, an understudied population. The article, part of a larger…

  10. Suicidality of young ethnic minority women with an Immigrant background: The role of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, van D.D.; Saharso, S.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority status and female gender convey a risk for suicidal behavior, yet research of suicidality of ethnic minority female immigrants is scarce. The authors of this article conducted qualitative interviews with 15 young women (of four ethnicities) in the Netherlands, who either had attempte

  11. The Influence of Maternal Loss on Young Women's Experience of Identity Development in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Lara E.

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative approach was used to study the influence of adolescent maternal loss on identity development in 6 young women. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed for recurrent themes. Three metathemes emerged from the narratives: Loss of Mother Impacts Identity, Relatedness on the Path of Identity…

  12. Sauna-induced body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between basic somatic features (body mass and height and body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men exposed to thermal stress in a dry sauna.

  13. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Response to Shallow Water Exercise in Young and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer A.; D'Acquisto, Leo J.; D'Acquisto, Debra M.; Cline, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the metabolic and cardiovascular responses of young and older women while performing shallow water exercise (SWE). Overall, SWE elicited metabolic and cardiovascular responses that met American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for establishing health benefits. Older females self-selected a greater relative exercise intensity during…

  14. Hidden prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in healthy nulligravid young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breda, Hendrikje M. K.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud; de Kort, Laetitia M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary incontinence (UI) may have a major impact on quality of life. However, not all individuals with urological complaints seek medical advice. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of LUTS in young otherwise healthy nulligravid women and

  15. Evaluation of a Computer-Tailored Osteoporosis Prevention Intervention in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Donald H., Jr.; Clark, Diane; Turner, Lori W.; Kohler, Connie L.; Snyder, Scott; Morgan, Sarah L.; Schoenberger, Yu-Mei M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based computer-tailored osteoporosis prevention program on calcium and vitamin D intake and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Additionally, this study tested whether adding bone density testing to the intervention improved the outcomes. Methods: One hundred…

  16. Material Realities in the Basic Writing Classroom: Intersections of Discovery for Young Women Reading "Persepolis 2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Susan Naomi

    2008-01-01

    This essay focuses on how young women students in a first-year, first-quarter basic reading and writing course wrote about their connections to the process of identity development as portrayed in the graphic novel "Persepolis 2: The Story of a Return" by Marjane Satrapi. While the circumstances of becoming a student in a required…

  17. Examining the effects of remote-video confederates on young women's food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, R.C.J.; Salvy, S.J.; Larsen, J.K.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    One's decisions about eating are at times, largely based on the observations of other people's eating behavior. Previous studies have shown that modeling of eating is a robust effect. The current research examined the impact of a video remote confederate on young women's food intake. Experiment 1 ex

  18. Keep Calm and Contracept! Addressing Young Women's Pleasure in Sexual Health and Contraception Consultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbury, Ali; Eastham, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Clinical sexual health consultations with young women often focus on avoiding "risks;" namely pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection transmission. They also typically fail to explore how contraception use can impact on the capacity to enjoy sexual relationships. In contrast, this paper argues that sexual pleasure should be a…

  19. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  20. Prevalence and comorbidity of major depressive disorder in young black and white women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Barton, BA; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC; Iachan, R; Crawford, PB; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH

    2005-01-01

    Objective This study reports the prevalence and comorbidity of depression in two large samples of black and white young adult women. Method Clinical interviews of participants in a follow-up study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS-Wave II; N = 378) were c

  1. Nutritional Intervention in Young Women with Eating Disorders: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleavey, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders in young women are often associated with a number of comorbid conditions, including mood disorders and cognitive problems. Although group therapy is often used as part of overall treatment for eating disorders in many types of settings, specific nutritional interventions used in such settings have rarely been evaluated. In this…

  2. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  3. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nee, R.L. van; Larsen, J.K.; Fisher, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues p

  4. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings.

  5. Diaspora Literacies: An Exploration of What Reading Means to Young African Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Liv Thorstensson

    2015-01-01

    This research study explored two young African immigrant women English learners' perspectives on reading, and literacy more broadly, in relation to motivation and identity during a year-long qualitative study at a large, urban high school in the U.S. southeast. Data were collected through interviews and observations that focused on reading…

  6. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young pregnant women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Angelica E; Pinto, Valdir M; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15-24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. vaginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7-10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs [OR=4.70 (95% CI: 1.63-13.56, p=0.004)] and not attending antenatal care [OR=5.15 (95% CI: 1.15-23.25, p=0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil.

  7. Towards the Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    tissue types. For example, it is difficult to distinguish a ductal carcinoma in-situ from a phyllodes tumor based on E alone (since the ratio is about...cancer, it is less effective in younger women (≤ 40 years), usually because the higher density of their breasts can obscure tumors . While the...to breast cancer detection (see [2] for example) utilizes the fact that breast tumors tend to be significantly stiffer than the surrounding tissue [3

  8. Rethinking HIV prevention to prepare for oral PrEP implementation for young African women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie L Celum

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV incidence remains high among young women in sub-Saharan Africa in spite of scale-up of HIV testing, behavioural interventions, antiretroviral treatment and medical male circumcision. There is a critical need to critique past approaches and learn about the most effective implementation of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies, particularly emerging interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP. Discussion: Women in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk of HIV during adolescence and into their 20s, in part due to contextual factors including gender norms and relationship dynamics, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health services. We reviewed behavioural, behavioural economic and biomedical approaches to HIV prevention for young African women, with a particular focus on the barriers, opportunities and implications for implementing PrEP in this group. Behavioural interventions have had limited impact in part due to not effectively addressing the context, broader sexual norms and expectations, and structural factors that increase risk and vulnerability. Of biomedical HIV prevention strategies that have been tested, daily oral PrEP has the greatest evidence for protection, although adherence was low in two placebo-controlled trials in young African women. Given high efficacy and effectiveness in other populations, demonstration projects of open-label PrEP in young African women are needed to determine the most effective delivery models and whether women at substantial risk are motivated and able to use oral PrEP with sufficient adherence to achieve HIV prevention benefits. Conclusions: Social marketing, adherence support and behavioural economic interventions should be evaluated as part of PrEP demonstration projects among young African women in terms of their effectiveness in increasing demand and optimizing uptake and effective use of PrEP. Lessons learned through evaluations of implementation strategies

  9. Sexting behaviors among young Hispanic women: incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-09-01

    Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.

  10. Suffering in silence: consequences of sexual violence within marriage among young women in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the grave consequences of sexual violence, and it's persistence both within and outside marriages, this subject has received relatively little attention from researchers, policy makers, and programme managers in Nepal. This paper explores the definition of sexual violence and its various forms and consequences as reported by young married women in Nepal. In addition, it describes the coping mechanisms used by young married women to avoid sexual violence perpetrated against them by their husbands. Methods This paper analyzes data collected during the qualitative study on "Sexual violence among young couples in Nepal", conducted amongst two major ethnic groups - Brahmin/Chhetri and Tharu - between 2006 and 2007. The data is comprised of 39 free-lists and 15 in-depth case histories with married women aged 15-24 years. The average rank and Smith's Salience were calculated from the free-listing data. The thematic analysis approach was used for the analysis of information from the case histories. Results Approximately three-quarters (74% of the young women mentioned 'sex against one's wishes' as sexual violence within marriage (SVWM. Sixty-two percent of respondents described 'forced sex during illness' and 'forced sex after consumption of alcohol' as SVWM. About half of young women (48.7% who participated in the free-listing exercise reported having experienced SVWM. The types of SVWM ranged from unwanted sexual touch to forced sex. Backache, headache, lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding and thoughts of suicide were the most commonly reported negative physical and psychological health consequences of SVWM. Women reported various coping strategies including 'trying to convince husbands', 'sleeping in a separate room', 'visiting maternal home', 'waking up the children', and 'using pretexts such as being ill or menstruating', to avoid SVWM. However, in most cases, women reported that these coping strategies were

  11. Body Composition and Hydration Status in Young Elderly Women after 6 Weeks’ Monavie Juice Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Pokora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the influence of 6 weeks’ MonaVie juice supplementation on body composition and hydration status in young elderly physically active women. Sixteen women, students of University of Third Age, were recruited for this study. All women were physically active (daily energy expenditure 1681.8 ± 297.6 kcal/d. Women were divided into 2 groups: 8 of them applied a supplement MonaVie juice (100 ml/d (S for 6 weeks, while the eight other women were allocated to the control group (C. There were measured: BW, Fat%, TBW, Hb, HCT and erythrocyte indices: RBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC. Based on Hb and HCT were calculated changes: blood (del BV%, plasma (del PV% and cell (del CV% volumes in C and S group. Before experiment all body components and hematologic indices were similar in C and S group. After 6 weeks of MonaVie supplementation no significant changes in body composition but significant decrease: (MCH, (MCHC and an increase cell volume CV% + 2.89 ± 1.24% were found. In control group after 6 weeks period there were no significant changes in body components and hematological indices. These observations suggest that MonaVie supplementation does not induce significant changes in body composition and hydration status in young elderly women, however causes an increase of cells volume and a decrease of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration.

  12. Black-White Differences in Sex and Contraceptive Use Among Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Yasamin; Barber, Jennifer S; Ela, Elizabeth J; Bucek, Amelia

    2016-10-01

    This study examines black-white and other sociodemographic differences in young women's sexual and contraceptive behaviors, using new longitudinal data from a weekly journal-based study of 1,003 18- to 19-year-old women spanning 2.5 years. We investigate hypotheses about dynamic processes in these behaviors during early adulthood in order to shed light on persisting racial differences in rates of unintended pregnancies in the United States. We find that net of other sociodemographic characteristics and adolescent experiences with sex and pregnancy, black women spent less time in relationships and had sex less frequently in their relationships than white women, but did not differ in the number of relationships they formed or in their frequency or consistency of contraceptive use within relationships. Black women were more likely to use less effective methods for pregnancy prevention (e.g., condoms) than white women, who tended to use more effective methods (e.g., oral contraceptives). And although the most effective method for pregnancy prevention-long-acting reversible contraception (LARC)-was used more often by black women than white women, LARC use was low in both groups. In addition, black women did not differ from white women in their number of discontinuations or different methods used and had fewer contraceptive method switches. Further, we find that net of race and adolescent experiences with sex and pregnancy, women from more-disadvantaged backgrounds had fewer and longer (and thus potentially more serious) relationships, used contraception less frequently (but not less consistently), and used less effective methods (condoms) than women from more-advantaged backgrounds.

  13. Young, southern women's perceptions of STEM careers: Examining science, technology, engineering & mathematics as a gendered construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth

    Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in

  14. Prevalence of asymptomatic infections in sexually transmitted diseases attendees diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STD are a major health problem affecting mostly young people in both developing and developed countries. STD in women causes both acute morbidity and complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, low-birth weight, and prematurity. Aims: The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis among asymptomatic females attending STD outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of data collected from clinical records of 3000 female patients of age 18 to 49 over a period of 12 months (July 2014 to June 2015 was carried out at the Institute of Venereology, Madras Medical College. Complete epidemiological, clinical, and investigational data were recorded and analyzed for the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis among asymptomatic patients. Results: About 48.37% (228/470 of bacterial vaginosis patients were asymptomatic. Nearly 45.38% (116/235 of vaginal candidiasis patients were asymptomatic and 30.35% (26/87 of trichomoniasis patients were asymptomatic. The above infections were common in the age group 25–35. Conclusion: Holistic screening protocol was incorporated for all female patients attending STD clinic even if asymptomatic and should be treated accordingly to prevent the acquisition of other serious sexually transmitted infections.

  15. Transactional sex amongst young people in rural northern Tanzania: an ethnography of young women's motivations and negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plummer Mary

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Material exchange for sex (transactional sex may be important to sexual relationships and health in certain cultures, yet the motivations for transactional sex, its scale and consequences are still little understood. The aim of this paper is to examine young women's motivations to exchange sex for gifts or money, the way in which they negotiate transactional sex throughout their relationships, and the implications of these negotiations for the HIV epidemic. Method An ethnographic research design was used, with information collected primarily using participant observation and in-depth interviews in a rural community in North Western Tanzania. The qualitative approach was complemented by an innovative assisted self-completion questionnaire. Findings Transactional sex underlay most non-marital relationships and was not, per se, perceived as immoral. However, women's motivations varied, for instance: escaping intense poverty, seeking beauty products or accumulating business capital. There was also strong pressure from peers to engage in transactional sex, in particular to consume like others and avoid ridicule for inadequate remuneration. Macro-level factors shaping transactional sex (e.g. economic, kinship and normative factors overwhelmingly benefited men, but at a micro-level there were different dimensions of power, stemming from individual attributes and immediate circumstances, some of which benefited women. Young women actively used their sexuality as an economic resource, often entering into relationships primarily for economic gain. Conclusion Transactional sex is likely to increase the risk of HIV by providing a dynamic for partner change, making more affluent, higher risk men more desirable, and creating further barriers to condom use. Behavioural interventions should directly address how embedded transactional sex is in sexual culture.

  16. Psychiatric Diagnoses and Comorbidities in a Diverse, Multicity Cohort of Young Transgender Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L.; Biello, Katie B.; White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Kuhns, Lisa; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Garofalo, Robert; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Transgender youth, including adolescent and young adult transgender women assigned a male sex at birth who identify as girls, women, transgender women, transfemale, male-to-female, or another diverse transfeminine gender identity, represent a vulnerable population at risk for negative mental health and substance use outcomes. Diagnostic clinical interviews to assess prevalence of mental health, substance dependence, and comorbid psychiatric disorders in young transgender women remain scarce. OBJECTIVE To report the prevalence of mental health, substance dependence, and comorbid psychiatric disorders assessed via clinical diagnostic interview in a high-risk community-recruited sample of young transgender women. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observational study reporting baseline finding from a diverse sample of 298 sexually active, young transgender women aged 16 through 29 years (mean age, 23.4 years; 49.0%black, 12.4%Latina, 25.5%white, and 13.1%other minority race/ethnicity) and enrolled in Project LifeSkills, an ongoing randomized controlled HIV prevention intervention efficacy trial in Chicago and Boston, between 2012 and 2015. EXPOSURE Transfeminine gender identity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Age- and site-adjusted prevalence and comorbidities of mental health and substance dependence disorders assessed via the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, including 1 or more diagnoses, 2 or more comorbid diagnoses, major depressive episode (current and lifetime), past 30-day suicidal risk (no/low risk vs moderate/high risk), past 6-month generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, and past 12-month alcohol dependence and nonalcohol psychoactive substance use dependence. RESULTS Of the 298 transgender women, 41.5%of participants had 1 or more mental health or substance dependence diagnoses; 1 in 5 (20.1%) had 2 or more comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Prevalence of specific disorders was as follows: lifetime and current major

  17. Depressed mood and self-esteem in young Asian, black, and white women in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, N F; Lentz, M; Mitchell, E; Oakley, L D

    1994-01-01

    During the last two decades, investigators have explored the relationship between women's life conditions and their mental health. Some have related women's socially disadvantaged status, or their socialization to a traditional feminine role, to depression and low self-esteem. Others have emphasized the consequences of women's roles, or the balance of social demands and resources, on their well-being. More recently, feminist scholars have proposed a developmental account of depression. We tested a model comparing the effects of personal resources, social demands and resources, socialization, and women's roles, on self-esteem and depressed mood in young adult Asian, Black, and White women in America. Women who resided in middle-income and racially mixed neighborhoods were interviewed in their homes. Personal resources were indicated by education and income and social resources by unconflicted network size as measured by Barrera's (1981) Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule. Social demands were assessed by conflicted network size as measured by the Barrera scale and by the Positive Life Events and Negative Life Events scales from Norbeck's (1984) revision of the Sarason Life Events Scale. Women's roles included employment, parenting, and partnership with an adult (e.g., marriage). Self-esteem was assessed with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and depressed mood with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (Radloff, 1977). Although models for Asian, Black, and White women differed, social network and social demands as well as personal resources were common to each group as predictors of self-esteem and depression.

  18. Acculturation and metabolic syndrome risk factors in young Mexican and Mexican-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Chantal A; Ontiveros, Diana; Zubia, Raul Y; Bader, Julia O

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about effects of acculturation on disease risk in young Mexican and Mexican-American women living in a border community. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between acculturation and features of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Mexican and Mexican-American women (n = 60) living in the largest US-Mexico border community. Acculturation was measured by the short acculturation scale for Hispanics and birthplace. Body composition was measured by Bod Pod and daily physical activity was measured by questionnaire and accelerometer. Increased acculturation was related to individual features of MetS and increased risk of MetS. These relationships were mediated by fat mass rather than inactivity. Fat mass mediates the relationships between acculturation and individual features of MetS in young Mexican and Mexican-American women. These findings suggest that fat mass, rather than inactivity, is an important contributor to disease risk in young Mexican and Mexican-American women living in a large US/Mexico border community.

  19. Life stories of young women who experience rejection from their mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina C. Mosman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: When a daughter perceives rejection from her mother, she is bound to be sensitive to rejection for most if not all of her life. Such an experience influences almost all future relationships.Objectives: The purpose of this research was to explore and describe the life stories of young women who perceived rejection from their mothers and to formulate guidelines to assist them.Method: A phenomenological interpretive method that is explorative, descriptive, and contextual was used to explore everyday life experiences. Network sampling was used. In-depth phenomenological interviews were conducted with the young women so that they could define the most important dimensions of their life stories and elaborate on what is relevant to them. They were asked: ‘Tell me your life story.’ One of the authors also had a life story of perceived maternal rejection; hence an auto-ethnography was critical and was included in the study. Thematic data analysis was applied.Results: Themes that emerged from the data were that the young women: (1 perceive ongoing challenges in forming and sustaining relationships in their lives; (2 experience their lives as conflicted because their relationship with the central core of their existence, their mother, is perceived as tumultuous; and (3 experience fundamental links to be missing in their ‘motherdaughter relationship’.Conclusion: Only a few women were interviewed regarding perceived rejection from their mothers. Further research in this regard is imperative.

  20. Association between perception of maternal bonding styles and social anxiety disorder among young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochele D. Castelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between social anxiety disorder (SAD and perceived maternal bonding styles among young women during pregnancy and 30 months after childbirth. Methods: A cohort of young women from the city of Pelotas, Brazil was followed up from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. The Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus was used to assess SAD and the Parental Bonding Instrument was administered to measure maternal bonding styles. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for multivariable analysis. Results: After adjusting for potential confounding factors, SAD prevalence was 6.39 times higher among young women who perceived their mothers as neglectful (prevalence ratio [PR] 6.39; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.2-32.0, and 5.57 times higher in women who perceived their mothers as affectionless controlling (PR = 5.57; 95%CI 1.5-19.7 when compared with those who received optimal care. Conclusion: Maternal bonding style may have an influence on the development of SAD. Therefore, support and early prevention strategies should be offered to the family.

  1. Sustained High HIV Incidence in Young Women in Southern Africa: Social, Behavioral, and Structural Factors and Emerging Intervention Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Abigail; Colvin, Christopher J; Kuo, Caroline; Swartz, Alison; Lurie, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Young women in southern Africa experience some of the highest incidence rates of HIV infection in the world. Across southern Africa, HIV prevalence among women increases rapidly between the teenage years and young adulthood. Adult HIV prevalence is 16.8 % in South Africa, 23 % in Botswana, 23 % in Lesotho, and 26.5 % in Swaziland. Existing research has illuminated some of the key social, behavioral, and structural factors associated with young women's disproportionate HIV risk, including gendered social norms that advantage male power in sexual relationships and age disparities in relationships between younger women and older male partners. Important structural factors include the region's history of labor migration and legacy of family disruption, and entrenched social and economic inequalities. New interventions are emerging to address these high levels of HIV risk in the key population of young women, including structural interventions, biomedical prevention such as PrEP, and combined HIV prevention approaches.

  2. Poverty, food insufficiency and HIV infection and sexual behaviour among young rural Zimbabwean women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie J S Pascoe

    Full Text Available Despite a recent decline, Zimbabwe still has the fifth highest adult HIV prevalence in the world at 14.7%; 56% of the population are currently living in extreme poverty.Cross-sectional population-based survey of 18-22 year olds, conducted in 30 communities in south-eastern Zimbabwe in 2007.To examine whether the risk of HIV infection among young rural Zimbabwean women is associated with socio-economic position and whether different socio-economic domains, including food sufficiency, might be associated with HIV risk in different ways.Eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a finger-prick blood sample tested for antibodies to HIV and HSV-2. The relationship between poverty and HIV was explored for three socio-economic domains: ability to afford essential items; asset wealth; food sufficiency. Analyses were performed to examine whether these domains were associated with HIV infection or risk factors for infection among young women, and to explore which factors might mediate the relationship between poverty and HIV.2593 eligible females participated in the survey and were included in the analyses. Overall HIV prevalence among these young females was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.7-8.7; HSV-2 prevalence was 11.2% (95% CI: 9.9-12.4. Lower socio-economic position was associated with lower educational attainment, earlier marriage, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders and increased reporting of higher risk sexual behaviours such as earlier sexual debut, more and older sexual partners and transactional sex. Young women reporting insufficient food were at increased risk of HIV infection and HSV-2.This study provides evidence from Zimbabwe that among young poor women, economic need and food insufficiency are associated with the adoption of unsafe behaviours. Targeted structural interventions that aim to tackle social and economic constraints including insufficient food should be developed and evaluated alongside behaviour

  3. PREVALENCE OF ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANCY AT A TEACHING HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND UTI is the most frequent medical complication. It may be asymptomatic or symptomatic. Asymptomatic bacteriuria if left untreated might result in symptomatic UTI and adverse pregnancy outcomes. AIM This prospective study was aimed to determine the prevalence of Asymptomatic bacteriuria of pregnancy among antenatal women attending the antenatal clinic in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Maharajah’s Institute of Medical Sciences, Nellimarla, Vizianag...

  4. Litíase vesicular assintomática em mulheres: aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos Asymptomatic gallstones in women: epidemiologic and clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Cunha Ferreira

    2006-08-01

    gallbladder diameter, age range, parity, from 4.1% among nulliparous women to 39.1% in multiparous women and women with diabetes. The prevalence of gallstones in asymptomatic patients was 14.7%. CONCLUSION: The asymptomatic gallstones in women were mainly related to age and parity. The presence of galbladder wall thickness and bile sludge were the most frequent ultrasographic findings.

  5. Chastity and Sexual Honesty of Young Women from the Judicial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fondevila

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is analyzed the way in which the judicial scope has outlined the acceptable sexual behavior of young women in the Mexican society. Since the beginning of the 20th century up to now, the constitutive elements of sexual crimes have served to construct a socially acceptable (moral ideal of sexuality for young people. In this sense, social judgments as much as, judicial decisions agree in defining this ideal under the form of chastity, sexual honesty and purity.

  6. Lipoprotein Particles in Adolescents and Young Women With PCOS Provide Insights Into Their Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, M.; Shamburek, R.; Keil, M.; Wesley, R.; Walter, M.; Sampson, M.; Bernstein, S.; Khurana, D.; Lyssikatos, C.; Ten, S.; Dobs, A.; Remaley, A. T.; Stratakis, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the evidence for this is controversial in adolescents and young women with PCOS. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle number, measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a novel technology to assess cardiovascular risk. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate lipoprotein particle number and size in young women with PCOS and its relationship with insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Design: This was a cross-sectional case control study. Setting: The study was conducted at a clinical research center. Participants: Women with PCOS (n = 35) and normal controls (n = 20) participated in the study. Interventions: Blood samples and anthropometric measures were obtained. Main Outcome Measures: LDL particle size and number were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A secondary outcome was to investigate the correlation of LDL particle number with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, waist to hip ratio, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and adiponectin. Results: Women with PCOS had higher LDL particle number when compared with healthy controls (935 ± 412 vs 735 ± 264, P = .032); LDL particle number correlated strongly with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r = 0.37, P = .006) and waist-to-hip (r = 0.57, P = .0003). The higher LDL particle number was driven mainly due to differences in the small LDL particle number (sLDLp), with PCOS patients having more sLDLp (348 ± 305 vs 178 ± 195, P = .015). The sLDLp correlated with the Matsuda index (r = −0.51, P = .0001), homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (r = 0.41, P = .002), and adiponectin (r = −0.46, P = .0004) but not with T. Conclusion: Adolescent and young women with PCOS have an atherogenic lipoprotein profile suggestive of increased cardiovascular risk that appears to be driven by the degree of visceral adiposity

  7. Bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Raizada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.5 ± 6.2 years underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 ± 0.02 g/cm2 in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 ± 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029. BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03, P = 0.057. The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range. There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored.

  8. Relationship between androgen levels and blood pressure in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Jou; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Jehn-Hsiahn; Chen, Chi-Ling; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Yang, Yu-Shih

    2007-06-01

    The role of testosterone on the development of hypertension is controversial, especially in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who have higher prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance than women without PCOS. Little is known about the association between serum testosterone level and blood pressure in young women with PCOS. In the 151 young Taiwanese women with PCOS enrolled in this cross-sectional study, we measured the body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, lipid profile, and hormone profiles. The free androgen index, total testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin, but not the level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, significantly correlated with both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, and other anthropometric, metabolic, and hormonal variables, the level of serum free androgen index or total testosterone, but not the sex hormone-binding globulin, were independently related to SBP and DBP. The age- and body mass index-adjusted least-square mean of serum-free androgen index levels were significantly different between the highest quartile and other quartiles of the SBP and DBP levels. The high bioavailable testosterone levels (free androgen index: >or=19%) in women with PCOS increased the risk of elevated blood pressure (SBP >or=130 mm Hg and/or DBP >or=85 mm Hg) with an odds ratio of 3.817 (P=0.029; 95% CI: 1.14 to 12.74) after adjustment for age, anthropometric measures, and metabolic profiles. Our results suggest that the characteristic hyperandrogenemia in young women with PCOS was associated with an elevated SBP and DBP independent of age, insulin resistance, obesity, or dyslipidemia.

  9. Sleep difficulties and the development of depression and anxiety: a longitudinal study of young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Melinda L; Sztendur, Ewa M; Diamond, Neil T; Byles, Julie E; Bruck, Dorothy

    2014-06-01

    Previous longitudinal studies have demonstrated that poor sleep may precede depression and anxiety. The current study examined the association between self-reported sleeping difficulties and new onset depression and anxiety in young women. A nationally representative sample of 9,683 young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health was analyzed. Women were surveyed in 2000 (aged 22 to 25 years), 2003, 2006, and 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between sleeping difficulties in 2000 and new-onset depression (excluding postnatal depression) and anxiety at each subsequent survey. Significant increased risk of new onset depression (odds ratio (OR)=2.6 in 2003; OR=4.4 in 2006; OR=4.4 in 2009) and anxiety (OR=2.4 in 2006; OR=2.9 in 2009) was found at each follow-up survey in women who reported sleeping difficulties "often" in 2000. Further research is needed to uncover the mechanisms underlying the link between sleep problems and mental health.

  10. Coffee consumption may influence hippocampal volume in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlaki, Gabor; Orsi, Gergely; Kovacs, Norbert; Schwarcz, Attila; Pap, Zilia; Kalmar, Zsuzsanna; Plozer, Eniko; Csatho, Arpad; Gabriel, Robert; Komoly, Samuel; Janszky, Imre; Janszky, József

    2011-12-01

    Caffeine is the most often used psychoactive substance. Caffeine may influence neuroplasticity in animals. We investigated the relationship between caffeine intake (coffee consumption) and brain morphology. Forty-five healthy, non-smoking women aged 19-30 were included in the present study. We used semi-automatic user-independent MR volumetry and voxel-based morphometry. We investigated the relationship between caffeine intake (coffee consumption) and the volumes of the cortical brain structures where caffeine is supposed to act. We found that high-level and low-level caffeine intake was associated with a larger hippocampus compared to moderate-level caffeine intake. The other brain structures showed no association with coffee consumption or caffeine intake. The U-shape association between caffeine concentration and its effect has already been described in some experimental studies. To our knowledge this is one of the very first studies, which tries to find an association between brain morphology and coffee consumption or caffeine intake in humans using MR imaging.

  11. Theory development from studies with young women with breast cancer who are BRCA mutation negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Rebekah; Kopin, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners can use inductively derived theory to direct their research and practice. This article describes the ongoing development of a theory that can assist in explaining experiences of young women with breast cancer who have genetic testing for the BRCA mutation. Seventeen BRCA-negative women with breast cancer from a larger grounded theory study were interviewed. While receiving a negative BRCA mutation test result subsequent to a breast cancer diagnosis was described as a relief, the information was also confusing. The author's published Theory of Genetic Vulnerability is expanded to incorporate the outcomes of this analysis.

  12. As time goes by we improve a little more: relationship expectations of young women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2010-10-01

    In this qualitative narrative study I explore expectations regarding male-female relationships and perceptions about intimate partner violence (IPV) with young urban women in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Carol Gilligan's work informed the analysis of the narratives. Themes identified follow: violence at home, resistance, and relational autonomy. The collective story these women tell is that they are familiar with violence in the home, they resist violence and gender inequality, they seek equality in intimate partner relationships, and they plan for futures where the centrality of family is valued in combination with a strong commitment to their own autonomy.

  13. Exercise Does Not Influence Myostatin and Follistatin mRNA expression in Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jensky, Nicole E.; Sims, Jennifer K.; Dieli-Conwright, Christina M.; Sattler, Fred R.; Rice, Judd C.; Schroeder, E. Todd

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated changes in myostatin, follistatin and MyoD mRNA gene expression using eccentric exercise (EE) and concentric exercise (CE) as probes to better understand the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy in young women. Twelve women performed single-leg maximal eccentric (n=6, 25±1yr, 59±7kg) or concentric (n=6, 24±1 yr, 65±7kg) isokinetic knee extension exercise for 7 sessions. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis at baseline, 8hrs after the first exercise session, and 8hrs a...

  14. Mild dehydration affects mood in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Ganio, Matthew S; Casa, Douglas J; Lee, Elaine C; McDermott, Brendon P; Klau, Jennifer F; Jimenez, Liliana; Le Bellego, Laurent; Chevillotte, Emmanuel; Lieberman, Harris R

    2012-02-01

    Limited information is available regarding the effects of mild dehydration on cognitive function. Therefore, mild dehydration was produced by intermittent moderate exercise without hyperthermia and its effects on cognitive function of women were investigated. Twenty-five females (age 23.0 ± 0.6 y) participated in three 8-h, placebo-controlled experiments involving a different hydration state each day: exercise-induced dehydration with no diuretic (DN), exercise-induced dehydration plus diuretic (DD; furosemide, 40 mg), and euhydration (EU). Cognitive performance, mood, and symptoms of dehydration were assessed during each experiment, 3 times at rest and during each of 3 exercise sessions. The DN and DD trials in which a volunteer attained a ≥1% level of dehydration were pooled and compared to that volunteer's equivalent EU trials. Mean dehydration achieved during these DN and DD trials was -1.36 ± 0.16% of body mass. Significant adverse effects of dehydration were present at rest and during exercise for vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and total mood disturbance scores of the Profile of Mood States and for task difficulty, concentration, and headache as assessed by questionnaire. Most aspects of cognitive performance were not affected by dehydration. Serum osmolality, a marker of hydration, was greater in the mean of the dehydrated trials in which a ≥1% level of dehydration was achieved (P = 0.006) compared to EU. In conclusion, degraded mood, increased perception of task difficulty, lower concentration, and headache symptoms resulted from 1.36% dehydration in females. Increased emphasis on optimal hydration is warranted, especially during and after moderate exercise.

  15. Sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviour among young Swedish women : a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Monica

    1998-01-01

    Most epidemiologic studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are based on patients seeking help or advice at various health care settings. Because many STD:s are subclinical, epidemiologic surveys can be strengthened by a population-based approach. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence and incidence of STDs in a population of young women, and to assess associations between STDs and social background, education, previous genital infections, sexual behaviour, con...

  16. The potential impact of plain packaging of cigarette products among Brazilian young women: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    White Christine M; Hammond David; Thrasher James F; Fong Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco use is responsible for 5.4 million deaths every year worldwide and is a leading cause of preventable death. The burden of these deaths is rapidly shifting to low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil. Brazil has prohibited most forms of tobacco advertising; however, the cigarette pack remains a primary source of marketing. The current study examined how tobacco packaging influences brand appeal and perceptions of health risk among young women in Brazil. Metho...

  17. Risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis in young women with hyperprolactinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic-Stojanoska, Milica; Icin, Tijana; Pletikosic, Ivana; Bajkin, Ivana; Novakovic-Paro, Jovanka; Stokic, Edita; Spasic, Dragan T; Kovacev-Zavisic, Branka; Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2015-04-01

    Prolactin is a metabolic hormone. The hypothesis is that hyperprolactinemia can cause metabolic and inflammatory changes which are associated with accelerated atherosclerotic process, but the treatment of hyperprolactinemia with dopamine agonists, leads to reversibility of these processes. The first aim of this study was to determine whether hyperprolactinemia in premenopausal women is accompanied with the increase in body mass index (BMI), changes in body composition, lipid disturbances, the presence of inflammation and changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure as risk factors for the development of early atherosclerosis. The second aim was to know whether the therapy of hyperprolactinemia and prolactin normalization lead to improvement of the observed parameters. Twenty female patients with prolactinomas, before and during treatment with dopamine agonists and 16 healthy controls were evaluated. Prolactin, BMI, total body fat, free fat mass, total body water, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and fibrinogen as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at baseline and during the therapy. Hyperprolactinemic patients had pathologic and significantly higher levels of prolactin (PRL) than the controls (p=0.000). The BMI, body fat, total body water (TBW), total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL were in normal range and higher in the patients than in the controls. HDL was lower in hyperprolactinemic females than controls. The difference was significant only for body fat (fat % p=0.006; fat kg p=0.009). Fibrinogen was slightly increased in patients compared with the controls. Hyperprolactinemic patients had normal, but increased levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with the controls. The difference with border significance was found in diastolic blood pressure (p=0.065). The correlation of PRL with all the observed parameters was positive apart from HDL, but relatively

  18. Influence of moderately intense strength training on flexibility in sedentary young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Elisa; Rhea, Matthew R; Simão, Roberto; Dias, Ingrid; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Novaes, Jefferson; Leite, Thalita; Blair, Jeff C; Bunker, Derek J

    2010-11-01

    The present study is the first to examine whether moderately intense resistance training improves flexibility in an exclusively young, sedentary women population. Twenty-four, young, sedentary women were divided into 3 groups as follows: agonist/antagonist (AA) training group, alternated strength training (AST) group, or a control group (CG). Training occurred every other day for 8 weeks for a total of 24 sessions. Training groups performed 3 sets of 10 to 12 repetitions per set except for abdominal training where 3 sets of 15 to 20 reps were performed. Strength (1 repetition maximum bench press) and flexibility were assessed before and after the training period. Flexibility was assessed on 6 articular movements: shoulder flexion and extension, horizontal shoulder adduction and abduction, and trunk flexion and extension. Both groups increased strength and flexibility significantly from baseline and significantly when compared with the CG (p ≤ 0.05). The AST group increased strength and flexibility significantly more than the AA group (p ≤ 0.05) in all but one measurement. This study shows that resistance training can improve flexibility in young sedentary women in 8 weeks.

  19. Keeping cool, staying virtuous: Social media and the composite habitus of young Muslim women in Copenhagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Waltorp

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article builds on long-term anthropological fieldwork among young Muslim women in a social housing area in Copenhagen. It explores how morality, modesty, and gender- and generational relations become reconfigured in the ways in which young women use the Smartphone and social media to navigate their everyday lives. I focus on love and marriage, the imperatives of appearing cool among peers, and keeping the family’s honour intact through the display of virtuous behaviour. Building on Bourdieu’s writings on the split habitus, I introduce the term composite habitus, as it underscores the aspect of a habitus that is split between (sometimes contradictory composite parts. The composite habitus of the young women is more than a hysteresis effect (where disposition and field are in mismatch and the habitus misfires, as the composite habitus also opens up to a range of possible strategies. I present examples of how intimate and secret uses of Smartphones have played out and show how social media have allowed for multiple versions of the self through managing public and secret relationships locally and across long distances.

  20. Differences in arterial stiffness at rest and after acute exercise between young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doonan, Robert J; Mutter, Andrew; Egiziano, Giordano; Gomez, Yessica-Haydee; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2013-03-01

    There is controversy as to whether there are sex differences in arterial stiffness. Acute physical stress can elicit vascular abnormalities not present at rest. Our objective was to assess sex differences in arterial stiffness at rest and in response to acute physical stress. Healthy young men (n=67) and women (n=55) underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest and 2, 5, 10 and 15 min following an exercise test to exhaustion. At rest, aortic systolic, diastolic, pulse and mean pressures were all significantly higher in men as was aortic pulse pressure at 10 and 15 min post exercise and aortic systolic pressure at 15 min. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was significantly higher in men (6.0±0.7 m s(-1) vs. 5.6±0.6 m s(-1), P=0.03) at rest and at all time points post exercise. Heart rate-adjusted augmentation index was significantly lower (-10.7±10.2% vs. -4.0±10.9, Psex differences in the arterial stiffness response to acute physical stress in young men and women. Although we were not able to elicit differences in vascular function after adjustment, which were not present at rest, we found that young men and women exhibit differences in arterial stiffness at rest and after acute physical stress.

  1. Proud2Bme: Exploratory research on care and control in young women's online eating disorder narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipple Walters, Bethany; Adams, Samantha; Broer, Tineke; Bal, Roland

    2016-05-01

    Illness narratives have been studied to understand the patient's point of view. These narratives are becoming more prolific, accessible, and specialized, thanks to the improved Internet access and the growth of health-specific online communities. This article analyses illness narratives posted on a Dutch eating disorder website hosted by a treatment centre. Specifically, we look at 'care of the self' and 'control'. The young women wrote about controlling situations with disordered eating as a self-care tool, about being controlled by the disorder and about regaining control over the disorder. The website, with the opportunity for constant, unseen supervision, coercion through comments, and steering through edits and comments, revealed various modalities of control. While issues of control and eating disorders have been explored by others, little work has been done on how the control experienced by the young women (coercion on the individual, the body as the object of control, and the modality of pressure and supervision) interact, how control is presented in stories for a recovery-focused, monitored website, and how the website directs the content. As recovery-focused, therapist-led website is likely to continue growing, understanding how and why young women talk about care and control in the context of such websites is an important topic.

  2. Beauty and Body dissatisfaction experienced by young Indian women exposed to foreign print advertisements found in International fashion Magazines targeted at women.

    OpenAIRE

    Batra, Radhika

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation has been greatly concerned with the impact of the advertising images in international mass media, mainly women�s fashion magazines. Three advertisements, two from Cosmopolitan and one from Elle magazine, United Kingdom were used in order to test the impact of beauty and body image concerns in young Indian women. Literature has mainly concentrated on the portrayal of white women as advertising and cultural stereotypes in a global environment. Many studies have revealed t...

  3. Subjective Mood in Young Unmedicated Depressed Women under High and Low Sleep Pressure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Birchler-Pedross

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal mood variations are one of the core symptoms in depression, and total sleep deprivation (SD can induce rapid, short-lasting clinical improvement in depressed patients. Here, we investigated if differential sleep pressure conditions impact on subjective mood levels in young women with major depressive disorder (MDD without sleep disturbances, and in healthy controls. Eight healthy and eight MDD women underwent 40-h SD (high sleep pressure and 40-h multiple NAP (low sleep pressure protocols under constant routine conditions during which subjective mood was assessed every 30-min. MDD women rated overall significantly worse mood than controls, with minimal values for both groups during the biological night (ca. 4 a.m., under high and low sleep pressure conditions. During SD, nighttime mood ratings in MDD women were lower than in controls and partially recovered during the second day of SD, but never attained control levels. The degree of this diurnal time-course in mood under SD correlated positively with sleep quality in MDD women. Our data indicate that MDD women without sleep disturbances did not exhibit a SD-induced antidepressant response, suggesting that the mood enhancement response to sleep deprivation might be related to the co-existence of sleep disturbances, which is an association that remains to be fully established.

  4. Sexually transmitted infections in young pregnant women in Bangui, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankhart, D; Müller, O; Gresenguet, G; Weis, P

    1999-09-01

    In early 1996, 481 women visiting the antenatal services of the 3 major governmental health centres in the capital city of the Central African Republic (CAR) were included in the study. All study participants underwent the health centre's routine gynaecological examination, including laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis, candidiasis, gonorrhoea, syphilis and bacterial vaginosis. Cervical secretions and blood samples from study participants were sent to the National STD Reference Centre for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans, Treponema pallidum, and HIV. Overall, 34% of the study women were diagnosed with at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) (3.1% N. gonorrhoeae, 6.2% C. trachomatis, 9.9% T. vaginalis, 6.7% T. pallidum, 12.2% HIV-1). In addition, 29.1% of women were diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and 46.6% with candidiasis. Only a small proportion of these women had sought treatment during the weeks before, despite the recognition of genital symptoms. Self-reported and health worker-recognized symptoms, signs and laboratory results exhibited only low sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values in the diagnosis of STIs. These findings confirm the high vulnerability of young African women to STIs and emphasize the need for specific control interventions which should include affordable and user-friendly services. Moreover, these results call for more effective quality control in case of laboratory-based STI control strategies and question the validity of syndromic STI management strategies in women attending antenatal care services in Africa.

  5. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women.

  6. Sexual health: the role of sexual health services among homeless young women living in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Vanessa; Cheff, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Recent statistics indicate limited condom use, high STI (sexually transmitted infection) rates, and a general lack of knowledge about reproductive and sexual health among homeless youth. This research focuses on the experiences of homeless female and transgendered youth, providing an insider's perspective on shaping sexual health interventions. This qualitative research is based on life history interviews and participant observation with eight homeless young women who reflect the diversity of the homeless population in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Their particularized sexual experiences and health-seeking behaviors illustrate the range of issues faced by this community, speaking to the efficacy of current health promotion strategies. Too often faced with judgmental health and social service providers who they perceive to undermine their agency and empowerment, these women highlight the challenges they face when seeking sexual and reproductive health services and information. In addition to speaking to the struggles and frustrations they face in regard to their sexual health and the services with which they choose to interact, the women provide suggestions for improved care. From these, the authors include key recommendations for the provision of culturally competent, sex-positive, and nonjudgmental health services with the hope that health practitioners and promoters can learn from these experiences, both positive and negative, when caring for and supporting young women living in exceptional circumstances.

  7. Autonomy and susceptibility to HIV/AIDS among young women living in a slum in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacham, A S; Maia, M B; Greco, M; Silva, A P; Greco, D B

    2007-01-01

    In Brazil in the last decade there has been an increase in the susceptibility of young women to HIV. This study explored the link between autonomy, or control over major domains of economic, social and sexual life, and susceptibility to HIV infection among poor young women living in an urban slum area of Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a random sample of 356 young women between 15 and 24 years old. The study found that indicators of autonomy that relate to sexuality, mobility and freedom from threat by partners were significantly correlated with practices linked to HIV prevention and with access to health services promoting prevention, especially among adolescents. Young women who talked to their partner about condom use before first intercourse and co-decided with them on condom use were more likely to use condoms. In contrast, those who had ever been victim of physical violence by a partner or whose partners restricted their mobility were less likely to use condoms. The study found that young women were more likely to have accessed health services for gynaecological examinations, family planning services and HIV testing if they had ever been pregnant. The findings indicate that structural gender inequalities translate into unequal relationships and reduced autonomy, increasing young women's susceptibility to HIV. A bias in HIV testing and reproductive health services towards pregnant women leaves many susceptible youth without early access. The study suggests the development of a reproductive health policy that ensures that young women access services before they get pregnant and that also reaches young males.

  8. Individual and Situational Factors Related to Young Women's Likelihood of Confronting Sexism in Their Everyday Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Melanie M; Friedman, Carly K; Leaper, Campbell

    2009-10-01

    Factors related to young women's reported likelihood of confronting sexism were investigated. Participants were 338 U.S. female undergraduates (M = 19 years) attending a California university. They were asked to complete questionnaire measures and to write a personal narrative about an experience with sexism. Approximately half (46%) the women reported confronting the perpetrator. Individual factors (prior experience with sexism, feminist identification, collective action) and situational factors (familiarity and status of perpetrator, type of sexism) were tested as predictors in a logistic regression. Women were less likely to report confronting sexism if (1) they did not identify as feminists, (2) the perpetrator was unfamiliar or high-status/familiar (vs. familiar/equal-status), or (3) the type of sexism involved unwanted sexual attention (vs. sexist comments).

  9. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  10. Adolescent girls and young women: key populations for HIV epidemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael C Dellar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, adolescent girls and young women aged 15–24 contribute a disproportionate ~30% of all new infections and seroconvert 5–7 years earlier than their male peers. This age–sex disparity in HIV acquisition continues to sustain unprecedentedly high incidence rates, and preventing HIV infection in this age group is a pre-requisite for achieving an AIDS-free generation and attaining epidemic control. Discussion: Adolescent girls and young women in southern Africa are uniquely vulnerable to HIV and have up to eight times more infection than their male peers. While the cause of this vulnerability has not been fully elucidated, it is compounded by structural, social and biological factors. These factors include but are not limited to: engagement in age-disparate and/or transactional relationships, few years of schooling, experience of food insecurity, experience of gender-based violence, increased genital inflammation, and amplification of effects of transmission co-factors. Despite the large and immediate HIV prevention need of adolescent girls and young women, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to reduce their risk. The exclusion of adolescents in biomedical research is a huge barrier. School and community-based education programmes are commonplace in many settings, yet few have been evaluated and none have demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV infection. Promising data are emerging on prophylactic use of anti-retrovirals and conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention in these populations. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to meet the HIV prevention needs of adolescent girls and young women, particularly those who are unable to negotiate monogamy, condom use and/or male circumcision. Concerted efforts to expand the prevention options available to these young women in terms of the development of novel HIV-specific biomedical, structural and behavioural

  11. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weight groups about the attention on overweight issues. The results from the in-depth interviews were scrutinized through content analyses. The main findings indicate that young women experience a considerable focus on overweight issues with a trend towards appearance rather than health. Overweight and obesity are sensitive topics, and participants expressed strong views on the cultural definitions of normal body size and appearance. The squeeze between cultural norms and young women's perceptions of their own body and health was described as a possible negative factor influencing well-being as well as motivation for lifestyle changes. A more relaxed focus on overweight issues and especially on appearance is necessary when addressing weight-balance issues and lifestyle changes in young adult women.

  12. Asymptomatic infection with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steere, Allen C; Sikand, Vijay K; Schoen, Robert T; Nowakowski, John

    2003-08-15

    The natural history of asymptomatic seroconversion to Borrelia burgdorferi has been unclear. We report here, on the basis of a post hoc assessment, the frequency and outcome of asymptomatic seroconversion to B. burgdorferi in participants of a large Lyme disease vaccine trial. We show that infection with B. burgdorferi may be asymptomatic but that asymptomatic infection is unusual in the United States.

  13. Hmong Food Helps Us Remember Who We Are: Perspectives of Food Culture and Health among Hmong Women with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vue, Wa; Wolff, Cindy; Goto, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine perspectives on food habits, acculturation, and health among Hmong women with young children in northern California. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 Hmong mothers with young children in a low-income community of northern California. The interviews were transcribed and coded based on the principles of…

  14. Prothrombotic gene variants as risk factors of acute myocardial infarction in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaiuolo Rossella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI in young women represent an extreme phenotype associated with a higher mortality compared with similarly aged men. Prothrombotic gene variants could play a role as risk factors for AMI at young age. Methods We studied Factor V Leiden, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T and beta-fibrinogen -455G>A variants by real-time PCR in 955 young AMI (362 females and in 698 AMI (245 females patients. The data were compared to those obtained in 909 unrelated subjects (458 females from the general population of the same geographical area (southern Italy. Results In young AMI females, the allelic frequency of either FV Leiden and of FII G20210A was significantly higher versus the general population (O.R.: 3.67 for FV Leiden and O.R.: 3.84 for FII G20210A; p Discussion and conclusion Our data confirm that young AMI in females is a peculiar phenotype with specific risk factors as the increased plasma procoagulant activity of FV and FII. On the contrary, the homozygous state for the 677T MTHFR variant may cause increased levels of homocysteine and/or an altered folate status and thus an increased risk for AMI, particularly in males. The knowledge of such risk factors (that may be easily identified by molecular analysis may help to improve prevention strategies for acute coronary diseases in specific risk-group subjects.

  15. Iron deficiency without anemia is associated with anger and fatigue in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takako; Konomi, Aki; Yokoi, Katsuhiko

    2014-06-01

    Iron deficiency without anemia (IDNA), the most prevalent nutritional deficiency worldwide, affects young women of reproductive age. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between IDNA and mental and somatic symptoms including anger and fatigue using the Japanese version of the Cornell Medical Index Health Questionnaire (CMI-J). Data regarding demographic characteristics, anthropometry, hematological, and biochemical indices of the iron status, frequencies of selected food intakes assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), frequencies of nonspecific symptoms, and grades of neurotic tendencies assessed by CMI-J were collected from 76 young women aged 18-22 years living in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan. The subjects were classified as having IDNA (hemoglobin (Hb)≥12 g/dL and serum ferritiniron deficiency anemia (IDA) (Hbiron status (Hb≥12 g/dL and serum ferritin≥20 ng/mL; n=36). One subject was excluded from the analyses because of Hb<12 g/dL and serum ferritin≥20 ng/mL. Fisher's protected least significant difference and the Dwass-Steel-Chritchlow-Fligner multiple comparison tests were used to compare the data of the three groups. P values<0.05 were considered significant. Sections M-R (mental complaints) were significantly higher in the IDNA subjects than in the normal subjects. No significant difference in CMI scores was found between the normal and IDA subjects. Sections I (fatigability), Q (anger), and R (tension) were significantly higher in the IDNA subjects than in the normal subjects, regardless of no significant differences between the normal and IDA subjects in those sections. Young women with IDNA demonstrated a significantly higher proportion of neurotic tendencies (grades II-IV). The intake frequency score of canned or bottled green tea fortified with vitamin C was significantly higher in the IDNA subjects than the IDA subjects. The findings suggest that IDNA may be a risk factor for anger, fatigue, and

  16. The Work-to-College Transition: Postsecondary Expectations and Enrolment for Young Men and Women in the US Labour Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ryan S.; Bills, David B.; Devlin, Maura E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates early employment influences on postsecondary expectations and enrolment for working men and women who have recently completed high school in the United States. We find that young workers still have very high expectations for postsecondary education, but that women are more likely to enrol. However, this difference is…

  17. Breaking the circle: Challenging Western sociocultural norms for appearance influences young women's attention to appearance-related media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischner, I.H.S.; Schie, H.T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Paying attention to thin media models may negatively affect women's self-evaluation. This study aimed to reduce the amount of attention that young women give to appearance-related information by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance, and studied the moderating role of self-esteem. Seven

  18. Long-term intake of iron fortified wholemeal rye bread appears to benefit iron status of young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Nielsen, Sussi Bæch; Thomsen, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of intake of iron fortified, wholemeal rye bread on iron status of young women with low iron stores was evaluated in a 5 month single-blind intervention study. Two parallel groups of women (20-38 y) were given 144 g of rye bread/d either fortified with 6 mg iron as ferrous fumarate/1...

  19. Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…

  20. Applying an Occupational Classification to a National Representative Sample of Work Histories of Young Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafziger, Dean H.; And Others

    Holland's occupational classification was used to analyze the work histories of a national representative sample of young men and women age 14-24. This study extended previous tests of the classification in three ways: (1) It was applied for the first time to a national, representative sample of women, (2) For the sample of men, 3-year…

  1. Thinking big: The effect of sexually objectifying music videos on bodily self-perception in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischner, I.H.S.; Schie, H.T. van; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of sexually objectifying music video exposure on young women's implicit bodily self-perception and the moderating role of self-esteem. Fifty-six college women of normal weight were either exposed to three sexually objectifying music videos or three neutral m

  2. Trajectories of Body Mass Index from Young Adulthood to Middle Age among Canadian Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge regarding the heterogeneity of BMI trajectories is limited for the Canadian population. Using latent class growth modelling, four distinct BMI trajectories of individuals from young adulthood to middle age were identified for both women and men from the longitudinal data of the National Population Health Survey. The associations between BMI trajectories and the individuals’ sociodemographic characteristics and behavioural factors were also examined. Aboriginal women were found more likely to be in the long-term overweight or obese groups. It reveals that increased years of smoking, drinking, and being physically active were associated with lowering the BMI trajectory in all groups for both women and men, with some exceptions in the long-term normal weight group for men. Increased years of rural living, being employed, and living with low income were associated with raising the BMI trajectory in all groups for women and in some groups for men. Food insecurity was associated with raising the BMI trajectory in each group for both women and men.

  3. β-Adrenergic-mediated vasodilation in young men and women: cyclooxygenase restrains nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Johansson, Rebecca E; Peltonen, Garrett L; Harrell, John W; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Sebranek, Joshua J; Schrage, William G

    2016-03-15

    We tested the hypothesis that women exhibit greater vasodilator responses to β-adrenoceptor stimulation compared with men. We further hypothesized women exhibit a greater contribution of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase to β-adrenergic-mediated vasodilation compared with men. Forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) was measured in young men (n = 29, 26 ± 1 yr) and women (n = 33, 25 ± 1 yr) during intra-arterial infusion of isoproterenol (β-adrenergic agonist). In subset of subjects, isoproterenol responses were examined before and after local inhibition of nitric oxide synthase [N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA); 6 male/10 female] and/or cyclooxygenase (ketorolac; 5 male/5 female). Vascular conductance (blood flow ÷ mean arterial pressure) was calculated to assess vasodilation. Vascular conductance increased with isoproterenol infusion (P 0.99) or women (P = 0.21). In contrast, ketorolac infusion markedly increased isoproterenol-mediated responses in both men (P vasodilation is not different between men and women and sex differences in the independent contribution of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase to β-mediated vasodilation are not present. However, these data are the first to demonstrate β-adrenoceptor activation of cyclooxygenase suppresses nitric oxide synthase signaling in human forearm microcirculation and may have important implications for neurovascular control in both health and disease.

  4. Asymptomatic Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormser, G P; Nadelman, R B; Nowakowski, J; Schwartz, I

    2001-10-01

    Little is known about the natural history of asymptomatic Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Our analysis of the asymptomatic infections diagnosed serologically in a recent OspA vaccine trial conducted in the United States (N Engl J Med 1998;339: 209-215), suggests that the natural history of this event is more benign than that reported for untreated patients with erythema migrans (Ann Intern Med 1987;107: 725-731). We hypothesize that this is due either to incorrect diagnosis since the specificity of the serologic criteria used to diagnose asymptomatic infection in the vaccine study is unknown, or to infection with non-pathogenic strains of B. burgdorferi. Increasing evidence indicates that the invasive potential of strains of B. burgdorferi varies according to the specific subtype. Theoretically, a serologic testing method could be devised which would distinguish infection with invasive versus non-invasive strains of B. burgdorferi, and allow testing of the second hypothesis.

  5. Turning the STEM Tide: An Approach for Mentoring Young Women on How to Thrive in STEM Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    a “sense of fit” to enable confidence and satisfaction; understanding the stereotypes and biases toward women in STEM; and seeking/developing...avid slalom water skier. This speaker, a 35ish Caucasian women , told how she fell victim to the stereotype that “girls are not as good at math as...Turning the STEM Tide: An Approach for Mentoring Young Women on How to Thrive in STEM Careers by MW Cole ARL-TR-7029 August 2014

  6. Coping with an acute psychosocial challenge: behavioral and physiological responses in young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Villada

    Full Text Available Despite the relevance of behavior in understanding individual differences in the strategies used to cope with stressors, behavioral responses and their relationships with psychobiological changes have received little attention. In this study on young women, we aimed at analyzing the associations among different components of the stress response and behavioral coping using a laboratory psychosocial stressor. The Ethological Coding System for Interviews, as well as neuroendocrine, autonomic and mood parameters, were used to measure the stress response in 34 young women (17 free-cycling women in their early follicular phase and 17 oral contraceptive users subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and a control condition in a crossover design. No significant differences in cardiac autonomic, negative mood and anxiety responses to the stressor were observed between the two groups of women. However, women in the follicular phase showed a higher cortisol response and a larger decrease in positive mood during the social stress episode, as well as greater anxiety overall. Interestingly, the amount of displacement behavior exhibited during the speaking task of the TSST was positively related to anxiety levels preceding the test, but negatively related to baseline and stress response values of heart rate. Moreover, the amount of submissive behavior was negatively related to basal cortisol levels. Finally, eye contact and low-aggressiveness behaviors were associated with a worsening in mood. Overall, these findings emphasize the close relationship between coping behavior and psychobiological reactions, as well as the role of individual variations in the strategy of coping with a psychosocial stressor.

  7. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M. Gomes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20; the 60-64 age group (n=20; the 65-69 age group (n=20; and the 70-74 age group (n=20. The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05; however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05 as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women.

  8. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake.

  9. Management of primary dysmenorrhea in young women with frameless LNG-IUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildemeersch D

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dirk Wildemeersch,1 Sohela Jandi,2 Ansgar Pett,2 Thomas Hasskamp3 1Gynecological Outpatient Clinic and IUD Training Center, Ghent, Belgium; 2Gynecological Outpatient Clinic, Berlin, Germany; 3GynMünster, Münster, Germany Abstract: The objective of this paper is to discuss the potential advantages of intrauterine treatment with a frameless levonorgestrel (LNG-releasing intrauterine system (IUS in young women presenting with primary dysmenorrhea associated with heavy menstrual bleeding. The paper is based on clinical reports of 21 cases of primary and secondary dysmenorrhea treated with the frameless LNG-IUS. Three typical examples of young women between 16 and 20 years of age, who presented with moderate-to-severe primary dysmenorrhea associated with heavy menstrual bleeding, are presented as examples. Following pelvic examination, including vaginal sonography, a frameless LNG-IUS, releasing 20 µg of LNG/day, was inserted. The three patients developed amenorrhea, or scanty menstrual bleeding, and absence of pain complaints within a few months. We conclude that continuous, intrauterine progestogen delivery could be a treatment of choice of this inconvenient condition. In addition, the good experiences with the frameless LNG-IUS in other studies suggests that the frameless design may be preferred over a framed LNG-IUS, as the absence of a frame, resulting in optimal tolerance, is particularly advantageous in these women. Keywords: heavy menstrual bleeding, contraception, FibroPlant, intrauterine system

  10. Exercise does not influence myostatin and follistatin messenger RNA expression in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensky, Nicole E; Sims, Jennifer K; Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Sattler, Fred R; Rice, Judd C; Schroeder, E Todd

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated changes in myostatin, follistatin, and MyoD messenger RNA (mRNA) gene expression using eccentric exercise (EE) and concentric exercise (CE) as probes to better understand the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy in young women. Twelve women performed single-leg maximal eccentric (n = 6, 25 +/- 1 years, 59 +/- 7 kg) or concentric (n = 6, 24 +/- 1 years, 65 +/- 7 kg) isokinetic knee extension exercise for 7 sessions. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis at baseline, 8 hours after the first exercise session, and 8 hours after the seventh exercise session. In the EE group, there were no changes in myostatin and follistatin (p > or = 0.17); however, MyoD expression increased after 1 exercise bout (p = 0.02). In the CE group, there were no changes in myostatin, follistatin, or MyoD mRNA gene expression (p > or = 0.07). Differences between the EE and CE groups were not significant (p > or = 0.05). These data suggest that a single bout or multiple bouts of maximal EE or CE may not significantly alter myostatin or follistatin mRNA gene expression in young women. However, MyoD mRNA expression seems to increase only after EE.

  11. Associations between body mass index, post-traumatic stress disorder, and child maltreatment in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alexis E; Sartor, Carolyn E; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Eschenbacher, Michaela A; Diemer, Elizabeth W; Nelson, Elliot C; Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine interrelationships between child maltreatment, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and body mass index (BMI) in young women. We used multinomial logistic regression models to explore the possibility that PTSD statistically mediates or moderates the association between BMI category and self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA), physical abuse (CPA), or neglect among 3,699 young women participating in a population-based twin study. Obese women had the highest prevalence of CSA, CPA, neglect, and PTSD (pchild maltreatment were significantly, positively associated with overweight and obesity in unadjusted models, only CSA was significantly associated with obesity after adjusting for other forms of maltreatment and covariates (OR=2.21, 95% CI: 1.63, 3.00). CSA and neglect, but not CPA, were associated with underweight in unadjusted models; however, after adjusting for other forms of maltreatment and covariates, the associations were no longer statistically significant (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 0.90-2.28 and OR=2.16, 95% CI: 0.90-5.16 for CSA and neglect, respectively). Further adjustment for PTSD generally resulted in modest attenuation of effects across associations of child maltreatment forms with BMI categories, suggesting that PTSD may, at most, be only a weak partial mediator of these associations. Future longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking CSA and obesity and to further evaluate the role of PTSD in associations between child maltreatment and obesity.

  12. 'Jumping around': exploring young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health in a remote Aboriginal Australian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia.

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinases, and cyclooxygenase-2 influence prognosis of uterine cervical cancer in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriyuki, Maiko; Sumi, Toshiyuki; Zhi, Xu; Misugi, Fumiko; Nobeyama, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Yasui, Tomoyo; Honda, Ken-Ichi; Ishiko, Osamu

    2007-09-01

    Recent changes in the lifestyle of young women have led to an increase in the rate of uterine cervical cancer. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics of uterine cervical cancer in young women, and examined the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Tumor samples from 439 patients with uterine cervical cancer, who were initially treated at Osaka City University Medical School Hospital, Japan between 1995 and 2004, were stained immunohistochemically. The patients were classified into two groups according to age at onset: group Y included women aged or =36 years. Group Y had more cases of squamous cell carcinoma, while group O had more advanced cases (Pcervical cancer in young women.

  14. Comparison of HPV prevalence between HPV-vaccinated and non-vaccinated young adult women (20-26 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangjian; Hirth, Jacqueline M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2015-01-01

    There is some concern about the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine among young adult women due to the risk of prior HPV infection. This study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012 data to evaluate the effectiveness of HPV vaccination among women 20-26 years of age who were vaccinated after 12 years of age. This cross-sectional study examined 878 young adult women (20-26 years) with complete information on HPV prevalence and HPV vaccination status from NHANES 2007-2012. Vaginal swab specimens were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors were used to compare type-specific HPV prevalence between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. A total of 21.4% of young adult women surveyed through NHANES between 2007 and 2012 received the HPV vaccine. Vaccinated women had a lower prevalence of vaccine types than unvaccinated women (7.4% vs 17.1%, prevalence ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.88). The prevalence of high-risk nonvaccine types was higher among vaccinated women than unvaccinated women (52.1% vs 40.4%, prevalence ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.06-1.57), but this difference was attenuated after adjusting for sexual behavior variables (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.43). HPV vaccination was effective against all 4 vaccine types in young women vaccinated after age 12. However, vaccinated women had a higher prevalence of high-risk nonvaccine types, suggesting that they may benefit from newer vaccines covering additional types.

  15. Asymptomatic ocular sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Guilherme Azevedo de Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic systemic granulomatous disease. It commonly affects the skin, lungs, kidneys, and central nervous system. In the eyes it primarily affects the uveal tract, conjunctiva, lacrimal glands and optic nerve. Here in we describe the case of a patient with systemic sarcoidosis and asymptomatic eye inflammation.

  16. Behavioral and Health Outcomes for HIV+ Young Transgender Women Linked To and Engaged in Medical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matone, Meredith; Luan, Xianqun; Lee, Susan; Belzer, Marvin; Fernandez, Maria Isabel; Rubin, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe health and psychosocial outcomes of HIV+ young transgender women (YTW) engaged in care across the United States. When compared to other behaviorally infected youth (BIY), YTW reported higher rates of unemployment (25% vs. 19%), limited educational achievement (42% vs 13%), and suboptimal ART adherence (51% vs. 30%). There was no difference in likelihood of having a detectable viral load (38% vs. 39%) between groups. However, particular isolating psychosocial factors (unstable housing, depression, and lack of social support for attending appointments) increased predicted probability of viral detection to a greater extent among YTW that may have important health implications for this marginalized youth population. PMID:26789394

  17. Effects of monophasic low-dose oral contraceptives on fibrin formation and resolution in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K R; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Skouby, S O

    1993-01-01

    of fibrinogen and Factor VIIc increased, and the capacity of coagulation inhibition was affected by increased protein C and decreased protein S levels. Increased fibrinolytic capacity was indicated by elevated activity and reduced antigen levels of tissue plasminogen activator and by reduced activity......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine key variables in the regulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis during intake of low-dose oral contraceptives containing newly developed progestogens. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-four healthy young women were allocated to 12 consecutive cycles...

  18. Control of the upper body accelerations in young and elderly women during level walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecoraro Fabrizio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of the head movements during walking allows for the stabilisation of the optic flow, for a more effective processing of the vestibular system signals, and for the consequent control of equilibrium. In young individuals, the oscillations of the upper body during level walking are characterised by an attenuation of the linear acceleration going from pelvis to head level. In elderly subjects the ability to implement this motor strategy is reduced. The aim of this paper is to go deeper into the mechanisms through which the head accelerations are controlled during level walking, in both young and elderly women specifically. Methods A stereophotogrammetric system was used to reconstruct the displacement of markers located at head, shoulder, and pelvis level while 16 young (age: 24 ± 4 years and 20 older (age: 72 ± 4 years female volunteers walked at comfortable and fast speed along a linear pathway. The harmonic coefficients of the displacements in the medio-lateral (ML, antero-posterior (AP, and vertical (V directions were calculated via discrete Fourier transform, and relevant accelerations were computed by analytical double differentiation. The root mean square of the accelerations were used to define three coefficients for quantifying the attenuations of the accelerations from pelvis to head, from pelvis to shoulder, and from shoulder to head. Results The coefficients of attenuation were shown to be independent from the walking speed, and hence suitable for group and subject comparison. The acceleration in the AP direction was attenuated by the two groups both from pelvis to shoulder and from shoulder to head. The reduction of the shoulder to head acceleration, however, was less effective in older women, suggesting that the ability to exploit the cervical hinge to attenuate the AP acceleration is challenged in this population. Young women managed to exploit a pelvis to shoulder attenuation strategy also in the ML

  19. Comparative data from young men and women on masseter muscle fibres, function and facial morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, A.; Bakke, M.; Pinholt, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The primary aim was to relate information about masseter muscle fibres and function to aspects of facial morphology in a group of healthy young men. The secondary aim was to investigate possible sex differences using data previously obtained from a comparable group of age-matched, healthy women....... Dental status and facial morphology were recorded in 13 male students aged 20-26 years. Functional examinations included bite-force measurements and electromyographic recordings of masseter activity. A biopsy was removed from the masseter of each participant during surgical extraction of a wisdom tooth......, and the tissue examined for myosin ATPase activity. Further, the cross-sectional areas of the different fibre types were measured. In spite of using age-matched healthy men and women with a full complement of teeth, statistically significant sex differences were found among measures related to muscle function...

  20. Environmental exposure and breast cancer among young women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Jacome, Guillermo Patricio; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Rego Monteiro, Gina Torres; Koifman, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Increasing breast cancer rates among young women (series study was carried out in Rio de Janeiro aiming to obtain epidemiological information allowing the generation of hypotheses to be further evaluated in analytical studies. One hundred and ten women 20-35 years old diagnosed with breast cancer were interviewed to determine the role environment plays in patients cased upon residential location. A comprehensive questionnaire including personal information (medical and lifestyle antecedents, reproductive history, family history of cancer, chemical and radiation exposure) was employed, and the obtained data were further compared with data provided by controls (women without cancer). An unconditional logistic regression was further employed to ascertain the respective odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Seventy-one percent of cancer cases were sporadic breast cancer, and familial aggregation (first degree relatives) was observed in just 3.5% (5.5% including second-degree relatives). Forty (51.3%) of the cancer cases were reported to have resided at a distance of less than 20 m from an electrical power transformer. Bivariate analysis revealed OR = 5.62 (95% CI 2.63-12) for residential use of pesticides during adulthood, OR = 2.15 (95% CI 1.22-3.77) for dental diagnostic x-rays, and OR= 1.53 (95% 0.77-3.04) for living nearby an electrical power transformer. Further multivariate analysis showed an adjusted OR = 3.5 (95% CI 1.11-11.0) for residential use of pesticides, and an adjusted OR = 2 (95% CI 1.24-3.23) for dental diagnostic x-rays during adulthood. The observed results highlight the importance of exploring the contribution of selected environmental agents possibly involved in breast carcinogenesis among young women.

  1. Association between blood lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ju Roh

    Full Text Available Abnormal lipid levels are important etiological factors associated with the development of atherosclerosis and with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lipid levels are also influenced by lifestyle and behavioral factors, which suggests that personality traits might be related to abnormal lipid profiles. Studies on personality traits and lipid levels are relatively scarce in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women. A total of 1,701 young Korean women [mean age  = 24.9±4.6 years (range 17-39] who volunteered for personality trait evaluation were recruited for this study. Lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride, were measured in all subjects after an overnight fast, and a low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol level was calculated. The study population was divided into abnormal and normal lipid level groups according to the clinical criteria. Personality traits were measured using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the Five-Factor Model of personality. High neuroticism was associated with low HDL cholesterol levels. Low extraversion and openness were associated with high levels of triglyceride. At the facet level, the association between personality and lipid levels were generally consistent. Angry hostility, self-consciousness, vulnerability to stress, activity, and straightforwardness were associated with HDL cholesterol levels. Activity, positive emotion, aesthetics, actions, and deliberation were associated with triglyceride. When applying clinical criteria, conscientiousness was less likely to have abnormal total cholesterol levels. Our results showed that the women with the low HDL cholesterol levels are like to be more neurotic and the hyperglycemic women are prone to lower extraversion and openness in Korea. Understanding the associations between

  2. Association between blood lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Seung-Ju; Kim, Han-Na; Shim, Unjin; Kim, Bo-Hye; Kim, Su-Jin; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal lipid levels are important etiological factors associated with the development of atherosclerosis and with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lipid levels are also influenced by lifestyle and behavioral factors, which suggests that personality traits might be related to abnormal lipid profiles. Studies on personality traits and lipid levels are relatively scarce in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women. A total of 1,701 young Korean women [mean age  = 24.9±4.6 years (range 17-39)] who volunteered for personality trait evaluation were recruited for this study. Lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride, were measured in all subjects after an overnight fast, and a low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was calculated. The study population was divided into abnormal and normal lipid level groups according to the clinical criteria. Personality traits were measured using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the Five-Factor Model of personality. High neuroticism was associated with low HDL cholesterol levels. Low extraversion and openness were associated with high levels of triglyceride. At the facet level, the association between personality and lipid levels were generally consistent. Angry hostility, self-consciousness, vulnerability to stress, activity, and straightforwardness were associated with HDL cholesterol levels. Activity, positive emotion, aesthetics, actions, and deliberation were associated with triglyceride. When applying clinical criteria, conscientiousness was less likely to have abnormal total cholesterol levels. Our results showed that the women with the low HDL cholesterol levels are like to be more neurotic and the hyperglycemic women are prone to lower extraversion and openness in Korea. Understanding the associations between blood lipid levels

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis incidence and re-infection among young women--behavioural and microbiological characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate rates of chlamydia incidence and re-infection and to investigate the dynamics of chlamydia organism load in prevalent, incident and re-infections among young Australian women. METHODS: 1,116 women aged 16 to 25 years were recruited from primary care clinics in Australia. Vaginal swabs were collected at 3 to 6 month intervals for chlamydia testing. Chlamydia organism load was measured by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: There were 47 incident cases of chlamydia diagnosed and 1,056.34 person years of follow up with a rate of 4.4 per 100 person years (95% CI: 3.3, 5.9. Incident infection was associated with being aged 16 to 20 years [RR = 3.7 (95%CI: 1.9, 7.1], being employed [RR = 2.4 (95%CI: 1.1, 4.9] and having two or more new sex partners [RR = 5.5 (95%CI: 2.6, 11.7]. Recent antibiotic use was associated with a reduced incidence [RR:0.1 (95%CI: 0.0, 0.5]. There were 14 re-infections with a rate of 22.3 per 100 person years (95%CI: 13.2, 37.6. The median time to re-infection was 4.6 months. Organism load was higher for prevalent than incident infections (p<0.01 and for prevalent than re-infections (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Chlamydia is common among young women and a high proportion of women are re-infected within a short period of time, highlighting the need for effective partner treatment and repeat testing. The difference in organism load between prevalent and incident infections suggests prevalent infection may be more important for ongoing transmission of chlamydia.

  4. Cervical cancer screening: attitudes and behaviors of young Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Grace J; Le, Mai Nhung; Vong, Stephen; Lagman, Regina; Lam, Amy G

    2011-12-01

    Compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women experience high incidence rates of cervical cancer but low rates of cervical cancer screenings. This study examines the behaviors and attitudes towards screening in young Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women (n = 304) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Results indicated Vietnamese American (OR = 2.51) and Filipino American (OR = 2.31) women had greater odds of ever having a Pap test than Korean American women. Those older (OR = 1.55), born in the USA (OR = 2.64), and those comfortable with the test (OR = 3.41) also had greater odds of ever having a Pap test. Correct knowledge of cervical cancer and the human papillomavirus did not significantly affect the odds of having a Pap test. Interventions to increase Pap testing in these populations should focus on increasing levels of comfort and should target those younger and foreign born.

  5. A Community-Based Study of Enduring Eating Features in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Rodgers

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a prospective exploration of the temporal course of eating disorder (ED symptoms in two cohorts of community women. One hundred and twenty-two young women (Cohort 1 identified in a general population based survey with ED symptoms of clinical severity agreed to participate in a 5-year follow-up study. A comparative sample (Cohort 2 of 706 similar aged self-selected college women (221 with disordered eating was recruited one year later. Both ED groups were given a health literacy package in the first year. ED symptoms, health related quality of life, and psychological distress were assessed annually with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Short Form—12 Health Survey and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, respectively. Forty percent (Cohort 1 and 30.3% (Cohort 2 completed questionnaires at each year of follow-up. In both groups, there was early improvement in ED symptoms which plateaued after the first year, and participants retained high EDE-Q scores at 5 years. BMI increased as expected. Mental health related quality of life scores did not change but there were small improvements in psychological distress scores. The findings suggest little likelihood of spontaneous remission of ED problems in community women.

  6. Prevalence of codependence in young women seeking primary health care and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Gloria; Ramos, Luciana; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Villa, Antonio R

    2008-04-01

    Codependence as a relational problem that often, but not necessarily always, occurs in conjunction with familial alcoholism. Previous research has shown that various etiological factors resulting from recurring stressful circumstances experienced in childhood or adulthood may contribute to this relation. Another factor arises out of the "submission script" that may be assumed by women living within a culture that typically promotes unequal power between women and men. To examine the prevalence of codependence and its predictors, a cross-sectional study was conducted among a population of 845 young women seeking primary health care in Mexico City. Odds ratio prevalence (ORP) was used to estimate the strength of possible association between codependence and exposure to several factors. A prevalence of 25% of codependence was found. Multivariate analysis revealed that women with a submissive cultural script were nearly eight times more likely to develop codependence than those without this programming. Other relevant factors were having a partner with probable alcohol dependence, a father with alcohol problems, physical and sexual mistreatment by a partner, and a history of emotional mistreatment.

  7. 无症状青年颞下颌关节盘位置的MRI研究%MRI study of position of temporomandibular joint disc of asymptomatic young volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕文娟; 王东; 张文煜; 李亮; 谷志远

    2011-01-01

    Objective To masler the incidence of anlerior disc displacement of TMJ in symplomless youth volunteers,and approach the relationship between temporomandibular joint disc and the condyle. Methods Diagnose the anterior disk displacement in the a symptomatic volunteers on the basis of Drace standards, divide them into different groups, locate the point measure the related data and then analyze the data,statistically. Results Among the 30 asymptomatic volunteers,7 volunteers had one-side anterior disk displace ment(23. 33% ); 2 volunteers' condylar process developed anomaly(6. 67% ) ; 21 volunteers were normal on both sides(70% ). There are significant differences between the groups on the relationship of temporomandibular joint disc and condylar process. Conclutions Anterior disk displacement exists in asymptomatic young volunteers, which provides a basis to the study of tempormandibular joint dis ease.%目的 了解关节盘前移位在无症状青年志愿者中发生率,并探讨其颞下颌关节盘和髁突的位置关系.方法 根据Drace标准确定无症状志愿者中关节盘前移位,并进行分组以及定点和相关数据的测量以确定盘-髁关系,对测得数据进行统计分析.结果 30名无症状志愿者中有7人(23.33%)存在单侧可复性关节盘前移位;髁突发育异常者2人(6.67%);双侧均正常者21人(70.00%).关节盘-髁突位置的测定数据在各组间有统计学意义.结论 磁共振影像检查证实在无症状青年志愿者中存在关节盘前移位.

  8. Multiple case study analysis of young women's experiences in high school engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Meagan C.

    At a time when engineers are in critical demand, women continue to be significantly underrepresented in engineering fields (11.7%) and degree programs (21.3%) in the United States. As a result, there is a national demand for improved K-12 STEM education and targeted efforts to improve equity and access to engineering and science careers for every underrepresented group. High school engineering has become a nascent and growing market for developers and an emergent opportunity for students across the United States to learn introductory engineering skills through strategic career pathways; however there is a disparity in participation at this level as well. Much useful research has been used to examine the problematization of underrepresentation (K Beddoes, 2011), but there is a dearth of literature that helps us to understand the experiences of young women in high school engineering. By examining the experiences of young women in high school engineering, we can learn ways to improve the curriculum, pedagogy, and environment for underrepresented groups such as females to ensure they have equitable access to these programs and are subsequently motivated to persist in engineering. Understanding the needs of marginalized groups is complex, and intersectional feminism seeks to understand gender in relation to other identities such as race, class, ethnicity, sexuality, and nationality. This theory asserts that gender alone is neither a total identity nor a universal experience, and it is thus advantageous to consider each of the intersecting layers of identity so as to not privilege a dominate group as representative of all women. Thus, to understand how female students engage with and experience engineering in grade school, it is useful to examine through the lens of gender, class, race, and sexuality, because this intersection frames much of the human experience. The purpose of this study is to examine high school females' experiences in engineering, with a goal to

  9. Pre-meal tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) intake can have anti-obesity effects in young women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinha, Ana F; Barreira, Sérgio V P; Costa, Anabela S G; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-12-01

    The effect of pre-meal tomato intake in the anthropometric indices and blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, and uric acid of a young women population (n = 35, 19.6 ± 1.3 years) was evaluated. During 4 weeks, daily, participants ingested a raw ripe tomato (∼90 g) before lunch. Their anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured repeatedly during the follow-up time. At the end of the 4 weeks, significant reductions were observed on body weight (-1.09 ± 0.12 kg on average), % fat (-1.54 ± 0.52%), fasting blood glucose (-5.29 ± 0.80 mg/dl), triglycerides (-8.31 ± 1.34 mg/dl), cholesterol (-10.17 ± 1.21 mg/dl), and uric acid (-0.16 ± 0.04 mg/dl) of the participants. The tomato pre-meal ingestion seemed to interfere positively in body weight, fat percentage, and blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and uric acid of the young adult women that participated in this study.

  10. Comfort eating, psychological stress, and depressive symptoms in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Laura E; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about whether comfort eating actually functions to reduce psychological stress. In addition, the effectiveness of comfort eating may be particularly relevant in the context of depression, but no study has tested whether comfort eating processes might depend on severity of depressive symptomology. This study tested 1) whether greater comfort eating statistically buffers the relationship between adverse life events and perceived psychological stress at age 18-19, and 2) whether potential stress-buffering effects may differ by level of depressive symptoms. These relationships were examined in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, comprising 2379 young adult women. Participants self-reported experiences with adverse life events, their perceived psychological stress, and whether they tended to eat more while experiencing certain negative emotions. As hypothesized, the relationship between adverse life events and perceived stress depended on comfort eating status (p = .033). The effect of adverse events on perceived stress was attenuated among comfort eaters compared to non-comfort eaters (p = .004), but this buffering effect was not shown in participants with an elevated level of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, among young adult women without high depressive symptoms, comfort eaters may experience reduced perceived stress compared to those who do not engage in this behavior. Intervention researchers should also consider the possible benefits of comfort eating.

  11. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Na Kim

    Full Text Available Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI ≥ 6 in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women.

  12. Oxidative stress in follicular fluid of young women with low response compared with fertile oocyte donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez-Calonge, Rocío; Cortés, Susana; Gutierrez Gonzalez, Luis Miguel; Kireev, Roman; Vara, Elena; Ortega, Leonor; Caballero, Pedro; Rancan, Lisa; Tresguerres, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes and cytokines in the follicular fluid of young women with low response in ovarian stimulation cycles compared with high responders and fertile oocyte donors of the same age, to assess the impact of oxidative stress on ovarian reserve. The activity of follicular fluid antioxidant enzymes glutathione transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase was significantly lower in young women with reduced ovarian reserve compared with that in high responders and oocyte donors. Follicular fluid concentrations of oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde combined with 4-hydroxyalkenals and nitric oxide were higher in low responders than in high responders and oocyte donors. Significant differences between low responders and donors in concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor were observed, with higher concentrations in low responders. However, IL-10 concentration was lower in low responders than in high responders and donors. No significant differences were found in follicular fluid concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha between the three groups. These results demonstrate that different concentrations of oxidative stress markers, oxidant enzymes and cytokines in low responders compared with high responders and oocyte donors may negatively impact ovarian response.

  13. Postprandial lipemia in young men and women of contrasting training status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, S L; Lawrence, J E; Malkova, D; Murphy, M H; Mastana, S; Hardman, A E

    2000-11-01

    This study compared the postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) response to a high-fat meal in trained and untrained normolipidemic young adults after 2 days' abstinence from exercise. Fifty-three subjects (11 endurance-trained men, 9 endurance-trained women, 10 sprint/strength-trained men, 11 untrained men, 11 untrained women) consumed a meal (1.2 g fat, 1.1 g carbohydrate, 66 kJ per kg body mass) after a 12-h fast. Venous blood samples were obtained in the fasted state and at intervals until 6 h. Postprandial responses were the areas under the plasma or serum concentration-vs.-time curves. Neither fasting TAG concentrations nor the postprandial TAG response differed between trained and untrained subjects. The insulinemic response was 29% lower in endurance-trained men than in untrained men [mean difference -37.4 (95% confidence interval -62.9 to -22.9) microIU/ml x h, P = 0.01]. Responses of plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma nonesterified fatty acids were all lower for endurance-trained men than for untrained men. These findings suggest that, in young adults, no effect of training on postprandial lipemia can be detected after 60 h without exercise. The effect on postprandial insulinemia may persist for longer.

  14. Effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise on postprandial plasma triacylglycerol in sedentary young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Martin; Chan Moy Fat, Rachel; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2014-02-01

    High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) such as the 30-s Wingate test attenuates postprandial triacylglycerol (TG), however, the ability of shorter versions of HIIE to reduce postprandial TG is undetermined. Thus, the effect of 8-s sprinting bouts of HIIE on blood TG levels of 12 females after consumption of a high-fat meal (HFM) was examined. Twelve young, sedentary women (BMI 25.1 ± 2.3 kg/m²; age 21.3 ± 2.1 years) completed a maximal oxygen uptake test and then on different days underwent either an exercise or a no-exercise postprandial TG condition. Both conditions involved consuming a HFM after a 12-hr fast. The HFM, in milkshake form provided 4170 kJ (993 Kcal) of energy and 98 g fat. Order was counter-balanced. In the exercise condition participants completed 20-min of HIIE cycling consisting of repeated bouts of 8 s sprint cycling (100-115 rpm) and 12 s of active rest (easy pedaling) 14 hr before consuming the HFM. Blood samples were collected hourly after the HFM for 4 hr. Total postprandial TG was 13% lower, p = .004, in the exercise (5.84 ± 1.08 mmol L⁻¹ 4 h⁻¹) compared with the no-exercise condition (6.71 ± 1.63 mmol L⁻¹ 4 h⁻¹). In conclusion, HIIE significantly attenuated postprandial TG in sedentary young women.

  15. Sexuality knowledge, attitudes, and practices of young women in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Morgan-Kidd, Jayne; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Wood, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Adolescents in the juvenile justice system have many risk behaviors that endanger their immediate and future health. They are a vulnerable and often overlooked population for whom pediatric nurses working in community settings can provide important prevention services. To develop an intervention targeted to the specific sexual risk behaviors of young women in a juvenile detention center, this study was designed to assess baseline levels of knowledge, values, and behaviors. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. A convenience sample of 100 adolescent girls (ages 13-17 years, mean 14.8) largely from Hispanic backgrounds (74%) who were detained in the juvenile justice system completed a simplified version of the Mathtech sexuality questionnaire. Correct answers and a brief educational program were provided at the completion of the questionnaire. Results suggest that the overwhelming majority of this population is sexually active (94%) and has inadequate knowledge of basic information on sexuality (mean knowledge score, 10.9 out of possible 18 points). While many young women indicated a belief in the importance of contraception (91%), fewer were comfortable going to a clinic for birth control (46%) or had used a reliable method in the past month (37%). Work that will help to increase knowledge, clarify values, and shape healthy behaviors is essential for this high-risk, vulnerable population.

  16. Physical Properties of Blood Are Altered in Young and Lean Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Simmonds, Michael J.; Milne, Nikki; Ong, Kee; Brotherton, Emily; McNamee, Antony P.; Horobin, Jarod; Sabapathy, Surendran

    2016-01-01

    Classic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) include derangement of metabolic and cardiovascular health, and vascular dysfunction is commonly reported. These comorbidities indicate impaired blood flow; however, other than limited reports of increased plasma viscosity, surprisingly little is known regarding the physical properties of blood in PCOS. We aimed to investigate whether haemorheology was impaired in women with PCOS. We thus measured a comprehensive haemorheological profile, in a case-control design, of lean women with PCOS and age-matched healthy controls. A clinical examination determined similar cardiovascular risk for the two groups. Whole blood and plasma viscosity was measured using a cone-plate viscometer. The magnitude and rate of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation was determined using a light-transmission aggregometer, and the degree of RBC deformability was measured via laser-diffraction ektacytometry. Plasma viscosity was significantly increased in women with PCOS. Blood viscosity was also increased for PCOS at lower-to-moderate shear rates in both native and standardised haematocrit samples. The magnitude of RBC aggregation–a primary determinant of low-shear blood viscosity–was significantly increased in PCOS at native and 0.4 L·L-1 haematocrit. No difference was detected between PCOS and CON groups for RBC deformability measurements. A novel measure indicating the effectiveness of oxygen transport by RBC (i.e., the haematocrit-to-viscosity ratio; HVR) was decreased at all shear rates in women with PCOS. In a group of young and lean women with PCOS with an unremarkable cardiovascular risk profile based on clinical data, significant haemorheological impairment was observed. The degree of haemorheological derangement observed in the present study reflects that of overt chronic disease, and provides an avenue for future therapeutic intervention in PCOS. PMID:27902766

  17. Study recommends measures to reduce induced abortion among young women in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A study supported by the Program in the Republic of Korea involved 500 unmarried female adolescents and young adults selected from three categories: (a) factory workers living in industry-affiliated housing who participated in the project's special information program; (b) entertainers and sex workers working in bars and similar enterprises; and (c) women who sought an induced abortion in hospitals or private clinics. The average age of the women in each group was 22 years, 23 years, and 24 years, respectively. Most of the women had 12 years of schooling or more, and reported that their ideal age to enter marriage was 25 years. Korean society is generally very traditional, but among the factory workers cohabitation by unmarried couples is quite common and is gaining social acceptance. Among the women who reported a previous unwanted pregnancy, 85% said that they had not used a contraceptive before. Among the sex workers, contraceptive use was 53%, but still 66% had had an unwanted pregnancy. Among the factory workers contraceptive prevalence was 21%, and 36% reported having had an unwanted pregnancy. Among those seeking an abortion, only 20% had been using a method at the time of conception with 15% reporting contraceptive failure. Previous abortion experience was highest among abortion seekers (76%), followed by sex workers (45%), and the factory workers (11%). An argument is made for legalization of abortion in the country given that most abortions take place under unsafe conditions. Sex education is also recommended in schools and making family planning services available to adolescents, particularly to single women working in the industrial sector. The results have been discussed with labor unions and workers' organizations.

  18. Gene Variants Are Associated with PCOS Susceptibility and Hyperandrogenemia in Young Korean Women

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    Do Kyeong Song

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity and insulin resistance are also common features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Therefore, the FTO gene might be a candidate gene for PCOS susceptibility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of FTO gene variants on PCOS susceptibility and metabolic and reproductive hormonal parameters.MethodsWe recruited 432 women with PCOS (24±5 years and 927 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles (27±5 years and performed a case-control association study. We genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1421085, rs17817449, and rs8050136 in the FTO gene and collected metabolic and hormonal measurements.ResultsLogistic regression revealed that the G/G genotype (rs1421085, 1.6%, the C/C genotype (rs17817449, 1.6%, and the A/A genotype (rs8050136, 1.6% were strongly associated with an increased risk of PCOS (odds ratio, 2.551 to 2.559; all P<0.05. The strengths of these associations were attenuated after adjusting for age and BMI. The women with these genotypes were more obese and exhibited higher free androgen indices (P<0.05 and higher free testosterone levels (P=0.053 to 0.063 compared to the other genotypes. However the significant differences disappeared after adjusting for body mass index (BMI. When we analyzed the women with PCOS and the control groups separately, there were no significant differences in the metabolic and reproductive hormonal parameters according to the FTO gene variants.ConclusionThe rs1421085, rs17817449, and rs8050136 variants of the FTO gene were associated with PCOS susceptibility and hyperandrogenemia in young Korean women. These associations may be mediated through an effect of BMI.

  19. Smoking decreases the level of circulating CD34+ progenitor cells in young healthy women - a pilot study

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    Baumann Gert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased levels of circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have been associated with risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis in young women. The aim of this pilot study was to assess in healthy premenopausal women without other risk factors for cardiovascular disease the influence of nicotine abuse on the number of circulating progenitor cells in relation to endothelial function. Methods The number of endothelial progenitor cells, measured as colony-forming units in a cell-culture assay (EPC-CFU and the number of circulating CD34 + and CD34 + /CD133 + cells, measured by flow cytometry, was estimated in 32 women at the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle. In addition, flow-mediated dilation (FMD was assessed as a marker for vascular function. In a subgroup of these women (n = 20, progenitor cells were also investigated at the mid-follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Results Compared to non-smokers, the abundance of circulating CD34 + cells was significantly lower in smoking women in the menstrual, mid-luteal, and mid-follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. The number of CD34 + progenitor cells was revealed to have significant positive correlation with FMD in young healthy women, whereas CD34 + /CD133 + progenitor cells and EPC-CFU showed no significant correlation. Conclusion The number of CD34 + progenitor cells positively correlates with FMD in young healthy women and is decreased by smoking.

  20. Childhood Sexual Violence and Consistent, Effective Contraception Use among Young, Sexually Active Urban Women

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    Deborah B. Nelson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Unintended pregnancy (UP is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception.

  1. Association between extraversion personality and abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Unjin; Oh, Jee-Young; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Han-Na; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Depression and psychological distress are known to be associated with diabetes development as well as the disease progression including glycemic control and chronic complication, but relationship of personality with diabetes is controversial. We examined whether personality trait and the presence of abnormal glucose regulation (AGR; diabetes and pre-diabetes) are associated in young women. A total of 1,617 young women aged 19-39 years without previously diagnosed diabetes were participated voluntarily. Personality trait was assessed by self-reported questionnaire using the five-factor model (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness) consisting of five-point scale ranging from 'strongly disagreeable' to 'strongly agreeable.' Glucose tolerance status was assessed by standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. One hundred and eleven women were newly diagnosed with AGR (6.9 %). Among five factors, only extraversion trait was significantly associated with AGR. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant negative association between extraversion trait and 2-h post-load glucose after adjustment for age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and family history of diabetes (β = -0.16, P = 0.026). Multiple logistic regression showed extraversion trait having a significant association with the presence of AGR after adjustment for the same covariates (OR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.95-0.99, P = 0.011). The frequency of AGR was significantly increased according to the decrease in extraversion score (P for trend with exact test = 0.047). In conclusion, extraversion may be an important personality trait having a beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of AGR.

  2. Influencing young women to pursue a career in the creative information technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosco, Michele

    A leaky pipeline is often cited as the cause for the underrepresentation of women in computer-related professions. However, females may not even enter the pipeline; that is, they do not even enroll in creative information technology coursework as early as high school. Creative information technology careers include web design, digital photography, and multimedia. Constructs of the social cognitive career theory---outcome expectations and self-efficacy--provided the theoretical framework for this investigation to determine why young women are not exhibiting interest in these careers. Using an action research structure, a female-segregated technology club was implemented at the high school. The study intended to increase the participants' interest in pursuing careers in the creative information technology field through the components of career choice as outlined in the theoretical framework. The outcome expectations of "With whom will I work?" and "What will I do?" were addressed through the presentation of female role models and career information. Self-efficacy was targeted through technology skills' instruction directly related to the creative information technology fields. Data was collected through the administration of a pretest/posttest survey instrument, researcher observations, individual participant interviews, and an analysis of the participants' creative products. Quantitative findings indicated that there were few statistically significant program effects. The participants' perceptions of those employed in these careers did not change, but their technology self-efficacy increased on three indicators. Analysis of qualitative data yielded a more complete picture: although the young women had little prior knowledge of those employed in these fields, they did enjoy learning technology to develop creative projects in a social atmosphere where they could persevere through the technology frustrations they encountered. All of the data types affirmed that the

  3. Why do young women smoke? III. Attention and impulsivity as neurocognitive predisposing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakir, Avi; Rigbi, Amihai; Kanyas, Kyra; Pollak, Yehudah; Kahana, Gazit; Karni, Osnat; Eitan, Renana; Kertzman, Semion; Lerer, Bernard

    2007-04-01

    Since nicotine has been shown to facilitate sustained attention and control of impulsivity, impairment in these domains may influence individuals who initiate smoking for various reasons to continue to smoke cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether young women who smoke regularly but are not abstinent at the time of testing, differ in their cognitive functioning from non-smokers and whether they resemble women who smoked in the past but quit. Female undergraduate students aged 20-30 years were recruited by advertisement from institutes of higher education in the Jerusalem area. The study sample consisted of 91 current smokers (CS), 40 past smokers (PS) and 151 non-smokers (NS). 46 occasional smokers (OS) were also tested. Confounding by withdrawal state was neutralized by including only CS and OS who smoked their last cigarette less than 90 min before testing. Subjects performed a computerized neurocognitive battery, which tests the domains of attention, memory, impulsivity, planning, information processing and motor performance. Analyses were controlled for age. The results showed that CS made significantly more errors than NS on the Continuous Performance Task (CPT), Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) and Tower of London (TOL) test. PS were significantly worse than NS on the MFFT and TOL test. PS did not differ significantly from CS on any test. No association was found between duration of smoking and performance. These findings suggest that a neurocognitive profile characterized by impairments in sustained attention and control of impulsivity may be one of the factors that predispose young women who initiate cigarette smoking to maintain the habit.

  4. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium.

  5. TLR4-mediated blunting of inflammatory responses to eccentric exercise in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; De Paz, José A; Rodriguez-Miguelez, Paula; Cuevas, María J; González-Gallego, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the inflammatory response mediated by the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway after acute eccentric exercise before and after an eccentric training program in women. Twenty women performed two acute eccentric bouts using a squat machine over a ~9 week interval. The training group (TG) carried out an eccentric training program during 6 weeks, while the control group (CG) did not follow any training. Protein content of markers involved in the TLR4-mediated activation of several nuclear transcription factors, such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and interferon regulatory transcription factor 3 (IRF3), was analyzed. The inflammatory response after the first acute bout was similar between TG and CG, showing an upregulation of all the markers analyzed, with the exception of IRF3. After the second bout, the upregulation of TLR4 signaling pathway was blunted in TG, but not in CG, through both the myeloid differentiation factor 88- and toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain containing adapter inducing interferon-β-dependent pathways. These results highlight the role of the TLR4 in controlling the exercise-induced inflammatory response in young women. More importantly, these data suggest eccentric training may help to prevent TLR4 activation principally through NF-κB, and perhaps IRF3, downstream signaling in this population.

  6. Splitting, impulsivity, and intimate partnerships in young obese women seeking bariatric treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmolikova, Jana; Pichlerova, Dita; Bob, Petr; Schückova, Denisa; Herlesova, Jitka; Weiss, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Splitting represents a defense mechanism that describes fragmentation of conscious experience that may occur in various psychopathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of splitting with disturbed cognitive and affective functions related to impulsivity and intimate partnerships in a group of obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment and compare the results with other obese patients and patients with bulimia nervosa. Methods In this clinical study, we assessed 102 young women. The sample was divided into three subgroups: obese women (N=30), obese women indicated for bariatric treatment (N=48), and patients with bulimia nervosa (N=24). The patients were assessed using Splitting Index and Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and selected information about their intimate partnership was documented for all the participants. Results The main results of this study indicate significant differences in the relationship of splitting and impulsivity with difficulties in intimate partnerships. These differences discriminate obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment from other obese patients and patients with bulimia nervosa. Conclusion These findings may have significant implications for treatment of the obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment and their presurgery psychological evaluations. PMID:27703353

  7. Neuroserpin polymorphisms and stroke risk in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study

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    Stern Barney J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroserpin, primarily localized to CNS neurons, inhibits the adverse effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA on the neurovascular unit and has neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic stroke. We sought to evaluate the association of neuroserpin polymorphisms with risk for ischemic stroke among young women. Methods A population-based case-control study of stroke among women aged 15–49 identified 224 cases of first ischemic stroke (47.3% African-American and 211 age-matched control subjects (43.1% African-American. Neuroserpin single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs chosen through HapMap were genotyped in the study population and assessed for association with stroke. Results Of the five SNPs analyzed, the A allele (frequency; Caucasian = 0.56, African-American = 0.42 of SNP rs6797312 located in intron 1 was associated with stroke in an age-adjusted dominant model (AA and AT vs. TT among Caucasians (OR = 2.05, p = 0.023 but not African-Americans (OR = 0.71, p = 0.387. Models adjusting for other risk factors strengthened the association. Race-specific haplotype analyses, inclusive of SNP rs6797312, again demonstrated significant associations with stroke among Caucasians only. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence that neuroserpin is associated with early-onset ischemic stroke among Caucasian women.

  8. Vitamin D Dietary Intake Questionnaire Validation Conducted among Young Polish Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Sidor, Patrycja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2016-01-05

    Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Vitamin D dietary intake questionnaire based on food frequency assessment--VIDEO-FFQ (VItamin D Estimation Only--Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of Polish women aged 20-30 years. Seventy-five participants kept a three-day dietary record and filled out the VIDEO-FFQ twice (immediately after the three-day dietary record and after six weeks). The assessment of validity and reproducibility was conducted by verifying standard errors of estimation, median differences, and percentages of individuals classified into tertiles, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. The Vitamin D intake for the majority of the surveyed women was inadequate as over 85% of them were characterised by values of intake lower than 5.0 μg per day. The results allowed concluding that a high accuracy of the VIDEO-FFQ was achieved. The required Bland-Altman index values lower than 5.0% were obtained, confirming satisfactory validity and reproducibility. The VIDEO-FFQ may be deemed a convenient practical tool for the estimation of Vitamin D intake in young women.

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAXIMUM UNILATERAL SQUAT STRENGTH AND BALANCE IN YOUNG ADULT MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McCurdy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between unilateral squat strength and measures of static balance to compare balance performance between the dominant and non-dominant leg. Seventeen apparently healthy men (mean mass 90.5 ± 20.9 kg and age 21.7 ± 1.8 yrs and 25 women (mean mass 62.2 ± 14.5 kg and age 21.9 ± 1.3 yrs completed the study. Weight bearing unilateral strength was measured with a 1RM modified unilateral squat on the dominant and non-dominant leg. The students completed the stork stand and wobble board tests to determine static balance on the dominant and non-dominant leg. Maximum time maintained in the stork stand position, on the ball of the foot with the uninvolved foot against the involved knee with hands on the hips, was recorded. Balance was measured with a 15 second wobble board test. No significant correlations were found between the measurements of unilateral balance and strength (r values ranged between -0.05 to 0.2 for the men and women. Time off balance was not significantly different between the subjects' dominant (men 1.1 ± 0.4 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s and non-dominant (men 0.9 ± 0.3 s; women 0.3 ± 0.1 s leg for the wobble board. Similar results were found for the time balanced during the stork stand test on the dominant (men 26.4 ± 6.3 s; women 24.1 ± 5.6 s and non-dominant (men 26.0 ± 5.7 s; women 21.3 ± 4.1 s leg. The data indicate that static balance and strength is unrelated in young adult men and women and gains made in one variable after training may not be associated with a change in performance of the other variable. These results also suggest that differences in static balance performance between legs can not be determined by leg dominance. Similar research is needed to compare contralateral leg balance in populations who participate in work or sport activities requiring repetitive asymmetrical use. A better understanding of contralateral balance performance will help

  10. Beyond love: a qualitative analysis of factors associated with teenage pregnancy among young women with pregnancy experience in Bolgatanga, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugu, John Kingsley; Mevissen, Fraukje; Münkel, Meret; Ruiter, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Globally, an estimated 16 million young women aged 15 to 19 years give birth every year. Most teenage pregnancies are unintended and being pregnant or delivering a baby as a teenager can have serious adverse consequences. Knowledge of the environmental factors and social cognitive determinants influencing young women's failure to protect against unintended pregnancy is necessary to address the high rate of teenage pregnancies. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 21 young women, who had experience of pregnancy, in Bolgatanga, Ghana. The interview protocol included themes (relationships, sex, pregnancy, family planning) and determinants (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, norms, risk perceptions) derived from empirical studies and theories related to sexuality behaviour. Findings show that young women's motivations for sexual relationships are mostly 'beyond love' and seem to focus on economic factors. The main means of sexual protection seems to be condom use. Other forms of contraception were believed to be linked to infertility. Sexuality remains a largely taboo topic for open discussion and sex education in schools seems limited to abstinence-only messages. The need for more open communication on matters of sexuality with young people and the provision of a more comprehensive sexuality education in school to address teenage pregnancies in Ghana, is discussed.

  11. Media influence on drive for thinness, body satisfaction, and eating attitudes among young women in Hong Kong and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Tina L; Hu, W Y

    2017-03-01

    The present study examined the impact of thin-ideal media exposure on Chinese women's drive for thinness, attitudes towards body shape, and eating attitude. Women were assigned to one of two video conditions, which portrayed the thin-ideal (experimental) or was neutral (control group), in terms of content. A total of 83 young women from Hong Kong (N = 38) and Shanghai (N = 45), aged between 18 and 25 years (Mage = 22.7) participated in the study. A significant interaction was observed between the experimental video condition and location. Hong Kong women in the experimental group experienced greater levels of body dissatisfaction than Shanghai women exposed to the same condition. Exposure to thin-ideal media produced an increase in drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and problematic eating attitudes regardless of location, with a greater immediate impact shown in Hong Kong women.

  12. Gender power control, sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors among young Asian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.

  13. The health needs of imprisoned female juvenile offenders: the views of the young women prisoners and youth justice professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Nicola; Plugge, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the health needs of detained juvenile females, yet there is emerging concern regarding substance misuse, mental health problems, poor sexual health and poorer general physical health on a range of indicators. This study sought to identify health needs from the perspective of imprisoned young women themselves and key professionals working with them to inform healthcare provision. We conducted semi-structured interviews and focus groups with detained juvenile women and adult professionals in four specialist female young offender institutions. The study presents new qualitative findings on the profound impact of social exclusion and multiple forms of abuse and victimisation on the health of juvenile women prisoners. Concerns regarding substance misuse, mental health problems, self-harm and poor sexual health are reinforced by this study. Young women tended to focus on their immediate health needs in contrast to the professionals who emphasised longer-term issues. The study identified the need for priority interventions in relation to mental health, substance misuse, self-harm and sexual health and tentatively suggests that 'compensatory care' may offer some scope to redress health inequalities experienced by these young women.

  14. [What measures can be taken to reduce the number of smoking adolescents and young women?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard-Lalande, G; Halimi, A

    2005-04-01

    A proper understanding of the factors exposing adolescents and young women to the risk of smoking dependence is necessary to develop effective preventive measures. These measures will be different depending on whether they are designed for adolescents and young women in general or for the context of pregnancy. For adolescents, efforts should be continued to provide information about smoking and the dangers of tobacco as well as about the social manipulation involved. The image of a natural, active woman, free of tobacco and capable of making her own decisions should be promoted. Health education and communication professionals should make use of different media with an audience among the young. Messages should be validated with a target population before diffusion. A better coherence between the adult and young populations concerning legal obligations and mutual respect is significantly useful. Educational structures (schools and universities) should participate in long-term community projects implicating peer groups and trained professionals. Values which should be reinforced include self-esteem, affirmation of personal competence and difference, self-respect and respect of others. Early identification of factors favoring psychosocial vulnerability at this age is indispensable to facilitate referral to professional support and care centers, the number of which remains insufficient to date. Support when ceasing smoking, based on individual and group assistance, should take into account the individual's phase of maturation, and must be proposed and operated by trained professionals working in a network. During pregnancy, it is crucial to recognize that the woman's specific physical and psychological situation is a unique opportunity to propose a new approach to smoking, taking into consideration the fragile context during this period of maturation and its impact on the woman's general life. Beyond sociopolitical measures and a philosophical debate on the position of

  15. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin-Seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n 1 = 10) or a control group (n 2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, ...

  16. Preconception Screening for Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Thrombophilia and Hyperhomocysteinemia Risk in Healthy Young Women

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    Elena Yu. Glotova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency characteristics of the gene polymorphisms (FVL G1691A, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTRR A66G associated with thrombophilia, hyperhomocysteinemia risk and different perinatal or pregnancy complications were studied. This examination was conducted among 130 planned-pregnancy healthy young women aged between 19 and 29 years. A gene mutation analysis was performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR. Factor V Leiden (FVL G1691A and prothrombin gene (FII G20210A mutations were not identified in the women surveyed. The frequency of the occurrence of the heterozygous FVL 1691G/A genotype associated with the risk of thrombosis during pregnancy was very low in these women (0.8%. The frequency of the MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 1298C/С mutant genotype was 11.5%, MTHFR 677T/Т – 5.4%, and MTRR (methionine synthase reductase 66G/G – 31.5%. A combination of the MTHFR 677TT/1298CC and MTHFR 677TТ/MTRR 66GG mutant genotypes, which significantly increased the risk of pregnancy loss and neural tube defects, were found to occur in 0.8% of the cases.We concluded that selective thrombophilia screening (FVL G1691A and FII G20210A based on prior personal and/or family history of venous thromboembolism was more cost-effective than a universal preconception screening in all planning pregnancy women. However, in order to decrease the risk of congenital anomalies and pregnancy complications associated with folate dependent homocysteine metabolism, preconception care should include folate supplementation

  17. Association between Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Pre-Eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezavand, Negin; Veisi, Firooze; Zangane, Mrayam; Amini, Roghaye; Almasi, Afshin

    2015-12-18

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the most common and important bacterial infections during pregnancy and can result in progressive infections and endanger maternal as well as fetal health. In this study, we assessed the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. In this case-control study, pregnant women who presented to Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah in 2013-14 were studied. The minimum sample size was calculated as 125 pregnant women in each group with a total of 250 subjects. There were 125 women with pre-eclampsia and 125 women without pre-eclampsia (control group). Matching was done for age, gestational age, and parity between case and control groups. Matching was verified by a P value of 0.061 for maternal age and gestational age and 0.77 for parity. The statistical analyses were done by applying the chi-squared test and determining odds ratio (OR) for having bacteriuria in univariate logistic regression as well as multivariate regression with adjusting the effect of maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Pyuria and bacteriuria were significantly more common in pre-eclampsia group than in control group. The results showed that a significant association existed between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. The rate of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 6.8 times higher in women with pre-eclampsia compared to those without pre-eclampsia. Further studies are required for better clarification of association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia.

  18. Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinning Wayne E

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strength of aging bone depends on the balance between the resorption and formation phases of the remodeling process. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of two factors with the potential to exert opposing influences on bone turnover, resistance exercise training and high dietary protein intake. It was hypothesized that resistance training by young, healthy, untrained women with protein intakes near recommended levels (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1 would promote bone formation and/or inhibit bone resorption, and that subsequent supplementation to provide 2.4 g protein·kg-1·d-1 would reverse these effects. Methods Bone formation was assessed with serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP and osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption with urinary calcium and deoxypyridinoline (DPD. Biochemical, strength, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity data were obtained from 24 healthy, untrained, eumenorrheic women (18–29y at baseline, after eight weeks of resistance training (3 d·wk-1, ~1 hr·d-1; 3 sets, 6–10 repetitions, 13 exercises, 75–85% maximum voluntary contraction, and after 12 weeks of resistance training and 10 days of protein/placebo supplementation. Subjects were randomized (double-blind to either a high protein (HP or training control (TC group and, during the final 10 days, consumed either enough purified whey protein to bring daily protein intake to 2.4 g·kg-1·d-1, or an equivalent dose of isoenergetic, carbohydrate placebo. Results Strength, lean tissue mass, and DPD increased significantly in both groups over time, while percent body fat and BAP decreased (repeated measures ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05, Bonferroni correction. No significant changes were observed for serum OC or urinary calcium, and no significant group (TC, HP × time (baseline, week 8, week 12 interactions emerged for any of the biochemical measures. Conclusion (1 Twelve weeks of high-intensity resistance training did not appear to

  19. Mobile phones are a viable option for surveying young Australian women: a comparison of two telephone survey methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bette

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Households with fixed-line telephones have decreased while mobile (cell phone ownership has increased. We therefore sought to examine the feasibility of recruiting young women for a national health survey through random digit dialling mobile phones. Methods Two samples of women aged 18 to 39 years were surveyed by random digit dialling fixed and mobile numbers. We compared participation rates and responses to a questionnaire between women surveyed by each contact method. Results After dialling 5,390 fixed-lines and 3,697 mobile numbers, 140 and 128 women were recruited respectively. Among women contacted and found to be eligible, participation rates were 74% for fixed-lines and 88% for mobiles. Taking into account calls to numbers where eligibility was unknown (e.g. unanswered calls the estimated response rates were 54% and 45% respectively. Of women contacted by fixed-line, 97% reported having a mobile while 61% of those contacted by mobile reported having a fixed-line at home. After adjusting for age, there were no significant differences between mobile-only and fixed-line responders with respect to education, residence, and various health behaviours; however compared to those with fixed-lines, mobile-only women were more likely to identify as Indigenous (OR 4.99, 95%CI 1.52-16.34 and less likely to live at home with their parents (OR 0.09, 95%CI 0.03-0.29. Conclusions Random digit dialling mobile phones to conduct a health survey in young Australian women is feasible, gives a comparable response rate and a more representative sample than dialling fixed-lines only. Telephone surveys of young women should include mobile dialling.

  20. Exploring self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being in young women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Leah J; Kowalski, Kent C; Mack, Diane E; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-04-01

    Using a mixed methods research design, we explored self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being in young women athletes. In a quantitative study (n = 83), we found that self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being were positively related (r = .76, p < .01). A model of multiple mediation was proposed, with self-compassion, passivity, responsibility, initiative, and self-determination accounting for 83% of the variance in eudaimonic well-being. In a qualitative study (n = 11), we explored when and how self-compassion might be useful in striving to reach one's potential in sport. Self-compassion was described as advantageous in difficult sport-specific situations by increasing positivity, perseverance, and responsibility, as well as decreasing rumination. Apprehensions about fully embracing a self-compassionate mindset in sport warrant additional research to explore the seemingly paradoxical role of self-compassion in eudaimonic well-being.

  1. "When nothing matters, things just happen": young parenting women's reflections on caring, health, and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubrium, Aline; Barcelos, Christie; Buchanan, David; Gubrium, Erika

    The field of public health frequently issues calls for social justice, but it is not clear that everyone agrees on what this means or how to achieve it. To assess lay citizens' views on the relationship between justice and health, we conducted individual interviews with 19 young parenting women to hear and discuss their thoughts about the causes of health disparities, ways to reduce them, and the nature of the just society. A salient theme to emerge in these interviews was the topic of "caring." This article reports on four categories identified under the theme of caring: 1) observations of apathy and indifference; 2) the effects of not caring; 3) models of caring; and 4) the pull of caring. Based on these results, the article outlines a grounded theory on the role of caring in conceptualizing health motivation.

  2. Aortic dimensions in girls and young women with turner syndrome: a magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian H; Skouby, Sven O; Leffers, Anne-Mette

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the dimensions of the thoracic aorta and the predictors of aortic dimensions in girls and young women with Turner syndrome (TS). A cross-sectional study was performed at a secondary care center. The study compared 41 TS patients with 50 healthy age-matched control...... subjects. The mean age of the patients was 17 +/- 3.3 years. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed for all the patients. The thoracic aortic diameters of the patients were measured at nine positions. Adjustment for body surface area (BSA) was performed. The outcome for the patients was measured in terms...... and in five TS patients after BSA-adjustment. The aortic diameters correlated with height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and BSA at all positions (R = 0.34-0.60; all p aorta correlated with a history of aortic coarctation (R = 0.35-0.52; p

  3. The microeconomics of sexual exploitation of girls and young women in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Jaris

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the sexual exploitation of girls and young women as an increasing phenomenon within the extractive industries of wood, oil, minerals and gas in Peruvian Amazonia. The analysis focuses on the city of Pucallpa and the northern part of the Ucayali River and aims to identify the social and economic dynamics underpinning the commercial sexual exploitation of female children and teenagers around the main river port. The study describes the local operating mechanisms of bars and restaurants in the port, the demand for and perceptions of the sexual exploitation of children and teenagers, and the economic logic that it entails. Using a discourse analytic approach, it is argued that this is a business whose profitability is tied to the trade in alcoholic beverages and foods and which responds to a set of family connections and networks.

  4. Foot orthoses improve kinematic measurement in young women with biomechanical abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2015-12-01

    Foot pronation causes biomechanical abnormalities in the form of functional leg-length disparity. Foot orthoses are often used in the treatment of abnormal pronation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of foot orthoses on abnormal kinematic chain the differences of pelvic height, step length, and walking distance on walking test in young women with biomechanical abnormality. METHODS A randomized double blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on 27 young adult women having abnormal biomechanical abnormalities. By random allocation the subjects were divided into the intervention group (14 subjects receiving correction of foot pronation using foot orthoses, and the control group (13 subjects receiving no orthoses. Before and during use of foot orthoses, we determined pelvic height difference (mm, step length difference (cm, and walking distance at maximal walking speed for 15 minutes. RESULTS Correction of foot pronation resulted in decreased pelvic height difference from 4.7 ± 2.1 mm to 1.7 ± 1.3 mm (p<0.001 and in a reduction in step length difference, from 4.9 ± 2.9 cm to 2.1 ± 1.5 cm (p=0.002. Walking test distance of the intervention group was 1318.5 ± 46.3 m, as compared with that of the control group of 1233 ± 114.7 m (p = 0.05. Walking distance of the intervention group rose steadily in the second test to 1369.3 ± 27 m, and in the third test to 1382.14 ± 10.5 m (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS Foot orthoses improved the kinematic chain, resulting in a more symmetrical pelvic height, reduced step length difference, and increased functional walking ability.

  5. The potential impact of plain packaging of cigarette products among Brazilian young women: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Christine M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use is responsible for 5.4 million deaths every year worldwide and is a leading cause of preventable death. The burden of these deaths is rapidly shifting to low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil. Brazil has prohibited most forms of tobacco advertising; however, the cigarette pack remains a primary source of marketing. The current study examined how tobacco packaging influences brand appeal and perceptions of health risk among young women in Brazil. Methods A between-subjects experiment was conducted in which 640 Brazilian women aged 16–26 participated in an online survey. Participants were randomized to view 10 cigarette packages according to one of three experimental conditions: standard branded packages, the same packs without brand imagery (“plain packaging”, or the same packs without brand imagery or descriptors (e.g., flavors. Participants rated packages on perceived appeal, taste, health risk, smoothness, and smoker attributes. Finally, participants were shown a range of branded and plain packs from which they could select one as a free gift, which constituted a behavioral measure of appeal. Results Branded packs were rated as significantly more appealing, better tasting, and smoother on the throat than plain packs. Branded packs were also associated with a greater number of positive smoker attributes including style and sophistication, and were perceived as more likely to be smoked by females than the plain packs. Removing descriptors from the plain packs further decreased the ratings of appeal, taste and smoothness, and also reduced associations with positive attributes. In the pack offer, participants were three times more likely to select branded packs than plain packs. Conclusions Plain packaging and removal of descriptors may reduce the appeal of smoking for youth and young adults, and consequently reduce smoking susceptibility. Overall, the findings provide support for plain packaging

  6. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women: An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  7. Effect of administration of oral contraceptives on the synthesis and breakdown of myofibrillar proteins in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Langberg, H.; Holm, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) treatment has an inhibiting effect on protein synthesis in tendon and muscle connective tissue. We aimed to investigate whether OC influence myofibrillar protein turnover in young women. OC-users (24±2 years; Lindynette® n=7, Cilest® n=4) and non-OC-users (controls, 24...

  8. Sexual Attraction, Sexual Identity, and Psychosocial Wellbeing in a National Sample of Young Women during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Michelle Marie; Zimmerman, Marc; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Identity-based conceptualizations of sexual orientation may not account adequately for variation in young women's sexuality. Sexual minorities fare worse in psychosocial markers of wellbeing (i.e., depressive symptoms, anxiety, self esteem, social support) than heterosexual youth; however, it remains unclear whether these health disparities…

  9. The reproductive health behaviors of HIV-infected young women in the United States: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Marion W; Kraft, Joan M; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Snead, Margaret C; Ozeryansky, Larisa; Fasula, Amy M; Koenig, Linda J; Kourtis, Athena P

    2013-12-01

    HIV-infected young women in the United States have important reproductive health needs that are made more complex by their HIV status. We searched Pubmed and relevant bibliographies to identify 32 articles published from 2001 to July 2012 that described the prevalence, correlates, and characteristics of the sexual activity, relationships, pregnancy intentions, HIV status disclosure, and contraceptive and condom use among US HIV-infected adolescents and young women. Our synthesis of those articles found that, like youth not infected with HIV, substantial proportions of HIV-infected youth were sexually active, and most sought romantic or sexual relationships, though their serostatus may have affected the pace of physical and emotional intimacy. Disclosure was difficult, and large proportions of HIV-infected youth had not disclosed their serostatus to recent partners. A few studies suggest that most HIV-infected young women hoped to have children in the future, but many wanted to avoid pregnancy until later. Only one study described contraceptive use among this population in detail and found that condoms were a primary method of contraception. The results point to substantial gaps in published research, particularly in the areas of pregnancy intentions and contraceptive use. Much more needs to be done in research and health services to better understand and meet the complex health needs of HIV-infected young women.

  10. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried...

  11. The Social Network: Homeless Young Women, Social Capital, and the Health Implications of Belonging outside the Nuclear Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Vanessa; Cheff, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the means through which homeless young women are able to improve their flow of social capital by attaining a sense of belonging and forming positive attachments to supportive people and places. In so doing, they also develop relationships with health and social services and improve their overall physical and mental health…

  12. Breaking up prolonged sitting does not alter postprandial glycemia in young, normal-weight men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus Kopp; Andersen, J B; Vinther, A S;

    2016-01-01

    A randomized, controlled, cross-over study was used to investigate the effects of breaking up prolonged sitting with low intensity physical activity on postprandial blood glucose concentrations in healthy, young, normal-weight adults. 14 men (n=6) and women (n=8) were assigned to 2.5 h of prolonged...

  13. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  14. Predictors of Sun-Related Behaviors among Young Women: Comparisons between Outdoor Tanners, Fake Tanners, and Tan Avoiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ashley K.; Oxlad, Melissa; Roberts, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Skin cancer incidence continues to rise as a tanned appearance remains desirable, particularly among young women. Fake tanning provides a tanned appearance without exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In order to advance our understanding of the factors that contribute to long-term behavior change, this study explores determinants…

  15. Characterization of High Grade Intraepithelial Cervical Lesion among Adolescents and Young Women

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    Carlos Eric Daudinot Cos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: considering the relationship between human papilomavirus and cervical cancer, the current increase in sexually transmitted diseases constitutes the biggest threaten to adolescents’ health. Objective: to characterize high-degree intraepithelial cervical lesion in adolescents and young women. Method: a descriptive and observational study was conducted. It included 52 patients, all of them younger than 24 years old, who had been diagnosed with high-degree cervical pathology and were treated in the cervix pathology consultation of the "Ramón González Coro" Teaching Gynecologic and Obstetric Hospital from January 2007 to December 2008. Risk factors and diagnosis variables were studied and processed using the SPSS 11.5 system for Windows, through the determination of absolute and relative frequencies. Results: 78,8 % of patients had from 20 to 24 years old, 65,3 % of them began having sexual relationships between 15 and 17 years old, 62,2 % had had 3 or more sexual partners and 67,3 % used no contraceptive method. Cyto- histological correlation was of 100 % for intraepithelial cervical lesion II and III. Conclusion: the results of the present study compromise us to highlight the need of extended sexual education among young people.

  16. Thinking big: the effect of sexually objectifying music videos on bodily self-perception in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischner, Isabelle H S; van Schie, Hein T; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of sexually objectifying music video exposure on young women's implicit bodily self-perception and the moderating role of self-esteem. Fifty-six college women of normal weight were either exposed to three sexually objectifying music videos or three neutral music videos. Perceived and ideal body size were measured both before and after video exposure, using horizontally stretched and compressed photographs of the participant's own body in swimming garment. As expected, only women low (but not high) in self-esteem were negatively affected by the sexually objectifying content of the music videos: they perceived themselves as bigger and showed an increased discrepancy between their perceived and ideal body size after video exposure. The neutral music videos did not influence women's bodily self-perceptions. These findings suggest that body image is a flexible construct, and that high self-esteem can protect women against the adverse effects of sexually objectifying media.

  17. Freezing the biological clock: a viable fertility preservation option for young Singapore women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Eric; Yee, Samantha; Lee, Geok Ling

    2013-09-01

    In March 2012, an article in The Straits Times entitled 'Freezing eggs could reverse falling birth rate' suggested that employing the latest oocyte cryopreservation techniques could both foster individual women's reproductive autonomy and impact Singapore's fertility rate, which in recent years has consistently been among the world's lowest. The article cited both local and international fertility specialists' approval of elective oocyte cryopreservation for young women wishing to protect their reproductive potential against ageing and as a potential antidote to the contemporary 'delay and defer' model of family-building. Later in 2012, the Ministry of Health announced a review of oocyte cryopreservation policy taking into account related medical, scientific and ethical issues, while the Singapore College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists endorsed oocyte cryopreservation as an "important, safe and efficient technology". This paper outlines and analyses the arguments and empirical evidence used both to support and oppose offering elective oocyte cryopreservation as a routine fertility service, before concluding that this remains unjustifiable on the basis of insufficient evidence of its clinical efficacy and safety as regards either pregnancy rates or birth outcomes. If it is to be made available at all for these reasons in Singapore, it should be subjected to rigorous clinic-specific evaluation in accordance with accepted clinical and ethical norms.

  18. Neuroticism in Young Women with Fibromyalgia Links to Key Clinical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Malin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We examined personality traits in young women with FM, in order to seek associations with key psychological processes and clinical symptoms. Methods. Twenty-seven women with FM and 29 age-matched female healthy controls [HC] completed a series of questionnaires examining FM symptoms, personality and psychological variables. Results. Significant differences between characteristic FM symptoms (sleep, pain, fatigue, and confusion as well as for the psychological variables of depression, anxiety, and stress were found between FM and HC (P<0.001. Neuroticism was the only subscale of the Big Five Inventory that showed a significant difference between the FM group and HC group [P<0.05]. Within the FM group, there was a significant association between the level of the neuroticism and each of pain, sleep, fatigue, and confusion, depression, anxiety, and stress (P<0.05–0.01. The association between the level of neuroticism and the level of stress was the strongest of all variables tested (P<0.001. Conclusion. The personality trait of neuroticism significantly associates with the key FM characteristics of pain, sleep, fatigue and confusion as well as the common co-morbidities of depression, anxiety and stress. Personality appears to be an important modulator of FM clinical symptoms.

  19. Cardiac Effects of Thyrotropin Oversuppression with Levothyroxine in Young Women with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyung-Soon; Son, Jung-Woo; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Hong, Ji Yeon; Lee, Seong Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background. We investigated the cardiac effects of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) oversuppression in women with thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) during levothyroxine suppression therapy. Methods. Fourteen young female patients with DTC were enrolled. The duration of TSH-suppressive therapy was 5 to 9 years. They satisfied the following criteria: (1) a serum level of TSH DTC patients and control subjects were well matched in heart rate and blood pressure. There were marked differences in serum TSH (P = 0.001) and free T4 (P = 0.002). However, there were no differences between the groups in serum free T3 and plasma NT-pro-BNP. Furthermore, there were nonsignificant differences in cardiac functions and structures between the groups. Conclusions. This study shows that TSH suppression therapy in women with DTC may be safe with respect to cardiac functions and structures despite intermittent oversuppression of TSH during long-term suppressive therapy. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02645786. PMID:27418929

  20. Day-to-day variation in iron-status measures in young iron-deplete women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belza, A.; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Henriksen, M.

    2005-01-01

    In intervention and observational studies, it is necessary to determine the number of blood samples required to estimate the true value of Fe-status measures. The aim of the present study was to determine the number of days for blood sampling required in order to measure the 'true value' of five Fe...... in the investigated parameters during the study. When analytical variations were accounted for, the day-to-day variations (CV%) were as follows: Hb 2.9 %, SF 8.2 %, RET 26.0 %, RDW 2.4 % and sTfR 8.1 %. Calculating the 'true value' with a 5 % significance level and 80 % power showed that one blood sample......-status parameters in young Fe-depleted women and to investigate the effect of menstrual cycle on these measures. Twelve women (aged 23-30 years), non-anaemic but with low Fe stores, participated in the study. Venous blood samples were collected under standardised conditions on fifteen non-consecutive days during...

  1. Multifocal Breast Cancer in Young Women with Prolonged Contact between Their Breasts and Their Cellular Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John G; Kapoor, Nimmi S; Liao, Shu-Yuan; Chen, June W; Bailey, Lisa; Nagourney, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer occurring in women under the age of 40 is uncommon in the absence of family history or genetic predisposition, and prompts the exploration of other possible exposures or environmental risks. We report a case series of four young women-ages from 21 to 39-with multifocal invasive breast cancer that raises the concern of a possible association with nonionizing radiation of electromagnetic field exposures from cellular phones. All patients regularly carried their smartphones directly against their breasts in their brassieres for up to 10 hours a day, for several years, and developed tumors in areas of their breasts immediately underlying the phones. All patients had no family history of breast cancer, tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2, and had no other known breast cancer risks. Their breast imaging is reviewed, showing clustering of multiple tumor foci in the breast directly under the area of phone contact. Pathology of all four cases shows striking similarity; all tumors are hormone-positive, low-intermediate grade, having an extensive intraductal component, and all tumors have near identical morphology. These cases raise awareness to the lack of safety data of prolonged direct contact with cellular phones.

  2. Resilience in community: a social ecological development model for young adult sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families.

  3. Comparison of energy cost of maximal strength and local muscle endurance training in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Antonio Gonsalves Sindorf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the energy cost (EC of two weight training protocols in young women. Twelve women between 18 and 29 years old participated in the study. All the volunteers were under one maximum repetition test (1RM, protocols of maximum strength training (MS, and local muscle endurance training (LME. At rest, during of the training session and 30 minutes of recovery, the measures of the expired air were made through metabolic gases analyzer and module of telemetry. There were not significant differences (p > .05 in EC at rest before MS session  and LME session, the EC in kcal/min was higher (p < .01 during LME  than MS, and the total EC of  MS  was higher (p > .05 than LME session. The energy expenditure returned to resting values before 30 minutes in both sessions. It was concluded that the MS and LME weight training sessions resulted in a low EC.

  4. Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-09-01

    This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets.

  5. Construct validation of a state version of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Murru, Elisa; Conlin, Catherine; Strong, Heather A

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the validity of a state version of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (Hart, Leary & Rejeski, 1989) by conducting tests of concurrent and discriminative validation. Participants were four separate samples of young women (N=221) who exercised ≤ 2 days/week and who participated in various experiments examining body image and self-presentation. Participants' scores on the state SPAS (S-SPAS) were significantly correlated, in expected directions, with scores on both trait and state measures of body image and self-presentation, and with body mass index (BMI). In addition, S-SPAS scores discriminated between women who exercised in a mixed-sex versus a same-sex environment, but trait SPAS scores did not. Together, these results provide evidence of construct validity of a state version of the SPAS and demonstrate that social physique anxiety can be conceptualized and measured as a situational variable. The S-SPAS, rather than the trait SPAS, should be employed in experiments designed to detect differences in state social physique anxiety.

  6. The accuracy of the ACSM and a new cycle ergometry equation for young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latin, R W; Berg, K E

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) equation for estimating the oxygen cost of exercise performed by women on a cycle ergometer. Sixty healthy, young females performed a five-stage submaximal cycle ergometry test. Results indicated the SEE for the predicted oxygen values ranged from 79-156 ml.min-1, with total errors (E) ranging from 107-275 ml.min-1. Correlations between the actual and predicted values ranged from r = -0.22 to r = 0.38. The r, SEE, and E were 0.96, 118, and 172, respectively for all of the power loads combined. A revised equation was developed based upon the actual VO2-power relationship. This equation appears as: VO2 (ml.min-1) = kgm.min-1 x 1.6 ml.min-1 + ((3.5 ml.kg-1.min-1 x kg body weight) + 205 ml.min-1). Cross validation was performed on an independent sample of 40 subjects. All of the SEE and E were lower and all of the correlations were higher at each power load in the validation sample. Since the revised equation is based on an actual VO2-power relationship, it would appear that it provides a more accurate depiction of the cycle ergometry VO2-power relationship for women. These facts support its use.

  7. Risks and music - patterns among young women and men in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, M C; Sorbring, E; Widén, S E; Erlandsson, S I

    2011-01-01

    Music and high levels of sound have not traditionally been associated with risk-taking behaviors. Loud music may intensify and bring more power and meaning to the musical experience, but it can at the same time be harmful to hearing. The present study aims to increase the knowledge about young women's and men's risk judgement and behaviour by investigating patterns in adolescent risk activities among 310 adolescents aged 15-20 (143 women; 167 men). The Australian instrument ARQ was used with additional questions on hearing risks and a factor analysis was conducted. The main results showed that the factor structure in the judgement and behavior scale for Swedish adolescents was rather different from the factor structure in the Australian sample. Also, the factor structure was not similar to the Australian sample split on gender. The results are discussed from a gender- and existential perspective on risk taking, and it is emphasized that research on risk behavior needs to reconceptualize stereotypical ideas about gender and the existential period in adolescence.

  8. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia and the mechanics of breathing in healthy young women.

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    Dominelli, Paolo B; Foster, Glen E; Dominelli, Giulio S; Henderson, William R; Koehle, Michael S; McKenzie, Donald C; Sheel, A William

    2013-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH), pulmonary gas exchange and respiratory mechanics during exercise, in young healthy women. We defined EIAH as a >10 mmHg decrease in arterial oxygen tension ( ) during exercise compared to rest. We used a heliox inspirate to test the hypothesis that mechanical constraints contribute to EIAH. Subjects with a spectrum of aerobic capacities (n = 30; maximal oxygen consumption ( ) = 49 ± 1, range 28-62 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed a stepwise treadmill test and a subset (n = 18 with EIAH) completed a constant load test (~85% ) with heliox gas. Throughout exercise arterial blood gases, oxyhaemoglobin saturation ( ), the work of breathing (WOB) and expiratory flow limitation (EFL) were assessed. Twenty of the 30 women developed EIAH with a nadir and ranging from 58 to 88 mmHg and 87 to 96%, respectively. At maximal exercise, was inversely related to (r = -0.57, P fitness levels demonstrated EIAH. Subjects with EIAH had a greater (51 ± 1 vs. 43 ± 2 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), lower end-exercise (93.2 ± 0.5 vs. 96.1 ± 0.3%) and a greater maximal energetic WOB (324 ± 19 vs. 247 ± 23 J min(-1)), but had similar resting pulmonary function compared to those without EIAH. Most subjects developed EIAH at submaximal exercise intensities, with distinct patterns of hypoxaemia. In some subjects with varying aerobic fitness levels, mechanical ventilatory constraints (i.e. EFL) were the primary mechanism associated with the hypoxaemia during the maximal test. Mechanical ventilatory constraints also prevented adequate compensatory alveolar hyperventilation in most EIAH subjects. Minimizing mechanical ventilatory constraints with heliox inspiration partially reversed EIAH in subjects who developed EFL. In conclusion, healthy women of all aerobic fitness levels can develop EIAH and begin to do so at submaximal intensities. Mechanical ventilatory constraints are a primary mechanism for EIAH in some

  9. Factors associated with HIV/AIDS sexual risk among young women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria

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    Chinekwu A. Obidoa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing rate of sexual risk-taking among young people contributes significantly to the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. This study, explores the influence of socio-demographic, HIV/AIDS awareness and female empowerment on the sexual risk behaviors of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24. The data presented in this paper was drawn from the 2003 Nigeria National Demographic and Health Survey. The sample consisted of unmarried women aged 15-24 in the dataset. Data was collected through a structured and interviewer administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the most important predictors of sexual risk behaviors. Sexual risk-taking is relatively high among unmarried young women. Among those who are sexually active, 80% indicated that they did not use a condom during their first sexual encounter. Regression analysis revealed that younger age, lower HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission knowledge, lower knowledge of where to obtain condoms, lower material standard of living and greater intimate partner violence were significantly associated with sexual risk-taking in this population. Findings revealed that the sexual behavior of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24 is influenced by a complex matrix of factors. Identifying specific processes and contexts that promote the concentration of risk among sub-sections of young unmarried women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria should be a research and intervention priority.

  10. Effect of Chronic Athletic Activity on Brown Fat in Young Women.

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    Vibha Singhal

    Full Text Available The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associated with reduced BAT. There are no data regarding the impact of chronic exercise activity on BAT volume or activity in young women and it is unclear whether relative energy deficiency modifies the effects of exercise on BAT.We assessed cold induced BAT volume and activity in young female athletes compared with non-athletes, and further evaluated associations of BAT with measures of REE, body composition and menstrual status.The protocol was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to study initiation. This was a cross-sectional study of 24 women (16 athletes and8 non-athletes between 18-25 years of age. Athletes were either oligo-amenorrheic (n = 8 or eumenorrheic (n = 8.We used PET/CT scans to determine cold induced BAT activity, VMAX Encore 29 metabolic cart to obtain measures of REE, and DXA for body composition.Athletes and non-athletes did not differ for age or BMI. Compared with non-athletes, athletes had lower percent body fat (p = 0.002, higher percent lean mass (p = 0.01 and trended higher in REE (p = 0.09. BAT volume and activity in athletes trended lower than in non-athletes (p = 0.06; p = 0.07, respectively. We found negative associations of BAT activity with duration of amenorrhea (r = -0.46, p = 0.02.BAT volume correlated inversely with lean mass (r = -0.46, p = 0.02, and positively with percent body fat, irisin and thyroid hormones.Our study shows a trend for lower BAT in young female

  11. Navel jewelry artifacts and intravertebral variation in spine bone densitometry in adolescents and young women.

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    Ott, Susan M; Ichikawa, Laura E; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Scholes, Delia

    2009-01-01

    Non-removable navel jewelry can increase the measured bone density of the underlying vertebra. We measured lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in an observational study of 727 adolescents and young women aged 14-30 yr. We evaluated several methods of correcting BMD: manually erasing a small area, eliminating 1 or 2 vertebrae, estimating the BMD from 1 or 2 vertebrae using data from remaining vertebrae, and estimating the BMD using T-scores of the remaining vertebrae. Ten percent (n=71) of the subjects were wearing navel jewelry. The areal BMD by DXA of L1 and L2 was similar in those with jewels as in controls without jewels, but L3-L4 showed higher bone density in those with jewelry, and the spine BMD of L1-L4 was significantly higher in the bejeweled women (1.043+/-0.011 vs 1.006+/-0.004 g/cm2, p=0.01). The estimated errors in accuracy (g/cm2) were 0.034 due to the jewels; 0.005 from erasing a small area; 0.019 from eliminating L4; 0.044 from eliminating both L3 and L4; 0.016 from predicting BMD using L1-L3; and 0.028 using L1-L2. The T-scores using the Hologic database were progressively lower in the caudal vertebrae, even in 96 local women aged 30-35 yr, whose average T-score was 0.35 at L1 but -0.26 at L4. Thus, we found significant errors due to intravertebral variability. We suggest the optimal method of correcting for small artifacts is to erase the area under the artifact.

  12. Splitting, impulsivity, and intimate partnerships in young obese women seeking bariatric treatment

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    Zmolikova J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jana Zmolikova,1,2 Dita Pichlerova,3 Petr Bob,1,4 Denisa Schückova,5 Jitka Herlesova,3 Petr Weiss6 1Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Charles University, 2Department of Clinical Psychology, Na Homolce Hospital, 3OB Clinic, Prague, 4Faculty of Medicine, Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno, 5Iscare Clinical Centre, 6Institute of Sexology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Background: Splitting represents a defense mechanism that describes fragmentation of conscious experience that may occur in various psychopathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of splitting with disturbed cognitive and affective functions related to impulsivity and intimate partnerships in a group of obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment and compare the results with other obese patients and patients with bulimia nervosa. Methods: In this clinical study, we assessed 102 young women. The sample was divided into three subgroups: obese women (N=30, obese women indicated for bariatric treatment (N=48, and patients with bulimia nervosa (N=24. The patients were assessed using Splitting Index and Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and selected information about their intimate partnership was documented for all the participants.Results: The main results of this study indicate significant differences in the relationship of splitting and impulsivity with difficulties in intimate partnerships. These differences discriminate obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment from other obese patients and patients with bulimia nervosa.Conclusion: These findings may have significant implications for treatment of the obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment and their presurgery psychological evaluations. Keywords: splitting, impulsivity, obesity, bulimia nervosa, bariatric treatment

  13. Ultrasonographic features and clinical implications of benign palpable breast lesions in young women

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    Ha, Richard; Kim, Hyon Ah; Mango, Victoria; Wynn, Ralph [Dept. of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York (United States); Comstock, Christopher [Dept. of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe the breast ultrasonography (US) features and to investigate whether performing a core biopsy is warranted in young women having palpable solid breast masses. A total of 76 solid palpable masses in 68 consecutive women (≤25 years old) underwent tissue diagnosis by percutaneous core biopsy. Two radiologists, who were blinded to the clinical history and histopathology, independently evaluated the US features according to Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. The frequency of benign and malignant descriptor terms that were used to characterize the lesions were compared to the final pathology. All 76 palpable solid masses yielded benign pathology. On the US, the shape of the mass was described by radiologists 1 and 2 as oval or round (63.2% and 71.1%), margin as circumscribed (68.4% and 77.6%) and orientation as parallel (85.5% and 90.8%); the frequency of using all three benign descriptors was 61.8% and 68.5%, respectively. Suspicious descriptors were used less frequently by radiologists 1 and 2 including irregular shape (9.2% and 13.1%), non-circumscribed margin (31.6% and 22.4%) and non-parallel orientation (14.5% and 9.2%); the frequency of using all three suspicious descriptors was 9.2% and 11.8%, respectively. Despite the variable US features, breast malignancy seems extremely low in 25 years or younger women for palpable breast lesions. Using the BI-RADS lexicon, US accurately predicted benignity in about two thirds of our patients, supporting US surveillance as a safe alternative to invasive tissue sampling in this setting.

  14. Heart rate variability across the menstrual cycle in young women taking oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, André L; Ramos, Plínio S; Vianna, Lauro C; Ricardo, Djalma R

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that resting heart rate variability (HRV) is modified by different phases of the menstrual cycle in nonusers of oral contraceptive pills (OCP); however, the effect of OCP on autonomic control of the heart remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate HRV during the low hormone (LH-not taking OCP) and during the high hormone (HH-active OCP use) phases of the menstrual cycle in young women. Seventeen healthy women (19-31 years) taking OCP for at least 6 consecutive months were enrolled in this study. Plasma estradiol and progesterone were verified at each visit. HRV was assessed by using one-lead electrocardiography in time and frequency domains, in which participants rested in the supine position for a 20-min period with a breathing rate of 15 cycles/min. In addition, resting heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were obtained. Both plasma estradiol (LH: 19.8 ± 4.2 pg/mL vs. HH: 12.4 ± 1.5 pg/mL; p > .05) and progesterone (LH: 0.247 ± 0.58 ng/mL vs. HH: 0.371 ± 0.08 ng/mL; p > .05) (mean ± SE) levels were similar in both phases. No significant difference was obtained for any component of HRV, heart rate, or blood pressure between the LH and HH phases (p > .05). These results provide preliminary evidence that use of OCP does not affect HRV during the menstrual cycle in healthy women.

  15. Narcissism as a moderator of satisfaction with body image in young women with extreme underweight and obesity.

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    Małgorzata Lipowska

    Full Text Available Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight.The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72, severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI 22.7, n = 168. Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory.We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women.The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one's body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body.

  16. Self-perception of quality of life and its association with lifestyle behaviours of young Iranian women.

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    Asiyeh Salehi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited studies have examined the relationship between quality of life and lifestyle behaviors. The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of quality of life among young Iranian women and its association with lifestyle behaviors.This cross-sectional study was conducted among 391 young women selected through a cluster convenience sampling strategy in Shiraz, Iran. WHOQoL-BREF and satisfaction with life scales were used to measure subjective well-being. The International Health and Behavior survey was used for measuring lifestyle behaviors.Young Iranian women were averagely dissatisfied with their life circumstances. The score of psychological quality of life, and social quality of life were below average. According to the findings, higher quality of life is positively related to healthier lifestyle behaviors. Multiple regression analysis showed that smoking and physical activity are the main predictors of quality of life. Findings also demonstrate that diminished quality of life was significantly associated with older age, low income, being single, low level of religiosity, smoking and low levels of physical activity.In order to improve the situation of young Iranian women, the findings that should be sources of concern to policy makers include the average dissatisfaction with circumstances of life particularly in terms of psychological, social and environmental quality of life. While the health system focus is often upon addressing unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, policy initiatives aimed at improving these circumstances of life for young Iranian women would be of substantial medium to long-term benefit to their wellbeing.

  17. A transient elevated irisin blood concentration in response to prolonged, moderate aerobic exercise in young men and women.

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    Kraemer, R R; Shockett, P; Webb, N D; Shah, U; Castracane, V D

    2014-02-01

    Irisin, a newly discovered, PGC-1α dependent myokine, has recently been shown to increase in circulation in response to sprint exercise. This study examined the effect of prolonged exercise on irisin concentrations in young men (n=7) as well as in young women (n=5) during different stages of the menstrual cycle. Seven young men completed 90 min of treadmill exercise at 60% of VO2max and a resting control trial. Five women completed the same exercise protocol in two different trials: during the early follicular phase and mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for irisin concentrations immediately before exercise, at 54 and 90 min of exercise, and at 20 min of recovery (R20). Findings revealed that by 54 min of a 90 min treadmill exercise protocol at 60% of VO2max, irisin concentrations significantly increased 20.4% in young men and 20.3% as well as 24.6% in young women during the early follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, respectively. However, by 90 min of exercise as well as R20, irisin concentrations were no longer elevated. Stage of the menstrual cycle did not affect responses in young women. Findings indicate that prolonged aerobic exercise produces a transient increase in irisin concentrations during the first hour of exercise for both genders and suggest that this form of moderate exercise may be helpful in improving fat metabolism.

  18. Prevalence and outcome of asymptomatic bacteriuria in early pregnancy

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    Sreekumary Radha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteriuria is a major risk factor for developing symptomatic urinary tract infection which is associated with significant maternal and fetal risks. Various studies have put a prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria between 2-10% in pregnancy. Maternal and fetal complications like gestational hypertension, anaemia, premature delivery, IUGR, and low birth weight are commonly associated with pyelonephritis which occurs as a result of undiagnosed or inadequately treated infections of the urinary tract. The primary objective was to find out the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancies less than 28 weeks gestation in our hospital and to study the various adverse pregnancy outcomes in the study group. Methods: This was a cross sectional study done over a period of 12 months at this tertiary care centre in Government sector in Trivandrum, Kerala. A sample size was calculated statistically and 400 women with gestational age less than 28 weeks attending the outpatient department were included in this study. A structured proforma, urine microscopy and urine culture and sensitivity were the study tools. Results: Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in our study population was 8.25%. Commonest pathogen isolated was E.coli in 57.14% cases. Maternal morbidity was higher in women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (24.2% than those without (12.5%. Fetal morbidity in women with asymptomatic bacteriuria was 24% whereas it was 12.5% in those without it. Preterm labour, preeclampsia and prematurity were the common morbidities noted. Conclusions: Since pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria were at an increased risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcome, routine screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria preferably in the first trimester is highly recommended.

  19. Clinical and angiographic comparison of asymptomatic occlusive cerebrovascular disease.

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    Gorelick, P B; Caplan, L R; Langenberg, P; Hier, D B; Pessin, M; Patel, D; Taber, J

    1988-06-01

    We compared clinical and arteriographic features in 106 patients with symptomatic unilateral carotid territory occlusive disease to determine the frequency and distribution of occlusive arterial lesions in asymptomatic vessels. Among black patients who were predominantly from Chicago, young, and female, there were fewer transient ischemic attacks and myocardial infarcts, less claudication, and more asymptomatic lesions of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery stem, and the middle cerebral artery stem. Among white patients predominantly from New England, elderly, and male, there was more frequent and severe occlusive asymptomatic disease at extracranial carotid and vertebral artery sites. Knowledge of the distribution of asymptomatic lesions will help guide evaluation and treatment strategies for patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease.

  20. Social-cognitive theories for predicting physical activity behaviours of employed women with and without young children.

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    Tavares, Leonor S; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Loucaides, Constantinos

    2009-03-01

    Chronic disease interventions for women have been understudied in the workplace domain. Understanding the role of cognitions in individual behaviour can help motivate change and suggest directions for achieving improvements in health. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial constructs and social-cognitive theories [e.g. Transtheoretical model (TTM), Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)] that are most salient for explaining physical activity behaviour among employed women (n = 1183). Demographic information, and social-cognitive measures related to physical activity, intention and behaviours (e.g. stage of change, energy expenditure) were assessed. A series of multiple regression analyses predicting intention, energy expenditure and stage of change were conducted separately for: (1) women with young children (n = 302), and (2) women without young children (n = 881) for each of the respective social-cognitive theories. Although taken as a whole the results were relatively similar between the two sub-groups of women for each of the socio-cognitive theories examined in this study, differences were observed in the relative contributions of the theoretical constructs between the two sub-groups. Results also indicate that self-efficacy and intention were the strongest predictors of behaviour among both women with and without young children. The explained variances (R(2)) for the theories examined in this study for different sub-groups ranged from 16 to 60%, generally reflecting what has been reported in other studies within the physical activity domain. The results of this study could be useful in guiding future research and in designing physical activity intervention programs for these specific population groups. Integrating approaches of individual lifestyle change while addressing issues related to creating supportive environments for women in various life stages is a suggested strategy

  1. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young married women in Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu state in India

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    Rejoice Puthuchira Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are now recognized as a serious global threat to the health of population. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young married scheduled castes women in Thiruvarur district of Tamilnadu state in India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 28 villages selected using multistage sampling technique for selecting 605 women in the age group of 15-24 years during July 2010-April 2011. Data analysis was by use of SPSS version-17, with statistical significance set at p-value of 0.05. Results: Around 8.8% of women experienced sexually transmitted infections among the study population. The proportion of women who experienced STIs was seven times higher among illiterates (46.9% than women who completed secondary education (6%. The women in households in the high standard of living index (SLI were less likely to experience STIs (1.7% than women in low SLI (15.6%. The agricultural laborers were 1.145 times more likely to experience STIs than non-agricultural workers (OR=0.251. Conclusions: The main causes for sexual health problems were found to be the less education and lowest SLI among women. It is recommended that policy makers should be introduce community intervention programs to increase the awareness regarding sexual health issues among rural population. 

  2. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted.

  3. The influence of sexual activity on the vaginal microbiota and Gardnerella vaginalis clade diversity in young women

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    Garland, Suzanne M.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Hocking, Jane S.; Law, Matthew G.; Plummer, Erica L.; Fethers, Katherine A.; Chow, Eric P. F.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the influence of sexual activity on the composition and consistency of the vaginal microbiota over time, and distribution of Gardnerella vaginalis clades in young women. Methods Fifty-two participants from a university cohort were selected. Vaginal swabs were self-collected every 3-months for up to 12 months with 184 specimens analysed. The vaginal microbiota was characterised using Roche 454 V3/4 region 16S rRNA sequencing, and G.vaginalis clade typing by qPCR. Results A Lactobacillus crispatus dominated vaginal microbiota was associated with Caucasian ethnicity (adjusted relative risk ratio[ARRR] = 7.28, 95%CI:1.37,38.57,p = 0.020). An L.iners (ARRR = 17.51, 95%CI:2.18,140.33,p = 0.007) or G.vaginalis (ARRR = 14.03, 95%CI:1.22,160.69, p = 0.034) dominated microbiota was associated with engaging in penile-vaginal sex. Microbiota dominated by L.crispatus, L.iners or other lactobacilli exhibited greater longitudinal consistency of the bacterial communities present compared to ones dominated by heterogeneous non-lactobacilli (pmicrobiota of these young, relatively sexually inexperienced women. Women had consistent vaginal microbiota over time if lactobacilli were the dominant spp. present. Penile-vaginal sex did not alter the consistency of microbial communities but increased G.vaginalis clade diversity in young women with and without BV, suggesting sexual transmission of commensal and potentially pathogenic clades. PMID:28234976

  4. Body weight, body image, and eating behaviours: relationships with ethnicity and acculturation in a community sample of young Australian women.

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    Ball, Kylie; Kenardy, Justin

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate associations between ethnicity and acculturation status and risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women. A community sample of 14,779 women aged 18-23 completed a comprehensive mail-out survey, which incorporated questions on country of birth, length of time spent in Australia, body weight, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, binge eating, and compensatory disordered eating behaviours. Results showed that risk factors for eating disorders were present across a range of ethnic groups. Further, a strong acculturation effect was observed, such that the longer the time spent in Australia, the more women reported weight-related values and behaviours similar to those of Australian-born women. Results challenge claims that risk factors for disordered eating are restricted to Caucasian females in Western societies. Implications for understanding ethnic and sociocultural influences on body weight, dieting, and disordered eating are considered.

  5. Force-velocity, force-power relationships of bilateral and unilateral leg multi-joint movements in young and elderly women.

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    Yamauchi, Junichiro; Mishima, Chizuko; Nakayama, Satoshi; Ishii, Naokata

    2009-09-18

    The present study investigated force-velocity and force-power relationships of bilateral and unilateral knee-hip extension movement in young and elderly women. Twelve healthy young (age, 19-31 yr) and 12 healthy elderly (age, 60-82 yr) women performed bilateral and unilateral knee-hip extension movements on the dynamometer against loads controlled by the servo system. Under the isotonic force condition, force-velocity relationships were measured. The maximum isometric force (F(max)), unloaded velocity (V(max)) and power output (P(max)) of the movements were calculated from extrapolating force-velocity and force-power relationships. F(max) and P(max) of bilateral and unilateral knee-hip extension movements were 20-30% lower in elderly than in young women. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in V(max) between young and elderly women and between bilateral and unilateral movements. Bilateral deficit was larger as the generation of force was larger in both young and elderly women. Also, bilateral deficit of F(max) and P(max) were not different between young and elderly women. The results were that lower maximum power output of bilateral and unilateral leg multi-joint movements in elderly women did not depend on the intrinsic shortening velocity of muscle action, but largely on reduction in force generating capacity. This suggests the importance of preventing a loss of force generating capacity of muscles during leg multi-joint movements in elderly women.

  6. Las jóvenes y el feminismo: ¿Indiferencia o compromiso? Young women and feminism: indifference or commitment?

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    Oralia Gómez-Ramírez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo analizamos la relación entre el feminismo y las jóvenes en México. El eje rector responde a la interrogante de si existen jóvenes feministas y, de ser así, cuál es su participación y papel en los movimientos feministas del país. Si bien percibimos con toda claridad, por una parte, que el feminismo ha impactado directamente las vidas de las jóvenes; por otro lado, sólo un número minúsculo se asume como feminista. La situación en este sentido es inquietante, sin embargo, ya sea desde la política o la academia observamos que algunas jóvenes sí se comprometen con los feminismos, y son ellas quienes se integran a espacios establecidos o bien generan propuestas autónomas e independientes para dar expresión a sus posturas, entre otras, mediante la generación de redes.In this article we analyze the relationship between feminism and young women in Mexico. Our central purpose consists of analyzing whether there are young feminist women and, if so, what their participation and role in the Mexican feminist and women's movements are. We argue that while feminism has undoubtedly impacted young women's lives, only a small number of them self-identifies as feminists. This situation is disquieting; however, by participating either in local political movements or in the academia, some young women do commit themselves with feminisms, and thus, strengthen and/or generate autonomous and independent projects that allow them to express their points of view, among other means, by creating networks.

  7. Hemorrhagc focal nodular hyperplasia in young men: A case report

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    Lee, Jin Hyun; Kwon, Hee Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Yeong; Nam, Kyung Jin; Roh, Young Hoon; Jeong, Jin Sook [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In general, focal nodular hyperplasia is a hepatic lesion that most frequently affects the healthy women of reproductive age. Focal nodular hyperplasia lesions have a benign natural course; the majority of the cases remain asymptomatic and complications are rare. Spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia is a rare disease, and the hemorrhage in young men is even more uncommon. We report a rare case of spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia in a 19-year-old man.

  8. PERSONIFICATION OF WAY OF LIFE TYPES OF YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN – GRADUATES OF THE UNIVERSITY

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    Svetlana Tigranovna Dzhaneryan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study aimed at research of the characteristics of personification as the substantive characteristic of each type of the way of life ideals (matrimonial, bohemian, health, career, community, social, social-protection, gnostic of young men and women – graduates of the university.Research methods: survey (questionnaire for study the way of life ideal, a content analysis of the open questions of the questionnaire, expert evaluation categories, methods of nonparametric statistics.Results. The article presents ideas about the way of life ideals, discloses its components and characteristics. In the article designated types of way of life ideals: matrimonial, bohemian, health, career, community, social-protection, gnostic. Established the features of personification of each type of boys and girl’s ideals (who are graduates of the university. The results show that all kinds of way of life ideals are personified; that there are attractive to young people personality traits of real people (or groups whose way of life influences on the construction of their own ideals of life. It is shown that the differentiation of male and female personification of ideals occurs on different parameters: for the ideals of «matrimonial life» and «career life» appears only in the parameter singularity / community; for the ideal of «social life» – in the parameters singularity / community, the psychological portrait, similarities; for the ideal of «health life» – in the parameters singularity / community, the psychological portrait, a means of implementing, similarities.Application of the results: psychological services in high schools and personnel services in different companies.

  9. Comparison of bone mineral density in young patients with breast cancer and healthy women

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    Sousan Kolahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Almost 1 in 8 women will have breast cancer during their lifetime. Several risk factors were identified; however, 70% of females with breast cancer have no risk factors. Many risk factors are associated with sex steroid hormones. Some studies have been focused on identification of the indices of cumulative exposures to estrogen during the patients’ life. One of these indicators is bone mineral density (BMD. Our aim was the comparison of BMD in young patients with and without breast cancer, and finding a relationship between breast cancer and bone density. METHODS: In this case-control study, 120 people were enrolled; 40 patients with breast cancer and 80 normal healthy persons as control group. Measurement of BMD was performed in both groups and compared. RESULTS: Both groups were matched in age, weight, age at menarche, age at first marriage and first pregnancy, number of pregnancies over 32 weeks and lactation period, and taking supplemental calcium and vitamin D. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of estrogen intake, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast masses (P = 0.03, P = 0.03, P ≤ 0.01, respectively. A significant difference was found between BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and t-scores of lumbar spine of the two groups; they were higher in the control group (P = 0.08, P ≤ 0.01, P = 0.06, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that bone mineral density of young patients with breast cancer is not higher than normal similar age females; thus, BMD is not directly a risk factor for breast cancer.

  10. Effect of step height on cardiorespiratory responses during aerobic step test in young Indian women

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    Tirthankar Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Step aerobics is practiced in health centres, fitness training gyms, and academic institutions in India. This exercise module is gaining popularity day by day. But, these kind of aerobic exercise tests are less investigated for Indian women population. Objective: A widely practiced aerobic step test was applied to a group of young female to explore the effect of step height on physiological responses and suggest the best height of stepping. Method: Eight physically fit and active female university students with mean age 19.7 (±2.3 yrs, height 156.2 (±6.5 cm, weight 51.2 (±7.9 kg, and VO2max 35.7 (±4.8 ml.min-1.kg-1 volunteered for the study. Each subject performed 30 minutes of step test in two Reebok steps heights (6 inch and 8 inches with a rhythm of 120 beats.min-1. At this cadence 30 cycles of stepping up and down were completed in 1 min. Relative work load (% VO2 max, energy expenditure (EE, Heart rate (HR, percentage of age predicted maximum HR were measured using K4b2 Cosmed system. Result: The results showed that eight inch step is offering a significant higher value across most of the parameters investigated compared to six inch step. So it can be inferred that the higher the step height the higher will be the physiological responses. Conclusion: The present study clearly demonstrates that aerobic stepping on 6 inch bench height for 30 minutes with a cadence of 120 beats. min-1 may be more suitable and safe exercise module to improve cardio respiratory fitness for Indian young females. Further investigations are required to identify suitable exercise modules in terms of bench height, cadence and duration for different age groups and according to their fitness level (trained/untrained and height on larger sample size.

  11. A Retrospective Analysis of Radiographic Jaw Findings in Young Women; Prevalence and Predictors

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    El Khateeb, Sara M.; Abu-Hammad, Osama; Fadel, Hani; Dar-Odeh, Najla

    2017-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence and types of jaw pathologic findings as detected in panoramic radiographs of a sample of young women attending a teaching hospital in Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Saudi Arabia, and to determine the most important factors that predict the occurrence of jaw pathologic findings. Materials and Methods: The electronic clinical files of a representative sample of female patients who attended the outpatient dental clinics were retrieved. Patients were aged 18 to 25 years. Types of pathologic radiographic jaw findings and their prevalence were determined through screening of panoramic radiographs. Data were analyzed using the statistical analysis software [SPSS version 21 (IBM Corp.)]. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the significance of some types of dental lesions as predictor variables for the occurrence of jaw pathologic findings. Results: A total of 190 patients (mean age, 22.4 ± 2.46 years) were included in the study. Periapical lesions, retained roots, and alveolar bone loss were detected in 53.6%, 24.8%, and 17.4% of the participants, respectively. Other odontogenic abnormalities such as supernumerary and impacted teeth (6.4% and 33.7%, respectively) were also detected. Patients' age was found to be a good predictor for alveolar bone loss and number of periapical lesions (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: A high prevalence of periapical lesions, retained roots, and alveolar bone loss was found among a sample of young female dental attendees, as shown by their panoramic radiographs. Further studies are needed to explore potential risk factors for such a noticeable trend of poor oral health, and the needed strategies to counteract this trend. PMID:28316945

  12. Delayed β-cell response and glucose intolerance in young women with Turner syndrome

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    Schmitz Ole

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate glucose homeostasis in detail in Turner syndrome (TS, where impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and type 2 diabetes are frequent. Methods Cross sectional study of women with Turner syndrome (TS(n = 13 and age and body mass index matched controls (C (n = 13, evaluated by glucose tolerance (oral and intravenous glucose tolerance test (OGTT and IVGTT, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp, beta-cell function (hyperglycaemic clamp, arginine and GLP-1 stimulation and insulin pulsatility. Results Fasting glucose and insulin levels were similar. Higher glucose responses was seen in TS during OGTT and IVGTT, persisting after correction for body weight or muscle mass, while insulin responses were similar in TS and C, despite the higher glucose level in TS, leading to an insufficient increase in insulin response during dynamic testing. Insulin sensitivity was comparable in the two groups (TS vs. control: 8.6 ± 1.8 vs. 8.9 ± 1.8 mg/kg*30 min; p = 0.6, and the insulin responses to dynamic β-cell function tests were similar. Insulin secretion patterns examined by deconvolution analysis, approximate entropy, spectral analysis and autocorrelation analysis were similar. In addition we found low IGF-I, higher levels of cortisol and norepinephrine and an increased waist-hip ratio in TS. Conclusions Young normal weight TS women show significant glucose intolerance in spite of normal insulin secretion during hyperglycaemic clamping and normal insulin sensitivity. We recommend regularly testing for diabetes in TS. Trial Registration Registered with http://clinicaltrials.com, ID nr: NCT00419107

  13. Cardiac Effects of Thyrotropin Oversuppression with Levothyroxine in Young Women with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

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    Kyung-Soon Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the cardiac effects of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone oversuppression in women with thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC during levothyroxine suppression therapy. Methods. Fourteen young female patients with DTC were enrolled. The duration of TSH-suppressive therapy was 5 to 9 years. They satisfied the following criteria: (1 a serum level of TSH < 0.1 mU/L in the intermediate-risk or TSH < 0.3 mU/L in the low-recurrence-risk group and (2 having been receiving a fixed dose of LT4 before the study. Controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI were compared in terms of the levels of serum free T4, free T3, TSH, plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP, and cardiac functions and structures. Results. DTC patients and control subjects were well matched in heart rate and blood pressure. There were marked differences in serum TSH (P=0.001 and free T4 (P=0.002. However, there were no differences between the groups in serum free T3 and plasma NT-pro-BNP. Furthermore, there were nonsignificant differences in cardiac functions and structures between the groups. Conclusions. This study shows that TSH suppression therapy in women with DTC may be safe with respect to cardiac functions and structures despite intermittent oversuppression of TSH during long-term suppressive therapy. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02645786.

  14. Advocating for safe abortion in Rwanda: how young people and the personal stories of young women in prison brought about change.

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    Umuhoza, Chantal; Oosters, Barbara; van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2013-05-01

    In June 2012, a new abortion law came into effect in Rwanda as part of a larger review of Rwanda's penal code. This was a significant step in a country where it was previously taboo even to discuss abortion. This article describes some of the crucial elements in how this success was achieved in Rwanda, which began through a project launched by Rutgers WPF on "sensitive issues in young people's sexuality" in several countries. This paper describes how the Rwandan Youth Action Movement decided to work on unsafe abortion as part of this project. They gathered data on the extent of unsafe abortion and testimonies of young Rwandan women in prison for abortions; organized debates, values clarification exercises, interviews and a survey in four universities; launched a petition for law reform; produced awareness-raising materials; worked with the media; and met with representatives from government ministries, the national women's and youth councils, and parliamentarians - all of which played a significant role in the advocacy process for amendment of the law, which was revised when the penal code came up for review in June 2012. This history shows how important the role of young people can be in producing change and exposes, through personal stories, the need for a better abortion law, not only in Rwanda but also elsewhere.

  15. Knowledge of obstetric fistula prevention amongst young women in urban and rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study.

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    Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi O; Kouraogo, Salam F; Siribie, Aboubacar; Taddese, Henock B; Mueller, Judith E

    2013-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (pfistula awareness (36%). Rural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16-0.79)]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18-0.93)] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09-0.79)]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%). Most rural young women became 'aware' through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%). All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine health services and schools, to ensure sustainability of health literacy efforts.

  16. Exploring the psychological impact of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome on young women: An interpretative phenomenological analysis.

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    Patterson, Carolyn J; Crawford, Rebecca; Jahoda, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    This study explored five young women's experiences of living with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser to offer a unique insight into the social challenges of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser in the transition to adulthood. Non-directive semi-structured interviews took place within the National Health Service settings, and transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four inter-related themes were identified: hindering independence, a sensitivity to difference, managing intimacy and managing threat to identity. The women managed their presentation to others in order to minimise the impact of their diagnosis. Recommendations for further research and implications for services are noted.

  17. Multifocal Breast Cancer in Young Women with Prolonged Contact between Their Breasts and Their Cellular Phones

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    John G. West

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer occurring in women under the age of 40 is uncommon in the absence of family history or genetic predisposition, and prompts the exploration of other possible exposures or environmental risks. We report a case series of four young women—ages from 21 to 39—with multifocal invasive breast cancer that raises the concern of a possible association with nonionizing radiation of electromagnetic field exposures from cellular phones. All patients regularly carried their smartphones directly against their breasts in their brassieres for up to 10 hours a day, for several years, and developed tumors in areas of their breasts immediately underlying the phones. All patients had no family history of breast cancer, tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2, and had no other known breast cancer risks. Their breast imaging is reviewed, showing clustering of multiple tumor foci in the breast directly under the area of phone contact. Pathology of all four cases shows striking similarity; all tumors are hormone-positive, low-intermediate grade, having an extensive intraductal component, and all tumors have near identical morphology. These cases raise awareness to the lack of safety data of prolonged direct contact with cellular phones.

  18. Assessment of an Electronic Intervention in Young Women with Heavy Menstrual Bleeding.

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    Dietrich, Jennifer E; Yee, Donald L; Santos, Xiomara M; Bercaw-Pratt, Jennifer L; Kurkowski, Jennifer; Soni, Heather; Lee-Kim, Youngna J; Shah, Mona D; Mahoney, Donald; Srivaths, Lakshmi V

    2016-10-15

    STUDY OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bleeding disorders (BD) occur in up to 50% of adolescents with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). This presents unique challenges to health care providers because of the complexity of treating the condition and such complexity can result in difficulty with patients understanding basic information about their condition, limit communication with medical providers, and patient compliance. The aim of the study was to use an electronic approach to enhance patient compliance with medications used to treat their HMB, and to provide educational access to adolescents with BD. This was a prospective cohort study involving patients in a Young Women's Bleeding Disorder Clinic at a single children's hospital. Subjects were given an iPod Touch (Apple Inc, Cupertino, CA) device (ITD), preloaded with the iPeriod (Winkpass Creations) application. Participants recorded information about their BD that they learned about on BD Web sites, and menses, and medications. Electronic and charted data were collected to monitor compliance with prescribed treatment regimens. All ITD allowed Wi-Fi access to allow teens to explore BD Web sites and knowledge was assessed.

  19. Modulation of spatial and stimulus-response learning strategies by exogenous cortisol in healthy young women.

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    Schwabe, Lars; Oitzl, Melly S; Richter, Steffen; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2009-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to influence learning and memory processes. While most studies focus on the effects of GCs on the performance within a single memory system, we asked whether GCs modulate also the transition between hippocampus-dependent spatial and caudate nucleus-dependent stimulus-response memory systems. Eighty-four young healthy women received a placebo, 5 or 30 mg hydrocortisone orally. One hour later, participants were asked to locate a win-card in a 3D model of a room. The card could be located via two strategies: spatial (multiple distal cues) and stimulus-response (a single proximal cue). Relocation of the proximal cue after 12 trials revealed the strategy, number of trials to learning criterion the performance. As expected, more trials were needed to acquire the task with hydrocortisone. Remarkably, hydrocortisone switched the use of learning strategies towards more spatial learning (dose-dependently: placebo 4% learning curves of spatial and stimulus-response learners were comparable. Our results demonstrate that exogenous GCs prior to learning affect the performance within a memory system and also coordinate the use of multiple memory systems. Taking into account this dual action of GCs will contribute to a better understanding of stress (hormone) effects on learning and memory.

  20. Simultaneous Changes of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms with Variations in Sexual Function of Young Married Women

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    S. Izadi Dehnavi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Th present study aimed to examine changes in depression and anxiety symptoms and their correspondence to fluctuations in sexual dysfunction with daily diary approach. Methods: Th present study was of the correlation type, conducted in 2015. To investigate this study, at fist, 120 young married women from the University of Tehran were selected in a manner available nationwide. First, using female sexual distress inventory, Beck depression inventory and Beck anxiety inventory, the baseline was conducted. Thn, for 14 days, mood and anxiety symptoms and sexual function by the mood and anxiety symptoms questionnaire and female sexual function index were evaluated and fially, data were obtained and analyzed by HLM7. Results: In the study of simultaneous relation, there was more general distress, with less orgasm (P = 0.001, vaginal lubrication (P = 0.001, and anhedonia, with less desire (P = 0.001. Also, anxious arousal was associated with less sexual arousal (P = 0.001 and desire (P = 0.001. Conclusions: In general, simultaneous changes in symptoms of depression and anxiety with changes in sexual function were associated.

  1. Risks and music - Patterns among young women and men in Sweden

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    M C Bohlin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Music and high levels of sound have not traditionally been associated with risk-taking behaviors. Loud music may intensify and bring more power and meaning to the musical experience, but it can at the same time be harmful to hearing. The present study aims to increase the knowledge about young women′s and men′s risk judgement and behaviour by investigating patterns in adolescent risk activities among 310 adolescents aged 15-20 (143 women; 167 men. The Australian instrument ARQ was used with additional questions on hearing risks and a factor analysis was conducted. The main results showed that the factor structure in the judgement and behavior scale for Swedish adolescents was rather different from the factor structure in the Australian sample. Also, the factor structure was not similar to the Australian sample split on gender. The results are discussed from a gender- and existential perspective on risk taking, and it is emphasized that research on risk behavior needs to reconceptualize stereotypical ideas about gender and the existential period in adolescence.

  2. Embodying Critical and Corporeal Methodology: Digital Storytelling With Young Women in Eating Disorder Recovery

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    Andrea LaMarre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital storytelling is as an arts-based research method that offers researchers an opportunity to engage deeply with participants, speak back to dominant discourses, and re-imagine bodily possibilities. In this article, we describe the process of developing a research-based digital storytelling curriculum exploring eating disorder recovery. We have built this curriculum around research interviews with young women in recovery as well as research and popular literature on eating disorder recovery. Here, we highlight how the curriculum acted as a scaffolding device for the participants' artistic creation around their lived experiences of recovery. The participants' stories crystallize what resonated for them in the workshop process: they each have an open-ended narrative arc, emphasize the intercorporeality of recovery, and focus on recovery as process. The nuances within each story reveal unique embodied experiences that contextualize their recoveries. Using the example of eating disorder recovery, we offer an illustration of the possibilities of digital storytelling as a critical arts-based research method and what we gain from doing research differently in terms of participant-researcher relationships and the value of the arts in disrupting dominant discourses. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160278

  3. The Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and Family Planning among Girls and Young Women in the Philippines

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    Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Cappa, Claudia; Petrowski, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and family planning among adolescent girls and young women in formal unions in the Philippines. Analyzing a sample (n =1,566) from the 2013 Philippines Demographic and Health Survey, logistic regression models were separately run for current contraception use and unmet need for family planning on recent physical violence (yes/no), recent sexual violence (yes/no), and recent emotional (yes/no). Findings revealed that the odds of using contraception were significantly higher among girls and young women who reported recent physical IPV (OR=1.84; 95% CI=1.13, 2.99; pwomen in response to the recent passage of landmark legislation pertaining to reproductive health in the Philippines, the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act.

  4. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study.

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    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-06-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip was examined. An analysis of variance was used to examine the effects of commercial condition on soda consumption. Thirst and first glass consumed before the first commercial break were added as covariates in the analyses. Results indicated that participants assigned to the condition with soda commercials consumed 1.3 ounces more soda than participants in the water commercial condition. Exposure to soda commercials while watching a movie can have a strong influence on increasing sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women.

  5. Risk factors for victimization in romantic relationships of young women: a review of empirical studies and implications for prevention.

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    Vézina, Johanne; Hébert, Martine

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on risk factors for victimization in romantic relationships of adolescent girls and young adult women. The review includes 61 empirical studies published between 1986 and 2006 that have investigated risk factors for sustained psychological, sexual, and physical violence in romantic relationships of young women ages 12 to 24. An ecological approach is used as a conceptual model to review risk factors into four categories: sociodemographic factors, individual factors (personal and interpersonal), environmental factors (family, community, and peers), and contextual factors (linked to the romantic relationship). Methodological limitations of the studies in terms of measurement issues, samples studied, research designs, and underlying conceptual models are discussed. Finally, implications for prevention programming are considered. Recommendations are presented about which clientele should be targeted, which risk factors should be considered, and when programs should be implemented.

  6. Smoking-related behavior, beliefs, and social environment of young black women in subsidized public housing in Chicago.

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    Manfredi, C; Lacey, L; Warnecke, R; Buis, M

    1992-02-01

    Survey data indicate that young Black female smokers living in public housing are heavier smokers and have weaker motivation to quit, health beliefs and social environment less conducive to cessation, and less knowledge of where to get help to quit than other young Black female smokers in metropolitan Chicago. Compared with White women, the latter, other Black women smoke fewer cigarettes daily and have a stronger desire to quit and more concern about health reasons for quitting, but have a weaker belief in the risk of lung cancer from smoking, greater concern about quitting difficulties, and less knowledge of where to get help to quit. Low education, not race, is associated with higher smoking prevalence and less social pressure to quit or support for quitting.

  7. Understanding the Needs of Young Women Regarding Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Genetic Testing: Convergence and Divergence among Patient-Counselor Perceptions and the Promise of Peer Support.

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    Evans, Chalanda; Hamilton, Rebekah J; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Peshkin, Beth N; Rabemananjara, Kantoniony; Isaacs, Claudine; O'Neill, Suzanne C

    2016-06-28

    Young women from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families face a series of medical decisions regarding their cancer risk management and integrating this information into their life planning. This presents unique medical and psychosocial challenges that exist without comprehensive intervention. To help lay the groundwork for intervention, we conducted a qualitative study among young women from HBOC families (N = 12; Mean age = 22) and cancer genetic counselors (N = 12) to explicate domains most critical to caring for this population. Women and counselors were interviewed by telephone. The predominant interview themes included preventative care planning and risk management, decision making around the pros and cons of cancer risk assessment, medical management, and psychosocial stresses experienced. Young women endorsed psychosocial stress significantly more frequently than did counselors. Both groups noted the short- and long-term decision making challenges and the support and conflict engendered among familial relationships. Our results suggest young women value the support they receive from their families and their genetic counselors, but additional, external supports are needed to facilitate adaptation to HBOC risk. In feedback interviews focused on intervention planning with a subset of these young women (N = 9), they endorsed the predominant interview themes discovered as important intervention content, a structure that would balance discussion of medical information and psychosocial skill-building that could be tailored to the young women's needs, and delivery by trained peers familiar with HBOC risk.

  8. Utilization of maternal health services among young women in Kenya: Insights from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003

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    Ikamari Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of maternal health services is an effective means for reducing the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality, especially in places where the general health status of women is poor. This study was guided by the following objectives: 1 To determine the relationship between timing of first antenatal care (ANC visit and type of delivery assistance 2 To establish the determinants of timing of first ANC visit and type delivery assistance. Methods Data used were drawn from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with a focus on young women aged 15-24. The dependent variables were: Timing of first ANC visit coded as "None"; "Late" and "Early", and type of delivery assistance coded as "None"; "Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA" and "Skilled professional". Control variables included: education, household wealth, urban-rural residence, ethnicity, parity, age at birth of the last child and marital status. Multivariate ordered logistic regression model was used. Results The study results show that place of residence, household wealth, education, ethnicity, parity, marital status and age at birth of the last child had strong influences on timing of first ANC visit and the type of delivery assistance received. The major finding is an association between early timing of the first ANC visit and use of skilled professionals at delivery. Conclusion This study confirms that timing of first antenatal care is indeed an important entry point for delivery care as young women who initiated antenatal care early were more likely to use skilled professional assistance at delivery than their counterparts who initiated ANC late. The results indicate that a large percentage of young pregnant women do not seek ANC during their first trimester as is recommended by the WHO, which may affect the type of assistance they receive during delivery. It is important that programs aimed at improving maternal health include targeting young women, especially

  9. The knowledge of pregnant women regarding appropriate oral hygiene practices of young children – a questionnaire survey

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    Szalewska Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining appropriate oral cavity hygiene in a young child is closely related to the health awareness and health-promoting behaviours of their parents/guardians, and especially that of the child’s mother. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of pregnant women regarding best practice oral hygiene procedures in young children. The survey involved 327 pregnant women aged 16-49 years, and the tool utilized was an anonymous questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included seven one-choice questions concerning basic information on proper oral hygiene procedures as should be practiced by young children. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica PROGRAM 10 (StatSoft. The results of the survey reveal 60.55% of all surveyed had correct knowledge with regard to appropriate cleaning practices for the toothless oral cavity of an infant, that concerning the beginning of tooth brushing - 70.03%, tooth cleaning after night feeding - 39.76%, the duration of tooth brushing (at least 3-4 minutes - 43.12%. What is more, the result of the survey demonstrate that slightly more than a half of the surveyed mothers (53.82% would encourage their children to brush their teeth on their own from the first year of age, while 18.35% believe that children should be assisted in tooth brushing at least to their eighth year of age, and 59.63% would use fluoride toothpaste to brush their child’s teeth before he or she is one year old. Of the participants in this survey, pregnant women with university education, those living in large cities, or who are older, and those who had had previous pregnancies, show greater knowledge regarding suitable oral hygiene practices among young children. Our results reveal that extensive application of modern information technologies can be a means of preventing early childhood caries by facilitating the transmission of knowledge on proper nutrition and oral hygiene practices among young children.

  10. Exploring the potential of a conditional cash transfer intervention to reduce HIV risk among young women in Iringa, Tanzania.

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    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Likindikoki, Samuel; Beckham, Sarah W; Mbwambo, Jessie K; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfer programs seek to alter structural determinants of HIV risk such as poverty and gender inequality. We sought to explore the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a cash transfer intervention for young women as part of combination HIV prevention in Iringa, Tanzania. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with 116 stakeholders and residents from the region, including key informants, service delivery users, and members of key populations. Most respondents felt a cash transfer program would assist young women in Iringa to have more control over sexual decision-making and reduce poverty-driven transactional sex. Respondents were divided on who should receive funds: young women themselves, their parents/guardians, or community leaders. Cash amounts and suggested target groups varied, and several respondents suggested providing microcredit or small business capital instead of cash. Potential concerns included jealousy, dependency, and corruption. However, most respondents felt that some intervention was needed to address underlying poverty driving some sexual risk behavior. A cash transfer program could fill this role, ultimately reducing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancies. As increased attention is given to economic and structural interventions for HIV prevention, local input and knowledge should be considered in a program design.

  11. CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 variants and level of neuroticism in young adult Mexican American men and women.

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    Criado, José R; Gizer, Ian R; Edenberg, Howard J; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-04-01

    A lifetime history of alcohol dependence has been associated with elevations in neuroticism in Mexican American young adults. The identification of genetic markers associated with neuroticism and their influence on the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) may contribute to our understanding of the relationship between personality traits and the increased risk of AUD in Mexican Americans. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between neuroticism and 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) α5-subunit (CHRNA5) and α3-subunit (CHRNA3) genes in young adult Mexican American men and women. Participants were 465 young adult Mexican American men and women who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview. Neuroticism was assessed using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. The minor alleles of four CHRNA5 polymorphisms (rs588765, rs601079, rs680244 and rs555018) and three CHRNA3 polymorphisms (rs578776, rs6495307 and rs3743078) showed associations with neuroticism. Several of these SNPs also displayed nominal associations with DSM-IV alcohol and nicotine dependence, but tests of mediation suggested that these relations could be partially explained by the presence of co-occurring neuroticism. These findings suggest that genetic variations in nicotinic receptor genes may influence the development of neuroticism, which in turn is involved in the development of AUDs and nicotine dependence in Mexican American young adults.

  12. Determination of Asymptomatic Chlamydia Trachomatis Infections by Omp1 Gene Based -PCR

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    Masoumeh Nazer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this research was to determine the prevalenceof genital C. trachomatis infection in asymptomatic women by using highlysensitive nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR in urine sample.Materials and Methods: One hundred-forty asymptomatic women wererandomly selected from those who attended gynecology out patient departmentof Hazraat e Rasool Hospital in Tehran. First catch urine specimen were collectedfrom all the participants. DNA extraction was performed by means of HighPure PCR Template Preparation Kit (HPPTP according to the manufacture’sinstructions. Extracted DNA was tested by omp1 gene based nested-PCR,using sets of primers to amplify C. trachomatis omp1 gene. Visualizationof a 1027 bp fragment from omp1 gene in agarose gel electrophoresis wasconsidered as a positive result.Results: In total, 140 urines were tested for determination of C. trachomatisinfection. C. trachomatis omp-1 was detected in 22.1% of cases (31/140. Theoverall prevalence rates of C. trachomatis in the urine sample as determined byomp1 based nested-PCR were 4.3% in group I (age, 44 years. The highest prevalence of C. trachomatis infection (12.1% wasseen in women aged 25-34 years. This finding was not statistically significant(p=0.710. Also, there was not relation between C. trachomatis infection andsome probable risk factors such as young age (<25 years, STD history andmissing use of barrier contraceptive in this study.Conclusion: The prevalence of C.trachomatis infection in the women notseeking health care warrants more comprehensive study using high sensitiveomp1 based nested- PCR to identify and treat a large number of infectedwomen in Iran.

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Low Vitamin B6 Status in Healthy Young Adult Women in Metro Vancouver

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    Chia-ling Ho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low periconceptional vitamin B6 (B6 status has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and early pregnancy loss. Given many pregnancies are unplanned; it is important for women to maintain an adequate B6 status throughout reproductive years. There is limited data on B6 status in Canadian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of B6 deficiency and predictors of B6 status in young adult women in Metro Vancouver. We included a convenience sample of young adult non-pregnant women (19–35 years; n = 202. Vitamin B6 status was determined using fasting plasma concentrations of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP. Mean (95% confidence interval plasma PLP concentration was 61.0 (55.2, 67.3 nmol/L. The prevalence of B6 deficiency (plasma PLP < 20 nmol/L was 1.5% and that of suboptimal B6 status (plasma PLP = 20–30 nmol/L was 10.9%. Body mass index, South Asian ethnicity, relative dietary B6 intake, and the use of supplemental B6 were significant predictors of plasma PLP. The combined 12.4% prevalence of B6 deficiency and suboptimal status was lower than data reported in US populations and might be due to the high socioeconomic status of our sample. More research is warranted to determine B6 status in the general Canadian population.

  14. High and Low Impact Aerobic Exercise as a Method of Early Prevention of Hypercholesterolaemia Development among Young Women

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    Nowak Robert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hypercholesterolaemia is a highly prevalent condition that has major health- and cost-related implications for the society. Aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in healthy young women. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the impact of 9 weeks of low-high aerobic-type exercise on the lipid profile among young women. Methods. On the basis of the lipid profile, 64 women (median age, 21.8 years; range, 19.0-24.7 years were divided into two groups: with low (LRH and intermediate (IRH risk of developing hypercholesterolaemia. The participants completed a 9-week-long low-high aerobic exercise programme. Before and after the training programme, we determined the lipid profile: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, lipoprotein cholesterol: HDL-C and LDL-C, and glucose levels. Selected cardiorespiratory fitness variables and body composition were also determined. Results. It was found that aerobic-type fitness exercise in the IRH group caused statistically significant decreases in TC and TG levels in comparison with baseline values. Significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake and decrease in HDL-C in the LRH group were also observed. Conclusions. Aerobic fitness exercises, a combination of two alternating styles, could influence the blood lipid profile by decreasing plasma TC and TG levels. In non-athlete women, physical activity may be a good tool to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Project Gel a Randomized Rectal Microbicide Safety and Acceptability Study in Young Men and Transgender Women.

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    Ian McGowan

    Full Text Available The purpose of Project Gel was to determine the safety and acceptability of rectal microbicides in young men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender women (TGW at risk of HIV infection.MSM and TGW aged 18-30 years were enrolled at three sites; Pittsburgh, PA; Boston, MA; and San Juan, PR. Stage 1A was a cross-sectional assessment of sexual health and behavior in MSM and TGW. A subset of participants from Stage 1A were then enrolled in Stage 1B, a 12-week evaluation of the safety and acceptability of a placebo rectal gel. This was followed by the final phase of the study (Stage 2 in which a subset of participants from Stage 1B were enrolled into a Phase 1 rectal safety and acceptability evaluation of tenofovir (TFV 1% gel.248 participants were enrolled into Stage 1A. Participants' average age was 23.3 years. The most common sexually transmitted infection (STIs at baseline were Herpes simplex (HSV-2 (16.1% by serology and rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT (10.1% by NAAT. 134 participants were enrolled into Stage 1B. During the 12 week period of follow-up 2 HIV, 5 rectal CT, and 5 rectal Neisseria gonorrhea infections were detected. The majority of adverse events (AEs were infections (N = 56 or gastrointestinal (N = 46 and were mild (69.6% or moderate (28.0%. Of the participants who completed Stage 1B, 24 were enrolled into Stage 2 and randomized (1:1 to receive TFV or placebo gel. All participants completed Stage 2. The majority of AEs were gastrointestinal (N = 10 and of mild (87.2% or moderate (10.3% severity.In this study we were able to enroll a sexually active population of young MSM and TGW who were willing to use rectal microbicides. TFV gel was safe and acceptable and should be further developed as an alternative HIV prevention intervention for this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01283360.

  16. How the exposure to idealized advertisement affect young women's self-esteem and body satisfaction: testing for the influence of lifestyle

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    Borg, Linda; Fredriksson, Lis

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders and low self-esteem among young women is a growing concern in today’s society. Due to this growing concern, this subject has been given a lot of attention both in media and through academic research during recent years. One area that has been highly criticized and examined is the idealized ideals often presented in media and advertisement today. These ideals can, according to literature, harm young women due to social comparison with these idealized images. According to previ...

  17. Calcium supplementation does not augment bone gain in young women consuming diets moderately low in calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger-Lux, M Janet; Davies, K Michael; Heaney, Robert P

    2005-10-01

    In earlier observational work, the dietary calcium:protein ratio was directly related to bone accrual in healthy postadolescent women. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that augmented calcium intake would increase postadolescent skeletal consolidation, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design. We recruited 152 healthy young women (age 23.1 +/- 2.7 y, BMI 22.5 +/- 3.0 kg/m2); their usual diets, as assessed by 7-d food diaries, were low in calcium (605 +/- 181 mg/d; 15.1 +/- 4.5 mmol/d) and in the calcium:protein ratio (10.1 +/- 2.0 mg/g). The subjects were randomly assigned to supplemental calcium [500 mg calcium (12.5 mmol) as the carbonate, 3 times/d, with meals] or placebo capsules identical in appearance; all participants also took a daily multivitamin, and they were followed for up to 36 mo with bone densitometry (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; DXA) at 6-mo intervals. A total of 121 subjects remained in the study for at least 12 mo (median time in the study, 35 mo), with a mean compliance level (observed/expected tablet consumption) of 87.7%. DXA data for these 121 subjects indicated modest but significant mean rates of increase (i.e., 0.24 to 1.10%/y) in bone mineral content (BMC; total body, total hip, and lumbar spine) and in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) but no change in total hip BMD. None of these rates of change differed by group, i.e., calcium supplementation did not have any measurable effect on bone mass accrual. By midstudy, the calcium content of the subjects' usual diets for both groups had risen by approximately 15%. The combined effect of improved intakes of dietary calcium and the small amount of calcium added by the multivitamin tablets resulted in a mean calcium intake for the control group > 800 mg (20 mmol)/d, possibly at or near the threshold beyond which additional calcium has no further effect on bone accrual.

  18. The effect of a lifestyle intervention on metabolic health in young women

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    Dunn SL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarah L Dunn,1 Winnie Siu,2 Judith Freund,2,3 Stephen H Boutcher2 1Department of Kinesiology, University of La Verne, CA, USA; 2School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, NSW, Australia; 3St Vincent's Hospital, NSW, Australia Abstract: With the increasing obesity rates in Western countries, an effective lifestyle intervention for fat reduction and metabolic benefits is needed. High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, Mediterranean eating habits (Mediet, and fish oil (ω-3 consumption positively impact metabolic health and adiposity, although the combined effect has yet to be determined. A 12-week lifestyle intervention on adiposity, insulin resistance, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels of young overweight women was administered. Thirty women with a body mass index of 26.6±0.5 kg/m2, blood pressure of 114/66±1.9/1.5 mmHg, and age of 22±0.8 years were randomly assigned to either an intervention group receiving Mediet advice, daily ω-3 supplementation, and HIIE 3 days/week for 12 weeks or a control group. The group receiving Mediet advice, daily ω-3 supplementation, and HIIE experienced a significant reduction in total body fat mass (P<0.001, abdominal adiposity (P<0.05, waist circumference (P<0.001, systolic blood pressure (P<0.05, fasting plasma insulin (P<0.05, IL-6 (P<0.001, and triglycerides (P<0.05. The greatest decreases in fasting plasma insulin (P<0.05 and IL-6 (P<0.001 occurred by week 6 of the intervention. Significant improvements in eating habits (P<0.05 and aerobic fitness (P<0.001 were also found following the intervention. A multifaceted 12-week lifestyle program comprising a Mediet, ω-3 supplementation, and HIIE induced significant improvements in fat loss, aerobic fitness, and insulin and IL-6 levels, positively influencing metabolic health. Keywords: metabolic syndrome, overweight, exercise, diet

  19. Limits to modern contraceptive use among young women in developing countries: a systematic review of qualitative research

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    Wight Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the reproductive health of young women in developing countries requires access to safe and effective methods of fertility control, but most rely on traditional rather than modern contraceptives such as condoms or oral/injectable hormonal methods. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to examine the limits to modern contraceptive use identified by young women in developing countries. Focusing on qualitative research allows the assessment of complex processes often missed in quantitative analyses. Methods Literature searches of 23 databases, including Medline, Embase and POPLINE®, were conducted. Literature from 1970–2006 concerning the 11–24 years age group was included. Studies were critically appraised and meta-ethnography was used to synthesise the data. Results Of the 12 studies which met the inclusion criteria, seven met the quality criteria and are included in the synthesis (six from sub-Saharan Africa; one from South-East Asia. Sample sizes ranged from 16 to 149 young women (age range 13–19 years. Four of the studies were urban based, one was rural, one semi-rural, and one mixed (predominantly rural. Use of hormonal methods was limited by lack of knowledge, obstacles to access and concern over side effects, especially fear of infertility. Although often more accessible, and sometimes more attractive than hormonal methods, condom use was limited by association with disease and promiscuity, together with greater male control. As a result young women often relied on traditional methods or abortion. Although the review was limited to five countries and conditions are not homogenous for all young women in all developing countries, the overarching themes were common across different settings and contexts, supporting the potential transferability of interventions to improve reproductive health. Conclusion Increasing modern contraceptive method use requires community-wide, multifaceted

  20. Development and Testing of a Mobile Phone App for Self-Monitoring of Calcium Intake in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    Background Interventions to prevent osteoporosis by increasing dairy intake or physical activity in young women have been limited to increasing osteoporosis knowledge and awareness. However, findings have shown that this does not always lead to a change in behaviors. Self-monitoring using mobile devices in behavioral interventions has yielded significant and positive outcomes. Yet, to our knowledge, mobile self-monitoring has not been used as an intervention strategy to increase calcium intake, particularly in young women, for better bone health outcomes. Objective As development and testing of mobile app–based interventions requires a sequence of steps, our study focused on testing the acceptability and usability of Calci-app, a dietary app to self-monitor calcium consumption, before it is used in a behavioral change intervention in young women aged 18-25 years. Methods Calci-app development followed 4 steps: (1) conceptualization, (2) development and pretesting, (3) pilot testing, and (4) mixed methods evaluation. Results We present the development process of Calci-app and evaluation of the acceptability and usability of the app in young women. Overall, 78% (31/40) of study participants completed the 5-day food record with high compliance levels (defined as more than 3 days of full or partial completion). There was a significant reduction in the proportion of participants completing all meal entries over the 5 days (P=.01). Participants generally found Calci-app easy and convenient to use, but it was time-consuming and they expressed a lack of motivation to use the app. Conclusions We present a detailed description of the development process of Calci-app and an evaluation of its usability and acceptability to self-monitor dietary calcium intake. The findings from this preliminary study demonstrated acceptable use of Calci-app to self-monitor calcium consumption. However, for regular and long-term use the self-monitoring function in Calci-app could be expanded

  1. "Who am I? Where am I?" Experiences of married young women in a slum in Islamabad, Pakistan

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    Johansson Eva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, 16% of the women aged 15–19 years are married. Many get married shortly after they attain menarche. This study explores the preparedness for and actual experiences of married life (inter-spousal relationship, sexual activity and pregnancy among adolescent women. Methods Among married adolescent women residing in a slum of Islamabad ten were selected with the help of a community health worker and interviewed qualitatively till saturation was reached. They were interviewed three times at different occasions. Narrative structuring was used to explore how the participants represented their background, social situation, decision making and spousal communication and how they explained, understood and managed married life and bore children. Results Two categories identifying the respondents as either submissive-accepting or submissive-victims emerged. The married young women who belonged to the accepting group lived under compromised conditions but described themselves as satisfied with their situation. They were older than the other group identifying themselves as victims. However, none of the respondents felt prepared for marriage. Women belonging to the victimized group experienced physical and verbal abuse for their inability to cope with the duties of a wife, caretaker of the home and bearer of children. Their situation was compounded by the power dynamics within the household. Conclusion Knowledge about sexuality could prepare them better for the future life and give them more control of their fertility. Adolescent development and life skills education need to be addressed at a national level. There is need for innovative interventions to reach out and provide support to young women in disadvantaged homes.

  2. Understanding the Needs of Young Women Regarding Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Genetic Testing: Convergence and Divergence among Patient-Counselor Perceptions and the Promise of Peer Support

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    Chalanda Evans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Young women from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC families face a series of medical decisions regarding their cancer risk management and integrating this information into their life planning. This presents unique medical and psychosocial challenges that exist without comprehensive intervention. To help lay the groundwork for intervention, we conducted a qualitative study among young women from HBOC families (N = 12; Mean age = 22 and cancer genetic counselors (N = 12 to explicate domains most critical to caring for this population. Women and counselors were interviewed by telephone. The predominant interview themes included preventative care planning and risk management, decision making around the pros and cons of cancer risk assessment, medical management, and psychosocial stresses experienced. Young women endorsed psychosocial stress significantly more frequently than did counselors. Both groups noted the short- and long-term decision making challenges and the support and conflict engendered among familial relationships. Our results suggest young women value the support they receive from their families and their genetic counselors, but additional, external supports are needed to facilitate adaptation to HBOC risk. In feedback interviews focused on intervention planning with a subset of these young women (N = 9, they endorsed the predominant interview themes discovered as important intervention content, a structure that would balance discussion of medical information and psychosocial skill-building that could be tailored to the young women’s needs, and delivery by trained peers familiar with HBOC risk.

  3. Using a realist approach to evaluate smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people

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    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a study protocol designed to evaluate a programme of smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people living in urban and rural locations in Northeast Scotland. The study design was developed on so-called 'realist' evaluation principles, which are concerned with the implementation of interventions as well as their outcomes. Methods/design A two-phased study was designed based on the Theory of Change (TOC using mixed methods to assess both process and outcome factors. The study was designed with input from the relevant stakeholders. The mixed-methods approach consists of semi-structured interviews with planners, service providers, service users and non-users. These qualitative interviews will be analysed using a thematic framework approach. The quantitative element of the study will include the analysis of routinely collected data and specific project monitoring data, such as data on service engagement, service use, quit rates and changes in smoking status. Discussion The process of involving key stakeholders was conducted using logic modelling and TOC tools. Engaging stakeholders, including those responsible for funding, developing and delivering, and those intended to benefit from interventions aimed at them, in their evaluation design, are considered by many to increase the validity and rigour of the subsequent evidence generated. This study is intended to determine not only the components and processes, but also the possible effectiveness of this set of health interventions, and contribute to the evidence base about smoking cessation interventions aimed at priority groups in Scotland. It is also anticipated that this study will contribute to the ongoing debate about the role and challenges of 'realist' evaluation approaches in general, and the utility of logic modelling and TOC approaches in particular, for evaluation of complex health interventions.

  4. Long-Term Effects of Self-Control on Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior among Urban Minority Young Women

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    Gilbert J. Botvin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19% reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8% reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and

  5. Long-term effects of self-control on alcohol use and sexual behavior among urban minority young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kenneth W; Scheier, Lawrence M; Acevedo, Bianca; Grenard, Jerry L; Botvin, Gilbert J

    2012-01-01

    High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners) in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample) reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19%) reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8%) reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and sexual behaviors.

  6. Feedback Effects on the Performance and Self-Reinforcing Behavior of Elderly and Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Georgette; Hoyer, William J.

    1975-01-01

    A total of 64 college-aged and elderly women participated in an experimental study of the effects of noncontingent positive feedback on simple speeded performance, performance self-evaluations, and self-reinforcing behavior. Younger women self-reinforced more and held higher self-evaluations of their performance than elderly women. (Author)

  7. Systemic Oxidative Stress Is Increased to a Greater Degree in Young, Obese Women Following Consumption of a High Fat Meal

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    Richard J. Bloomer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High fat meals induce oxidative stress, which is associated with the pathogenesis of disease. Obese individuals have elevated resting biomarkers of oxidative stress compared to non-obese. We compared blood oxidative stress biomarkers in obese (n = 14; 30 ± 2 years; BMI 35 ± 1 kg•m−2 and non-obese (n = 16; 24 ± 2 years; BMI 23 ± 1 kg•m−2 women, in response to a high fat meal. Blood samples were collected pre-meal (fasted, and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours post meal, and assayed for trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, xanthine oxidase activity (XO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA, triglycerides (TAG, and glucose. An obesity status effect was noted for all variables (p 0.05, contrasts revealed greater values in obese compared to non-obese women for XO, H2O2, MDA, TAG and glucose, and lower values for TEAC at times from 1–6 hours post feeding (p ≤ 0.03. We conclude that young, obese women experience a similar pattern of increase in blood oxidative stress biomarkers in response to a high fat meal, as compared to non-obese women. However, the overall oxidative stress is greater in obese women, and values appear to remain elevated for longer periods of time post feeding. These data provide insight into another potential mechanism related to obesity-mediated morbidity.

  8. The Coming-Out Process of Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women: Are There Butch/Femme Differences in Sexual Identity Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce; Levy-Warren, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Research on lesbian and bisexual women has documented various biological and behavioral differences between butch and femme women. However, little research has examined whether differences exist in sexual identity development (i.e., the coming-out process). The present study examined longitudinally potential butch/femme differences in sexual identity formation and integration among an ethnically diverse sample of 76 self-identified lesbian and bisexual young women (ages 14–21 years). A compos...

  9. Evidence that treatment with monophasic oral contraceptive formulations containing ethinylestradiol plus gestodene reduces bone resorption in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, A M; Orrù, M; Floris, S; Mannias, M; Vacca, A M; Ajossa, S; Guerriero, S; Melis, G B

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if a pill containing the same dose of the same type of progestin compound (gestodene, GES, 75 microg) but different doses of ethinylestradiol (EE2) (20 or 30 microg) differently influences specific markers of bone resorption (urinary levels of pyridinoline (PYR) and dexoxypyridinoline (D-PYR)). During the 12 months of the study a significant decrease of urinary levels of PYR and D-PYR was found in 2 groups of young post-adolescent women taking the pills with 20 and 30 microg of EE2 in comparison with control women (subjects of the same age group with normal menstrual cycle who did not use contraception). In women taking pills with 20 or 30 microg EE2, the levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) significantly increased during treatment in comparison with baseline, whereas in the same time period no changes occurred in control women. These findings suggest that similar to the pill containing 30 microg EE2, the lower dosage of the EE2 pill (20 microg) is also capable of reducing bone resorption. Twenty and 30 microg EE2 pills exert the same biological estrogenic effect. In fact, SHBG levels significantly increased with both pills. However, an additional effect of the progestin compound that could act directly on progestin or estrogen receptors of bone cannot be excluded. Since contraception with a pill containing the lowest estrogen dose is associated with the lowest incidence of side effects, these findings further suggest a pill containing 20 microg EE2 for young post-adolescent women would be the best choice.

  10. Gender-sensitive and youth-friendly physiotherapy: Steps toward a stress management intervention for girls and young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömbäck, Maria; Wiklund, Maria; Salander Renberg, Ellinor; Malmgren-Olsson, Eva-Britt

    2016-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates initial steps of a gender-sensitive, youth-friendly group intervention model designed for teenage girls and young women who experience stress-related or psychosomatic problems. Fifty-four young women (16-25 years of age) participated in a gender-sensitive physiotherapy stress management course at a youth health center. Inclusion criteria were self-defined stress-related problems and a wish to participate in the group intervention. Measurements of aspects of body perception, self-image, multiple somatic problems, and mental health symptom areas were assessed both before and after intervention with the Body Perception Questionnaire ad modum Schiöler, social analysis of social behavior, and Adult Self-Report scale. Significant positive changes were found in aspects of body perception, self-image, and mental health and somatic symptoms. The changes were most significant in lower internalization of anxiety and depression symptoms. Symptoms such as headaches and sleeping problems decreased. Participants were more satisfied with their bodies and more able to listen to body signals. Among cognitive issues, significant change occurred in thought problems, but not in attention problems. The intervention model needs further evaluation in controlled trials, but is promising and should be developed further in other physiotherapy settings and subgroups of young people.

  11. Deaths among young, single women in 2000-2001 in the West Bank, Palestinian Occupied Territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adili, Nadim; Shaheen, Mohammad; Bergström, Staffan; Johansson, Annika

    2008-05-01

    A study in 2000-2001 of causes of death of women of reproductive age (15-49) in the West Bank, Palestinian Occupied Territories, found that 154 of the 411 deceased women aged 15-49 with known marital status were single. Death notification forms for reported deaths were analysed and verbal autopsies carried out, where possible, with relatives of the deceased women. We found important differences in the age at death and causes of death among the single and married women, which can be attributed to the disadvantaged social status of single women in Palestinian society, exacerbated by the current unstable political situation. 41% of the deceased single women were under 25 years of age at death compared to 8% of the married women. The proportion of violent deaths and suicides among the single women was almost twice as high as among the married women, mainly in those below age 25. The single women were also more likely to die from medical conditions which indicated that they faced barriers to accessing health care. The fieldwork was conducted at the height of the Intifada and the Israeli military response, with heavy restrictions on mobility, limiting the possibility of probing deeper into the circumstances surrounding sensitive deaths. More research into the socio-cultural context of single women in Palestine society is needed as a basis for intervention.

  12. Age-specific gene expression signatures for breast tumors and cross-species conserved potential cancer progression markers in young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Colak

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in young women is more aggressive with a poorer prognosis and overall survival compared to older women diagnosed with the disease. Despite recent research, the underlying biology and molecular alterations that drive the aggressive nature of breast tumors associated with breast cancer in young women have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we performed transcriptomic profile and network analyses of breast tumors arising in Middle Eastern women to identify age-specific gene signatures. Moreover, we studied molecular alterations associated with cancer progression in young women using cross-species comparative genomics approach coupled with copy number alterations (CNA associated with breast cancers from independent studies. We identified 63 genes specific to tumors in young women that showed alterations distinct from two age cohorts of older women. The network analyses revealed potential critical regulatory roles for Myc, PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, and IL-1 in disease characteristics of breast tumors arising in young women. Cross-species comparative genomics analysis of progression from pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC revealed 16 genes with concomitant genomic alterations, CCNB2, UBE2C, TOP2A, CEP55, TPX2, BIRC5, KIAA0101, SHCBP1, UBE2T, PTTG1, NUSAP1, DEPDC1, HELLS, CCNB1, KIF4A, and RRM2, that may be involved in tumorigenesis and in the processes of invasion and progression of disease. Array findings were validated using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and extensive in silico analyses of independently performed microarray datasets. To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive genomic analysis of breast cancer in Middle Eastern women in age-specific cohorts and potential markers for cancer progression in young women. Our data demonstrate that cancer appearing in young women contain distinct biological characteristics and deregulated signaling pathways. Moreover, our integrative

  13. [The study of healthy attitudes and knowledge related to smoking habit among young women living north-easterly region of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleszczewska, Ewa; Jaszczuk, Agata

    2007-01-01

    The aim of presented study was to estimate the phenomenon of spreading smoking cigarettes and knowledge about it among young women living north-easterly region of Poland, which are not connected with medical or cosmetic sector. All informations was collected from the pool questionnaire, which was filled in by each person independently. The questionnaire study was curried out on 327 young women. They were quaranteed anonymity. The research touched such questions as knowledge related to number of harmful substances in cigarettes, professional activity, care for appearance and keep fit, the environment of the interviewed women.

  14. Experiences of women who have lost young children to AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demmer Craig

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS continues to be the leading cause of death in South Africa. Little is known about the experiences of mothers who have lost a young child to AIDS. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the attitudes and experiences of women who had lost a young child to HIV/AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 women who had lost a child to AIDS. The average age of the deceased children was six years. Interviews were also conducted with 12 key informants to obtain their perspectives on working with women who had lost a child to AIDS. A thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed. Results In addition to the pain of losing a child, the women in this study had to endure multiple stresses within a harsh and sometimes hostile environment. Confronted with pervasive stigma and extreme poverty, they had few people they could rely on during their child's sickness and death. They were forced to keep their emotions to themselves since they were not likely to obtain much support from family members or people in the community. Throughout the period of caring for a sick child and watching the child die, they were essentially alone. The demands of caring for their child and subsequent grief, together with daily subsistence worries, took its toll. Key informants struggled to address the needs of these women due to several factors, including scarce resources, lack of training around bereavement issues, reluctance by people in the community to seek help with emotional issues, and poverty. Conclusions The present study offers one of the first perspectives on the experiences of mothers who have lost a young child to AIDS. Interventions that are tailored to the local context and address bereavement issues, as well as other issues that affect the daily lives of these mothers, are urgently needed. Further studies are needed to identify factors that promote resilience among these

  15. Attitudes and perceptions towards HPV vaccination among young women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneela N Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rising incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer can be reduced by effective vaccination. Saudi Food and Drug Administration approved prophylactic HPV vaccine in 2010 for females of 11-26 years. Objectives: To determine the awareness of HPV infection, its health sequel and the attitude and barriers to the acceptance of HPV vaccine by young women in Saudi Arabia. Dynamics influencing the decision of patients and parents regarding vaccination were assessed to foster effective and strategically focused interventions. Materials and Methods: All patients of Family Medicine department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh were invited to participate in this study from January 2012 to June 2014. A culturally sensitive and specially designed questionnaire was administered using an interview-based model to assess the knowledge, perception, and associated sociodemographic factors of HPV. Results: A total of 325 patients participated as per the inclusion criteria: 87.4% were Saudis, 53.5% had university or higher education and 65.2% were adolescents (age 11-19 years. The questionnaire was answered by participants (50.8% or guardians (49.2%. About 34.5% of the population was aware of HPV infection, and 27.4% were aware of its relation with cervical cancer. However, awareness of the HPV vaccine, perception of its prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related disease was relatively low (32.3%, Saudis (29.9% versus non-Saudis (48.8% (P = 0.016. More guardians (41.2% were aware of the HPV vaccine and its impact than participants (27.9% (P = 0.01. Higher educational background (43.1% increased the knowledge of HPV compared to less than high school education (24.5% (odds ratio: 2.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.44-3.76. Nearly 64.3% of participants agreed, and 35.7% refused to receive the HPV vaccine. Conclusion: Knowledge and perception of HPV infection as an sexually transmitted infections and

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafarnezhad M

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria is prevalent during pregnancy. It can lead to pyelonephritis, premature pregnancy and low birth weight. In this prospective study, to determine prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria, 205 consecutive pregnant women who visited our prenatal care clinic in Mirza-Koochakkhan Hospital and had no urinary symptom were entered. Patients data were recorded using a questionnaire and urine samples were obtained for urinalysis and urine culture. We analysed data by using fisher exact and chi-squared test. 14 cases had positive urine culture (6.8%. Significant correlation was seen between asymptomatic bacteriuria and age, parity, past history of kidney stone, pyelonephritis, urinary tract infection, preterm delivery and pyuria pvalue <0.05. We suggest routine urine culture in first visit of high risk and 16th week of low risk pregnancies.

  17. "My greatest dream is to be normal": the impact of gender on the depression narratives of young Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Ulla E; Bengs, Carita; Samuelsson, Eva; Johansson, Eva E

    2011-05-01

    Depression is common among young people. Gender differences in diagnosing depression appear during adolescence. The study aim was to explore the impact of gender on depression in young Swedish men and women. Grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 23 young people aged 17 to 25 years who had been diagnosed with depression. Their narratives were marked by a striving to be normal and disclosed strong gender stereotypes, constructed in interaction with parents, friends, and the media. Gender norms were upheld by feelings of shame, and restricted the acting space of our informants. However, we also found transgressions of these gender norms. Primary health care workers could encourage young men to open up emotionally and communicate their personal distress, and young women to be daring and assertive of their own strengths, so that both genders might gain access to the positive coping strategies practiced respectively by each.

  18. Childhood conduct problems and young adult outcomes among women with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2016-02-01

    We tested whether conduct problems predicted young adult functioning and psychiatric symptoms among women diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during childhood, in the context of 3 potential adolescent mediators: internalizing problems, peer rejection, and school failure and disciplinary problems. We controlled for childhood ADHD severity, IQ, and demographic factors, and in the mediational tests, for adolescent conduct problems. Data came from 140 participants in the Berkeley Girls With ADHD Longitudinal Study. We used bootstrapping methods to assess indirect effects (mediators). Both childhood, F(1, 118) change = 9.00, p = .003, R2 change = .069, and adolescent, F(1, 109) change = 10.41, p = .002, R2 change = .083, conduct problems were associated with worse overall functioning during young adulthood, controlling for initial ADHD severity, child IQ, and demographics. Results were similar when predicting psychiatric symptoms. Adolescent school failure and disciplinary problems mediated the relations between childhood conduct problems and both young adult functioning and externalizing problems; adolescent internalizing problems and peer conflict mediated the relation between childhood conduct problems and young adult internalizing problems. As is true for boys, childhood and adolescent conduct problems are associated with poor adult outcomes among girls with ADHD, with school failure and disciplinary problems, internalizing problems, and peer conflict functioning as mediators of these relations.

  19. To bleed or not to bleed: young women's attitudes toward menstrual suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston-Robledo, Ingrid; Ball, Melissa; Lauta, Kimberly; Zekoll, Ann

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate women's knowledge about and attitudes toward the medical suppression of menstruation. One hundred and three female undergraduate students completed several questionnaires. Thirty-five percent of the participants were familiar with menstrual suppression, and 12% reported using birth control methods to suppress their menses; oral contraceptive users were more knowledgeable about menstrual suppression than other women. Women who regarded menstruation as bothersome and shameful were more supportive of suppression than women with more positive attitudes. Women who scored higher on measures of body consciousness were not more likely to support menstrual suppression or to report a desire for more information about menstrual suppression. Future investigations of women's attitudes toward menstrual suppression could inform reproductive health care and health education.

  20. The effect of dietary restriction and menstrual cycle on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuba, Y; Yano, Y; Murakami, H; Kan, A; Miura, A

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute dietary restriction on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in young women at two different phases of the menstrual cycle. Five young sedentary women (age 21-22 years) participated in this study. Each subject visited the laboratory eight times for measurement of EPOC. They performed cycle ergometer exercise for 60 min at a work rate corresponding to approximately 70% of VO2max under each four different conditions (i.e. standard diet/follicular phase (SF), standard diet/luteal phase (SL), restricted diet/follicular phase (RF) and restricted diet/luteal phase (RL)). The exercise was performed in the morning and VO2 was measured for the last 15 min of each hour for 7 h after the exercise. As a control, VO2 was also measured with an identical time schedule under the same four conditions but without exercise. EPOC was calculated as the difference of the VO2-time integral for 7 h between the exercise and control trial days in each of the four conditions (i.e. SL, SF, RL and RF). The diet was precisely controlled during 2 days (i.e. the test day and the day preceding it). The standard diet was 1600 kcal day-1 and the restricted diet was half of the standard diet. A two-way (dietary and menstrual cycle factors) ANOVA indicated that EPOC was significantly affected only by the dietary factor. The dietary restriction decreased EPOC compared to the standard dietary condition (SF 8.6 +/- 2.1, RF 5.3 +/- 1.6, SL 8.9 +/- 4.8, RL 4.0 +/- 1.2 l). These data indicate that for young sedentary women, EPOC is significantly lowered by prior acute dietary restriction but is not influenced by different phases of the menstrual cycle.

  1. Behavioral and Health Outcomes for HIV+ Young Transgender Women (YTW) Linked To and Engaged in Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowshen, Nadia; Matone, Meredith; Luan, Xianqun; Lee, Susan; Belzer, Marvin; Fernandez, Maria Isabel; Rubin, David

    2016-04-01

    We describe health and psychosocial outcomes of HIV+ young transgender women (YTW) engaged in care across the United States. When compared to other behaviorally infected youth (BIY), YTW reported higher rates of unemployment (25% vs. 19%), limited educational achievement (42% vs 13%), and suboptimal ART adherence (51% vs. 30%). There was no difference in likelihood of having a detectable viral load (38% vs. 39%) between groups. However, particular isolating psychosocial factors (unstable housing, depression, and lack of social support for attending appointments) increased predicted probability of viral detection to a greater extent among YTW that may have important health implications for this marginalized youth population.

  2. Power of the Pill or Power of Abortion? Re-Examining the Effects of Young Women's Access to Reproductive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Caitlin Knowles

    2012-01-01

    Recent research postulating that the diffusion of confidential access to the birth control pill to young women in the United States contributed to the dramatic social changes of the late 1960s and 1970s has not adequately accounted for the largely contemporaneous diffusion of access to abortion. Estimates using a new panel of data on state policies related to access to the pill and abortion indicate that while access to the pill may have played a role in the sexual revolution, it had little e...

  3. Associations between Chinese/Asian versus Western mass media influences and body image disturbances of young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Jiang, Chengcheng; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated associations of experiences with mass media imported from Western nations such as the United States versus mass media from China and other Asian countries with eating and body image disturbances of young Chinese women. Participating women (N=456) completed self-report measures of disordered eating, specific sources of appearance dissatisfaction (fatness, facial features, stature), and Western versus Chinese/Asian mass media influences. The sample was significantly more likely to report perceived pressure from, comparisons with, and preferences for physical appearance depictions in Chinese/Asian mass media than Western media. Chinese/Asian media influences also combined for more unique variance in prediction models for all disturbances except stature concerns. While experiences with Western media were related to disturbances as well, the overall impact of Chinese/Asian media influences was more prominent.

  4. The Need for More Women Scientists and Young Scientists To Be Engaged in Chemistry- A Central Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vlvian W. W. Yam

    2011-01-01

    @@ This year, 2011 is a very important and meaningful year for chemists.The United Nations has declared 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry (IYC 2011), which is the year for the worldwide celebration of the achievements of Chemistry and its contributions to the well-being of mankind.The goals of IYC 2011 are to increase the public appreciation of chemistry in meeting world needs, to encourage interest in chemistry amongst young people, and to generate enthusiasm for the creative future of chemistry.The year 2011 also coincides with the 100th anniversary of the International Women's Day on March 8 as well as the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize awarded to Madame Marie Curie -a great opportunity to celebrate and to highlight the contributions and achievements of women in science.

  5. Relationships of sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking with sexual risk behavior in young Urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel

    2004-06-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationships of sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking with HIV sexual risk behavior in 257 young urban women. Interviews were conducted using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking explained 18.3% of the variance in sexual risk behavior. Although sexual imposition was positively related to sexual risk, pressure to satisfy a male partner sexually was more common than physical coercion. Dyadic trust was negatively related, indicating that women engaged in sexual risk behavior with men they distrusted. Sensation seeking was positively related to sexual risk. Findings suggest the need for enhancing awareness of non-sexually imposing relationship alternatives and incorporating thrill and excitement in health promotion messages.

  6. Lactobacillus-Deficient Cervicovaginal Bacterial Communities Are Associated with Increased HIV Acquisition in Young South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmann, Christina; Anahtar, Melis N; Handley, Scott A; Farcasanu, Mara; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Bowman, Brittany A; Padavattan, Nikita; Desai, Chandni; Droit, Lindsay; Moodley, Amber; Dong, Mary; Chen, Yuezhou; Ismail, Nasreen; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Wesemann, Duane R; Mitchell, Caroline; Dong, Krista L; Huttenhower, Curtis; Walker, Bruce D; Virgin, Herbert W; Kwon, Douglas S

    2017-01-17

    Elevated inflammation in the female genital tract is associated with increased HIV risk. Cervicovaginal bacteria modulate genital inflammation; however, their role in HIV susceptibility has not been elucidated. In a prospective cohort of young, healthy South African women, we found that individuals with diverse genital bacterial communities dominated by anaerobes other than Gardnerella were at over 4-fold higher risk of acquiring HIV and had increased numbers of activated mucosal CD4(+) T cells compared to those with Lactobacillus crispatus-dominant communities. We identified specific bacterial taxa linked with reduced (L. crispatus) or elevated (Prevotella, Sneathia, and other anaerobes) inflammation and HIV infection and found that high-risk bacteria increased numbers of activated genital CD4(+) T cells in a murine model. Our results suggest that highly prevalent genital bacteria increase HIV risk by inducing mucosal HIV target cells. These findings might be leveraged to reduce HIV acquisition in women living in sub-Saharan Africa.

  7. "A magical little pill that will relieve you of your womanly issues": What young women say about menstrual suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Colleen; Jenkins, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of menstruation by media discourses portray this bodily function to be messy, inconvenient, and as an unnecessary phenomenon to be controlled or possibly eliminated. Commercials shown on YouTube targeted toward young women suggest that having a monthly period is not healthy and a lifestyle that is menses free is both pharmacologically available and recommended in order to live a fuller life. We explored the meanings attached to online menstrual suppression commercials with 10 women aged between 18 and 25. In-depth open-ended interviews were conducted over a 10-month period in 2014 after each participant viewed three menstrual suppression online advertisements. Feminist critical discourse was used for analysis with both authors coding for inter-rater reliability recognizing how our age difference and relationship as mother and daughter informed our interpretation. An overarching theme of tension emerged from the interviews with participants feeling detached due to the gendered stereotypes the commercials used to frame menstruation as compared to their own lived experience. Meanings associated with the menstrual suppression commercials were contrary to the participants' lived experience of menstruation as a healthy process not a detrimental one to their well-being as suggested by the commercials. Subliminal messages within the advertisements were identified as reinforcing gender bias and prejudices, including those associated with femininity. Despite attempting to emulate popular culture, the menstrual suppression advertisements were largely dismissed by this group of participants as undermining their intelligence and of intentionally creating divisive binaries between groups of women. This study suggests that historical bias and stereotypical prejudices were identified by this group of young women within the marketing of menstrual suppression products and, as such, were dismissed as inauthentic to the menstruation experience reflecting a form of

  8. Insulin Dynamics in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Normal Glucose Tolerance across Categories of Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco, Melania; Castagneto-Gissey, Lidia; Arrighi, Eugenio; Carnicelli, Annamaria; Brufani, Claudia; Luciano, Rosa; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence favours insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia as the predominant, perhaps primary, defects in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate insulin metabolism in young women with PCOS but normal glucose tolerance as compared with age, body mass index and insulin resistance-matched controls to answer the question whether women with PCOS hypersecrete insulin in comparison to appropriately insulin resistance-matched controls. Research Design and Methods Sixty-nine cases were divided according to their body mass index (BMI) in normal-weight (N = 29), overweight (N = 24) and obese patients (N = 16). Controls were 479 healthy women (age 16–49 y). Whole body Insulin Sensitivity (WBISI), fasting, and total insulin secretion were estimated following an oral glucose tolerance test (C-peptide deconvolution method). Results Across classes of BMI, PCOS patients had greater insulin resistance than matched controls (p<0.0001 for all the comparisons), but they showed higher fasting and total insulin secretion than their age, BMI and insulin resistance-matched peers (p<0.0001 for all the comparisons). Conclusion Women with PCOS show higher insulin resistance but also larger insulin secretion to maintain normal glucose homeostasis than age-, BMI- and insulin resistance-matched controls. PMID:24705280

  9. Insulin dynamics in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal glucose tolerance across categories of body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Manco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence favours insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia as the predominant, perhaps primary, defects in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate insulin metabolism in young women with PCOS but normal glucose tolerance as compared with age, body mass index and insulin resistance-matched controls to answer the question whether women with PCOS hypersecrete insulin in comparison to appropriately insulin resistance-matched controls. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty-nine cases were divided according to their body mass index (BMI in normal-weight (N = 29, overweight (N = 24 and obese patients (N = 16. Controls were 479 healthy women (age 16-49 y. Whole body Insulin Sensitivity (WBISI, fasting, and total insulin secretion were estimated following an oral glucose tolerance test (C-peptide deconvolution method. RESULTS: Across classes of BMI, PCOS patients had greater insulin resistance than matched controls (p<0.0001 for all the comparisons, but they showed higher fasting and total insulin secretion than their age, BMI and insulin resistance-matched peers (p<0.0001 for all the comparisons. CONCLUSION: Women with PCOS show higher insulin resistance but also larger insulin secretion to maintain normal glucose homeostasis than age-, BMI- and insulin resistance-matched controls.

  10. The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among young Mexican women with triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Garza, C; Weitzel, J N; Llacuachaqui, M; Sifuentes, E; Magallanes-Hoyos, M C; Gallardo, L; Alvarez-Gómez, R M; Herzog, J; Castillo, D; Royer, R; Akbari, Mohammad; Lara-Medina, F; Herrera, L A; Mohar, A; Narod, S A

    2015-04-01

    Various guidelines recommend that women with triple-negative breast cancer should be tested for BRCA1 mutations, but the prevalence of mutations may vary with ethnic group and with geographic region, and the optimal cutoff age for testing has not been established. We estimated the frequencies of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations among 190 women with triple-negative breast cancer, unselected for family history, diagnosed at age 50 or less at a single hospital in Mexico City. Patients were screened for 115 recurrent BRCA mutations, which have been reported previously in women of Hispanic origin, including a common large rearrangement Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del). A BRCA mutation was detected in 44 of 190 patients with triple-negative breast cancer (23 %). Forty-three mutations were found in BRCA1 and one mutation was found in BRCA2. Seven different mutations accounted for 39 patients (89 % of the total mutations). The Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del) was found 18 times and accounted for 41 % of all mutations detected. There is a high prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among young triple-negative breast cancer patients in Mexico. Women with triple-negative breast cancer in Mexico should be screened for mutations in BRCA1.

  11. Effect of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives on human papillomavirus detection in young, unscreened women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Lenselink, C.H.; Quint, W.G.V.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use on the prevalence, incidence, and persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted among 2,065 women aged 18-29 years. The women returned a self-collected cervicovagin

  12. Sexual Identity, Attractions, and Behavior among Young Sexual-Minority Women over a 2-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined sexual identities, attractions, and behaviors of sexual-minority women in 2-year follow-up of women first interviewed at 16-23 years. Found half the participants had changed sexual-minority orientations more than once; one- third changed identities since the first interview. Found changes in sexual attractions were larger among bisexuals…

  13. Cardiac diastolic dysfunction and metabolic syndrome in young women after placental syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, M.; Stekkinger, E.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Lotgering, F.K.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether women with a recent history of a placental syndrome and concomitant metabolic syndrome have reduced cardiac diastolic function. METHODS: In this cohort study, women with a history of a placental syndrome were included. We assessed body mass index, blood pressure, fasti

  14. Mental disorders in childhood and young adulthood among children born to women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, M.F.; Hargreave, M.; Nielsen, T.S.S.;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of hospital admission or outpatient contact for mental disorders increased in children born to women with fertility problems compared with children born to women without fertility problems? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found an increased risk of hospital admission or outpatient ...

  15. How Robotics Programs Influence Young Women's Career Choices: A Grounded Theory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cecilia Dosh-Bluhm

    2014-01-01

    The fields of engineering, computer science, and physics have a paucity of women despite decades of intervention by universities and organizations. Women's graduation rates in these fields continue to stagnate, posing a critical problem for society. This qualitative grounded theory (GT) study sought to understand how robotics programs influenced…

  16. The Utilization of Exercise to Decrease Depressive Symptoms in Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Caldwell, Charmaine; Shen, Yu-Pei

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent issue for women on college campuses. Undergraduate women participated in (a) an aerobic exercise class, (b) a weight-lifting class, or (c) a control group to determine the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms. Participants in the aerobic exercise group exhibited a significant decrease in depressive symptoms.…

  17. Urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Raul

    2011-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it is asymptomatic. However, the risk factors associated with recurrent UTI in elderly women are not widely described. In a multivariate analysis it was found that urinary incontinence, a history of UTI before menopause, and nonsecretor status were strongly associated with recurrent UTI in young postmenopausal women. Another study described the incidence and risk factors of acute cystitis among nondiabetic and diabetic postmenopausal women. Independent predictors of infection included insulin-treated patients and a lifetime history of urinary infection. Borderline associations included a history of vaginal estrogen cream use in the past month, kidney stones, and asymptomatic bacteriuria at baseline. Another important factor in postmenopausal women is the potential role that estrogen deficiency plays in the development of bacteriuria. There are at least two studies showing a beneficial effect of estrogen in the management of recurrent bacteriuria in elderly women. One of these studies showed that vaginal estrogen cream reduced vaginal pH from 5.5±0.7 to 3.6±1.0, restored lactobacillus, and decreased new episodes of UTI. Another study reported similar results using an estriol vaginal ring. However, contradictory results are found in the literature. For example, additional studies found that the use of estriol-containing vaginal pessaries was less effective than oral nitrofurantoin macrocrystals in preventing UTI in postmenopausal women. Two other studies also did not find any

  18. A Study of the Effects of Latent Iron Deficiency on Measures of Cognition: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of Iron Supplementation in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecia J. Leonard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rates of iron deficiency are high amongst healthy young women. Cognitive impairment occurs secondary to iron deficiency in infants and children, but evaluation of the impact on cognition among young women is inconsistent. The aim was to determine the suitability of the IntegNeuro test battery for assessing cognitive function in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient young women. A pilot double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was conducted in iron-deficient (serum ferritin ≤ 20 μg/L and haemoglobin > 120 g/L and iron-sufficient young women (18–35 years. Cognitive function and haematological markers of iron status were measured at baseline and follow-up. Iron-deficient participants (n = 24 were randomised to receive placebo, 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron daily supplements for 16 weeks. A control group of iron-sufficient participants (n = 8 was allocated to placebo. Change scores for Impulsivity and Attention were significantly greater in plasma ferritin improvers than in non-improvers (p = 0.004, p = 0.026. IntegNeuro was easy to administer and acceptable to young women. Based on the differences in Memory and Attention scores between iron-deficient participants on iron treatment and those on placebo, it was decided that between 26 and 84 participants would be required in each iron treatment group for an adequately powered extension of this pilot RCT.

  19. Barriers and facilitators to uptake of the school-based HPV vaccination programme in an ethnically diverse group of young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista Ferrer, Harriet; Trotter, Caroline L.; Hickman, Matthew; Audrey, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify the barriers and facilitators to uptake of the HPV vaccine in an ethnically diverse group of young women in the south west of England. Methods Three school-based vaccination sessions were observed. Twenty-three young women aged 12 to 13 years, and six key informants, were interviewed between October 2012 and July 2013. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and the Framework method for data management. Results The priority given to preventing cervical cancer in this age group influenced whether young women received the HPV vaccine. Access could be affected by differing levels of commitment by school staff, school nurses, parents and young women to ensure parental consent forms were returned. Beliefs and values, particularly relevant to minority ethnic groups, in relation to adolescent sexual activity may affect uptake. Literacy and language difficulties undermine informed consent and may prevent vaccination. Conclusions The school-based HPV vaccination programme successfully reaches the majority of young women. However, responsibility for key aspects remain unresolved which can affect delivery and prevent uptake for some groups. A multi-faceted approach, targeting appropriate levels of the socio-ecological model, is required to address procedures for consent and cultural and literacy barriers faced by minority ethnic groups, increase uptake and reduce inequalities. PMID:26054910

  20. Severe obesity in young women and reproductive health: the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Timpson, Nicholas J; Andersen, Camilla S;

    2009-01-01

    -reported information about prepregnant body mass index (BMI) for 2451 severely obese women and 2450 randomly selected women from the remaining cohort who served as a comparison group. Information about maternal and infant outcomes was also self-reported or came from registers. Logistic regression was used to estimate...... increased with severity of obesity. They tended to have a higher risk of both pre- and post-term birth, and risk of cesarean and instrumental deliveries increased across obesity categories. After birth, severely obese women more often failed to initiate or sustain breastfeeding. Risk of weight retention 1.......5 years after birth was similar to that of other women, but after adjustment for gestational weight gain, the risk was increased, especially in women in the lowest obesity category. In infants, increasing maternal obesity was associated with decreased risk of a low birth weight and increased risk...

  1. PREVALENCE OF ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANCY AT A TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Guntoory

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND UTI is the most frequent medical complication. It may be asymptomatic or symptomatic. Asymptomatic bacteriuria if left untreated might result in symptomatic UTI and adverse pregnancy outcomes. AIM This prospective study was aimed to determine the prevalence of Asymptomatic bacteriuria of pregnancy among antenatal women attending the antenatal clinic in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Maharajah’s Institute of Medical Sciences, Nellimarla, Vizianagaram District, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL AND METHODS After taking approval from Institutional Ethics Committee and informed written consent from patients, urine samples were collected from antenatal women in their first antenatal visit. A clean catch midstream specimen of urine was collected and inoculated on blood agar and MacConkey’s agar. It was incubated aerobically at 37 degrees centigrade overnight. Isolates were identified up to species level using standard protocol and sensitivity to different antibiotics is tested. Results were analysed statistically and a P value of less than 0.05 was taken as significant. RESULTS A total of 173 samples were screened; 154 women showed no growth on culture; 19 women had significant bacteriuria with a prevalence rate of 10.98%; 15 women in the age group of 18-25 years and 4 women in the age group of 26-35 years had significant bacteriuria; 83 women were multiparous and 11 (57.89% women in this group had significant bacteriuria, while only 8 (42.1% out of 90 women in the nulliparous group had significant bacteriuria. With respect to trimester, 10 (52.63% out of 19 culture positive cases were in second trimester. In our study, the organisms isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The bacteria grown were most sensitive to Ampicillin+Sulbactam (68%, Nitrofurantoin (73%, Amikacin (84% and Meropenem (100%. CONCLUSION It is therefore essential to screen every antenatal women for asymptomatic

  2. Gender and sexual vulnerability of young women in Africa: experiences of young girls in secondary schools in Uganda.

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    Muhanguzi, Florence Kyoheirwe

    2011-06-01

    Sexuality is part and parcel of students' experiences of schooling manifested in personal friendships, relations and social interaction. These encounters constitute sites within which sexual identities are developed, practiced and actively produced through processes of negotiation. Drawing on qualitative research conducted in 14 selected secondary schools in Central and Western Uganda, the study illuminates gendered sexual vulnerability within patterns of social interaction and young girls gendered experiences and negotiation of their sexuality. The study reveals that through social and discursive practices, students construct complex gendered relations of domination and subordination that position boys and girls differently, often creating gender inequalities and sexual vulnerability for those gendered as girls. Girls' vulnerability is characterised by confusing and traumatic experiences fraught with double standards and silences. Typical of these experiences are complex tensions and contradictions surrounding constructions of sexuality that are predicated upon unequal power and gender relations characterised by homophobia, misogyny, control of female sexuality and sexual abuse and exploitation, all which work against girls' expression of sexuality. Gender sensitive sexuality education is identified as a valuable site of intervention to address such vulnerabilities and promote gender equality and equity in society.

  3. Identificação do papilomavírus humano por biologia molecular em mulheres assintomáticas Genital human papillomavirus infection identification by molecular biology among asymptomatic women

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    Bernadete Nonnenmacher

    2002-02-01

    975 women seen at a public health service for cervical cancer screening in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Women were considered infected if tested positive to HPV either by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR or Hybrid Capture II (HC-II methods. Women with genital HPV infection were compared to women without infection drawn from the same population. RESULTS: The study enrolled 975 women. The HPV prevalence (both methods combined in this population was 27%. However, when each diagnostic method is analyzed separately, HPV prevalence was 15% and 16% for HC-II and PCR, respectively. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was used to correlate disease status to women characteristics. A positive association was found with HPV infection for the following variables: years of schooling (11 years: OR=2.05; 95%CI =1.31; 3.20, married (OR=1.69; 95%CI=0.78; 2.00, number of lifetime sexual partners (2 partners: OR=1.67; 95%CI=1.01; 2.77; 4 or +: OR=2.18; 95%CI=1.15; 4.13, age at first intercourse (15-16 years: OR=4.05; 95%CI=0.89; 18.29. CONCLUSIONS: Various factors may contribute to genital HPV infection, especially those related to sexual behavior (young age at first intercourse, high number of lifetime sexual partners, and marital status, and those related to social and economic status (years of schooling.

  4. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains

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    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast...

  5. "How Should I Be?" A Photovoice Exploration Into Body Image Messaging for Young Women Across Ethnicities and Cultures.

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    Madden, Devin; Breny, Jean M

    2016-05-01

    Photovoice, a community-based participatory research method that allows participants to inform research questions in an intimate way, has proven successful with youth. A diverse group of teenage girls living in New York City were asked to take photographs and reflect on what messages they received and from whom, how these messages translate across cultures and ethnicities, and how these messages are internalized and acted on. The group selected specific photographs to discuss together and themes emerged to answer the research questions; themes were reinforced by journal responses and agreed on by the group at the concluding session. The participants identified the media, peers, and family as cultural influencers on body image but noted that these messages change depending on the delivering medium. Participants not only offered recommendations with policy implications for advertising and media giants but also urged public health practitioners, teachers, and other key stakeholders working with young women of color to simply provide them with more space for talking. While Photovoice served as an effective methodology for gaining a more expansive understanding of how body image messages are received with young women of color, the tool should be considered for youth development interventions that take a community-based participatory approach.

  6. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

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    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  7. Dietary Determinants of and Possible Solutions to Iron Deficiency for Young Women Living in Industrialized Countries: A Review

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    Kathryn L. Beck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is a concern in both developing and developed (industrialized countries; and young women are particularly vulnerable. This review investigates dietary determinants of and possible solutions to iron deficiency in young women living in industrialized countries. Dietary factors including ascorbic acid and an elusive factor in animal protein foods (meat; fish and poultry enhance iron absorption; while phytic acid; soy protein; calcium and polyphenols inhibit iron absorption. However; the effects of these dietary factors on iron absorption do not necessarily translate into an association with iron status and iron stores (serum ferritin concentration. In cross-sectional studies; only meat intake has consistently (positively been associated with higher serum ferritin concentrations. The enhancing effects of ascorbic acid and meat on iron absorption may be negated by the simultaneous consumption of foods and nutrients which are inhibitory. Recent cross-sectional studies have considered the combination and timing of foods consumed; with mixed results. Dietary interventions using a range of focused dietary measures to improve iron status appear to be more effective than dietary approaches that focus on single nutrients or foods. Further research is needed to determine optimal dietary recommendations for both the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency.

  8. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women.

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    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text], body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in [Formula: see text] (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  9. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

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    Zhaowei Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p=0.062. The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p=0.042. Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  10. Effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and low back pain in dysmenorrheic young adult women: an experimental study.

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    Chen, Huei-Mein; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chiu, Min-Huei; Hu, Hsou-Mei

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and low back pain (LBP) in dysmenorrheic young adult women. In all, 129 female students, who had been experiencing dysmenorrhea with LBP during menstruation and who scored more than 4 points on the visual analog scale for pain, were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group (n = 65) received acupressure massage three times a week for 30 minutes on the sanyinjiao (SP6), ciliao (BL32), and taichong (Liver 3) acupoints. The control group (n = 64) received only a manual of menstrual health education without acupressure intervention. Data were collected at five time points: at baseline, 30 minutes, and 4, 8, and 12 months after the intervention. During the 12-month follow-up, the experimental group had significantly lower menstrual distress and LBP scores than the control group. Among 65 participants in the experimental group, 53 (82%) reported a moderate to high levels of menstrual distress, 51 (78%) reported moderate to high levels of LBP relief, and 49 (75%) reported moderate to high levels of satisfaction with acupressure. Our findings may serve as a reference for health care professionals and young women to improve self-care during menstruation and help further understand the therapeutic effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and LBP.

  11. C-reactive protein by pregnancy and lactational status among Filipino young adult women

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    Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Adair, Linda S.; Borja, Judith; McDade, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Pregnancy and lactation involve adaptations in immune regulation, but little is known about cross-cultural variation in inflammatory changes during pregnancy or lactation. Here we report concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) in a large cross-sectional sample of healthy Filipino women who vary in parity, gestational and lactational status, and who come from a population previously described as having low CRP. Methods Fasting plasma CRP was measured among female participants (ages 20.8-22.4 years) in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (n=822). Results Median CRP was 0.2 mg/L in nulliparous women and peaked at 2.0 mg/L in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Parous but post-partum women had higher CRP compared to nulliparous women, which was largely explained by body composition differences as reflected in waist circumference and skinfold measures. Among post-partum women with infants, CRP was similar in women who were currently breastfeeding compared to those who were not. Conclusions At Cebu, women late in gestation have 10-fold higher C-reactive protein compared to nulliparous women, with no evidence that lactation is inflammatory. These population-based findings are similar with findings from prior clinic-based studies and are consistent with the maternal immunological adaptations initiated during pregnancy. The tendency of human females to spend more time than females of other great apes in gestation rather than lactation suggests that the human life history strategy involved increased time spent by reproductively aged females in a pro-inflammatory state. PMID:23180717

  12. Hypovitaminosis D and mild hypocalcaemia are highly prevalent among young Vietnamese children and women and related to low dietary intake.

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    Arnaud Laillou

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In many developing countries including Vietnam, data are lacking on vitamin D and calcium deficiencies whereas those deficiencies can play an important role in the development of bone health and possibly non-communicable diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the overall prevalence of vitamin D and calcium deficiencies in women and young children and their nutritional related risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted among 595 women of reproductive age and 532 children <5 years from 19 provinces of Vietnam. For each individual, data concerning daily diet, socioeconomic group, anthropometric status were obtained, and plasma concentrations of calcium and vitamin D were measured. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D status was very high, with the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD<30 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD between 30-49.9 nmol/L being 17% and 40% in women and 21% and 37% in children, respectively. Using more liberal cut-off of 75 nmol/L, approximately 90% of the women and children were classified as having hypovitaminosis D. Overweight/obese women had a 2 times lower risk (OR = 0.46, [0.24-0.90] for vitamin D deficiency than non-overweight and non-obese women. No participant had severe calcium deficiency but moderate and mild hypocalcaemia (plasma calcium concentrations between 1.15-0.9 mmol/L for mild deficiency and between 0.9-0.8 mmol/L for moderate deficiency affected respectively 14% and 83% of the women with 97% of the children having mild hypocalcaemia. Women and children consumed about 1% of the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommended nutrient intake (RNI for vitamin D and less than 43% of the RNI for calcium. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that calcium and vitamin D deficiencies represent a major public health concern in Vietnam. Thus, actions to improve the vitamin D and calcium status of the Vietnamese population should be considered.

  13. Comprehensive Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) Gene Screening in Pregnant Women with Diabetes in India

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    Hesarghatta Shyamasunder, Asha; Varghese, Deny; Varshney, Manika; Paul, Johan; Inbakumari, Mercy; Christina, Flory; Varghese, Ron Thomas; Kuruvilla, Kurien Anil; V. Paul, Thomas; Jose, Ruby; Regi, Annie; Lionel, Jessie; Jeyaseelan, L.; Mathew, Jiji; Thomas, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    Pregnant women with diabetes may have underlying beta cell dysfunction due to mutations/rare variants in genes associated with Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). MODY gene screening would reveal those women genetically predisposed and previously unrecognized with a monogenic form of diabetes for further clinical management, family screening and genetic counselling. However, there are minimal data available on MODY gene variants in pregnant women with diabetes from India. In this study, utilizing the Next generation sequencing (NGS) based protocol fifty subjects were screened for variants in a panel of thirteen MODY genes. Of these subjects 18% (9/50) were positive for definite or likely pathogenic or uncertain MODY variants. The majority of these variants was identified in subjects with autosomal dominant family history, of whom five were in women with pre-GDM and four with overt-GDM. The identified variants included one patient with HNF1A Ser3Cys, two PDX1 Glu224Lys, His94Gln, two NEUROD1 Glu59Gln, Phe318Ser, one INS Gly44Arg, one GCK, one ABCC8 Arg620Cys and one BLK Val418Met variants. In addition, three of the seven offspring screened were positive for the identified variant. These identified variants were further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In conclusion, these findings in pregnant women with diabetes, imply that a proportion of GDM patients with autosomal dominant family history may have MODY. Further NGS based comprehensive studies with larger samples are required to confirm these finding PMID:28095440

  14. The politics of sex research and constructions of female sexuality: what relevance to sexual health work with young women?

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    Few, C

    1997-03-01

    By examining the relationship between the cultural construction of female sexuality and the lack of potential for many young heterosexual women to be truly sexually healthy this paper submits that messages for women within HIV prevention programmes can be confused, confining and at times dangerous to women's health and well-being. It is suggested that these messages also reinforce a traditional, biologically determined medical understanding of female sexuality that does not take note of social or culturally based research or commentary on female experience or female desire, but rather confines many women to sexual restrictions, doing little to empower women to prevent sexual risk-taking. The ideological basis of the discussion within this paper is informed by the awareness that applications and understandings of 'sexuality' are diverse and contested within sex research traditions and will influence the choice of research concerns. The 'deterministic' explanation of sexuality that 'sexuality' (the abstract noun referring to the quality of being 'sexual', Williams 1983) is your fate or destiny and that biology causes the patterns of sexual life, is abandoned in this paper in favour of a search for a definition of sexuality which brings together a host of different biological and mental possibilities which are given meaning only in social relations. This allows for a framework for the study of sexuality that relates it to other social phenomena, particularly economic, political and social structures (Foucault 1979); in other words, a study of the 'social construction' of sexuality. This paper suggests that health care professionals need to develop an awareness of the diversities within female sexuality and gain insight into their own values and assumptions about female sexuality if these are not to inhibit effective approaches and interventions in the areas of HIV and sexual health.

  15. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

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    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (B12 status (148-220 pmol/L). We collected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake data and conducted genotyping for common genetic variants linked to B-vitamin metabolism. The prevalence of deficiency and suboptimal B12 status were 14% and 20%, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were negatively associated with oral contraceptive use and first-generation immigrant status, and positively with dietary B12 intake and B12 supplement use. The prevalence of B12 inadequacy in this sample of highly educated women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements.

  16. "I'm thankful for being Native and my body is part of that": the body pride experiences of young Aboriginal women in Canada.

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    McHugh, Tara-Leigh F; Coppola, Angela M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-06-01

    Body pride may be a predictor of health and well-being among Aboriginal youth. Body pride could potentially be addressed in health interventions, but it is critical to understand how body pride is conceptualized among Aboriginal youth. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to better understand the experiences of body pride among young Aboriginal women living in urban centers in Alberta, Canada. Eight young Aboriginal women (15-18 years old) participated in one-on-one interviews. A qualitative content analysis highlighted five themes that represent the participants' meanings of body pride. Participants described how body pride is: (a) accepting everything about your body, (b) who you are and how you show it, (c) connected to culture, (d) being healthy, and (e) being thankful to be Native. This research makes a contribution to the growing body pride literature by providing an initial glimpse into the complexities of young Aboriginal women's body pride experiences.

  17. Hormone Treatment Restores Bone Density for Young Women with Menopause-Like Condition (Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)

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    ... to produce statistically valid results as to whether testosterone replacement could benefit women with POI, Dr. Nelson said. “While hormone replacement therapy’s effect on bone mineral density has been studied ...

  18. Vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental health in young Australian women: the Safe-D study

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    Emma T. Callegari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study. Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry. Expected impact. The findings of this cross-sectional study will have implications for health promotion in young women and for clinical care of those with vitamin D deficiency and/or mental ill-health. Optimising both vitamin D status and mental health may protect against poor bone health and fractures in later life.

  19. Vitamin D Status, Bone Mineral Density and Mental Health in Young Australian Women: The Safe-D Study

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    Reavley, Nicola; Garland, Suzanne M.; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both poor bone health and mental ill-health. More recently, a number of studies have found individuals with depressive symptoms tend to have reduced bone mineral density. To explore the interrelationships between vitamin D status, bone mineral density and mental-ill health we are assessing a range of clinical, behavioural and lifestyle factors in young women (Part A of the Safe-D study). Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry. Expected impact. The findings of this cross-sectional study will have implications for health promotion in young women and for clinical care of those with vitamin D deficiency and/or mental ill-health. Optimising both vitamin D status and mental health may protect against poor bone health and fractures in later life. Significance for public health Vitamin D deficiency, depression and osteoporosis are all major public health issues. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both reduced bone mineral density and depressive symptoms. Moreover, cohort studies have found that subjects with depression have lower bone mineral density when compared

  20. A prospective study of smoking in young women and risk of later psychiatric hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M;

    2011-01-01

    It is not known whether smoking is a risk factor for mental disorders. Aims: To investigate the prospective associations between cigarette smoking in pregnant women and a range of psychiatric hospital diagnoses.......It is not known whether smoking is a risk factor for mental disorders. Aims: To investigate the prospective associations between cigarette smoking in pregnant women and a range of psychiatric hospital diagnoses....

  1. Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Stigma: Results From Young Women in Ghana.

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    Hall, Kelli Stidham; Manu, Abubakar; Morhe, Emmanuel; Harris, Lisa H; Loll, Dana; Ela, Elizabeth; Kolenic, Giselle; Dozier, Jessica L; Challa, Sneha; Zochowski, Melissa K; Boakye, Andrew; Adanu, Richard; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2017-03-07

    Young women's experiences with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) stigma may contribute to unintended pregnancy. Thus, stigma interventions and rigorous measures to assess their impact are needed. Based on formative work, we generated a pool of 51 items on perceived stigma around different dimensions of adolescent SRH and family planning (sex, contraception, pregnancy, childbearing, abortion). We tested items in a survey study of 1,080 women ages 15 to 24 recruited from schools, health facilities, and universities in Ghana. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) identified the most conceptually and statistically relevant scale, and multivariable regression established construct validity via associations between stigma and contraceptive use. CFA provided strong support for our hypothesized Adolescent SRH Stigma Scale (chi-square p value < 0.001; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.07; standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] = 0.06). The final 20-item scale included three subscales: internalized stigma (six items), enacted stigma (seven items), and stigmatizing lay attitudes (seven items). The scale demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.74) and strong subscale correlations (α = 0.82 to 0.93). Higher SRH stigma scores were inversely associated with ever having used modern contraception (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.96, confidence interval [CI] = 0.94 to 0.99, p value = 0.006). A valid, reliable instrument for assessing SRH stigma and its impact on family planning, the Adolescent SRH Stigma Scale can inform and evaluate interventions to reduce/manage stigma and foster resilience among young women in Africa and beyond.

  2. Inequality trends in maternal health services for young Ghanaian women with childbirth history between 2003 and 2014

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    Agardh, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Objective To achieve universal coverage of reproductive healthcare and drastic reduction in maternal mortality, adequate attention and resources should be given to young women. This study therefore aimed to examine the inequality trends in the use of antenatal care (ANC) services and skilled birth attendance (SBA) within a subgroup of Ghanaian women aged 15–24 years between 2003 and 2014. Design This is a cross-sectional study that used data from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) 2003, 2008 and 2014. We applied regression-based total attributable fraction (TAF) as an index for measuring multiple dimensions of inequality in the use of ANC and SBA. Setting Ghana. Participants Young women aged 15–24 years with at least one previous birth experience in the past 5 years prior to the surveys. Main outcome measures ANC visits and skilled attendance at birth. Results Urbanicity-related, education-related and wealth-related inequality in non-use of SBA declined between 2003 and 2008, but increased between 2008 and 2014. A consistent decline was observed in urbanicity-related inequality in non-use of four or more ANC visits from 2003 through 2008 to 2014. A similar reduction was observed for education-related inequality in relation to the same outcome. In contrast, wealth-related inequality in ANC usage increased over time. Conclusions The rise in urbanicity-related, education-related and wealth-related inequality in the usage of SBA between 2008 and 2014 threatens the sustainability of the general progress made in the usage of maternal health services in Ghana within the same period. PMID:28174219

  3. Associations between Unhealthy Diet and Lifestyle Behaviours and Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Young Overweight and Obese Women.

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    Whatnall, Megan C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Hutchesson, Melinda J

    2016-08-19

    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are known modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cross-sectional analysis aimed to describe lifestyle behaviours and CVD risk markers in young overweight and obese Australian women and explore associations between individual and combined lifestyle behaviours with CVD risk markers. Lifestyle behaviours assessed were diet quality, alcohol intake, physical activity, sitting time and smoking status, and were combined to generate a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) (0-5). Objectively measured CVD risk markers were body mass index (BMI), %body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Analysis included 49 women aged 18-35 years, with BMI 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m². The mean ± SD Australian Recommended Food Score was 33.5 ± 9.3 points, alcohol 3.3 ± 2.4 standard drinks/day, physical activity 207 ± 225 min/week and sitting time 578 ± 213 min/day. All participants were non-smokers. The proportion of participants outside normal reference ranges was 83.7% for waist circumference (n = 41), blood pressure 0% (n = 0), total cholesterol 26.2% (n = 11), HDL cholesterol 38.6% (n = 17), LDL cholesterol 22.7% (n = 10), and triglycerides 4.2% (n = 2). Physical activity was inversely associated with body fat (β = -0.011%, p = 0.005), diastolic blood pressure (β = -0.010 mmHg, p = 0.031) and waist circumference (β = -0.013 cm, p = 0.029). Most participants (59.2%, n = 29) had a HLS ≤ 2. No significant associations were found between HLS and CVD risk markers. Insufficient physical activity was the primary lifestyle factor associated with increased CVD risk markers, which suggests interventions targeting physical activity in young women may potentially improve cardiovascular health.

  4. Associations between Unhealthy Diet and Lifestyle Behaviours and Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Young Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan C. Whatnall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are known modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. This cross-sectional analysis aimed to describe lifestyle behaviours and CVD risk markers in young overweight and obese Australian women and explore associations between individual and combined lifestyle behaviours with CVD risk markers. Lifestyle behaviours assessed were diet quality, alcohol intake, physical activity, sitting time and smoking status, and were combined to generate a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS (0–5. Objectively measured CVD risk markers were body mass index (BMI, %body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Analysis included 49 women aged 18–35 years, with BMI 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2. The mean ± SD Australian Recommended Food Score was 33.5 ± 9.3 points, alcohol 3.3 ± 2.4 standard drinks/day, physical activity 207 ± 225 min/week and sitting time 578 ± 213 min/day. All participants were non-smokers. The proportion of participants outside normal reference ranges was 83.7% for waist circumference (n = 41, blood pressure 0% (n = 0, total cholesterol 26.2% (n = 11, HDL cholesterol 38.6% (n = 17, LDL cholesterol 22.7% (n = 10, and triglycerides 4.2% (n = 2. Physical activity was inversely associated with body fat (β = −0.011%, p = 0.005, diastolic blood pressure (β = −0.010 mmHg, p = 0.031 and waist circumference (β = −0.013 cm, p = 0.029. Most participants (59.2%, n = 29 had a HLS ≤ 2. No significant associations were found between HLS and CVD risk markers. Insufficient physical activity was the primary lifestyle factor associated with increased CVD risk markers, which suggests interventions targeting physical activity in young women may potentially improve cardiovascular health.

  5. Keeping it Natural: Does Persuasive Magazine Content Have an Effect on Young Women's Intentions for Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kate; Miller, Yvette D

    2015-01-01

    Information in the popular media tends to be biased toward promoting the benefits of medicalized birth for low-risk pregnancies. We aimed to assess the effect of communicating the benefits of non-medicalized birth in magazine articles on women's birth intentions and to identify the mechanisms by which social communication messages affected women's intentions for birth. A convenience sample of 180 nulliparous Australian women aged 18-35 years were randomly exposed to a magazine article endorsing non-medicalized birth (using either celebrity or non-celebrity endorsement) or organic eating (control) throughout June-July 2011. Magazine articles that endorsed non-medicalized birth targeted perceived risk of birth, expectations for labor and birth, and attitudes toward birth. These variables and intention for birth were assessed by self-report before and after exposure. Exposure to a magazine article that endorsed non-medicalized birth significantly reduced women's intentions for a medicalized birth, regardless of whether the endorsement was by celebrities or non-celebrities. Changes in perceived risk of birth mediated the effect of magazine article exposure on women's intentions for a medicalized birth. Persuasive communication that endorses non-medicalized birth could be delivered at the population level and may reduce women's intentions for a medicalized birth.

  6. Pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer in young women does not adversely affect the prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Octavi; Bellet, Meritxell; Vidal, Xavier; Cortés, Javier; Llurba, Elisa; Rubio, Isabel T; Xercavins, Jordi

    2012-06-01

    We assessed whether pregnancy after breast cancer in patients younger than 36 years of age affects the prognosis. Of 115 women with breast cancer followed for a mean of 6 years, 18 became pregnant (median time between diagnosis and the first pregnancy 44.5 months). Voluntary interruption of pregnancy was decided by 8 (44.4%) women. Significant differences in prognostic factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women were not observed. Pregnant women showed a lower frequency of positive estrogen receptors (41%) than non-pregnant (64%) (P=0.06). At 5 years of follow-up, 100% of women in the pregnant group and 80% in the non-pregnant group were alive. The percentages of disease-free women were 94% and 64%, respectively (P=0.009). Breast cancer patients presented a high number of unwanted pregnancies. Pregnancy after breast cancer not only did not adversely affect prognosis of the neoplasm but also may have a protective effect.

  7. MRI cervical spine findings in asymptomatic fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrén-Mallmin, M; Linder, J

    1999-12-01

    MRI of the cervical spine for evaluation concerning degenerative lesions was performed on asymptomatic experienced military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 42 yr with mean accumulated flying time of 2600 h), and for comparison on age-matched controls without military flying experience. Young military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 23 yr with 220 h of flying per person) were also examined. There were significantly more osteophytes, disk protrusions, compressions of the spinal cord and foraminal stenoses in the experienced pilots than in the age-matched controls. Low frequency of low grade degenerative lesions was found in the young and inexperienced pilots.

  8. In their own words: treating very young BRCA1/2 mutation-positive women with care and caution.

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    Lindsey M Hoskins

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Young women who have been identified as carrying a deleterious mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 face a unique set of challenges related to managing cancer risk during a demographically-dense stage of life. They may struggle with decision-making in the absence of clear age-specific guidelines for medical management and because they have not yet fully developed the capacity to make life-altering decisions confidently. This study sought a patient-centered perspective on the dilemmas faced by 18-24 year olds who completed BRCA1/2 gene mutation testing prior to their 25(th birthdays. PATIENTS AND METHOD: This study integrated qualitative data from three independent investigations of BRCA1/2-positive women recruited through cancer risk clinics, hospital-based research centers, and online organizations. All 32 participants were women aged 21-25 who tested positive for a BRCA1/2 gene mutation between 2 and 60 months prior to data collection. Investigators used techniques of grounded theory and interpretive description to conduct both within and cross-study analysis. RESULTS: Participants expressed needs for (1 greater clarity in recommendations for screening and prevention before age 25, especially with consideration of early and regular exposure to radiation associated with mammography or to hormones used in birth control, and (2 ongoing contact with providers to discuss risk management protocols as they become available. CONCLUSIONS: Health care needs during the young adult years evolve with the cognitive capacity to address abrupt and pressing change. Specific needs of women in this population include a desire to balance autonomous decision-making with supportive guidance, a need for clear, accurate and consistent medical recommendations. Optimally, these women are best cared for by a team of genetically-oriented providers as part of a sustained program of ongoing support, rather than seen in an episodic, crisis-driven fashion. A discussion of

  9. Lack of Association of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Gene Polymorphisms with Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Variables in Young Women

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    Mario Hirata

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association of estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1 polymorphisms with cardiorespiratory and metabolic parameters in young women. In total, 354 healthy women were selected for cardiopulmonary exercise testing and short-term heart rate (HR variability (HRV evaluation. The HRV analysis was determined by the temporal indices rMSSD (square root of the mean squared differences of successive R–R intervals (RRi divided by the number of RRi minus one, SDNN (root mean square of differences from mean RRi, divided by the number of RRi and power spectrum components by low frequency (LF, high frequency (HF and LF/HF ratio. Blood samples were obtained for serum lipids, estradiol and DNA extraction. ESR1 rs2234693 and rs9340799 polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR and fragment restriction analysis. HR and oxygen uptake (VO2 values did not differ between the ESR1 polymorphisms with respect to autonomic modulation. We not find a relationship between ESR1 T–A, T–G, C–A and C–G haplotypes and cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that VO2, total cholesterol and triglycerides influence HRV (p < 0.05. The results suggest that ESR1 variants have no effect on cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables, while HRV indices are influenced by aerobic capacity and lipids in healthy women.

  10. Waist-to-Hip Ratio, but Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Testosterone and Estradiol Concentrations in Young Women

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    Ricardo Mondragón-Ceballos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied if testosterone and estradiol concentrations are associated with specific female waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs and body mass indices (BMIs. Participants were 187 young women from which waist, hips, weight, and height were measured. In addition, participants informed on which day of their menstrual cycle they were and provided a 6 mL saliva sample. Ninety-one of them were in the follicular phase and 96 in the luteal phase. Only in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle we found a significant interaction between testosterone and estradiol affecting WHR (b±s.e.=-0.000003±0.000001; t94=-2.12, adjusted R2=-0.008, P=0.03. Women with the highest levels of both hormones had the lowest WHRs, while women with low estradiol and high testosterone showed the highest WHRs. BMI significantly increased as testosterone increased in female in their nonfertile days.

  11. Intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine: Examining individual, familial, and cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabukha, Iryna; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie

    2016-07-01

    We examined the role of financial strain, parent-to-parent violence, parent-to-child violence, emotional distress, and alcohol use in intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine. The moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations was also examined. Four hundred and six full-time female university students from four universities in Ukraine participated in the study. We found that emotional distress, parent-to-parent, and parent-to-child violence mediated the link between financial strain and intimate partner violence perpetrated by women on men. However, we found limited support for the moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations in the relationship between individual and familial factors on intimate partner violence. The findings from this investigation suggest that there is a distinct need for supporting families and individuals in dealing with issues of intimate partner violence directed by women against men in Ukraine. Aggr. Behav. 42:380-393, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Trends of modern contraceptive use among young married women based on the 2000, 2005, and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys: a multivariate decomposition analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebaw Gebeyehu Worku

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Accessing family planning can reduce a significant proportion of maternal, infant, and childhood deaths. In Ethiopia, use of modern contraceptive methods is low but it is increasing. This study aimed to analyze the trends and determinants of changes in modern contraceptive use over time among young married women in Ethiopia. METHODS: The study used data from the three Demographic Health Surveys conducted in Ethiopia, in 2000, 2005, and 2011. Young married women age 15-24 years with sample sizes of 2,157 in 2000, 1,904 in 2005, and 2,146 in 2011 were included. Logit-based decomposition analysis technique was used for analysis of factors contributing to the recent changes. STATA 12 was employed for data management and analyses. All calculations presented in this paper were weighted for the sampling probabilities and non-response. Complex sampling procedures were also considered during testing of statistical significance. RESULTS: Among young married women, modern contraceptive prevalence increased from 6% in 2000 to 16% in 2005 and to 36% in 2011. The decomposition analysis indicated that 34% of the overall change in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in women's characteristics. Changes in the composition of young women's characteristics according to age, educational status, religion, couple concordance on family size, and fertility preference were the major sources of this increase. Two-thirds of the increase in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in coefficients. Most importantly, the increase was due to change in contraceptive use behavior among the rural population (33% and among Orthodox Christians (16% and Protestants (4%. CONCLUSIONS: Modern contraceptive use among young married women has showed a remarkable increase over the last decade in Ethiopia. Programmatic interventions targeting poor, younger (adolescent, illiterate, and Muslim women would help to maintain the increasing trend in modern

  13. Young women and breast cancer: challenges and answers—report from the Sixth Annual International Symposium, Mexico, 20–21 October 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Cordera, David Barros Sierra; Marx, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Tómatelo a Pecho, Funsalud, the Harvard Global Equity Initiative, and the Mexican Ministry of Health led a group of institutions in organising the Sixth Annual International Symposium marking breast cancer awareness month in Mexico on 20–21 October 2014. This year’s event, with the theme ‘Young Women and Breast Cancer: Challenges and Answers’, took place at the National Institute of Perinatology in Mexico City. This was the first time the symposium focused almost entirely on young women. The ...

  14. Severe obesity in young women and reproductive health: the Danish National Birth Cohort.

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    Ellen A Nohr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about reproductive health in severely obese women. In this study, we present associations between different levels of severe obesity and a wide range of health outcomes in the mother and child. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort, we obtained self-reported information about prepregnant body mass index (BMI for 2451 severely obese women and 2450 randomly selected women from the remaining cohort who served as a comparison group. Information about maternal and infant outcomes was also self-reported or came from registers. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between different levels of severe obesity and reproductive outcomes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subfecundity was more frequent in severely obese women, and during pregnancy, they had an excess risk of urinary tract infections, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders which increased with severity of obesity. They tended to have a higher risk of both pre- and post-term birth, and risk of cesarean and instrumental deliveries increased across obesity categories. After birth, severely obese women more often failed to initiate or sustain breastfeeding. Risk of weight retention 1.5 years after birth was similar to that of other women, but after adjustment for gestational weight gain, the risk was increased, especially in women in the lowest obesity category. In infants, increasing maternal obesity was associated with decreased risk of a low birth weight and increased risk of a high birth weight. Estimates for ponderal index showed the same pattern indicating an increasing risk of neonatal fatness with severity of obesity. Infant obesity measured one year after birth was also increased in children of severely obese mothers. CONCLUSION: Severe obesity is correlated with a substantial disease burden in reproductive health. Although the causal mechanisms remain elusive, these findings are useful for making predictions and

  15. Decline in HIV prevalence among young women in Zambia: national-level estimates of trends mask geographical and socio-demographic differences.

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    Nkomba Kayeyi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A decline in HIV incidence has been reported in Zambia and a number of other sub-Saharan countries. The trend of HIV prevalence among young people is a good marker of HIV incidence. In this study, different data sources are used to examine geographical and sub-population group differentials in HIV prevalence trends among men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analysed ANC data for women aged 15-24 years from 22 sentinel sites consistently covered in the period 1994-2008, and HIV data for young men and women aged 15-24 years from the ZDHS 2001/2 and 2007. In addition, we systematically reviewed peer-reviewed articles that have reported findings on HIV prevalence and incidence among young people. FINDINGS: Overall trends of the ANC surveillance data indicated a substantial HIV prevalence decline among young women in both urban and rural areas. However, provincial declines differed substantially, i.e. between 10% and 68% among urban women, and from stability to 86% among rural women. Prevalence declines were steeper among those with the highest educational attainments than among the least educated. The ZDHS data indicated a significant reduction in prevalence between the two survey rounds among young women only. Provincial-level ZDHS changes were difficult to assess because the sample sizes were small. ANC-based trend patterns were consistent with those observed in PMTCT-based data (2002-2006, whereas population-based surveys in a selected urban community (1995-2003 suggested that the ANC-based data underestimated the prevalence declines in the general populations of both young both men and women. CONCLUSION: The overall HIV prevalence declined substantially among young women in Zambia and this is interpreted as indicating a decline in HIV incidence. It is noteworthy that overall national trends masked substantial differences by place and by educational attainment, demonstrating critical limitations in the

  16. Negative affect and somatically focused anxiety in young women reporting pain with intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, Marta; Lykins, Amy

    2009-01-01

    After a long history of privileging psychosexual etiological factors over pain and physiological processes, dyspareunia has enjoyed 1 decade of pointed research focused on the presenting problem of pain. Although it is generally acknowledged that certain affective and cognitive styles may play a role in an individual's experience of pain in general, investigations into these questions specifically as they pertain to pain that occurs during sex are relatively scarce. To add to this growing body of knowledge, 759 women aged 18 to 29 completed questionnaires about current sexual functioning, gynecologic history, expectations about intercourse, and various personality and health-related anxiety measures. One-hundred-one women (14% of the sample) reported pain during intercourse on at least 50% of attempts. This group of women significantly differed from 536 women reporting pain on less than 10% of intercourse attempts on personality constructs related to emotional and relational well-being (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness), as well as anxiety sensitivity, anxiety related to physical health concerns, and the amplification of somatosensory experiences. This affective and cognitive profile is consistent with previous studies that have found an attentional hypervigilance to health and pain-related information in women with dyspareunia, all of which could prove germane to cognitive-behavioral treatments targeting this disorder.

  17. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-07-26

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  18. Comparison of three real-time PCR assays for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in young pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuchant, Olivia; de Diego, Sabrina; Le Roy, Chloé; Frantz-Blancpain, Sandrine; Hocké, Claude; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2015-12-01

    We compared 3 commercial real-time PCR assays, the Abbott RealTime CT/NG, the cobas® 4800 CT/NG, and the Cepheid Xpert® CT/NG, for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in vaginal swabs collected prospectively from pregnant women aged gonorrhoeae, the overall agreement was 100%. All kits allowed prompt and specific results for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in young pregnant women.

  19. Sources of information for assessing human papillomavirus vaccination history among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolai, Linda M; McBride, Vanessa; Julian, Pamela R

    2014-05-23

    Assessing history of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is important for monitoring vaccine uptake, impact, and effectiveness. Based on data collected from 1720 women with high-grade cervical lesions reported to a statewide surveillance system in Connecticut, we found that available medical records did not contain HPV vaccination information for 34% of women, and 43% of women could not be reached for interview. When both were used for data collection, concordance of vaccination history (83%) and sensitivity of self-report (96%) were both high. Reviewing medical records based on self-reported information about vaccine providers increased confirmation of vaccination histories in this sample by 18%. The vaccine registry in Connecticut is not currently utilized for HPV vaccinations, but efforts to increase use for adolescent vaccines could be useful in the future to overcome limitations of other sources.

  20. Obesity and prevalence of risk behaviour for eating disorders among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, Mette; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Danish women aged 16-29 from two nationwide, representative, cross-sectional interview/questionnaire surveys from 2000 and 2005 are analyzed for trends in prevalence of risk behaviour for developing eating disorders and associations to BMI and age. METHODS: Participants completed the Danish...... Health Interview Survey and an 8-item screen, RiBED-8, for risk