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Sample records for asymptomatic prostate-specific antigen

  1. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate-specific antigen; Prostate cancer screening test; PSA ... special steps are needed to prepare for this test. ... Reasons for a PSA test: This test may be done to screen for prostate cancer. It is also used to follow people after prostate cancer ...

  2. Novel approaches to treat asymptomatic, hormone-naive patients with rising prostate-specific antigen after primary treatment for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Nancy A; Slovin, Susan F

    2003-12-29

    Biochemical-only recurrent prostate cancer presents the ideal setting for assessing novel agents or approaches for prostate cancer treatment. There is no clear evidence that delay in initiation of more definitive androgen-deprivation therapy is harmful, and a simple blood test--the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level--is readily available to screen for potential antineoplastic activity. Current novel approaches include vaccines, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, selective apoptotic antineoplastic drugs, endothelin-A receptor antagonists, chemotherapy, vitamin D, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists. In this screening process, certain therapies have emerged as delaying PSA progression or decelerating PSA velocity. These therapies, such as the COX-2 inhibitors, will need to proceed to phase 3 trials to answer the more important question of whether this change in PSA dynamics translates into improved survival. Patients enrolling in these trials need to be clearly informed of the limited expectations of these novel exploratory approaches.

  3. Real-time prostate-specific antigen detection with prostate-specific antigen imprinted capacitive biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertürk, Gizem [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Department of Biology, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Hedström, Martin [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); CapSenze HB, Medicon Village, SE-223 63 Lund (Sweden); Tümer, M. Aşkın [Department of Biology, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Mattiasson, Bo, E-mail: Bo.Mattiasson@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); CapSenze HB, Medicon Village, SE-223 63 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-09-03

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable biomarker for early detection of prostate cancer, the third most common cancer in men. Ultrasensitive detection of PSA is crucial to screen the prostate cancer in an early stage and to detect the recurrence of the disease after treatment. In this report, microcontact-PSA imprinted (PSA-MIP) capacitive biosensor chip was developed for real-time, highly sensitive and selective detection of PSA. PSA-MIP electrodes were prepared in the presence of methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker via UV polymerization. Immobilized Anti-PSA antibodies on electrodes (Anti-PSA) for capacitance measurements were also prepared to compare the detection performances of both methods. The electrodes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) and real-time PSA detection was performed with standard PSA solutions in the concentration range of 10 fg mL{sup −1}–100 ng mL{sup −1}. The detection limits were found as 8.0 × 10{sup −5} ng mL{sup −1} (16 × 10{sup −17} M) and 6.0 × 10{sup −4} ng mL{sup −1} (12 × 10{sup −16} M) for PSA-MIP and Anti-PSA electrodes, respectively. Selectivity studies were performed against HSA and IgG and selectivity coefficients were calculated. PSA detection was also carried out from diluted human serum samples and finally, reproducibility of the electrodes was tested. The results are promising and show that when the sensitivity of the capacitive system is combined with the selectivity and reproducibility of the microcontact-imprinting procedure, the resulting system might be used successfully for real-time detection of various analytes even in very low concentrations. - Highlights: • Microcontact imprinting method was used for preparing the sensor chip for capacitive biosensing. • High sensitivity was obtained. • Good selectivity was

  4. Gallium-68 Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Michael S; Iravani, Amir

    2017-04-01

    The role of gallium-68 ((68)Ga) prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET imaging is evolving and finding its place in the imaging armamentarium for prostate cancer (PCa). Despite the progress of conventional imaging strategies, significant limitations remain, including identification of small-volume disease and assessment of bone. Clinical studies have demonstrated that (68)Ga-PSMA is a promising tracer for detection of PCa metastases, even in patients with low prostate-specific antigen. To provide an accurate interpretation of (68)Ga-PSMA PET/computed tomography, nuclear medicine specialists and radiologists should be familiar with physiologic (68)Ga-PSMA uptake, common variants, patterns of locoregional and distant spread of PCa, and inherent pitfalls.

  5. The Use and Results of Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing in General Practice in the Former Aarhus County

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukai, Thomas; Bro, Flemming; Pedersen, Knud Venborg;

    Background: Prostate Cancer (PC) is the most common type of cancer among Danish men, and the incidence is increasing. PC is often asymptomatic, making it difficult to establish a clinical diagnosis. The general practitioner can use prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing as a tool for diagnosing ...

  6. Mass screening of 12 027 elderly men for prostate carcinoma by measuring serum prostate specific antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海峰; 王洪亮; 许宁; 李胜文; 计国义; 李晓萌; 潘玉琢; 张灵; 赵雪俭; 高洪文

    2004-01-01

    Background The incidence of prostate carcinoma (Pca) has been increasing in China. We detected Pca in elderly men in Changchun, north China and the significance of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in mass screening and clinical staging of Pca. Conclusions Serum PSA level is not only the golden standard for mass screening of Pca, but also the predictor for clinical stage of Pca. PSA testing revealed asymptomatic Pca cases in early, middle, and later stages in the elderly, suggesting that mass screening is of paramount importance.

  7. Biological variation of total prostate-specific antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söletormos, Georg; Semjonow, Axel; Sibley, Paul E C

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine whether a single result for total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) can be used confidently to guide the need for prostate biopsy and by how much serial tPSA measurements must differ to be significant. tPSA measurements include both...... analytical and biological components of variation. The European Group on Tumor Markers conducted a literature survey to determine both the magnitude and impact of biological variation on single, the mean of replicate, and serial tPSA measurements. METHODS: The survey yielded 27 studies addressing the topic......, and estimates for the biological variation of tPSA could be derived from 12 of these studies. RESULTS: The mean biological variation was 20% in the concentration range 0.1-20 microg/L for men over 50 years. The biological variation means that the one-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) of the dispersion...

  8. Should prostate-specific antigen velocity be abandoned?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stacy Loeb; H Ballentine Carter

    2011-01-01

    @@ Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most widely used biomarker for prostate cancer, but may also be elevated in non-malignant conditions such as benign pro-static hyperplasia.Studies in the early 1990s suggested that rapid increases in PSA over time-a concept known as PSA velocity (PSAV)-may be useful to distinguish prostate cancer from the generally slower rise in PSA that may be seen in benign conditions.1 Subsequent studies demonstrated that PSAV predicts not only the presence of prostate cancer but also tumour grade, biochemical recurrence and disease-specific mortality.2,3 Accordingly, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines suggest that PSAV should be considered along with PSA when considering whether to recommend a prostate biopsy.4

  9. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  10. Prostate-specific antigen testing accuracy in community practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams-Cameron Meg

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most data on prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing come from urologic cohorts comprised of volunteers for screening programs. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PSA testing for detecting prostate cancer in community practice. Methods PSA testing results were compared with a reference standard of prostate biopsy. Subjects were 2,620 men 40 years and older undergoing (PSA testing and biopsy from 1/1/95 through 12/31/98 in the Albuquerque, New Mexico metropolitan area. Diagnostic measures included the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios. Results Cancer was detected in 930 subjects (35%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.67 and the PSA cutpoint of 4 ng/ml had a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 33%. The likelihood ratio for a positive test (LR+ was 1.28 and 0.42 for a negative test (LR-. PSA testing was most sensitive (90% but least specific (27% in older men. Age-specific reference ranges improved specificity in older men (49% but decreased sensitivity (70%, with an LR+ of 1.38. Lowering the PSA cutpoint to 2 ng/ml resulted in a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 20%, and an LR+ of 1.19. Conclusions PSA testing had fair discriminating power for detecting prostate cancer in community practice. The PSA cutpoint of 4 ng/ml was sensitive but relatively non-specific and associated likelihood ratios only moderately revised probabilities for cancer. Using age-specific reference ranges and a PSA cutpoint below 4 ng/ml improved test specificity and sensitivity, respectively, but did not improve the overall accuracy of PSA testing.

  11. EVALUATION OF FREE-TO-TOTAL PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN RATIO IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ It's reported that free to total prostate specific antigen ration (f/tPSA) can provide more benefit than the single use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). We measured serum PSA and fPSA levels in 62 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 40 cases of PCa using radioimmunoassay, with patients' age range 59y~ 89y.

  12. Prostate specific antigen levels following transurethral resection of the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto C. Fonseca

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determine how serum prostate-specific antigen (t-PSA levels and free PSA (f/t PSA ratio change following transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty men with a mean age of 67.0 + 4.2 years (range 46 to 84 years underwent TURP for BPH between May 2005 and October 2005. Preoperative assessment included symptom evaluation with the International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS and the prostate volume estimation by transrectal ultrasound. Total PSA and f/t PSA ratio were assessed before the procedure, as well as 30, 60 and 180 days after the TURP. RESULTS: Clinical improvement after TURP, reflected by I-PSS score, was demonstrated as early as 30 days and remained stable until the end of the follow-up. Mean t-PSA declined 71% after TURP and 60 days after surgery the reduction reached its peak, stabilizing afterwards. It varied from 6.19 + 7.06 ng/mL before surgery to 1.75 + 1.66 ng/mL on day 60 (p < 0.001. The mean baseline f/t PSA ratio was 18.2% + 3.4% and was not significantly changed at any given time point in the postoperative period (p = 0.91. There were also no statistically significant differences in t-PSA or f/t PSA between patients with and without prostatitis at any time point (p = 0.23. Resected prostate fragments weighed 29.9 + 19.6 g, corresponding to 39.1% of the estimated preoperative prostate volume. Each gram of tissue resected decreased PSA by 0.15 + 0.11 ng/mL, while 1% prostate volume resected led to a reduction of 2.4% + 0.4% in serum PSA from baseline. CONCLUSIONS: PSA decreases drastically in patients who undergo TURP. These low levels stabilize within 60 days after surgery. The f/t PSA ratio did not change, and the finding of chronic prostatitis did not affect the levels of these variables.

  13. Danish General Practitioners' Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Opportunistic Screening for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kasper; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt;

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of prostate-specific antigen test has markedly increased in Danish general practice in the last decade. Despite the national guidelines advice against PSA screening, opportunistic screening is supposed to be the primary reason for this increased number of PSA tests performed. ...

  14. Variation of prostate-specific antigen expression in different tumour growth patterns present in prostatectomy specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.W. Gallee; E. Visser-de Jong (E.); J.A.G.M. van der Korput (J. A G M); Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); F.J.W. ten Kate (Fiebo); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); J. Trapman (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA series of 55 randomly chosen radical prostatectomy specimens was analyzed for expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by immunohistochemical techniques. Tissue sections were selected in such a manner that in addition to glandular benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), one or more di

  15. Discrepancies between guidelines and clinical practice regarding prostate-specific antigen testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamoen, E.H.J.; Reukers, D.F.; Numans, M.E.; Barentsz, J.O.; Witjes, J.A.; Rovers, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most guidelines recommend a judicious use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, whereas in daily practice, an increase of the incidence of PSA testing has been shown. Accurate up-to-date PSA test incidence rates are, however, lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the PSA test incidenc

  16. Empirical estimates of prostate cancer overdiagnosis by age and prostate-specific antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Vickers (Andrew); D. Sjoberg (Daniel); D. Ulmert (David); E. Vertosick (Emily); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); I.M. Thompson (Ian); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); H.J. de Koning (Harry); C. Atoria-Swartz (Coral); P.T. Scardino (Peter); H. Lilja (Hans)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Prostate cancer screening depends on a careful balance of benefits, in terms of reduced prostate cancer mortality, and harms, in terms of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We aimed to estimate the effect on overdiagnosis of restricting prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing b

  17. Prostate-specific antigen patterns in US and European populations : Comparison of six diverse cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpkin, Andrew J.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Tilling, Kate; Athene Lane, J.; Martin, Richard M.; Albertsen, Peter C.; Bill-Axelson, Anna; Ballentine Carter, H.; Bosch, J. L H Ruud; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Jeffrey Metter, E.; Neal, David E.; Parker, Christopher C.; Metcalfe, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there are differences in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at diagnosis or changes in PSA levels between US and European populations of men with and without prostate cancer (PCa). Subjects and Methods: We analysed repeated measures of PSA from six clinically and

  18. Clinical implications of free-to-total immunoreactive prostate-specific antigen ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wymenga, LFA; Duisterwinkel, FJ; Groenier, K; Visser-van Brummen, P; Marrink, J; Mensink, HJA

    2000-01-01

    Objective: A study was performed to evaluate the free-to-total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ratio for discriminating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer in the intermediate PSA range (2.0-10.0 mu g/l) in patients referred for prostate evaluation. In addition, the relationship of

  19. Repeated spurious elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen values solved by chemiluminescence analysis: A possible interference by heterophilic antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayó, Miquel; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Jesús; Bellido, Jose Antonio; Abascal-Junquera, Jose María; Hannaoui, Naim; Banús, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heterophilic antibodies are human immunoglobulins directed against various animal antigens. They can produce false-positive results in the analysis of different tumor markers, including prostate-specific antigen. This interference can lead to misdiagnosis, unnecessary tests, and overtreatment in some cases. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old man with repeated spurious elevation of prostate-specific antigen, reaching levels of 108.7 ng/mL, that were suspected to be caused by heterophilic antibodies. The interference was solved by changing the analysis technique. Real values of prostate-specific antigen were less than 1 ng/mL. PMID:26568798

  20. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity: a test of controversial benefit in the era of increased prostate cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael S Borofsky; Danil V Makarov

    2011-01-01

    @@ Determining the need for prostate biopsy remains one of the most controversial questions in urology.Over the past 10 years, practice guidelines have changed dramatically, especially among asymptomatic men with low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and negative digital rectal exam.Thompson et al.Found that nearly 15% of men with PSA <4.0 had evidence of prostate cancer on biopsy;1 however, the clinical significance of these tumors is unclear.PSAvelocity (PSAV) has been suggested as a measurement to discriminate between aggressive and indolent cancers.Both the NCCN2 and AUA3 guidelines recommend considering prostate biopsy for men with PSA <4.0 and high PSAV (0.35 and 0.4 ng/ml/year, respectively); however, a recent article by Vickers et al.4 has called these recommendations into question, suggesting that PSAV adds little predictive accuracy to the standard risk factor assessment for prostate cancer.

  1. Portable smartphone quantitation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in a fluoropolymer microfluidic device

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Ana I.; Gehlot, Poonam; Sidapra, Kalpita; Edwards, Alexander D.; Reis, Nuno M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new, power-free and flexible detection system named MCFphone for portable colorimetric and fluorescence quantitative sandwich immunoassay detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA). The MCFphone is composed by a smartphone integrated with a magnifying lens, a simple light source and a miniaturised immunoassay platform, the Microcapillary Film (MCF). The excellent transparency and flat geometry of fluoropolymer MCF allowed quantitation of PSA in the range 0.9 to 60 ng/ml with < ...

  2. Cancer Patient T Cells Genetically Targeted to Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Specifically Lyse Prostate Cancer Cells and Release Cytokines in Response to Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Gong

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression of immunoglobulin-based artificial receptors in normal T lymphocytes provides a means to target lymphocytes to cell surface antigens independently of major histocompatibility complex restriction. Such artificial receptors have been previously shown to confer antigen-specific tumoricidal properties in murine T cells. We constructed a novel ζ chain fusion receptor specific for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA termed Pz-1. PSMA is a cell-surface glycoprotein expressed on prostate cancer cells and the neovascular endothelium of multiple carcinomas. We show that primary T cells harvested from five of five patients with different stages of prostate cancer and transduced with the Pz-1 receptor readily lyse prostate cancer cells. Having established a culture system using fibroblasts that express PSMA, we next show that T cells expressing the Pz-1 receptor release cytokines in response to cell-bound PSMA. Furthermore, we show that the cytokine release is greatly augmented by B7.1-mediated costimulation. Thus, our findings support the feasibility of adoptive cell therapy by using genetically engineered T cells in prostate cancer patients and suggest that both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte functions can be synergistically targeted against tumor cells.

  3. Predictive value of prostate specific antigen in a European HIV-positive cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Álvaro H; Ravn, Lene

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is common practice to use prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≥4.0 ng/ml as a clinical indicator for men at risk of prostate cancer (PCa), however, this is unverified in HIV+ men. We aimed to describe kinetics and predictive value of PSA for PCa in HIV+ men. METHODS: A nested case...... control study of 21 men with PCa and 40 matched-controls within EuroSIDA was conducted. Prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were measured for the following markers: total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Conditional...

  4. Cadmium may impair prostate function as measured by prostate specific antigen in semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreucci, Alessandro; Mocevic, Emina; Jönsson, Bo A G

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between cadmium in blood and the concentration of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) in semen, including the modifying effects of zinc or the CAG polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR). Blood and semen samples were collected from 504 partners of pregnant women.......0009). Inverse trends between cadmium and PSA were found when semen zinc concentrations were below the median value for men from Ukraine and Greenland. These outcomes suggest that cadmium may impair prostate function, as measured by PSA in semen, while high zinc levels and a low number of CAG repeats protects...

  5. Evaluation of prostate specific antigen as a tumor marker in cancer prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, F; Khan, S; Suleman, B; Khan, A U

    1998-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the prostate specific antigen (PSA) alongwith other diagnostic methods as an application for a screening test, tumor marker and its relation to post surgical situation. The PSA has shown a sensitivity of 73.3% and specificity of 77.2%. The predictive value for positive PSA was 57% and for negative test was 66.6%. Local standards for PSA values in Pakistani community need to be established. The PSA test, inspite of its low specificity holds good promise for its contributory role as a tumor marker in prostate cancer.

  6. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening: has the pendulum swung too far?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jason M Phillips; E David Crawford

    2011-01-01

    @@ Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) along with digital rectal exam has been the standard for prostate cancer screening in the United States for the past 20 years.1 During this time period,the improved detection of prostate cancer decreased related mortality more than 30%? In fact,metastases and their comorbidities have decreased more than 75% since the early 1990s,resulting in a higher incidence of early organ-confined disease.While it is clear that prostate cancer mortality statistics have improved,it is unclear whether men are overscreened.

  7. Reduction of prostate cancer mortality in Tyrol, Austria, after introduction of prostate-specific antigen testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberaigner, Willi; Horninger, Wolfgang; Klocker, Helmut; Schönitzer, Dieter; Stühlinger, Wolf; Bartsch, Georg

    2006-08-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze in detail the time trend in prostate cancer mortality in the population of Tyrol, Austria. In Tyrol, prostate-specific antigen tests were introduced in 1988-1989 and, since 1993, have been offered to all men aged 45-74 years free of charge. More than three quarters of all men in this age group had at least one such test in the last decade. The authors applied the age-period-cohort model by Poisson regression to mortality data covering more than three decades, from 1970 to 2003. For Tyrol, the full model with age and period and cohort terms fit fairly well. Period terms showed a significant reduction in prostate cancer mortality in the last 5 years, with a risk ratio of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.98) for Tyrol; for Austria without Tyrol, no effect was seen, with a risk ratio of 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.05). Each was compared with the mortality rate in the period 1989-1993. Although the results of randomized screening trials are not expected until 2008-2010, these findings support the evidence that prostate-specific antigen testing offered to a population free of charge can reduce prostate cancer mortality.

  8. From pro-prostate specific antigen, [-2]pro-prostate specific antigen to Beckman Coulter phi: the evolution of new biomarkers for early detection of prostatic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-zhi; LU Yi-ping

    2012-01-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) has a wide clinical use for the early detection of prostatic carcinoma (PCa); however,it has never been a perfect marker due to its low specificity and low positive predictive value which ranges between 4 ng/ml and 10 ng/ml.The discovery of different PSA molecular forms in serum in the early 1990s brought insight into searching for more specific markers.Since then free PSA (fPSA) has been used routinely to increase the specificity for PCa and to reduce unnecessary biopsies.More recently,promising data is emerging regarding one proenzyme molecular form of free PSA,proPSA,and a few truncated proPSA isoforms.The purpose of this article is to review the recent studies on clinical utility of proPSA,especially [-2]pPSA,an isoform of proPSA,and parameters involving [-2]pPSA as well as other PSA derivatives in early detection of PCa.

  9. Effects of ultralow doses of antibodies to prostate-specific antigen on morphological and functional state of rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovskaya, T G; Fomina, T I; Loskutova, O P; Baranova, O V; Sergeeva, S A; Martyushev, A V; Epstein, O I

    2003-01-01

    Morphological and morphometric assays showed that administration of antibodies to the prostate-specific antigen in ultralow doses for 1.5 months delayed the development of atrophic and sclerotic processes in rats with chronic aseptic prostatitis. The concentration of zinc ions playing an important role in binding of androgens increased in the prostate of rats receiving the preparation. Studies of copulatory behavior showed that male rats with chronic prostatitis receiving antibodies to the prostate-specific antigen displayed increased sexual activity compared to control and intact animals.

  10. Decreasing trend in prostate cancer with high serum prostate-specific antigen levels detected at first prostate-specific antigen-based population screening in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhide Kitagawa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the recent trends in prostate-specific antigen (PSA distribution in men in Japan, we analyzed the PSA distributions of men undergoing PSA-based population screening. We summarized the annual individual data of PSA-based population screening in Kanazawa, Japan, from 2000 to 2011, and analyzed baseline serum PSA values of the participants at the first population screening. Serum PSA distributions were estimated in all participants and those excluding prostate cancer patients according to age. From 2000 to 2011, 19 620 men participated aged 54-69 years old in this screening program. Mean baseline serum PSA level of all participants at the first screening was 2.64 ng ml−1 in 2000, and gradually decreased to approximately 1.30 ng ml−1 in 2006. That of participants excluding prostate cancer patients was 1.46 ng ml−1 in 2000, and there was no remarkable change during the study period. The 95 th percentiles in the participants excluding prostate cancer patients detected at the first population screening of men aged 54-59, 60-64, and 65-69 years old were 2.90, 3.60, and 4.50 ng ml−1 , respectively. After the commencement of population screening, the proportion of prostate cancer patients with high serum PSA levels decreased. However, there were no changes in serum PSA levels in men without prostate cancer. Age-specific PSA reference level of men without prostate cancer in Japan was similar to that in China and Korea.

  11. Prostate-specific antigen-positive extramammary Paget's disease--association with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Hager, Henrik; Steiniche, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepidermal adenocarcinoma that primarily affects the anogenital region. Cases of EMPD reacting with PSA (prostate-specific antigen) have previously been associated with underlying prostate cancer. However, a recent case of EMPD in our department has...... led us to question the value of PSA as an indicator of underlying prostate cancer. Clinical and pathological data were obtained for 16 cases of EMPD. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from the primary skin lesions were investigated using PSA and other immunohistochemical markers. 5...... of the 16 cases of EMPD stained positive for PSA (2 women and 3 men). However, no reactivity was seen for the prostatic marker P501S. Three of the five patients had been diagnosed with internal malignant disease-two with prostate cancer, stage 1. Immunohistochemical investigations of the tumour specimens...

  12. An inexpensive, fast and sensitive quantitative lateral flow magneto-immunoassay for total prostate specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jacqueline M; Wraith, Patrick; Kiely, Janice; Persad, Raj; Hurley, Katrina; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format.

  13. Human seminal proteinase and prostate-specific antigen are the same protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdul Waheed; Md Imtaiyaz Hassan; Robert L Van Etten; Faizan Ahmad

    2008-06-01

    Human seminal proteinase and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were each isolated from human seminal fluid and compared. Both are glycoproteins of 32–34 kDa with protease activities. Based on some physicochemical, enzymatic and immunological properties, it is concluded that these proteins are in fact identical. The protein exhibits properties similar to kallikrein-like serine protease, trypsin, chymotrypsin and thiol acid protease. Tests of the activity of the enzyme against some potential natural and synthetic substrates showed that bovine serum albumin was more readily hydrolysed than casein. The results of this study should be useful in purifying and assaying this protein. Based on published studies and the present results, the broad proteolytic specificity of human seminal proteinase suggests a role for this protein in several physiological functions.

  14. Primary cryptococcal prostatitis and correlation with serum prostate specific antigen in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Tahseen J; Zamani, Tanveer; Parada, Jorge P

    2005-10-01

    The prostate gland is a rare site of primary infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans; however, it may serve as a site of its sequestration after an occult or treated disseminated infection. Serum prostate specific antigen may correlate with the severity of prostatic inflammation, but its role as a diagnostic and prognostic marker is unclear. We report the first case of primary cryptococcal prostatitis in a renal transplant recipient. The diagnosis was established based on asymmetrically enlarged prostate gland, markedly elevated serum PSA levels, cryptococcal fungemia, an ultrasound-guided prostatic biopsy that demonstrated cryptococcal fungal elements and growth of C. neoformans on culture. The patient was successfully treated with a prolonged course of fluconazole and remained disease-free for more than 28 months of follow-up. In addition, we present a review of the published literature since 1946 and discuss possible correlation with PSA levels.

  15. Prostate specific membrane antigen- a target for imaging and therapy with radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Choyke, Peter L; Capala, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer continues to represent a major health problem, and yet there is no effective treatment available for advanced metastatic disease. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of more effective treatment modalities that could improve the outcome. Because prostate specific...... membrane antigen (PSMA), a transmembrane protein, is expressed by virtually all prostate cancers, and its expression is further increased in poorly differentiated, metastatic, and hormone-refractory carcinomas, it is a very attractive target. Molecules targeting PSMA can be labelled with radionuclides...... to become both diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents. The use of PSMA binding agents, labelled with diagnostic and therapeutic radio-isotopes, opens up the potential for a new era of personalized management of metastatic prostate cancer....

  16. Impedance-Based Miniaturized Biosensor for Ultrasensitive and Fast Prostate-Specific Antigen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Chornokur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the successful fabrication of an impedance-based miniaturized biosensor and its application for ultrasensitive Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA detection in standard and real human plasma solution, spiked with different PSA concentrations. The sensor was fabricated using photolithographic techniques, while monoclonal antibodies specific to human PSA were used as primary capture antibodies. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was employed as a detection technique. The sensor exhibited a detection limit of 1 pg/ml for PSA with minimal nonspecific binding (NSB. This detection limit is an order of magnitude lower than commercial PSA ELISA assays available on the market. The sensor can be easily modified into an array for the detection of other biomolecules of interest, enabling accurate, ultrasensitive, and inexpensive point-of-care sensing technologies.

  17. Prostate-Specific Antigen Bounce After High-Dose-Rate Monotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Niraj H., E-mail: nmehta@mednet.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Kamrava, Mitchell; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Steinberg, Michael; Demanes, Jeffrey [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To characterize the magnitude and kinetics of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounces after high-dose-rate (HDR) monotherapy and determine relationships between certain clinical factors and PSA bounce. Methods and Materials: Longitudinal PSA data and various clinical parameters were examined in 157 consecutive patients treated with HDR monotherapy between 1996 and 2005. We used the following definition for PSA bounce: rise in PSA ≥threshold, after which it returns to the prior level or lower. Prostate-specific antigen failure was defined per the Phoenix definition (nadir +2 ng/mL). Results: A PSA bounce was noted in 67 patients (43%). The number of bounces per patient was 1 in 45 cases (67%), 2 in 19 (28%), 3 in 2 (3%), 4 in 0, and 5 in 1 (1%). The median time to maximum PSA bounce was 1.3 years, its median magnitude was 0.7, and its median duration was 0.75 years. Three patients (2%) were noted to have PSA failure. None of the 3 patients who experienced biochemical failure exhibited PSA bounce. In the fully adjusted model for predicting each bounce, patients aged <55 years had a statistically significant higher likelihood of experiencing a bounce (odds ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.38-3.57, P=.001). There was also a statistically significant higher probability of experiencing a bounce for every unit decrease in Gleason score (odds ratio 1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.04, P=.045). Conclusions: A PSA bounce occurs in a significant percentage of patients treated with HDR monotherapy, with magnitudes varying from <1 in 28% of cases to ≥1 in 15%. The median duration of bounce is <1 year. More bounces were identified in patients with lower Gleason score and age <55 years. Further investigation using a model to correlate magnitude and frequency of bounces with clinical variables are under way.

  18. Prostate-specific antigen as an estimator of prostate volume in the management of patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mochtar, CA; Kiemeney, LALM; van Riemsdijk, MM; Barnett, GS; Laguna, MP; Debruyne, FMJ; de la Rosette, JJMCH

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the ability of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) to estimate prostate volume (PV) to aid in the management of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: From 1989 to 2002, data were collected from 2264 patients complaining of lower urinary tract symptoms (LU

  19. Perioperative prostate specific antigen levels among coronary artery bypass grafting patients: Does extracorporeal circulation and body temperature induce prostate specific antigen levels alterations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patris, Emmanuel; Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Patris, Vasileios; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Argiriou, Mihalis; Charitos, Christos; Kalaitzis, Christos; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the perioperative total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) levels among coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients with and without extracorporeal circulation (ECC), to investigate the changes overtime of tPSA in each group separately and to determine the effect of body core temperature on tPSA levels. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted. Our sample was allocated to: (a) Seven patients who underwent off pump CABG (Group I) and (b) 16 CABG patients with ECC (Group II). The levels of tPSA were measured preoperatively (baseline), intra-operatively and at the 4th postoperative day. We compared the two groups on their tPSA levels and we investigated the changes of tPSA overtime in each group separately. Results: Intra-operative serum samples were obtained in significantly lower body temperature in patients of Group II than in those of Group I (31°C vs. 36.9°C, P < 0.001). In each group separately, postoperative tPSA levels were increased significantly compared to the baseline values (2.55 ng/ml vs. 0.39 ng/ml for Group I, P = 0.005 and 4.36 ng/ml vs. 0.77 for Group II, P < 0.001). CABG patients with ECC had significantly lower intra-operative tPSA levels than the baseline values (0.67 ng/ml vs. 0.77 ng/ml, P = 0.008). We did not observe significant differences of tPSA levels between the two groups. Conclusions: CABG surgery affects similarly the perioperative tPSA independently the involvement of ECC. Although all patients had significantly higher early postoperative tPSA levels, only those who underwent CABG with ECC had exceeded normal values and significantly decreased intra-operative tPSA. Hypothermia seems to be the causal factor of tPSA reduction. PMID:25657546

  20. Prostate-specific antigen and hormone receptor expression in male and female breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Cynthia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate carcinoma is among the most common solid tumors to secondarily involve the male breast. Prostate specific antigen (PSA and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP are expressed in benign and malignant prostatic tissue, and immunohistochemical staining for these markers is often used to confirm the prostatic origin of metastatic carcinoma. PSA expression has been reported in male and female breast carcinoma and in gynecomastia, raising concerns about the utility of PSA for differentiating prostate carcinoma metastasis to the male breast from primary breast carcinoma. This study examined the frequency of PSA, PSAP, and hormone receptor expression in male breast carcinoma (MBC, female breast carcinoma (FBC, and gynecomastia. Methods Immunohistochemical staining for PSA, PSAP, AR, ER, and PR was performed on tissue microarrays representing six cases of gynecomastia, thirty MBC, and fifty-six FBC. Results PSA was positive in two of fifty-six FBC (3.7%, focally positive in one of thirty MBC (3.3%, and negative in the five examined cases of gynecomastia. PSAP expression was absent in MBC, FBC, and gynecomastia. Hormone receptor expression was similar in males and females (AR 74.1% in MBC vs. 67.9% in FBC, p = 0.62; ER 85.2% vs. 68.5%, p = 0.18; and PR 51.9% vs. 48.2%, p = 0.82. Conclusions PSA and PSAP are useful markers to distinguish primary breast carcinoma from prostate carcinoma metastatic to the male breast. Although PSA expression appeared to correlate with hormone receptor expression, the incidence of PSA expression in our population was too low to draw significant conclusions about an association between PSA expression and hormone receptor status in breast lesions.

  1. Prostate specific antigen gene expression in androgen insensitive prostate carcinoma subculture cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ke-Hung; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chung, Li-Chuan; Chao, Chun-Hsiang; Chang, Phei-Lang; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2008-01-01

    A novel prostate cancer cell line (PC-J) was isolated from an androgen independent non-prostate specific antigen (non-PSA) producing carcinoma cell line. The homologous correlation between PC-J and PC-3 was determined by short tandem repeat analysis. The PSA promoter activity was detected by transient expression assay in the PC-J and LNCaP cells but not in androgen insensitive PC-3 cells. When the PC-J cells were cotransfected with androgen receptor, androgen receptor coactivators and PSA reporter vector cells, the reporter assays indicated that nuclear receptor coactivator 4 (NCOA4) but not androgen receptor activator 24 (ARA24) increased the sensitivity and maximum stimulation of dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-inducing PSA promoter activity. The RT-PCR assays revealed that the expression of several tumor markers, including interleukin-6, prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), prostate epithelium-specific Ets transcription factor (PDEF) and matriptase, was lower in the PC-J cells than in the PC-3 cells. This cell model elucidated the regulation of PSA expression and enabled comparison of the gene profile at different stages of metastasis in prostatic carcinoma.

  2. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Barnett

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs in immunochromatographic (lateral flow assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format.

  3. A population study of fasting time and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl K Lau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Traditional screening and diagnostic methods include digital rectal examinations (DREs, biopsies and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA tests, with the latter being the more popular. PSA is a biomarker for prostate cancer; however, it is highly sensitive to external factors as well as other prostate diseases. As such, the reliability of of the serum PSA level as a sole screening and diagnostic tool for prostate cancer is controversial. Recently, it has been shown that fasting extremes can affect concentrations of serum chemistry analytes, thus raising the question of whether or not fasting has an effect on the highly sensitive PSA biomarker. Patients testing for serum PSA levels are often concomitantly submitting to other tests that require fasting, subjecting certain patients to a fasting PSA level while others not. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this discrepancy in fasting state translates into an effect on serum PSA levels. Serum PSA levels and fasting time records for 157 276 men who underwent testing at Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS; Calgary, Alberta, Canada between 01 January 2010 and 31 March 2013 were accessed. Linear regression models of mean PSA levels and fasting times revealed a statistically important relationship at certain fasting times. Applying a dynamic mathematical model to explore the clinical effect of fasting suggests minimal impact on serum PSA result interpretation. Thus, patients can be tested for serum PSA levels regardless of their fasting state.

  4. Aptamer-MIP hybrid receptor for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of prostate specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Pawan; Tamboli, Vibha; Harniman, Robert L; Estrela, Pedro; Allender, Chris J; Bowen, Jenna L

    2016-01-15

    This study reports the design and evaluation of a new synthetic receptor sensor based on the amalgamation of biomolecular recognition elements and molecular imprinting to overcome some of the challenges faced by conventional protein imprinting. A thiolated DNA aptamer with established affinity for prostate specific antigen (PSA) was complexed with PSA prior to being immobilised on the surface of a gold electrode. Controlled electropolymerisation of dopamine around the complex served to both entrap the complex, holding the aptamer in, or near to, it's binding conformation, and to localise the PSA binding sites at the sensor surface. Following removal of PSA, it was proposed that the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) cavity would act synergistically with the embedded aptamer to form a hybrid receptor (apta-MIP), displaying recognition properties superior to that of aptamer alone. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate subsequent rebinding of PSA to the apta-MIP surface. The apta-MIP sensor showed high sensitivity with a linear response from 100pg/ml to 100ng/ml of PSA and a limit of detection of 1pg/ml, which was three-fold higher than aptamer alone sensor for PSA. Furthermore, the sensor demonstrated low cross-reactivity with a homologous protein (human Kallikrein 2) and low response to human serum albumin (HSA), suggesting possible resilience to the non-specific binding of serum proteins.

  5. Prostate-specific antigen: its relationship with alcohol intake and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandriolo Nackauzi, Jorge D; Colla, Raúl H; Ravazzani, Graciela R; Gaido, María I; Bertolotto, Patricia; Actis, Adriana B

    2012-06-01

    To determine the influence of alcohol and tobacco consumption on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. 59 men participated in this study: 20 with prostate tumors (PT) and 39 without tumor diagnosis (prostate controls, PC) (mean 66 and 58 years, respectively). PSA was analyzed in serum samples and its values were compared through the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test. Alcohol and tobacco consumption was also considered. PSA mean value was higher than 4 ng/ml in PT, whereas in PC it was lower than that value. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing PSA between PT and PC (P < 0.05). PSA was higher in alcohol and tobacco consumers than in non-consumers in PT group (P < 0.05). For PC, PSA mean values were higher in non-smokers than in smokers. Statistically significant differences were observed for serum PSA when compared between PT and PC groups considering alcohol and tobacco consumption (P < 0.05). Serum PSA values appear to be influenced by alcohol and tobacco consumption.

  6. Natural History of Untreated Prostate Specific Antigen Radiorecurrent Prostate Cancer in Men with Favorable Prognostic Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Life expectancy data could identify men with favorable post-radiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA failure kinetics unlikely to require androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. Materials and Methods. Of 206 men with unfavorable-risk prostate cancer in a randomized trial of radiation versus radiation and ADT, 53 experienced a PSA failure and were followed without salvage ADT. Comorbidity, age and established prognostic factors were assessed for relationship to death using Cox regression analyses. Results. The median age at failure, interval to PSA failure, and PSA doubling time were 76.6 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 71.8–79.3, 49.1 months (IQR: 37.7–87.4, and 25 months (IQR: 13.1–42.8, respectively. After a median follow up of 4.0 years following PSA failure, 45% of men had died, none from prostate cancer and no one had developed metastases. Both increasing age at PSA failure (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03–1.25; P=0.008 and the presence of moderate to severe comorbidity (HR: 12.5; 95% CI: 3.81–41.0; P2 years following post-radiation PSA failure appear to be good candidates for observation without ADT intervention.

  7. Velocity and doubling time of prostate-specific antigen: mathematics can matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchio, Edward; Aslan, Mihaela; Ko, John; Wells, Carolyn K; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Concato, John

    2016-02-01

    Changes in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values are often reported as velocity or doubling time. We compared the association of these two calculations-at the time of PSA failure after primary treatment for prostate cancer-with prostate cancer mortality. From a source population of 1313 US Veterans with prostate cancer, including 623 treated with curative intent, the study population included 242 men experiencing biochemical failure, 81 after surgery and 161 after radiation therapy. Clinically relevant calculations of PSA velocity (linear slope) and PSA doubling time (logarithmic slope) were assessed for their association with 11-16 years of mortality from prostate cancer. Death due to prostate cancer occurred in 52/242 (21.5%) men. Among men receiving surgery, PSA velocity ≥1.0 ng/mL/year was associated with increased prostate cancer mortality (HR=4.2, p value=0.037), whereas doubling time ≤12 months did not confer risk (HR=1.0, p value=0.95). Conversely, among patients receiving radiation therapy, doubling time ≤12 months was associated with increased prostate cancer mortality (HR=2.4, p value=0.049), but velocity did not confer a statistically significant risk (HR=3.8, p value=0.19). When assessing risk of prostate cancer mortality, PSA velocity can be more predictive after surgery and PSA doubling time can be more predictive after radiation therapy.

  8. The RFA regulatory sequence-binding protein in the promoter of prostate-specific antigen gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To assure what sequence associated with the androgen regulation, a 15 bp region at the upstream of the ARE of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter, termed RFA, was found indispensable for androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transactivation of PSA promoter. In transfection and CAT assays, some nucleotides substitution in RFA could significantly decrease the androgen inducibility for PSA promoter. The in vitro DNA binding assay demonstrated that RFA bound specifically with some non-receptor protein factors in prostate cell nucleus, but the mutant type of RFA lost this ability, so RFA might be a novel accessory cis-element. The RFA-binding proteins were isolated and purified by affinity chromatography using RFA probes. SDS-PAGE and preliminary protein identification showed these proteins possessed sequence high homology with multifunctional protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, A2 (hnRNP A1, A2). RFA-binding proteins possibly cooperate with AR-mediated transactivation for PSA promoter as coactivator. The study results will facilitate further understanding the mechanism and tissue specificity of PSA promoter.

  9. The value of prostatic specific antigen in prostate cancer screening in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubelirer, S J; Tierney, J P; Oliver, S; Serrato, J M; Farra, S; Plymale, J; Hodge, E

    1994-04-01

    At a one-day screening for prostate cancer in 1991, a urologist evaluated 142 men ages 50 years-84 years (mean: 67 years) utilizing a digital rectal exam (DRE), serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA), and a detailed questionnaire. The 44 men with an abnormal DRE and/or PSA were recontacted by letter one year later to determine the outcome. By 12 months, 31 men (70%) with abnormal findings had seen a physician as recommended. Of the 13 men followed with abnormal DRE only, three were biopsied with no cancer found. Of the 11 with an elevated PSA only, six were biopsied and two had cancer. Of the men with both abnormal PSA and DRE, six were biopsied and two had cancer. Thus, after 12 months, the preliminary cancer detection rate was 2.8% for the entire study population, 22% for those with an elevated PSA, and 10% for those with an abnormal DRE. The results suggest that the use of PSA combined with DRE is a more efficient strategy for detecting prostate cancer than DRE alone.

  10. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics after primary stereotactic body radiation therapy using CyberKnife for localized prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yong Hyun; Choi, In Young; Yoon, Sei Chul; Jang, Hong Seok; Moon, Hyong Woo; Hong, Sung-Hoo; Kim, Sae Woong; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Lee, Ji Youl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics and report on the oncologic outcomes for patients with localized prostate cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using CyberKnife. Methods We extracted the list and data of 39 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who had undergone primary SBRT using CyberKnife between January 2008 and December 2012 from the Smart Prostate Cancer database system of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. Changes in PSA over tim...

  11. Characterization of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) for Use in Therapeutic and Diagnostic Strategies Against Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    specimens was either reduced relative to that of normal prostate, or absent alto - gether (32), which is most likely an indication of the major cell...C., Barrios , R., Lebo- promoter and enhancer. Prostate 45: 149-157. vitz, R., Finegold, M., Angelopoulou, R., Dodd, J. G., Duckworth, Pang, S., Taneja...Meridith, D. M., and Schaffner, D. L., Barrios , R., Shaker, M. R., Rajagopalan, S., Huang, Markham, A. F. (1995). Prostate-specific membrane antigen: Evi- S

  12. Discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen, and some proposals to optimize prostate cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokudome S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shinkan Tokudome,1 Ryosuke Ando,2 Yoshiro Koda,3 1Department of Nutritional Epidemiology, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 2Department of Nephro-urology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 3Department of Forensic Medicine and Human Genetics, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan Abstract: The discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen (PSA have been much appreciated because PSA-based screening has saved millions of lives of prostate cancer (PCa patients. Historically speaking, Flocks et al first identified antigenic properties in prostate tissue in 1960. Then, Barnes et al detected immunologic characteristics in prostatic fluid in 1963. Hara et al characterized γ-semino-protein in semen in 1966, and it has been proven to be identical to PSA. Subsequently, Ablin et al independently reported the presence of precipitation antigens in the prostate in 1970. Wang et al purified the PSA in 1979, and Kuriyama et al first applied an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for PSA in 1980. However, the positive predictive value with a cutoff figure of 4.0 ng/mL appeared substantially low (~30%. There are overdiagnoses and overtreatments for latent/low-risk PCa. Controversies exist in the PCa mortality-reducing effects of PSA screening between the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC and the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO Cancer Screening Trial. For optimizing PCa screening, PSA-related items may require the following: 1 adjustment of the cutoff values according to age, as well as setting limits to age and screening intervals; 2 improving test performance using doubling time, density, and ratio of free: total PSA; and 3 fostering active surveillance for low-risk PCa with monitoring by PSA value. Other items needing consideration may include the following: 1 examinations of cell proliferation and cell cycle markers

  13. Effect of lycopene on androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen velocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin; WANG Qi; Barber Neil; CHEN Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in the role of dietary factors in both the development and behaviour of prostate cancer.This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of the dietary factor lycopene on DNA synthesis,activity and expression of the androgen receptor gene element in prostate LnCaP cells and to report our pilot phase Ⅱ study investigating its effect on prostate-specific antigen velocity over one year.Methods LnCaP cells were grown with or without different concentrations of lycopene or tetrahydrofuran (THF solvent)added to the culture medium for 48 hours.DNA synthesis was measured by the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu) into DNA during a 4-hour pulse, followed by immunostaining and visualization of stained cells using fluorescence microscopy.A transient transfection of a plasmid DNA recombinant containing an androgen receptor element-luciferase (ARE-Luc) report gene into LnCaP cells was developed and the impact of different concentrations of lycopene on the androgen receptor element was reflected by quantitative analysis of the luciferase enzyme function.Expression of the androgen gene was also studied by Western blotting.The phase Ⅱ pilot study patients (n=41) previously diagnosed with prostate cancer were enrolled and given lycopene supplement, 10 mg per day, and response was measured by observing changes in the plasma prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels.Results The addition of 0.5 μmol/L, 5 μmol/L, 10 μmol/L and 15 μmol/L of lycopene was shown to inhibit cell growth by 2.66%, 4.29%, 3.73% and 13.66%, respectively, compared with the THF solvent control samples (P=0.015).As compared with the RPMI1640 medium group, cell proliferation in the presence of 5 μmol/L, 10 μmol/L, and 15 μmol/L lycopene was inhibited by 8.12%, 6.33% and 12.00%, respectively (P=0.024).We showed for the first time that lycopene inhibited the activity of the androgen receptor gene element in a dose-related manner.Inhibition was seen in the

  14. Prostate-specific antigen bounce following stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Vu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA bounce after brachytherapy has been well-documented. This phenomenon has also been identified in patients undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT. While the parameters that predict PSA bounce have been extensively studied in prostate brachytherapy patients, this study is the first to analyze the clinical and pathologic predictors of PSA bounce in prostate SBRT patients. Materials and Methods: Our institution has maintained a prospective database of patients undergoing SBRT for prostate cancer since 2006. Our study population includes patients between May 2006 and November 2011 who have at least 18 months of follow-up. All patients were treated using the CyberKnife treatment system. The prescription dose was 3500-3625cGy in 5 fractions.Results: 120 patients were included in our study. Median PSA follow-up was 24 months (range 18-78 months. 34 (28% patients had a PSA bounce. The median time to PSA bounce was 9 months, and the median bounce size was 0.50ng/mL. On univariate analysis, only younger age (p = .011 was shown to be associated with an increased incidence of PSA bounce. Other patient factors, including race, prostate size, prior treatment by hormones, and family history of prostate cancer, did not predict PSA bounces. None of the tumor characteristics studied, including Gleason score, pre-treatment PSA, T-stage, or risk classification by NCCN guidelines, was associated with increased incidence of PSA bounces. Younger age was the only statistically significant predictor of PSA bounce on multivariate analysis (OR = 0.937, p = 0.009.Conclusion: PSA bounce, which has been reported after prostate brachytherapy, is also seen in a significant percentage of patients after CyberKnife SBRT. Close observation rather than biopsy can be considered for these patients. Younger age was the only factor that predicted PSA bounce.

  15. The trends in prostate specific antigen usage amongst United Kingdom urologists – a questionnaire based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Helena P; Davis, Chris R; Tate, Sophie; Persad, Raj; Holmes, Chris H; Whittington, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing as a screen for prostate cancer is contentious. Whilst there is no National UK Screening programme, many men undergo opportunistic screening. This study investigates UK urologist's usage of PSA and the awareness surrounding the Department of Health (DoH) PSA guidelines. Methods Urologists were sent a questionnaire regarding PSA cut-off values. Results Of the 733 urologists eligible to participate in this study 346 returned completed questionnaires giving a response rate of 47%. The most commonly generally used age-related PSA cut-off values (36% of respondents) are – 3.5 ng/ml for 50 – 59 year olds, 4.5 ng/ml for 60 – 69 year olds and 6.5 ng/ml for over 70 year olds. Two-thirds (58%, 200/346) of respondents were aware of the DoH PSA guidelines but only 20% (n = 69/346) follow these guidelines. The majority of respondents (68%, n = 234/346) used higher PSA cut-offs than recommended by the DoH. The level of compliance showed marked regional variation with a range from 7% to 44% (median 19%). In addition, it was apparent that lower PSA cut-off values were used in private practice as opposed to the National Health Service. Conclusion A nationwide lack of agreement on PSA cut-off values may generate a variable standard of care both regionally and in NHS versus private practice. Generally, higher PSA cut-off values are being used than recommended by the DoH guidance. PMID:19021912

  16. The trends in prostate specific antigen usage amongst United Kingdom urologists – a questionnaire based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Chris H

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, the use of prostate specific antigen (PSA testing as a screen for prostate cancer is contentious. Whilst there is no National UK Screening programme, many men undergo opportunistic screening. This study investigates UK urologist's usage of PSA and the awareness surrounding the Department of Health (DoH PSA guidelines. Methods Urologists were sent a questionnaire regarding PSA cut-off values. Results Of the 733 urologists eligible to participate in this study 346 returned completed questionnaires giving a response rate of 47%. The most commonly generally used age-related PSA cut-off values (36% of respondents are – 3.5 ng/ml for 50 – 59 year olds, 4.5 ng/ml for 60 – 69 year olds and 6.5 ng/ml for over 70 year olds. Two-thirds (58%, 200/346 of respondents were aware of the DoH PSA guidelines but only 20% (n = 69/346 follow these guidelines. The majority of respondents (68%, n = 234/346 used higher PSA cut-offs than recommended by the DoH. The level of compliance showed marked regional variation with a range from 7% to 44% (median 19%. In addition, it was apparent that lower PSA cut-off values were used in private practice as opposed to the National Health Service. Conclusion A nationwide lack of agreement on PSA cut-off values may generate a variable standard of care both regionally and in NHS versus private practice. Generally, higher PSA cut-off values are being used than recommended by the DoH guidance.

  17. Distribution of serum prostate-specific antigen in Chinese healthy men: a population-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xiao-dong; L(U) Jia-ju; DONG Zhi-gang; ZHANG Hui; LIN Hai-yan; SONG Xin-hong; NIU Zhi-hong; FU Qiang; LIU Shuai; SUN Zhi-jian

    2011-01-01

    Background The morbidity and mortality of prostate cancer have been increasing rapidly in recent China. There were few studies investigating prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values ranges in the healthy Chinese population. We performed this study to determine the distribution of serum PSA in a large healthy Chinese population.Methods From January 2001 to May 2008, 11 150 healthy Chinese men aged 30-79 years came to our hospital for routine health check-up. All subjects without a previous diagnosis of prostate cancer, a history of prostate surgery, or urogenital tract infection were proposed to undergo systematic serum PSA measurement and digital rectal examination (DRE). Men with normal DRE and PSA ≤4.0 ng/ml and those PSA >4.0 ng/ml or abnormal DRE but without adverse findings on prostate biopsy were included (n=9358). Age and serum PSA concentration were recorded and correlated through Logistic regression analysis.Results The 95th percentile serum PSA concentration was 1.89 ng/ml for men aged 30 to 39 years, 2.19 ng/ml for men aged 40 to 49 years, 2.88 ng/ml for men aged 50 to 59 years, 4.42 rng/ml for men aged 60 to 69 years, and 6.52 ng/ml for men aged 70 to 79 years. The serum PSA concentration correlated with age (P <0.0001) with an annual increase of 0.97% for men in 40 years, 1.58% for men in 50 years, 3.04% for men in 60 years, and 3.99% for men in 70 years.Conclusions The serum PSA level correlates directly with age in Chinese men older than 40 years, not in Chinese men younger than 40 years old. Chinese men have lower PSA level compared with white men above 60 years of age, not in those under 60 years of age.

  18. Magnetic-particle-based, ultrasensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for free prostate-specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruping; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Wei; Yue, Zhao; Liu, Guohua

    2013-11-01

    We report a magnetic-particle (MMP)-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) in human serum. In this method, the f-PSA is sandwiched between the anti-PSA antibody coated MMPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-labeled anti-f-PSA antibody. The signal produced by the emitted photons from the chemiluminescent substrate (4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphatephenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2'-adamantane)) is directly proportional to the amount of f-PSA in a sample. The present MMP-based assay can detect f-PSA in the range of 0.1-30 ng mL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.1 ng mL(-1). The linear detection range could match the concentration range within the "diagnostic gray zone" of serum f-PSA levels (4-10 ng mL(-1)). The detection limit was sufficient for measuring clinically relevant f-PSA levels (>4 ng mL(-1)). Furthermore, the method was highly selective; it was unaffected by cross-reaction with human glandular kallikrein-2, a kallikrein-like serine protease that is 80% similar to f-PSA. The proposed method was finally applied to determine f-PSA in 40 samples of human sera. Results obtained using the method showed high correlation with those obtained using a commercially available microplate CLEIA kit (correlation coefficient, 0.9821). This strategy shows great potential application in the fabrication of diagnostic kits for determining f-PSA in serum.

  19. Tyrosine-phosphorylated Galectin-3 Protein Is Resistant to Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Cleavage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Vitaly; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Kho, Dhong Hyo; Wang, Yi; Raz, Avraham

    2012-01-01

    Galectin-3 is a chimeric carbohydrate-binding protein, which interacts with cell surface carbohydrate-containing molecules and extracellular matrix glycoproteins and has been implicated in various biological processes such as cell growth, angiogenesis, motility, and metastasis. It is expressed in a wide range of tumor cells and is associated with tumor progression. The functions of galectin-3 are dependent on its localization and post-translational modifications such as cleavage and phosphorylation. Recently, we showed that galectin-3 Tyr-107 is phosphorylated by c-Abl; concomitantly, it was also shown that galectin-3 can be cleaved at this site by prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a chymotrypsin-like serine protease, after Tyr-107, resulting in loss of galectin-3 multivalency while preserving its carbohydrate binding activity. Galectin-3 is largely a monomer in solution but may form a homodimer by self-association through its carbohydrate recognition domain, whereas, in the presence of a ligand, galectin-3 polymerizes up to pentamers utilizing its N-terminal domain. Oligomerization is a unique feature of secreted galectin-3, which allows its function by forming ordered galectin-glycan structures, i.e. lattices, on the cell surface or through direct engagement of specific cell surface glycoconjugates by traditional ligand-receptor binding. We questioned whether Tyr-107 phosphorylation by c-Abl affects galectin-3 cleavage by PSA. The data suggest a role for galectin-3 in prostate cells associated with increased activity of c-Abl kinase and loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) activity. In addition, the ratio of phosphorylated/dephosphorylated galectin-3 might be used as a complementary value to that of PSA for prognosis of prostate cancer and a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:22232548

  20. Association of black race with follow-up of an abnormal prostate-specific antigen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Barbara J; Mavandadi, Shahrzad; Weiner, Mark G

    2011-02-01

    Delayed evaluation after a clearly abnormal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) result may contribute to more advanced prostate cancer at diagnosis in black men. In 46 primary care practices over a period of 4.5 years, we studied men aged more than 50 years without known prostate cancer who had a PSA of at least 10.0 ng/mL for the first time. PSA follow-up included: a urology appointment, a new prostate diagnosis, or repeat PSA test. Cox proportional hazards models assessed time to follow-up, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and health care factors with censoring at a time that represents excessive delay (200 days). Among all 724 study men (27% black), delay until PSA follow-up averaged 115.2 days (+/- 79.7 d) and the unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for follow-up was shorter for black men than nonblack men (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.51). However, black men were more likely to have had prior urology care and had higher index PSA levels than other men; both factors were associated with shorter follow-up. After adjustment, delay did not differ for black vs nonblack race (HR, 1.05; 95% Cl, 0.78-1.43) but men aged at least 75 years had a longer delay than men aged 74 years or less (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59-0.89). Despite black men having greater risk of advanced prostate disease at diagnosis and better linkage to urologic care, follow-up was delayed, on average, by more than 3 months and did not differ by race. These results reveal a potentially important, remediable factor to improve prostate cancer prevention and care for black men.

  1. Power-free chip enzyme immunoassay for detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel Ahmed, Heba; Azzazy, Hassan M E

    2013-11-15

    A power-free, portable "Chip EIA" was designed to render the popular Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) more suitable for point-of-care testing. A number of microfluidic platforms have enabled miniaturization of the conventional microtitre plate ELISA, however, they require external pumping systems, valves, and electric power supply. The Chip EIA platform has eliminated the need for pumps and valves through utilizing a simple permanent magnet and magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles act as solid support to capture the target and are then moved through chambers harboring different reagents necessary to perform a sandwich ELISA. The use of magnetic nanoparticles increases the volume-to-surface ratio reducing the assay time to 30 min. Changing the color of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) substrate to green indicates a positive result. In addition, a quantitative read-out was obtained through the use of cellphone camera imaging and analyzing the images using Matlab®. Cell phones, including smart ones, are readily available almost everywhere. The Chip EIA device was used to assay total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) in 19 serum samples. The PSA Chip EIA was tested for accuracy, precision, repeatability, and the results were correlated to the commercial Beckman Colter, Hybritech immunoassay® for determination of tPSA in serum samples with a Pearson correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.96). The lower detection limit of the PSA Chip EIA was 3.2 ng/mL. The assay has 88.9% recovery and good reproducibility (% CV of 6.5). We conclude that the developed Chip EIA can be used for detection of protein biomarkers in biological specimens.

  2. Single chip SPR and fluorescent ELISA assay of prostate specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault-Turcot, J; Poirier-Richard, H-P; Couture, M; Pelechacz, D; Masson, J-F

    2015-12-01

    A multi-channel system combining fluidics and micropatterned plasmonic materials with wavelength interrogation surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence detection was integrated from the combination of a small and motorized fluorescence microscope mounted on a portable 4-channel SPR instrument. The SPR and fluorescent measurements were performed based on the same detection area in a multi-channel fluidic, with a sensing scheme for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) consisting of a sandwich assay with a capture anti-PSA immobilized onto the SPR sensor and a detection anti-PSA modified with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In this dual-detection instrument, fluorescence was measured from the solution side of the micropatterned gold film, while the interface between the glass prism and the gold film served to interrogate the SPR response. The SPR sensors were comprised of microhole arrays fabricated by photolithography to enhance the instrumental response for PSA detection by approximately a factor of 2 to 3 and they were coated with a self-assembled monolayer of a peptide (3-MPA-HHHDD-OH) to minimize nonspecific adsorption. PSA was successfully detected at clinical concentrations from 10 pM to 50 nM with this integrated system in a single assay lasting 12 minutes, almost centering on the desired range for PSA diagnostic tests (>4 ng mL(-1) or >150 pM). The combination of two robust techniques in a single chip and instrument has led to a simple and effective assay that can be carried out on a small and portable instrument providing rapid biodetection of an important cancer biomarker with a dynamic range of nearly 4 orders of magnitude in the clinical range.

  3. Prostate-specific membrane antigen is undetectable in choroidal neovascular membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godeiro Katyanne

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss and is often associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Various modalities of treatment, including photocoagulation and surgery, are being considered as options, but with limited success. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA is a type II membrane glycoprotein expressed in benign and malignant prostatic tissues, in some non-prostatic tissues, and in the endothelium of tumor-associated neovasculature of non-prostatic neoplasm. Some studies have suggested that the expression of PSMA is restricted to endothelium from tumor-associated neovasculature and might be stimulated by some tumor-secreted angiogenic factors. However, no previous study demonstrating PSMA expression in non-related tumor neovasculature, such as CNVM, has been performed to date. Furthermore, demonstration of PSMA expression in CNVM in AMD patients could reveal a novel target for antineovascular therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of PSMA in CNVM from AMD. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis, with a standard avidin-biotin complex technique, was performed using an anti-PSMA mouse monoclonal antibody in 30 specimens of surgically excised CNVM from AMD patients. Antibody to an endothelial cell specific marker, factor VIII, was used to confirm the location of the endothelial cells. Results The angiogenic microvessels of the 30 cases demonstrated negative staining to PSMA while factor VIII was expressed in all cases. Seventy-five percent of the secretory-acinar epithelium of the prostatic hyperplasia specimen stained positive, confirming that the immunohistochemical technique was correctly performed. Conclusion The absence of PSMA expression in non-tumoral neovasculature supports the theory, previously suggested, that endothelial cell PSMA expression may be stimulated by one or more tumor-secreted angiogenic

  4. Prostate-Specific Antigen Modulates the Expression of Genes Involved in Prostate Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bindukumar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is a serine protease that is widely used as a surrogate marker in the early diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. The physiological relevance of tissue PSA levels and their role in prostate tumor growth and metastasis are not known. Free-PSA (f-PSA was purified to homogeneity from human seminal plasma by column chromatography, eliminating hk2 and all known PSA complexes and retaining its protease activity. Confluent monolayers of prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3M and LNCaP, were treated with f-PSA in a series of in vitro experiments to determine the changes in expression of various genes that are known to regulate tumor growth and metastasis. Gene array, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA results show significant changes in the expression of various cancer-related genes in PC-3M and LNCaP cells treated with f-PSA. In a gene array analysis of PC-3M cells treated with 10 4tM f-PSA, 136 genes were upregulated and 137 genes were downregulated. In LNCaP cells treated with an identical concentration of f-PSA, a total of 793 genes was regulated. QPCR analysis reveals that the genes for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, VEGF, Pim-1 oncogene, known to promote tumor growth, were significantly downregulated, whereas IFN-γ, known to be a tumor-suppressor gene, was significantly upregulated in f-PSA-treated PC-3M cells. The effect of f-PSA on VEGF and IFN-γ gene expression and on protein release in PC-3M cells was distinctly dose-dependent. In vivo studies showed a significant reduction (P = .03 in tumor load when fPSA was administered in the tumor vicinity of PC-3M tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice. Our data support the hypothesis that f-PSA plays a significant role in prostate tumor growth by regulating various proangiogenic and antiangiogenic growth factors.

  5. Applying strategies from libertarian paternalism to decision making for prostate specific antigen (PSA screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Amanda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent publication of results from two randomized clinical trials, prostate specific antigen (PSA screening for prostate cancer remains a controversial issue. There is lack of agreement across studies that PSA screening significantly reduces prostate cancer mortality. In spite of these facts, the widespread use of PSA testing in the United States leads to overdetection and overtreatment of clinically indolent prostate cancer, and its associated harms of incontinence and impotence. Discussion Given the inconclusive results from clinical trials and incongruent PSA screening guidelines, the decision to screen for prostate cancer with PSA testing is an uncertain one for patients and health care providers. Screening guidelines from some health organizations recommend an informed decision making (IDM or shared decision making (SDM approach for deciding on PSA screening. These approaches aim to empower patients to choose among the available options by making them active participants in the decision making process. By increasing involvement of patients in the clinical decision-making process, IDM/SDM places more of the responsibility for a complex decision on the patient. Research suggests, however, that patients are not well-informed of the harms and benefits associated with prostate cancer screening and are also subject to an assortment of biases, emotion, fears, and irrational thought that interferes with making an informed decision. In response, the IDM/SDM approaches can be augmented with strategies from the philosophy of libertarian paternalism (LP to improve decision making. LP uses the insights of behavioural economics to help people better make better choices. Some of the main strategies of LP applicable to PSA decision making are a default decision rule, framing of decision aids, and timing of the decision. In this paper, we propose that applying strategies from libertarian paternalism can help with PSA

  6. Bioimpedance and chronoamperometry as an adjunct to prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu DS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Darci Schiavon de AbreuDepartment of Urology, Hospital Unimed de Limeira, Sao Paulo, BrazilBackground: Bioimpedance is an electrical property of living tissue that has been shown to be a safe technique when used in a number of biomedical applications. The aim of this research was to assess the utility of bioimpedance measurement as a rapid, cost-effective, and noninvasive adjunct to digital rectal examination and PSA in differentiating tumor from normal prostatic tissue.Methods: Three hundred men were examined for signs and symptoms of prostate disorders. 147 patients with a digital rectal examination indicating a positive result underwent a prostate-specific antigen (PSA test. A biopsy was advised for 103 of the men, of whom 50 completed the study. Before undergoing biopsy, an examination with the EIS (electro interstitial scan system using bioimpedance and chronoamperometry was performed. In reference to the biopsy results (negative or positive, a statistical analysis of the EIS data and PSA was conducted using receiver operating characteristic curves to determine the specificity and sensitivity of each test.Results: The PSA test had a sensitivity of 73.9% and specificity of 51.9% using a cutoff value >4 and a sensitivity of 52.2% and specificity of 81.5% using a cutoff value ≥5.7 and P = 0.03. The delta of the electrical conductivity (DE of the left foot-right foot pathway had a sensitivity of 62.5% and specificity of 85.2%, with a cutoff value ≤-5 and P = 0.0001. Algorithms comprising the delta of electrical conductivity and PSA showed a sensitivity of 91.5% and a specificity of 59.3%, with a cutoff value ≤-10.52 and P = 0.0003.Conclusion: The EIS system had a very good specificity of 85.2%. However, the sensitivity of 62.5% would be a problem. Using a PSA reference >4.1 ng/mL, the adjunctive use of bioimpedance and chronoamperometry provided by EIS technology could raise the sensitivity from 73.9% to 91.5% and the specificity from 51

  7. Empiric antibiotics therapy for mildly elevated prostate specific antigen: Helpful to avoid unnecessary biopsies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fandella

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The management of mildly elevated (4.0-10.0 ng/ml prostate specific antigen (PSA is uncertain. Immediate prostate biopsy, antibiotic treatment, or monitoring PSA level for 1-3 months is still in controversy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analysed the effect of empiric antibiotics on an increased PSA in a mono-institutional study. We analysed the data of 100 patients with a PSA of 4-10 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination undergoing their first prostate biopsy. Patients were divided in two different cohorts. One cohort was submitted to antibiotic therapy (Levoxacin 500 mg daily for 20 days and both cohort had a re-dosing of PSA before the prostate biopsy. Results: Average age of the whole group of patients was 66.48 ± 8.32 years and their average initial PSA level was 6.67 ± 1.57 ng/mL. In the treated group (N = 49 29 patients had a decreasing PSA value from mean baseline PSA value of 6.6 ± 1.54 ng/ml to the re-dosed mean PSA level of 5.4 ± 1,61 ng/ml (p = 0.7; 20 patients didn’t experience a decrease PSA value, with a mean PSA level of 6.9 ± 1.68 ng/ml. In the control group (N = 51, 30 patients had a decrease of PSA level from mean baseline PSA level of 6.5 ± 1,59 ng/ml to a re-dosed PSA level of 5.5 ± 1.57 ng/ml; 21 patients didn’t experience a decrease of PSA value, with a mean PSA level of 6.7 ± 1.71 ng/ml. Multivariate analysis of age, PSA changes, antibiotics therapy and biopsy results (presence or absence of cancer revealed no significant difference between the two cohorts. Sepsis after biopsy occurred in 3 patient in the antibiotics group (6% and in one of the control group (2%. Conclusions: The study, even with some limitations, does not seem to show an advantage due to the administration of antibacterial therapy to reduce PSA values before prostate biopsy and subsequently to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies.

  8. Mass-sensing BioCD Protein Array towards Clinical Application: Prostate Specific Antigen Detection in Patient Sera

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xuefeng; Nolte, David D; Ratliff, Timothy L

    2009-01-01

    Mass-sensing biosensor arrays for protein detection require no fluorophores or enzyme labels. However, few mass biosensor protein arrays have demonstrated successful application in high background samples, such as serum. In this paper, we test the BioCD as a mass biosensor based on optical interferometry of antibodies covalently attached through Schiff-base reduction. We use the BioCD to detect prostate specific antigen (PSA, a biomarker of prostate cancer) in patient sera in a 96-well anti-PSA microarray. We have attained a 4 ng/ml detection limit in full serum and have measured PSA concentrations in three patient sera.

  9. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    In healthy boys, the pituitary-gonadal axis exhibits diurnal variation in early puberty. Serum testosterone levels are higher during the night and low or immeasurable during the day. These fluctuating levels of circulating androgens in early pubertal boys are difficult to monitor. Prostate specific...... antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with Gn...

  10. Influence of dioxin exposure upon levels of prostate-specific antigen and steroid hormones in Vietnamese men

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xian Liang; Kido, Teruhiko; Honma, Seijiro; Okamoto, Rie; Manh, Ho Dung; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nakano, Takeshi; Koh, Eitetsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Nhu, Dang Duc; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the relationship between Agent Orange and prostate cancer have focused on US veterans of the Vietnam War. There have been few studies focusing on the relationship between levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and dioxins or steroid hormones in Vietnamese men. In 2009–2011, we collected blood samples from 97 men who had resided in a “dioxin hotspot” and 85 men from a non-sprayed region in Vietnam. Then levels of PSA, dioxins, and steroid hormones were analyzed. Levels of mo...

  11. Nonspecific Presentation of a Multiloculated Prostatic Abscess After Transurethral Prostatic Biopsy for Elevated Prostate-specific Antigen Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay M. Gandhi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate postbiopsy infectious complications typically present in the form of prostatitis and uncommonly urosepsis. Prostatic abscesses are generally found after multiple bouts of prostatitis and are associated with a clinically septic picture requiring intensive care unit admission and resuscitation. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with prostatic abscess in the setting of nonspecific urinary symptoms after transrectal ultrasonography–guided prostate biopsy. At 4-month follow-up, he is currently free of disease with undetectable prostate-specific antigen level and negative imaging.

  12. Prostate specific membrane antigen- a target for imaging and therapy with radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Choyke, Peter L; Capala, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer continues to represent a major health problem, and yet there is no effective treatment available for advanced metastatic disease. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of more effective treatment modalities that could improve the outcome. Because prostate specific...... to become both diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents. The use of PSMA binding agents, labelled with diagnostic and therapeutic radio-isotopes, opens up the potential for a new era of personalized management of metastatic prostate cancer....

  13. Prostate-specific membrane antigen expression in tumor-associated vasculature of breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicke, Alla Gabriella; Varma, Sonal; Greenwood, Eleni A; Christos, Paul J; Chao, K S Clifford; Liu, He; Bander, Neil H; Shin, Sandra J

    2014-06-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been found to be expressed in the tumor-associated neovasculature of multiple solid tumor types including breast cancers. However, thus far, the number of cases studied from some tumor types has been limited. In this study, we set out to assess PSMA expression in the tumor-associated vasculature associated with invasive breast carcinomas in a sizable cohort of patients. One hundred and six patients with AJCC stage 0-IV breast cancer were identified. Ninety-two of these patients had primary breast cancer [invasive breast carcinoma with or without co-existing ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (74) or DCIS alone (18)]. In addition, 14 patients with breast cancer metastases to the brain were identified. Immunohistochemical staining for PSMA and CD31 was performed on parallel representative tumor sections in each case. Tumor-associated vascular endothelial cell PSMA immunoreactivity was semi-quantitatively assessed based on two parameters: overall percent of endothelial positivity and staining intensity. PSMA expression for tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells was scored 0 if there was no detectable PSMA expression, 1 if PSMA staining was detectable in 5-50%, and 2 if PSMA expression was positive in >50% of microvessels. CD 31 staining was concurrently reviewed to confirm the presence of vasculature in each case. Tumor-associated vasculature was PSMA-positive in 68/92 (74%) of primary breast cancers and in 14/14 (100%) of breast cancers metastatic to brain. PSMA was not detected in normal breast tissue or carcinoma cells. All but 2 cases (98%) showed absence of PSMA expression in normal breast tissue-associated vasculature. The 10-year overall survival was 88.7% (95% CI = 80.0%, 93.8%) in patients without brain metastases. When overall survival (OS) was stratified based on PSMA score group, patients with PSMA scores of 0, 1, and 2 had 10-year OS of 95.8%, 96.0%, and 79.7%, respectively (p = 0.12). When PSMA scores

  14. Long-term Prostate-specific Antigen Velocity in Improved Classification of Prostate Cancer Risk and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E; Kamstrup, Pia R;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether adding long-term prostate-specific antigen velocity (PSAV) to baseline PSA values improves classification of prostate cancer (PCa) risk and mortality in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether long-term PSAV improves classification of PCa risk...... classification was assessed using the net reclassification index (NRI). RESULTS: Age-adjusted hazard ratios for PCa risk and mortality were 2.7-5.3 and 2.3-3.4, respectively, for long-term PSAV when added to models already including baseline PSA values. For PCa risk and mortality, adding long-term PSAV to models....... Correspondingly, inappropriately reclassified were 49 of 10 000 men with PCa and 1658 of 10 000 men with no PCa. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term PSAV in addition to baseline PSA value improves classification of PCa risk and mortality. Applying long-term PSAV nationwide, the ratio of appropriately to inappropriately...

  15. Individualized prostate biopsy strategy for Chinese patients with different prostate-specific antigen levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Dai; Ding-Wei Ye; Yun-Yi Kong; Yi-Jin Shen; Bo-Hua Wang

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the best individualized prostate biopsy strategies for Chinese patients with suspected prostate cancer. Methods: The present study included 221 Chinese patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies for the first time. All patients underwent the same 10-core biopsy protocol. In addition to the Hodge sextant technique, four more biopsies were obtained from the base and middle regions of bilateral peripheral zones.The differences between 10-core and sextant strategies in cancer detection among patients with different prostate specific anitgen (PSA) levels were evaluated. The relationship between PSA level, number of positive biopsy cores and organ-confined cancer rate in prostate cancer patients was also analyzed. Results: The overall prostate cancer detection rate was 40.7% in the 221 patients. The 10-core strategy increased cancer detection by 6.67% (6/90) in our patients (P 50 ng/mL (P 50 ng/mL. For patients with PSA ranging from 20.1 ng/mL to 50 ng/mL, the 10-core strategy should be applied in patients with life expectancy > 10 years and the sextant strategy should be applied in those with life expectancy < 10 years.

  16. Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA Density and Free to Total PSA Ratio in Diagnosing Prostate Cancer with Prostate-Specific Anti¬gen Levels of 4.0 ng/ml or Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin LIU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to value the usefulness of free to total prostate-specific antigen and Prostate-specific antigen (PSA density for prostate cancer in the patients with PSA levels of 4.0 ng/ml or less.Methods: A total of 343 subjects with PSA levels of 4.0 ng/ml or less were biopsied. All patients were divided into four groups according to the PSA levels: 0 to 1.0 ng/ml, 1.1 to 2.0 ng/ml, 2.1 to 3.0 ng/ml, and 3.1 to 4.0 ng/ml. The reliability of cancer detection in relation to the f/t PSA ratio and PSAD were estimated.Results: Overall, 65 people were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The detection rate was 16.28%、17.17%, 21.82%, 25.00% in subjects with PSA levels of 0 to 1.0 ng/ml, 1.1 to 2.0 ng/ml, 2.1 to 3.0 ng/ml, and 3.1 to 4.0 ng/ml, respectively. The f/t PSA ratio was significantly lower in patients with prostate cancer and PSA levels of 2.1 to 4.0 ng/ml (P<0.05. The PSAD had no statistical significance between the two groups.Conclusions: Routine prostate biopsy should be undertaken if the f/t PSA ratio less than 15% with /without abnormal DRE/TRUS findings. Keywords: Biopsy, Prostate cancer, Prostate-specific antigen, PSA ratio, PSAD 

  17. Expression of the Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor, the Prostate Stem Cell Antigen and the Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen in Lymph Node and Bone Metastases of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananias, Hildo J. K.; van den Heuvel, Marius C.; Helfrich, Wijnand; de Jong, Igle J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Cell membrane antigens like the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), and the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), expressed in prostate cancer, are attractive targets for new therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Therefore, we investig

  18. Variation in general practice prostate-specific antigen testing and prostate cancer outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Brugen af prostata-specifikt antigen (PSA) er mangedoblet i dansk almen praksis siden introduktionen i 1990’erne. Dansk Urologisk Selskab anbefaler brug af testen ved relevante symptomer og arvelig disposition, men ikke til screening. Alligevel varierer brugen af PSA-tests i almen praksis. Dette ...

  19. DNA Ploidy Measured on Archived Pretreatment Biopsy Material May Correlate With Prostate-Specific Antigen Recurrence After Prostate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, Mira, E-mail: mkeyes@bccancer.bc.ca [Radiation Oncology, Provincial Prostate Brachytherapy Program, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); MacAulay, Calum [Department of Integrative Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hayes, Malcolm [Department of Pathology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Korbelik, Jagoda [Department of Integrative Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morris, W. James [Radiation Oncology, Provincial Prostate Brachytherapy Program, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Palcic, Branko [Department of Integrative Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To explore whether DNA ploidy of prostate cancer cells determined from archived transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens correlates with disease-free survival. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven failures and 47 controls were selected from 1006 consecutive low- and intermediate-risk patients treated with prostate {sup 125}I brachytherapy (July 1998-October 2003). Median follow-up was 7.5 years. Ten-year actuarial disease-free survival was 94.1%. Controls were matched using age, initial prostate-specific antigen level, clinical stage, Gleason score, use of hormone therapy, and follow-up (all P nonsignificant). Seventy-eight specimens were successfully processed; 27 control and 20 failure specimens contained more than 100 tumor cells were used for the final analysis. The Feulgen-Thionin stained cytology samples from archived paraffin blocks were used to determine the DNA ploidy of each tumor by measuring integrated optical densities. Results: The samples were divided into diploid and aneuploid tumors. Aneuploid tumors were found in 16 of 20 of the failures (80%) and 8 of 27 controls (30%). Diploid DNA patients had a significantly lower rate of disease recurrence (P=.0086) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.256). On multivariable analysis, patients with aneuploid tumors had a higher prostate-specific antigen failure rate (HR 5.13). Additionally, those with “excellent” dosimetry (V100 >90%; D90 >144 Gy) had a significantly lower recurrence rate (HR 0.25). All patients with aneuploid tumors and dosimetry classified as “nonexcellent” (V100 <90%; D90 <144 Gy) (5 of 5) had disease recurrence, compared with 40% of patients with aneuploid tumors and “excellent” dosimetry (8 of 15). In contrast, dosimetry did not affect the outcome for diploid patients. Conclusions: Using core biopsy material from archived paraffin blocks, DNA ploidy correctly classified the majority of failures and nonfailures in this study. The results suggest that DNA ploidy can be used as a

  20. Lycopene can reduce prostate-specific antigen velocity in a phase Ⅱ clinical study in Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xin; Yang Yong; Wang Qi

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown that lycopene has anti-prostate cancer effect.In vitro tests also confirmed that it can promote apoptosis of prostate cancer cells.We investigated the effect of whole-tomato supplement lycopene on the prostate-specific antigen velocity in selected prostate cancer patients.Methods Twenty selected prostate cancer patients were given whole-tomato supplement lycopene 10 mg per day for about 6 months.Blood samples of patients were collected weekly to measure serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values.PSA velocity slope,which reflects the change of PSA,and the degree of change were also calculated.By comparing the values of average PSA velocity slope (rise or fall of PSA) before and after the administration of lycopene,the effect of lycopene can be evaluated.Blood chemistry analysis was regular followed as safety control.Results Three patients in the research group withdrew within 3 weeks because of inability to conform.The rest 17 patients continued for an average period of 6 months.Two patients withdrew because of cancer progression (PSA rise) who later received active treatment.The average fall in PSA was equivalent to 2.56% over (i.e.an average slope/d of -0.000 28) the first 3 months.In the last 3 months,average fall in PSA was equivalent to 31.58% (i.e.an average slope/d of-0.003 51).The Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed a statistically significant decrease of PSA velocity slope overall (P=0.000 9).Analysis of the PSA doubling time (pre-vs.post-treatment) showed a median increase over 3 months but this was not statistically significant (P=0.21).No toxic side effect was observed during the whole process.The results indicate that the average PSA change is "decline" in patients,and the degree of the decline is accelerated.Conclusion Administration of lycopene was able to reduce PSA velocity in this study group.

  1. Diagnostic value of prostate-specific antigen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome*

    OpenAIRE

    Farahnaz Mardanian; Nasrin Heidari

    2011-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. Its presentation is that of irregular menstruation associated with ovulation defects. Because of adverse outcomes such as metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, its diagnosis and treatment is very important. Therefore, the diagnostic value of prostatespecific antigen (PSA) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome was evaluated. Methods: A total of 32 women with PCOS and 32 aged matched healthy fem...

  2. Analysis of Urinary Prostate-Specific Antigen Glycoforms in Samples of Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

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    Chun-Jen Hsiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycans of prostate-specific antigen (PSA in prostate cancer were found to be different from that in benign disease. It is difficult to analyze heterogeneous PSA glycoforms in each individual specimen because of low protein abundance and the limitation of detection sensitivity. We developed a method for prostate cancer diagnosis based on PSA glycoforms. Specific glycoforms were screened in each clinical sample based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with ion accumulation. To look for potential biomarkers, normalized abundance of each glycoform in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH and in prostate cancer was evaluated. The PSA glycoform, Hex5HexNAc4NeuAc1dHex1, and monosialylated, sialylated, and unfucosylated glycoforms differed significantly between the prostate cancer and BPH samples. The detection sensitivity (87.5% and specificity (60% for prostate cancer identification are higher than those of the serum PSA marker. As low as 100 amol PSA could be detected with the ion accumulation method which has not been reported before. The improved detection specificity can help reduce unnecessary examinations.

  3. Our Prostate Biopsy Results in The Patients with Prostate Specific Antigen Levels Below 4 ng/ml

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    Huseyin Aydemir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the re¬sults of prostate biopsy of patients who had the prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels below 4 ng/ml. Material and Method: The medical records of 524 pa¬tients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy be¬tween January 2010 and February 2013 in our clinic, due to suspi¬cion of prostate cancer were evaluated and histopathologic results of 43 patients whose PSA levels under 4 ng/ml were retrospectively revieved. Results: The mean age of patients was 64.63 ±7:42 and the mean level of PSA was 2.89 ±0.88ng /ml. A digital rectal examination (DRE had suspicious findings in 41(95.34% patients. Prostate adenocarcinoma was determined in 13 of (30.23% patients according to the biopsy result. The mean PSA value of these patients was 2.89 ±0.88 ng/ml and the mean gleason score of these patients was 6.41 ±0.87. The mean prostate volume of these patients was 41.46 ±11.95 cm3. Discussion: In our study, prostate cancer was identified in 30.3% of patients whose PSA levels were below 4 ng/ml. DRE, is still important for the evaluation of the prostate. According to our results, significant number of cancers can be detected in PSA below 4 ng/ml levels.

  4. On Chip Immuno-Affinity Profiling of Cancer- and Benign Hyperplasia-Associated Free Prostate Specific Antigen

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    Maja M. Kosanovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate specific antigen (PSA exhibits pronounced heterogeneity in both primary structure and glycan composition, resulting in the existence of different molecular forms. Investigation of PSA structure is a demanding task facing limitations due to inadequate sensitivity of analytical techniques and low concentrations of the different forms. This study aimed to profile free PSA (fPSA, especially lower molecular mass species lacking detailed classification, in normal seminal plasma and in sera from subjects with benign hyperplasia (BPH or cancer of the prostate (PCa as samples of known clinical relevance. fPSA forms were separated from complex proteomes on chips with immobilized anti-fPSA antibody followed by detection using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. At least 39 fPSA-immunoreactive species, ranging from 3–29 kDa were detected in seminal plasma. General fPSA profiles in seminal plasma and sera were similar, but differed in the abundance and presence of particular peaks/clusters of the lower molecular mass species. No striking difference in fPSA forms was observed between BPH and PCa samples, but some distinct peaks varied in intensity and frequency within or between groups. Obtained data verify fPSA heterogeneity that might be important for better exploration of all their molecular and marker potentials.

  5. Grafting of a peptide probe for Prostate-Specific Antigen detection using diazonium electroreduction and click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzemińska, I; Sainte Rose Fanchine, S; Anquetin, G; Reisberg, S; Noël, V; Pham, M C; Piro, B

    2016-07-15

    The main objective of this work was to validate a label-free electrochemical method of protein detection using peptides as capture probes. As a proof-of-concept, we used a 7 amino acids sequence (HSSKLQL) specific for Prostate Specific Antigen. We investigated various electrografting conditions of two anilines (2-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfanyl]-8-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 4-azidoaniline) further converted in situ into their corresponding diazonium salts on glassy carbon electrodes. It was demonstrated that the best method to obtain a mixed layer is the simultaneous electroreduction of the two diazonium salts. 4-azidoaniline was used to covalently immobilize the ethynyl-functionalized peptide probe by click coupling, and the hydroxynaphthoquinone derivative plays the role of electrochemical transducer of the peptide-protein recognition. The proteolytic activity of PSA towards a small peptide substrate carrying streptavidin at its distal end was also investigated to design an original sensing architecture leading to a reagentless, label free, and "signal-on" PSA sensor. Without optimization, the limit of quantification can be estimated in the nM to pM range.

  6. Molecular Form Differences Between Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Standards Create Quantitative Discordances in PSA ELISA Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJimpsey, Erica L.

    2016-02-01

    The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays currently employed for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lack the specificity needed to differentiate PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and have high false positive rates. The PSA calibrants used to create calibration curves in these assays are typically purified from seminal plasma and contain many molecular forms (intact PSA and cleaved subforms). The purpose of this study was to determine if the composition of the PSA molecular forms found in these PSA standards contribute to the lack of PSA test reliability. To this end, seminal plasma purified PSA standards from different commercial sources were investigated by western blot (WB) and in multiple research grade PSA ELISAs. The WB results revealed that all of the PSA standards contained different mass concentrations of intact and cleaved molecular forms. Increased mass concentrations of intact PSA yielded higher immunoassay absorbance values, even between lots from the same manufacturer. Standardization of seminal plasma derived PSA calibrant molecular form mass concentrations and purification methods will assist in closing the gaps in PCa testing measurements that require the use of PSA values, such as the % free PSA and Prostate Health Index by increasing the accuracy of the calibration curves.

  7. Proteolytic activity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA towards protein substrates and effect of peptides stimulating PSA activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Mattsson

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA or kallikrein-related peptidase-3, KLK3 exerts chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity. The main biological function of PSA is the liquefaction of the clot formed after ejaculation by cleavage of semenogelins I and II in seminal fluid. PSA also cleaves several other substrates, which may explain its putative functions in prostate cancer and its antiangiogenic activity. We compared the proteolytic efficiency of PSA towards several protein and peptide substrates and studied the effect of peptides stimulating the activity of PSA with these substrates. An endothelial cell tube formation model was used to analyze the effect of PSA-degraded protein fragments on angiogenesis. We showed that PSA degrades semenogelins I and II much more efficiently than other previously identified protein substrates, e.g., fibronectin, galectin-3 and IGFBP-3. We identified nidogen-1 as a new substrate for PSA. Peptides B2 and C4 that stimulate the activity of PSA towards small peptide substrates also enhanced the proteolytic activity of PSA towards protein substrates. Nidogen-1, galectin-3 or their fragments produced by PSA did not have any effect on endothelial cell tube formation. Although PSA cleaves several other protein substrates, in addition to semenogelins, the physiological importance of this activity remains speculative. The PSA levels in prostate are very high, but several other highly active proteases, such as hK2 and trypsin, are also expressed in the prostate and may cleave protein substrates that are weakly cleaved by PSA.

  8. Genome-wide association study of prostate-specific antigen levels identifies novel loci independent of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Passarelli, Michael N.; Graff, Rebecca E.; Emami, Nima C.; Sakoda, Lori C.; Jorgenson, Eric; Habel, Laurel A.; Shan, Jun; Ranatunga, Dilrini K.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Chao, Chun R.; Ghai, Nirupa R.; Aaronson, David; Presti, Joseph; Nordström, Tobias; Wang, Zhaoming; Berndt, Sonja I.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Mosley, Jonathan D.; Klein, Robert J.; Middha, Mridu; Lilja, Hans; Melander, Olle; Kvale, Mark N.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Witte, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels have been used for detection and surveillance of prostate cancer (PCa). However, factors other than PCa—such as genetics—can impact PSA. Here we present findings from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PSA in 28,503 Kaiser Permanente whites and 17,428 men from replication cohorts. We detect 40 genome-wide significant (P<5 × 10−8) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): 19 novel, 15 previously identified for PSA (14 of which were also PCa-associated), and 6 previously identified for PCa only. Further analysis incorporating PCa cases suggests that at least half of the 40 SNPs are PSA-associated independent of PCa. The 40 SNPs explain 9.5% of PSA variation in non-Hispanic whites, and the remaining GWAS SNPs explain an additional 31.7%; this percentage is higher in younger men, supporting the genetic basis of PSA levels. These findings provide important information about genetic markers for PSA that may improve PCa screening, thereby reducing over-diagnosis and over-treatment. PMID:28139693

  9. Influence of dioxin exposure upon levels of prostate-specific antigen and steroid hormones in Vietnamese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xian Liang; Kido, Teruhiko; Honma, Seijiro; Okamoto, Rie; Manh, Ho Dung; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nakano, Takeshi; Koh, Eitetsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Nhu, Dang Duc; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2016-04-01

    Most studies on the relationship between Agent Orange and prostate cancer have focused on US veterans of the Vietnam War. There have been few studies focusing on the relationship between levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and dioxins or steroid hormones in Vietnamese men. In 2009-2011, we collected blood samples from 97 men who had resided in a "dioxin hotspot" and 85 men from a non-sprayed region in Vietnam. Then levels of PSA, dioxins, and steroid hormones were analyzed. Levels of most dioxins, furans, and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls were higher in the hotspot than those in the non-sprayed region. Levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estradiol differed significantly between the hotspot and the non-sprayed region, but there were no correlations between levels of PSA and steroid hormones and dioxins in either of the two regions. Our findings suggest that PSA levels in Vietnamese men are not associated with levels of dioxin or steroid hormones in these two regions.

  10. Construction of Smac gene-containing and human prostate specific antigen promoter-regulated vector and its expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wu; Fuqing Zeng; Liang Wang; Yanbo Wang; Guiyi Liao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To construct an eukaryotic expression vector containing Smac gene and study the expression efficiency and specificity of prostate specific antigen(PSA) enhancer/promoter in a possible targeted gene therapy scheme for prostate cancer. Methods: PSA enhancer (PSAE) and promoter (PSAP) sequences were amplified using PCR method. CMV and T7 promoters were deleted from pcDNA3.1-Smac and replaced by the two specific fragments to generate pPSAE-PSAP-Smac. After transfection into different cell lines, the status of cells was observed. And then, we determined the relative concentration of Smac mRNA in RT-PCR. Results: The recombinant plasmid of pPSAE-PSAP-Smac was successfully constructed. And only the prostate cancer cell line PC-3 was suppressed after transfection with pPSAE-PSAP-Smac. However, other nonprostate lines were not. Moreover,the concentration of Smac mRNA regulated by PSA promoter and enhancer was higher in comparison to the CMV promoter-driven control vectors. Conclusion: An expression vector containing the Smac gene (based on elements of the PSA gene regulatory sequences) has been developed and shown to function in prostate cancer cell lines which provides a solid platform for launching clinical studies.

  11. Diagnostic value of prostate-specific antigen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Farahnaz Mardanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women. Its presentation is that of irregular menstruation associated with ovulation defects. Because of adverse outcomes such as metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, its diagnosis and treatment is very important. Therefore, the diagnostic value of prostatespecific antigen (PSA in women with polycystic ovary syndrome was evaluated. Methods: A total of 32 women with PCOS and 32 aged matched healthy females were recruited in this case-control study. The subjects were compared by means of metabolic measures and serum PSA level. The correlations between these markers were evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity values and cut off levels of PSA were established for diagnosis of PCOS. Results: Mean PSA, Ferriman Gallwey score (FGS, luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone ratio (LH/FSH, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, 17α hydroxyprogesterone (17α HP levels were significantly higher in PCOS (P<0.001, respectively. PSA levels greater than 0.07 ng/ml yielded a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 82%, and was helpful as a diagnostic tool for women with PCOS. Circulating androgens and hirsutism were associated with higher levels of PSA in PCOS women. Conclusions: Our results showed direct correlation between PSA, hirsutism and hyperandrogemsm state. Therefore, it seems logical to use PSA level for detection of hyperandrogemsm state in women.

  12. Functional prostate-specific membrane antigen is enriched in exosomes from prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiancheng; Mendes, Desiree E; Berkman, Clifford E

    2014-03-01

    Developing simple and effective approaches to detect tumor markers will be critical for early diagnosis or prognostic evaluation of prostate cancer treatment. Prostate‑specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been validated as an important tumor marker for prostate cancer progression including angiogenesis and metastasis. As a type II membrane protein, PSMA can be constitutively internalized from the cell surface into endosomes. Early endosomes can fuse with multivesicular bodies (MVB) to form and secrete exosomes (40-100 nm) into the extracellular environment. Herein, we tested whether some of the endosomal PSMA could be transferred to exosomes as an extracellular resource for PSMA. Using PSMA-positive LNCaP cells, the secreted exosomes were collected and isolated from the cultured media. The vesicular structures of exosomes were identified by electron microscopy, and exosomal marker protein CD9 and tumor susceptibility gene (TSG 101) were confirmed by western blot analysis. Our present data demonstrate that PSMA can be enriched in exosomes, exhibiting a higher content of glycosylation and partial proteolysis in comparison to cellular PSMA. An in vitro enzyme assay further confirmed that exosomal PSMA retains functional enzymatic activity. Therefore, our data may suggest a new role for PSMA in prostate cancer progression, and provide opportunities for developing non-invasive approaches for diagnosis or prognosis of prostate cancer.

  13. Percent free prostate-specific antigen is effective to predict prostate biopsy outcome in Chinese men with prostate-specific antigen between 10.1 and 20.0 ng ml(-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Zhou, Li-Qun; Cai, Xiao-Bing; Xie, Li-Ping; Huang, Yi-Ran; He, Da-Lin; Gao, Xu; Xu, Chuan-Liang; Ding, Qiang; Wei, Qiang; Yin, Chang-Jun; Ren, Shan-Cheng; Wang, Fu-Bo; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhong-Quan; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Lu-Lin; Zheng, Jun-Hua; Ye, Zhang-Qun; Ye, Ding-Wei; Xu, Dan-Feng; Hou, Jian-Quan; Xu, Ke-Xin; Yuan, Jian-Lin; Gao, Xin; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Pan, Tie-Jun; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Percent free prostatic-specific antigen (%fPSA) has been introduced as a tool to avoid unnecessary biopsies in patients with a serum PSA level of 4.0-10.0 ng ml-1 , however, it remains controversial whether %fPSA is effective in PSA range of 10.1-20.0 ng ml-1 in both Chinese and Western population. In this study, the diagnostic performance of %fPSA and serum PSA in predicting prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade PCa (HGPCa) was analyzed in a multi-center biopsy cohort of 5915 consecutive Chinese patients who underwent prostate biopsy in 22 hospitals across China from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. The indication for biopsy was PSA>4.0 ng ml-1 or/and suspicious digital rectal examination. Total and free serum PSA determinations were performed by three types of electrochemiluminescence immunoassays with recalibration to the World Health Organization standards. The diagnostics accuracy of PSA, %fPSA and %fPSA in combination with PSA (%fPSA + PSA) was determined by the area under the receivers operating characteristic curve (AUC). %fPSA was more effective than PSA in men aged ≥60 years old. The AUC was 0.584 and 0.635 in men aged ≥60 years old with a PSA of 4.0-10.0 ng ml-1 and 10.1-20.0 ng ml-1 , respectively. The AUC of %fPSA was superior to that of PSA in predicting HGPCa in patients ≥60 years old in these two PSA range. Our results indicated that %fPSA is both statistically effective and clinical applicable to predict prostate biopsy outcome in Chinese patients aged ≥60 years old with a PSA of 4.0-10.0 ng ml-1 and 10.1-20.0 ng ml-1 .

  14. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics following hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy boost as post-external beam radiotherapy versus conventionally fractionated external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Phak, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Hun Jung; Kim, Woo Chul

    2015-01-01

    Background Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment for localized prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics between conventionally fractionated external beam radiotherapy (CF-EBRT) and SBRT boost after whole pelvis EBRT (WP-EBRT) in localized prostate cancer. Methods A total of 77 patients with localized prostate cancer [T-stage, T1–T3; Gleason score (GS) 5–9; PSA 

  15. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics after stereotactic body radiotherapy as monotherapy or boost after whole pelvic radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hun Jung; Phak, Jung Hoon; Kim, Woo Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment for localized prostate cancer. However, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics after SBRT has not been well characterized. The purpose of the current study is to assess the kinetics of PSA for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with SBRT using Cyberknife as both monotherapy and boost after whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) in the absence of androgen deprivation therapy. Methods A tota...

  16. Novel Prostate Specific Antigen plastic antibody designed withcharged binding sites for an improved protein binding and itsapplication in a biosensor of potentiometric transduction

    OpenAIRE

    Rebelo, Tânia S. C. R.; Santos, C.; Costa-Rodrigues, J.; Fernandes, M. H.; Noronha, João P. C.; Sales, M. Goreti F.

    2014-01-01

    This work shows that the synthesis of protein plastic antibodies tailored with selected charged monomersaround the binding site enhances protein binding. These charged receptor sites are placed over a neutralpolymeric matrix, thus inducing a suitable orientation the protein reception to its site. This is confirmed bypreparing control materials with neutral monomers and also with non-imprinted template. This concepthas been applied here to Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), the protein of choice...

  17. Silibinin decreases prostate-specific antigen with cell growth inhibition via G1 arrest, leading to differentiation of prostate carcinoma cells: Implications for prostate cancer intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zi, Xiaolin; Agarwal, Rajesh

    1999-01-01

    Reduction in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels has been proposed as an endpoint biomarker for hormone-refractory human prostate cancer intervention. We examined whether a flavonoid antioxidant silibinin (an active constituent of milk thistle) decreases PSA levels in hormone-refractory human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells and whether this effect has biological relevance. Silibinin treatment of cells grown in serum resulted in a significant decrease in both intracellular and secreted...

  18. Impact of capillary conditioning and background electrolyte composition on capillary electrophoresis analysis of prostate specific antigen isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina-Gomez, Noemi; Puerta, Angel; Gonzalez, Monica; Diez-Masa, Jose Carlos; de Frutos, Mercedes

    2016-04-22

    Glycoproteins expressed in the human body can experience modifications as result of pathological situations. Detection of those changes can be useful as disease biomarkers. As a result of these modifications, size and/or electrical charge of the glycoprotein can be altered. Migration in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is governed by the size to charge ratio of the analyte and therefore this separation technique can be used to monitor those modifications. At its turn, the alteration of the electrophoretical pattern of a given glycoprotein could be used as disease biomarker. To this aim, high repeatability for separation of a large number of peaks for a given glycoprotein is desirable. For prostate cancer, new markers are needed to decrease the high number of false positive results provided by the biomarkers currently used in clinics. In this sense, CZE methods for analysis of the several prostate specific antigen (PSA) peaks which this glycoprotein exhibit, called isoforms and containing one or more glycoforms, could be useful to study the PSA pattern as prostate cancer marker. In this study two complementary strategies to achieve both lot-to-lot capillary repeatability and high resolution of a large number of PSA isoforms are developed. Better performance and precision have been obtained for capillaries conditioned with HCl than for those conditioned with NaOH. Optimization of the background electrolyte (BGE) pH value to 8.0 and inclusion of 3M urea on its composition were the two factors of highest impact for enhancing resolution of the highest number of PSA peaks. Under the optimized conditions for capillary conditioning and BGE pH and composition, long-term resolution of 10 isoforms of PSA was achieved. Inter-day (n=3) %RSD was 0.55 for the ratio tm/tEOF, 1.15 for μeff, and 5.02 for % Acorr of the PSA peaks.

  19. Possible factors influencing high serum Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA in Indonesian patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH

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    Djoko Rahardjo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH cases in Indonesia frequently associated with high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA. To explore possible factors that could increase serum PSA level, we performed a retrospective, cross-sectional study on 805 consecutive patients in Sumber Waras and Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospitals from 1994 to 1997. Clinical manifestations were evaluated and prostate biopsies were performed if indicated. Complete histopathological data were only available in 82 BPH patients with no urinary retention from 1998-1999 and a thin section of paraffin blocks of BPH patients which still could be found from 1994-1999 was analyzed using flow cytometer to obtain the S-phase fraction as a parameter of proliferative activity, From 805 patients, 461 (57% presented with urinary retention and need to be catheteized. Catheteization significantly increased PSA level if compared to noncatheterized patients (16.3 vs. 6,8 ng/mL, p= 0,000. Another data of 82 uncatheteized patients from 1998-1999 has revealed that 79 patients (96.3% had chronic prostatitis and 19 (23.2% showed the presence of prostatic-intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN with an increase of PSA level (5.4 ng/mL. The S-phase fraction of BPH without PIN cases was significantly higher in cases with PSA > 4 ng/ml than patients with PSA ≤ 4 ng/ml (I3.1% vs. 8.9%, p=0,008. As conclusion, the high serum PSA level was mostly due to urethral catheteization and increased prostate volume. There was a tendency of increasing PSA in subclinical inflammation and PIN. Cases with high PSA also showed high proliferative activities which is suggestive of mitogenic activity. (Med J Indones 2001; 10:22-8Keywords: BPH, high PSA, PIN, proliferative activity, s-phase fraction

  20. Racial differences in hypogonadal improvement and prostate-specific antigen levels in hypogonadal men treated with testosterone replacement therapy

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    Robert M. Coward

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To observe hypogonadal men undergoing testosterone replacement therapy (TRT and assess racial differences in hypogonadal improvement and prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, 75 hypogonadal men were followed for an average 34 months after initiating TRT. Total testosterone and PSA levels were assessed every 6 months, and patients diagnosed with prostatitis or prostate cancer during treatment were excluded. RESULTS: For 16 African American men, the average age at diagnosis of hypogonadism was 53.5 years, compared with 57.8 years in 59 Caucasian men (p = NS. Pre- and post-treatment testosterone was 219 ng/dL and 310 ng/dL in African American men, and 247 ng/dL and 497 ng/dL in Caucasian men (p = NS. Symptomatic response was 81% in African American men and 93% in Caucasian men (p = NS. Baseline PSA level was 1.32 ng/mL in African American men and 1.27 ng/mL in Caucasian men, and there was no significant difference in PSA between racial groups at 6-month intervals, although there was a small decreasing trend in the PSA of African Americans compared with Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: Hypogonadal African American men have a similar normalization of testosterone and symptomatic response as hypogonadal Caucasian men, and PSA levels remain stable over time in both groups. In this hypogonadal cohort, in contrast to studies of eugonadal men, higher PSA levels in African Americans were not observed.

  1. Detection rate of prostate cancer using prostate specific antigen in patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms: A retrospective study

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    Chavan P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Need for undertaking prostate biopsies for detection of prostate cancer is often decided on the basis of serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA. Aim: To evaluate the case detection rate of prostate cancer among patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS on the basis of PSA levels and to assess the scope of prostate biopsy in these patients. Setting and Design: A retrospective study from a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: The clinical and histopathological data of 922 patients presenting with LUTS in the last five years was obtained from the medical record section. They had been screened for prostate cancer using PSA and /or digital rectal examination examination followed by confirmation with prostate biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used: Detection rate and receiver operating characteristic curve were performed using SPSS 16 and Medcalc softwares. Results: The detection rate of prostate cancer according to the PSA levels was 0.6%, 2.3%, 2.5%, 34.1% and 54.9% in the PSA range of 0-4, 4-10, 10-20, 20-50 and> 50 ng/ml, respectively. Maximum prostate cancer cases were detected beyond a PSA value of 20 ng/ml whereas no significant difference in the detection rate was observed in the PSA range of 0-4, 4-10 and 10-20 ng/ml. Conclusion: A low detection rate of prostate cancer observed in the PSA range of 4-20 ng/ml in LUTS patients indicates the need for use of higher cutoff values of PSA in such cases. Therefore we recommend a cutoff of 20 ng/ml of PSA for evaluation of detection rate of prostate cancer among patients presenting with LUTS.

  2. Infectious mononucleosis, other infections and prostate-specific antigen concentration as a marker of prostate involvement during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Nevin, Remington L; Pakpahan, Ratna; Elliott, Debra J; Langston, Marvin E; De Marzo, Angelo M; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Isaacs, William B; Nelson, William G; Sokoll, Lori J; Walsh, Patrick C; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Cersovsky, Steven B; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Although Epstein-Barr virus has been detected in prostate tissue, no associations have been observed with prostate cancer in the few studies conducted to date. One possible reason for these null findings may be use of cumulative exposure measures that do not inform the timing of infection, i.e., childhood versus adolescence/early adulthood when infection is more likely to manifest as infectious mononucleosis (IM). We sought to determine the influence of young adult-onset IM on the prostate by measuring prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a marker of prostate inflammation/damage among U.S. military members. We defined IM cases as men diagnosed with IM from 1998 to 2003 (n = 55) and controls as men without an IM diagnosis (n = 255). We selected two archived serum specimens for each participant, the first collected after diagnosis for cases and one randomly selected from 1998 to 2003 for controls (index), as well as the preceding specimen (preindex). PSA was measured in each specimen. To explore the specificity of our findings for prostate as opposed to systemic inflammation, we performed a post hoc comparison of other infectious disease cases without genitourinary involvement (n = 90) and controls (n = 220). We found that IM cases were more likely to have a large PSA rise than controls (≥ 20 ng/mL: 19.7% versus 8.8%, p = 0.027; ≥ 40% rise: 25.7% versus 9.4%, p = 0.0021), as were other infectious disease cases (25.7% versus 14.0%, p = 0.020; 27.7% versus 18.0%, p = 0.092). These findings suggest that, in addition to rising because of prostate infection, PSA may also rise because of systemic inflammation, which could have implications for PSA interpretation in older men.

  3. Carbohydrate structure and differential binding of prostate specific antigen to Maackia amurensis lectin between prostate cancer and benign prostate hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Chikara; Hosono, Masahiro; Nitta, Kazuo; Oh-eda, Masayoshi; Yoshikawa, Kazuyuki; Habuchi, Tomonori; Arai, Yoichi; Fukuda, Minoru

    2004-08-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay is widely used for detection of prostate cancer. Because PSA is also synthesized from normal prostate, false positive diagnosis cannot be avoided by the conventional serum PSA test. To apply the cancer-associated carbohydrate alteration to the improvement of PSA assay, we first elucidated the structures of PSA purified from human seminal fluid. The predominant core structure of N-glycans of seminal fluid PSA was a complex type biantennary oligosaccharide and was consistent with the structure reported previously. However, we found the sialic acid alpha2-3 galactose linkage as an additional terminal carbohydrate structure on seminal fluid PSA. We then analyzed the carbohydrate moiety of serum PSA from the patients with prostate cancer and benign prostate hypertrophy using lectin affinity chromatography. Lectin binding was assessed by lectin affinity column chromatography followed by determining the amount of total and free PSA. Concanavalin A, Lens culinaris, Aleuria aurantia, Sambucus nigra, and Maackia amurensis lectins were tested for their binding to the carbohydrates on PSA. Among the lectins examined, the M. amurensis agglutinin-bound fraction of free serum PSA is increased in prostate cancer patients compared to benign prostate hypertrophy patients. The binding of PSA to M. amurensis agglutinin, which recognizes alpha2,3-linked sialic acid, was also confirmed by surface plasmon resonance analysis. These results suggest that the differential binding of free serum PSA to M. amurensis agglutinin lectin between prostate cancer and benign prostate hypertrophy could be a potential measure for diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  4. Expression of prostate-specific membrane antigen in lung cancer cells and tumor neovasculature endothelial cells and its clinical significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-long Wang

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA has been found in tumor neovasculature endothelial cells (NECs of non-prostate cancers and may become the most promising target for anti-tumor therapy. To study the value of PSMA as a potential new target for lung cancer treatment, PSMA expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC tissues and its relationship with clinicopathology were investigated in the current study.Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PSMA expression in a total of 150 lung specimens of patients with lung cancer. The data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses.The percentages of NSCLC patients who had PSMA (+ tumor cells and PSMA (+ NECs were 54.02% and 85.06%, respectively. The percentage of patients younger than 60 years old who had PSMA (+ tumor cells was 69.05%, which was significantly greater than the percentage of patients aged 60 years or older (40.00%, p<0.05. A significant difference was observed in the percentage of NSCLC patients with PMSA (+ NECs and stage I or II cancer (92.98% and those patients with stage III or IV cancer (76.77%. In the SCLC tissues, NEC PSMA expression (70.00% did not differ significantly from NSCLC. SCLC tumor cells and normal lung tissues cells were all negative. There was no significant correlation between the presence of PSMA (+ NECs in SCLC patients and the observed clinicopathological parameters.PSMA is expressed not only in NECs of NSCLC and SCLC but also in tumor cells of most NSCLC patients. The presence of PSMA (+ tumor cells and PSMA (+ NECs in NSCLC was negatively correlated with age and the clinicopathological stage of the patients, respectively.

  5. Effect of radiochemical modification on biodistribution of scFvD2B antibody fragment recognising prostate specific membrane antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Barbara; Benigni, Fabio; Luison, Elena; Seregni, Ettore; Pascali, Claudio; Fracasso, Giulio; Morlino, Sara; Valdagni, Riccardo; Mezzanzanica, Delia; Canevari, Silvana; Figini, Mariangela

    2015-11-01

    Antibody-based reagents represent a promising strategy as clinical diagnostic tools. Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second-leading cause of death in males in the Western population. There is a presently unmet need for accurate diagnostic tool to localize and define the extent of both primary PCa and occult recurrent disease. One of the most suitable targets for PCa is the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) recognised by the monoclonal antibody D2B that we re-shaped into the single chain Fv (scFv format). Aim of this study was to evaluate in preclinical in vivo models the target specificity of scFvD2B after labelling with different radionuclides. (111)In radiolabelling was performed via the chelator Bz-NOTA, and (131)I radioiodination was performed using iodogen. The potential for molecular imaging and the biological behaviour of the radiolabelled scFvD2B were evaluated in mice bearing two subcutaneous PCa isogenic cell lines that differed only in PSMA expression. Biodistribution studies were performed at 3, 9, 15 and 24h after injection to determine the optimal imaging time point. A significant kidney accumulation, as percentage of injected dose of tissue (%ID/g), was observed for (111)In-scFvD2B at 3h after injection (45%ID/g) and it was maintained up to 24h (26%ID/g). By contrast, kidney accumulation of (131)I-scFvD2B was only marginally (0.3%ID/g at 24h). At the optimal time point defined between 15h and 24h, regardless of the radionuclide used, the scFvD2B was able to localize significantly better in the PSMA expressing tumours compared to the negative control; with (131)I-scFvD2B yielding a significantly better target/background ratio compared to (111)In-scFvD2B. These data suggest that, besides antigen specificity, chemical modification may affect antibody fragment biodistribution.

  6. Treatment Outcomes in Non-Metastatic Prostate Cancer Patients With Ultra-High Prostate-Specific Antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai, Patricia, E-mail: ptai2@yahoo.com [Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, Regina, SK (Canada); Tonita, Jon; Woitas, Carla; Zhu Tong [Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, Regina, SK (Canada); Joseph, Kurian [Department of Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Calgary, AB (Canada); Skarsgard, David [Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Center, University of Alberta, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: It is commonly believed that prostate cancer patients with very high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are unlikely to benefit from definitive local treatment, and patients with very high PSA are often underrepresented in, or excluded from, randomized clinical trials. Consequently, little is known about their optimal treatment or prognosis. We performed a registry-based analysis of management and outcome in this population of patients. Methods and Materials: Our provincial Cancer Registry was used to identify all men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1990 to 2001. A retrospective chart review provided information on stage, Gleason score, PSA at diagnosis, and treatment. In this study, ultra-high PSA was defined as PSA of {>=}50 ng/ml. For a more complete perspective, treatment outcomes of patients with PSA of 20 to 49.9 ng/ml were also studied. Results: Of the 8378 men diagnosed with prostate cancer during this period, 6,449 had no known nodal or distant metastatic disease. The median follow-up of this group was 67.2 months (range, 0-192 months). A total of 1534 patients had PSA of {>=}20 ng/ml. Among the 995 patients with PSA 20 to 49.9 ng/ml, 85 had radical prostatectomy (RP), and their 5- and 10-year cause-specific survivals (CSS) were 95% and 84%, respectively. The 497 patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) had 5- and 10-year CSS of 92% and 71%. For the 332 patients with PSA 50-99.9 ng/ml, RT was associated with 5- and 10-year CSS of 81% and 55%. For the 207 patients with PSA of {>=}100 ng/ml, RT was associated with 5- and 10-year CSS of 80% and 54%. Conclusions: This is the largest series in the world on non metastatic cancer patients with ultra-high PSA at diagnosis. Even in the setting of a very high presenting PSA level, prostatectomy and radiotherapy are often associated with prolonged survival.

  7. Prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted protein contrast agents for molecular imaging of prostate cancer by MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fan; Salarian, Mani; Xue, Shenghui; Qiao, Jingjuan; Feng, Jie; Tan, Shanshan; Patel, Anvi; Li, Xin; Mamouni, Kenza; Hekmatyar, Khan; Zou, Juan; Wu, Daqing; Yang, Jenny J.

    2016-06-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high resolution has yet to be achieved due to the lack of contrast agents with significantly improved relaxivity for sensitivity, targeting capabilities and metal selectivity. We have previously reported our creation of a novel class of protein Gd3+ contrast agents, ProCA32, which displayed significantly improved relaxivity while exhibiting strong Gd3+ binding selectivity over physiological metal ions. In this study, we report our effort in further developing biomarker-targeted protein MRI contrast agents for molecular imaging of PSMA. Among three PSMA targeted contrast agents engineered with addition of different molecular recognition sequences, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits a binding affinity of 1.1 +/- 0.1 μM for PSMA while the metal binding affinity is maintained at 0.9 +/- 0.1 × 10-22 M. In addition, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits r1 of 27.6 mM-1 s-1 and r2 of 37.9 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (55.2 and 75.8 mM-1 s-1 per molecule r1 and r2, respectively) at 1.4 T. At 7 T, ProCA32.PSMA also has r2 of 94.0 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (188.0 mM-1 s-1 per molecule) and r1 of 18.6 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (37.2 mM-1 s-1 per molecule). This contrast capability enables the first MRI enhancement dependent on PSMA expression levels in tumor bearing mice using both T1 and T2-weighted MRI at 7 T. Further development of these PSMA-targeted contrast agents are expected to be used for the precision imaging of prostate cancer at an early stage and to monitor disease progression and staging, as well as determine the effect of therapeutic treatment by non-invasive evaluation of the PSMA level using MRI.Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high

  8. Detection of Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen at Picomolar Levels Using Biocatalysis Coupled to Assisted Ion Transfer Voltammetry at a Liquid-Organogel Microinterface Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Rashida; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2016-12-06

    A label-free electrochemical strategy for the detection of a cancer biomarker, prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), at picomolar concentrations without the use of antibodies, was investigated. The approach is based on the assisted ion transfer of protons, generated by a series of enzymatic reactions, at an array of microinterfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (μ-ITIES). This nonredox electrochemical approach based on biocatalysis-coupled proton transfer at the μ-ITIES array opens a new way to detect the prostate cancer biomarker, with detection capability achieved at concentrations below those indicative of disease presence. The strategy is expected to contribute to cancer diagnostics, recurrence monitoring, and therapeutic treatment efficacy.

  9. Image of the Month: Multifocal 68Ga Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Ligand Uptake in the Skeleton in a Man With Both Prostate Cancer and Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Isabel; Maurer, Tobias; Steiger, Katja; Schwaiger, Markus; Eiber, Matthias

    2017-03-31

    Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) HBED-CC PET/CT in a 65-year-old man with first diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC) and a history of multiple myeloma showing multifocal PSMA ligand uptake in the skeleton with corresponding osteolytic lesions in CT. Although osteolytic bone metastases are very rare in PC, PSMA expression in PET raised the suspicion of PC bone metastases. Bone marrow biopsy excluded PC metastases with immunohistochemistry showing endothelial expression of PSMA in small vessels within the myeloma.

  10. Label-free Electrochemiluminescent Immunosensor for Detection of Prostate Specific Antigen based on Aminated Graphene Quantum Dots and Carboxyl Graphene Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Wu; Yixin Liu; Yaoguang Wang; Lihua Hu; Hongmin Ma; Guoqin Wang; Qin Wei

    2016-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was used as the model, an ultrasensitive label-free electrochemiluminescent immunosensor was developed based on graphene quantum dots. Au/Ag-rGO was sythsized and used as electrode material to load a great deal of graphene quantum dots due to the large surface area and excellent electron conductivity. After aminated graphene quantum dots and acarboxyl graphene quantum dots were modified onto the electrode, the ECL intensity was much high using K2S2O8 as coreact...

  11. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer using free/total prostate specific antigen ratio: a population based screening data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LingZhang; Guo-YIJi; Xiao-MengLi; Wei-HuaWang; Hong-WenGao; Yu-ZhuoPan; Hong-JunWang; KuwaharaMasaaki; Xue-JianZhao

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the use of free/total prostate specific antig enratio (fPSA/tPSA ratio) in improving the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methods: The fPSA/tPSA ratio in the serum was analyzed in 187 men with tPSA ranging between 4.0 and 20.0μg/L. Allof them underwent ultrasound guided sextant prostatic biopsy.The results were calculated by SPSS 10.0 software.

  12. Prostatic biopsy in the prostate specific antigen gray zone; La biopsia prostatica multipla nalla zona grigia dei valori dell'antigene prostatico specifico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drudi, F. M.; Ricci, P.; Iannicelli, E.; Di Nardo, R.; Novelli, L.; Laghi, A.; Passariello, R. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia II Cattedra; Perugia, G. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Urologia U. Bracci

    2000-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify cases of undetected prostatic cancer in patients with normal findings at digital examination and transrectal US, and prostate specific antigen (PSA) values ranging 4-10 ng/mL. 290 patients were submitted to transrectal US and random bilateral prostatic biopsy; 3 samples were collected from each side of the gland using 16-Gauge thru-cut needles. Of the 290 patients who gave full informed consent, 34 people were selected whose age range was between 56 to 76 years (mean: 64). Inclusion criteria were PSA 4-10 ng/mL, PSAD cut-off 0.15, free/total PSA ratio 15-25%, and normal findings at digital examination and transrectal US. PSA velocity was calculated collecting 3 blood samples every 30 days for 2 months. 5 of the 34 selected patients (15%) had prostatic cancer, and 2 (6%) Pin (1 Pin 1 and 1 Pin 2). As for the other 27 patients, biopsy demonstrated 4 (12%) cases of prostatitis and 23 (62%) cases of BPH. PSA values increased in all patients with positive histology, versus only 6 (22%) of those with negative histology. Our findings confirm that prostatic biopsy can detect tumors also in areas which appear normal at transrectal US and digital examination, and that PSA rate increases in patients with positive histology. Finally, the actual clinical role of prostatic biopsy relative to all other diagnostic imaging techniques remains to be defined. [Italian] Si intende qui dimostrare la percentuale di neoplasie prostatiche sfuggite all'esplorazione rettale e all'ecografia transrettale nei pazienti convalori di antigene prostatico specifico tra 4 e 10 ng/ml. 290 pazienti sono stati sottoposti a ecografia transrettale e biopsia multipla (6 prelievi, ago da 16 Gauge) dopo consenso informato. Di questi sono stati selezionati 34: eta' tra 56 e 76 anni, eta' media 64 anni. Parametri di selezione: antigene prostatico specifico con valori tra 4 e 10ng/ml; densita' dell'antigene prostatico specifico con

  13. Specific probe selection from landscape phage display library and its application in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of free prostate-specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Qiaolin; Wang, Fei; Yin, Long; Liu, Mingjun; Petrenko, Valery A; Liu, Aihua

    2014-03-01

    Probes against targets can be selected from the landscape phage library f8/8, displaying random octapeptides on the pVIII coat protein of the phage fd-tet and demonstrating many excellent features including multivalency, stability, and high structural homogeneity. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is usually determined by immunoassay, by which antibodies are frequently used as the specific probes. Herein we found that more advanced probes against free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) can be screened from the landscape phage library. Four phage monoclones were selected and identified by the specificity array. One phage clone displaying the fusion peptide ERNSVSPS showed good specificity and affinity to f-PSA and was used as a PSA capture probe in a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) array. An anti-human PSA monoclonal antibody (anti-PSA mAb) was used to recognize the captured antigen, followed by horseradish peroxidase-conjugated antibody (HRP-IgG) and o-phenylenediamine, which were successively added to develop plate color. The ELISA conditions such as effect of blocking agent, coating buffer pH, phage concentration, antigen incubation time, and anti-PSA mAb dilution for phage ELISA were optimized. On the basis of the optimal phage ELISA conditions, the absorbance taken at 492 nm on a microplate reader was linear with f-PSA concentration within 0.825-165 ng/mL with a low limit of detection of 0.16 ng/mL. Thus, the landscape phage is an attractive biomolecular probe in bioanalysis.

  14. Direct Lymph Node Vaccination of Lentivector/Prostate-Specific Antigen is Safe and Generates Tissue-Specific Responses in Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan C. Au

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anti-cancer immunotherapy is emerging from a nadir and demonstrating tangible benefits to patients. A variety of approaches are now employed. We are invoking antigen (Ag-specific responses through direct injections of recombinant lentivectors (LVs that encode sequences for tumor-associated antigens into multiple lymph nodes to optimize immune presentation/stimulation. Here we first demonstrate the effectiveness and antigen-specificity of this approach in mice challenged with prostate-specific antigen (PSA-expressing tumor cells. Next we tested the safety and efficacy of this approach in two cohorts of rhesus macaques as a prelude to a clinical trial application. Our vector encodes the cDNA for rhesus macaque PSA and a rhesus macaque cell surface marker to facilitate vector titering and tracking. We utilized two independent injection schemas demarcated by the timing of LV administration. In both cohorts we observed marked tissue-specific responses as measured by clinical evaluations and magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate gland. Tissue-specific responses were sustained for up to six months—the end-point of the study. Control animals immunized against an irrelevant Ag were unaffected. We did not observe vector spread in test or control animals or perturbations of systemic immune parameters. This approach thus offers an “off-the-shelf” anti-cancer vaccine that could be made at large scale and injected into patients—even on an out-patient basis.

  15. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism, severe three vessels coronary artery disease and elevation of prostate-specific antigen after TURP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-01-21

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is a frequent complication of acute myocardial infarction. It has been reported that subclinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with CHD or mortality from cardiovascular causes but it is sufficient to induce an increase in atrial fibrillation rate and increased factor X activity in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism represents a potential hypercoagulable state. It has also been reported that serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decreases drastically in patients who undergo transurethral resection of the prostate(TURP). We present a case of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism, severe three vessels coronary artery disease and elevation of PSA after TURP in a 78-year-old Italian man.

  16. Investigation of correlations between different prostate-specific antigen forms and clinical and morphological characteristics of a tumor process in patients with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Sergeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 226 primary patients with prostate cancer (PC and a baseline total prostate-specific antigen (t-PSA of < 30.0 ng/ml were used to investigate f-PSA and [-2]proPSA levels and to calculate f-PSA%, [-2]proPSA%, and prostate health index (PHI. The findings were compared with cancer stage (pTNM and Gleason grade (Gleason index in accordance with a postoperative histological report. PHI was shown to have the best differentiating properties (pT2c/pT3a/pT3b; localized indolent PC / localized aggressive PC / locally advanced PC / PC with regional metastases; Gleason score 5-6 / Gleason score 7 (3+4 / Gleason score 7 (4+3.

  17. Unusual prostate carcinoma characterized by extensive metastasis, significantly increased serum level of prostatic-specific antigen, and neuroendocrine differentiation: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuxin; YE Juan; JIANG Ying; ZHANG Qin-fang; WU Yue-long; CHEN Yue-yu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Some rare variants of prostate carcinoma have been described in recent years.1-3 In this article we report a man with uncommon prostate carcinoma with the following three pathological characteristics: (a) extensive metastasis to bone and lymph nodes of the abdomen, pelvis, and supraclavicular area; (b) significantly increased serum level of prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) as high as 1800 ng/ml; and (c) partial neuroendocrine differentiation in cancer tissue. The patient died 7 months after pathological diagnosis or 22 months after appearance of initial signs. This case has drawn our attention to the fact that pathological diversity of prostate neoplasm might easily lead to misdiagnosis or to delayed diagnosis, and moreover, reasonable therapy for such a case should be based on a thorough investigation. On the other hand, early initiation of appropriate treatment of advanced neuroendocrine carcinoma may improve the prognosis.

  18. Identification of prostate-specific G-protein coupled receptor as a tumor antigen recognized by CD8(+ T cells for cancer immunotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Matsueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among elderly men in the US, and immunotherapy has been shown to be a promising strategy to treat patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Efforts to identify novel prostate specific tumor antigens will facilitate the development of effective cancer vaccines against prostate cancer. Prostate-specific G-protein coupled receptor (PSGR is a novel antigen that has been shown to be specifically over-expressed in human prostate cancer tissues. In this study, we describe the identification of PSGR-derived peptide epitopes recognized by CD8(+ T cells in an HLA-A2 dependent manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-one PSGR-derived peptides were predicted by an immuno-informatics approach based on the HLA-A2 binding motif. These peptides were examined for their ability to induce peptide-specific T cell responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs obtained from either HLA-A2(+ healthy donors or HLA-A2(+ prostate cancer patients. The recognition of HLA-A2 positive and PSGR expressing LNCaP cells was also tested. Among the 21 PSGR-derived peptides, three peptides, PSGR3, PSGR4 and PSGR14 frequently induced peptide-specific T cell responses in PBMCs from both healthy donors and prostate cancer patients. Importantly, these peptide-specific T cells recognized and killed LNCaP prostate cancer cells in an HLA class I-restricted manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified three novel HLA-A2-restricted PSGR-derived peptides recognized by CD8(+ T cells, which, in turn, recognize HLA-A2(+ and PSGR(+ tumor cells. The PSGR-derived peptides identified may be used as diagnostic markers as well as immune targets for development of anticancer vaccines.

  19. Biosensor based on a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor functionalized by gold nanoparticles for the highly sensitive determination of prostate specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presnova, Galina; Presnov, Denis; Krupenin, Vladimir; Grigorenko, Vitaly; Trifonov, Artem; Andreeva, Irina; Ignatenko, Olga; Egorov, Alexey; Rubtsova, Maya

    2017-02-15

    We have demonstrated label-free and real-time detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in human serum using silicon nanowire field effect transistors (NW FETs) with Schottky contacts (Si-Ti). The NW FETs were fabricated from SOI material using high-resolution e-beam lithography, thin film vacuum deposition and reactive-ion etching processes eliminating complicated processes of doping and thermal annealing. This allowed substantial simplifying the transistors manufacturing. A new method for covalent immobilization of half-fragments of antibodies on silicon modified by 3-glycidopropyltrimethoxysilane with thiol groups and 5nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) was established. NW FETs functionalized by GNPs revealed extremely high pH sensitivity of 70mV/pH and enhanced electrical performance in the detection of antigen due to enhanced surface/volume ratio, favorable orientation of antibody active sites and approaching the source of the electric field close to the transistor surface. Si NWFETs were applied for quantitative detection of PSA in a buffer and human serum diluted 1/100. Response time was about 5-10s, and analysis time per sample was 1min. The limit of PSA detection was of 23fg/mL, concentration range of 23fg/mL-500ng/mL (7 orders of magnitude). The PSA concentrations determined by the NW FETs in serum were compared with well-established ELISA method. The results matched well with the correlation coefficient of 0.97.

  20. Prostate specific antigen in boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression by GnRH agonist treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    antigen (PSA) is a marker of the androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell activity and it is used in the diagnosis and surveillance of adult patients with prostatic cancer. We have measured PSA concentrations in serum from boys with precocious puberty before and during gonadal suppression with GnRH...

  1. Mass screening of prostate cancer in a Chinese population:the relationship between pathological features of prostate cancer and serum prostate specific antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Wen Gao; Masaaki Kuwahara; Xue-Jian Zhao; Yu-Lin Li; Shan Wu; Yi-Shu Wang; Hai-Feng Zhang; Yu-Zhuo Pan; Ling Zhang; Hiroo Tateno; Ikuro Sato

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the pathological features of the prostate biopsy through mass screening for prostate cancer in a Chinese cohort and their association with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Methods: A total of 12 027 Chinese men in Changchun were screened for prostate cancer by means of the serum total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) test (oy Elisa assay). Transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic six-sextant biopsies were performed on those whose serum tPSA value was >4.0 ng/mL and those who had obstructive symptoms (despite their tPSA value) and were subject to subsequent pathological analysis with the aid of the statistic software SPSS 10.0 (SPSS. Inc., Chicago. USA). Results: Of the 12 027 cases, 158 (including 137 patients whose serum tPSA values were >4.0 ng/mL and 21 patients [serum tPSA <4.0 ng/mL] who had obstructive symptoms) undertook prostate biopsy. Of the 158 biopsies, 41 cases of prostatic carcinoma were found (25.9 %, 41/158). The moderately differentiated carcinoma and poorly differentiated carcinoma accounted for 61% and 34%, respectively. A significant linear positive correlation between the serum tPSA and the Gleason scores in the 41 cases of prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.312, P < 0.01) was established. A significant linear positive correlation between the serum tPSA value of the 41 prostatic carcinoma and the positive counts of carcinoma in sextant biopsies was established (r = 0.406, P < 0.01), indicating a significant linear relationship between serum tPSA and the size of tumor.Conclusion: This study was the first to conduct mass screening for prostate cancer by testing for serum tPSA values and the first to investigate the pathological features of prostate cancer in a cohort of Chinese men. Our results reveal that the moderately differentiated carcinoma is the most common type of prostate cancer. This study also has shown that the serum tPSA value in prostate cancer is associated with the Gleason score and the size of tumor.

  2. Impacts of the quinazoline-based alpha1-antagonist, terazosin, and of the sulfonamide derivative, tamsulosin, on serum prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paick, Jae-Seung; Cho, Min Chul; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Soo Woong; Ku, Ja Hyeon

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impacts of terazosin and tamsulosin, on prostate activity, i.e., serum prostate-specific antigen, total prostate volume (TPV), and transition zone volume (TZV). A total of 90 patients who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), ranging in age from 52 to 83 yr (median 65 yr), were included in the study. Patients were given 0.2 mg tamsulosin, 2 mg terazosin, or 4 mg terazosin once daily for an average of 14 months (range, 6-56 months). Subjective (International Prostate Symptom Scores, I-PSS) and objective (maximal flow rate and post-void residual) parameters were assessed both at baseline and at treatment cessation. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were found to be unaffected by treatment (1.2 and 1.3 ng/mL). In total patients, multivariate analysis showed that baseline TPV was the only independent predictor of treatment-related TPV reduction. Moreover, baseline TPV > or =30 g was found to be associated with a higher likelihood of TPV reduction (odds ratio [OR], 3.939; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.506-10.304; p=0.005), and a baseline TZV of > or =10 g was associated with a 7.1-times greater chance of TZV reduction (OR, 7.100; 95% CI, 2.428-20.763; p<0.001). The same model showed that patients on 2 mg terazosin had a 10.8-fold greater likelihood (OR, 10.770; 95% CI, 1.409-82.323; p=0.022) and that those on 4 mg terazosin had a 9.0-fold greater likelihood (OR, 9.001; 95% CI, 1.724-46.995; p=0.009) of a TZV reduction than those on 0.2 mg tamsulosin. In addition, symptoms improved regardless of prostate activity after taking alpha1-blockers. Our findings suggest that terazosin reduces TZV and demonstrate that the relief of symptoms associated with BPH may not be due to a prostate activity reduction induced by apoptosis in the prostate gland.

  3. Paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism, chronic renal failure and elevation of prostate-specific antigen during acute myocardial infarction.

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    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-02-04

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is a frequent complication of acute myocardial infarction. It has been reported that subclinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with coronary heart disease or mortality from cardiovascular causes but it is sufficient to induce arrhythmias including an increase in atrial fibrillation rate. It has also been reported that increased factor X activity in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism represents a potential hypercoagulable state. Moreover chronic renal failure presents an increased arrhythmic risk. Apparently spurious result has been reported in a work about mean serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration during acute myocardial infarction with mean serum PSA concentration significantly lower on day 2 than either day 1 or day 3 and it has been reported that these preliminary results could reflect several factors, such as antiinfarctual treatment, reduced physical activity or an acute-phase response. We present a case of paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism, chronic renal failure and elevation of serum PSA concentration in a 90-year-old Italian man during acute myocardial infarction. Also this case focuses attention on the importance of a correct evaluation of subclinical hyperthyroidism and of chronic renal failure. Moreover, our report also confirms previous findings and extends the evaluation of PSA during acute myocardial infarction.

  4. Label-free Electrochemiluminescent Immunosensor for Detection of Prostate Specific Antigen based on Aminated Graphene Quantum Dots and Carboxyl Graphene Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Liu, Yixin; Wang, Yaoguang; Hu, Lihua; Ma, Hongmin; Wang, Guoqin; Wei, Qin

    2016-02-04

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was used as the model, an ultrasensitive label-free electrochemiluminescent immunosensor was developed based on graphene quantum dots. Au/Ag-rGO was sythsized and used as electrode material to load a great deal of graphene quantum dots due to the large surface area and excellent electron conductivity. After aminated graphene quantum dots and acarboxyl graphene quantum dots were modified onto the electrode, the ECL intensity was much high using K2S2O8 as coreactant. Then, antibody of PSA was immobilized on the surface of modified electrode surface through the adsorption of Au/Ag toward proteins, leading to the decrease of the ECL intensity. As proven by ECL spectra test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, the fabrication process of the immunosensor is successful. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL intensity decreased linearly with the logarithm of PSA concentration in the range of 1 pg/mL ~ 10 ng/mL. The detection limit achieved is 0.29 pg/mL. The immunosensor results were validated through the detection of PSA in serum samples with satisfactory results. Due to excellent stability, high sensitivity, acceptable repeatability and selectivity, the immunosensor has promising applications in disease and drug analysis.

  5. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSM) is expressed in various human tissues: implication for the use of PSM reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect hematogenous prostate cancer spread.

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    Renneberg, H; Friedetzky, A; Konrad, L; Kurek, R; Weingärtner, K; Wennemuth, G; Tunn, U W; Aumüller, G

    1999-01-01

    Detection of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSM)-mRNA expression in blood samples using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is discussed as a new diagnostic marker of circulating micrometastases in prostate cancer patients. We applied the RT-PCR technique to different human tissues and obtained positive signals for PSM transcripts in human genital and multiple extra-genital tissue sites. The cDNAs were prepared from different human tissues and prostatic cell lines. RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR for PSM was performed with primers derived from the published PSM cDNA. The RT-PCR fragments obtained were cloned and showed 100% sequence homology to PSM. Southern blot hybridization with labeled probes was used to confirm the specificity of the amplicons. In addition to the known PSM expression in the human brain, PSM-mRNA was detected in cDNA isolated from human testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles and in the PC-3 prostatic cancer cell line. Furthermore, we found PSM-mRNA in heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, and thyroid gland. The results indicate that PSM expression is not restricted to the prostate gland, but represents a more general component of genital and extra-genital human tissues. This must be considered when RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR screening for PSM expression is performed as a diagnostic measure in blood from prostate cancer patients.

  6. Prostate cancer detection upon transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy in relation to digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen level: what to expect in the Chinese population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy YC Teoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prostate cancer detection rates upon transrectal ultrasound (TRUS-guided biopsy in relation to digital rectal examination (DRE and prostate-specific antigen (PSA, and risk factors of prostate cancer detection in the Chinese population. Data from all consecutive Chinese men who underwent first TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from year 2000 to 2013 was retrieved from our database. The prostate cancer detection rates with reference to DRE finding and PSA level of 50 ng ml−1 were investigated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate for potential risk factors of prostate cancer detection. A total of 2606 Chinese men were included. In patients with normal DRE, the cancer detection rates were 8.6%, 13.4%, 21.8%, 41.7% and 85.2% in patients with PSA 50 ng ml−1 respectively. In patients with abnormal DRE, the cancer detection rates were 12.4%, 30.2%, 52.7%, 80.6% and 96.4% in patients with PSA 50 ng ml−1 respectively. Older age, smaller prostate volume, larger number of biopsy cores, presence of abnormal DRE finding and higher PSA level were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer detection upon multivariate logistic regression analyses (P < 0.001. Chinese men appeared to have lower prostate cancer detection rates when compared to the Western population. Taking the different risk factors into account, an individualized approach to the decision of TRUS-guided biopsy can be adopted.

  7. Correlation between the preoperative serum prostate specific antigen, Gleason score, and clinical staging with pathological outcome following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: An Indian experience

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    P Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To correlate the preoperative serum prostate specific antigen (PSA, Gleason score, and clinical staging with pathological outcome following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP in Indian men with clinically localized cancer prostate. Materials and Methods: A prospective study analysis was done for 166 consecutive patients of prostate cancer who underwent RARP at our center from June 2006 to October 2009. Preoperative workup included serum PSA, biopsy Gleason score, and clinical staging. The preoperative parameters were correlated with final Gleason score, capsular penetration, seminal vesicle involvement, and lymph node status on final histopathology. Results: The mean age was 64 years (range: 50-76 years with mean and median PSA of 17.98 ng/ml (range: 0.3-68.3 ng/ml and 12.1 ng/ml, respectively. With increase in preoperative Gleason score, chance of organ confinement decreases (P=0.002 and capsular penetration increases (P=0.004 linearly. With increasing serum PSA, there is linear decrease in trend of organ-confined disease (P=0.03 and increased chances of seminal vesicle involvement (P=0.02. Patients with higher clinical stage have less probability of localized disease (P=0.007 and more chances of capsular penetration (P=0.04 and seminal vesicle involvement (P=0.004. Conclusion: Our data suggest that patients with higher preoperative serum PSA, Gleason score, and clinical stage have more chances of advanced pathological stage following RARP.

  8. [Treatment errors involving diagnosis using prostate specific antigen. Decisions of the commission of experts for medical mistakes of treatment of the state medical board of North Rhine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, V; Baumbusch, F; Weber, G

    2005-12-01

    Advances in prostate specific antigen (PSA) diagnosis are accompanied by deficits in realization. The justification of claims by affected patients against their doctors are reviewed by commissions of experts and mediation by medical councils out of court, impartial and free of charge. The objectivity of the review is ensured by the independence of the commission and its members as well as the determination of facts and their assessment. Criteria are professional standards and required care. Since 1995, 21 requests by affected patients have been reviewed. In 15 cases (71.4%), treatment errors were ascertained. This involved either a delayed or an insufficient diagnosis (prostatic biopsy). In ten of the patients, a mostly early prostate cancer would have be diagnosed and treated at the time of the first finding of PSA values between 3.3 and 10.4 ng/ml. In ten of 13 patients, the tumor was diagnosed late, having PSA values between 6.8 and 1251 ng/ml with no chance of curative therapy. As in other life threatening diseases, time of recognition is most important for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Particularly for early recognition, PSA is much more sensitive then digital rectal examination, and in cases without a digital finding is the only parameter for early diagnoses. In men with suspicious PSA values (>4.0 ng/ml) suitable a diagnostic test (prostate biopsy) is required early, until cancer is detected or excluded.

  9. Selection of 2'F-modified RNA aptamers against prostate-specific antigen and their evaluation for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodova, M; Bunka, D H J; Nadal, P; Stockley, P G; O'Sullivan, C K

    2013-11-01

    Currently, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is considered to be the most sensitive marker available for prostate cancer detection and for monitoring of disease progression. In addition to its importance as a tumor marker, PSA has a role in the biological activity of cancer growth and proliferation. Therefore, the inhibition or activation of its biological activity may be used in prostate cancer therapy. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of new 2'F-modified RNA aptamers directed against PSA. Binding studies demonstrate the ability of these new aptamers to specifically recognize their target with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range. In order to demonstrate the functionality of the selected aptamers, an apta-PCR approach was used for the quantitative detection of PSA, achieving a limit of detection of 11 nM. Furthermore, the potential use of the selected aptamers in therapeutics was demonstrated with the 2'F-modified aptamers being highly stable in human serum and having the ability to moderate the activity of PSA, which will be explored for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  10. The high prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer at autopsy: implications for epidemiology and treatment of prostate cancer in the Prostate-specific Antigen-era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J

    2015-12-15

    Widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening detects many cancers that would have otherwise gone undiagnosed. To estimate the prevalence of unsuspected prostate cancer, we reviewed 19 studies of prostate cancer discovered at autopsy among 6,024 men. Among men aged 70-79, tumor was found in 36% of Caucasians and 51% of African-Americans. This enormous prevalence, coupled with the high sensitivity of PSA screening, has led to the marked increase in the apparent incidence of prostate cancer. The impact of PSA screening on clinical practice is well-recognized, but its effect on epidemiologic research is less appreciated. Before screening, a larger proportion of incident prostate cancers had lethal potential and were diagnosed at advanced stage. However, in the PSA era, overall incident prostate cancer mainly is indolent disease, and often reflects the propensity to be screened and biopsied. Studies must therefore focus on cancers with lethal potential, and include long follow-up to accommodate the lead time induced by screening. Moreover, risk factor patterns differ markedly for potentially lethal and indolent disease, suggesting separate etiologies and distinct disease entities. Studies of total incident or indolent prostate cancer are of limited clinical utility, and the main focus of research should be on prostate cancers of lethal potential.

  11. Digital rectal examination (DRE does not influence total serum levels of prostate specific antigen (tPSA, in individuals without prostate pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de F. Figueirêdo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the digital rectal examination (DRE performed before determination of total serum prostate specific antigen (tPSA influences the levels of this protein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight men without a diagnosis of prostate pathology were assessed for tPSA levels, before and 30 minutes after DRE examination. Values of tPSA in the individuals' serum were measured by the electrochemoluminescence (ECLIA, in Roche's Elecys 1010 analyzer. RESULTS: DRE examination induced a modest elevation in tPSA values in 34 of the 48 men, with a variation in mean elevation from 2.19% in the age range ³ 70 years to 11.96% in the age range of 60-69 years. Additionally, moderate decreases in values were detected in 11 individuals and 3 did not present any alteration following the procedure. Differences in mean values of tPSA, pre- and post-DRE were not statistically significant, neither in the total sample of individuals or in the age range groups. CONCLUSION: DRE examination does not significantly influence the tPSA values in individuals under study.

  12. Oral selenium supplementation has no effect on prostate-specific antigen velocity in men undergoing active surveillance for localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, M Suzanne; Algotar, Amit M; Ranger-Moore, James; Stratton, Steven P; Slate, Elizabeth H; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Thompson, Patricia A; Clark, Larry C; Ahmann, Frederick R

    2010-08-01

    The Nutritional Prevention of Cancer trial showed a 52% lower incidence of prostate cancer in men supplemented with selenium. As a result, our study was designed to assess whether selenium supplementation attenuates the progression of prostate cancer. A phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in men with localized nonmetastatic prostate cancer who had elected to forgo active treatment and be followed by active surveillance. A total of 140 men were randomized to placebo (n = 46), 200 microg/d (n = 47), or 800 microg/d (n = 47) selenium p.o. (as selenized yeast) and followed every 3 months for up to 5 years. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity was used as a marker of prostate cancer progression and was estimated using mixed-effects regression. Adjusting for age, body mass index, baseline selenium, smoking, baseline PSA, race, PSA method, and Gleason score, PSA velocities for the 200 microg/d and 800 microg/d treatment groups were not statistically significantly different from placebo (P = 0.32 and P = 0.61, respectively). In the highest quartile of baseline selenium, men supplemented with 800 microg selenium showed statistically significantly higher PSA velocity as compared with placebo (P = 0.018). Selenium supplementation did not show a protective effect on PSA velocity in subjects with localized prostate cancer. On the contrary, supplementation with high-dose selenium was observed to be a risk factor for increased PSA velocity in men with high baseline plasma selenium concentrations.

  13. Nanogold-functionalized g-C3N4 nanohybrids for sensitive impedimetric immunoassay of prostate-specific antigen using enzymatic biocatalytic precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li-Li; Ge, Jing-Ping; Zhou, Wen-Quan; Gao, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Zheng-Yu; Xiong, Ya

    2016-11-15

    This work reports on a new impedimetric immunosensing strategy for sensitive detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in biological fluids. The assay was carried out on monoclonal anti-PSA capture antibody-modified glassy carbon electrode with a sandwich-type detection format. Gold nanoparticles-decorated g-C3N4 nanosheets (AuNP/g-C3N4), synthesized by the wet-chemistry method, were utilized for the labeling of polyclonal anti-PSA detection antibody and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Upon target PSA introduction, the sandwiched immunocomplex could be formed between capture antibody and detection antibody. Followed by the AuNP/g-C3N4, the labeled HRP could catalyze 4-choloro-1-naphthol into benzo-4-chlorohexadienone. The as-generated insoluble product was coated on the electrode surface, thus increasing the Faradaic impedance of Fe(CN)6(4-/3)(-) indicator between the solution and the base electrode. Under the optimal conditions, the impedance increased with the increasing target PSA in the sample, and exhibited a wide linear range from 10pgmL(-1) and 30ngmL(-1) with a detection limit of 5.2pgmL(-1). A repeatability and intermediate precision of <14% was accomplished. The specificity and method accuracy in comparison with commercial PSA ELISA kit for analysis of human serum specimens were relatively satisfactory.

  14. Diagnostic utility of p501s (prostein in comparison to prostate specific antigen (PSA for the detection of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma

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    Parwani Anil V

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunohistochemical detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA is widely used to identify metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. However, PSA may not be expressed in some poorly differentiated prostatic carcinomas and its immunoreactivity has been found in some non-prostatic tissues. P501s (prostein is a prostate-specific marker that is expressed in the cytoplasm of benign and malignant prostatic glandular cells. It has not been detected in any other normal or malignant tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of P501s in metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma and compare its expression with PSA. Methods Immunohistochemical stains with anti-P501s antibodies were performed on 5-micron sections of tissue microarray (TMA specimens. The TMA is constructed with normal donor prostates (NDP, prostatic adenocarcinoma (PRCA, non-neoplastic prostatic tissues adjacent to malignant glands (NAT, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, high-grade prostatic neoplasia (PIN, metastatic adenocarcinoma to lymph nodes (MLN, metastatic adenocarcinoma to other sites (MC, and samples of benign testis, colon, adrenal and kidney. The two groups of metastatic lesions were also subjected to stains with antibodies to PSA. A composite score (ranging from 0 to 3 was assigned to score intensity of staining. Results Granular staining pattern of p501s was seen in all benign glands (score = 1.77 – 2.1 and malignant acini (score = 1.52 at the apical aspect of cytoplasm, predominantly adjacent to the nuclei. No staining was observed in controls including testis, colon, adrenal and kidney. The MLN group received a score of 1.0, with 10% of cases negative for p501s. The MC cases had a score of 0.64, with 16.7% of case showing loss of p501s expression. Although the metastatic lesions demonstrated similar rate of negative expression with PSA antibody, only 2 MC cases (3.3% showed simultaneous negative stains for both P501S and PSA. Conclusion P501

  15. p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) repress prostate specific antigen levels in human prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lilian I L; Labrecque, Mark P; Ibuki, Naokazu; Cox, Michael E; Elliott, John E; Beischlag, Timothy V

    2015-03-25

    Despite stringent restrictions on their use by many countries since the 1970s, the endocrine disrupting chemicals, DDT and DDE are still ubiquitous in the environment. However, little attention has been directed to p,p'-DDT and the anti-androgen, p,p'-DDE on androgen receptor (AR) target gene transcription in human cells. Inhibitors of androgenic activity may have a deleterious clinical outcome in prostate cancer screens and progression, therefore we determined whether environmentally relevant concentrations of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE negatively impact AR-regulated expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and other AR target genes in human LNCaP and VCaP prostate cancer cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and immuno-blotting techniques were used to measure intracellular PSA, PSMA and AR mRNA and protein levels. We have shown for the first time that p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE repressed R1881-inducible PSA mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we used the fully automated COBAS PSA detection system to determine that extracellular PSA levels were also significantly repressed. These chemicals achieve this by blocking the recruitment of AR to the PSA promoter region at 10 μM, as demonstrated by the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in LNCaP cells. Both p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE repressed R1881-inducible AR protein accumulation at 10 μM. Thus, we conclude that men who have been exposed to either DDT or DDE may produce a false-negative PSA test when screening for prostate cancer, resulting in an inaccurate clinical diagnosis. More importantly, prolonged exposure to these anti-androgens may mimic androgen ablation therapy in individuals with prostate cancer, thus exacerbating the condition by inadvertently forcing adaptation to this stress early in the disease.

  16. A nomogram based on age,prostate-specific antigen level,prostate volume and digital rectal examination for predicting risk of prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Tang; Hui Chen; Matthew Uhlman; Yu-Rong Lin; Xiang-Rong Deng; Bin Wang; Wen-Jun Yang; Ke-Ji Xie

    2013-01-01

    Nomograms for predicting the risk of prostate cancer developed using other populations may introduce sizable bias when applied to a Chinese cohort.In the present study,we sought to develop a nomogram for predicting the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy in a Chinese population.A total of 535 Chinese men who underwent a prostatic biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer in the past decade with complete biopsy data were included.Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of a positive initial biopsy.Age,prostate-specific antigen (PSA),prostate volume (PV),digital rectal examination (DRE) status,% free PSA and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) findings were included in the analysis.A nomogram model was developed that was based on these independent predictors to calculate the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy.A receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to assess the accuracy of using the nomogram and PSA levels alone for predicting positive prostate biopsy.The rate for positive initial prostate biopsy was 41.7% (223/535).The independent variables used to predict a positive initial prostate biopsy were age,PSA,PV and DRE status.The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for a positive initial prostate biopsy for PSA alone and the nomogram were 79.7% and 84.8%,respectively.Our results indicate that the risk of a positive initial prostate biopsy can be predicted to a satisfactory level in a Chinese population using our nomogram.The nomogram can be used to identify and Counsel patients who should consider a prostate biopsy,ultimately enhancing accuracy in diagnosing prostate cancer.

  17. Extreme-Risk Prostate Adenocarcinoma Presenting With Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) >40 ng/ml: Prognostic Significance of the Preradiation PSA Nadir

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    Alexander, Abraham S. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Radiation Therapy Program, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Mydin, Aminudin; Jones, Stuart O.; Christie, Jennifer [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Radiation Therapy Program, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Lim, Jan T.W. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Radiation Therapy Program, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Truong, Pauline T., E-mail: ptruong@bccancer.bc.ca [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Radiation Therapy Program, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Ludgate, Charles M. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Radiation Therapy Program, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of patient, disease, and treatment characteristics on survival outcomes in patients treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and radical external-beam radiotherapy (RT) for clinically localized, extreme-risk prostate adenocarcinoma with a presenting prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of >40 ng/ml. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 64 patients treated at a single institution between 1991 and 2000 with ADT and RT for prostate cancer with a presenting PSA level of >40 ng/ml. The effects of patient age, tumor (presenting PSA level, Gleason score, and T stage), and treatment (total ADT duration and pre-RT PSA level) characteristics on rates of biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS), and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: Median follow-up time was 6.45 years (range, 0.09-15.19 years). Actuarial bDFS, PCSS, and OS rates at 5 years were 39%, 87%, and 78%, respectively, and 17%, 64%, and 45%, respectively, at 10 years. On multivariate analysis, the pre-RT PSA level ({<=}0.1 versus >0.1 ng/ml) was the single most significant prognostic factor for bDFS (p = 0.033) and OS (p = 0.018) rates, whereas age, T stage, Gleason score, and ADT duration ({<=}6 versus >6 months) were not predictive of outcomes. Conclusion: In prostate cancer patients with high presenting PSA levels, >40 ng/ml, treated with combined modality, neoadjuvant ADT, and RT, the pre-RT PSA nadir, rather than ADT duration, was significantly associated with improved survival. This observation supports the use of neoadjuvant ADT to drive PSA levels to below 0.1 ng/ml before initiation of RT, to optimize outcomes for patients with extreme-risk disease.

  18. Impact of initial time to prostate-specific antigen nadir on survival in prostate cancer with bone metastasis initially treated with maximum androgen blockade therapy

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    Yamamoto Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to provide certain data on clinical outcomes and their predictors of traditional maximum androgen blockade (MAB in prostate cancer with bone metastasis. Methods: Subjects were patients with prostate adenocarcinoma with bone metastasis initiated to treat with MAB as a primary treatment without any local therapy at our hospital between January 2003 and December 2010. Time to prostate specific antigen (PSA progression, overall survival (OS time, and association of clinical factors and outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Results: A total of 57 patients were evaluable. The median age was 70 years. The median primary PSA was 203 ng/ml. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists had been administered in 96.5% of the patients. Bicalutamide had been chosen in 89.4 % of the patients as the initial antiandrogen. The median time to PSA progression with MAB was 11.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.4 to 13.0. The median OS was 47.3 months (95% CI, 30.7 to 81.0. Gleason score 9 or greater, decline of PSA level equal to or higher than 1.0 ng/ml with MAB, and time to PSA nadir equal to or shorter than six months after initiation of MAB were independent risk factors for time to PSA progression (P=0.010, P=0.005, and P=0.001; respectively. Time to PSA nadir longer than six months was the only independent predictor for longer OS (HR, 0.255 [95% CI, 0.109 to 0.597]; P=0.002. Conclusions: Initial time to PSA nadir should be emphasized for clinical outcome analyses in future studies on prostate cancer with bone metastasis.

  19. New alternatively spliced variant of prostate-specific membrane antigen PSM-E suppresses the proliferation, migration and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kai-Yuan; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Ding-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Tian; He, Xia; Wang, Zhu; Feng, Fa-Shen; Qiu, Shao-Peng; Shen, Guan-Xin

    2012-06-01

    PSM-E is a newly discovered alternatively spliced variant of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). In the current study, its role on the proliferation, invasiveness and migration in prostate cancer cell lines was analyzed. PSM-E and PSMA (as a comparison) eukaryotic expression vectors pcDNA3.0/PSM-E and pcDNA3.0/PSMA were constructed, validated by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and PSMA/PSM-E overexpression PC-3 cell models were built. Gene interference was used to block PSMA and the expression of its splice variants in LNCap cells. Three shRNA fragments were synthesized against PSMA, cloned into the vector pSilencer 2.1-U6-neo, their interference effect was evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and pSilencer 2.1-U6-neo‑shRNA3 (named p‑shRNA3) was chosen in further analyses. Growth curves were drawn to observe the proliferation change, which showed that PSM-E had the potential to suppress proliferation (PPSM-E interfering LNCap cells (P>0.05). Cross-river test showed that the migration speeds of PSM-E/PC-3 and PSMA/PC-3 were both significantly slower than the vector negative control, and faster in p-shRNA3 interfering LNCap cells compared with its vector negative control (PPSM-E/PC-3 and PSMA/PC-3 (P>0.05). Transwell assay showed that the invasive cells of both PSMA/PC-3 and PSM-E/PC-3 were fewer compared to the vector negative control (PPSM-E was weaker than PSMA (PPSM-E could suppress proliferation, migration and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells. Its suppression effect on cell proliferation is stronger compared to PSMA and the suppression effect on invasiveness is weaker than that of PSMA.

  20. The effect of testosterone replacement therapy on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in men being treated for hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, De-Ying; Li, Hong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy is used for the treatment of age-related male hypogonadism, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a primary screening tool for prostate cancer. The systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on PSA levels.Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until February 28, 2014, and inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized controlled trial; intervention group received testosterone/androgen replacement therapy; control group did not receive treatment; and no history of prostate cancer. The primary outcome was change of PSA level between before and after treatment. Secondary outcomes were elevated PSA level after treatment, and the number of patients who developed prostate cancer.After initially identifying 511 articles, 15 studies with a total of 739 patients that received testosterone replacement and 385 controls were included. The duration of treatment ranged from 3 to 12 months. Patients treated with testosterone tended to have higher PSA levels, and thus a greater change than those that received control treatments (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.154, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.069 to 0.238, P testosterone intramuscularly (IM) than controls (difference in means of PSA levels = 0.271, 95% CI 0.117-0.425, P = 0.001). Elevated PSA levels after treatment were similar between patients that received treatment and controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% CI 0.48-2.20, P = 0.953). Only 3 studies provided data with respect to the development of prostate cancer, and rates were similar between those that received treatment and controls.Testosterone replacement therapy does not increase PSA levels in men being treated for hypogonadism, except when it is given IM and even the increase with IM administration is minimal.

  1. Is there any association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Gokhan Doluoglu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose We investigated the association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods The data of 440 patients who had undergone prostate biopsies due to high PSA levels and suspicious digital rectal examination findings were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of accompanying NIH IV prostatitis. The exclusion criteria were as follows: Gleason score>6, PSA level>20ng/mL, >2 positive cores, >50% cancerous tissue per biopsy, urinary tract infection, urological interventions at least 1 week previously (cystoscopy, urethral catheterization, or similar procedure, history of prostate biopsy, and history of androgen or 5-alpha reductase use. All patient's age, total PSA and free PSA levels, ratio of free to total PSA, PSA density and prostate volume were recorded. Results In total, 101 patients were included in the study. Histopathological examination revealed only PCa in 78 (77.2% patients and PCa+NIH IV prostatitis in 23 (22.7% patients. The median total PSA level was 7.4 (3.5–20.0 ng/mL in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group and 6.5 (0.6–20.0 ng/mL in the PCa group (p=0.67. The PSA level was≤10ng/mL in 60 (76.9% patients in the PCa group and in 16 (69.6% patients in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group (p=0.32. Conclusions Our study showed no statistically significant difference in PSA levels between patients with and without NIH IV prostatitis accompanying PCa.

  2. Is there any association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer?

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    Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Ceylan, Cavit; Kilinc, Fatih; Gazel, Eymen; Resorlu, Berkan; Odabas, Oner

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose We investigated the association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods The data of 440 patients who had undergone prostate biopsies due to high PSA levels and suspicious digital rectal examination findings were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of accompanying NIH IV prostatitis. The exclusion criteria were as follows: Gleason score>6, PSA level>20ng/mL, >2 positive cores, >50% cancerous tissue per biopsy, urinary tract infection, urological interventions at least 1 week previously (cystoscopy, urethral catheterization, or similar procedure), history of prostate biopsy, and history of androgen or 5-alpha reductase use. All patient's age, total PSA and free PSA levels, ratio of free to total PSA, PSA density and prostate volume were recorded. Results In total, 101 patients were included in the study. Histopathological examination revealed only PCa in 78 (77.2%) patients and PCa+NIH IV prostatitis in 23 (22.7%) patients. The median total PSA level was 7.4 (3.5–20.0) ng/mL in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group and 6.5 (0.6–20.0) ng/mL in the PCa group (p=0.67). The PSA level was≤10ng/mL in 60 (76.9%) patients in the PCa group and in 16 (69.6%) patients in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group (p=0.32). Conclusions Our study showed no statistically significant difference in PSA levels between patients with and without NIH IV prostatitis accompanying PCa. PMID:27256190

  3. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) assembles a macromolecular complex regulating growth and survival of prostate cancer cells "in vitro" and correlating with progression "in vivo".

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    Perico, Maria Elisa; Grasso, Silvia; Brunelli, Matteo; Martignoni, Guido; Munari, Enrico; Moiso, Enrico; Fracasso, Giulio; Cestari, Tiziana; Naim, Hassan Y; Bronte, Vincenzo; Colombatti, Marco; Ramarli, Dunia

    2016-11-08

    The expression of Prostate Specific-Membrane Antigen (PSMA) increases in high-grade prostate carcinoma envisaging a role in growth and progression. We show here that clustering PSMA at LNCaP or PC3-PSMA cell membrane activates AKT and MAPK pathways thus promoting proliferation and survival. PSMA activity was dependent on the assembly of a macromolecular complex including filamin A, beta1 integrin, p130CAS, c-Src and EGFR. Within this complex beta1 integrin became activated thereby inducing a c-Src-dependent EGFR phosphorylation at Y1086 and Y1173 EGF-independent residues. Silencing or blocking experiments with drugs demonstrated that all the complex components were required for full PSMA-dependent promotion of cell growth and/or survival in 3D culture, but that p130CAS and EGFR exerted a major role. All PSMA complex components were found assembled in multiple samples of two high-grade prostate carcinomas and associated with EGFR phosphorylation at Y1086. The expression of p130CAS and pEGFRY1086 was thus analysed by tissue micro array in 16 castration-resistant prostate carcinomas selected from 309 carcinomas and stratified from GS 3+4 to GS 5+5. Patients with Gleason Score ≤5 resulted negative whereas those with GS≥5 expressed p130CAS and pEGFRY1086 in 75% and 60% of the cases, respectively.Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that PSMA recruits a functionally active complex which is present in high-grade patients. In addition, two components of this complex, p130CAS and the novel pEGFRY1086, correlate with progression in castration-resistant patients and could be therefore useful in therapeutic or surveillance strategies of these patients.

  4. Analysis of results related to the percent free prostate specific antigen among men without prostate diseases in Xi'an area

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    Peng Zhang; Ziming Wang; Tie Chong; Lihua Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To measure the percent of free prostate specific antigen (fPSA) among men without prostate diseases in Xi'an area, and to study the relationship of percent fPSA with age and pathological grade, clinical stage of prostate cancer (PCa) with percent fPSA, and to analyze the difference between the data in China and theoverseas data to determine appropriate reference range for Chinese male. Methods: A total of 713 participants were enrolled into the study, with PSA, fPSA in serum measured and the percent fPSA calculated. Out of 713 cases, 679 without prostate diseases were divided into 5 groups by age, and then the relationships of PSA, fPSA and percent fPSA with age were studied, respectively. The relationship of pathological grade and clinical stage with percent fPSA of the 34 participants with PCa was also studied. With the help of the related data of men without prostate disease, the appropriate reference range for Chinese male was established. Results: The increases in PSA or fPSA were correlated with age, while there was no significant correlation between age and percent fPSA. The percent fPSA was also correlated with pathological grade and clinical stage of PCa. The percent fPSA of men without prostate disease in Xi'an area was significantly lower than that in the related overseas data. The reference range of percent fPSA for Chinese male was≥15%. Conclusion: Percent fPSA might be more useful than PSA in the detection of prostate cancer. As the percent fPSA is decreased, the pathological grade is decreased, and the clinical stage is increased, the malignant degree is increased. The reference range of≥15% is more appropriate for Chinese male.

  5. Investigating the Effects of Regular Resistance Training and Prostatic Massage on Proinflammatory Markers and Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in Males with Prostate Cancer

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    Fathollahi Shoorabeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Prostate cancer (PC is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Some studies support that chronic inflammation of prostate tissue plays a role in the development of PC. A variety of growth factors and cytokines may lead to proinflammatory processes within the prostate. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular resistance training and prostatic massage on proinflammatory markers CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels in males with PC. Patients and Methods Forty-five patients with PC were selected for this study. They were randomized into either the resistance training intervention group (n = 15, the massage intervention group (n = 15, or the control group (n = 15. Resistance-training patients participated in resistance training for eight weeks, and massage was performed for six weeks on the massage group. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyze the data (P ≤ 0.05. Results In the resistance training group, IL-10 levels significantly increased after four (P = 0.055 and eight weeks (P = 0.000. Four and eight weeks of resistance training showed a significant reduction in PSA, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels (P < 0.05. Patients of massage intervention showed an increase in IL-10 after four (P = 0.045 and six weeks (P = 0.005. In addition, four and six weeks of massage intervention showed a significant reduction in PSA, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels (P < 0.05. Conclusions Regular resistance training and prostatic massage can improve proinflammatory markers and PSA levels in men with PC.

  6. Anisotropic In Situ-Coated AuNPs on Screen-Printed Carbon Surface for Enhanced Prostate-Specific Antigen Impedimetric Aptasensor

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    Do, Tram T. N.; Van Phi, Toan; Nguy, Tin Phan; Wagner, Patrick; Eersels, Kasper; Vestergaard, Mun'delanji C.; Truong, Lien T. N.

    2016-12-01

    An impedimetric aptasensor has been used to study the effect of charge transfer on the binding of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to its aptamer. Full understanding of this mechanism will be beneficial to further improve its sensitivity for PSA detection in human semen at physiologically relevant concentrations. Bare gold electrodes (SPAuEs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-coated screen-printed carbon ink electrodes (AuNPs/SPCEs) were coated with aptamer solution at various concentrations and the sensor response to increasing PSA concentration in buffer solution examined. AuNPs were deposited onto carbon electrodes in 10 cycles. AuNPs/SPCEs were then coated with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid prior to aptamer immobilization at dose of 5 μg mL-1. The results indicate that anisotropic AuNPs/SPCEs outperform bare gold electrodes in terms of decreased amount of aptamer bunches as well as the number of intermediate PSA-aptamer complexes formed on the electrode surface. The key finding is that the fabricated aptasensor is sensitive enough [limit of detection (LoD) 1.95 ng mL-1] for early diagnosis of prostate cancer and displays linear response in the physiologically relevant concentration range (0 ng mL-1 to 10 ng mL-1), as shown by the calibration curve of the relative change in electron transfer resistance (ΔR CT) versus PSA concentration when aptamer/SAM/AuNPs/SPCEs were exposed to buffer containing PSA at different concentrations.

  7. Contribution of allelic variability in prostate specific antigen (PSA & androgen receptor (AR genes to serum PSA levels in men with prostate cancer

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    Sushant V Chavan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Wide variability in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA levels exists in malignant conditions of the prostate. PSA is expressed in normal range in 20 to 25 per cent of prostate cancer cases even in presence of high grade Gleason score. This study was aimed to assess the influence of genetic variants exhibited by PSA and androgen receptor (AR genes towards the variable expression of PSA in prostate cancer. Methods: Pre-treatment serum PSA levels from 101 prostate cancer cases were retrieved from medical record. PSA genotype analysis in promoter region and AR gene microsatellite Cytosine/Adenine/Guanine (CAG repeat analysis in exon 1 region was performed using DNA sequencing and fragment analysis techniques. Results: A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the PSA promoter region were noted. Only two SNPs viz., 158G/A (P<0.001 in the proximal promoter region and -3845G/A (P<0.001 in enhancer region showed significant association with serum PSA levels. The carriers of homozygous GG genotype (P<0.001 at both of these polymorphic sites showed higher expression of PSA whereas homozygous AA genotype (P<0.001 carriers demonstrated lower PSA levels. The combination effect of PSA genotypes along with stratified AR CAG repeats lengths (long, intermediate and short was also studied. The homozygous GG genotype along with AR long CAG repeats and homozygous AA genotype along with AR short CAG repeats at position -3845 and -158 showed strong interaction and thus influenced serum PSA levels. Interpretation & conclusions: The genetic variants exhibited by PSA gene at positions -3845G/A and -158G/A may be accountable towards wide variability of serum PSA levels in prostate cancer. Also the preferential binding of G and A alleles at these polymorphic sites along with AR long and short CAG repeats may contribute towards PSA expression.

  8. Raising cut-off value of prostate specific antigen (PSA for biopsy in symptomatic men in India to reduce unnecessary biopsy

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    Shalini Agnihotri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The characteristics of prostate specific antigen (PSA for trans-rectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS are not well defined. This study was carried out to analyse the threshold of PSA for biopsy in symptomatic men in India. Methods: From January 2000 to June 2011, consecutive patients who had digital rectal examination (DRE and PSA testing done for LUTS were included in this study. PSA was done with ELISA technique. Patients with acute or chronic prostatitis, prostatic abscess, history of surgery on prostate within the previous three months and patients on 5α-reductase inhibitors or on urethral catheter were excluded. Results: Of the 4702 patients evaluated, 70.9 per cent had PSA of less than 4 ng/ml and 29.1 per cent had PSA of more than 4 ng/ml. Of these, 875 men with a mean age of 65.72±7.4 (range 50-75 yr had trans rectal ultrasonography (TRUS guided biopsy. Twenty five men had biopsy at PSA level of 20 ng/ml. Positive predictive value of PSA in ranges of 4.1-10, 10.1-20, >20 ng/ml was 15.2, 24 and 62.6 per cent, respectively with negative DRE. PSA cut-off to do biopsy was derived by ROC curve as 5.82 ng/ml for all the men. When the subjects were further stratified on the basis of DRE findings, a cut-off of 5.4 ng/ml was derived in men with normal DRE. Interpretation & conclusions: A cut-off for biopsy in symptomatic men with negative DRE could safely be raised to 5.4 ng/ml, which could avoid subjecting 10 per cent of men to undergo unnecessary biopsy.

  9. Comparison of Digital Rectal Examination and Serum Prostate Specific Antigen in the Early Detection of Prostate Cancer: Results of a Multicenter Clinical Trial of 6,630 Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalona, William J; Richie, Jerome P; Ahmann, Frederick R; Hudson, M'Liss A; Scardino, Peter T; Flanigan, Robert C; DeKernion, Jean B; Ratliff, Timothy L; Kavoussi, Louis R; Dalkin, Bruce L; Waters, W Bedford; MacFarlane, Michael T; Southwick, Paula C

    2017-02-01

    To compare the efficacy of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the early detection of prostate cancer, we conducted a prospective clinical trial at 6 university centers of 6,630 male volunteers 50 years old or older who underwent PSA determination (Hybritech Tandom-E or Tandem-R assays) and digital rectal examination. Quadrant biopsies were performed if the PSA level was greater than 4 μg./l. or digital rectal examination was suspicious, even if transrectal ultrasonography revealed no areas suspicious for cancer. The results showed that 15% of the men had a PSA level of greater than 4 μg./l., 15% had a suspicious digital rectal examination and 26% had suspicious findings on either or both tests. Of 1,167 biopsies performed cancer was detected in 264. PSA detected significantly more tumors (82%, 216 of 264 cancers) than digital rectal examination (55%, 146 of 264, p = 0.001). The cancer detection rate was 3.2% for digital rectal examination, 4.6% for PSA and 5.8% for the 2 methods combined. Positive predictive value was 32% for PSA and 21% for digital rectal examination. Of 160 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy and pathological staging 114 (71%) had organ confined cancer: PSA detected 85 (75%) and digital rectal examination detected 64 (56%, p = 0.003). Use of the 2 methods in combination increased detection of organ confined disease by 78% (50 of 64 cases) over digital rectal examination alone. If the performance of a biopsy would have required suspicious transrectal ultrasonography findings, nearly 40% of the tumors would have been missed. We conclude that the use of PSA in conjunction with digital rectal examination enhances early prostate cancer detection. Prostatic biopsy should be considered if either the PSA level is greater than 4 μg./l. or digital rectal examination is suspicious for cancer, even in the absence of abnormal transrectal ultrasonography findings.

  10. Is prostate cancer screening cost-effective? A microsimulation model of prostate-specific antigen-based screening for British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Reka; Gulati, Roman; Etzioni, Ruth; Black, Peter; Chi, Kim N; Coldman, Andrew J; Pickles, Tom; Tyldesley, Scott; Peacock, Stuart

    2014-08-15

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer may reduce mortality, but it incurs considerable risk of over diagnosis and potential harm to quality of life. Our objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PSA screening, with and without adjustment for quality of life, for the British Columbia (BC) population. We adapted an existing natural history model using BC incidence, treatment, cost and mortality patterns. The modeled mortality benefit of screening derives from a stage-shift mechanism, assuming mortality reduction consistent with the European Study of Randomized Screening for Prostate Cancer. The model projected outcomes for 40-year-old men under 14 combinations of screening ages and frequencies. Cost and utility estimates were explored with deterministic sensitivity analysis. The incremental cost-effectiveness of regular screening ranged from $36,300/LYG, for screening every four years from ages 55 to 69 years, to $588,300/LYG, for screening every two years from ages 40 to 74 years. The marginal benefits of increasing screening frequency to 2 years or starting screening at age 40 years were small and came at significant cost. After utility adjustment, all screening strategies resulted in a loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); however, this result was very sensitive to utility estimates. Plausible outcomes under a range of screening strategies inform discussion of prostate cancer screening policy in BC and similar jurisdictions. Screening may be cost-effective, but the sensitivity of results to utility values suggests individual preferences for quality versus quantity of life should be a key consideration.

  11. The PXR rs7643645 polymorphism is associated with the risk of higher prostate-specific antigen levels in prostate cancer patients.

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    Octavio D Reyes-Hernández

    Full Text Available Levels of enzymes that determine testosterone catabolism such as CYP3A4 have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa risk. Although some studies have related CYP3A4*1B allele, a gene polymorphism that modifies CYP3A4 expression level, with PCa risk, others have failed, suggesting that additional genetic variants may be involved. Expression of CYP3A4 is largely due to the activation of Pregnane X Receptor (PXR. Particularly, rs2472677 and rs7643645 PXR polymorphisms modify CYP3A4 expression levels. To evaluate whether PXR-HNF3β/T (rs2472677, PXR-HNF4/G (rs7643645, and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574 polymorphisms are associated with PCa a case control-study was performed. The multiple testing analysis showed that the PXR-HNF4/G polymorphism was associated with higher levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA in patients with PCa (OR = 3.99, p = 0.03. This association was stronger in patients diagnosed at the age of 65 years or older (OR = 10.8, p = 0.006. Although the CYP3A4*1B/*1B genotype was overrepresented in PCa patients, no differences were observed in the frequency of this and PXR-HNF3β/T alleles between controls and cases. Moreover, no significant association was found between these polymorphisms and PSA, Gleason grade, or tumor lymph node metastasis.

  12. The PXR rs7643645 Polymorphism Is Associated with the Risk of Higher Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Octavio D.; Vega, Libia; Jiménez-Ríos, Miguel A.; Martínez-Cervera, Pedro F.; Lugo-García, Juan A.; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Orozco, Lorena; Elizondo, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Levels of enzymes that determine testosterone catabolism such as CYP3A4 have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Although some studies have related CYP3A4*1B allele, a gene polymorphism that modifies CYP3A4 expression level, with PCa risk, others have failed, suggesting that additional genetic variants may be involved. Expression of CYP3A4 is largely due to the activation of Pregnane X Receptor (PXR). Particularly, rs2472677 and rs7643645 PXR polymorphisms modify CYP3A4 expression levels. To evaluate whether PXR-HNF3β/T (rs2472677), PXR-HNF4/G (rs7643645), and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574) polymorphisms are associated with PCa a case control-study was performed. The multiple testing analysis showed that the PXR-HNF4/G polymorphism was associated with higher levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patients with PCa (OR = 3.99, p = 0.03). This association was stronger in patients diagnosed at the age of 65 years or older (OR = 10.8, p = 0.006). Although the CYP3A4*1B/*1B genotype was overrepresented in PCa patients, no differences were observed in the frequency of this and PXR-HNF3β/T alleles between controls and cases. Moreover, no significant association was found between these polymorphisms and PSA, Gleason grade, or tumor lymph node metastasis. PMID:24924803

  13. Twelve-Month Prostate-Specific Antigen Values and Perineural Invasion as Strong Independent Prognostic Variables of Long-Term Biochemical Outcome After Prostate Seed Brachytherapy

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    Ding, William, E-mail: billyding888@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Lee, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Chamberlain, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Mary' s Regional Medical Center, Reno, Nevada (United States); Cunningham, James [Carson Urology, Carson City, Nevada (United States); Yang Lixi [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Tay, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Mary' s Regional Medical Center, Reno, Nevada (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether post-treatment prostate-specific antigen (ptPSA) values at 12 months and other clinical parameters predict long-term PSA relapse-free survival (PRFS) following prostate seed brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Records of 204 hormone-naieve patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated at St. Mary's Regional Medical Center in Reno, NV, and at Carson Tahoe Regional Medical Center in Carson City, NV, between 1998 and 2003, using I-125 or Pd-103 seed brachytherapy, were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment planning was done using a preplanned, modified peripheral loading technique. A total of 185 of 204 patients had PSA records at 12 months after implant. Variables included were age, initial pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, T stage, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk group (RG), perineural invasion (PNI), external beam boost, dose, and ptPSA levels at 12 months with cutpoints at {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml. Results: Median follow-up was 80 months, and median age was 69 years. The numbers of patients stratified by NCCN low, intermediate, and high RG were 110:65:10, respectively. Monotherapy and boost prescription doses were 145 Gy and 110 Gy for I-125, and 125 Gy and 100 Gy for Pd-103 seeds, respectively. The median dose (D90) was 95.4% of the prescribed dose. The 5-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml were 98.5%, 85.7%, 61.5%, and 22.2%, respectively. The 10-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of {<=}1 and 1.01 to 2.00 ng/ml were 90.5% and 85.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, both ptPSA and PNI were significant independent predictors of PRFS. Hazard ratios (HR) for ptPSA levels at {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml at 12 months were 1, 4.96, 27.57, and 65.10, respectively. PNI had an HR of 6.1 (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Presence of PNI and ptPSA values at 12 months are strong prognostic

  14. PSA Nadir of <0.5 ng/mL Following Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Prostate Adenocarcinoma is Associated With Freedom From Prostate-Specific Antigen Failure

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    Ko, Eric C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Department of Urology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.Stock@mountsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Because limited information exists regarding whether the rate or magnitude of PSA decline following brachytherapy predicts long-term clinical outcomes, we evaluated whether achieving a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir (nPSA) <0.5 ng/mL following brachytherapy is associated with decreased PSA failure and/or distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed our database of early-stage prostate adenocarcinoma patients who underwent brachytherapy, excluding those receiving androgen-deprivation therapy and those with <2 years follow-up. Median and mean pretreatment PSA were 6 ng/mL and 7.16 ng/mL, respectively. By clinical stage, 775 were low risk ({<=}T2a), 126 were intermediate risk (T2b), and 20 were high risk (>T2b). By Gleason score, 840 were low risk ({<=}6), 71 were intermediate risk (7), and 10 were high risk (>7). Patients were treated with brachytherapy only (I-125, n = 779, or Pd-103, n = 47), or brachytherapy + external-beam radiation therapy (n = 95). Median follow-up was 6.3 years. We noted whether nPSA <0.5 ng/mL was achieved and the time to achieve this nadir and tested for associations with pretreatment risk factors. We also determined whether this PSA endpoint was associated with decreased PSA failure or distant metastasis. Results: Absence of high-risk factors in clinical stage ({<=}T2b), Gleason score ({<=}7), and pretreatment PSA ({<=}20 ng/mL) was significantly associated with achieving nPSA <0.5 ng/mL. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients achieving nPSA <0.5 ng/mL had significantly higher long-term freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) than nonresponders (5-year FFBF: 95.2 {+-} 0.8% vs. 71.5 {+-} 6.7%; p < 0.0005). Among responders, those who achieved nPSA <0.5 ng/mL in {<=}5 years had higher FFBF than those requiring >5 years (5-year FFBF: 96.7 {+-} 0.7% vs. 80.8 {+-} 4.6%; p < 0.0005). On multivariate analysis, patients who achieved nPSA <0.5 ng/mL in {<=}5 years had significantly higher FFBF than other

  15. Relationship of spermatoscopy, prostatic acid phosphatase activity and prostate-specific antigen (p30) assays with further DNA typing in forensic samples from rape cases.

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    Romero-Montoya, Lydia; Martínez-Rodríguez, Hugo; Pérez, Miguel Antonio; Argüello-García, Raúl

    2011-03-20

    In the forensic laboratory the biological analyses for rape investigation commonly include vaginal swabs as sample material combined to biochemical tests including sperm cytology (SC) and detection of acid phosphatase activity (AP) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA, p30) for the conclusive identification of semen components. Most reports comparing these tests relied on analysis of semen samples or donor swabs taken under controlled conditions; however their individual or combined efficacy under real live sampling conditions in different laboratories is largely unknown. We carried out SC, APA and PSA analyses in vaginal swabs collected from casework rapes submitted to Mexican Forensic Laboratories at Texcoco and Toluca. On the basis of positive and negative results from each assay and sample, data were classified into eight categories (I-VIII) and compared with those obtained in the two only similar studies reported in Toronto, Canada and Hong Kong, China. SC and APA assays had the higher overall positivity in Toluca and Texcoco samples respectively and otherwise PSA had a lower but very similar positivity between these two laboratories. When compared to the previous studies some similarities were found, namely similar frequencies (at a ratio of approximately 1 out of 3) of samples being positive or negative by all techniques (Categories I and VI respectively) and a comparable overall positivity of APA and SC but higher than that of PSA. Indeed the combined results of using SC, APA and PSA tests was considered as conclusive for semen detection from approximately 1 out of 3 cases (Category I) to approximately 1 out of 2 cases in a scenario where at least SC is positive, strongly presumptive in 2 out of 3 cases (with at least one test positive) and the remainder 1 out of 3 cases (Category VI) suggested absence of semen. By determining Y-STR polymorphisms (12-loci) in additional samples obtained at Toluca laboratory, complete DNA profiles were determined from all

  16. Importance of prostate-specific antigen (PSA as a predictive factor for concordance between the Gleason scores of prostate biopsies and RADICAL prostatectomy specimens

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    Nelson Gianni de Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concordance between the Gleason scores of prostate biopsies and radical prostatectomy specimens, thereby highlighting the importance of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA level as a predictive factor of concordance. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 253 radical prostatectomy cases performed between 2006 and 2011. The patients were divided into 4 groups for the data analysis and dichotomized according to the preoperative PSA, <10 ng/mL and ≥10 ng/mL. A p-score <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The average patient age was 63.3±7.8 years. The median PSA level was 9.3±4.9 ng/mL. The overall concordance between the Gleason scores was 52%. Patients presented preoperative PSA levels <10 ng/mL in 153 of 235 cases (65% and ≥10 ng/mL in 82 of 235 cases (35%. The Gleason scores were identical in 86 of 153 cases (56% in the <10 ng/mL group and 36 of 82 (44% cases in the ≥10 ng/mL group (p = 0.017. The biopsy underestimated the Gleason score in 45 (30% patients in the <10 ng/mL group and 38 (46% patients in the ≥10 ng/mL (p = 0.243. Specifically, the patients with Gleason 3 + 3 scores according to the biopsies demonstrated global concordance in 56 of 110 cases (51%. In this group, the patients with preoperative PSA levels <10 ng/dL had higher concordance than those with preoperative PSA levels ≥10 ng/dL (61% x 23%, p = 0.023, which resulted in 77% upgrading after surgery in those patients with PSA levels ≥10 ng/dl. CONCLUSION: The Gleason scores of needle prostate biopsies and those of the surgical specimens were concordant in approximately half of the global sample. The preoperative PSA level was a strong predictor of discrepancy and might improve the identification of those patients who tended to be upgraded after surgery, particularly in patients with Gleason scores of 3 + 3 in the prostate biopsy and preoperative PSA levels ≥10 ng/mL.

  17. Prostate specific membrane antigen knockdown impairs the tumorigenicity of LNCaP prostate cancer cells by inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

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    Guo Zhenghui; Lai Yiming; Du Tao; Zhang Yiming; Chen Jieqing; Bi Liangkuan; Lin Tianxin

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) can facilitate the growth,migration,and invasion of the LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines,but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been clearly defined.Here,we investigated whether PSMA serves as a novel regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling by employing PSMA knockdown model and PI3K pharmacological inhibitor (LY294002) in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.Methods PSMA knockdown had been stably established by transfecting with lentivirus-mediated siRNA in our previous study.Then,LNCaP cells were divided into interference,non-interference,and blank groups.We first testified the efficacy of PSMA knockdown in our LNCaP cell line.Then,we compared the expression of PSMA and total/activated Akt by Westem blotting in the above three groups with or without LY294002 treatment.Furthermore,immunocytochemistry was performed to confirm the changes of activated Akt (p-Akt,Ser473) in groups.Besides,cell proliferation,migration,and cell cycle were measured by CCK-8 assay,Transwell analysis,and Flow cytometry respectively.Results After PSMA knockdown,the level of p-Akt (Ser473) but not of total-Akt (Akt1/2) was significantly decreased when compared with the non-interference and blank groups.However,LY294002 administration significantly reduced the expression of p-Akt (Ser473) in all the three groups.The results of immunocytochemistry further confirmed that PSMA knockdown or LY294002 treatment was associated with p-Akt (Ser473) down-regulation.Decrease of cell proliferation,migration,and survival were also observed upon PSMA knockdown and LY294002 treatment.Conclusions Taken together,our results reveal that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibition may serve as a novel molecular mechanism in LNCaP prostate cancer cells of PSMA knockdown and suggest that Akt (Ser473) may play a critical role as a downstream signaling target effector of PSMA in this cellular model.

  18. Preclinical evaluation of BAY 1075553, a novel {sup 18}F-labelled inhibitor of prostate-specific membrane antigen for PET imaging of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesche, Ralf; Kettschau, Georg; Gromov, Alexey V.; Boehnke, Niels; Borkowski, Sandra; Moenning, Ursula; Doehr, Olaf; Graham, Keith [Global Drug Discovery, Bayer Healthcare, Berlin, Germany, Berlin (Germany); Hegele-Hartung, Christa [Global Drug Discovery, Bayer Healthcare, Wuppertal, Germany, Wuppertal (Germany); Dinkelborg, Ludger M. [Global Drug Discovery, Bayer Healthcare, Berlin, Germany, Berlin (Germany); Piramal Imaging GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein overexpressed in prostate cancer and is therefore being explored as a biomarker for diagnosing and staging of the disease. Here we report preclinical data on BAY 1075553 (a 9:1 mixture of (2S,4S)- and (2R,4S)-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-4-phosphonomethyl-pentanedioic acid), a novel {sup 18}F-labelled small molecule inhibitor of PSMA enzymatic activity, which can be efficiently synthesized from a direct radiolabelling precursor. The {sup 18}F-radiolabelled stereoisomers of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-4-(phosphonomethyl)-pentanedioic acid were synthesized from their respective isomerically pure precursors dimethyl 2-{[bis(benzyloxy)phosphoryl ]methyl}-4-(tosyloxy)pentanedioate. In vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies were conducted in mice bearing LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC-3 tumours. Pharmacokinetic parameters and dosimetry estimates were calculated based on biodistribution studies in rodents. For non-clinical safety assessment (safety pharmacology, toxicology) to support a single-dose human microdose study, off-target effects in vitro, effects on vital organ functions (cardiovascular in dogs, nervous system in rats), mutagenicity screens and an extended single-dose study in rats were conducted with the non-radioactive racemic analogue of BAY 1075553. BAY 1075553 showed high tumour accumulation specific to PSMA-positive tumour-bearing mice and was superior to other stereoisomers tested. Fast clearance of BAY 1075553 resulted overall in low background signals in other organs except for high uptake into kidney and bladder which was mainly caused by renal elimination of BAY 1075553. A modest uptake into bone was observed which decreased over time indicating organ-specific uptake as opposed to defluorination of BAY 1075553 in vivo. Biodistribution studies found highest organ doses for kidneys and the urinary bladder wall resulting in a projected effective dose (ED) in humans of 0.0219 m

  19. High serum dihydrotestosterone examined by ultrasensitive LC-MS/MS as a predictor of benign prostatic hyperplasia or Gleason score 6 cancer in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 3-10 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Y; Uemura, H; Suzuki, K; Shibata, Y; Honma, S; Harada, M; Kubota, Y

    2016-11-03

    There has been no consensus on the role of serum androgen concentrations in prostate cancer detection in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 3-10 ng/mL. In this study, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations in blood were examined by a newly developed method using ultrasensitive liquid chromatography with two serially linked mass spectrometers (LC-MS/MS). We investigated the correlation between serum androgen levels and Gleason scores at biopsy. We analyzed data of 157 men with a total prostate-specific antigen range of 3-10 ng/mL who underwent initial systematic prostate needle biopsy for suspected prostate cancer between April 2000 and July 2003. Peripheral blood testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS. Blood levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were compared with pathological findings by multivariate analyses. Median values of prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume measured by ultrasound were 5.7 ng/mL and 31.4 cm(3) , respectively. Benign prostatic hyperplasia was diagnosed in 97 patients (61.8%), and prostate cancer was diagnosed in 60 (38.2%) patients, including 31 (19.7%) patients with a Gleason score of 6 and 29 (18.5%) patients with a Gleason score of 7-10. Median values of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in blood were 3798.7 and 371.7 pg/mL, respectively. There was a strong correlation between serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. In multivariate analysis, age, prostate volume, and serum dihydrotestosterone were significant predictors of benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 6. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for age, prostate volume, and serum dihydrotestosterone were 0.67, 0.67, and 0.67, respectively . We confirmed that high dihydrotestosterone blood levels can predict benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 6 in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 3-10 ng/mL.

  20. Técnica para obtenção do aparelho geniturinário e dosagem do PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus Technique for collecting blood for PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen dosing and genitourinary system obtaining in syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Expor a técnica utilizada na colheita de sangue para dosagem do PSA ( Prostate Specific Antigen e retirada do aparelho geniturinário no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus, e correlacionar os achados do PSA com as alterações histológicas dos anexos sexuais desse roedor. Métodos: Foram usados no experimento trinta (n= 30 Hamsters: dez (n=10 animais considerados jovens com idade média no momento da morte de 47,5 dias e vinte (n=20 animais considerados adultos com idade superior à um ano. Após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam, foi colhido diretamente da veia cava, em nível de abdome superior, cerca de 1,5mL a 2,0mL de sangue para dosagem do PSA totalpelo método ELISA, com antígeno humano. Morriam após colheita do sangue. Constatado a morte do animal, fazia-se a laparotomia retirando-se em monobloco todo aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico dos anexos sexuais. Correlacionou-se o PSA com as alterações histológicas encontradas. Resultados: Os animais após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam intraperitonealmente, obteve-se um excelente plano anestésico, que possibilitou colher via trans-dérmica da veia cava inferior em abdome superior sangue para dosagem do PSA. O animal morria após colheita do sangue. Fazia-se a laparotomia, com retirada em monobloco do aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico e comparação das alterações encontradas nos anexos sexuais com o PSA dosado. Entre os Hamsters Jovens a média do PSA encontrado foi de 0,252ng/mL. Desvio Padrão (DP = 0,36. Entre os Hamsters adultos esta média foi de 0,325 ng/mL, DP= 0,12 . Quando comparou-se as médias do PSA entre os dois grupos de jovens e adultos obteve-se p= 0,0427. Dentre os Hamsters jovens, três apresentaram PSA não detectado. A análise histológica mostrou que, entre os animais jovens, não foi identificada qualquer alteração das estruturas microscópicas da próstata, ves

  1. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer screening: Going further or time over%前列腺特异性抗原筛查前列腺癌:继续深入或时代终结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周占松

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a popular malignant tumor in old males.Serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) testing and digital rectal examination (DRE) have been considered the accepted method to screen prostate cancer in early stage.However,an elevated serum level of PSA can be caused not only by prostate cancer,but also by some benign prostate diseases,such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis.Furthermore,a low level of PSA cannot exclude prostate cancer completely.In 2009,the middle-time results of two largestscale clinical trials (PLCO and ERSPC) in the world provided controversial conclusions of PSA for prostate cancer screening.From then on,the debates on PSA testing have been continued.Although the final conclusion is still unclear,it provides an opportunity to rescan the significance of PSA test.

  2. Predictive value of serum prostate-specific antigen level for Gleason score in prostate cancer%血清前列腺特异性抗原对前列腺癌患者Gleason评分的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祺; 李彦锋; 江军; 靳风烁; 张勇; 罗勇

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨前列腺癌(prostate cancer,PCa)患者血清总前列腺特异性抗原(total prostatespecific antigen,tPSA)、游离前列腺特异性抗原(free prostate-specific antigen,fPSA)及其比值(percentage of fPSA to tPSA,f/tPSA)、结合前列腺特异性抗原(complexed prostate-specific antigen,cPSA)及其比值(percentage of cPSA to tPSA,c/tPSA)对Gleason评分的预测价值.方法 回顾性分析我院2011年12月1日至2014年12月1日依病理报告确诊为PCa,且术前血清前列腺特异性抗原(prostate-specific antigen,PSA)检查满足tPSA<100 ng/mL的病例.将所纳入病例按照tPSA<10 ng/mL、10 ng/mL≤tPSA< 20 ng/mL及20 ng/mL≤tPSA< 100 ng/mL的标准分为3组.明确不同血清tPSA区间内,上述各项预测指标与Gleason评分的相关性.结果 纳入214例PCa患者中,tPSA<10 ng/mL 69例(32.2%),10 ng/mL≤ tPSA <20 ng/mL 47例(22.0%),20 ng/mL≤ tPSA<100 ng/mL 98例(45.8%).多元Logistic回归分析显示,当tPSA<10 ng/mL时,tPSA(P <0.01)同次要组织Gleason评分(secondary organization gleason score,SGS)显著相关,fPSA(P <0.01) 、cPSA(P <0.01)同SGS和总Gleason评分(total gleason score,TGS)均显著相关;当20 ng/mL≤tPSA< 100 ng/mL时,tPSA(P<0.05)同主要组织Gleason评分(main organization gleason score,MGS)相关,fPSA(P <0.01)同MGS、SGS和TGS均显著相关,f/tPSA(P <0.01)和c/tPSA(P<0.01)同TGS显著相关.ROC曲线分析显示:当20 ng/mL≤tPSA<100 ng/mL时,tPSA[受试者工作曲线F面积(area under curve,AUC),(Auc∶0.622)]、fPSA(AUC∶0.639)及cPSA(AUC∶0.614)对判断TGS≥7具有预测价值.结论 当tPSA< 10 ng/mL或20 ng/mL≤tPSA< 100 ng/mL时,fPSA对MGS、SGS或TGS具有预测价值,且明显较其他指标与MGS、SGS或TGS的联系更加密切.

  3. High expression of prostate-specific membrane antigen in the tumor-associated neo-vasculature is associated with worse prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, Michael C; Laimer, Johannes; Chaux, Alcides; Schäfer, Georg; Obrist, Peter; Brunner, Andrea; Kronberger, Irmgard E; Laimer, Klaus; Gurel, Bora; Koller, Johann-Benedikt; Seifarth, Christof; Zelger, Bettina; Klocker, Helmut; Rasse, Michael; Doppler, Wolfgang; Bander, Neil H

    2012-08-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein expressed in prostate cancer as well as in the neo-vasculature of nonprostatic solid tumors. Here, we determined the expression pattern of PSMA in the vasculature of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using a previously validated antibody, PSMA staining distribution and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression status was evaluated in a cohort of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (n=96) using immunohistochemistry and was correlated with clinicopathological features as well as outcome. Twenty-four (25%) cases showed no detectable PSMA staining, 48 (50%) demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for PSMA in less than 50% of microvessels and 24 (25%) cases showed strong endothelial PSMA expression in more than 50% of tumor-associated microvessels. High endothelial PSMA expression was associated with greatly reduced survival (18.2 vs 77.3 months; P=0.0001) and maintained prognostic significance after adjusting for grade and stage in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio=2.19, P=0.007). Furthermore, we observed a strong association between endothelial PSMA and cancer cell-specific COX2 expression. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence for the prognostic significance of endothelial PSMA expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma and, suggest a potential interaction between arachidonic acid metabolites and endothelial PSMA expression in the tumor neo-vasculature.

  4. Long-Term Follow-Up of HLA-A2+ Patients with High-Risk, Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer Vaccinated with the Prostate Specific Antigen Peptide Homologue (PSA146-154

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Perambakam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight HLA-A2+ patients with high-risk, locally advanced or metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer were immunized with a peptide homologue of prostate-specific antigen, PSA146-154, between July 2002 and September 2004 and monitored for clinical and immune responses. Fifty percent of the patients developed strong PSA146-154-peptide-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity skin responses, tetramer and/or IFN-γ responses within one year. Thirteen patients had stable or declining serum levels of PSA one year post-vaccination. A decreased risk of biochemical progression was observed in patients who developed augmented tetramer responses at six months compared to pre-vaccination levels (P=.02. Thirteen patients have died while 15 patients remain alive with a mean overall survival of 60 months (95% CI, 51 to 68 months per Kaplan-Meier analysis. A trend towards greater overall survival was detected in men with high-risk, hormone-sensitive CaP who developed specific T-cell immunity following vaccination with PSA146-154 peptide.

  5. Sensitivity improvement of a sandwich-type ELISA immunosensor for the detection of different prostate-specific antigen isoforms in human serum using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and an ordered and hierarchically organized interfacial supramolecular architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Zúñiga, Gabriela Guadalupe; Hernández-López, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    A gold millielectrode (GME) functionalized with a mixed (16-MHA + EG3SH) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was used to fabricate an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) immunosensor for the sensitive detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a prostate cancer (PCa) biomarker, in human serum samples. To address and minimize the issue of non-specific protein adsorption, an organic matrix (amine-PEG3-biotin/avidin) was assembled on the previously functionalized electrode surface to build up an ordered and hierarchically organized interfacial supramolecular architecture: Au/16-MHA/EG3SH/amine-PEG3-biotin/avidin. The electrode was then exposed to serum samples at different concentrations of a sandwich-type immunocomplex molecule ((Btn)Ab-AgPSA-(HRP)Ab), and its interfacial properties were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Calibration curves for polarization resistance (RP) and capacitance (1/C) vs. total and free PSA concentrations were obtained and their analytical quality parameters were determined. This approach was compared with results obtained from a commercially available ELISA immunosensor. The results obtained in this work showed that the proposed immunosensor can be successfully applied to analyze serum samples of patients representative of the Mexican population.

  6. A novel immunosensing platform for highly sensitive prostate specific antigen detection based on dual-quenching of photocurrent from CdSe sensitized TiO2 electrode by gold nanoparticles decorated polydopamine nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu-Xiang; Cao, Jun-Tao; Liu, Yan-Ming; Ma, Shu-Hui

    2017-05-15

    Herein, a novel photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensing platform for highly sensitive detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) was constructed based on dual-quenching of photocurrent from CdSe sensitized TiO2 electrode by gold nanoparticles decorated dopamine-melanin nanospheres (AuNPs-Dpa-melanin CNSs). In this proposal, CdSe sensitized TiO2 was used as photoelectrochemical matrix and the functional AuNPs-Dpa-melanin CNSs were used as signal quenching element. The dual quenching of the gold nanoparticles decorated Dpa-melanin CNSs to the CdSe sensitized TiO2 was achieved as follows: (i) the strong energy transfer between the CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and Au NPs diminishes the photocurrent signal of CdSe QDs; (ii) the steric hindrance of AuNPs-Dpa-melanin CNSs partly obstructs the diffusion of the electron donor, i.e. ascorbic acid, to the surface of photoelectrode, which make the depleting efficiency of the photogenerated holes decrease, leading to a declined photocurrent intensity. On the basis of the dual quenching effect of AuNPs-Dpa-melanin CNSs, a competitive immunosensing platform for PSA was designed upon the specific binding of anti-PSA to PSA and PSA functionalized AuNPs-Dpa-melanin CNSs conjugates. This proposed immunosensor possesses wide linear range from 1.0×10(-11)gmL(-1) to 1.0×10(-7)gmL(-1) with the detection limit of 2.7pgmL(-1). Moreover, the applicability of the present method was demonstrated in the determination of PSA in human serum. The strategy creates new paradigms for PSA and other tumor markers detection and demonstrates high sensitivity, good specificity, and satisfied applicability in complex biological samples.

  7. Study on Detection Method of Serum Prostate Specific Antigen of Prostate Disease Patients%前列腺疾病患者血清前列腺特异性抗原检测方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静

    2013-01-01

    前列腺特异杭原(PSA)作为检测前列腺癌肿瘤标记物之一,在国内已日益受到重视,本文从PSA的生物学特性及检测方法包括酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)、放射免疫测定法(RIA)、化学发光免疫分析法(LICA)及电化学发光免疫分析法(ECLIA)的基本原理及方法学特点和PSA在前列腺癌诊断中的意义作一简要综述。PSA也是最有用的细胞免疫化学标志,它确认某种组织是否来源于前列腺的敏感性和特异性都高达100%。%As one of the detection of tumor marker for prostate cancer, prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been paid more and more attention at home. This article briefly introduces the biological characteristics and the basic principle and the method characteristics of test methods of PSA including enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), chemical luminescence immunoassay (LICA) and Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), and the significance of PSA in the diagnosis of prostate cancer is also reviewed. PSA is the most useful immunocytochemical marker, whose specificity and sensitivity to confirm whether a certain tissue is from prostate are as high as 100%.

  8. Target-triggered signal turn-on detection of prostate specific antigen based on metal-enhanced fluorescence of Ag@SiO2@SiO2-RuBpy composite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-Liang; Xu, Dang-Dang; Pang, Dai-Wen; Tang, Hong-Wu

    2017-02-01

    A three-layer core-shell nanostructure consisting of a silver core, a silica spacer, and a fluorescent dye RuBpy-doped outer silica layer was fabricated, and the optimal metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) distance was explored through adjusting the thickness of the silica spacer. The results show that the optimal distance is ˜10.4 nm with the maximum fluorescence enhancement factor 2.12. Then a new target-triggered MEF ‘turn-on’ strategy based on the optimized composite nanoparticles was successfully constructed for quantitative detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA), by using RuBpy as the energy donor and BHQ-2 as the acceptor. The hybridization of the complementary DNA of PSA-aptamer immobilized on the surface of the MEF nanoparticles with PSA-aptamer modified with BHQ-2, brought BHQ-2 in close proximity to RuBpy-doped silica shell and resulted in the decrease of fluorescence. In the presence of target PSA molecules, the BHQ-PSA aptamer is dissociated from the surface of the nanoparticles with the fluorescence switched on. Therefore, the assay of PSA was achieved by measuring the varying fluorescence intensity. The results show that PSA can be detected in the range of 1-100 ng ml-1 with a detection limit of 0.20 ng ml-1 (6.1 pM), which is 6.7-fold increase of that using hollow RuBpy-doped silica nanoparticles. Moreover, satisfactory results were obtained when PSA was detected in 1% serum.

  9. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) did not affect cell viability despite increased androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, P; Cardenas, H; Orihuela, P A

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether aqueous extract of Lepidium meyenii (red Maca) could inhibit growth, potentiate apoptotic activity of two anticancer drugs Taxol and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) or change mRNA expression for the androgen target genes, androgen receptor (Ar) and prostate-specific antigen (Psa) in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Red Maca aqueous extract at 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml was added to LNCaP cells, and viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 or 48 hr after treatment. Furthermore, LNCaP cells were treated with 80 μg/ml of red Maca plus Taxol or 2ME 5 μM and viability was assessed 48 hr later. Finally, LNCaP cells were treated with red Maca 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml, and 12 hr later, mRNA level for Ar or Psa was assessed by real-time PCR. Treatment with red Maca did not affect viability of LNCaP cells. Apoptotic activity induced by Taxol and 2ME in LNCaP cells was not altered with red Maca treatment. Relative expression of the mRNA for Ar and Psa increased with red Maca 20 and 40 μg/ml, but not at 80 μg/ml. We conclude that red Maca aqueous extract does not have toxic effects, but stimulates androgen signalling in LNCaP cells.

  10. Regulation of prostate-specific antigen expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.J.M. Cleutjens (Kitty)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSteroid hormones are widely distributed, cholesterol-derived, small hydrophobic molecules. They mediate a variety of biological functions, including tissue development, differentiation and homeostasis. Mammalian steroid hormones (androgens, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens

  11. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Report (RPPR) Grant Closeout Grant Resources NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grants Management Contacts ...

  12. The diagnostic values of serum prostate specific antigen and transrectal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of prostate cancer%血清 PSA 指标与经直肠超声造影对前列腺癌的诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱林; 黄君; 詹洁群; 贾天利; 刘灿

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨血清前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)指标,游离前列腺特异性抗原(f-PSA)、总前列腺特异性抗原(T-PSA),前列腺特异性抗原密度(PSAD)与经直肠前列腺超声造影对前列腺癌(Prostate Cancer,PCa)的诊断价值。方法:获取59例血清 PSA 升高的患者的 fPSA 及 T-PSA、前列腺体积的三个径(L、W、H),所有病例均经直肠超声造影检查,并在超声引导下进行前列腺穿刺。结果:前列腺癌组患者的发病年龄要比良性前列腺增生(Benign prostate hyperplasia,BPH)组大,PSAD 比 BPH 组高。前列腺癌组的 f/T-PSA 比良性前列腺增生组低。前列腺癌组患者的显影时间、达峰时间、加速时间较良性前列腺增生组患者短,绝对增强强度较良性前列腺增生组高。前列腺癌组患者的强度减半时间比良性前列腺增生组患者短。结论:前列腺癌组的前列腺造影结果表现为“快进快出”。血清 f/T-PSA、PSAD 及经直肠超声造影技术对前列腺良恶性病变的鉴别诊断具有一定的临床价值。%Aim:To study the value of serum PSA indicator (f/T-PSA,PSAD)and CETRUS (con-trast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound)in diagnosis of prostate cancer.Methods:Fifty-nine patients were elevated with serum PSA had fPSA (free prostate specific antigen)and T-PSA (total prostate specific an-tigen),three size (Long,Wide,Height),the 59 patients carry through CETRUS (contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound)and biopsy.Results:Prostate cancer patients’age of onset are older than benign prostate hyperplasia group,PSAD in prostate cancer group are higher than that of benign prostate hyper-plasia group,f/T-PSA in prostate cancer group are lower than that of benign prostate hyperplasia group. AT (arrival time),TTP (time to peak),ACT (acceleration time)in prostate cancer group are shorter than those of benign prostate hyperplasia group,absolute enhance intense (△PI =PI

  13. Comparative analysis of prostate-specific antigen free survival outcomes for patients with low, intermediate and high risk prostate cancer treatment by radical therapy. Results from the Prostate Cancer Results Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Peter; Billiet, Ignace; Bostwick, David; Dicker, Adam P; Frank, Steven; Immerzeel, Jos; Keyes, Mira; Kupelian, Patrick; Lee, W Robert; Machtens, Stefan; Mayadev, Jyoti; Moran, Brian J; Merrick, Gregory; Millar, Jeremy; Roach, Mack; Stock, Richard; Shinohara, Katsuto; Scholz, Mark; Weber, Ed; Zietman, Anthony; Zelefsky, Michael; Wong, Jason; Wentworth, Stacy; Vera, Robyn; Langley, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Very few comparative studies to date evaluate the results of treatment options for prostate cancer using the most sensitive measurement tools. PSA has been identified as the most sensitive tool for measuring treatment effectiveness. To date, comprehensive unbiased reviews of all the current literature are limited for prostate cancer. This is the first large scale comprehensive review of the literature comparing risk stratified patients by treatment option and with long-term follow-up. The results of the studies are weighted, respecting the impact of larger studies on overall results. The study identified a lack of uniformity in reporting results amongst institutions and centres. A large number of studies have been conducted on the primary therapy of prostate cancer but very few randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The comparison of outcomes from individual studies involving surgery (radical prostatectomy or robotic radical prostatectomy), external beam radiation (EBRT) (conformal, intensity modulated radiotherapy, protons), brachytherapy, cryotherapy or high intensity focused ultrasound remains problematic due to the non-uniformity of reporting results and the use of varied disease outcome endpoints. Technical advances in these treatments have also made long-term comparisons difficult. The Prostate Cancer Results Study Group was formed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of prostate cancer treatments. This international group conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify all studies involving treatment of localized prostate cancer published during 2000-2010. Over 18,000 papers were identified and a further selection was made based on the following key criteria: minimum/median follow-up of 5 years; stratification into low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups; clinical and pathological staging; accepted standard definitions for prostate-specific antigen failure; minimum patient

  14. Prostate-Specific Antigen Persistence After Radical Prostatectomy as a Predictive Factor of Clinical Relapse-Free Survival and Overall Survival: 10-Year Data of the ARO 96-02 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegel, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wiegel@uniklinik-ulm.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Ulm (Germany); Bartkowiak, Detlef; Bottke, Dirk; Thamm, Reinhard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Ulm (Germany); Hinke, Axel [WiSP, Research Institute Pharma GmbH, Langenfeld (Germany); Stöckle, Michael [Department of Urology, University Hospital Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rübe, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Homburg/Saar (Germany); Semjonow, Axel [Department of Urology, University Hospital Münster (Germany); Wirth, Manfred [Department of Urology, University Hospital Dresden (Germany); Störkel, Stephan; Golz, Reinhard [Department of Pathology, HELIOS Hospital Wuppertal (Germany); Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Giessen-Marburg (Germany); Hofmann, Rainer [Department of Urology, University Hospital Giessen-Marburg (Germany); Feldmann, Horst-Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital Fulda (Germany); Kälble, Tilman [Department of Urology, General Hospital Fulda (Germany); Siegmann, Alessandra; Hinkelbein, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Berlin (Germany); Steiner, Ursula; Miller, Kurt [Department of Urology, University Hospital Berlin (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    Objective: The ARO 96-02 trial primarily compared wait-and-see (WS, arm A) with adjuvant radiation therapy (ART, arm B) in prostate cancer patients who achieved an undetectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Here, we report the outcome with up to 12 years of follow-up of patients who retained a post-RP detectable PSA and received salvage radiation therapy (SRT, arm C). Methods and Materials: For the study, 388 patients with pT3-4pN0 prostate cancer with positive or negative surgical margins were recruited. After RP, 307 men achieved an undetectable PSA (arms A + B). In 78 patients the PSA remained above thresholds (median 0.6, range 0.05-5.6 ng/mL). Of the latter, 74 consented to receive 66 Gy to the prostate bed, and SRT was applied at a median of 86 days after RP. Clinical relapse-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and overall survival were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Patients with persisting PSA after RP had higher preoperative PSA values, higher tumor stages, higher Gleason scores, and more positive surgical margins than did patients in arms A + B. For the 74 patients, the 10-year clinical relapse-free survival rate was 63%. Forty-three men had hormone therapy; 12 experienced distant metastases; 23 patients died. Compared with men who did achieve an undetectable PSA, the arm-C patients fared significantly worse, with a 10-year metastasis-free survival of 67% versus 83% and overall survival of 68% versus 84%, respectively. In Cox regression analysis, Gleason score ≥8 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.8), pT ≥ 3c (HR 2.4), and extraprostatic extension ≥2 mm (HR 3.6) were unfavorable risk factors of progression. Conclusions: A persisting PSA after prostatectomy seems to be an important prognosticator of clinical progression for pT3 tumors. It correlates with a higher rate of distant metastases and with worse overall survival. A larger prospective study is required to determine which patient subgroups

  15. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA as Predicting Marker for Clinical Outcome and Evaluation of Early Toxicity Rate after High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR-BT in Combination with Additional External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT for High Risk Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten H. Ecke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT is a common treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa. Seventy-nine male patients (median age 71 years, range 50 to 79 with high-risk PCa underwent HDR-BT following EBRT between December 2009 and January 2016 with a median follow-up of 21 months. HDR-BT was administered in two treatment sessions (one week interval with 9 Gy per fraction using a planning system and the Ir192 treatment unit GammaMed Plus iX. EBRT was performed with CT-based 3D-conformal treatment planning with a total dose administration of 50.4 Gy with 1.8 Gy per fraction and five fractions per week. Follow-up for all patients was organized one, three, and five years after radiation therapy to evaluate early and late toxicity side effects, metastases, local recurrence, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA value measured in ng/mL. The evaluated data included age, PSA at time of diagnosis, PSA density, BMI (body mass index, Gleason score, D’Amico risk classification for PCa, digital rectal examination (DRE, PSA value after one/three/five year(s follow-up (FU, time of follow-up, TNM classification, prostate volume, and early toxicity rates. Early toxicity rates were 8.86% for gastrointestinal, and 6.33% for genitourinary side effects. Of all treated patients, 84.81% had no side effects. All reported complications in early toxicity were grade 1. PSA density at time of diagnosis (p = 0.009, PSA on date of first HDR-BT (p = 0.033, and PSA on date of first follow-up after one year (p = 0.025 have statistical significance on a higher risk to get a local recurrence during follow-up. HDR-BT in combination with additional EBRT in the presented design for high-risk PCa results in high biochemical control rates with minimal side-effects. PSA is a negative predictive biomarker for local recurrence during follow-up. A longer follow-up is needed to assess long-term outcome and toxicities.

  16. The preoperative serum ratio of total prostate specific antigen (PSA to free testosterone (FT, PSA/FT index ratio, and prostate cancer. Results in 220 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate associations of preoperative total prostate specific antigen (PSA to free testosterone (FT, the PSA/FT index ratio, with features of pathology prostate cancer (PCA and to investigate its prognostic potential in clustering the PCA population. Patients and methods: After excluding criteria, the records of 220 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP were retrospectively reviewed. Serum samples of PSA, total testosterone (TT and FT were collected at 8.00 A.M., one month after biopsies and before RP. The PSA/FT ratio was computed in the population of patients who were clustered in groups according to ranking intervals of the PSA/FT ratio which identified at least 4 clusters which were coded as A, B, C, and D. The independent associations of the PSA/FT index ratio were assessed by statistical methods and a two-sided P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: TT correlated to FT which was a significant predictor of PSA in the population of patients who were subsequently clustered, according to increasing interval values of the PSA/FT index ratio, in groups that showed a stronger linear association of FT with PSA. The PSA/FT index ratio significantly associated with pathology features of prostate cancer such as pathology Gleason score (pGS, invasion of the seminal vesicles (pT3b, proportion of positive cores (P+ and proportion of cancer involving the volume of the prostate. In the population of patients, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ independently associated with pGS ≥ 7 and pT3b; moreover, the odds ratio (OR of the PSA/FT index ratio resulted 9.11 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.11 and P+ (OR = 8.84. In the PCA population, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ also independently associated with pT3b PCA; interestingly, the OR of PSA/FT index resulted 54.91 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.31 and P+ (26.43. Conclusions: Preoperative PSA/FT index ratio is an independent strong factor which

  17. Evaluation of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer in Patients with Prostate-specific Antigen <20 ng/ml

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Wang; Jian-Ye Wang; Chun-Mei Li; Ya-Qun Zhang; Jian-Long Wang; Ben Wan; Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background:The European Society of Urogenital Radiology has built the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) for standardizing the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa).This study evaluated the PI-RADS diagnosis method in patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <20 ng/ml.Methods:A total of 133 patients with PSA <20 ng/ml were prospectively recruited.T2-weighted (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance images of the prostate were acquired before a 12-core transrectal prostate biopsy.Each patient's peripheral zone was divided into six regions on the images;each region corresponded to two of the 12 biopsy cores.T2WI,DWI,and T2WI + DWI scores were computed according to PI-RADS.The diagnostic accuracy of the PI-RADS score was evaluated using histopathology of prostate biopsies as the reference standard.Results:PCa was histologically diagnosed in 169 (21.2%) regions.Increased PI-RADS score correlated positively with increased cancer detection rate.The cancer detection rate for scores 1 to 5 was 2.8%,15.0%,34.6%,52.6%,and 88.9%,respectively,using T2WI and 12.0%,20.2%,48.0%,85.7%,and 93.3%,respectively,using DWI.For T2WI + DWI,the cancer detection rate was 1.5% (score 2),13.5% (scores 3-4),41.3% (scores 5-6),75.9% (scores 7-8),and 92.3% (scores 9-10).The area under the curve for cancer detection was 0.700 (T2WI),0.735 (DWI) and 0.749 (T2WI + DWI).The sensitivity and specificity were 53.8% and 89.2%,respectively,when using scores 5-6 as the cutoff value for T2WI + DWI.Conclusions:The PI-RADS score correlates with the PCa detection rate in patients with PSA <20 ng/ml.The summed score ofT2WI + DWI has the highest accuracy in detection of PCa.However,the sensitivity should be further improved.

  18. Pre-therapeutic dosimetry of normal organs and tissues of {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617 prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) inhibitor in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabasakal, Levent; AbuQbeitah, Mohammad; Ayguen, Aslan; Yeyin, Nami [Istanbul University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Ocak, Meltem [Istanbul University, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmacy Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Demirci, Emre [Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Toklu, Turkay [Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-12-15

    {sup 177}Lu-617-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand seems to be a promising tracer for radionuclide therapy of progressive prostate cancer. However, there are no published data regarding the radiation dose given to the normal tissues. The aim of the present study was to estimate the pretreatment radiation doses in patients who will undergo radiometabolic therapy using a tracer amount of {sup 177}Lu-labeled PSMA ligand. The study included seven patients with progressive prostate cancer with a mean age of 63.9 ± 3.9 years. All patients had prior PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and had intense tracer uptake at the lesions. The injected {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617 activity ranged from 185 to 210 MBq with a mean of 192.6 ± 11.0 MBq. To evaluate bone marrow absorbed dose 2-cc blood samples were withdrawn in short variable times (3, 15, 30, 60, and 180 min and 24, 48, and 120 h) after injection. Whole-body images were obtained at 4, 24, 48, and 120 h post-injection (p.i.). The geometric mean of anterior and posterior counts was determined through region of interest (ROI) analysis. Attenuation correction was applied using PSMA PET/CT images. The OLINDA/EXM dosimetry program was used for curve fitting, residence time calculation, and absorbed dose calculations. The calculated radiation-absorbed doses for each organ showed substantial variation. The highest radiation estimated doses were calculated for parotid glands and kidneys. Calculated radiation-absorbed doses per megabecquerel were 1.17 ± 0.31 mGy for parotid glands and 0.88 ± 0.40 mGy for kidneys. The radiation dose given to the bone marrow was significantly lower than those of kidney and parotid glands (p < 0.05). The calculated radiation dose to bone marrow was 0.03 ± 0.01 mGy/MBq. Our first results suggested that {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-617 therapy seems to be a safe method. The dose-limiting organ seems to be the parotid glands rather than kidneys and bone marrow. The lesion radiation doses are

  19. An Automated Micro-Total Immunoassay System for Measuring Cancer-Associated α2,3-linked Sialyl N-Glycan-Carrying Prostate-Specific Antigen May Improve the Accuracy of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tomokazu; Yoneyama, Tohru; Tobisawa, Yuki; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Kurosawa, Tatsuo; Nakamura, Kenji; Narita, Shintaro; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Duivenvoorden, Wilhelmina; Pinthus, Jehonathan H.; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Koie, Takuya; Habuchi, Tomonori; Arai, Yoichi; Ohyama, Chikara

    2017-01-01

    The low specificity of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) is a major issue worldwide. The aim of this study to examine whether the serum PCa-associated α2,3-linked sialyl N-glycan-carrying PSA (S2,3PSA) ratio measured by automated micro-total immunoassay systems (μTAS system) can be applied as a diagnostic marker of PCa. The μTAS system can utilize affinity-based separation involving noncovalent interaction between the immunocomplex of S2,3PSA and Maackia amurensis lectin to simultaneously determine concentrations of free PSA and S2,3PSA. To validate quantitative performance, both recombinant S2,3PSA and benign-associated α2,6-linked sialyl N-glycan-carrying PSA (S2,6PSA) purified from culture supernatant of PSA cDNA transiently-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells were used as standard protein. Between 2007 and 2016, fifty patients with biopsy-proven PCa were pair-matched for age and PSA levels, with the same number of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients used to validate the diagnostic performance of serum S2,3PSA ratio. A recombinant S2,3PSA- and S2,6PSA-spiked sample was clearly discriminated by μTAS system. Limit of detection of S2,3PSA was 0.05 ng/mL and coefficient variation was less than 3.1%. The area under the curve (AUC) for detection of PCa for the S2,3PSA ratio (%S2,3PSA) with cutoff value 43.85% (AUC; 0.8340) was much superior to total PSA (AUC; 0.5062) using validation sample set. Although the present results are preliminary, the newly developed μTAS platform for measuring %S2,3PSA can achieve the required assay performance specifications for use in the practical and clinical setting and may improve the accuracy of PCa diagnosis. Additional validation studies are warranted. PMID:28241428

  20. Relationship between serum prostate-specific antigen levels and body mass index in Beijing men over 50 years of age%北京市社区中老年男性体重指数和前列腺特异性抗原相关性的多中心研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义; 王增武; 那彦群; 周哲; 田野; 邵强; 陈山; 洪宝发; 张祥华; 任向红; 孙文学

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Methods A cross-sectional study was performed at community of Beijing in men over 50 years old. Height, weight and PSA (beth serum TPSA and FPSA) were assessed in 1573 men. According to the redefined World Health Organization (WHO) criterion for Asia Pacific Region, BMI was categorized as light weight (BMI0.1).结论 BMI影响血清PSA结果,BMI和PSA呈负相关.在前列腺癌诊断时,应当考虑BMI对PSA的影响.

  1. Inhibitory effects of eppididymal protease inhibitor on the activity of prostate specific antigen%附睾蛋白酶抑制剂对前列腺特异性抗原活性的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋荣江; 王增军; 牛晓兵; 王鹏; 贾跃军; 苏仕峰; 张炜; 王心如

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effects of the epididymal protease inhibitor (Eppin) on the activity of prostate specific antigen (PSA).Methods Recombinant Eppin and recombinant PSA were produced by molecular cloning technique in vitro.The enzymatical analysis of Eppin inhibiting PSA was done in the reaction buffer 0.1 mol/L Tris-HC1,pH 8.3,1.0 mol/L NaCl.The hydrolysis of velocity of PSA to the chromogenic substrate S-2586 was detected by spectrometer.Results Recombinant Eppin and PSA with high purity were produced by molecular cloning technique.The recombinant PSA had the enzymatical activity by hydrolyzing its substrate S-2586.0.3μmol/L PSA and the substate S-2586 reaction to the saturation curve analysis showed that Km( response rate of half the maximum reaction rate when the substrate concentration) value was 0.5μmol,and substrate saturated concentration was 0.2 mmol/L.With the increases of Eppin (0,0.56,1.16,2.32μmol/L),the hydrolysis velocity of PSA to S-2586 was slowed down.Conclusion Eppin,as a new inhibitor,specifically inhibits the activity of PSA.%目的 观察附睾蛋白酶抑制剂(Eppin)是否抑制前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)酶活性.方法 利用分子克隆技术体外构建、表达、纯化重组Eppin和PSA.利用PSA水解变色底物S-2586的颜色变化,于分光光度计下测定其吸光度值,代表PSA酶反应速度,反应体系是在缓冲液0.1 mol/LTris-HCl,pH8.3,1.0 mol/L NaCl中进行,观察不同浓度Eppin的加入对PSA酶反应速度的影响.结果通过体外重组技术获得较高纯度和生理活性的Eppin和PSA,通过PSA水解变色底物S-2586的检测,重组PSA具有酶活性,0.3 μmol/L PSA与底物S-2586反应的饱和曲线分析显示Km(反应速度为最大反应速度一半时的底物浓度)值是0.5 μmol,底物饱和浓度0.2 mmol/L,分别加入4中不同浓度的重组Eppin 0、0.56、1.16、2.32 μmol/L,随着Eppin浓度的增加,PSA水解其变色底物S-2586速度明显减慢,PSA活性

  2. 复合前列腺特异性抗原在诊断前列腺癌转移中的价值%The usefulness of complexed prostate-specific antigen in predicting metastasis in patients with prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静雅; 贾丽; 焦晓青; 张鹏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the value of complexed prostate-specific antigen (cPSA) in predicting metastasis in patients with prostate cancer.Methods From January 2012 to April 2014,the clinical data of 74 patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer in our hospital was retrospective reviewed.The prostate cancer was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy and postoperative pathologic diagnosis.The patients were divided to 2 groups according to metastases status.There were 38 patients in the group of metastasis and 36 patients in the group of without metastasis.In metastasis group,the bone metastasis was found in 36 cases.There is only one case with lung metastasis and one case with lymph node metastasis.In the group without metastasis,the T stages classification were T1-T2 in 17 cases and T3-T4 in 19 cases.While,10 cases with T1-T2 stage and 28 cases with T3-T4 stage were confirmed in the group with metastasis.There was no statistical significance of T stages and mean age in two groups (P>0.05).The level of cPSA in the serum was detected by chemiluminescent immunoassay,the level of tPSA,fPSA were detected by electro-chemiluminescent immunoassay,fPSA/tPSA,cPSA/tPSA were evaluated and the corresponding specificity were calculated.The correlation of age with tPSA,cPSA were analysed.The differences in PSA,fPSA/tPSA,cPSA/tPSA were compared between metastasis and non-metastasis group.ROC curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic value of cPSA and tPSA,In the meantime,area of ROC curves were compared by Z test.Results The age was not related to the value of tPSA (r=-0.09,P=0.12) and cPSA(r=-0.38,P=0.14).The median levels of tPSA,fPSA,and cPSA are 29.88μg/L,2.18 μg/L and 18.86 μg/L in the group without metastasis,respectively.The median levels of tPSA,fPSA,and cPSA were 410.05 μg/L,51.50 μ.g/L and 290.40 μg/L in the group with metastasis,respectively.Significant differences of those results could be found in two groups (P<0.05).fPSA/tPSA was 0

  3. Relationship study of components of metabolic syndrome and serum prostate-specific antigen levels%代谢综合征诊断指标与前列腺特异性抗原相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 王玉秋; 袁晓东; 丁森泰; 李子尧; 吕家驹

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨代谢综合征(MS)诊断指标对前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)水平的影响.方法 选择20~79岁健康查体男性4833例,分别测量其血压、身高、体重,计算体重指数(BMI),检测空腹状态下生化指标[血糖(FBG)、总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL)、高低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL)]及血清PSA;按NCEPATPⅢ和中华医学会糖尿病学分会的诊断标准定义代谢综合征.结果 本样本中MS 1060例(21.9%),样本人群PSA水平随着MS各诊断指标阳性数量的增加而逐渐降低(P=0.008).在MS各诊断指标中,肥胖者和TG升高者中血清PSA水平较非肥胖者和非TG升高者明显降低(P均<0.01);高血压者中血清PSA水平则较血压正常者明显升高(P=0.001).血清PSA水平与年龄(r=0.239,P<0.001)、收缩压(r=0.085,P<0.001)和TC(r=0.033,P=0.010)呈正相关,与BMI(r=-0.061,P<0.001)、FBG(r=-0.030,P=0.019)和TG(r=-0.043,P=0.001)呈负相关;而与舒张压(r=-0.009,P=0.257)、HDL(r=-0.017,P=0.118)无相关性.MS组中BMI、收缩压、舒张压、FBG、TG、TC等指标均显著高于非MS组(P均<0.05),而HDL及PSA水平则明显降低(P均<0.01).结论 MS与低PSA水平呈现相关性,血清PSA水平受到年龄、MS诊断指标(肥胖、收缩压、FBG、TG和TC)的影响.%Objective To investigate the relationship between components of metabolic syndrome (MS) and serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Methods In 4833 males aged 20-79 years, the blood pressure, height and body weight were measured, and body mass index ( BMI) was calculated. The biochemical analyses of the fasting blood glucose ( FBG) , triglyceride ( TG) , high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and serum PSA were performed in the overnight-fasting state. MS was defined according to the definition of NCEP ATP IH and CDS. Results The incidence of MS in the study population was 21.9% (1060 of 4833 ). Serum PSA levels

  4. Identification of Immunoreactive Leishmania infantum Protein Antigens to Asymptomatic Dog Sera through Combined Immunoproteomics and Bioinformatics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in countries in the Mediterranean basin, where dogs are the domestic reservoirs and represent important elements in the transmission of the disease. Since the major focal areas of human VL exhibit a high prevalence of seropositive dogs, the control of canine VL could reduce the infection rate in humans. Efforts toward this have focused on the improvement of diagnostic tools, as well as on vaccine development. The identification of parasite antigens including suitable major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I- and/or II-restricted epitopes is very important since disease protection is characterized by strong and long-lasting CD8+ T and CD4+ Th1 cell-dominated immunity. In the present study, total protein extract from late-log phase L. infantum promastigotes was analyzed by two-dimensional western blots and probed with sera from asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs. A total of 42 protein spots were found to differentially react with IgG from asymptomatic dogs, while 17 of these identified by Coommasie stain were extracted and analyzed. Of these, 21 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry; they were mainly involved in metabolism and stress responses. An in silico analysis predicted that the chaperonin HSP60, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, enolase, cyclophilin 2, cyclophilin 40, and one hypothetical protein contain promiscuous MHCI and/or MHCII epitopes. Our results suggest that the combination of immunoproteomics and bioinformatics analyses is a promising method for the identification of novel candidate antigens for vaccine development or with potential use in the development of sensitive diagnostic tests. PMID:26906226

  5. 老年人低血清前列腺特异抗原前列腺癌病例报道并文献复习%Clinical and pathological analysis of prostate cancer with low level of serum prostate specific antigen: a report of 4 elderly cases and literatures review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈倩; 谷永红

    2013-01-01

    目的 提高对老年人低血清前列腺特异抗原(PSA)型前列腺癌的临床病理特征的认识. 方法 回顾分析328例前列腺癌患者资料,对其中4例低PSA型老年前列腺癌患者的临床病理资料进行分析,结合文献资料讨论低血清PSA前列腺癌的可能原因和诊断方法. 结果 4例患者平均年龄71.3岁,入院平均PSA值为1.96 μg/L;2例患者肛指检查异常;穿刺病理诊断腺癌2例(其中1例为导管腺癌),神经内分泌癌2例.对2例前列腺神经内分泌癌行内分泌治疗;对其余2例前列腺癌行前列腺癌根治术加内分泌辅助治疗. 结论 低PSA型前列腺癌起病隐匿,易于漏诊,诊断和监测不依赖于PSA.需结合清游离PSA、PSA密度等多项指标及直肠指诊等基础检查协助鉴别诊断.%Objective To investigate the clinical and pathological features of prostate cancer with low level of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in elderly patients.Methods Data of 328 patients with prostate cancer were retrospectively analyzed.Clinical and pathological data of 4 prostate cancer patients with low serum PSA level were analyzed.Potential risk factors and diagnostic methods of prostate cancer with low serum PSA level were discussed based on the clinical data combined with literatures.Results Mean age of the 4 patients was 71.3 years.Mean PSA value on admission was 1.96 μg/L.2 patients had abnormal digital anal examination results.2 patients were pathologically diagnosed as adenocarcinoma after puncture,among which 1 had duct adenocarcinoma,and the other 2 patients were pathologically diagnosed as neuroendocrine carcinoma after puncture.2 patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostate were treated with endocrine therapy,and the other 2 patients were treated with radical prostatectomy plus auxiliary endocrine therapy.Conclusions Prostate cancer with low serum PSA level has an insidious onset,which is prone to miss the diagnosis.It should be paid sufficient

  6. Significance of the normal level of prostate specific antigen in six cases with prostate cancer and review of the literature%血清前列腺特异性抗原水平正常的前列腺癌6例及文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯歌; 戴峰

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the measure to avoid the missed diagnosis of prostate carcinoma in patients with normal level of prostate specific antigen( PSA) . Methods:Two hundred and three prostate hyperplasia patients with normal PSA level were treated with transurethral resection of the prostate,and the clinical data of 6 cases with prostate carcinoma diagnosed by pathological examination were retrospectively analyzed. Results:The signs of prostate carcinoma in 6 cases with prostate carcinoma were not found by the conventional ultrasonography examination and anus digital,and the 6 patients were the first visit to hospitalization. Among 6 cases,1 case was undifferentiation,1 case was middle differentiation with severe condition of prostate carcinoma,the disease developed rapidly, and 2 cases died in a short period of time. The rest 4 patients were highly differentiation prostate carcinoma, and still live now. Conclusions:The normal level of prostate specific antigen can be found in the early incidental prostate carcinoma and progressive prostate carcinoma,which can lead to the missed diagnosis. The application of ultrasound combined with nuclear magnetic resonance, especially transrectal ultrasonography of prostate and prostate specific antigen rate, should be considered. The prostatic puncture in suspected patient should be performed to improve the early diagnosis rate of prostate carcinoma.%目的::探讨在血清前列腺特异抗原( PSA)水平正常时,如何避免前列腺癌的漏诊。方法:对203例血清PSA水平正常的前列腺增生患者在经尿道前列腺电切术后,病理检查中发现的6例前列腺癌患者临床资料进行回顾分析。结果:6例前列腺癌患者普通超声检查和肛门指诊未发现前列腺癌的征象,均为初次就诊入院,6例患者中病理检查有1例差(未)分化和1例中分化前列腺癌,病情发展迅速,短期内死亡。其余4例病理检查为高分化前列腺癌的患者目前仍存活。

  7. 前列腺特异性抗原细胞毒性T淋巴细胞表位多抗原肽的抗肿瘤免疫效应研究%Study on Anti-tumor Immune Responses of Epitopes Multiple Antigen Peptide of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes from Prostate Specific Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建川; 张波; 邵阳

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate anti-tumor immune response of epitopes multiple antigen peptide of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) from prostate specific antigen (PSA). METHODS: Dendritic cells (DC) were generated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers with positive (HLA)-A2.1 in vitro. Response cells were cultured and prepared in accordance with single antigen peptide group (PSA146-154 group), multiple antigen peptide group (PSA146-154-MAP4 group) and negative control group (human HIV virus epitopes peptide HIVpol476-484). Using prostate cancer cell line LNCaP, DU-145 and colon cancer SW480 cells as target cells, and the specific killing effect of the number ratio of response cell to targe cells (10:1, 20; 1, 40:1, 80:1) were determined by a standard 4 h61Cr release assay (using specific killing rate as index). ELISPOT was used to detect the number of CD8+ response cells of IFN-γ. RESULTS: There were no specific killing effects of response cells on DU-145 and SW480 cells, while significant specific killing effects of response cells on LNCaP cells were found in PSA146-154 group and PSA146-154-MAP4 group and that of PSA146-154-MAP4 group was superior to PSA146-154 group. It was positively correlated to the number ratio of response cell to targe cells. Compared with negative control group, the number of CD8+ response cells of IFN-γ in PSA145-154 group and PSA146-154-MAP4 group increased significantly; compared with PSA145-154 group, the number of CD8+ response cells in PSA146-,154-MAP4 group increased significantly (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: PSA multiple antigen peptides not only elicit a more powerful specific anti-tumor immune response, but also elicit a more powerful non-specific anti-tumor immune response, compared with single antigen peptide.%目的:研究前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)来源的细胞毒性T淋巴细胞(CTL)表位多抗原肽对前列腺癌的抗肿瘤免疫效应.方法:体外分离培养来源于人白细胞抗原(HLA)-A2.1阳

  8. 体重指数及血脂水平与血清前列腺特异抗原的关系:一组中国50岁以下人群的研究%Body mass index and serum lipid profile influence serum prostate-specific antigen in Chinese men younger than 50 years of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Liu; Jian-Ye Wang; Ling Zhu; Gang Wan

    2011-01-01

    This study is to assess the potential factors that could affect the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in healthy younger men.We evaluated the associations of age, body mass index (BMI) and serum lipid profile with serum PSA level in 6774 Chinese men (aged 20-49 years) who received a routine health examination. Eligible men were classified into 10-year age groups. BMI was categorized as underweight (< 18.5), normal (18.5-22.9), overweight (23.0-24.9), obese (25.0-29.9) and very obese (>30)according to the redefined World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for the Asia-Pacific region. PSA levels were compared among groups as well. In multiple linear regression analysis, PSA was positively correlated with age (P<0.0001). Negative correlations existed between PSA and BMI (P<0.0001) and triglyceride level (P=0.01). No relationship could be found between PSA and serum cholesterol (P=0.711) or high-density lipoprotein (HDL; P =0.665). In addition, we found that serum PSA levels increased with age and decreased with BMI. Our study demonstrates that age, BMI and triglyceride levels influence the PSA level in men <50 years of age.

  9. Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for Quantitative Analysis of Prostate Specific Antigen Complexed toα1-Antichymotrypsin in Human Serum%化学发光免疫分析法检测血清中前列腺特异抗原复合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周友俊; 李娇霞; 程绘珺; 杨乔芬; 何美琼; 郭丽萍; 邓智勇

    2016-01-01

    Eight mouse hybridoma cell lines which stably secreted monoclonal antibodies ( McAbs ) against human prostate-specific antigen-α1-antichymotrypsin complex ( PSA-ACT ) were obtained through hybridoma technique. After purification, the immunological characters of 8 McAbs were identified and classified by epitopes analysis through indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) . A pair of McAbs was chosen from above 8 McAbs, based on which a highly sensitive, simple and rapid chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay ( CLEIA) was developed for determination of PSA-ACT in human serums using the lumino-H2 O2 reaction catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase ( HRP) as the chemiluminescence system. Several experiment factors such as coating buffer, coating concentration, dilution ratio of PSA-ACT-HRP complex, incubation time, immunoreaction protocol and chemiluminescence reaction time were optimized. The results showed that the linear range of the proposed method for PSA-ACT determination was 0-40 ng/mL (R2=0. 9943), with the detection limit of 0. 53 ng/mL. The inter-assay relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 4. 6%-6. 6%, and intra-assay RSDs were 5 . 7%-8 . 0%. The recoveries of PSA-ACT at three spiked levels in serum samples were 95. 4%-104. 2%. The proposed method exhibited a cross-reactivity of 0. 6% with free-PSA. The proposed method is stable, sensitive, rapid and simple, and provides a foundation for the development of PSA-ACT CLEIA kit and shows great value in clinical auxiliary diagnosis of prostate cancer.%采用杂交瘤技术构建抗前列腺特异抗原-α1-抗胰凝乳蛋白酶( Prostate specific antigen-α1-antichymot-rypsin complex,PSA-ACT)单克隆抗体(单抗)细胞株,共获得8株稳定分泌PSA-ACT单抗的细胞株,纯化后进行免疫特性鉴定并做单抗配对。选择其中一对单抗,采用辣根过氧化物酶( HRP)催化鲁米诺( lumino)-H2 O2化学发光体系,建立了测定人血清中PSA-ACT浓度的化

  10. P504S,34βE12,P63及前列腺特异性抗原在前列腺癌中的表达特点及诊断意义%Expressive characteristics of P504S, 34βE12, P63, and prostate-specific antigen in prostatic carcinoma and the significance for diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新民; 高娅文; 杨宇

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察α-甲基-辅酶A-消旋酶(alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase,P504S)、角蛋白-903(34βE12)、P63及前列腺特异性抗原(prostate-specific antigen,PSA)在不同性质前列腺穿刺标本中的表达特点,探讨它们在前列腺癌病理诊断及鉴别诊断中的意义.方法:收集中南大学湘雅二医院前列腺穿刺活检标本238例,其中前列腺癌140例,前列腺转移性癌10例,良性前列腺增生72例,前列腺高级别上皮内瘤16例.采用免疫组织化学方法检测P504S,34βE12,P63及PSA在前列腺病变中的表达情况.结果:P504S在前列腺癌中呈高表达(阳性率91.43%),在其他3种组织中均表达很低(P<0.05);34βE12与P63在前列腺癌中阳性率(1.42%)均低于高级别前列腺上皮内瘤及前列腺增生(分别为93.75%和97.22%,P<0.05);PSA除在前列腺转移癌中呈阴性表达外,在其他3种组织均为阳性.结论:联合检测P504S,34βE12,P63及PSA,并结合病理形态综合分析,才能有助于前列腺癌的确诊.%Objective To observe the expression of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase ( P504S), cytokeratin-903 ( 34 βE12 ), P63, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in prostate needle biopsy specimens and to explore the significance in diagnosis and differential diagnosis for prostatic carcinoma.Methods The expression ofP504S,34βE12,P63, and PSA was detected by immunohistochemistry in 238 cases of prostate needle biopsy tissues embedded in paraffin, which includes the samples from prostatic carcinoma ( n = 140 ), prostate metastatic carcinoma ( n = 10 ), benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH, n =72), and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia(HGPIN, n = 16). Results The expression of P504S was significantly higher in prostatic carcinoma than that in prostate metastatic carcinoma, HGPIN,and BPH(91.43% vs. 20% ,25% , or 9.72% , P <0.05 ). The positive rate for both 34βE12 and P63 were 1.42% in prostatic carcinoma,which was lower than that of HGPIN and BPH ( P < 0

  11. Relationship of age over 50 years and serum prostate specific antigen in men of Beijing multicentre communities%北京多中心社区50岁以上男性年龄与前列腺特异性抗原的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昕; 张祥华; 张争; 李淑清; 林健; BPC-BPH研究小组

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨北京地区中老年男性年龄与血清前列腺特异性抗原(prostate-specific antigen,PSA)的关系.方法:采用多中心前瞻性分层多阶段整群不等比例随机抽样方法选取北京地区50岁以上中老年男性测定血清总PSA (T-PSA)、游离PSA (F-PSA)及F/T的比值,分析年龄与PSA水平的相关性.结果:共1 027例符合标准的研究对象,T-PSA及F-PSA与年龄呈正相关(r=0.208,P<0.001;r=0.230,P<0.001),F/T比值与年龄无相关性(r =0.055,P>0.079).T-PSA及F-PSA随年龄的增长而升高,50~ 59岁、60~69岁、70 ~79岁和80岁以上人群的95%可信区间上限分别为1.55、2.08、2.40和3.52 μg/L.结论:北京地区中老年男性T-PSA和F-PSA水平与年龄呈正相关,而F/T比值与年龄无相关性.%Objective; To investigate the relationship of prostate-specific antigen ( PSA) with age in men older than 50 years in Beijing. Methods; A cross-sectional study was performed in men aged over 50 years at communities in Beijing, and serum total PSA (T-PSA) and free PSA (F-PSA) levels were assayed. The relationship between age and PSA was analyzed with simple linear regression. Results; A total of 1 027 subjects were enrolled. Serum T-PSA and F-PSA levels were positively correlated with age ( r =0. 208 ,P 0.079). The upper limit (95% Cl) for serum PSA; 1.55 jxg/L for 50 -59 years, 2.08 p.g/L for 60-69 years, 2.40 jxg/L for 70 -79 years, 3. 52 (xg/L for 5s80 years. Conclusion; Of the men aged over 50 years in Beijing, there is a positive correlation between serum T-PSA, F-PSA and age; whereas F/T ratio isn' t correlated with age.

  12. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenfeng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wenzhou (China); Yin, Weiwei [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); Ou, Rongying [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Wenzhou (China); Chen, Ting; Xiong, Lingling; Xu, Yunsheng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Dermatovenereology, Wenzhou (China); Cheng, Dezhi; Xie, Deyao [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Wenzhou (China); Zheng, Xiangwu; Zhao, Liang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Institutes of Intelligent and Molecular Imaging, Wenzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 100 % (P > 0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels. (orig.)

  13. Predictive value of prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Alvaro Humberto; Ravn, Lene

    2014-01-01

    and predictive value of PSA in HIV+ men. METHODS: Men with PCa (n=21) and up to two matched controls (n=40) with prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were selected. Cases and controls were matched on date of first and last sample, age, region of residence and CD4 count...... at first sample date. Total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Conditional logistic regression models investigated associations between markers and PCa. Sensitivity and specificity of using tPSA >4 µg/L to predict PCa was calculated. Mixed....../L, respectively, but were stable in controls, with a median at last sample of 0.8 (0.5-1.4) and 0.2 (0.2-0.4) µg/L (Figure). Higher levels of tPSA and fPSA were associated with higher odds of PCa at first sample [OR for 2-fold higher 4.7 (CI: 1.7-12.9) and 5.4 (1.7-17.4)]. Elevated tPSA values in cases were...

  14. Immunoradiometric assay for quantification of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Miriam [Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, Havana (Cuba). Dept.of Radiochemistry]. E-mail: mirian@fctn.isctn.edu.cu

    2002-07-01

    To develop an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for quantification of total PSA in serum, we carried out the evaluation of a panel of 12 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The mAbs (CB-PSA 1 to CB-PSA 10) were developed in the Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB) Havana, Cuba and mAbs (CMC-H9, CMC-A5) in the Center of Immunology and Biologics (CENIB), Camaguey, Cuba. The inhibition assays were carried out using as reference a commercial equimolar assay for total PSA. For the evaluation, the mAbs were labeled with {sup 125} I by the method of Chloramine T and the capture mAbs were used conjugated with biotin. For separation, it was used the avidin coupled to magnetic particles. To validate the assay we evaluated the sensibility, inter and intraassay precision and the correlation with reference assay in 65 samples of patient under suspicion of prostate cancer. The partner CB-PSA 4 / CB-PSA 9 (capture / tracer) showed the best results in the IRMA. The developed assay presented a detection limit of 0.025 mg/L, a good intra and interassay precision and a high correlation with the reference assay. (author)

  15. Analysis of Microtubule Mediated Functions of Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    proteins. Proteins such as CD3-, LIMP-II, tyrosi- nase CD4, and GLUT4 have a [DE]XXXL type signal, whereas a DXXLL signal has been characterized in...PII and the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter GLUT4 . J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39874–39885. Sekiguchi, M., Okamoto, K., and Sakai, Y. (1989). Release of

  16. Prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen density cutoff points among Indonesian population suspected for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Anies Shahab

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: PSA and PSAD cutoff point for Indonesian men in this series is relatively different from international consensus. Furthermore, these data show that PSA and PSAD cutoff point must be adjusted to racial variation to discriminate between malignant and benign disease. Urinary retention is a significant factor for PSA cutoff increase.

  17. Immunochromatographic antigen testing alone is sufficient to identify asymptomatic refugees at risk of severe malaria presenting to a single health service in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Pasquale L; Wheeler, Michael; Lemoh, Christopher; Chunilal, Sanjeev

    2014-10-01

    Current screening guidelines for malaria in new refugees include a combination of thick and thin film examination and immunochromatographic antigen test (ICT). However, as the prevalence of malaria in our population has decreased due to changing refugee demographics, we sought to determine if an ICT alone can reliably exclude malaria in our asymptomatic refugee population.A retrospective analysis was conducted of all investigations for malaria performed from 1 August 2011 to 31 July 2013, including thick and thin blood film examination, BinaxNOW ICT, and external morphological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) validation where applicable.Malaria was diagnosed in 45 of 1248 (3.6%) patients investigated, all of whom were symptomatic and the majority (71.1%) returned travellers. All 599 asymptomatic refugees screened were negative. Overall, 42 of 45 malaria cases were detected by the ICT; sensitivity 93.3% (95% CI 80.7-98.3%) and negative predictive value (NPV) 99.8% (99.2-99.9%). All 21 cases of Plasmodium falciparum and 20 of 22 cases of Plasmodium vivax were detected, giving a sensitivity of 100% (80.8-100%) and 90.9% (69.4-98.4%) respectively. Too few cases of Plasmodium malariae and no cases of Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium knowlesi were diagnosed for adequate assessment to be carried out.These data suggest that full malaria screening in all asymptomatic refugees with the combination of thick and thin blood films and rapid antigen test may not be warranted. Alternative screening approaches should be considered, including the use of ICT alone, or limiting screening of asymptomatic refugees to only those originating from countries with high incidence of malaria.

  18. Predictive value of prostate-specific antigen and Gleason sum for results of radionuclide bone scintigraphy in patients with prostate cancer%前列腺特异性抗原和Gleason评分对前列腺癌患者核素骨扫描结果的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天昱; 何志嵩; 周利群; 陈晓鹏; 李学松; 贾元歆; 成俊; 张建华; 蔡林; 张争; 龚侃

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨前列腺癌患者前列腺特异性抗原(prostate-specific antigen,PSA)水平以及穿刺病理Gleason评分对核素骨扫描结果的预测价值,以确定对中国前列腺癌初诊患者进行核素骨扫描检查的恰当时机.方法:对1994年1月至2005年12月间在北京大学第一医院泌尿外科住院治疗的624例经病理检查确诊为前列腺癌的患者资料进行同顾性分析,评价血清总PSA(total prostate specific antigen,tPSA)、前列腺病理检查Gleason评分与骨扫描结果的相关性.结合临床实际情况分析受试者工作特征(receiver operating characteristics,ROC)曲线,确定选择进行骨扫描检查的PSA和Gleason评分界值.结果:624例前列腺癌患者中,有443例同时进行了骨扫描检查和血清PSA测定,其中骨扫描阳性患者216例(48.8%);338例同时具有骨扫描、PSA和前列腺病理检查Gleason评分.骨扫描阳性前列腺癌患者的tPSA水平(中位值71.00 μg/L,范围1.30 ~2 400.00 μg/L)显著高于骨扫描阴性患者(中位值60.00 μg/L,范围0.60~201.00 μg/L,秩和检验P<0.001),骨扫描阳性患者的Gleason评分(7.7±1.5)也显著高于骨扫描阴性患者(6.7±1.8,P<0.001).回归分析显示PSA及Gleason评分分别与骨扫描检查结果具有明显的正相关性(lg[PSA]:r=0.933,B=0.352,P=0.001;Gleason评分:r=0.971,B=0.096,P<0.001).tPSA< 10 μg/L时骨扫描阳性率为<9.0%,Gleason评分<5时骨扫描阳性率为3.8%.tPSA> 15 tμg/L或Gleason评分≥7时,对骨扫描阳性结果的预测灵敏度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值和诊断准确度分别为97.5%、24.7%、54.4%、91.5%和60.0%.结论:前列腺癌患者的骨扫描阳性结果与较高的血清tPSA水平和病理检查Gleason评分具有显著的正相关性,建议tPSA< 10 μg/L和Gleason评分<5的新诊断前列腺癌患者可不进行骨扫描,tPSA> 15 μg/L或Gleason评分≥7的前列腺癌患者

  19. Bioinformatic analysis for a new alternatively spliced variant of prostate-specific membrane antigen%前列腺特异性膜抗原新型剪接变异体PSME基因及蛋白的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铸; 冯发深; 何霞; 关林琳; 徐霖; 张定梅; 罗燕芬; 汪杨; 曹开源

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过对PSME的生物信息学分析,更多的了解该基因及蛋白结构与功能的相关信息.方法 运用生物信息学方法分析PSME基因结构,序列及其编码蛋白的理化性质和结构与功能特征,蛋白相互作用网络以及抗原表位.结果 用ExPASy的Computer PI/Mw、SMA RT等软件对其氨基酸序列进行分析,该蛋白的PI值为6.38,相对分子质量约为78 000.二级结构中α螺旋(H)占34.66%,β折叠(E)占12.93%,无规卷曲占52.41%.PSME信号肽位于1~22位氨基酸,150-248位为肽酶结构域,639~703位为转铁蛋白受体二聚体,且含有多个糖基化位点.通过DNA Star软件分析得到了PSME蛋白的抗原表位.结论 利用生物信息学预测出的结构和功能信息,能为PSME蛋白的相关研究提供信息基础.%This paper focuses on the prediction of structures and functions of a new alternatively spliced variant of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSME) using bioinformatics methods. ExPASy's tools such as computer Pl/Mw, SMART and other software were used to analysis PSME amino acid sequence. Furthermore, protein interaction network was predicated by STRING, and B-cell epitopes of the protein was predicted with DNA Star. We fund that the protein PI value was 6.38, M, was 78 000, A-helix secondary structure (H) accounted for 34.66%, βfold (E) accounted for 12.93%, and random coil accounting for 5Z41%. PSME signal peptide was in the 1-22 bit, peptidase domain wan in 150-248, and TFR dimer in 639-703 bit. Furthermore, PSME was also contained multiple glycosylation sites. The predication of structures and functions lays down a information foundation for the further investigation of PSME.

  20. 前列腺特异性膜抗原定量检测在前列腺良恶性疾病诊断中的应用%Detection of prostate specific membrane antigen for the diagnosis of malignant and benign prostate diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿虎; 汪中扬; 邹自灏; 毛晓鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic yield of prostate specific membrane antigen ( PSMA) for the diagnosis of benign or malignant prostate diseases. Methods: The relative expression of serum PSMA was assayed in patients with prostate carcinoma ( group PCa, n = 63) , benign prostate hypertrophy ( group BPH, n = 99) and healthy controls (control group, n = 33) by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for further determination of the between-group difference. Results: The between-group difference in PSMA reached statistical significance ( all P 0. 05). Conclusion; The PSMA in peripheral blood as determined by real-time quantitative PCR may help differentiate prostate carcinoma and benign prostate hypertrophy but could serve as an adjuvant or complementary approach owing to the limited significance for differentiation between patients with prostate diseases and normal controls.%目的:探讨前列腺特异性膜抗原(PSMA)对于前列腺良恶性疾病的诊断价值.方法:采用实时荧光定量PCR方法检测前列腺癌患者(前列腺癌组,63例)、良性前列腺增生患者(良性前列腺增生组,99例)及健康者(正常对照组,33例)血液中PSMA的相对表达量,并分析3组之间的差异.结果:3组间PSMA相对表达量存在差异(P<0.05),良性前列腺增生组、前列腺癌组均低于正常组(P<0.05),前列腺癌组高于良性前列腺增生组(P<0.05),良性前列腺增生组、前列腺癌组PSMA相对表达量与血清总前列腺特异性抗原TPSA不具相关性(P>0.05).结论:实时荧光定量PCR检测外周血PSMA可用于区分前列腺癌与良性前列腺增生,但单纯检测外周血PSMA尚无法准确区分出前列腺疾病与健康对照人群,仅可作为一种辅助和补充检测手段.

  1. Prostate-specific extracellular vesicles as a novel biomarker in human prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Hyun; Shin, Hyun Woo; Jung, Ae Ryang; Kwon, Oh Sung; Choi, Yeong-Jin; Park, Jaesung; Lee, Ji Youl

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) may play an important role in cancer development and progression. We aimed to investigate the prognostic potential of prostate-specific EVs in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Plasma and prostate tissue were collected from patients who underwent surgery for PCa (n = 82) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, n = 28). To analyze the quantity of EVs in prostate, we performed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immuno-TEM with CD63 and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and immunofluorescence staining. After EV isolation from plasma, CD63 and PSMA concentration was measured using ELISA kits. PSMA-positive areas in prostate differed in patients with BPH, and low-, intermediate-, and high-risk PCa (2.4, 8.2, 17.5, 26.5%, p BPH, and low-, intermediate-, and high-risk PCa (21.9, 43.4, 49.2, 59.9 ng/mL, p BPH (AUC 0.943). Patients with lower plasma PSMA-positive EV concentration had greater prostate volume (50.2 vs. 33.4 cc, p pathologic Gleason score (p = 0.025). During the median follow-up of 18 months, patients with lower plasma PSMA-positive EV concentration tended to have a lower risk of biochemical failure than those with higher levels of prostate-specific EVs (p = 0.085). PMID:27503267

  2. Effects of antibiotic therapy on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) change in the differential diagnosis among patients with abnomal PSA%前列腺特异抗原异常患者抗感染药物治疗后血清指标的变化及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张豪杰; 盛璐; 陈燕忠; 赵卫; 孙忠全; 钱伟庆

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察前列腺穿刺患者穿刺前行抗生素治疗后的血清总前列腺特异抗原( prostate-specific antigen,PSA)和游离PSA(fPSA)水平变化,评价其变化对预测前列腺癌是否具有一定意义.方法 2006年1月至2009年12月间共80例4 ng/mL <PSA<20 ng/mL的患者入组并被安排行前列腺穿刺活检术.采用随机法选出治疗组和对照组各40例.治疗组每天接受可乐必妥500 mg、维持2周的药物治疗,对照组不接受可乐必妥治疗.两组于2周后均行经会阴前列腺穿刺,在穿刺当日晨所有患者行PSA和fPSA测定.分析两组中PSA较穿刺前2周变化情况及与穿刺病理结果间的关系.结果 在治疗组中PSA显著下降(P =0.030),对照组不明显.治疗组fPSA/tPSA比值和PSAD在治疗前后也具有显著性差异,而对照组中变化均不明显.治疗组中病理证实为前列腺癌的亚组中,PSA变化不明显,而增生和炎症亚组中变化明显.PSA变化率对诊断前列腺癌有一定意义,其最佳临界点为-5.65%,灵敏度为64.3%,特异度为88.5%.结论 在PSA特定升高的患者中,抗感染治疗后PSA的变化对鉴别前列腺癌和前列腺良性病变有一定的意义,可帮助更准确地选择前列腺穿刺活检病例和提高诊断准确率.%Objective To observe the change in total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels after antibiotic treatment, and to evalute the clinical significance of PSA change in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methods A total of 80 consecutive patients with 4 ng/mL

  3. Antigen-specific secretion of IFNγ and CXCL10 in whole blood assay detects Mycobacterium leprae infection but does not discriminate asymptomatic infection from symptomatic leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungria, Emerith Mayra; Freitas, Aline Araújo; Pontes, Maria Araci Andrade; Gonçalves, Heitor Sá; Sousa, Ana Lúcia Osório Maroccolo; Costa, Maurício Barcelos; Castilho, Mirian Lane Oliveira Rodrigues; Duthie, Malcolm S; Stefani, Mariane Martins Araújo

    2017-04-01

    To advance toward a whole blood assay (WBA)-based test capable of facilitating the diagnosis of paucibacillary (PB) leprosy, we evaluated a prototype in-tube WBA using combinations of Mycobacterium leprae antigens. Blood was collected from newly diagnosed untreated PB (n=38), multibacillary (MB) (n=30), healthy household contacts (HHC) of MB (n=27), and endemic controls (n=61) residing in Goiânia and Fortaleza, Brazil. Blood was incubated with M. leprae cell sonicate, recombinant proteins (46f+LID-1; ML0276+LID-1), or controls (phosphate-buffered saline, phytohemagglutinin, M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative). Antigen-specific IFNγ production was observed in 71-84% and 55% of PB and HHC, respectively. Antigen-specific CXCL10 levels were similarly assessed to determine if, unlike IFNγ, CXCL10 could differentiate PB from HHC with repeated exposure/asymptomatic M. leprae infection. The CXCL10 levels induced in response to M. leprae antigens could not, however, differentiate PB from HHC. Despite these limitations, the WBAs reported here still represent important tools for assessing M. leprae infection rates and evaluating the impact of control measures.

  4. Use of the PSA enhancer core element to modulate the expression of prostate- and non-prostate-specific basal promoters in a lentiviral vector context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapel-Fernandes, S; Jordier, F; Lauro, F; Maitland, N; Chiaroni, J; de Micco, P; Mannoni, P; Bagnis, C

    2006-10-01

    Composite promoters combining the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) enhancer core element with promoter elements derived from gene coding for human prostate-specific transglutaminase gene, prostate-specific membrane antigen gene, prostate-specific antigen, rat probasin or phosphoglycerate kinase were characterized for their ability to specifically express the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene in prostate versus non-prostate cancer cell lines when transferred with a human immunodeficiency virus-1-based lentiviral vector. By themselves minimal proximal promoter elements were found to inefficiently promote relevant tissue-specific expression; in all the vectors tested, addition of the PSA enhancer core element markedly improved EGFP expression in LnCaP, a cancer prostate cell line used as a model for prostate cancer. The composite promoter was inactive in HuH7, a hepatocarcinoma cell line used as a model of neighboring non-prostate cancer cells. Among the promoters tested, the combination of the PSA enhancer and the rat probasin promoter showed both high specificity and a strong EGFP expression. Neither a high viral input nor the presence of the cPPT/CTS sequence affected composite promoter behavior. Our data suggest that composite prostate-specific promoters constructed by combining key elements from various promoters can improve and/or confer tissue specific expression in a lentiviral vector context.

  5. Relationship between prostate specific antigen related variables and Gleason score and clinical stage of prostate cancer%前列腺特异性抗原相关变数与前列腺癌Gleason评分及临床分期的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道元; 乔保平; 孙如坤; 辛航; 王雷阳

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)相关变数与前列腺癌病理分级及临床分期的关系.方法:回顾性分析125例经穿刺活检病理证实为前列腺癌患者的临床资料,采用Spearman相关分析探讨游离PSA(FPSA)、FPSA比率(F/TPSA)、PSA密度(PSAD)与Gleason评分及临床分期的关系.结果:FPSA与前列腺癌Gleason评分呈正相关(rS=0.499,P<0.001),与临床分期呈负相关(rS=-0.300,P<0.001);PSAD与前列腺癌Gleason评分呈正相关(rS=0.616,P<0.001),与临床分期无相关性(rS=-0.128,P=0.155);F/TPSA与前列腺癌Gleason评分呈弱相关(rS=0.182,P=0.042),与临床分期呈负相关(rS=-0.417,P<0.001).结论:FPSA可作为前列腺癌病理分级和临床分期的参考指标;而PSAD可作为前列腺癌病理分级的参考指标,F/TPSA可作为前列腺癌临床分期的参考指标.%Aim : To explore the relationship between prostate specific antigen related variables and Gleason score and clinical stage in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: The clinical data from 125 cases of prostate cancer diagnosed by biopsies were collected, and the correlation of FPSA , F/TPSA and PSAD with Gleason score and clinical stage was analyzed. Results: FPSA was positively correlated with Gleason score ( rs =0. 499 , P < 0. 001 ) , but negatively correlated with clinical stage ( rs = - 0. 300 , P < 0. 001) for prostate cancer patients ; PSAD was also positively correlated with Gleason score ( rs = 0. 616 ,P < 0. 001 ) , but not correlated with clinical stage ( rs = - 0. 128 ,P = 0. 155 ) for prostate cancer patients; F/TPSA was negatively correlated with clinical stage ( rs = -0.417,P<0. 001 ) , but weakly correlated with Gleason score ( rs = 0. 182 ,P = 0. 042) for prostate cancer patients. Conclusion ;FPSA could be used as a reference index in pathological grading and clinical staging for prostate cancer patients ; PSAD could be used as a reference index in pathological grading and F/TPSA could be used as a reference

  6. The influence of post-void residual volume on prostate specific antigen in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia%残余尿对良性前列腺增生症患者血清前列腺特异性抗原的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 唐来坤; 汪祖林; 羊继平; 宋立; 田峰; 俞仲伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of post-void residual volume on prostate specific antigen (PSA) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).Methods One hundred and sixty BPH patients who diagnosed by postoperative pathologic manifestations were selected.The patients were divided into 4 groups according to post-void residual volume with 40 cases each:non post-void residual volume (post-void residual volume < 60 ml) group,less post-void residual volume (60 ml≤post-void residual volume < 120 ml) group,middle post-void residual volume (120 ml ≤post-void residual volume < 180 ml) group,mass post-void residual volume (post-void residual volume ≥180 ml) group.The serum PSA levels of 4 groups were observed.Results The PSA level in mass post-void residual volume group [(8.52 ± 6.72) iμ g/L] was significantly higher than that in non post-void residual volume group [(5.26 ± 4.16) μ g/L] and less post-void residual volume group [(5.93 ± 5.20) μ g/L],there were statistical differences (P < 0.05),there was no statistical difference between non post-void residual volume group and less post-void residual volume group (P > 0.05).Conclusions The serum PSA level in BPH patients with non post-void residual volume has no change,while the serum PSA level in BPH patients with mass post-void residual volume is significantly elevated.%目的 研究残余尿对良性前列腺增生症(BPH)患者血清前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)的影响.方法 将接受前列腺手术治疗,术后病理为BPH的患者160例分成无残余尿(残余尿<60 ml)组40例,少量残余尿(60 ml≤残余尿<120 ml)组40例,中量残余尿(120 ml≤残余尿<180 ml)组40例,大量残余尿(残余尿≥180 ml)组40例,比较四组患者血清PSA水平.结果 大量残余尿组PSA[(8.52 ±6.72)μg/L]明显高于无残余尿组[(5.26±4.16) μg/L]和少量残余尿组[(5.93±5.20)μg/L],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),无残余尿组与少量残余尿组PSA比

  7. Relationship of levels of seminal plasma lipoprotein (a),Zn2 + and prostate specific antigen in the semen with abnormal semen liquefaction%精浆脂蛋白(a)、锌和前列腺特异性抗原含量与精液液化的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健清; 王东; 黄楚梅; 张式鸿; 蔡丹

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:To explore the relationship of levels of seminal plasma lipoprotein (a),Zn2 +and prostate specific antigen in the semen with abnormal semen liquefaction.Methods:200 patients with abnormal se-men liquefaction and 200 men with semen liquefaction were selected.The level of seminal zinc was detected by color-developing method.The level of PSA in seminal was measured by ELISA and the lipoprotein (a)was measured by latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay.Results:The levels of Zn2 + in abnormal group and normal group were (90.0 ±35.1 )μg/mL and (1 25.1 ±25.5)μg/mL respectively,with significant difference (P <0.01 ).The levels of lipoprotein (a)in abnormal group and normal group were (550 ±250)μg/mL and (301 ±98)μg/mL re-spectively,with significant difference (P <0.01 ).The levels of PSA in abnormal group and normal group were (0.81 ±0.21 )mg/mL and (1 .31 ±0.30)mg/mL respectively,with significant difference (P <0.05).Conclu-sion:The levels of seminal lipoprotein (a),Zn2 + and PSA should be taken into account in the diagnosis of male in-fertility caused by abnormal liquefaction.%目的:探讨精浆脂蛋白(a)、锌和前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)与精液液化的关系。方法:筛选精液液化异常患者和精液液化正常男性各200例,显色法测定精浆锌离子(Zn2+),酶联免疫法测定 PSA,乳胶增强免疫透射比浊法测定脂蛋白(a),对比分析两组测定结果。结果:异常组精浆 Zn2+平均含量为(90.0±35.1)μg/mL,脂蛋白(a)水平为(550±250)μg/mL;正常组精浆 Zn2+平均含量为(125.1±25.5)μg/mL,脂蛋白(a)水平为(301±98)μg/mL,两者差异有统计学意义(均 P <0.01)。异常组精浆 PSA 含量为(0.81±0.21)mg/mL,正常组精浆 PSA 含量为(1.31±0.30)mg/mL,两者差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:精液液化异常可能与精浆脂

  8. The Levels of Zn2+ and Prostate Specific Antigen in the Semen with Abnormal Liquefaction and Their Relationship with Spermatozoa Motility%精浆锌和前列腺特异性抗原含量与精液液化及精子活力的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蓉; 肖敦振; 胡波

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨精浆锌(Zn~(2+))和前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)与精液液化及精子活力的关系.方法 筛选精液液化异常患者(异常组)和精液液化正常男性(正常组)各30例,精液常规分析后提取精浆,-20℃保存.采用原子吸收光谱法测定精浆Zn~(2+)含量,ELISA法测定精浆PSA含量,对比分析两组测定结果.结果 异常组精浆Zn~(2+)、PSA含量均明显低于正常组.异常组精浆Zn~(2+)平均含量为(82.50±0.72)μg/ml,正常组为(120.43±0.52)μg/ml,两者差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).异常组精浆PSA平均含量为(0.68±0.14)mg/ml,正常组为(1.21±0.21)mg/ml,两者差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).异常组精子活力较正常组低(P<0.05).结论 精浆中Zn~(2+)及PSA含量均偏低致精液液化异常并影响精子活力.%Objective To investigate the levels of seminal zinc and prostate specific antigen in abnormal liquefaction sperm and their relationship with spermatozoa motility. Methods Thirty cases of abnormal liquefaction sperm (abnormal group)and 30 cases of normal semen ]iquefaction(normal group)were selected. The semens were analyzed by the CASA,and the seminal plasma was separated and preserved at - 20℃. The levels of seminal zinc were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The levels of PSA in seminal plasma were detected by ELISA. Results Zn~(2+) and PSA levels in abnormal group were significantly lower than in normal group(P<0. 05). The levels of seminal Zn~(2+) in abnormal group and normal group were (82. 50±0. 72)and (120. 43±0. 52) fig/ml respectively,with the difference being significant between two group(P<0. 05). The levels of seminal PSA in abnormal group and normal group were (0. 68±0. 14) and (1. 21±0. 21) mg/ml respectively, with the difference being significant between two groups(P<0. 05). Sperm motility in abnormal group was lower than in normal group (P<0. 05). Conclusion The levels of seminal Zn~(2+) and PSA in the semens with abnormal liquefaction is low

  9. Analysis of the antigen- and mitogen-induced differentiation of B lymphocytes from asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive male homosexuals. Discrepancy between T cell-dependent and T cell-independent activation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J.P. Teeuwsen; T. Logtenberg (Ton); C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); J. Goudsmit (Jaap); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab); J.M.A. Lange (Joep)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractFive asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive ; male homosexuals were immunized with the recall antigens tetanus toxoid (TT) and the three types of poliovirus present in diphtheria, tetanus, and polio vaccine. Four weeks after immunization, the in vivo response to boo

  10. 老年男性前列腺特异抗原水平与直肠超声引导无痛前列腺穿刺结果的相关性分析%Relation of the prostate specific antigen level with the outcome of analgesic transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy by intravenous anesthesia in the older men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振华; 魏金星; 张雪培

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) level with the outcome of analgesic transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy(ATUGPB) by intravenous anesthesia and clinical parameters in the older men with evaluated PSA. Methods The AUGPB with twelve cores by intravenous anesthesia were completed in 106 patients from September 2008 to August 2010 induding our outpatient and inpatient [mean age(68±7)years] with evaluated PSA(>4 ng/ml). According to the PSA level, the patients were divided into low-risk group(4 ng/ml20 ng/ml,24 cases). The parameters were recorded including biopsy time, visual analog pain scale score(VAS), prostate volume(PV), PSA density(PSAD), pathological outcome, anesthetic adverse events and complications. Results The mean biopsy time was(5.9±2.0)min, ninety eight cases(92%) had no pain(VAS=0)and no case occurred anesthetic adverse event. There were total 164 positive cores in 1272 cores, of which 36 cases were prostate cancer(Pca), 4 cases were prostate atypical hyperplasia and 4 cases were prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. The detection rate of Pca from low-risk group to high-risk group were respectively 10.9%, 33.3% and 87.5%, and that of benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) were 81.8%, 59.2% and 4.2%, the difference of them was significant(P4 ng/ml),平均年龄(68±7)岁,进行静脉麻醉下经直肠超声引导无痛前列腺12针系统首次穿刺.将PSA水平分为低危组(4 ng/ml20 ng/ml,24例).记录穿刺时间、视觉模拟疼痛评分(VAS)、PSA密度(PSAD)、前列腺体积(PV)、穿刺病理结果、麻醉不良事件.结果 平均穿刺时间(5.9±2.0)min,98例(92%)穿刺后无疼痛(VAS=0),无一例发生麻醉不良事件.共穿刺1272针,病理阳性164针,包括36例前列腺癌(Pca)、4例非典型增生、4例腺瘤样改变.低危、中危和高危组中Pca检出率分别为10.9%、33.3%和87.5%,良性前列腺增生(BPH)检出率分别为81.8%、59.2%和4.2%,

  11. Measurement of plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in prostate cancer patients: relationship with clinical stage, Gleason score, prostate volume, and serum prostate-specific antigen Medida da concentração plasmática do fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular em pacientes com câncer prostático: relação com estado clinico, gleason score, volume prostático e PSA sérico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ferreira Duque

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study focused on circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with prostate cancer compared to a normal population. METHODS: We analyzed 26 normal individuals and 80 patients with prostate cancer. Blood was drawn from all subjects, and plasma was extracted to determine the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor using a quantitative immunoassay technique (ELISA-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The median plasma level of vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly elevated in patients with metastatic disease compared to patients with localized disease and with healthy controls. Patients with serum prostate-specific antigen > 20 ng/mL had significantly higher levels of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor than patients with serum prostate-specific antigen OBJETIVO: Analisar os níveis circulantes do fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular em pacientes com câncer prostático comparados com uma população de indivíduos eutróficos. MÉTODOS: Vinte e seis indivíduos eutróficos e oitenta pacientes com câncer de próstata foram analisados nesse estudo. A coleta sangüínea foi realizada da mesma maneira em todos os pacientes e o plasma foi extraído para a determinação dos níveis do fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular, utilizando-se o método quantitativo ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular plasmático encontraram-se significativamente elevados nos pacientes com doença metastática quando comparados com pacientes com doença localizada e com indivíduos sadios. Pacientes com PSA sérico maior que 20 ng/ml apresentaram níveis maiores de fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular plasmático quando comparados com pacientes com PSA menor que 20 ng/ml. Houve uma tendência dos pacientes com escore de Gleason de 8 a 10 apresentarem níveis maiores do fator de crescimento do endot

  12. 血清PSA水平与非癌变前列腺组织体积的比值是接受前列腺癌根治术患者局部晚期前列腺癌生化复发的新指标%Serum prostate-specific antigen value adjusted for non-cancerous prostate tissue volume in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy:a new predictor of biochemical recurrence in localized or locally advanced prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ja Hyeon Ku; Kyung Chul Moon; Sung Yong Cho; Cheol Kwak; Hyeon Hoe Kim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value adjusted for total tumor volume (PSA/tumor volume) and serum PSA value adjusted for non-cancerous prostate tissue volume (NCPV) (PSA/NCPV) as a predictor of pathological findings and clinical outcome after radical prostatectomy.Clinical and pathological data of 407 patients (median age:66.5 years;range:41.8-85.7 years) were reviewed retrospectively.The median follow-up period was 18.1 months (range:1.0-107.8 months).Biochemical recurrence was defined as detectable PSA levels (greater than 0.2 ng ml-1) and the time of biochemical recurrence was taken to be the first time PSA became detectable.In the multivariate model,PSA/NCPV was an independent predictor of extracapsular extension and positive surgical margin (P<0.05),but PSA/tumor volume was not.Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that PSA/NCPV correlated with biochemical recurrence-free survival (P<0.001;log-rank test) but PSA/tumor volume did not (P=0.275;log-rank test).PSA/NCPV was also a significant independent prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence-free survival on multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis (P=0.004,relative risk=2.42).Our findings suggest that PSA/NCPV is associated independently with extracapsular extension and surgical margin status and may be an independent prognostic variable of PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

  13. 经尿道等离子前列腺电切术联合睾丸切除术治疗中晚期前列腺癌的临床疗效及对前列腺特异抗原水平的影响%Clinical effect of transurethral resection of prostate combined with testicular resection for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer and its effect on the level of prostate specific antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟光; 臧运江; 陈琳琳; 马玉生

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore and analyze Clinical effect of transurethral resection of prostate combined with testicular resection for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer and its effect on the level of prostate specific antigen.Methods The clinical data of 120 patients with advanced prostate cancer treated in the People's hospital of ShanDong province LinQu county from June 2015 to June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed.Patients were randomly divided into experimental group and control group,60 cases in each group.The patients in the experimental group were treated by transurethral resection of the prostate and testicular resection,and the control group were treated with the conventional operation.The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS),prostate specific antigen (PSA),maximum urinary flow rate (MFR),residual urine volume,prostate volume and quality of life were compared between the two groups before and after treatment.Results After treatment,the patients in the experimental group compared with the control group,the IPSS score and serum PSA level were decreased,MFR was increased,residual urine volume was reduced,prostate volume was decreased,all with statistical differences (P < 0.05).After treatment,compared with the control group,the scores of physical function,role function,emotional function,cognitive function,social function and overall health status of the patients in the experimental group were significantly improved,all with statistical difference (P < 0.05).Compared with the control group,the experimental group had significantly relieved the symptoms of urinary incontinence after surgical treatment,the recovery of spontaneous urination rate was higher (96.7% vs 80.0%),the incidence of urinary incontinence was lower (0.0% vs 8.3%),all with statistical differences (P < 0.05).The patients in the experimental group were followed up for 6 to 24 months,56 patients are still living with tumor.The patients in control group were followed up for

  14. When is a bone scan study appropriate in asymptomatic men diagnosed with prostate cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raj P.Pal; Thivyaan Thiruudaian; Masood A.Khan

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To determine when a bone scan investigation is appropriate in asymptomatic men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Methods: Between November 2005 and July 2006, 317 men with prostate cancer underwent a bone scan study; 176 men fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) cut-offs as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses using digital rectal examination finding, biopsy Gleason scores and age were performed to determine when a bone scan study is likely to be of value. Results: Only 1/61 men (1.6%) with a serum PSA ≤ 20 ng/mL had a positive bone scan. However, 2/38 men (4.7%) with a serum PSA 20.1-40.0 ng/mL, 3/20 men (15%) with a serum PSA 40.1-60.0 ng/mL, 7/19 men (36.8%) with a serum PSA 60.1-100.0 ng/mL and 19/38 men (50%) with a serum PSA > 100.0 ng/mL had positive bone scans. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were uninformative in these groups. Conclusion: Based on our findings, a bone scan is of limited value in asymptomatic prostate cancer patients presenting PSA ≤ 20 ng/mL. Therefore, this investigation can be eliminated unless a curative treatment is contemplated. Furthermore, digital rectal examination finding, biopsy Gleason score and age are unhelpful in predicting those who might harbor bone metastasis.

  15. Sipuleucel-T for therapy of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, castrate-refractory prostate cancer: an update and perspective among other treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shilpa; Carballido, Estrella; Fishman, Mayer

    2011-01-01

    Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cell immunotherapy for castrate-refractory prostate cancer, with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic prostate cancer. In this review we address the background of prostate cancer incidence and other available therapy onto which sipuleucel-T treatment has been added, with discussion of hormone-therapy, chemotherapy, and other investigational immunotherapies. The sipuleucel-T manufacturing process, toxicity and clinical benefit are reviewed, along with an examination of the issue of clinical benefit to survival, independent of apparent changes of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Sipuleucel-T therapy is appraised from clinician, patient and immunotherapeutic perspectives, with reference to the clinical data from the pivotal trial, the mechanism of action, and the treatment process.

  16. Sipuleucel-T for therapy of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, castrate-refractory prostate cancer: an update and perspective among other treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta SG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Shilpa Gupta, Estrella Carballido, Mayer FishmanMoffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cell immunotherapy for castrate-refractory prostate cancer, with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic prostate cancer. In this review we address the background of prostate cancer incidence and other available therapy onto which sipuleucel-T treatment has been added, with discussion of hormone-therapy, chemotherapy, and other investigational immunotherapies. The sipuleucel-T manufacturing process, toxicity and clinical benefit are reviewed, along with an examination of the issue of clinical benefit to survival, independent of apparent changes of prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. Sipuleucel-T therapy is appraised from clinician, patient and immunotherapeutic perspectives, with reference to the clinical data from the pivotal trial, the mechanism of action, and the treatment process.Keywords: sipuleucel-T, immunotherapy, vaccine, immunotherapy, dendritic cells

  17. Determinación de la utilidad de la relación APE l/t (Antígeno Prostático Específico libre sobre el total en pacientes con sospecha de cáncer de próstata estudiados por biopsia ecográfica endorrectal Utility of Free/Total Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Ratio in prostatic cancer studied with endorectal ultrasound biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Marangoni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los marcadores tumorales son importantes al momento de decidir la realización de biopsias para el diagnóstico de cáncer de próstata. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la exactitud diagnóstica del APE libre como marcador tumoral en casos de pacientes con sospecha de cáncer prostático en su relación con el APE total (APEL/T y determinar un valor de corte ajustado. Material y Método: En total, fueron evaluados 248 pacientes de entre 38 y 88 años de edad, en un período comprendido entre noviembre de 2001 y junio de 2007, con un análisis del APE libre, identificación de la presencia de un área hipoecogénica como ayuda diagnóstica y un análisis anatomopatológico para confirmación pospunción prostática endorrectal, realizado en forma prospectiva. Resultados: La identificación de pacientes con cáncer de próstata a través de la sospecha por el APE libre es relativa pero puede ser potenciada con otros hallazgos. Un 23,3% de pacientes con APEL/T por debajo de 0,20 presentaron biopsias positivas, pero, con un valor de 0,14, el porcentaje fue del 60%. Discusión: La identificación de pacientes para ser estudiados mediante Biopsia Prostática Endorrectal (BPE es un problema de la práctica diaria en los consultorios de Urología. Debido a que la BPE es un procedimiento diagnóstico medianamente invasivo y no exento de morbilidad, es que se debería ajustar su indicación. La relación APEL/T debe ser considerada en este contexto con mayor importancia. Conclusión: La identificación de valores alterados de la relación APE L/T con un valor de corte ajustado a 0,14 puede ayudar en el diagnóstico presuntivo de cáncer de próstata y a la elección de pacientes para biopsia a fin de ahorrar biopsias innecesarias.Introduction: The tumor markers are important to decide to perform biopsies in the prostate cancer diagnosis. The goal of this article is to evaluate the diagnosis precision of FPSA (Free Prostatic Specific

  18. Factors prompting PSA-testing of asymptomatic men in a country with no guidelines: a national survey of general practitioners.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been associated with increased prostate cancer incidence. Ireland is estimated to have one of the highest prostate cancer incidences in Europe and has no national guidelines for prostate cancer screening. GPs have a pivotal role in influencing PSA testing, therefore, our aim was to describe GP testing practices and to identify factors influencing these. METHODS: A postal survey, including questions on clinical practice and experience, knowledge and demographics was distributed to all GPs (n = 3,683). The main outcomes were (i) PSA testing asymptomatic men and (ii) "inappropriate" PSA testing, defined as testing asymptomatic men aged < 50 or > 75 years. Factors associated with these outcomes were identified using logistic regression. RESULTS: 1,625 GPs responded (response rate corrected for eligibility = 53%). Most respondents (79%) would PSA test asymptomatic men. Of these, 34% and 51% would test asymptomatic men < 50 and > 75 years, respectively. In multivariate analyses, GPs were more likely to test asymptomatic men if they were >or= 50 years, in practice >or= 10 years, female or less knowledgeable about PSA efficacy. Male GPs who would have a PSA test themselves were > 8-times more likely to PSA test asymptomatic men than GPs who would not have a test. GPs who had an asymptomatic patient diagnosed with prostate cancer following PSA testing, were > 3-times more likely to test asymptomatic men. Practice-related factors positively associated with testing included: running \\'well man\\' clinics, performing occupational health checks and performing other tests routinely with PSA. Factors positively associated with \\'inappropriate\\' testing included; being male and willing to have a PSA test, having worked\\/trained in the UK and supporting annual PSA testing. 91% of respondents supported the development of national PSA testing guidelines. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that widespread PSA testing

  19. Prostate-specific targeting of the aqueous root extract of Croton membranaceus in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriyie, D K; Asare, G A; Bugyei, K; Asiedu-Gyekye, I J; Tackie, R; Adjei, S

    2014-09-01

    Croton membranaceus Müll.Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is used for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) treatment. The study aimed at investigating organs that the aqueous root extracts of C. membranaceus (CMARE) target, which is absent in literature. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (100-140 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group 1, the control group received distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 30, 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) b.wt CMARE respectively (oral gavage). Rats fed 90 days the standard chow diet ad libitum. Upon sacrifice, major organs were histologically examined and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biochemically determined. Only the prostate was abnormal. Histologically, H&E staining revealed thickness and infoldings of the epithelial cells shrinking with increasing dose. The 30 mg kg(-1) group showed low columnar or flattened epithelium cells, whereas the columnar epithelium infoldings of the 150 mg kg(-1) b.wt and 300 mg kg(-1) b.wt groups were virtually nonexistent. The acini of the control, 30 mg kg(-1) b.wt group and the 150 mg kg(-1) b.wt groups showed clear pinkish secretion. However, secretion of the high-dose group appeared light pink in colour and the stroma cells appeared much darker than all the treated and control group. C. membranaceus targets the prostate with significant PSA reduction (P < 0.01).

  20. Asymptomatic dystrophinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrone, A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Florence (Italy); Hoffman, E.P.; Hoop, R.C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-03-31

    A 4-year-old girl was referred for evaluation for a mild but persistent serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation detected incidentally during routine blood screening for a skin infection. Serum creatine kinase activity was found to be increased. Immuno-histochemical study for dystrophin in her muscle biopsy showed results consistent with a carrier state for muscular dystrophy. Molecular work-up showed the proposita to be a carrier of a deletion mutation of exon 48 of the dystrophin gene. Four male relatives also had the deletion mutation, yet showed no clinical symptoms of muscular dystrophy (age range 8-58 yrs). Linkage analysis of the dystrophin gene in the family showed a spontaneous change of an STR45 allele, which could be due to either an intragenic double recombination event, or CA repeat length mutation leading to identical size alleles. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of an asymptomatic dystrophinopathy in multiple males of advanced age. Based on molecular findings, this family would be given a diagnosis of Becker muscular dystrophy. This diagnosis implies the development of clinical symptoms, even though this family is clearly asymptomatic. This report underscores the caution which must be exercised when giving presymptomatic diagnoses based on molecular studies. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Advances in molecular imaging of prostate cancer targeting prostate specific membrane antigen with small molecular radionuclide probes%以核素标记前列腺特异性膜抗原小分子抑制剂为探针的前列腺癌分子影像研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡四龙(综述); 许晓平; 章英剑(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Prostate speciifc membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed in normal prostate epithelial cells and strongly up regulated in initial and advanced prostate carcinoma. Therefore, PSMA is an attractive molecular target for the detection of primary and metastatic lesions. It plays an important role in the diagnosis, staging, prognostic evaluation and targeted treatment in prostate carcinoma patients. This review will summarize the progress of small molecular radionuclide probes, which targeted PSMA, for visualizing prostate cancer.%前列腺特异性膜抗原(PSMA)高表达于前列腺癌及其转移灶中,可作为生物分子靶点,在前列腺癌的早期诊断、分期、复发检测、预后判断及靶向治疗中具有重要价值。本文重点综述以核素标记PSMA小分子抑制剂为探针的前列腺癌分子影像研究进展。

  2. 抗前列腺特异抗原重链可变区单域抗体基因的构建及表达%Construction and expression of anti-prostate specific antigen VH sin gle domain antibody gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建林; 王智; 武国军; 郝晓柯

    2001-01-01

    目的 扩增出抗前列腺特异抗原(PSA)单克隆抗体(MAb)的重链可变区(V H)单域抗体基因,并在大肠杆菌中表达. 方法 从分泌抗PSA mAb的杂交瘤细胞系E 4B7中提取总RNA,经RT-PCR扩增VH单域抗体基因,将其克隆到融合蛋白表达载体pGEX-4T-1中进行表达. 结果 VH单域抗体基因全长363 bp,含起始码和终止码.将其克隆 到pGEX-4T-1内,转化大肠杆菌DH5α,获得高效表达,表达量占全菌总蛋白质的38%,以包涵体形式存在.经初步纯化和复性后,用谷胱甘肽(GST)亲和色谱纯化,再经凝血酶水解获得抗PSA VH单域抗体. 竞争结合抑制实验证明,该表达产物具有前列腺癌细胞亲和活性. 结论  构建成功抗PSA的VH单域抗体,为进一步临床应用奠定基础.%AIM To amplify the VH single domain gene of anti-p rostate specific antigen (PSA) monoclonal antibody(mAb), and express it in E. coli. METHODS Total RNA was extracted from the hybridoma cell line E4B7, which se- creted McAb against PSA, and subjected to reverse transcri ption. The VH single domain antibody gene was amplified by PCR, clo ned into the prokaryotic fusion protein expression vector pGEX-4T-1 and expressed in E. c oli. RESULTS The VH single domain antibody gene consisted of 363 bp, which was cloned into an exp ression vector pGEX-4T-1 and transformed into E. coli DH5α. Clones harboring plasmid pGE X-VH produced a 40 kDa of fusion protein in E. coli at a level of 38% of the total cellular pro tein. After primary purification and renaturation, the fusion protein was further purified by GST-a ffinity chromatography. The fusion protein was digested with thrombin and the VH single domain antibod y was separated, the binding activity of anti-PSA VH single domain antibody was confirmed by competi tive binding inhibition assay in vitro. CONCLUSION Anti-PSA single dom ain antibody has been successfully constructed for the use in clinical studies.

  3. Arraying prostate specific antigen PSA and Fab anti-PSA using light assisted molecular immobilization technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parracino, Antonietta; Neves Petersen, Teresa; Gennaro, Ane Kold Di;

    2010-01-01

    Continuous 295nm excitation of bovine apo-α-lactalbumin (apo-bLA) results in an increase of tryptophan fluorescence quantum yield and in a progressive red-shift in tryptophan fluorescence emission. Furthermore, 295nm excitation in apo-bLA leads to disulphide bridges breakage, leading to free thiol...... a putative isosbestic point is observed in tryptophan fluorescence emission spectra, suggesting equilibrium between two pools of molecules: one with intact disulphide bridges and low fluorescence quantum yield, and another pool with disrupted disulphide bridges, high fluorescence quantum yield and red...... in many fluorescence spectroscopy studies of proteins. Prolonged illumination of any disulphide bridge containing protein will have photochemical consequences, such as disulphide bond disruption. We may not be able to observe proteins using UV light without perturbing them....

  4. Prostate-specific antigen-activated thapsigargin prodrug as targeted therapy for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denmeade, Samuel R; Jakobsen, Carsten M; Janssen, Samuel

    2003-01-01

    Standard anti-proliferative chemotherapy is relatively ineffective against slowly proliferating androgen-independent prostate cancer cells within metastatic sites. In contrast, the lipophilic cytotoxin thapsigargin, which causes apoptosis by disrupting intracellular free Ca2+ levels, is effective...... against both proliferative and quiescent (i.e., G0-arrested) cells. However, thapsigargin's mechanism of action indicates that it is unlikely to be selective for cancer cells or prostate cells....

  5. Engineering a prostate-specific membrane antigen-activated tumor endothelial cell prodrug for cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denmeade, Samuel R; Mhaka, Annastasiah M; Rosen, D Marc;

    2012-01-01

    of solid tumors. We generated a prodrug, G202, consisting of a PSMA-specific peptide coupled to an analog of the potent SERCA pump inhibitor thapsigargin. G202 produced substantial tumor regression against a panel of human cancer xenografts in vivo at doses that were minimally toxic to the host...

  6. Age-specific reference ranges of serum prostate-specific antigen in Iranian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Findings of the present study showed that PSA levels are correlated with age. It was also revealed that the PSA age-specific reference range obtained in this study is different from other races and is specific to Iranian men. Therefore, age-specific reference ranges of PSA obtained in the present study can increase PSA test sensitivity and specificity by reducing unnecessary diagnostic procedures and early detection of prostate cancer in Iranian men.

  7. Heterobivalent Imaging Agents for Simultaneous Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) and Hepsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Confocal microscope, Flow cytometer, Triple Quadrupole LC-MS, Q-ToF LC/MS, Fluorescence microplate reader, Agilent HPLC System, Lyophilizer, and CO2...or signaling activity (3). Due to high sensitivity and non-invasive detection, imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS...functions are gaining favor over the anatomic techniques of computed tomography (CT) and MR, which merely detect enlarged tissue, revealing nothing of its

  8. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    and Behavior department at the Arnold School of Public Health completing his degree’s practicum requirement . Collaborative efforts begun with...Phys 2003;56(3):755-63. 8. Hebert JR, Hurley TG, Chiraboga DE, Barone J. A comparison of selected nutrient intakes derived from three diet...assessment methods used in a low-fat maintenance trial. Public Health Nutr 1998;1:207- 14. 9. Posner BM, Martin-Munley SS, Smigelski C, Cupples LA, Cobb JL

  9. Prostate specific antigen bounce after intensity-modulated radiation therapy in an Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guang Tan

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: A younger age predicts PSA bounce incidence, duration and magnitude. The extent of bounce appears to be lower in Asian population. The interval to occurrence and extent of PSA elevation separates PSA bounce from disease recurrence.

  10. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Regulation of Prostate Tumor Growth, Angiogenesis,and Integrin Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    blocking the VEGF pathway, in the treatment of cancer, diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis , age-related macular degeneration and cardiovascular...predictions of a striking rise in the incidence of retinal neovascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration by 2020...inhibiting anti-VEGF re- agents has proven to be a very successful treatment for age-related macular degeneration [7,8] and shows promise for diabetic

  11. The results of transrectal prostate biopsy in patients with low levels of prostate specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali Sancaktutar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the resultsof prostate biopsy of patients who had the prostatespecificantigen (PSA levels below 4 ng/ml.Material and methods: The medical records of 63 patientswho underwent transrectal prostate biopsy, betweenJanuary 2005 and December 2011, due to suspicionof prostate cancer with the PSA levels under 4 ng/mlwere retrospectively reviewed.Results: Transrectal Prostate biopsy was performed to63 patients. Prostate cancer was detected in 12 (19%patients. The mean value of PSA was 2.5 ng/ml. TheGleason score of Prostate cancer patients was 6,8 (5-7and the number of positive cores were 3.Conclusions: The rate of prostate cancer was found as19% in patients with levels of PSA under 4 ng/ml and thisratio is compatible with the results of previous reports.

  12. The Role of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Prostate Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Traian Vasile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancerul de prostată reprezintă, după cancerul pulmonar, cea mai frecventă afecţiune malignă diagnosticată în cadrul populaţiei masculine. Introducerea în practica curentă în anii 80-90 a determinării Antigenului Specific al Prostatei (PSA seric, ca şi componentă a screeningului pentru cancerul de prostată, a reprezentat un moment de răscruce în practica medicală. Datorită acestei enzime produsă exclusiv de către glanda prostatică, rata detecţiei cancerului de prostată (în stadii curative, intracapsulare s-a îmbunătăţit semnificativ. PSA - ul seric reprezintă un factor predictiv pentru cancerul de prostată (CP mai bun decât tuşeul rectal sau ecografia prostatică transrectală

  13. Hetero-bivalent Imaging Agents for Simultaneous Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) and Hepsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    11, 12) Hepsin is a type II transmembrane serine protease which is preferentially expressed in neoplastic prostate over benign prostate . (13) In...addition, the mRNA level of hepsin was elevated in ~ 90% of PCa specimens and was > 10-fold higher in metastatic PCa than in normal prostate or benign ... prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Hepsin is composed of 413 amino acids and a large C-terminal residue is located in the extracellular region. The serine

  14. Heterobivalent Imaging Agents for Simultaneous Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) and Hepsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    130 oC for 24 hr . 1H- NMR studies confirmed that the acetyl moiety of 43 appeared at 2.58 ppm while that of 42 at 2.11 ppm. 2-Chloro-5...120°C for Scheme 1. Synthesis of PSMA-hepsin conjugate with indole-5-carbonitrile 5 6 hr using a Dean-Stark trap apparatus. The low yield during...conditions were tested: (1) Pd(OAc)2 (10 mol%), Bu4NBr (2 eq), DMSO, 100 °C, 24 hr , and (2) Pd(OAc)2 (10 mol%), Cu(OAc)2 (3 eq), DMSO, 100 °C, 24 hr

  15. Detection of Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide antigen in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients Detección del antígeno capsular del Cryptococcus neoformans en pacientes asintomáticos infectados por HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Negroni

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 242 HIV-positive persons were studied for the detection of capsular polysaccha-ride antigen of Cryptococcus neoformans; 193 of these patients presented less than 300 CD4+ cells/µl of blood and 49 patients had more than 300 CD4+ cells/µl. None of them had symptoms or signs characteristic of cryptococcosis. The capsular antigen of C. neofarmans was detected by latex agglutination technique with pronase pre-treatment (IMMY, Crypto-Latex Antigen Detection System, Immunomycologics Inc., OK, USA; in 61% of the samples, ELISA technique was also used (Premier, Cryptococcal Antigen, Meridian Diagnostic Inc., Cincinatti, Oh, USA. The comparative study of both methods showed that the results obtained were similar in 96.9% of the cases. The capsular antigen was detected in 13 out of 193 (6.7% patients with less than 300 CD4+ cells/µl. Cryptococcosis was confirmed mycologically in 3 of these 13 cases (23% by the isolation of C. neoformans in CSF or blood cultures. Three patients, who had presented negative results of both tests for capsular antigen, suffered disseminated cryptococcosis 4 to 8 months later. The predictive diagnostic value of capsular antigen detection of C. neoformans seems tobe low and we believe that it should not be done routinely in asymptomatic HIV-positive persons.Fueron examinadas las muestras de suero de 242 personas, HIV positivas, para determinar la presencia de antígeno capsular del C. neoformans, 193 de estos pacientes tenían recuentos de células CD4 + inferiores a los 300/µl y 49 pacientes presentaron recuentos superiores a este límite. Ninguno de los enfermos tenía sintomatología que hiciese sospechar criptococosis. El antígeno capsular del C. neoformans fue determinado por una técnica de aglutinación de partículas de látex previo tratamiento con pronasa (IMM, latex-Crypto antigen detection system, Immunomycologics, Oh, USA y 61% de las muestras fueron también examinadas mediante la técnica de

  16. TISSUE POLYPEPTIDE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN - A DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETER BETWEEN PROSTATE-CANCER AND BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARRINK, J; OOSTEROM, R; BONFRER, HMG; SCHRODER, FH; MENSINK, HJA

    1993-01-01

    The serum concentration of the cell proliferation marker TPS (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen) was compared with the tumour marker PSA (prostate specific antigen). PSA was found elevated in 50% of the benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) patients, in 88% of the patients with active prostate cancer

  17. Asymptomatic infection with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steere, Allen C; Sikand, Vijay K; Schoen, Robert T; Nowakowski, John

    2003-08-15

    The natural history of asymptomatic seroconversion to Borrelia burgdorferi has been unclear. We report here, on the basis of a post hoc assessment, the frequency and outcome of asymptomatic seroconversion to B. burgdorferi in participants of a large Lyme disease vaccine trial. We show that infection with B. burgdorferi may be asymptomatic but that asymptomatic infection is unusual in the United States.

  18. Asymptomatic Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormser, G P; Nadelman, R B; Nowakowski, J; Schwartz, I

    2001-10-01

    Little is known about the natural history of asymptomatic Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Our analysis of the asymptomatic infections diagnosed serologically in a recent OspA vaccine trial conducted in the United States (N Engl J Med 1998;339: 209-215), suggests that the natural history of this event is more benign than that reported for untreated patients with erythema migrans (Ann Intern Med 1987;107: 725-731). We hypothesize that this is due either to incorrect diagnosis since the specificity of the serologic criteria used to diagnose asymptomatic infection in the vaccine study is unknown, or to infection with non-pathogenic strains of B. burgdorferi. Increasing evidence indicates that the invasive potential of strains of B. burgdorferi varies according to the specific subtype. Theoretically, a serologic testing method could be devised which would distinguish infection with invasive versus non-invasive strains of B. burgdorferi, and allow testing of the second hypothesis.

  19. Asymptomatic ocular sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Guilherme Azevedo de Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic systemic granulomatous disease. It commonly affects the skin, lungs, kidneys, and central nervous system. In the eyes it primarily affects the uveal tract, conjunctiva, lacrimal glands and optic nerve. Here in we describe the case of a patient with systemic sarcoidosis and asymptomatic eye inflammation.

  20. Validation of detection method prostatic specific antigen (PSA) by inmunocromatrografyc (Orgenics) applied to seminal liquid in stain dry and swabs

    OpenAIRE

    Cifuentes, Sandra Liliana

    2016-01-01

    El antígeno prostático específico (PSA) es generalmente usado para detectar y monitorear cuantitativamente el desarrollo de cáncer de próstata por niveles en suero de esta proteína, esta también es encontrada en altas concentraciones en semen. Diversos métodos reproducibles, sensibles y simples han sido desarrollados para el análisis de la presencia de PSA incluyendo técnicas inmunocromatográficas. Los procedimientos más comunes para la detección forense de semen se han enfocado en la identif...

  1. Baseline prostate-specific antigen measurements and subsequent prostate cancer risk in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Brasso, Klaus; Iversen, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    in the Danish Cancer Registry through 31st December 2007 1:1 age-matched with cancer-free controls. Aggressive cancer was defined as ⩾T3 or Gleason score ⩾7 or N1 or M1. Statistical analyses were based on conditional logistic regression with age as underlying time axis. RESULTS: Total PSA and free-to-total PSA...

  2. Permanent 125I-seed prostate brachytherapy: early prostate specific antigen value as a predictor of PSA bounce occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazeron Renaud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate predictive factors for PSA bounce after 125I permanent seed prostate brachytherapy and identify criteria that distinguish between benign bounces and biochemical relapses. Materials and methods Men treated with exclusive permanent 125I seed brachytherapy from November 1999, with at least a 36 months follow-up were included. Bounce was defined as an increase ≥ 0.2 ng/ml above the nadir, followed by a spontaneous return to the nadir. Biochemical failure (BF was defined using the criteria of the Phoenix conference: nadir +2 ng/ml. Results 198 men were included. After a median follow-up of 63.9 months, 21 patients experienced a BF, and 35.9% had at least one bounce which occurred after a median period of 17 months after implantation (4-50. Bounce amplitude was 0.6 ng/ml (0.2-5.1, and duration was 13.6 months (4.0-44.9. In 12.5%, bounce magnitude exceeded the threshold defining BF. Age at the time of treatment and high PSA level assessed at 6 weeks were significantly correlated with bounce but not with BF. Bounce patients had a higher BF free survival than the others (100% versus 92%, p = 0,007. In case of PSA increase, PSA doubling time and velocity were not significantly different between bounce and BF patients. Bounces occurred significantly earlier than relapses and than nadir + 0.2 ng/ml in BF patients (17 vs 27.8 months, p Conclusion High PSA value assessed 6 weeks after brachytherapy and young age were significantly associated to a higher risk of bounces but not to BF. Long delays between brachytherapy and PSA increase are more indicative of BF.

  3. Phase II trial of isoflavone in prostate-specific antigen recurrent prostate cancer after previous local therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Wei

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Data exist that demonstrate isoflavones' potent antiproliferative effects on prostate cancer cells. We evaluated the efficacy of isoflavone in patients with PSA recurrent prostate cancer after prior therapy. We postulated that isoflavone therapy would slow the rate of rise of serum PSA. Methods- Twenty patients with rising PSA after prior local therapy were enrolled in this open-labeled, Phase II, nonrandomized trial (Trial registration # NCT00596895. Patients were treated with soy milk containing 47 mg of isoflavonoid per 8 oz serving three times per day for 12 months. Serum PSA, testosterone, lipids, isoflavone levels (genistein, daidzein, and equol, and quality of life (QOL were measured at various time points from 0 to 12 months. PSA outcome was evaluated. Results- Within the mixed regression model, it was estimated that PSA had increased 56% per year before study entry and only increased 20% per year for the 12-month study period (p = 0.05. Specifically, the slope of PSA after study entry was significantly lower than that before study entry in 6 patients and the slope of PSA after study entry was significantly higher than before study entry in 2 patients. For the remaining 12 patients, the change in slope was statistically insignificant. Nearly two thirds of the patients were noted to have significant levels of free equol in their serum while on therapy. Conclusion- Dietary intervention with isoflavone supplementation may have biologic activity in men with biochemical recurrent prostate cancer as shown by a decline in the slope of PSA. This study may lend support to the literature that nutritional supplements have biologic activity in prostate cancer and therefore, further studies with these agents in randomized clinical trials should be encouraged.

  4. Investigating the Functional Role of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen and Its Enzymatic Activity in Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    DOD founding, previously, we successfully generated several photo -stable fluorescent probes (Cy3, Cy5, Alexa488, Alexa546 and Alexa633)-conjugated...M.P., V.M., S.P., U.A., and S.X.L. performed research; C.S.G. and Z.Y. contributed new reagents/analytic tools ; M.P., K.J.W., and E.A.F. analyzed data...Sigma. [35S]methionine/cysteine ([35S]met/cys) was from Perkin–Elmer. Collage - nase was from Worthington Biochemical. Rabbit polyclonal antiserum against

  5. Do the values of prostate specific antigen obtained from fresh and dried urine reflect the serum measurements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan S Saglam

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : We conclude that PSA values obtained from fresh and dried urine could not reflect serum PSA values. But, because dried urine on a filter paper can be stable for years, it could be used for forensic purposes.

  6. Prostate-specific antigen density as a parameter for the prediction of positive lymph nodes at radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Yiakoumos

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The most widely used nomogram is of high value in therapy decision-making, although it remains an auxiliary means. Considering the performance of lymph node dissection, surgeons should be aware of the specifics of the applied nomogram. PSAD appears as a useful adjunctive parameter for preoperative prostate risk estimation and warrants further evaluation.

  7. The role of transurethral resection of the prostate for patients with an elevated prostate-specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Ju Cho

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: TURP significantly reduced the serum PSA level, which was maintained for at least 3 years. This could be helpful to screen the prostate cancer using PSA value in the patient with previous negative biopsy and elevated PSA. In addition, TURP improves IPSS, Qmax, and PVR in patients with BPH, moderate LUTS, and an elevated PSA level.

  8. Comparison of Prostate-Specific Promoters and the Use of PSP-Driven Virotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men today. Although virus-based gene therapy is a promising strategy to combat advanced prostate cancer, its current effectiveness is limited partially due to inefficient cellular transduction in vivo. To overcome this obstacle, conditional oncolytic viruses (such as conditional replication adenovirus (CRAD are developed to specifically target prostate without (or with minimal systemic toxicity due to viral self-replication. In this study, we have analyzed and compared three prostate-specific promoters (PSA, probasin, and MMTV LTR for their specificity and activity both in vitro and in vivo. Both mice model with xenograft prostate tumor model and canine model were used. The best PSP was selected to construct a prostate-specific oncolytic adenovirus (CRAD by controlling the adenoviral E1 region. The efficacy and specificity of CRAD on prostate cancer cells were examined in cell culture and animal models.

  9. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay for prostate-specific acid phosphatase in prostatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, J.; Rippe, D.F.; Panfili, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    Results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are compared with those of a standard radioimmunoassay (RIA) for detection and quantitation of prostate-specific acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) in serum. Control subjects, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and patients in all four clinical stages of prostatic adenocarcinoma were tested. The upper limit of normal (95%of the population) by the ELISA was 2.0 ..mu..g/L, and by the RIA was 2.2 ..mu..g/L. In prostatic a denocarcinoma stage I (not detectable by digital rectal examination), ELISA was slightly more sensitive than RIA, but sensitivity was still relatively low (20%). As tumor mass increased (stages II through IV), the frequency of increased concentrations of prostatic acid phosphatase in serum also increased. We confirmed this increase in circulating enzyme in some cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia and suggest that this finding is related to either acinar cytolysis or an increase in acini size and number. Although prostate-specific acid phosphatase is not a cancer-specific enzyme, we conclude that its measurement may be of considerable value in monitoring prostatic disease.

  10. Blastogenic response of human lymphocytes to early antigen(s) of human cytomegalovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Waner, J L; Kong, N; Biano, S

    1983-01-01

    The lymphocytes of asymptomatic, seropositive donors demonstrated blastogenic responses to early antigens of human cytomegalovirus whether or not antibodies to early antigens were detectable. The lymphocytes of six of nine patients with active cytomegalovirus infections gave stimulation indexes of greater than or equal to 2.00 with antigens of productively infected cells, whereas only two patients demonstrated comparable stimulation indexes with early antigens. Four patients with stimulation ...

  11. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  12. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion : Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  13. Dengue Patients Exhibit Higher Levels of PrM and E Antibodies Than Their Asymptomatic Counterparts

    OpenAIRE

    Adeline Syin Lian Yeo; Anusyah Rathakrishnan; Seok Mui Wang; Sasheela Ponnampalavanar; Rishya Manikam; Jameela Sathar; Santha Kumari Natkunam; Shamala Devi Sekaran

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is a common tropical disease which often occurs without being detected. These asymptomatic cases provide information in relation to the manifestation of immunological aspects. In this study, we developed an ELISA method to compare neutralizing effects of dengue prM and E antibodies between dengue patients and their asymptomatic household members. Recombinant D2 premembrane (prM) was constructed, cloned, and tested for antigenicity. The recombinant protein was purified a...

  14. Vaginal myofibroblastoma with glands expressing mammary and prostatic antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenfels, I; Chlumská, A

    2012-01-01

    A case of unusual vaginal myofibroblastoma containing glands which expressed mammary and prostatic markers is described. The tumor occurred in 70-year-old woman in the proximal third of the vagina. It showed morphology and immunophenotype typical of so-called cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma. The peripheral zone of the lesion contained a few groups of glands suggesting vaginal adenosis or prostatic-type glands on initial examination. The glands showed a surprising simultaneous expression of mammary markers mammaglobin and GCDFP-15 and prostatic markers prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP). Immunostains for alpha-smooth muscle actin, p63 and CD10 highlighted the myoepithelial cell layer of the glands. The finding indicates that simultaneous use of both mammary and prostatic markers for examination of unusual glandular lesions in the vulvovaginal location can be helpful for an exact diagnosis, and can contribute to better understanding of prostatic and mammary differentiations in the female lower genital tract.

  15. A novel method for the determination of basal gene expression of tissue-specific promoters: an analysis of prostate-specific promoters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, H.G. van der; McCadden, J.; Verhaegh, G.W.C.T.; Kruszewski, M.; Ferrer, F.; Schalken, J.A.; Carducci, M.; Rodriguez, R.

    2001-01-01

    Because the toxicity of suicide gene therapeutics is directly related to basal promoter activity, we developed an assay to test for promoter "leakiness" using a diphtheria toxin mutant. Sequences of 15 prostate-specific gene promoter constructs were cloned in an expression plasmid (pBK; Stratagene,

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast...

  17. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Biradar Kerure

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Methods: A total of 500 pregnant women were studied over a period of one year. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected into a sterile container & then subjected to culture method. Results: Significant bacteriuria was noted in 45 patients (9%. 3% patients had insignificant bacteriuria. Growth of contaminants was noted in 8%. 80% samples were sterile with no growth. E. coli was the most common etiological agent, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon in antenatal patients. All pregnant women should be screened by urine culture to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria at their first visit to prevent overt UTI & other complications in both mother & fetus. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 213-216

  18. Increased frequency of anti-retina antibodies in asymptomatic patients with chronic t. gondii infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursino, Sylvia Regina Temer; da Costa, Thaís Boccia; Yamamoto, Joyce Hisae; Meireles, Luciana Regina; Silva, Maria Antonieta Longo Galvão; de Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To search for anti-retina antibodies that serve as markers for eye disease in uveitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stored sera from patients with uveitis, ocular toxoplasmosis (n = 30) and non-infectious, immune-mediated uveitis (n = 50) and from asymptomatic individuals who were positive (n = 250) and negative (n = 250) for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were tested. Serum anti-retina IgG was detected by an optimized ELISA using a solid-phase whole human retina extract, bovine S-antigen or interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. RESULTS: Uveitis patients showed a higher mean reactivity to whole human retina extract, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein and S-antigen in comparison to the asymptomatic population. These findings were independent of the uveitis origin and allowed the determination of the lower anti-retina antibody cut-off for the three antigens. Asymptomatic anti-Toxoplasma serum-positive individuals showed a higher frequency of anti-human whole retina extract antibodies in comparison to asymptomatic anti-Toxoplasma serum-negative patients. The bovine S-antigen and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein ELISAs also showed a higher mean reactivity in the uveitis groups compared to the asymptomatic group, but the observed reactivities were lower and overlapped without discrimination. CONCLUSION: We detected higher levels of anti-retina antibodies in uveitis patients and in a small fraction of asymptomatic patients with chronic toxoplasmosis. The presence of anti-retina antibodies in sera might be a marker of eye disease in asymptomatic patients, especially when whole human retina extract is used in a solid-phase ELISA. PMID:21120306

  19. Increased frequency of anti-retina antibodies in asymptomatic patients with chronic t. gondii infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Regina Temer Cursino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To search for anti-retina antibodies that serve as markers for eye disease in uveitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stored sera from patients with uveitis, ocular toxoplasmosis (n = 30 and non-infectious, immune-mediated uveitis (n = 50 and from asymptomatic individuals who were positive (n = 250 and negative (n = 250 for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were tested. Serum anti-retina IgG was detected by an optimized ELISA using a solid-phase whole human retina extract, bovine S-antigen or interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. RESULTS: Uveitis patients showed a higher mean reactivity to whole human retina extract, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein and S-antigen in comparison to the asymptomatic population. These findings were independent of the uveitis origin and allowed the determination of the lower anti-retina antibody cut-off for the three antigens. Asymptomatic anti-Toxoplasma serum-positive individuals showed a higher frequency of antihuman whole retina extract antibodies in comparison to asymptomatic anti-Toxoplasma serum-negative patients. The bovine S-antigen and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein ELISAs also showed a higher mean reactivity in the uveitis groups compared to the asymptomatic group, but the observed reactivities were lower and overlapped without discrimination. CONCLUSION: We detected higher levels of anti-retina antibodies in uveitis patients and in a small fraction of asymptomatic patients with chronic toxoplasmosis. The presence of anti-retina antibodies in sera might be a marker of eye disease in asymptomatic patients, especially when whole human retina extract is used in a solid-phase ELISA.

  20. Prostate-specific antigen doubling time as a progression criterion in an active surveillance programme for patients with localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebaek; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Brasso, Klaus;

    2014-01-01

    or more PSA values. Progression risk groups were defined as follows: high-risk: PSAdt Gleason score (GS) ≥4 + 3, more than three positive biopsy cores, and/or bilateral tumour or cT ≥2c disease; intermediate-risk: PSAdt 3-5 years, GS = 3 + 4 or cT2b disease; and low-risk: PSAdt >5 years...

  1. Expression of Neutral Endopeptidase, Endothelin-1, and Nuclear Factor Kappa B in Prostate Cancer: Interrelations and Associations with Prostate-Specific Antigen Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis J. Vlachostergios

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions. There seems to be a clinical model of NEP/NPs and NFκB pathways interconnection, with their constituents following inverse patterns of expression in accordance with their biological roles and molecular interrelations.

  2. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics after stereotactic body radiotherapy as monotherapy or boost after whole pelvic radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Jung Kim

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: In this report of low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients, an initial period of rapid PSA decline was followed by a slow decline, which resulted in a lower PSA nadir. The PSA kinetics of SBRT monotherapy appears to be comparable to those achieved with SBRT boost with WPRT.

  3. A phase I dose escalation trial of vaccine replicon particles (VRP) expressing prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in subjects with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovin, Susan F; Kehoe, Marissa; Durso, Robert; Fernandez, Celina; Olson, William; Gao, Jian P; Israel, Robert; Scher, Howard I; Morris, Stephen

    2013-01-30

    PSMA-VRP is a propagation defective, viral replicon vector system encoding PSMA under phase I evaluation for patients with castration resistant metastatic prostate cancer (CRPC). The product is derived from an attenuated strain of the alphavirus, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus, and incorporates multiple redundant safety features. In this first in human trial, two cohorts of 3 patients with CRPC metastatic to bone were treated with up to five doses of either 0.9×10(7)IU or 0.36×10(8)IU of PSMA-VRP at weeks 1, 4, 7, 10 and 18, followed by an expansion cohort of 6 patients treated with 0.36×10(8)IU of PSMA-VRP at weeks 1, 4, 7, 10 and 18. No toxicities were observed. In the first dose cohort, no PSMA specific cellular immune responses were seen but weak PSMA-specific signals were observed by ELISA. The remaining 9 patients, which included the higher cohort and the extension cohort, had no PSMA specific cellular responses. PSMA-VRP was well-tolerated at both doses. While there did not appear to be clinical benefit nor robust immune signals at the two doses studied, neutralizing antibodies were produced by both cohorts suggesting that dosing was suboptimal.

  4. Can a Gleason 6 or Less Microfocus of Prostate Cancer in One Biopsy and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level Archetype of Low-Risk Prostate Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Gianluigi; Benecchi, Luigi; Grizzi, Fabio; Seveso, Mauro; Giusti, Guido; Piccinelli, Alessandro; Benetti, Alessio; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Minuti, Francesco; Graziotti, Pierpaolo

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) remains a cause of death worldwide. Here we investigate whether a single microfocus of PC at the biopsy (graded as Gleason 6 or less, ≤5% occupancy) and the PSA archetype of low-risk prostate disease. 4500 consecutive patients were enrolled. Among them, 134 patients with a single micro-focus of PC were followed up, and the parameters influencing the biochemical relapse (BR) were analysed. Out of 134 patients, 94 had clinically significant disease, specifically in 74.26% of the patients with PSA <10 ng/mL. Positive surgical margins and the extracapsular invasion were found in 29.1% and 51.4% patients, respectively. BR was observed in 29.6% of the patients. Cox regression evidenced a correlation between the BR and Gleason grade at the retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), capsular invasion, and the presence of positive surgical margins. Multivariate regression analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between the presence of surgical margins at the RRP and BR. Considering a single micro-focus of PC at the biopsy and PSA serum level <10 ng/mL, clinically significant disease was found in 74.26% patients and only positive surgical margins are useful for predicting the BR.

  5. Elevated prostate specific antigen and reduced 10-year survival among a cohort of Danish men consecutively referred from primary care to an urological department during 2005-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Thore; Nielsen, Torben Kjær; Hansen, Steen Ingemann;

    2017-01-01

    referred from GP to an Urological Specialist and to investigate prognostic factors and survival in the cohort. A total of 1261 consecutive male patients without previously known prostate cancer (PCa) were referred to the same Department of Urology during June 2005 to August 2006. Some 299 patients were...

  6. 前列腺炎对血清PSA水平的影响%Effect of Prostatitis on Elevated Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾润国; 王瑞东

    2001-01-01

    PSA是诊断和鉴别诊断前列腺癌的一项重要指标,但许多良性前列腺疾病也导致血清PSA升高。本文综述了前列腺炎导致血清PSA升高的机理,不同类型前列腺炎对血清PSA升高的影响,前列腺液成分的变化与血清PSA升高的关系以及前列腺炎对其它PSA相关指标的影响等方面。%PSA is an important indicator in the diagnosis and differentialdiagnosis of prostate cancer. However, it can also be elevated by some benign prostatic diseases. This article reviews the mechanism of serum PSA elevation in the patients with prostatitis, the PSA elevation in different types of prostatitis, the relationship between component of expressed prostatic secretion and the serum PSA elevation, and the effects of prostatitis on other PSA related targets.

  7. Evaluation of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer in Patients with Prostate-specific Antigen <20 ng/ml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The PI-RADS score correlates with the PCa detection rate in patients with PSA <20 ng/ml. The summed score of T2WI + DWI has the highest accuracy in detection of PCa. However, the sensitivity should be further improved.

  8. Evaluation of prostatic cancer prevalence in patients with prostatic-specific antigen between 4 and 10 and normal digital rectal examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Tadayon

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In males with PSA between 4 and 10 and normal DRE, PSA density smaller than 0.12-0.15, and percent of free PSA greater than 18%, the prevalence of prostate cancer is very few and we can safely ignore the TRUS and prostate biopsy in these males and eliminate its costs and side effects.

  9. Dengue patients exhibit higher levels of PrM and E antibodies than their asymptomatic counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Adeline Syin Lian; Rathakrishnan, Anusyah; Wang, Seok Mui; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Manikam, Rishya; Sathar, Jameela; Kumari Natkunam, Santha; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is a common tropical disease which often occurs without being detected. These asymptomatic cases provide information in relation to the manifestation of immunological aspects. In this study, we developed an ELISA method to compare neutralizing effects of dengue prM and E antibodies between dengue patients and their asymptomatic household members. Recombinant D2 premembrane (prM) was constructed, cloned, and tested for antigenicity. The recombinant protein was purified and tested with controls by using an indirect ELISA method. Positive dengue serum samples with their asymptomatic pair were then carried out onto the developed ELISA. In addition, commercially available recombinant envelope (E) protein was used to develop an ELISA which was tested with the same set of serum samples in the prM ELISA. Asymptomatic individuals showed preexisting heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. The recombinant prM was antigenically reactive in the developed ELISA. Dengue patients had higher prM and E antibodies compared to their household members. Our study highlights the neutralizing antibodies levels with respect to dengue prM and E between dengue patients and asymptomatic individuals.

  10. Subclinical infection and asymptomatic carriage of gastrointestinal zoonoses: occupational exposure, environmental pathways, and the anonymous spread of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, R S; Cross, P; Williams, A Prysor; Edwards-Jones, G; Salmon, R L; Rigby, D; Chalmers, R M; Thomas, D Rh; Jones, D L

    2013-10-01

    Asymptomatic carriage of gastrointestinal zoonoses is more common in people whose profession involves them working directly with domesticated animals. Subclinical infections (defined as an infection in which symptoms are either asymptomatic or sufficiently mild to escape diagnosis) are important within a community as unknowing (asymptomatic) carriers of pathogens do not change their behaviour to prevent the spread of disease; therefore the public health significance of asymptomatic human excretion of zoonoses should not be underestimated. However, optimal strategies for managing diseases where asymptomatic carriage instigates further infection remain unresolved, and the impact on disease management is unclear. In this review we consider the environmental pathways associated with prolonged antigenic exposure and critically assess the significance of asymptomatic carriage in disease outbreaks. Although screening high-risk groups for occupationally acquired diseases would be logistically problematical, there may be an economic case for identifying and treating asymptomatic carriage if the costs of screening and treatment are less than the costs of identifying and treating those individuals infected by asymptomatic hosts.

  11. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 500 antenatal women in their first or second trimesters were screened over a period of 2 years for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Out of them, 8.4% (42 were culture positive. A control group of 100 non-pregnant women, both married and unmarried, was also simultaneously screened. The control group yielded an overall culture positivity of 3% (4% in the married non-pregnant women and 2% in the unmarried women. Primigravida had highest percent culture positivity of 66.6%. The incidence was higher in less than 20 years age group i.e. 71.42%. Of the screening tests, Gram stained smear when compared with the standard loop method, showed the highest sensitivity of 95.2%. The specificity of the screening tests was high [Gram stained smear (98.6%, catalase test (97.1% and pus cell count(96.5%]. Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated in the test and control groups. The organisms were sensitive to cephalexin, nitrofurantoin, amoxycillin and norfloxacin in decreasing order. Incidence of prematurity was 75% and that of low birth weight was 50% in untreated patients.

  12. Immune response in diarrheal patients and asymptomatic carrier with CS6-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puiprom, Orapim; Chantaroj, Siriporn; Matsuda, Shigeaki; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya; Taniguchi, Tooru

    2012-11-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the major causes of diarrhea in children and travelers in developing countries. ETEC colonization factors (CFs) are virulence determinants considered as protective antigens and major targets for vaccine development against ETEC infections. One of the most prevalent CFs, coli surface antigen 6 (CS6), a non-fimbrial polymeric protein consisting of two major subunits, CssA and CssB, is produced by approximately 25-35% of ETEC worldwide. We could isolate only CS6-producing ETEC strains from two diarrheal patients and one asymptomatic carrier, but we could not detect CssA- or CssB-specific antibodies in the feces and blood of two patients convalescing from natural ETEC infection and of an asymptomatic carrier using western blotting. Therefore, in order to protect against infection with CS6-producing ETEC, protective levels of CS6 immunity should be incorporated in any future vaccines against ETEC.

  13. 前列腺特异性膜抗原和前列腺特异性抗原表达强度与前列腺癌Gleason评分之间的相关性研究%Correlation study of expression levels of prostate-specific membrane antigen and prostate-specific antigen with Gleason score of prostate carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任加强; 陈忠清; 郑莉; 陈琦; 李华; 朱虹光

    2004-01-01

    目的研究前列腺特异性膜抗原(PSMA)和前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)的表达强度与前列腺癌Gleason评分之间的相关性.方法制备抗PSMA膜外段表位的单克隆抗体,应用免疫组织化学方法检测前列腺癌中PSMA的表达,统计分析其与Gleason评分之间的相关性,并和PSA与Gleason评分之间的相关性进行对比.结果制备出8株分泌抗PSMA膜外段表位的单抗的杂交瘤细胞株.免疫组化结果表明,PSMA 的表达强度与前列腺癌的Gleason评分之间存在相关性.在分化差的前列腺癌中,PSMA水平高于分化中等和分化良好的前列腺癌(P0.05).结论 PSMA表达水平在分化差的前列腺癌中明显升高,与Gleason评分存在相关性,可以作为前列腺癌的Gleason分级的标记物,提示PSMA可以作为对激素疗法效果不敏感的低分化前列腺癌抗体介导的免疫治疗靶点.

  14. Serum prostate-specific acid phosphatase: development and validation of a specific radioimmunoassay. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihko, P.; Sajanti, E.; Jaenne, O.; Peltonen, L.; Vihko, R.

    1978-11-01

    We describe radioimmunoassay for human prostatic acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (acid optimum), EC 3.1.3.2) in serum, with use of monospecific antisera raised in rabbits against highly purified acid phosphatase from human prostates. The antiserum did not cross react with partly purified acid phosphatases from human spleen, erythrocytes, or synovial tissues. /sup 125/I-labeled acid phosphatase was prepared by a Chloramine T method, and the bound and free antigen was separated in the assay by use of anti-rabbit gamma-globulin raised in sheep. Uniform low nonspecific binding of the (/sup 125/I)acid phosphatase was achieved by using acid-phosphatase-free serum to prepare standard curves and diluted samples of serum with high acid phosphatase activities. Concentrations of immunoreactive acid phosphatase in the serum of healthy men ranged from <1 to 10 ..mu..g/liter and for 12 patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma between 100 and 500 ..mu..g/liter. The concentrations of the enzyme in sera of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were very similar to those in sera of the reference group.

  15. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA AND PYURIA IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahimkhani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nPregnant women are at increased risk for urinary tract infection (UTI but in many cases infection is asymptomatic. This study was performed to determine the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria in pregnant women. A total of 86 pregnant women during first trimester and 56 nonpregnant women were evaluated. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected for both groups. Urine samples were examined microscopically and were cultured. Bacteriological examination revealed asymptomatic bacteriuria in 25 (29.1% and 3 (5.4% of the study group and controls, respectively (P < 0.05. Microscopic analysis of urine revealed pyuria in 18 (20.9% and 3 (5.4% of the study group and controls, respectively (P < 0.05. In study group, Escherichia coli were found in 20%, Staphylococcus epidermidis in 36%, Staphylococcus haemolyticus in 12%, streptococcus group D in 12%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus in 12% and Proteus mirabilis in 8%. In control group, E. coli were found in 33.3% and S. epidermidis in 66.7%. Our results show that the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria is significantly higher in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. The main finding in the present study was that 29.1% of the pregnant women who were in first trimester had asymptomatic bacteriuria which is much higher than figures reported from other countries. The use of microscopic urinanalysis was not an effective method of detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria and urine culture is necessary for screening these pregnant women.

  16. Asymptomatic Esophageal Varices Should Be Endoscopically Treated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nib Soehendra

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic treatment has generally been accepted in the management of bleeding esophageal varices. Both the control of acute variceal bleeding and elective variceal eradication to prevent recurrent bleeding can be achieved via endoscopic methods. In contrast to acute and elective treatment, the role of endoscopic therapy in asymptomatic patients who have never had variceal bleeding remains controversial because of the rather disappointing results obtained from prophylactic sclerotherapy. Most published randomized controlled trials showed that prophylactic sclerotherapy had no effect on survival. In some studies, neither survival rate nor bleeding risk was improved. In this article, the author champions the view that asymptomatic esophageal varices should be endoscopically treated.

  17. Asymptomatic body packers should be treated conservatively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glovinski, Peter V; Lauritsen, Morten L; Bay-Nielsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Body packing takes advantage of the human storage capacity within the alimentary tract. Body packing is used for the smuggling of drugs such as heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, hashish and ecstasy. Most body packers are asymptomatic. However, packets may rupture or obstruct the alimentary tract...

  18. ASYMPTOMATIC ABSENT EPIGLOTTIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Shahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Absence or hypoplasia of the epiglottis is a rare anomaly. Most patients, with absent or hypoplastic epiglottis, have presented, life-threatening symptoms of respiratory distress and severe aspiration in infancy or early childhood. We report a case of completely asymptomatic 30 year old female with absent epiglottis posted for modified radical mastoidectomy for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM.

  19. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Clinical Urological Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Tommaso; Mazzoli, Sandra; Lanzafame, Paolo;

    2016-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is a common clinical condition that often leads to unnecessary antimicrobial use. The reduction of antibiotic overuse for ABU is consequently an important issue for antimicrobial stewardship and to reduce the emergence of multidrug resistant strains. There are two i...... a protective role in preventing symptomatic recurrence, particularly when Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) has been isolated....

  20. Multiseptate Gallbladder in an Asymptomatic Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Wanaguru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-year-old child being investigated for urinary tract infection was diagnosed with a multiseptate gallbladder. The patient remains asymptomatic, and investigations demonstrate no associated anomalies. Forty-three cases, including 13 cases in children were identified in the literature. Their presentation and management were reviewed.

  1. ASYMPTOMATIC ABSENT EPIGLOTTIS: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Absence or hypoplasia of the epiglottis is a rare anomaly. Most patients, with absent or hypoplastic epiglottis, have presented, life-threatening symptoms of respiratory distress and severe aspiration in infancy or early childhood. We report a case of completely asymptomatic 30 year old female with absent epiglottis posted for modified radical mastoidectomy for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM).

  2. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infections in morbidly obese dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Wynn, Susan G.; Angela L. Witzel; Joseph W. Bartges; Tamberlyn S. Moyers; Claudia A. Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was underta...

  3. Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in asymptomatic proteinuria

    OpenAIRE

    Paisley, K.E.; Beaman, M; Tooke, J. E.; Mohamed-Ali, V; Lowe, G. D. O.; Shore, A C

    2003-01-01

    Background. Proteinuria is associated with vascular risk and a systemic increase in vascular permeability. Endothelial dysfunction occurs early in atherosclerosis and modulates vascular permeability. Vascular risk and chronic inflammation are associated. This study investigates whether the increased vascular permeability in proteinuria reflects systemic endothelial dysfunction and chronic inflammation. Methods. Twenty-one patients with asymptomatic proteinuria (1.29 g/24 h; range 0.18 to 3.17...

  4. Asymptomatic atlantoaxial subluxation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadali Nazarinia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study is conducted to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic cervical spine subluxation in rheumatoid arthritis patients by plain radiographs and its relation to demographic and clinical characteristics, disease activity measures and medications. 100 rheumatoid arthritis patients (18 male and 82 female were selected randomly, according to the American college of Rheumatology Criteria, who were under follow up in the rheumatology clinic. A complete history was taken, and physical examination has been done with focus on the cervical spine to determine their demographic data, disease duration, age of disease onset, drug history, swollen and tender joint counts, and ESR, Hb, CRP, RF levels. The disease activity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis was measured using the disease activity score 28. Radiographs of the cervical spine included lateral views taken in flexion, extension, neutral position of the neck and anterioposterior and odontoid projection view. Asymptomatic cervical spine subluxation was found in 17 of the 100 patients (17%. The prevalence of, anterior atlantoaxial subluxation, atlantoaxial impaction and subaxial subluxation was 10(10%, 5(5% and 6(6%, respectively. Posterior subluxation was not detected. The only characteristic that showed meaningful relationship with cervical spine subluxation was CRP (P=0.036. Our results showed that patients with RA, who have cervical spine subluxation cannot be distinguished on the basis of symptoms. Cervical spine involvement is common and may be asymptomatic, indicating routine cervical spine imaging is needed in patients with RA.

  5. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic women: relationship to history, contraception, and cervicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontis, J; Vavilis, D; Panidis, D; Theodoridis, T; Konstantinidis, T; Sidiropoulou, A

    1994-12-01

    The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen was examined in 400 endocervical samples collected from an equal number of asymptomatic sexually active women. The overall prevalence was found to be 4%, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Chlamydia infection was correlated with younger age (5.8%, p 0.05), condom (0%, p Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with younger age, intense sexual life, and use of oral contraceptives. Given that the majority of infected women revealed cervical pathology, the detection of chlamydia in the high-risk female population with cervical changes seems to be essential.

  6. Performance of cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay using saliva in Ugandans with CD4 <100.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kwizera

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis can best be diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid India ink microscopy, cryptococcal antigen detection, or culture. These require invasive lumbar punctures. The utility of cryptococcal antigen detection in saliva is unknown. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the point-of-care cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (CrAg LFA in saliva.We screened HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy naïve persons with symptomatic meningitis (n = 130 and asymptomatic persons with CD4+<100 cells/µL entering into HIV care (n = 399 in Kampala, Uganda. The diagnostic performance of testing saliva was compared to serum/plasma cryptococcal antigen as the reference standard.The saliva lateral flow assay performance was overall more sensitive in symptomatic patients (88% than in asymptomatic patients (27%. The specificity of saliva lateral flow assay was excellent at 97.8% in the symptomatic patients and 100% in asymptomatic patients. The degree of accuracy of saliva in diagnosing cryptococcosis and the level of agreement between the two sample types was better in symptomatic patients (C-statistic 92.9, κ-0.82 than in asymptomatic patients (C-statistic 63.5, κ-0.41. Persons with false negative salvia CrAg tests had lower levels of peripheral blood CrAg titers (P<0.001.There was poor diagnostic performance in testing saliva for cryptococcal antigen, particularly among asymptomatic persons screened for preemptive treatment of cryptococcosis.

  7. Transcriptional activation of prostate specific homeobox gene NKX3-1 in subsets of T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nagel

    Full Text Available Homeobox genes encode transcription factors impacting key developmental processes including embryogenesis, organogenesis, and cell differentiation. Reflecting their tight transcriptional control, homeobox genes are often embedded in large non-coding, cis-regulatory regions, containing tissue specific elements. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL homeobox genes are frequently deregulated by chromosomal aberrations, notably translocations adding T-cell specific activatory elements. NKX3-1 is a prostate specific homeobox gene activated in T-ALL patients expressing oncogenic TAL1 or displaying immature T-cell characteristics. After investigating regulation of NKX3-1 in primary cells and cell lines, we report its ectopic expression in T-ALL cells independent of chromosomal rearrangements. Using siRNAs and expression profiling, we exploited NKX3-1 positive T-ALL cell lines as tools to investigate aberrant activatory mechanisms. Our data confirmed NKX3-1 activation by TAL1/GATA3/LMO and identified LYL1 as an alternative activator in immature T-ALL cells devoid of GATA3. Moreover, we showed that NKX3-1 is directly activated by early T-cell homeodomain factor MSX2. These activators were regulated by MLL and/or by IL7-, BMP4- and IGF2-signalling. Finally, we demonstrated homeobox gene SIX6 as a direct leukemic target of NKX3-1 in T-ALL. In conclusion, we identified three major mechanisms of NKX3-1 regulation in T-ALL cell lines which are represented by activators TAL1, LYL1 and MSX2, corresponding to particular T-ALL subtypes described in patients. These results may contribute to the understanding of leukemic transcriptional networks underlying disturbed T-cell differentiation in T-ALL.

  8. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  9. Hepatitis B virus infection and genotype in asymptomatic people from 10 ethnic groups in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan-Ying; Hou, Wei; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Xiao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the infection and genotype distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in ethnic groups in Yunnan, China. METHODS: Two thousand five hundred and eighty-four asymptomatic local people from 10 ethnic groups were investigated in Yunnan, China. Infection and genotype distribution were evaluated by serological and genetic methods. Genotyping was verified by sequencing. Ethnic genotype distribution was compared by proportion test. RESULTS: Four types of infection model based on HBV serum markers were identified, and the average HBV infection rate was 5.7% in those asymptomatic local people. The genotype prevalence was 59.6% for B, 21.1% for C and 19.3% BC; subgenotypes Ba, Cs and Ce were identified in this study. Hepatitis B surface antigen-positive rate and the proportion of genotype B were significantly lower in ethnic groups with a northern origin compared to those with a southern origin (50% vs 73.9%, P = 0.037; 4.2% vs 10.5%, P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: Genotype B is dominant and genotype BC has high occurrence in asymptomatic local ethnic groups in Yunnan. HBV infection status and genotype distribution may associate with ethnic origin. PMID:26640334

  10. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had adolescents from rural than urban areas (P adolescents in our population.

  11. Five cases of asymptomatic spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokura, M; Nonaka, M; Yamamoto, S; Kataoka, D; Tanio, N; Iyano, K; Oki, A; Kawada, T; Takaba, T

    1999-06-01

    Asymptomatic spontaneous pneumothorax (ASPT) is an uncommon condition. Between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1997, 269 patients were admitted to our department with spontaneous pneumothorax. Of the 269 patients, 5 had no symptoms at the time of discovery. Their ages ranged from 15 to 61 years (mean, 37.8 years), and all of them were male. Of the 5 patients with no complaints, 2 had bilateral metachronous pneumothoraces and 3 had hemilateral pneumothorax. All of these ASPTs were revealed by chest roentgenographs taken during medical examinations or follow-up studies relating to other diseases. The mean value of body mass index (BMI) was 19.96 +/- 1.4 (range 18.7 - 22.1). Two of the 5 patients underwent bilateral partial lung resection. Histopathological examination of the resected specimens showed elastofibrosis, scar formation, and an interruption of the elastic fiber of the pleura. In these 5 cases, clinical courses were uneventful, and relapse of the pneumothorax did not occur. Clinical physicians should be aware of the possibility of asymptomatic pneumothorax, as well as the optimal radiographic techniques for revealing small pneumothoraces.

  12. Asymptomatic Urolithiasis Complicated by Nephrocutaneous Fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamard, Marion; Amzalag, Gaël; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare and severe complication of chronic urolithiasis. We report a case of 56-year-old woman with a nephrocutaneous fistula (NFC) which developed from a superinfected urinoma following calyceal rupture due to an obstructing calculus in the left ureter. The patient was clinically asymptomatic and came to the emergency department for a painless left flank fluctuating mass. This urinoma was superinfected, with a delayed development of renal abscesses and perirenal phlegmon found on contrast-enhanced uro-computed tomography (CT), responsible for left renal vein thrombophlebitis and left psoas abscess. Thereafter, a 99 mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy revealed a nonfunctional left kidney, leading to the decision of left nephrectomy. Chronic urolithiasis complications are rare and only few cases are reported in medical literature. A systematic medical approach helped selecting the best imaging modality to help diagnosis and treatment. Indeed, uro-CT scan and renal scintigraphy with 99 mTc-DMSA are the most sensitive imaging modalities to investigate morphological and functional urinary tract consequences of NFC, secondary to chronic urolithiasis. PMID:28299237

  13. PREVALENCE OF ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANCY AT A TEACHING HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND UTI is the most frequent medical complication. It may be asymptomatic or symptomatic. Asymptomatic bacteriuria if left untreated might result in symptomatic UTI and adverse pregnancy outcomes. AIM This prospective study was aimed to determine the prevalence of Asymptomatic bacteriuria of pregnancy among antenatal women attending the antenatal clinic in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Maharajah’s Institute of Medical Sciences, Nellimarla, Vizianag...

  14. Mutual helper effect in copulsing of dendritic cells with 2 antigens: a novel approach for improvement of dendritic-based vaccine efficacy against tumors and infectious diseases simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeian, Jaleh; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Dokouhaki, Pouneh; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Ghods, Roya; Bozorgmehr, Mahmood; Nikoo, Shohreh; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ostadkarampour, Mahyar; Rezania, Simin; Zarnani, Amir Hassan

    2009-05-01

    To develop an efficient dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy protocol, we examined whether simultaneous pulsing of DCs with a given antigen and a third-party antigen could enhance their antigen presentation capacity. Purified splenic DCs of Balb/c mice were pulsed separately with immunoglobulin G, ovalbumin, conalbumin, P15 peptide of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and prostate-specific antigen or double combinations of the aforementioned antigens. In some settings, DCs pulsed with 1 antigen were mixed equally with those pulsed with another antigen. Antigen-pulsed DCs were injected into the footpad of syngeneic mice and proliferation of whole, CD4 and CD8 depleted lymph node cells was measured after restimulation with cognate antigen. Antigen-specific production of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) was tested in culture supernatants. Frequency of responding lymph node cells was determined by IFNgamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. Our results showed that copulsing of DCs with 2 unrelated antigens increased the capacity of DCs to induce antigen-specific T-cell proliferation against both antigens up to 16-fold. Injection of 2 populations of DCs each pulsed with a different antigen, increased proliferation of primed T cells significantly as well. Both CD4 and CD8 depleted populations showed vigorous proliferative response in copulsing system. In addition, copulsing of DCs with 2 antigens resulted in higher frequency of antigen-specific responding cells and significantly more IFNgamma production. Our results clearly showed that unrelated peptides and proteins could be used to enhance efficacy of DC-based vaccines and in this system, each antigen served to help the other one, a condition that we termed as "mutual helper effect."

  15. Antileishmania Immunological Tests for Asymptomatic Subjects Living in a Visceral Leishmaniasis-Endemic Area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luciana Almeida; Romero, Héctor Dardo; Nogueira Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio; Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Prata, Aluízio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of different tests used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in asymptomatic subjects living in an endemic area. No gold standard is available for the diagnosis of asymptomatic infection with Leishmania. In continuation of a previous study, 1,017 subjects living in a VL-endemic area were clinically reevaluated. Of these, 576 had at least one positive serological test in a first assessment. About 3 years after the first evaluation, none of the subjects had progressed to clinical VL. Among this group, 246 subjects were selected, and five serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay p [ELISAp], ELISArK39, ELISArK26, indirect immunofluorescence test [IIFT] using L. amazonensis promastigote antigen, and an immunochromatographic test using rK39 antigen [TRALd]) and the Montenegro skin test (MST) were repeated. There was a significant increase in the number of subjects who tested positive in the MST, IIFT, ELISAp, and ELISArK39 in the second evaluation. For all tests, there were subjects who tested positive in the first evaluation and negative in the second evaluation. A positive result in the serological tests and MST in subjects from the endemic area studied did not indicate a risk of progression to VL and may only be temporary. PMID:21292896

  16. [Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger de Sorrentino, A; Motta, P; Iliovich, E; Sorrentino, A P

    1997-01-01

    The cytopathic effect of HIV on CD4 T cells, as well as the active autoimmune mechanism occurring during infection, have been documented. Of the cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of AIDS, the main one produced by the monocyte-macrophage series is tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF alpha). This cytokine induces antigens such as proteinase 3 (Pr 3) or mieloperoxidase (MPO). Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are directed against this type of PMN antigens. In the present paper, the role of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in HIV infected patients as responsible for autoimmune phenomena in relation to opportunistic infections, was studied. A total of 88 serum samples belonging to 49 asymptomatic and 39 symptomatic HIV infected patients were tested for ANCA by an indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test over a neutrophil substrate. ANCA were detected in 53.8% of symptomatic patients as compared to 4.1% in asymptomatic cases (p tuberculosis is a frequent finding in HIV infected patients from Northeastern Argentina. When the presence of ANCA in TB(+) HIV(+) and TB(+) HIV(-) patients was studied, it was seen that positive-ANCA significantly correlated with the first group (p pulmonar TB, could indicate that the virus may not be responsible for the induction of these antibodies.

  17. Asymptomatic brucellosis infection in humans: implications for diagnosis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Q; Lu, Y; Yuan, X; Qiu, Y; Xu, J; Li, W; Ke, Y; Yu, Y; Huang, L; Wang, Y; Chen, Z

    2013-09-01

    Human brucellosis is mainly caused by contact with Brucella-infected animals and their secretions and carcasses. Individuals who are continuously in contact with animals are considered to be at a high risk but only some show symptoms and are diagnosed as cases of brucellosis. Here, we showed that asymptomatic brucellosis infections occur among humans. Asymptomatic infections mainly result from less frequent contact with Brucella and/or contact with low-virulence Brucella. In our study, patients with asymptomatic infection had low antibody titres and different contact patterns. Awareness of asymptomatic infection is important for early diagnosis of brucellosis and prevention of chronic infection.

  18. Recurrent Parotid Carcinosarcoma in an Asymptomatic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Mansour MD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present the case of a 52-year-old male with a history of parotid carcinosarcoma with initial diagnosis being 18 months prior. Initial treatment included a combination of gamma knife surgery coupled with high dosage chemotherapy and X-ray radiation therapy. At the time of follow-up, the patient presented with no complaints and had a nearly normal physical exam with the exception of some facial nerve weakness on the same side as the initial surgery. Despite being asymptomatic, the patient had a significant progression of disease that was manifested with intracranial lesions, multiple pathologic fractures, and a dramatic increase in overall tumor burden. Ultimately, the patient decided to pursue comfort measures only and succumbed to the disease peacefully soon thereafter.

  19. Are the Intracranial Lipomas Always Asymptomatic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yilmaz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial lipomas are rarely observed, and accepted as the congenital lesion of central nervous system. Intracranial lipomas are usually based centrally and have benign character. In the brain, it is mostly localized in pericallosal region, quadrigeminal system, and suprasellar region and cerebellopontine angles. As being mostly asymptomatic, the patients occasionally constitute clinical symptoms according to localization area. These symptoms are systemic symptoms such as cephalalgia, drowsiness, crisis and ataxy. In this article, we aimed to present the intracranial lipomas phenomenon which was diagnosed to have caused ptosis and upper lateral sight problem, namely causing localized neurological symptom, situated in mesencephalon and having pressure effect, regarding a 57-year old male patient brought to the emergency service with the nausea, throwing up and cephalalgia ailments.

  20. Asymptomatic young man with Danon disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiwon; Parikh, Parag; Mahboob, Mohammad; Arrighi, James A; Atalay, Michael K; Rowin, Ethan J; Maron, Martin S

    2014-06-01

    Danon disease is a rare, codominant X-linked genetic disorder characterized by the triad of left ventricular hypertrophy, mental retardation, and peripheral myopathy. This disease is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes lysosomal associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), a deficiency of which results in the accumulation of autophagic granular débris within the vacuoles of muscle cells. This is a report of an asymptomatic 19-year-old man with Danon disease in the absence of mental retardation or clinically significant skeletal myopathy. This case underscores the importance of accurate diagnosis of unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, in order to establish an appropriate treatment plan and to advise genetic counseling.

  1. Asymptomatic humans transmit dengue virus to mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Lambrechts, Louis; Paul, Richard E; Ly, Sowath; Lay, Rath Srey; Long, Kanya C; Huy, Rekol; Tarantola, Arnaud; Scott, Thomas W; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-11-24

    Three-quarters of the estimated 390 million dengue virus (DENV) infections each year are clinically inapparent. People with inapparent dengue virus infections are generally considered dead-end hosts for transmission because they do not reach sufficiently high viremia levels to infect mosquitoes. Here, we show that, despite their lower average level of viremia, asymptomatic people can be infectious to mosquitoes. Moreover, at a given level of viremia, DENV-infected people with no detectable symptoms or before the onset of symptoms are significantly more infectious to mosquitoes than people with symptomatic infections. Because DENV viremic people without clinical symptoms may be exposed to more mosquitoes through their undisrupted daily routines than sick people and represent the bulk of DENV infections, our data indicate that they have the potential to contribute significantly more to virus transmission to mosquitoes than previously recognized.

  2. Asymptomatic post-rheumatic giant left atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkartal, Tardu; Tanner, Felix C; Niemann, Markus

    2016-06-26

    A 78-year-old asymptomatic woman was referred to our clinic for a second opinion regarding indication for mitral valve surgery. An echocardiogram showed a moderate mitral stenosis with a concomitant severe regurgitation. The most striking feature, however, was a giant left atrium with a parasternal anteroposterior diameter of 79 mm and a left atrial volume index of 364 mL/m². There are various echocardiographic definitions of a giant left atrium, which are mainly based on measurements of the anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium using M-mode in the parasternal long axis view. Since the commonly accepted method for echocardiographic evaluation of left atrial size is left atrial volume index, we propose a cut-off value of 140 mL/m(2) for the definition of a "giant left atrium".

  3. Asymptomatic cardiopulmonary changes caused by adenoid hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad

    2011-07-01

    Adenoid hypertrophy is the most common cause of pediatric upper airway obstruction, and it can lead to cardiopulmonary complications such as pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale, and even heart failure. The aim of this study was to detect the asymptomatic cardiopulmonary changes that could happen in children with adenoid hypertrophy.Eighty children with adenoid hypertrophy were included in this study. Chest x-ray was used to assess the cardiothoracic ratio, whereas echocardiography was used for measuring the pulmonary arterial pressures, right ventricular diastolic filling parameters, and right ventricular end-diastolic diameters. All patients underwent adenoidectomy with or without tonsillectomy, and they were subjected again to echocardiographic assessment 6 months after the operation. No patient showed an increase in the cardiothoracic ratio on x-ray. Preoperative echocardiography showed an increase in pulmonary artery pressure (22.7 [SD, 3.8] mm Hg), a decrease in right ventricular diastolic filling parameters (E/A = 1.03 [SD, 0.17]), and an increase in right ventricular end-diastolic diameters (1.89 [SD, 0.19] cm). Postoperatively, pulmonary artery pressure decreased to 17.2 [SD, 2.1] mm Hg, right ventricular diastolic filling (E/A) increased to 1.25 [SD, 0.11], and right ventricular end-diastolic diameters decreased to 1.68 [SD, 0.12] cm. The comparison between preoperative and postoperative results for each individual parameter was statistically significant. Clinically asymptomatic cardiopulmonary changes due to adenoid hypertrophy are not rare. Early diagnosis and treatment of upper airway obstruction can prevent these serious complications. Echocardiographic examination should be recommended for these patients as a part of preoperative preparation to avoid anesthetic complications.

  4. Human rhinovirus infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Camargo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of rhinovirus asymptomatic infections in the transmission among close contacts subjects is unknown. We tested health care workers, a pair of one child and a family member and immunocompromised patients (n =191. HRV were detected on 22.9% symptomatic and 3.6% asymptomatic cases suggesting lower transmission among contacts.

  5. Asymptomatic moyamoya disease: literature review and ongoing AMORE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent development of a non-invasive magnetic resonance examination has increased the opportunity to identify asymptomatic patients with moyamoya disease who have experienced no cerebrovascular events. However, their clinical features, prognosis, and treatment strategy are still unclear because of small number of subjects and short follow-up periods. Therefore, we have designed Asymptomatic Moyamoya Registry (AMORE) study in Japan. The objectives of this nation-wide, multi-center prospective study are to clarify long-term prognosis of asymptomatic patients with moyamoya disease and to determine the risk factors that cause ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in them. In this article, we review the published data on asymptomatic moyamoya disease and report the on-going multi-center prospective cohort study, AMORE study. We would like to emphasize the importance to determine the clinical features, prognosis, and treatment strategies of asymptomatic moyamoya disease in very near future.

  6. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  7. Treatment of asymptomatic catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeyesekere, Manoj N; Sy, Raymond W; Leong-Sit, Peter; Gula, Lorne J; Yee, Raymond; Skanes, Allan C; Klein, George J; Krahn, Andrew D

    2012-05-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes involved in the intracellular calcium homeostasis of cardiac cells. Affected patients typically present with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias precipitated by emotional/physical stress. The diagnosis is based on the demonstration of polymorphic or bidirectional ventricular tachycardia associated with adrenergic stress. Genetic testing can be confirmatory in some patients. Treatment for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia includes medical and surgical efforts to suppress the effects of epinephrine at the myocardial level and/or modulation of calcium homeostasis. Mortality is high when untreated and sudden cardiac death may be the first manifestation of the disease. First-degree relatives of a proband should be offered genetic testing if the causal mutation is known. If the family mutation is not known, relatives should be clinically evaluated with provocative testing. In the absence of rigorous trials, prophylactic treatment of the asymptomatic catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia patient appears to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  8. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infections in morbidly obese dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Angela L.; Bartges, Joseph W.; Moyers, Tamberlyn S.; Kirk, Claudia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was undertaken to explore a possible association between obesity and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Records from lean, overweight, and obese dogs receiving both a dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) scan and urine culture were included. Results. Six positive urine cultures were identified among 46 dogs fulfilling search criteria. All six positive cultures were found in dogs with body fat percentage of >45%. In dogs with body fat percentage of <45%, there were no positive urine cultures. Discussion. There was an increased prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the morbidly obese dogs in this study compared to those that were lean, overweight, or moderately obese. Whether antibiotic therapy is necessary in such cases is still being debated, but because asymptomatic bacteriuria may be associated with ascending infections, uroliths, or other complications, the data reported herein support the screening of obese patients for bacteriuria. PMID:26989606

  9. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infections in morbidly obese dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G. Wynn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was undertaken to explore a possible association between obesity and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Records from lean, overweight, and obese dogs receiving both a dual energy absorptiometry (DXA scan and urine culture were included. Results. Six positive urine cultures were identified among 46 dogs fulfilling search criteria. All six positive cultures were found in dogs with body fat percentage of >45%. In dogs with body fat percentage of <45%, there were no positive urine cultures. Discussion. There was an increased prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the morbidly obese dogs in this study compared to those that were lean, overweight, or moderately obese. Whether antibiotic therapy is necessary in such cases is still being debated, but because asymptomatic bacteriuria may be associated with ascending infections, uroliths, or other complications, the data reported herein support the screening of obese patients for bacteriuria.

  10. Asymptomatic patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ming; WANG Chang-zheng; NI Dian-tao; WANG Xiao-ping; WANG Da-li; LIU Sheng-ming; L(U) Jia-chun; SHEN Ning; DING Yan-ling; RAN Pi-xin; YAO Wan-zhen; ZHONG Nan-shan; ZHOU Yu-min; WANG Chen; CHEN Ping; KANG Jian; HUANG Shao-guang; CHEN Bao-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has a variable natural history and not all individuals follow the same course. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and characteristics of asymptomatic COPD patients from a population-based survey in China.Methods A multistage cluster sampling strategy was used in a population from seven different provinces/cities. All residents (over 40 years old) were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire and spirometry.Post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) of less than 70% was defined as the diagnostic criterion of COPD. All COPD patients screened were divided into symptomatic group and asymptomatic group according to the presence or absence of chronic respiratory symptoms. Socio-demographic,personal and exposure variables were collected and analyzed.Results Among the 1668 patients who were diagnosed with COPD from the 25 627 sampling subjects, 589 (35.3%)were asymptomatic. The age, sex, body mass index (BMI),rural and urban distributions, smoking habit and education levels were similar in the two groups. A total of 64.7% of the asymptomatic patients had no comorbidities. Cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer were more common among symptomatic COPD patients than asymptomatic group.Asymptomatic COPD group were less likely to present with poor ventilation in the kitchen, a family history of respiratory disease and recurrent childhood cough. Asymptomatic COPD patients had significantly higher FEV1 (73.1% vs. 61.0%), FVC (91.9% vs. 82.0%), and a higher ratio of FEV1/FVC (62.9% vs.58.7%) (all P <0.001) than symptomatic group. More asymptomatic patients were underdiagnosed (91.9% vs.54.3%, P<0.001) than symptomatic patients.Conclusions This large population-based survey confirmed a high prevalence of asymptomatic COPD patients in China. More use of spirometry screening test may be important to the early detection of COPD.

  11. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of asymptomatic hyperuricemia and gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, J G; Beltrán, L M; Mejía-Chew, C; Tevar, D; Torres, R J

    2016-12-01

    Sonography has detected urate deposits in 34%-42% of the patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. This may prompt reclassification of asymptomatic hyperuricemia into "asymptomatic gout" and consideration of urate lowering therapy (ULT) to resolve urate deposits. In patients with gout and no visible tophi, sonography has detected urate deposits in half of the patients. This may allow diagnosing "tophaceous gout" and influencing the serum urate target level, prophylaxis to avoid acute gout flares during ULT, and clinical follow-up. Current accessibility to sonography may better classify patients with hyperuricemia and gout and contribute to delineate therapeutic objectives and clinical guidance.

  12. Prognostic value of asymptomatic skin sensitization to aeroallergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe

    2004-01-01

    immunological mechanisms in asymptomatic skin sensitization might provide new insights into the natural history and treatment of respiratory allergy. RECENT FINDINGS: Research on asymptomatic skin sensitization is rare, and the present review unites previous studies with recent findings. It is a common...... positive skin test must be ruled out before allergen avoidance measures are initiated. SUMMARY: Surprisingly few papers exist on asymptomatic skin sensitization epidemiology and immunology, despite the intriguing question as to why symptoms do not develop in IgE-sensitized patients. It is a common...

  13. [Epstein-Barr virus-specific immunity in asymptomatic carriers of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, K W

    1995-03-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patients are immunosuppressed as evidenced by anergy to recall antigens and the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The immunosuppression appears to be a critical factor or a predictive sign for the development of ATL in carriers of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). This study was aimed at assessing the immune status of asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers with the immunity specific to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous human herpesvirus with oncogenic potential. Forty-three asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers were examined for their EBV serology and EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cell (EBV-CTL) activity, in comparison with 10 HTLV-I-non-infected normal controls. Both carriers and controls were all positive for EBV capsid antigen (VCA) IgG. Significantly elevated titer of VCAIgG and lower titer of EBV-determined nuclear antigen (EBNA) antibodies were observed in asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers, suggesting reactivation of EBV. Among the HTLV-I carriers, 9 (20.9%) had reduced activity of EBV-CTL as revealed by lower incidence of regression of in vitro EBV-induced B-cell transformation. Accordingly, asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers were divided into three groups: the carriers with reduced EBV-specific cellular immunity (group I), the carriers showing normal cellular immunity but aberrant EBV-specific antibody titers (group II), and the carriers with normal EBV-specific cellular immunity and serology (group III). Higher positive rate of anti-HTLV-I Tax antibody was found in the former two groups (44.4% and 56.5%, respectively) compared with group III (18.2%). An immunosuppressive agent, 4-deoxyphorbol ester induced a remarkable decrease of EBV-CTL activity in the carriers of group II and III at the concentration that affected none of the normal controls. These findings indicate that asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers suffer stepwise impairment of EBV-specific immunities, which may be caused by HTLV-I infection.

  14. Nutritional profile of asymptomatic alcoholic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Sobral-Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Alcoholism may interfere with nutritional status, but reports are often troubled by uncertainties about ingested diet and organ function, as well as by ongoing abuse and associated conditions. OBJECTIVE: To identify nutritional and body compartment changes in stable alcoholics without confounding clinical and dietetic variables, a prospective observational pilot study was designed. Three well-matched populations were considered: subjects with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, alcoholics without visceral disease, and healthy never-drinking adults (controls. METHODS: Subjects (n = 60 were asymptomatic males with adequate diet, no superimposed disease or complication, and alcohol-free for at least 6 months. After exclusions, 48 patients were compared. Variables encompassed dietary recall, bioimpedance analysis, biochemical profile and inflammatory markers. Main outcome measures were body fat, lean body mass, serum lipids, C-reactive protein, and selected minerals and vitamins. RESULTS: Both alcoholic populations suffered from reduced lean body mass (P = 0.001, with well-maintained body fat.Magnesium was depleted, and values of vitamin D and B12 correlated with alcohol abuse. LDL and total cholesterol was increased in alcoholics without pancreatitis (P = 0.04, but not in those with visceral damage. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A correlated with duration of excessive drinking (P = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Undernutrition (diminished lean body mass, risk of magnesium and vitamin deficiencies contrasted with dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular risk. This second danger was masked during chronic pancreatitis but not in alcoholics without visceral disease. Further studies should focus special requirements of this population.

  15. Can a Gleason 6 or Less Microfocus of Prostate Cancer in One Biopsy and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level <10 ng/mL Be Defined as the Archetype of Low-Risk Prostate Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Taverna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC remains a cause of death worldwide. Here we investigate whether a single microfocus of PC at the biopsy (graded as Gleason 6 or less, ≤5% occupancy and the PSA <10 ng/mL can define the archetype of low-risk prostate disease. 4500 consecutive patients were enrolled. Among them, 134 patients with a single micro-focus of PC were followed up, and the parameters influencing the biochemical relapse (BR were analysed. Out of 134 patients, 94 had clinically significant disease, specifically in 74.26% of the patients with PSA <10 ng/mL. Positive surgical margins and the extracapsular invasion were found in 29.1% and 51.4% patients, respectively. BR was observed in 29.6% of the patients. Cox regression evidenced a correlation between the BR and Gleason grade at the retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP, capsular invasion, and the presence of positive surgical margins. Multivariate regression analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between the presence of surgical margins at the RRP and BR. Considering a single micro-focus of PC at the biopsy and PSA serum level <10 ng/mL, clinically significant disease was found in 74.26% patients and only positive surgical margins are useful for predicting the BR.

  16. Clinical and pathological study on the correlation between serum prostate specific antigen and benign prostatic hyperplasia%血清PSA与良性前列腺增生临床病理的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培军; 张祥华; 郭利君; 那彦群

    2006-01-01

    目的分析血清前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)与良性前列腺增生(BPH)临床病理的相关性.方法回顾性分析561例有下尿路梗阻症状经手术治疗后病理诊断为BPH的患者资料.年龄(68.3±6.3)岁,术前国际前列腺症状评分(IPSS)21.1±7.4,生活质量评分(QoL)4.5±0.8,尿流率(7.3±3.3)ml/s,前列腺体积(69.8±36.8)ml,剩余尿(81.9±105.8)ml,血清PSA值<4 ng/ml者247例(44.0%),4~10 ng/ml者223例(39.8%)、>10 ng/ml者91例(16.2%).结果血清PSA水平与患者年龄、IPSS、QoL、最大尿流率、剩余尿量无明显相关性(r=0.08、0.03、0.06、0.04、0.09,P>0.05),而与前列腺体积呈显著正相关(r=0.42,P<0.01);血清PSA水平升高与前列腺体积(F=93.45,P<0.05)及尿潴留发生率(x2=59.1,P<0.01)间有统计学意义.BPH组织标本中以腺体增生为主(x2=16.14,P<0.01)或伴有梗死病灶(x2=36.06,P<0.01)患者的血清PSA水平明显升高.结论50%以上接受手术治疗的BPH患者血清PSA水平升高,前列腺体积增大、尿潴留以及表现为腺体增生为主或伴有梗死灶的BPH是血清PSA水平升高的主要原因.

  17. Biomarkers of Prostatic Cancer: An Attempt to Categorize Patients into Prostatic Carcinoma, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or Prostatitis Based on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Calcium, and Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Shahana; Adil, Mohammed Abdul Majid; Nyamath, Parveen; Ishaq, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P.Ca and also to evaluate the relationship between them. Males in the age group of 50-85 years with LUTS disease symptoms and with PSA levels more than 4 ng/mL were included. A total of 114 patients were analyzed including 30 controls. Prostatitis in 35.7% of cases, BPH in 35.7% of the cases, and P.Ca in 28.57% of the cases were observed. Thus, the nonmalignant cases constitute a majority. PSA, a marker specific for prostatic conditions, was significantly high in all the diseases compared to controls. A rise in serum PSA and PAP indicates prostatitis or, in combination with these two tests, decreased serum calcium shows advanced disease.

  18. Diagnostic potential of PET/CT using a {sup 68}Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen ligand in whole-body staging of renal cell carcinoma: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, Lino M.; Buchbender, Christian; Boos, Johannes; Antoch, Gerald [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Giessing, Markus [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Ermert, Johannes [Juelich Research Center, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, INM-5: Nuclear Chemistry, Juelich (Germany); Antke, Christina; Hautzel, Hubertus [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic potential of whole-body PET/CT using a {sup 68}Ga-labelled PSMA ligand in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Six patients with histopathologically proven RCC underwent {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT. Each PET/CT scan was evaluated in relation to lesion count, location and dignity. SUVmax was measured in primary tumours and PET-positive metastases. Tumour-to-background SUVmax ratios (TBR{sub SUVmax}) were calculated for primary RCCs in relation to the surrounding normal renal parenchyma. Metastasis-to-background SUVmax ratios (MBR{sub SUVmax}) were calculated for PET-positive metastases in relation to gluteal muscle. Five primary RCCs and 16 metastases were evaluated. The mean SUVmax of the primary RCCs was 9.9 ± 9.2 (range 1.7 - 27.2). Due to high uptake in the surrounding renal parenchyma, the mean TBR{sub SUVmax} of the primary RCCs was only 0.2 ± 0.3 (range 0.02 - 0.7). Eight metastases showed focal {sup 68}Ga-PSMA uptake (SUVmax 9.9 ± 8.3, range 3.4 - 25.6). The mean MBR{sub SUVmax} of these PET-positive metastases was 11.7 ± 0.2 (range 4.4 - 28.1). All PET-negative metastases were subcentimetre lung metastases. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT appears to be a promising method for detecting RCC metastases. However, no additional diagnostic value in assessing the primary tumour was found. (orig.)

  19. Biomarkers of Prostatic Cancer: An Attempt to Categorize Patients into Prostatic Carcinoma, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or Prostatitis Based on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Calcium, and Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Shahana; Nyamath, Parveen; Ishaq, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P.Ca and also to evaluate the relationship between them. Males in the age group of 50–85 years with LUTS disease symptoms and with PSA levels more than 4 ng/mL were included. A total of 114 patients were analyzed including 30 controls. Prostatitis in 35.7% of cases, BPH in 35.7% of the cases, and P.Ca in 28.57% of the cases were observed. Thus, the nonmalignant cases constitute a majority. PSA, a marker specific for prostatic conditions, was significantly high in all the diseases compared to controls. A rise in serum PSA and PAP indicates prostatitis or, in combination with these two tests, decreased serum calcium shows advanced disease. PMID:28168057

  20. Contemporary outcomes in the detection of prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound-guided 12-core biopsy in Singaporean men with elevated prostate specific antigen and/or abnormal digital rectal examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Lee

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, using contemporary 12-core biopsy methods, the local prostate cancer detection rate based on serum PSA and DRE findings has increased over the past decade presumably due to multiple genetic and environmental factors. Post-biopsy sepsis remains an important complication worldwide.

  1. Detection and localization of carcinoma within the prostate using high resolution transrectal gamma imaging (TRGI) of monoclonal antibody directed at prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA)—Proof of concept and initial imaging results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franc, Benjamin L., E-mail: francbl@radiological.com [Radiological Associates of Sacramento Medical Group, 1500 Expo Parkway, Sacramento, CA 95815 (United States); Cho, Steve Y. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiological Associates of Sacramento Medical Group, 1500 Expo Parkway, Sacramento, CA 95815 (United States); Cui, Yonggang [Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2 Center Street, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Tsui, Benjamin [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Vandewalker, Kristen M.N. [Diagnostic Pathology Medical Group, 3301 C. Street, Suite 200E, Sacramento, CA 95816 (United States); Holz, Andrew L.; Poonamallee, Uday [Radiological Associates of Sacramento Medical Group, 1500 Expo Parkway, Sacramento, CA 95815 (United States); Pomper, Martin G. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); James, Ralph B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2 Center Street, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Molecular imaging methods may identify primary prostate cancer foci and potentially guide biopsy and optimal management approaches. In this exploratory study, safety and first human imaging experience of a novel solid state endocavity transrectal gamma-imaging (TRGI) device was evaluated. Methods: Twelve patients received 5 ± 0.5 mCi In-111 capromab pendetide (ProstaScint{sup ®}) intravenously and the prostate of each was imaged 4 days later transrectally using an endoluminal cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based compact gamma camera (ProxiScan™, Hybridyne Imaging Technologies, Inc.). Immediate and 5–7-day post imaging safety assessments were performed. In those patients with a prostate cancer diagnosis (N = 10), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis were also acquired. Images were reviewed and sites of suspected cancer were localized by prostate quadrant by consensus of two nuclear medicine physicians. Pathology from TRUS biopsy, or surgical pathology following prostatectomy (N = 3) when available, served as the gold standard. Results: There were no serious adverse events associated with TRGI. No focal signal was detected in patients without a diagnosis of prostate cancer (N = 2). Of 40 quadrants evaluated in the cancer cohort (N = 10), 22 contained malignancy. In 8 of these 10 patients, the most focal site of uptake on TRGI corresponded to a prostatic quadrant with biopsy-proven malignancy. In 6 cancer-containing quadrants, TRGI was positive where SPECT-CT was negative; MRI showed a detectable abnormality in only 1 of these 6 quadrants. Qualitative image review of the planar TRGI images for prostate cancer localization was severely limited in some cases by scatter artifact within the vicinity of the prostate gland arising from physiologic urine and blood pool activity from nearby structures. Conclusions: TRGI is a safe imaging method that can potentially detect radiopharmaceutical uptake of primary prostate cancer and facilitate prostatic quadrant – localization of cancer. Further investigation of this technology is warranted.

  2. Prostate volume and prostate-specific antigen in men with Parkinson's disease are not different compared to age-matched control group: A prospective, case-controlled multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Seob Shin

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Our data show that a neurologic lesion causing PD does not affect PV and PSA. As both groups have a similar PC occurrence rate, it is clear that prostate evaluation is necessary for PD as well as non-PD patients.

  3. Biomarkers of Prostatic Cancer: An Attempt to Categorize Patients into Prostatic Carcinoma, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or Prostatitis Based on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Calcium, and Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahana Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P.Ca and also to evaluate the relationship between them. Males in the age group of 50–85 years with LUTS disease symptoms and with PSA levels more than 4 ng/mL were included. A total of 114 patients were analyzed including 30 controls. Prostatitis in 35.7% of cases, BPH in 35.7% of the cases, and P.Ca in 28.57% of the cases were observed. Thus, the nonmalignant cases constitute a majority. PSA, a marker specific for prostatic conditions, was significantly high in all the diseases compared to controls. A rise in serum PSA and PAP indicates prostatitis or, in combination with these two tests, decreased serum calcium shows advanced disease.

  4. 前列腺特异性抗原体外诱导结肠癌特异性CTLs%In Vitro Induction of Colon Cancer-specific CTLs with Prostate-specific Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 宿晓云; 石毅; 王阳; 周余来; 原田守; 山田亮; 伊东恭悟

    2008-01-01

    目的 检测前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)在结肠癌中的表达水平,探讨PSA作为结肠癌主动免疫治疗新靶点的可能性.方法 用RT-PCR方法检测结肠癌细胞系中PSA mRNA的表达水平;免疫组织化学方法检测结肠癌细胞中PSA蛋白的表达水平.利用PAP表位肽对结肠癌患者的PBMCs进行体外诱导,ELISA法检测PSA特异性IFN-γ分泌水平;51Cr释放法检测PSA多肽特异性CTLs对结肠癌细胞的细胞毒性.结果 4种结肠癌细胞(colo201,colo205,SW480和SW620)表达PSA mRNA和PSA蛋白.HLA-A24结肠癌患者的PBMCs经体外诱导产生的CTLs可特异性杀伤HLA-A24+/PSA+的结肠癌细胞,CTLs的细胞毒活性依赖于CD8+的T淋巴细胞.结论 结肠癌患者的外周血中存在PSA特异性CTLs前体细胞,PSA有可能成为结肠癌特异性免疫治疗的靶点.

  5. Genetic characterization of Shigella spp. isolated from diarrhoeal and asymptomatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Santanu; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Nataro, James P; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2014-07-01

    Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Shigella spp. isolated from diarrhoeal and asymptomatic children aged up to 5 years were analysed in this study. In total, 91 and 17 isolates were identified from diarrhoeal (case) and asymptomatic (control) children, respectively. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, the presence of integrons, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), virulence-associated genes and Shigella pathogenicity island (SH-PAI). The majority of the Shigella spp. from cases (68.1%) and controls (82.3%) were found to be resistant to fluoroquinolones. Integron carriage was detected more in cases (76.9%) than in controls (35.5%). Atypical class 1 integron was detected exclusively in Shigella flexneri from cases but not from the controls. PMQR genes such as aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrS1 were detected in 82.4 and 14.3% of the isolates from cases and in 53 and 17.6% in controls, respectively. Shigella isolates from cases as well as from controls were positive for the invasive plasmid antigen H-encoding gene ipaH. The other virulence genes such as virF, sat, setA, setB, sen and ial were detected in Shigella isolates in 80.2, 49.4, 27.4, 27.4, 80.2 and 79.1% of cases and in 64.7, 52.9, 17.6, 17.6, 64.7 and 64.7% of controls, respectively. The entire SH-PAI was detected in S. flexneri serotype 2a from cases and controls. In an isolate from a control child, the SH-PAI was truncated. Integrons, PMQR and virulence-encoding genes were detected more frequently in cases than in controls. In diarrhoea endemic areas, asymptomatic carriers may play a crucial role in the transmission of multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. with all the putative virulence genes.

  6. Urinary tract infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joan M; Good, Elliot

    2015-08-15

    Overuse of urinalysis in older adults to investigate vague changes in condition such as confusion, lethargy, and anorexia, has led to overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated antibiotic resistance.

  7. Cognitive Deficits in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Surgical Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daren C.; Sandoval-Garcia, Carolina; Rocque, Brandon G.; Wilbrand, Stephanie M.; Mitchell, Carol C.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Dempsey, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The role played by vessel disease in stroke-related cognition dysfunction is unclear. We assessed the impact of significant atherosclerotic disease on cognition—even in patients asymptomatic for stroke. We hypothesized that patients would perform poorly relative to controls, but that symptomatic/asymptomatic status (history of stroke/transient ischemic attack) would have no effect. Fifty-two carotid endarterectomy candidates with >60% carotid stenosis and 17 controls underwent a 60-min neuropsychological test protocol. Symptomatic and asymptomatic patients showed deficits in executive function, delayed verbal recall, and general knowledge. Patients symptomatic for stroke also performed worse on tests of language and motor/visuomotor ability. Symptomatic and asymptomatic patients differed in working memory and language task performance. Although all patients showed deficits in executive function and memory, only symptomatic patients showed additional deficits in language and motor function. Cognitive abnormalities in patients viewed as “asymptomatic” for stroke underscore the need for early identification and treatment. PMID:26663810

  8. [Asymptomatic myxoma of the tricuspid valve septal leaflet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedliński, Ireneusz; Jamrozek-Jedlińska, Maria; Bugajski, Paweł; Kalawski, Ryszard; Poprawski, Kajetan; Słomczyński, Marek

    2012-01-01

    We presented a case of asymptomatic myxoma of the tricuspid valve septal leaflet. The tumour was diagnosed accidentally during rutine transthoracic echocardiography and confirmed by transesophageal echocardiography. It was resected and the septal leaflet repaired during surgery.

  9. Oesophageal carcinoma presenting with a synchronous asymptomatic colon carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Gupta; Bharat Chauhan; V Rangarajan; Saral Desai; Vanita Noronha; Kumar Prabhash

    2013-01-01

    The advancement in diagnostic techniques has resulted in increased incidence of occult second primary in cancer patients. Here, we report a case of symptomatic oesophageal carcinoma and synchronous asymptomatic colon carcinoma diagnosed through Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography imaging.

  10. Clinical and angiographic comparison of asymptomatic occlusive cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, P B; Caplan, L R; Langenberg, P; Hier, D B; Pessin, M; Patel, D; Taber, J

    1988-06-01

    We compared clinical and arteriographic features in 106 patients with symptomatic unilateral carotid territory occlusive disease to determine the frequency and distribution of occlusive arterial lesions in asymptomatic vessels. Among black patients who were predominantly from Chicago, young, and female, there were fewer transient ischemic attacks and myocardial infarcts, less claudication, and more asymptomatic lesions of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery stem, and the middle cerebral artery stem. Among white patients predominantly from New England, elderly, and male, there was more frequent and severe occlusive asymptomatic disease at extracranial carotid and vertebral artery sites. Knowledge of the distribution of asymptomatic lesions will help guide evaluation and treatment strategies for patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease.

  11. Asymptomatic infection with American cutaneous leishmaniasis: epidemiological and immunological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando J; Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika I; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole R

    2016-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, asymptomatic ACL infection has been neglected. This review is focused on the following: (1) epidemiological studies supporting the existence of asymptomatic ACL infection and (2) immunological studies conducted to understand the mechanisms responsible for controlling the parasite and avoiding tissue damage. PMID:27759762

  12. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and cerebrovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis....

  13. Asymptomatic spontaneous rupture of suprasellar dermoid cyst : a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh S

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Suprasellar dermoid cysts are uncommon intracranial lesions. CT and MRI findings in a rare case of asymptomatic rupture of suprasellar dermoid cyst with subarachnoid dissemination is described.

  14. Transthoracic Repair of Asymptomatic Morgagni Hernia in an Adult

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Morgagni hernia represents a rare type of diaphragmatic hernia which usually occurs on the right side, in the anterior mediastinum. Predisposing factors of Morgagni hernia include pregnancy, obesity or other causes of increased intraabdominal pressure, and a history of trauma. Most of adults diagnosed with a foramen of Morgagni are asymptomatic. We report a case of an overweight 23-year-old asymptomatic patient with a Morgagni hernia incidentally diagnosed on chest x-ray. There was a satisfac...

  15. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and cerebrovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos;

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis.......The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis....

  16. [Is there a role for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis screening?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenberg, Eitan; Bass, Arie

    2014-08-01

    Screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (CAS) is highly controversial Many surgeons routinely screen their patients for carotid disease prior to major operations, yet the benefit of such practice was never demonstrated. The treatment of symptomatic patients has not changed much during the last twenty years, since the publication of the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET). However, in contrast, the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (ACAS) and the Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial (ACST) failed to get the same acceptance among the multidisciplinary group treating CAS.The prevalence of asymptomatic 60-99% carotid artery stenosis among the general population is about 1%. Neither ACAS nor ACST showed that stenosis severity was associated with increasing stroke risk. The 'realpolitik' is that mass interventions in asymptomatic patients will probably only ever prevent about 1% of all strokes. This is even truer regarding patients scheduLed for major operation, in which the incidence of stroke is less than 1%. Moreover the current evidence in the literature suggests that the best medicaL treatment (BMT) results in 0.5% strokes per year, better than resuLts which can be offered by surgery. According to the current evidence, it seems that asymptomatic carotid artery screening should be discontinued, since it is a major waste of resources.

  17. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infections in morbidly obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Susan G; Witzel, Angela L; Bartges, Joseph W; Moyers, Tamberlyn S; Kirk, Claudia A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in dogs and, as in humans, cost of care has increased due to associated comorbidities. In humans, asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) may be more prevalent in the obese. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is the term used when UTI are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that morbidly obese dogs are similarly more likely to have asymptomatic bacteriuria than lean, overweight, and moderately obese dogs. Methods. A retrospective study was undertaken to explore a possible association between obesity and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Records from lean, overweight, and obese dogs receiving both a dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) scan and urine culture were included. Results. Six positive urine cultures were identified among 46 dogs fulfilling search criteria. All six positive cultures were found in dogs with body fat percentage of >45%. In dogs with body fat percentage of obese dogs in this study compared to those that were lean, overweight, or moderately obese. Whether antibiotic therapy is necessary in such cases is still being debated, but because asymptomatic bacteriuria may be associated with ascending infections, uroliths, or other complications, the data reported herein support the screening of obese patients for bacteriuria.

  18. Asymptomatic pulmonary cryptococcosis in solid organ transplantation: report of four cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, N J; Fishman, J A

    2003-09-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the third most common cause of invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplantation. The infection generally presents as disseminated disease, involving multiple sites including the central nervous system, lungs, and skin. An increase in the incidence of primary pulmonary cryptococcal infections has been reported recently in solid organ recipients; these infections were generally symptomatic with an accelerated clinical course. We report four cases of asymptomatic pulmonary cryptococcosis in solid organ recipients (kidney, n=2, heart, n=2). In each case, an incidental finding on a routine chest radiograph led to the microbiological or histopathological diagnosis of invasive pulmonary C. neoformans infection. In these patients, cryptococcosis occurred a median of 25 months (range 7-36 months) after organ transplantation. All patients had a calcineurin inhibitor, prednisone, and azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil as part of their immunosuppressive therapy at the time of diagnosis. Serum cryptococcal antigen was available and positive in the three patients studied; assessment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of all four patients revealed no organisms by smear or culture. Therapy consisted of oral fluconazole in all cases, with flucytosine in one case, combined with resection of lung tissue in two individuals. All patients have remained free of cryptococcal disease (follow-up median 42 months, from 18 to 88 months). Cryptococcal disease in solid organ recipients may present as asymptomatic, localized pulmonary disease. The natural history of such infections is unknown. New pulmonary radiographic findings should prompt an aggressive diagnostic evaluation including serum and CSF cryptococcal antigen assays, and a biopsy of pulmonary lesions. Prolonged therapy may be used to reduce the risk of progression and dissemination during periods of intensified immune suppression.

  19. Prevalence and outcome of asymptomatic bacteriuria in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekumary Radha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteriuria is a major risk factor for developing symptomatic urinary tract infection which is associated with significant maternal and fetal risks. Various studies have put a prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria between 2-10% in pregnancy. Maternal and fetal complications like gestational hypertension, anaemia, premature delivery, IUGR, and low birth weight are commonly associated with pyelonephritis which occurs as a result of undiagnosed or inadequately treated infections of the urinary tract. The primary objective was to find out the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancies less than 28 weeks gestation in our hospital and to study the various adverse pregnancy outcomes in the study group. Methods: This was a cross sectional study done over a period of 12 months at this tertiary care centre in Government sector in Trivandrum, Kerala. A sample size was calculated statistically and 400 women with gestational age less than 28 weeks attending the outpatient department were included in this study. A structured proforma, urine microscopy and urine culture and sensitivity were the study tools. Results: Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in our study population was 8.25%. Commonest pathogen isolated was E.coli in 57.14% cases. Maternal morbidity was higher in women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (24.2% than those without (12.5%. Fetal morbidity in women with asymptomatic bacteriuria was 24% whereas it was 12.5% in those without it. Preterm labour, preeclampsia and prematurity were the common morbidities noted. Conclusions: Since pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria were at an increased risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcome, routine screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria preferably in the first trimester is highly recommended.

  20. Association between Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Pre-Eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezavand, Negin; Veisi, Firooze; Zangane, Mrayam; Amini, Roghaye; Almasi, Afshin

    2015-12-18

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the most common and important bacterial infections during pregnancy and can result in progressive infections and endanger maternal as well as fetal health. In this study, we assessed the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. In this case-control study, pregnant women who presented to Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah in 2013-14 were studied. The minimum sample size was calculated as 125 pregnant women in each group with a total of 250 subjects. There were 125 women with pre-eclampsia and 125 women without pre-eclampsia (control group). Matching was done for age, gestational age, and parity between case and control groups. Matching was verified by a P value of 0.061 for maternal age and gestational age and 0.77 for parity. The statistical analyses were done by applying the chi-squared test and determining odds ratio (OR) for having bacteriuria in univariate logistic regression as well as multivariate regression with adjusting the effect of maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Pyuria and bacteriuria were significantly more common in pre-eclampsia group than in control group. The results showed that a significant association existed between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. The rate of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 6.8 times higher in women with pre-eclampsia compared to those without pre-eclampsia. Further studies are required for better clarification of association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia.

  1. Immunodominant antigens of Leishmania chagasi associated with protection against human visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Abánades

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protection and recovery from visceral leishmaniasis (VL have been associated with cell-mediated immune (CMI responses, whereas no protective role has been attributed to humoral responses against specific parasitic antigens. In this report, we compared carefully selected groups of individuals with distinct responses to Leishmania chagasi to explore antigen-recognizing IgG present in resistant individuals. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: VL patients with negative delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH were classified into the susceptible group. Individuals who had recovered from VL and converted to a DTH+ response, as well as asymptomatic infected individuals (DTH+, were categorized into the resistant group. Sera from these groups were used to detect antigens from L. chagasi by conventional and 2D Western blot assays. Despite an overall reduction in the reactivity of several proteins after DTH conversion, a specific group of proteins (approximately 110-130 kDa consistently reacted with sera from DTH converters. Other antigens that specifically reacted with sera from DTH+ individuals were isolated and tandem mass spectrometry followed by database query with the protein search engine MASCO were used to identify antigens. The serological properties of recombinant version of the selected antigens were tested by ELISA. Sera from asymptomatic infected people (DTH+ reacted more strongly with a mixture of selected recombinant antigens than with total soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA, with less cross-reactivity against Chagas disease patients' sera. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are the first evidence of leishmania proteins that are specifically recognized by sera from individuals who are putatively resistant to VL. In addition, these data highlight the possibility of using specific proteins in serological tests for the identification of asymptomatic infected individuals.

  2. Dynamics of collateral circulation in progressive asymptomatic carotid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, F L; Eikelboom, B C; Vermeulen, F E; van Lier, H J; Schulte, B P

    1986-03-01

    Inadequacy of collateral arterial flow is the major risk factor for hemispheric infarction in association with spontaneous occlusion of the ipsilateral carotid artery. This prospective study was designed to measure the adaptation of collateral cerebral circulation through the circle of Willis in patients in whom a unilateral carotid stenosis of hemodynamic consequence develops asymptomatically. The collateral cerebral potential is assessed by ocular pneumoplethysmography (OPG) during proximal common carotid artery compression, measuring the collateral ophthalmic artery pressure (COAP). During an average follow-up of almost 3 years (maximum more than 7 years), 45 patients showed asymptomatic development of a unilateral hemodynamically significant carotid stenosis according to OPG evidence. In these patients the mean index COAP/brachial artery pressure did not change on the side of stenosis progression (p greater than 0.05). The developed carotid stenosis had only reduced collateral circulation to the contralateral hemisphere. The risk of inadequate collateral cerebral circulation remained during progression of asymptomatic extracranial arterial obstructive disease.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafarnezhad M

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria is prevalent during pregnancy. It can lead to pyelonephritis, premature pregnancy and low birth weight. In this prospective study, to determine prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic bacteriuria, 205 consecutive pregnant women who visited our prenatal care clinic in Mirza-Koochakkhan Hospital and had no urinary symptom were entered. Patients data were recorded using a questionnaire and urine samples were obtained for urinalysis and urine culture. We analysed data by using fisher exact and chi-squared test. 14 cases had positive urine culture (6.8%. Significant correlation was seen between asymptomatic bacteriuria and age, parity, past history of kidney stone, pyelonephritis, urinary tract infection, preterm delivery and pyuria pvalue <0.05. We suggest routine urine culture in first visit of high risk and 16th week of low risk pregnancies.

  4. Urinary tract infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabi Yacoub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection are common complications after kidney transplantation. In this population, if urinary tract infection occurred in the first six months post procedure, it carries a grave impact on both graft and patient survival. Renal transplant recipients with urinary tract infection are often clinically asymptomatic as a consequence of immunosuppression. Urinary tract infection, however, may progress to acute pyelonephritis, bacteremia and the full blown picture of urosepsis. PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched. The purpose of this review is to discuss the screening and treatment of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in renal transplant recipients and to evaluate the guidelines on the basis of a review of published evidence.

  5. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in postmenopausal women with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kasyan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An evaluation of efficacy of the management of urinary tract infections by using local forms of Estriol in postmenopausal women with type II diabetes and asymptomatic bacteriuria.Material and methods. The study was conducted in two stages. The first stage: a prospective cross–sectional study to identify patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria. During this stage, 414 postmenopausal women with type II diabetes, but without clinical symptoms of urinary tract infection, were investigated. In the second stage, women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (87 women were randomized to two groups: the first group was the main group receiving 0.5 mg of Estriol as a vaginal cream, the second group was the control group. The study lasted 12 months.Results. After 12 months of the study, asymptomatic bacteriuria was revealed in 19.4% of women in the group 1 and 68.4% of women in the group 2 (р <0.001, and symptomatic urinary tract infection in 8.3% of women in the group 1 and 18.4% of women in the group 2 (р <0.001. There was no connection revealed between asymptomatic bacteriuria and НвА1с. Using Estriol in group 1 led to an increase in VHI, the appearance of lactobacilli in the vaginal smear, and the decrease of symptom frequency in atrophic vaginitis. In group 2, there were no significant changes revealed.Conclusions. Usage of local forms of Estriol effectively prevents and decreases the frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women suffering with diabetesmellitus.

  6. Transthoracic repair of asymptomatic morgagni hernia in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousios, Dimitrios; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Piyis, Anastasios; Gourgiotis, Stavros

    2012-10-01

    Morgagni hernia represents a rare type of diaphragmatic hernia which usually occurs on the right side, in the anterior mediastinum. Predisposing factors of Morgagni hernia include pregnancy, obesity or other causes of increased intraabdominal pressure, and a history of trauma. Most of adults diagnosed with a foramen of Morgagni are asymptomatic. We report a case of an overweight 23-year-old asymptomatic patient with a Morgagni hernia incidentally diagnosed on chest x-ray. There was a satisfactory result after the repair by a transthoracic approach.

  7. Spatial working memory in asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, B; Garghentini, G; Campana, A; Grassi, E; Bertelli, S; Cinque, P; Epifani, M; Lazzarin, A; Scarone, S

    1999-01-01

    Many clinical and research findings converge to indicate that frontal lobe, basal ganglia, and related neuronal connections are primarily involved in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; frontal lobe, mainly the prefrontal cortex, has a specialized role in working memory processes. This study focused on neuropsychological evaluation of the spatial component of working memory in a sample of 34 asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects as compared with 34 age- and sex-matched seronegative control subjects. A computer-administered test assessing spatial working memory was used for the neuropsychological evaluation. The findings did not show any spatial working memory impairment during the asymptomatic phase of HIV infection.

  8. Asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: Who Should Be Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeyesekere, Manoj N; Leong-Sit, Peter; Krahn, Andrew D; Gula, Lorne J; Yee, Raymond; Skanes, Allan C; Klein, George J

    2012-09-01

    This article discusses the merits of electrophysiology study (EPS) and/or ablation for asymptomatic preexcitation Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) ECG pattern. Sudden deaths in asymptomatic patients are too few to merit broad screening and aggressive intervention. It also discusses the risks of ablation and the low predictive accuracy of EPS. When WPW is an incidental finding, the decision to proceed with investigation and ablation can be made considering patients' situations and preferences. An invasive strategy is targeted at patients concerned about the low risk of life-threatening arrhythmia as a first presentation after a discussion of the risks and benefits.

  9. Prognostic importance of atrial fibrillation in asymptomatic aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anders; Gerdts, Eva; Boman, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency and prognostic importance of atrial fibrillation (AF) in asymptomatic mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis (AS) has not been well described. METHODS: Clinical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography were obtained in asymptomatic patients with mild......-to-moderate AS and preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function, randomized to simvastatin/ezetimibe combination vs. placebo in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. At inclusion, AF was categorized as episodic or longstanding. Rhythm change was assessed on annual in-study electrocardiograms...

  10. Diagnosis and management of patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minako Katayama; Hari P Chaliki

    2016-01-01

    Aortic stenosis(AS) is a disease that progresses slowly for years without symptoms, so patients need to be carefully managed with appropriate follow up and referred for aortic valve replacement in a timely manner. Development of symptoms is a clear indication for aortic valve intervention in patients with severe AS. The decision for early surgery in patients with asymptomatic severe AS is more complex. In this review, we discuss how to identify high-risk patients with asymptomatic severe AS who may benefit from early surgery.

  11. Left Atrial Systolic Force in Asymptomatic Aortic Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cioffi, Giovanni; Cramariuc, Dana; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a limited knowledge about left atrial (LA) systolic force (LASF) and its key determinants in patients with asymptomatic mild-moderate aortic stenosis (AS). Methods: We used baseline clinic and echocardiographic data from 1,566 patients recruited in the simvastatin ezetimibe...... in aortic stenosis study evaluating the effect of placebo-controlled combined simvastatin and ezetimibe treatment in asymptomatic AS. The LASF was calculated by Manning's method. Low and high LASF were defined as 95th percentile of the distribution within the study population, respectively. Results: Mean...

  12. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) screening in the asymptomatic population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik; Falk, Erling

    2011-01-01

    and feet (lower limb), which in the Western world is caused by atherosclerosis if not previous trauma. Whereas severity of intermittent claudication is only poorly related to ABI, cardiovascular outcomes are as follows: the lower the ABI the higher the incidence of cardiovascular events and death....... Measuring ABI identifies asymptomatic persons at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality: an ABI 25% in people between 80 and 90 years of age. The majority of persons with reduced ABI are asymptomatic and therefore unaware of the increased risk they are living with, thus, screening...

  13. Consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, SE; Stolk, RP; Camps, MJL; Netten, PM; Collet, JT; Schneeberger, PM; Hoepelman, AIM

    2001-01-01

    Background: Women with diabetes mellitus (DM) have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) more often than women without DM. It is unknown, however, what the consequences of ASB are in these women. Objectives: To compare women with DM with and without ASB for the development of symptomatic urinary tract infe

  14. Acute Obstructive Suppurative Pancreatic Ductitis in an Asymptomatic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisha Wali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute obstructive suppurative pancreatic ductitis (AOSPD, defined as suppuration from the pancreatic duct without associated pseudocyst, abscess, or necrosis, is a rare complication of chronic pancreatitis. We present the first case of AOSPD in an asymptomatic patient with a polymicrobial infection and review the literature on this rare clinical entity.

  15. Asymptomatic malaria infections: detectability, transmissibility and public health relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousema, T.; Okell, L.; Felger, I.; Drakeley, C.

    2014-01-01

    Most Plasmodium falciparum infections that are detected in community surveys are characterized by low-density parasitaemia and the absence of clinical symptoms. Molecular diagnostics have shown that this asymptomatic parasitic reservoir is more widespread than previously thought, even in low-endemic

  16. Vulvovaginal Candida: a study of (a)symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns presence of asymptomatic vaginal Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by abnormal growth of yeasts in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Acute vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge are the usua

  17. [Screening of parasitic diseases in the asymptomatic immigrant population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goterris, Lidia; Bocanegra, Cristina; Serre-Delcor, Núria; Moure, Zaira; Treviño, Begoña; Zarzuela, Francesc; Espasa, Mateu; Sulleiro, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Parasitic diseases suppose an important health problem in people from high endemic areas, so these must be discarded properly. Usually, these infections develop asymptomatically but, in propitious situations, are likely to reactivate themselves and can cause clinical symptoms and/or complications in the receiving country. Moreover, in some cases it is possible local transmission. Early diagnosis of these parasitic diseases made by appropriate parasitological techniques and its specific treatment will benefit both, the individual and the community. These techniques must be selected according to geoepidemiological criteria, patient's origin, migration route or time spent outside the endemic area; but other factors must also be considered as its sensitivity and specificity, implementation experience and availability. Given the high prevalence of intestinal parasites on asymptomatic immigrants, it is recommended to conduct a study by coproparasitological techniques. Because of its potential severity, the screening of asymptomatic malaria with sensitive techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is also advisable. Serological screening for Chagas disease should be performed on all Latin American immigrants, except for people from the Caribbean islands. Other important parasites, which should be excluded, are filariasis and urinary schistosomiasis, by using microscopic examination. The aim of this paper is to review the different techniques for the screening of parasitic diseases and its advices within the care protocols for asymptomatic immigrants.

  18. Asymptomatic brain metastases in patients with cutaneous metastatic malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukauskaite, Ruta; Schmidt, Henrik; Asmussen, Jon T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the frequency of asymptomatic brain metastases detected by computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma referred to first-line systemic treatment. Between 1995 and 2009, 697 Danish patients were screened with a contrast...

  19. Histopathologic assessment of the entire endometrium in asymptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mingels, M.J.J.M.; Geels, Y.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Tilborg, A.A. Van; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of the endometrium in women without symptoms of endometrial disease is poor. Therefore, the aim of this prospective study was to describe the endometrium of a cohort of asymptomatic women. The entire endometrium of premenopausal and postmenopausal women was embedded for histo

  20. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections due to Asymptomatic Colonic Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Falidas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colovesical fistula is a common complication of diverticulitis. Pneumaturia, fecaluria, urinary tract infections, abdominal pain, and dysuria are commonly reported. The authors report a case of colovesical fistula due to asymptomatic diverticulitis, and they emphasize the importance of deeply investigate recurrent urinary tract infection without any bowel symptoms. They also briefly review the literature.

  1. Aortic coarctation, aneurysm, and ventricular dysfunction in an asymptomatic infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana I; Aguilar, Juan M; García, Enrique

    2016-06-01

    Aortic arch coarctation with post-coarctation aneurysm is rare in infants. We present the case of an asymptomatic 3-month-old infant with severe left ventricular dysfunction in this setting. The patient underwent surgical repair, and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved to recovery the 4th post-operative month.

  2. Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors in Benin City Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia among blood donors in a private medical laboratory in Benin City, Nigeria.Venous blood was collected from a total of 247 blood donors. Malaria status, ABO, Rhesus blood groups and hemoglobin concentration of all participants were determined using standard methods.The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection was higher among commercial blood donors than volunteer group (commercial vs volunteer donor: 27.5 %vs. 13.8%; OR = 2.373, 95% CI = 0.793, 7.107, P = 0.174. Asymptomatic malaria was not significantly affected by gender (P = 0.733, age (P = 0.581, ABO (P = 0.433 and rhesus blood groups (P = 0.806 of blood donors. Age was observed to significantly (P = 0.015 affect malaria parasite density with donors within the age group of 21-26 years having the highest risk. The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher among commercial donors (commercial vs volunteer donors: 23.4% vs 3.4%: OR = 8.551, 95% CI = 1.135, 64.437, P = 0.013 and donors of blood group O type (P = < 0.0001.Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia was higher among commercial donors than voluntary donors. Mandatory screening of blood donors for malaria parasite is advocated to curb transfusion transmitted malaria and associated sequelae.

  3. Asymptomatic free-floating vitreous cyst masquerading as cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganger, Anita; Agarwal, Rinki; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-11-02

    A male patient aged 37 years, referred with the diagnosis of right eye intravitreal cysticercosis, was diagnosed as asymptomatic free-floating vitreous cyst after thorough evaluation. The patient was kept under observation, since baseline visual acuity was unaffected. No change was noted over the period of 6 months.

  4. Asymptomatic carriers contribute to nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blixt, Thomas; Gradel, Kim Oren; Homann, Christian;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nosocomial infection with Clostridium difficile pose a considerable problem despite numerous attempts by health care workers to reduce risk of transmission. Asymptomatic carriers of C difficile might spread their infection to other patients. We investigated the effects of of as...

  5. Picornavirus-Induced Airway Mucosa Immune Profile in Asymptomatic Neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Helene M.; Følsgaard, Nilofar V.; Birch, Sune;

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial airway colonization is known to alter the airway mucosa immune response in neonates whereas the impact of viruses is unknown. The objective was therefore to examine the effect of respiratory viruses on the immune signature in the airways of asymptomatic neonates. Nasal aspirates from 571...

  6. Eosinofil Sel Penyaji Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Wahyu Jatmiko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sel eosinofil merupakan jenis sel lekosit yang terlibat dalam berbagai patogenesis penyakit. Sel eosinofil pada awalnya dikenal sebagai sel efektor  dari sistem imunitas alamiah. Akan tetapi, kemampuan sel eosinofil dalam memfagositosis patogen menimbulkan dugaan bahwa sel eosinofil ikut berperan sebagai sel penyaji antigen. Hal ini dianalogikan dengan sel makrofag dan sel dendritik yang bisa memfagositosis dan menyajikan antigen sebagai hasil dari degradasi patogen yang difagositosis. Untuk menjawab permasalahan ini, penulis melakukan penelusuran artikel tentang eosinofil sebagai sel penyaji antigen melalui US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Healthdengan kata kunci eoshinophil dan antigen presenting cell. Hasil penelusuran adalah ditemukannya 10 artikel yang relevan dengan topik. Hasil dari sintesis kesepuluh jurnal tersebut adalah sel eosinofil mampu berperan sebagai sel penyaji antigen yang profesional (professionalantigenpresentng cell

  7. Succinyl-CoA Synthetase: New Antigen Candidate of Bartonella bacilliformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Cláudia; Palma, Noemí; Pons, Maria J.; Magallón-Tejada, Ariel; Sandoval, Isabel; Tinco-Valdez, Carmen; Gutarra, Carlos; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Ruiz, Joaquim; Matsuoka, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Bartonella bacilliformis is the causative agent of Carrion’s disease, a neglected illness with mortality rates of 40–85% in the absence of treatment. The lack of a diagnostic technique to overcome misdiagnosis and treat asymptomatic carriers is of note. This study aimed to identify new B. bacilliformis antigenic candidates that could lead to a new diagnostic tool able to be implemented in endemic rural areas. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood (n = 198) and serum (n = 177) samples were collected in northern Peru. Clinical data were recorded. Specific 16S rRNA amplification by RT-PCR, IFA and ELISA for IgM/IgG with whole cells as antigens was done. Western blot analysis and N-terminal amino acid sequencing detected seroreactive proteins. ELISAs for IgM/IgG for the antigenic candidates were performed. Of the population 33.3% reported at least one symptom compatible with Carrion’s disease; 25.4% (IFA), 27.1% (ELISA-IgG), 33.9% (ELISA-IgM) and 38.9% (RT-PCR) of samples were positive. Four proteins were considered potential antigenic candidates, including two new antigenic candidates, succinyl-CoA synthetase subunit α (SCS-α) and succinyl-CoA synthetase subunit β (SCS-β). On Western blot both Pap31 and SCS-α interacted with IgM, while GroEL and SCS-β interacted with IgG. The presence of specific antibodies against the antigenic candidates varied from 34.5% (IgG against SCS-α) to 97.2% (IgM against Pap31). Conclusions/Significance RT-PCR and the high levels of positivity for specific ELISAs demonstrate high levels of B. bacilliformis exposure and asymptomatic carriers among inhabitants. The new antigens identified might be used as a new rapid diagnostic tool to diagnose acute Carrion’s disease and identify asymptomatic carriers. PMID:27627803

  8. Measuring prostate-specific quality of life in prostate cancer patients scheduled for radiotherapy or radical prostatectomy and reference men in Germany and Canada using the Patient Oriented Prostate Utility Scale-Psychometric (PORPUS-P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuechler Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PORPUS-P is a short questionnaire for measuring prostate-specific quality of life (QoL, which was designed in Canada for use in prostate cancer (PC patients. We aimed to generate a German version and compare PORPUS-P scores of German reference men from the general population, and German and Canadian patients with newly diagnosed PC who were scheduled to receive radical prostatectomy (RP or radiotherapy (RT. Methods The study sample consisted of 988 reference men, 121 German and 66 Canadian PC patients scheduled for RT, and 371 German and 68 Canadian PC patients scheduled for RP. All men completed the PORPUS-P (German postal questionnaire, Canada personal interview. Data were gathered from PC patients before the start of therapy. Results Canadian patients were better educated than the German patients, and fewer were retired. Patients scheduled to receive RT were older and more were retired. German RT patients had lower D'Amico risk scores and pre-treatment Gleason scores than RP patients, and Canadian RT patients had higher pre-treatment PSA than RP patients. Urinary and sexual dysfunction were seen in PC patients (especially RT patients, but were also common in the German reference men. Crude mean PORPUS-P scores differed statistically significant between German RT and RP and Canadian RP and RT patients, with RT patients having higher QoL scores. The differences in age-adjusted mean PORPUS-P scores between reference men and RP patients were not clinically significant, while RT patients had (clinically significantly lower scores than the reference men. Conclusion The German translation of the PORPUS-P appears to be a short and feasible tool for assessing prostate-specific QoL. Although we found a similar response pattern, Canadian and German PC patients scheduled to receive RT or RP rated their pre-treatment quality of life on different levels, which reveals the need for national reference data. Problems in several Qo

  9. Distribution of Blood Groups(ABO between Symptomatic & Asymptomatic Human Leishmania Infantum Infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Molaie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: According to the hypothesis that leishmania parasites can be escaped from immune system covered by blood group antigens (ABO to prevent its recognition by the immune system. The aim of this study was to show the associated blood groups with symptomatic or asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum in human. Methods: In this cross-sectional study the population was divided into two groups. The first group included 54 patients with kala-azar (antibody against Leishmania titers ≥1:3200 by TDA with clinical specificity and the second group consisted of 45 subjects infected with Leishmania infantum (Leishmania antibody titers of1: 800 and 1:1600 by DAT method and non-specific symptoms. The distribution of the 4 main blood groups ABO type, sex, age, presence or absence of symptoms, clinical signs, and response to Glucantim therapy and DAT results were evaluated. Data were analyzed by chi-square test. Results: Most of the patients in group 1 were blood group A (37% and the lowest number of blood group were B (12.8%. In the second group, most of the ABO blood group A (42.2% and lowest in the ABO blood group AB (8.9%.There was no significant association between blood groups and clinical symptoms (p>0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that there is no association between blood group and incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic kala-azar. Key words: Leishmania Infantum, Kala-azar, Blood Group, Human

  10. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    The skin prick test is the allergologic test of choice, but asymptomatic skin sensitization to aeroallergens is common. However, no data in the literature describe the clinical phenotype of asymptomatic sensitized adults....

  11. Ileal ulcer in asymptomatic individuals. Is this Crohn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marques dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The endoscopic finding of ileal ulcers, alone or in small number, is not usual, but when it occurs in asymptomatic patients, an impasse may be generated regarding the action to be taken, since the medical literature is unclear as to how to proceed in this situation. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate patients with ileal ulcers, single or in a small number, asymptomatic, and their follow-up. METHODS: The author reports a series of asymptomatic cases (23 patients of ulcers - single or in small number - found in colonoscopy exams performed for other reasons than typical clinical manifestations of Crohn's disease. RESULTS: Most patients were not treated and remained asymptomatic during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: The patients remained asymptomatic and without treatment in most cases, and, considering the small number of cases and the short observation time, this study does not allow to conclude that this is the best practice in case of asymptomatic patients with ileal ulcer.O achado endoscópico de úlceras ileais, isoladas ou em pequeno número, não é frequente, mas quando ocorre em pacientes assintomáticos pode gerar um impasse quanto à conduta a ser tomada, já que a literatura médica não é clara quanto a como se proceder nessa situação. OBJETIVO: Avaliar pacientes que apresentaram úlceras ileais solitárias ou em pequena quantidade, assintomáticos e a evolução clínica dos mesmos. MÉTODOS: O autor relata uma série de casos (23 pacientes assintomáticos que apresentaram úlceras ileais únicas ou em pequeno número em colonoscopias realizadas por outros motivos que não manifestações clínicas típicas de doença de Crohn. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes não foi tratada e permaneceu assintomática pelo período de acompanhamento. CONCLUSÕES: Os pacientes permaneceram assintomáticos e sem tratamento em sua maioria, salientando-se o reduzido número de casos e o curto tempo de observação, de modo a não permitirem a este estudo

  12. Should incidental asymptomatic angiographic stenoses and occlusions be treated in patients with peripheral arterial disease?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2009-09-01

    The clinical importance of angiographically detected asymptomatic lower-limb stenoses and occlusions is unknown. This study aims to (i) assess the clinical outcome of asymptomatic lesions in the lower limb, (ii) identify predictors of clinical deterioration, and (iii) determine which asymptomatic lower-limb lesions should be treated at presentation.

  13. Isolated Asymptomatic Short Sternum in a Healthy Young Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Turturro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital sternal defects are rare deformities frequently associated with other anomalies of the chest wall and other organ systems. Although pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, and cleft sternum can present as isolated deformity, in most cases they are associated with heart and inner organs anomalies and described as symptoms of syndromes like Marfan syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Poland anomaly, and Cantrell pentalogy. In contrast, the etiology of an isolated defect is not well understood. We observed a short sternum (dysmorphic manubrium, hypoplastic body, and complete absence of the xiphoid process in a completely asymptomatic 13-year-old woman. A comprehensive instrumental exams panel was performed to exclude associated anomalies of the heart and of the other organ systems. The patient was completely asymptomatic and she did not need any medical or surgical treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated short sternum reported in literature.

  14. Advanced Asymptomatic Carotid Disease and Cognitive Impairment: An Understated Link?

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    Irena Martinić-Popović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced carotid disease is known to be associated with symptomatic cerebrovascular diseases, such as stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA, as well as with poststroke cognitive impairment. However, cognitive decline often occurs in patients with advanced carotid stenosis without clinically evident stroke or TIA, so it is also suspected to be an independent risk factor for dementia. Neurosonological methods enable simple and noninvasive assessment of carotid stenosis in patients at risk of advanced atherosclerosis. Cognitive status in patients diagnosed with advanced carotid stenosis is routinely not taken into consideration, although if cognitive impairment is present, such patients should probably be called symptomatic. In this paper, we discuss results of some most important studies that investigated cognitive status of patients with asymptomatic advanced carotid disease and possible mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between asymptomatic advanced carotid disease and cognitive decline.

  15. A Case of Aortopulmonary Window: Asymptomatic until the First Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aortopulmonary window (APW is an abnormal communication between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk in the presence of two separate semilunar valves. It is a rare congenital malformation which represents 0.1% of all congenital cardiac diseases. Herein, we report a very rare case of 27-year-old patient with unrepaired APW causing Eisenmenger syndrome and pulmonary hypertension who was asymptomatic until her first pregnancy. The median survival of uncorrected APW is 33 years. Aortopulmonary window is a very rare congenital anomaly. To our knowledge, asymptomatic adult case has not been reported until now. APW should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the severe pulmonary hypertension also in adult patients.

  16. Asymptomatic Effluent Protozoa Colonization in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated.

  17. Insurability for asymptomatic hematuria or proteinuria during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, L G; Stapleton, F B

    1993-08-01

    The objective of this survey was to describe life insurance underwriting practices concerning children with asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria. A questionnaire was sent to 200 companies licensed to issue life insurance policies in the state of New York. The medical director of each company was asked to respond to the insurability of children with asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria. Two case summaries were provided with the questionnaire. Of 97 companies, 66 would offer insurance to the patient with hematuria, although 38 (58%) would charge additional premiums. In response to the problem of proteinuria, 61 companies would offer life insurance, although 50 (82%) would require higher premium charges (P life insurance, although often at higher cost. Invasive diagnostic tests are not necessary for insurers to offer insurance.

  18. Asymptomatic infection in individuals from the municipality of Barcelos (Brazilian Amazon is not associated with the anti-Plasmodium falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositol antibody response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rodrigues Gomes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anti-glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI antibodies (Abs may reflect and mediate, at least partially, anti-disease immunity in malaria by neutralising the toxic effect of parasitic GPI. Thus, we assessed the anti-GPI Ab response in asymptomatic individuals living in an area of the Brazilian Amazon that has a high level of malaria transmission. For comparative purposes, we also investigated the Ab response to a crude extract prepared from Plasmodium falciparum, the merozoite surface protein (MSP3 antigen of P. falciparum and the MSP 1 antigen of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP1-19 in these individuals and in Angolan patients with acute malaria. Our data suggest that the Ab response against P. falciparum GPI is not associated with P. falciparum asymptomatic infection in individuals who have been chronically exposed to malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. However, this Ab response could be related to ongoing parasitaemia (as was previously shown in the Angolan patients. In addition, our data show that PvMSP1-19may be a good marker antigen to reflect previous exposure to Plasmodium in areas that have a high transmission rate of P. vivax.

  19. Gelatin particle indirect agglutination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis using Strongyloides venezuelensis antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Sato, Yoshiya; Aguilar, Jose Luis; Terashima, Angelica; Guerra, Humberto; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2003-01-01

    Routine microscopical examination of stool specimens for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is insensitive and serological methods using Strongyloides stercoralis antigen are at present not available for field studies. We evaluated 2 techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gelatin particle indirect agglutination (GPIA), using an antigen obtained from the rodent parasite, S. venezuelensis. Fifty-four Peruvian patients with different clinical forms of strongyloidiasis were studied: 12 asymptomatic, 31 symptomatic, and 11 hyperinfection cases. Our results demonstrate that both ELISA and GPIA using S. venezuelensis antigen are useful for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis, with sensitivities of 74.1% and 98.2%, respectively and a specificity of 100% for both techniques. We found that GPIA is a highly sensitive test for patients with suspected chronic infection and/or hyperinfection. In the hyperinfection cases, significantly lower concentrations of specific immunoglobulin antibodies and eosinophils (P < 0.001) were found compared with the asymptomatic and symptomatic cases.

  20. Independent clinical significance of HIV antigen determination and CD4 counts in anti-HIV positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinhøj, P; Hofmann, B; Jacobsen, K D;

    1989-01-01

    HIV antigenemia was found in 52/243 HIV antibody positive individuals attending 2 AIDS-screening clinics, giving a prevalence of 13, 25 and 76% in CDC groups II, III and IV, respectively. No correlation was found to decreased CD4 lymphocyte values in the individual groups. HIV antigen therefore...... developed disease within 18 months, the relative risk factor being 24. Thus the 2 markers, when measured together, effectively separated asymptomatic HIV-infected patients into 1 of 3 risk categories....... identified a separate subpopulation. For 138 asymptomatic patients followed prospectively both laboratory parameters predicted HIV-related events, the relative risk factor being 4 for low CD4 value and 6 for presence of HIV antigen. Individuals presenting with HIV antigen and decreased CD4 count all...

  1. A Rare Entity: Adult Asymptomatic Giant Vallecular Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Mümtaz Taner; Seçkin, Ender; Tuncel, Ümit; Kılıç, Caner; Özkan, Özalkan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cysts in the larynx are rare and generally asymptomatic. However, large cysts in adults can be symptomatic. If they are symptomatic, they typically present with respiratory and feeding difficulties. They are usually benign in terms of pathology. Several surgical techniques may be used for treatment. Case Report. A 56-year-old man presented to our clinic with hoarseness. Routine laryngeal examination revealed a giant mass and the larynx could not be visualized. At magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a cystic mass originating from the vallecula was detected. There was no pathology at the glottic level. We planned tracheotomy for the airway and endoscopic surgery for excision. The mass was excised using CO2 laser and was reported as benign. Conclusion. An asymptomatic vallecular cyst may cause difficult intubation in any operation. It may also cause respiratory or other complications. Airway management should be led by an ear, nose, and throat surgeon, since tracheotomy may be required. Endoscopic excision with CO2 laser is a good choice for treatment in elective cases. In this report, we discuss the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with an asymptomatic giant vallecular cyst. PMID:26688767

  2. A Rare Entity: Adult Asymptomatic Giant Vallecular Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mümtaz Taner Torun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cysts in the larynx are rare and generally asymptomatic. However, large cysts in adults can be symptomatic. If they are symptomatic, they typically present with respiratory and feeding difficulties. They are usually benign in terms of pathology. Several surgical techniques may be used for treatment. Case Report. A 56-year-old man presented to our clinic with hoarseness. Routine laryngeal examination revealed a giant mass and the larynx could not be visualized. At magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, a cystic mass originating from the vallecula was detected. There was no pathology at the glottic level. We planned tracheotomy for the airway and endoscopic surgery for excision. The mass was excised using CO2 laser and was reported as benign. Conclusion. An asymptomatic vallecular cyst may cause difficult intubation in any operation. It may also cause respiratory or other complications. Airway management should be led by an ear, nose, and throat surgeon, since tracheotomy may be required. Endoscopic excision with CO2 laser is a good choice for treatment in elective cases. In this report, we discuss the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with an asymptomatic giant vallecular cyst.

  3. First metatarsophalangeal joint- MRI findings in asymptomatic volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Tobias Johannes; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [University of Zurich, Radiology, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Figueira da Silva, Flora Luciana [University of Zurich, Radiology, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Radiology, Hospital Mae de Deus and Mae de Deus Center, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Abreu, Marcelo Rodrigues de [Radiology, Hospital Mae de Deus and Mae de Deus Center, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Klammer, Georg [University of Zurich, Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the spectrum and frequency of MR findings of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) in asymptomatic volunteers. MR imaging of 30 asymptomatic forefeet was performed with a dedicated extremity 1.5-Tesla system. Participants were between 20 and 49 years of age (mean ± SD: 35.5 ± 8.4 years). Two radiologists assessed cartilage, bone, capsuloligamentous structures, and tendons of first MTPJs on MR images. Cartilage defects were observed in 27 % (n = 8) of first MTPJs, most frequently located at the base of the proximal phalanx (23 %, n = 7), whereas cartilage defects of the metatarsal head (13 %, n = 4) and the metatarsosesamoid compartment were rare (0 %-3 %, n = 0-1). Bone marrow oedema-like signal changes were present in 37 % (n = 11) and subchondral cysts in 20 % (n = 6) of first MTPJs. Hyperintense areas on intermediate-weighted sequences (range: 30-43 %, n = 9-13) and on fluid-sensitive sequences with fat suppression (range: 33-60 %, n = 10-18) within the medial and lateral collateral ligament complex were common. Plantar recesses (77 %, n = 23) and distal dorsal recesses (87 %, n = 26) were frequently observed. Cartilage defects, bone marrow oedema-like signal changes, subchondral cysts, plantar recesses, and distal dorsal recesses were common findings on MRI of first MTPJs in asymptomatic volunteers. The collateral ligaments were often heterogeneous in structure and showed increased signal intensity. (orig.)

  4. Asymptomatic pancreatic lesions: New insights and clinical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Loos; Christoph W Michalski; J(o)rg Kleeff

    2012-01-01

    Despite great efforts in experimental and clinical research,the prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC) has not changed significantly for decades.Detection of pre-invasive lesions or early-stage PC with small resectable cancers in asymptomatic individuals remains one of the most promising approaches to substantially improve the overall outcome of PC.Therefore,screening programs have been proposed to identify curable lesions especially in individuals with a familial or genetic predisposition for PC.In this regard,Canto et al recently contributed an important article comparing computed tomography,magnetic resonance imaging,and endoscopic ultrasound for the screening of 216 asymptomatic high-risk individuals (HRI).Pancreatic lesions were detected in 92 of 216 asymptomatic HRI (42.6%).The high diagnostic yield in this study raises several questions that need to be answered of which two will be discussed in detail in this commentary:First:which imaging test should be performed? Second and most importantly:what are we doing with incidentally detected pancreatic lesions? Which ones can be observed and which ones need to be resected?

  5. Clinical evolution and radiographic findings of feline heartworm infection in asymptomatic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venco, L; Genchi, C; Genchi, M; Grandi, G; Kramer, L H

    2008-12-10

    Clinical manifestations of heartworm disease in cats are variable; most cats seem to tolerate the infection well for extended periods. Heartworm-infected cats may undergo spontaneous self-cure due to the natural death of parasites without any symptomatology, or they may suddenly show dramatic and acute symptoms. Sudden death in apparently healthy cats is not a rare event. Thoracic radiographs are important tool for the diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disease. However, thoracic abnormalities are often absent or transient and highly variable in heartworm-infected cats. Findings, such as enlargement of the peripheral branches of the pulmonary arteries, with a varying degree of pulmonary parenchymal disease and hyperinflation, are the most typical features consistent with infection. A field study was performed for cats referred to the Veterinary Hospital Città di Pavia from January 1998 to December 2001 for routine health examinations and procedures to evaluate the clinical evolution and radiographic findings of feline heartworm infection. Thirty-four asymptomatic cats diagnosed with feline heartworm infection by antibody and antigen tests together with an echocardiogram that allowed worm visualization were included in the follow-up study. Cats were routinely examined every 3 months from the time of heartworm diagnosis until the outcome (self-cure or death). Self-cure was defined as no positive serology for heartworm antigens and no visualization of worms by echocardiography. A final examination for antibodies was carried after 12 months as a final confirmation of self-cure. Twenty-eight cats (82.4%) self-cured; including 21 that showed no clinical signs of infection throughout the study. Six cats died. The most common clinical features observed were acute respiratory symptoms and sudden death. Infection lasted over 3 years in the majority of the cats enrolled in the study. Thoracic radiograph appearance was variable, and the most commonly observed findings were focal

  6. Cancer/testis antigens: novel tools for discerning aggressive and non-aggressive prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takumi Shiraishi; Robert H Getzenberg; Prakash Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the 1980s has dramatically altered and benefited the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer.However,the widespread use of PSA testing has resulted in overdetection and overtreatment of potentially indolent disease.Thus,a clinical dilemma today in the management of prostate cancer is to discern men with aggressive disease who need definitive treatment from men whose disease are not lethal.Although several serum and tissue biomarkers have been evaluated during the past decade,improved markers are still needed to enhance the accuracy,with which patients at risk can be discerned and treated more aggressively.The cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of proteins that are restricted to the testis in the normal adult,but are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers.Because of their restricted expression pattern,the CTAs represent attractive biomarker candidates for cancer diagnosis/prognosis.Furthermore,several studies to date have reported the differential expression of CTAs in prostate cancer.Here,we review recent developments that demonstrate the potential of the CTAs as biomarkers to discern the aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer.

  7. Immunogenicity of the P-8 amastigote antigen in the experimental model of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, E; Ahmed, S; Goldsmith-Pestana, K; Nieto, J; Osorio, Y; Travi, B; Moreno, J; McMahon-Pratt, D

    2007-02-09

    The P-8 proteoglycolipid complex (P-8 PGLC), an amastigote antigen of Leishmania pifanoi, has been demonstrated to induce protection in mouse models, as well as to induce Tc1/Th1-like cellular responses in American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Because the immunization with P-8 PGLC in the murine model does not appear to be genetically restricted, we have studied the reactivity of the P-8 PGLC in Leishmania infantum infected dogs. In this study, it is shown that PBMC from experimentally infected dogs (asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic) significantly proliferated in response to soluble leishmanial antigen (SLA) or the P-8 PGLC. Further, quantification of the gene expression induced by the stimulation with P-8 in asymptomatically infected dogs showed an up-regulation of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, which were three to 4-fold higher than that induced by soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA). While no measurable induction of IL-10 was observed, low levels of IL-4 mRNA were observed in response to both P-8 and SLA antigens. Thus, our studies establish that P-8 is recognized by infected canines and elicits a potentially curative/protective Th1-like immune response. The identification of Leishmania antigens that elicit appropriate immune responses across different host species (humans, canine) and disease manifestations (cutaneous or visceral) could be an advantage in generating a general vaccine for leishmaniasis.

  8. [Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and asymptomatic multiple myelom in the year 2014 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Zdeněk; Krejčí, Marta; Pour, Luděk; Sevčíková, Eva; Křivanová, Andrea; Rehák, Zdeněk; Koukalová, Renata; Cermáková, Zdeňka; Vaníček, Jíří; Sevčíková, Sabina

    2014-10-01

    some cases produce toxic monoclonal immunoglobulin which can damage the body's own antibody activity by binding to specific antigens (such as cold agglutinin disease), or their deposits in organs (e.g. kidney damage) or physical properties (e.g. cryoglobulinemia). Therefore, it is recommended that this group of people is regularly checked with the aim to capture not only transformation into symptomatic multiple myeloma or another malignant disease, but also the formation of the above-mentioned complications. Moreover, it is recommended to monitor patients with asymptomatic myeloma and to initiate treatment only after symptoms of multiple myeloma are observed. In 2014, discussion of subdivision of subgroups of patients with asymptomatic myeloma with high ( 80 %) probability of early (within 2 years) transformation in multiple myeloma which would be beneficial for early initiation of treatment is ongoing. According to first proposals, patients with asymptomatic myeloma that meet at least one of the three conditions: more than 60 % of plasma cells in the bone marrow, ratio of free light kappa and lambda chains is greater than 100 or less than 0.01, or multiple focal lesions on whole-body MRI of the skelet. The review contains current opinions on prognostic classification and appropriate intervals and extent of control examinations.

  9. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Asymptomatic Children in Birjand, Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokab Namakin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori is the cause of serious diseases including gastric cancer and gastric mucosa–associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.50% of world population is infected by this microorganism and it -based on epidemiologic studies - is mainly acquired during childhood . there is not enough evidence about prevalence of this infection in children and its risk factors so encourage us to study on it.Method : we tested 282 apparently healthy 9-12 year old students in a population based cross sectional study for Helicobacter pylori colonization using H pylori Antigen EIA Test Kit (ACON company.a short socio demographic questionnaire was used to assess risk factors.Findings: the overall prevalence of H pylori colonization in 282 students is 13.1%. we found statistically significant relationship between H pylori colonization and sex, duration of breast feeding, and family crowding but there is not significant relationship with age , family history of dyspepsia , number of days in week consuming yogurt and economically stratified living region in present study.Conclusion: Helicobacter Pylori is a big concern even in young asymptomatic children and it needs to be further studied about its potential risk factors and how to manage them for the goal of prevention.

  10. Cross-reactive anti-PfCLAG9 antibodies in the sera of asymptomatic parasite carriers of Plasmodium vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana D'Arc Neves; Zanchi, Fernando Berton; Rodrigues, Francisco Lurdevanhe da Silva; Honda, Eduardo Rezende; Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroschi; Pereira, Dhélio Batista; Taborda, Roger Lafontaine Mesquita; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Pereira-da-Silva, Luiz Hildebrando

    2013-01-01

    The PfCLAG9 has been extensively studied because their immunogenicity. Thereby, the gene product is important for therapeutics interventions and a potential vaccine candidate. Antibodies against synthetic peptides corresponding to selected sequences of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen PfCLAG9 were found in sera of falciparum malaria patients from Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon. Much higher antibody titres were found in semi-immune and immune asymptomatic parasite carriers than in subjects suffering clinical infections, corroborating original findings in Papua Guinea. However, sera of Plasmodium vivax patients from the same Amazon area, in particular from asymptomatic vivax parasite carriers, reacted strongly with the same peptides. Bioinformatic analyses revealed regions of similarity between P. falciparum Pfclag9 and the P. vivax ortholog Pvclag7. Indirect fluorescent microscopy analysis showed that antibodies against PfCLAG9 peptides elicited in BALB/c mice react with human red blood cells (RBCs) infected with both P. falciparum and P. vivax parasites. The patterns of reactivity on the surface of the parasitised RBCs are very similar. The present observations support previous findings that PfCLAG9 may be a target of protective immune responses and raises the possibility that the cross reactive antibodies to PvCLAG7 in mixed infections play a role in regulate the fate of Plasmodium mixed infections. PMID:23440122

  11. Foodborne norovirus outbreak: the role of an asymptomatic food handler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintó Rosa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In July 2005 an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred on a residential summer camp in the province of Barcelona (northeast of Spain. Forty-four people were affected among residents and employees. All of them had in common a meal at lunch time on 13 July (paella, round of beef and fruit. The aim of this study was to investigate a foodborne norovirus outbreak that occurred in the residential summer camp and in which the implication of a food handler was demonstrated by laboratory tests. Methods A retrospective cohort study was designed. Personal or telephone interview was carried out to collect demographic, clinical and microbiological data of the exposed people, as well as food consumption in the suspected lunch. Food handlers of the mentioned summer camp were interviewed. Ten stool samples were requested from symptomatic exposed residents and the three food handlers that prepared the suspected food. Stools were tested for bacteries and noroviruses. Norovirus was detected using RT-PCR and sequence analysis. Attack rate, relative risks (RR and its 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to assess the association between food consumption and disease. Results The global attack rate of the outbreak was 55%. The main symptoms were abdominal pain (90%, nausea (85%, vomiting (70% and diarrhoea (42.5%. The disease remitted in 24-48 hours. Norovirus was detected in seven faecal samples, one of them was from an asymptomatic food handler who had not eaten the suspected food (round of beef, but cooked and served the lunch. Analysis of the two suspected foods isolated no pathogenic bacteria and detected no viruses. Molecular analysis showed that the viral strain was the same in ill patients and in the asymptomatic food handler (genotype GII.2 Melksham-like. Conclusions In outbreaks of foodborne disease, the search for viruses in affected patients and all food handlers, even in those that are asymptomatic, is essential. Health

  12. Education, individual time preferences, and asymptomatic disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younoh; Radoias, Vlad

    2016-02-01

    Asymptomatic conditions such as hypertension are generally hard to diagnose, absent routine medical examinations. This is especially problematic in developing countries, where most citizens do not engage in routine examinations due to limited economic resources. We study the roles of education and individual time preferences in asymptomatic disease detection and management. Using discrete choice models on a sample of 4209 hypertensive Indonesian adults surveyed between November 2007 and April 2008, we find that both education and individual time preferences play important roles. However, the effects are different for people in good health than they are for people in bad health. Education does not seem to matter for disease detection when respondents are in good general health, and its effects on disease management vary largely in magnitudes between these groups. In terms of disease detection, more educated respondents have a higher probability of being diagnosed, but only conditional on being in poor general health. Time preferences, on the other hand, matter for respondents in good general health, but the effect is not significant for those in bad health. More impatient respondents that are in good health have a higher probability of being under-diagnosed because they are more likely to forgo routine physicals. The findings point to two distinct channels through which education can affect health, and suggest that different types of policies need to be implemented, in order to reach the entire population. Traditional programs that stimulate education and improve the socio-economic status of individuals in developing countries are helpful, but they do not address the whole problem. Besides its more usual positive effects, education can also negatively affect the health of asymptomatic patients, because it reflects a higher opportunity cost of engaging in preventative health screenings.

  13. Characterization of M2 antibodies in asymptomatic Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hua Jiang; Ren-Qian Zhong; Xiao-Yun Fan; Yin Hu; Feng An; Jian-Wen Sun; Xian-Tao Kong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the presence of M2 antibodies specific for pdmary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) in asymptomatic Chinese and identify patients with early PBC.METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ElISA)tests for M2 antibodies to recombinant protein were performed in 5 011 subjects (age range, 26-85 years; mean age: 45.81±15.02 years) who took an annual physical examination. M2-positive subjects were further analyzed for immunoglobulin (Ig) classes and subclasses of M2 antibodies.Clinical, biochemical and immunological data were obtained for M2-positive subjects. In addition, ultrasonography (US)or endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP)was performed to exclude any disorders other than PBC.RESULTS: M2 antibodies were detected in 8 (0.16%) of the 5 0LL subjects studied. Of the 8 subjects, 7 were female and 1 was male (age range: 40-74 years). An unexplained increase of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) values, often to striking levels,was detected in 4 M2-positive subjects, 3 of them accorded with the diagnostic criteria recommended by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, even though they had no symptoms of PBC (such as fatigue, pruritus or jaundice).Liver biopsy was performed in two M2-positive subjects and the histology was compatible with PBC in both cases.CONCLUSION: Our data, while not assessing the true prevalence of asymptomatic PBC in the general population,suggest that asymptomatic PBC is much more common in China than has been supposed.

  14. Coexistence of disseminated granuloma annulare and asymptomatic multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem Aktan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma annulare (GA is a benign inflammatory dermatosis of unknown cause, characterized by necrobiotic dermal papules. Several morphologic forms of GA including localized, disseminated, linear, nodular, perforating, subcutaneous, pustular and arcuate dermal erythema have been reported in the literature. Disseminated GA, a rarely seen form, has been reported in association with some hematopoietic and solid malignancies; however, it has been suggested that the exact causative relationship between malignancy and GA is unclear. We present here a 66-year-old female patient with disseminated GA associated with asymptomatic multipl myeloma.

  15. MRI cervical spine findings in asymptomatic fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrén-Mallmin, M; Linder, J

    1999-12-01

    MRI of the cervical spine for evaluation concerning degenerative lesions was performed on asymptomatic experienced military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 42 yr with mean accumulated flying time of 2600 h), and for comparison on age-matched controls without military flying experience. Young military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 23 yr with 220 h of flying per person) were also examined. There were significantly more osteophytes, disk protrusions, compressions of the spinal cord and foraminal stenoses in the experienced pilots than in the age-matched controls. Low frequency of low grade degenerative lesions was found in the young and inexperienced pilots.

  16. Incidental finding of a giant asymptomatic right atrial tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Thomas; Agaimy, Abbas; Zelzer, Peter; Weyand, Michael; Wachter, David Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are very rare, atrial myxoma being the most common benign tumor of the heart. They may present with a great variety of incidental asymptomatic masses to severe life-threatening cardiovascular complications necessitating emergency surgery. Here we report the diagnostic evaluation and successful surgical resection of such a giant cardiac tumor which was found on a routine medical check-up in a 62-year-old patient. Histology confirmed diagnosis of unusually huge myxoma. This article demonstrates it’s necessary to include cardiac tumors in the differential diagnosis of subtle and non-specific cardiothoracic symptoms. PMID:25120848

  17. Asymptomatic spinal arachnoiditis in patients with tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, T. [Department of Neurology, CN Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Department of Medicine, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan (India); Kochar, D.K. [Department of Medicine, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan (India)

    2003-10-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is one of the common and disabling complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). We focused on early diagnosis of spinal arachnoiditis by spinal MRI in asymptomatic patients in whom neurological examination was normal. We studied 16 patients with a diagnosis of probable or highly probable TBM with symptoms for less than 1 month; three had radiological evidence of spinal arachnoiditis. High cerebrospinal fluid protein appeared to be a risk factor for development of spinal arachnoiditis. MRI is sensitive to detect early spinal arachnoiditis. Earlier diagnosis may be helpful in management of spinal arachnoiditis in TBM. (orig.)

  18. Asymptomatic leukemic-cell infiltration of the pancreas: US findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Laura; Dardanelli, Esteban; Sierre, Sergio; Moguillansky, Silvia; Lipsich, José

    2011-06-01

    Pancreatic infiltration of leukemic cells is a very rare manifestation at the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in childhood. Pancreatic enlargement in this situation is unusual and pancreatic involvement is often associated with biliary obstruction, cholestasis and pancreatitis. We report a 3-month-old girl who presented with asymptomatic leukemic infiltration of the pancreas, demonstrated by US with heterogeneous pancreatic enlargement associated with multiple hypoechogenic lesions, without cholestasis. Although these manifestations are rare, ALL should be considered a cause of pancreatic enlargement.

  19. PREVALENCE OF ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANCY AT A TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Guntoory

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND UTI is the most frequent medical complication. It may be asymptomatic or symptomatic. Asymptomatic bacteriuria if left untreated might result in symptomatic UTI and adverse pregnancy outcomes. AIM This prospective study was aimed to determine the prevalence of Asymptomatic bacteriuria of pregnancy among antenatal women attending the antenatal clinic in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Maharajah’s Institute of Medical Sciences, Nellimarla, Vizianagaram District, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL AND METHODS After taking approval from Institutional Ethics Committee and informed written consent from patients, urine samples were collected from antenatal women in their first antenatal visit. A clean catch midstream specimen of urine was collected and inoculated on blood agar and MacConkey’s agar. It was incubated aerobically at 37 degrees centigrade overnight. Isolates were identified up to species level using standard protocol and sensitivity to different antibiotics is tested. Results were analysed statistically and a P value of less than 0.05 was taken as significant. RESULTS A total of 173 samples were screened; 154 women showed no growth on culture; 19 women had significant bacteriuria with a prevalence rate of 10.98%; 15 women in the age group of 18-25 years and 4 women in the age group of 26-35 years had significant bacteriuria; 83 women were multiparous and 11 (57.89% women in this group had significant bacteriuria, while only 8 (42.1% out of 90 women in the nulliparous group had significant bacteriuria. With respect to trimester, 10 (52.63% out of 19 culture positive cases were in second trimester. In our study, the organisms isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The bacteria grown were most sensitive to Ampicillin+Sulbactam (68%, Nitrofurantoin (73%, Amikacin (84% and Meropenem (100%. CONCLUSION It is therefore essential to screen every antenatal women for asymptomatic

  20. Articulated dental cast analysis of asymptomatic and symptomatic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordray, Frank E

    2016-01-01

    Dental instrumentation has long provided insight into the mechanism of musculo-skeletal function of the gnathic system. While large population studies associate dental arch displacement (DAD), especially laterally, with symptoms, mandibular condyle displacement (CD) resulting from DAD has not been targeted as possibly etiologic in the production of common muscle contraction headache (CMCH) and temporo-mandibular dysfunction (TMD). The objective was to evaluate the three-dimensional nature of DAD and CD between the seated condylar position (SCP) and the intercuspal position (ICP) and to compare results derived from large deprogrammed asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. A total of 1 192 sets of dental casts collected from asymptomatic and symptomatic populations were articulated in the SCP. The initial occlusal contact, DAD, and condylar displacement were evaluated for frequency, direction, and magnitude of displacement between the SCP and ICP. The data revealed significant displacement between the SCP and ICP of the condyles (displaced most frequently inferior (down) and posterior (distal)) and substantially increased frequency and magnitude of displacement of the dental arches (with posterior premature occlusal contacts, increased overjet, decreased overbite, midline differences, and occlusal classification changes) in symptomatic subjects. These discrepancies were statistically significant and clinically significant. The data support the concept of increased DAD and CD with dysfunction. Transverse condylar displacement, commonly presenting with dental cross bite, may be associated with CMCH and TMD. Displacement of the mandibular condyle may be an etiologic factor in CMCH and dysfunction of the temporo-mandibular joint. PMID:27357324

  1. Uncovering sensory axonal dysfunction in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Chang, Tsui-San; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated sensory and motor nerve excitability properties to elucidate the development of diabetic neuropathy. A total of 109 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited, and 106 were analyzed. According to neuropathy severity, patients were categorized into G0, G1, and G2+3 groups using the total neuropathy score-reduced (TNSr). Patients in the G0 group were asymptomatic and had a TNSr score of 0. Sensory and motor nerve excitability data from diabetic patients were compared with data from 33 healthy controls. Clinical assessment, nerve conduction studies, and sensory and motor nerve excitability testing data were analyzed to determine axonal dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. In the G0 group, sensory excitability testing revealed increased stimulus for the 50% sensory nerve action potential (Pmotor excitability only had significantly increased stimulus for the 50% compound motor nerve action potential (Pdevelopment of axonal dysfunction in sensory axons occurred prior to and in a different fashion from motor axons. Additionally, sensory nerve excitability tests can detect axonal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. These insights further our understanding of diabetic neuropathy and enable the early detection of sensory axonal abnormalities, which may provide a basis for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches.

  2. Management of Asymptomatic Erosive Esophagitis: An E-Mail Survey of Physician's Opinions

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Seong Woo; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Heung Up; Jeon, Seong Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The management of asymptomatic erosive esophagitis is controversial. We surveyed physicians' opinions on asymptomatic erosive esophagitis using e-mail. Methods All members of the Korean Society of Neurogastro-enterology and Motility were invited to answer the questionnaire on the treatment and follow-up of patients with asymptomatic erosive esophagitis by e-mail. Results A total of 73 members answered the questionnaire (response rate, 18%). As initial management, 41% of respon...

  3. Basal longitudinal strain predicts future aortic valve replacement in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helle Gervig; Larsen, Linnea Hornbech; Hassager, Christian

    2016-01-01

    of myocardial dysfunction and predictors of outcome in asymptomatic aortic stenosis. Aortic stenosis and ischaemic heart disease share risk factors and longitudinal function can be severely reduced in both conditions, why some of the previous findings of impaired regional longitudinal function in asymptomatic...... aortic stenosis could in fact be explained by silent ischaemic heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective follow-up of 104 asymptomatic patients with moderate-severe aortic stenosis defined as an aortic valve area ...: In contrast to GLS, reduced BLS is a significant predictor of future AVR in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis, independently of clinical characteristics, conventional echocardiographic measures, and coronary pathology....

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging features of asymptomatic bipartite patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, J., E-mail: juliemobrien@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Incorporating National Children' s Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Murphy, C.; Halpenny, D.; McNeill, G.; Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Incorporating National Children' s Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)

    2011-06-15

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of bipartite patella in asymptomatic patients. Materials and methods: The study was prospective in type and performed following institutional ethical committees approval. In total, 25 subjects were recruited into the study and informed consent obtained in each case. The local radiology database was utilised in conjunction with a clinical questionnaire to identify patients who had asymptomatic bipartite patella. Any patient with a history of trauma or symptomatic disease was excluded from the study. MRI imaging was performed in each case on a 1.5 T system using a dedicated knee coil and a standardised knee protocol. The images obtained were then analysed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus. Results: Of the 25 subjects, there were 8 females and 17 males. The mean age was 34.6 years. All but one of the bipartite fragments were located on the superolateral aspect of the patella. In 23 cases, one fragment was identified. The average transverse diameter of the fragment was 12.8 mm. The average distance between the fragment and the adjacent patella in the axial plane was 1.46 mm. In addition, the cartilage overlying the patella and accessory fragment was intact in all cases. The average thickness of the patella cartilage at its border to the fragment was 2.4 mm with an average ratio of the cartilage thickness of the fragment as compared with the cartilage thickness of the patella of 0.72. There was no evidence of high signal or bone marrow oedema on fluid sensitive sequences within either the patella or the fragment in any of the patients. Fluid was identified in the cleft between the patella and the fragment in the majority of cases. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bipartite patella is characterised by intact but thinned cartilage along the border between the patella and the fragment, fluid between the cleft and a lack of any bone marrow oedema or high signal within

  5. Cardiotoxicity in Asymptomatic Patients Receiving Adjuvant 5-fluorouracil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karin; Polk, Anne; Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet

    2014-01-01

    Evolving evidence of cardiotoxicity in cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been reported. We report two different clinical manifestations of asymptomatic 5-FU-associated cardiotoxicity in patients operated for colorectal cancer and treated with adjuvant chemotherapy of 5-FU...... (bolus-injection and continuous infusion for 46 hours), folinic acid and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX). For a research study evaluating cardiac events during 5-FU treatment, Holter monitoring, electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography were done and cardiac markers monitored before and during the first...... and hyperlipidemia as well as an incidental finding of negative T-waves in electrocardiogram years before 5-FU treatment. No subjective cardiac symptoms were described during infusion, but approximately 12 hours after infusion she suffered from cardiac arrest but was revived. Subsequent analysis of the Holter...

  6. Genetic testing in asymptomatic minors: background considerations towards ESHG Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borry, Pascal; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Cornel, Martina C;

    2009-01-01

    Although various guidelines and position papers have discussed, in the past, the ethical aspects of genetic testing in asymptomatic minors, the European Society of Human Genetics had not earlier endorsed any set of guidelines exclusively focused on this issue. This paper has served as a background...... document in preparation of the development of the policy recommendations of the Public and Professional Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics. This background paper first discusses some general considerations with regard to the provision of genetic tests to minors. It discusses the concept...... of best interests, participation of minors in health-care decisions, parents' responsibilities to share genetic information, the role of clinical genetics and the health-care system in communication within the family. Second, it discusses, respectively, the presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing...

  7. Colon perforation after esophagogastroduodenoscopy in an asymptomatic diverticulitis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD is regarded as a relatively safe procedure; however, it carries a very low incidence of severe adverse events. Perforation is a rare complication of EGD, and it may further lead to pneumoperitoneum or pneumoretroperitoneum. The occurrence of large bowel perforation after EGD is extremely rare, and it has never been reported in the international literature. Herein, we present a case of concurrence of pneumoperitoneum and pneumoretroperitoneum as a result of sigmoid perforation after EGD. In our case, the probable mechanism of the perforation may have stemmed from the excessive inflation of air that passed through the gastrointestinal tract to the sigmoid colon, causing the increased intraluminal pressure, and then prompting a healed asymptomatic diverticulitis leak again.

  8. Effect of occlusion on joint sounds in asymptomatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alício Rosalino; Zuim, Paulo R Junqueira; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Paulo H; Ribeiro, Adriana Barbosa; Pita, Murillo Sucena; Flacón-Antenucci, Rosse M

    2008-01-01

    Occlusion is a predisposing factor for Temporomandibular Dysfunctions (TMD) of the joint, whose first sign and/or symptom is usually joint sound. To verify the effect of occlusion on joint sounds, temporomandibular joints (TMJ) were analyzed in 78 asymptomatic individuals with various dental conditions. Electrosonography was used to determine the intensity of the vibration in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) on opening and closing the mouth. Transducers (piezoelectric accelerometer) were placed on the right and left joints. Results were tabled and analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (a=0.05). It was concluded that TMJ vibration in partly edentulous individuals from Kennedy classes I, II and III is statistically higher than in dentate and fully edentulous subjects.

  9. Management of asymptomatic gene carriers of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hartmut H-J; Barroso, Fabio; González-Duarte, Alejandra; Conceição, Isabel; Obici, Laura; Keohane, Denis; Amass, Leslie

    2016-09-01

    Transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) is a rare, severe, and irreversible, adult-onset, hereditary disorder caused by autosomal-dominant mutations in the TTR gene that increase the intrinsic propensity of transthyretin protein to misfold and deposit systemically as insoluble amyloid fibrils in nerve tissues, the heart, and other organs. TTR-FAP is characterized by relentless, progressively debilitating polyneuropathy, and leads to death, on average, within 10 years of symptom onset without treatment. With increased availability of disease-modifying treatment options for a wider spectrum of patients with TTR-FAP, timely detection of the disease may offer substantial clinical benefits. This review discusses mutation-specific predictive genetic testing in first-degree relatives of index patients diagnosed with TTR-FAP and the structured clinical follow-up of asymptomatic gene carriers for prompt diagnosis and early therapeutic intervention before accumulation of substantial damage. Muscle Nerve 54: 353-360, 2016.

  10. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiq S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid carcinoma is rare comprising 1% of all malignancies and commonly presents as a neck lump. Papillary thyroid carcinoma unlike follicular thyroid carcinoma tends not to metastasise to distant sites.We present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a solitary asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases and highlight current management of bone metastases. A 59-year old female was found on abdominal computerised tomography to have an incidental finding of a 4.5 cm soft tissue mass in the right iliac bone. Biopsy of the lesion confirmed metastatic thyroid carcinoma. There was no history of a neck lump, head and neck examination was normal. Further imaging confirmed focal activity in the right lobe of the thyroid. A total thyroidectomy and level VI neck dissection was performed and histology confirmed follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.Early detection of bone metastases have been shown to improve prognosis and thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a potential primary malignancy.

  11. Elevated creatine kinase and transaminases in asymptomatic SBMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Eric J; Klein, Christopher J

    2007-02-01

    X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA or Kennedy's disease) has a variable prognosis. Most male carriers are affected by their fourth or fifth decade of life, while some remain asymptomatic lifelong. Elevations of serum creatine kinase are well known to occur in clinically manifesting SBMA patients. Elevations prior to the onset of the clinical syndrome have not been reported. Here we report two cases of SBMA presenting with 'idiopathic' elevations of serum transaminases and creatine kinase a decade in advance of their symptomatic onset. These cases emphasize the need to consider SBMA and genetic testing for the androgen receptor trinucleotide CAG expansion in males otherwise healthy with 'idiopathic' elevated creatinine kinase.

  12. Asymptomatic brain tumor detected at brain check-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onizuka, Masanari; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Shibayama, Akira; Hiura, Tsuyoshi; Horie, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Hisaya [Sankoukai Miyazaki Hospital, Isahaya, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Brain check-up was performed in 4000 healthy subjects who underwent medical and radiological examinations for possible brain diseases in our hospital from April 1996 to March 2000. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 11 brain tumors which consisted of six meningiomas, three pituitary adenomas, one astrocytoma, and one epidermoid cyst. The detection rate of incidental brain tumor in our hospital was 0.3%. Nine patients underwent surgery, with one case of morbidity due to postoperative transient oculomotor nerve paresis. The widespread use of brain check-up may increasingly detect asymptomatic brain tumors. Surgical indications for such lesions remain unclear, and the strategy for treatment should be determined with consideration of the patient's wishes. (author)

  13. Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel G; Gordin, Fred

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data from randomized trials are lacking on the benefits and risks of initiating antiretroviral therapy in patients with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have a CD4+ count of more than 350 cells per cubic millimeter. METHODS: We randomly assigned HIV...... entry, the median HIV viral load was 12,759 copies per milliliter, and the median CD4+ count was 651 cells per cubic millimeter. On May 15, 2015, on the basis of an interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board determined that the study question had been answered and recommended that patients...... per cubic millimeter provided net benefits over starting such therapy in patients after the CD4+ count had declined to 350 cells per cubic millimeter. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; START ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00867048.)....

  14. Timing of testing and treatment for asymptomatic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kırkızlar, Eser [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Faissol, Daniel M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Griffin, Paul M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Swann, Julie L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Many papers in the medical literature analyze the cost-effectiveness of screening for diseases by comparing a limited number of a priori testing policies under estimated problem parameters. However, this may be insufficient to determine the best timing of the tests or incorporate changes over time. In this paper, we develop and solve a Markov Decision Process (MDP) model for a simple class of asymptomatic diseases in order to provide the building blocks for analysis of a more general class of diseases. We provide a computationally efficient method for determining a cost-effective dynamic intervention strategy that takes into account (i) the results of the previous test for each individual and (ii) the change in the individual’s behavior based on awareness of the disease. We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by applying the results to screening decisions for Hepatitis C (HCV) using medical data, and compare our findings to current HCV screening recommendations.

  15. Intramural leiomyomas of the bladder in asymptomatic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto I. Lopes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Bladder leiomyomas are rare benign mesenchymal tumors, which account for less than 0.43% of all bladder tumors with approximately 200 cases described in the literature. These tumors may be classified into 3 different locations: endovesical, intramural and extravesical. Endovesical is the most common form, accounting for 63-86% of the cases, while intramural occurs in 3-7% and extravesical in 11-30%. The intramural form, especially small tumors, may not produce symptoms hardening detection. We report two cases of intramural bladder leiomyomas in asymptomatic men observed incidentally by transabdominal ultrasonography during the follow-up of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We discuss the diagnosis and management of these lesions.

  16. Asymptomatic giant coronary aneurysm in an adolescent with Behcet's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Behcet's is an idiopathic multi-organ syndrome, which may have onset during childhood. Vascular involvement is uncommon, with rarely reported coronary aneurysm formation. We present a case report of a teenager girl who developed recalcitrant life-threatening Behcet's vasculitis, involving both small and large venous and arterial systems including a giant coronary aneurysm. Case report De-identified data were collected retrospectively in case report format. Although our sixteen year old female with Behcet's vasculitis had resolution of many arterial aneurysms, she had persistent venous thrombosis of large vessels, as well as persistent, giant arterial aneurysms requiring intra-arterial coiling of a lumbar artery and coronary bypass grafting despite intensive immunosuppression including glucocorticoids, cyclophosphamide, infliximab, methotrexate, azathioprine and intravenous immunoglobulin. Conclusions Vascular manifestations may be seen in Behcet's syndrome, including asymptomatic coronary aneurysm, which may be refractory to immunosuppression and ultimately require surgical intervention. Increased awareness is essential for prompt diagnosis and management.

  17. Asymptomatic ileal adenocarcinoma in the setting of undiagnosed Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vikram B Reddy; Harold Aslanian; Namsoo Suh; Walter E Longo

    2008-01-01

    A 53-year old previously healthy male underwent a screening colonoscopy for detection of a potential colorectal neoplasm. The terminal ileum was intubated and a mass was noted. Examination of the colon was normal. The biopsy of the ileal mass was consistent with an adenocarcinoma arising from the terminal ileum. His father who had never been previously ill from gastrointestinal disease died of natural causes,but was found to have Crohn's disease postmortem.The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and aright hemicolectomy with a 30 cm section of terminal ileum in continuity. Findings were consistent with ileal adenocarcinoma in the setting of Crohn's disease. Thepatient made an uneventful recovery. The pathology was stage 1 adenocarcinoma. This is a unique case in that on a screening colonoscopy, a favorable ileal adenocarcinoma was discovered in the setting of asymptomatic, undiagnosed ileal Crohn's disease in a patient whose father had Crohn's disease diagnosed postmortem.

  18. Asymptomatic Cholecystocolonic Fistula: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Antonacci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystocolonic fistulas (CCF are rare complications of gallstones with a variable clinical presentation. Despite modern diagnostic tools, cholecystocolonic fistulas are often asymptomatic and it is difficult to diagnose them preoperatively. Biliary-enteric fistulae have been found in 0.9% of patients undergoing biliary tract surgery. The most common site of communication of the fistula is the cholecystoduodenal (70%, followed by the cholecystocolic (10–20%, and the least common is the cholecystogastric fistula. Herein, we report a case of female patient with multiple episodes of acute recurrent cholangitis due to common bile duct and gallbladder stones in which preoperative imaging studies were negative for cholecystocolonic fistula that was incidentally discovered and treated during surgery and was appropriately treated. A review of the literature is reported too.

  19. Expression of six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate in prostate cancer and its correlation with prostate specific antigen%前列腺跨膜上皮抗原在前列腺癌组织中的表达及与PSA的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辽源; 杨明; 张海滨; 高新; 徐文峰; 吴振权; 沈周俊

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨前列腺癌组织中前列腺跨膜上皮抗原(STEAP)表达及与前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)的关系.方法 采用免疫组织化学染色法检测65例前列腺癌(其中T1 9例、T2 14例、T317例、T4 25例,高分化癌37例、中分化癌12例、低分化癌16例)组织标本中STEAP的表达,引入阳性灰度值概念判定染色强度;分析STEAP表达水平与肿瘤分期、分级、血清PSA及游离PSA/总PSA(f/t PSA)比值的关系.结果 65例患者血清PSA值为(27.65±8.34)ng/ml,f/t PSA为0.15±0.04.STEAP阳性表达63例,其中T1 7例、T2 14例、T3 17例、T4 25例,高分化癌37例、中分化癌11例、低分化癌15例.T1、T2、T3、T4前列腺癌组织中STEAP表达平均阳性灰度值(Gs)分别为26.8%、45.6%、62.3%、76.5%,高、中、低分化癌组织中STEAP表达平均Gs分别为71.2%、52.8%、34.4%.STEAP表达与肿瘤分期呈正相关(r=0.67,P0.05),而与f/t PSA比值呈负相关(r=-0.83,P0.05).Conclusion STEAP expression may act as one of new markers to the invasion degree and pathological grade of prostate cancer.

  20. Effectiveness diagnostic of prostate specific antigen (P.S.A.) radioimmunoassay and the P.S.A. density to assess prostatic state of Ivorian patients; Efficacite diagnostique du dosage radio-isotopique et de la densite de l'antigene specifique de la prostate (P.S.A.) dans le bilan prostatique des sujets ivoiriens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboukoua-Kouassi, N.; Kouame-Koutouan, A.; Zunon-Kipre, E.; Achy, O.B.; Ndrin, N.K. [Cocody Univ., UFR sciences Medicales (SMA), Service de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Abidjan (Cote d' Ivoire); Achy, O.B.; Gnagne, Y.M. [Cocody Univ., Service d' Urologie, UFR/SMA, Abidjan (Cote d' Ivoire)

    2009-10-15

    By this first assay realized during two years, the authors wanted to assess the diagnostic performances of radioimmunoassay P.S.A., still unknown by Ivorian prescribers. It was about 78 patients who presented prostatic affections confirmed by histology. The dosages showed that, in prostate adenoma, a P.S.A. level was 9.5 ng/ml with P.S.A. density (P.S.A.D.) at 0.3. In prostate cancer, a P.S.A. level at 64.9 ng/ml with P.S.A.D. at 1.68. P.S.A. sensibility was good (91%) in spite of the value used, its specificity was about 94% for a level of 20 ng/ml. The predictive positive value was excellent with 20 ng/ml (95%). The risk to have prostate cancer with P.S.A. level of 10 ng/ml was 73.8% when rectal route (R.R.) was abnormal. The risk was low to 14.28% when the R.R. was normal. The radioimmunoassay of P.S.A. and P.S.A.D. rate improved significantly diagnostic indications in prostatic affections. Consequently, it must form part of first-line examination to the health assessment of old patients for a better prostatic lesions management. (authors)

  1. Prevalence of asymptomatic coronary disease in fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassagnes, Lucie; Gaillard, Vianney [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Monge, Emmanuel [Department of Pulmonology, Center of Competence for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Faivre, Jean-Baptiste [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Delhaye, Cédric [Department of Cardiology, Cardiology Hospital, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Molinari, Francesco [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Petyt, Grégory; Hossein-Foucher, Claude [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Salengro, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Wallaert, Benoit [Department of Pulmonology, Center of Competence for Rare Pulmonary Diseases, Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Duhamel, Alain [Department of Medical Statistics (EA 2694), Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Remy, Jacques [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Remy-Jardin, Martine, E-mail: martine.remy@chru-lille.fr [Department of Thoracic Imaging (EA 2694), Hospital Calmette, CHRU and Univ Lille 2 Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Because of growing body of interest on the association between fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (f-IIP) and ischaemic heart disease, we initiated this prospective study to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with f-IIP. Methods: Forty-two patients with f-IIP underwent noninvasive screening for CAD that included (a) a chest CT examination enabling calculation of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, then depiction of coronary artery stenosis; and (b) stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). Patients with significant coronary abnormalities, defined by a CAC score >400 or coronary artery stenosis >50% at CT and/or perfusion defect >5% at MPS, were referred to the cardiologist. Coronary angiography was indicated in presence of a perfusion defect >10% at MPS or significant left main or proximal left anterior descending stenosis whatever MPS findings. Results: Combining CT and MPS, significant abnormalities were detected in 32/42 patients (76%). The cardiologist: (a) did not consider further investigation in 21 patients (CT abnormalities but no ischaemia at MPS: 12/21; false-positive findings at MPS: 3/21; poor respiratory condition: 6/21); (b) proceeded to coronary angiography in 11 patients which confirmed significant stenoses in 5 patients (5/42; 12%). In the worst-case-scenario (i.e., inclusion of 6 patients with significant coronary artery abnormalities who were not investigated due to poor respiratory condition), the prevalence of CAD reached 26% (11/42). Conclusion: In the studied population of patients with f-IIP, asymptomatic CAD ranged between 12% and 26%.

  2. Echocardiographic findings in asymptomatic systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdel GaffarA; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz A; ALjahlan, Mohammad A; Al-Homood, Ibrahim A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to use transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) imaging methods to identify cardiac dysfunction in asymptomatic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and to determine the association between echocardiographic findings and serology. This is a prospective cross-sectional study where 50 patients with confirmed diagnoses of SLE were recruited from rheumatology outpatient clinics. Clinical and serological evaluation to confirm the diagnosis of lupus was done in all patients. Fifty SLE patients, 46 (92%) females and 4 (8%) males, were recruited. Anti-double-stranded DNA (Anti-dsDNA), anticardiolipin, lupus anticoagulant, and anti-β2-glycoproteins were positive in 52.1, 32.6, 13.3, and 15.6%, respectively. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed mitral regurgitation in 16 patients (32%), pericardial effusion in16 patients (32%), aortic regurgitation in five patients (10%), and tricuspid regurgitation in 10 patients (20%). Eleven patients had left ventricular hypertrophy (22%), and eight patients had ventricular systolic dysfunction (16%). Only four patients had ventricular diastolic dysfunction (8%). A significant association between mitral and tricuspid valve regurgitation and positive anti-dsDNA (p lupus anticoagulant, and anti-β 2 glycoprotein antibodies were also associated with mitral valve regurgitation (p values 0.044, 0.006, and 0.023), respectively. Active disease assessed by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) was found to be associated with increased risk of mitral valvular leaflet thickening (p value 0.028). Performing regular transthoracic echocardiogram in asymptomatic SLE patients is important for early detection and appropriate treatment of cardiac lesions. Clinically quiescent but serologically active disease and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies were associated with structural heart abnormalities.

  3. Asymptomatic Meckel′s diverticulum in adults: Is diverticulectomy indicated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauro Leo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of the Meckel′s diverticulum (MD and to study its clinical profile and surgical outcome, as well as to check whether diverticulectomy is indicated for asymptomatic MD in adults. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of 1332 patients who were operated upon for acute abdomen during the period August 1999 to July 2009 in a single surgical unit. Preoperative abdominal ultrasonography and plain x-ray abdomen (erect were done depending on the necessity. These patients were subjected to laparotomy/ appendicectomy depending on the case. A search for MD was done, and if found, surgical resection and analysis by histopathological confirmation of the resected MD were performed. Results: During the operation, this study detected 15 (1.13% patients with MD. In none of these cases, preoperative diagnosis of Meckel′s diverticulitis was made. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 68 years (mean age, 32.9 years. Out of 15 patients, 9 (60% were males; 6 (40% were females. Seven (46.7% cases were symptomatic due to MD and 8 (53.3% were asymptomatic. One patient presented with hematochezia; 2, with intestinal obstruction due to gangrene of the MD; and 4, with Meckel′s diverticulitis. One patient had duplication of (double Meckel′s diverticulum without any inflammation in both the diverticulae. Histopathological examination of these specimens confirmed 4 cases with inflammation; 2, with gangrene; and 1, with ulcerated gastric mucosa in the MD. Among these, in 2 (13.3% cases there was heterotopic epithelium (ulcerated gastric mucosa- 1, colonic mucosa- 1. Conclusion: We recommend that a search for MD in every case of appendicectomy/ laparotomy done for acute abdomen should be conducted, and if found, Meckel′s diverticulectomy or resection should be performed to avoid secondary complications arising from it.

  4. Screening and Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Sargsyan, Ashot; Garcia, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The true risk for renal stone formation in astronauts due to the space flight environment is unknown. Proper management of this condition is crucial to mitigate health and mission risks. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic electronic medical record and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health databases were reviewed. An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was also done. This work was used to develop a screening and management protocol for renal stones in astronauts that is relevant to the spaceflight operational environment. In the proposed guidelines all astronauts receive a yearly screening and post-flight renal ultrasound using a novel ultrasound protocol. The ultrasound protocol uses a combination of factors, including: size, position, shadow, twinkle and dispersion properties to confirm the presence of a renal calcification. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by a low-dose renal computed tomography scan and urologic consult. Other specific guidelines were also created. A small asymptomatic renal stone within the renal collecting system may become symptomatic at any time, and therefore affect launch and flight schedules, or cause incapacitation during a mission. Astronauts in need of definitive care can be evacuated from the International Space Station, but for deep space missions evacuation is impossible. The new screening and management algorithm has been implemented and the initial round of screening ultrasounds is under way. Data from these exams will better define the incidence of renal stones in U.S. astronauts, and will be used to inform risk mitigation for both short and long duration spaceflights.

  5. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in asymptomatic Brazilian adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raquel Rocha; Helma Pinchemel Cotrim; Almir Galv(a)o Vieira Bitencourt; Daniel Batista Valente Barbosa; Adméia Souza Santos; Alessandro de Moura Almeida; Bruno Cunha; Isabel Guimar(a)es

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among asymptomatic Brazilian adolescents.METHODS: Transversal observational study included asymptomatic adolescents with central obesity from private and public schools in Salvador-Bahia, northeastern Brazil. The children answered a questionnaire that included age, gender, race, and medical history, and were submitted to a complete physical exam and abdominal ultrasound. Biochemical exams included: ALT, AST, GGT,C reactive protein (CRP), fasting glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides. Criteria for NAFLD included: the presence of steatosis in ultrasound and/or high level of ALT, negative or occasional historic of intake of alcohol (≤ 140 g/wk), negative investigation for hepatitis A, B, C,auto-immune hepatitis, Wilson disease and hemochromatosis.RESULTS: From October, 2005 to October, 2006, the study included 1801 subjects between 11 and 18 years of age and a mean age of 13.7±2.0 years.One hundred ninety-nine had central obesity. The prevalence of NAFLD was 2.3%, most of whom were male and white. Insulin resistance (IR) was observed in 22.9% of them and had positive correlations with ALT and GGT ( P < 0.05). Elevated CRP was observed in 6.9% of the cases; however, it was not associated with WC,IR or liver enzymes.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of NAFLD in Brazilian adolescents was low. The ethnicity may have influence this frequency in the population studied, which had a large proportion of African descendents.

  6. Uncovering sensory axonal dysfunction in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Chang, Tsui-San; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated sensory and motor nerve excitability properties to elucidate the development of diabetic neuropathy. A total of 109 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited, and 106 were analyzed. According to neuropathy severity, patients were categorized into G0, G1, and G2+3 groups using the total neuropathy score-reduced (TNSr). Patients in the G0 group were asymptomatic and had a TNSr score of 0. Sensory and motor nerve excitability data from diabetic patients were compared with data from 33 healthy controls. Clinical assessment, nerve conduction studies, and sensory and motor nerve excitability testing data were analyzed to determine axonal dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. In the G0 group, sensory excitability testing revealed increased stimulus for the 50% sensory nerve action potential (P<0.05), shortened strength-duration time constant (P<0.01), increased superexcitability (P<0.01), decreased subexcitability (P<0.05), decreased accommodation to depolarizing current (P<0.01), and a trend of decreased accommodation to hyperpolarizing current in threshold electrotonus. All the changes progressed into G1 (TNSr 1–8) and G2+3 (TNSr 9–24) groups. In contrast, motor excitability only had significantly increased stimulus for the 50% compound motor nerve action potential (P<0.01) in the G0 group. This study revealed that the development of axonal dysfunction in sensory axons occurred prior to and in a different fashion from motor axons. Additionally, sensory nerve excitability tests can detect axonal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. These insights further our understanding of diabetic neuropathy and enable the early detection of sensory axonal abnormalities, which may provide a basis for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches. PMID:28182728

  7. Identification of immunogenic Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi antigens expressed in chronic biliary carriers of S. Typhi in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richelle C Charles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi can colonize and persist in the biliary tract of infected individuals, resulting in a state of asymptomatic chronic carriage. Chronic carriers may act as persistent reservoirs of infection within a community and may introduce infection to susceptible individuals and new communities. Little is known about the interaction between the host and pathogen in the biliary tract of chronic carriers, and there is currently no reliable diagnostic assay to identify asymptomatic S. Typhi carriage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study host-pathogen interactions in the biliary tract during S. Typhi carriage, we applied an immunoscreening technique called in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT, to identify potential biomarkers unique to carriers. IVIAT identifies humorally immunogenic bacterial antigens expressed uniquely in the in vivo environment, and we hypothesized that S. Typhi surviving in the biliary tract of humans may express a distinct antigenic profile. Thirteen S. Typhi antigens that were immunoreactive in carriers, but not in healthy individuals from a typhoid endemic area, were identified. The identified antigens included a number of putative membrane proteins, lipoproteins, and hemolysin-related proteins. YncE (STY1479, an uncharacterized protein with an ATP-binding motif, gave prominent responses in our screen. The response to YncE in patients whose biliary tract contained S. Typhi was compared to responses in patients whose biliary tract did not contain S. Typhi, patients with acute typhoid fever, and healthy controls residing in a typhoid endemic area. Seven of 10 (70% chronic carriers, 0 of 8 bile culture-negative controls (0%, 0 of 8 healthy Bangladeshis (0%, and 1 of 8 (12.5% Bangladeshis with acute typhoid fever had detectable anti-YncE IgG in blood. IgA responses were also present. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Further evaluation of YncE and other antigens identified by IVIAT could lead to

  8. Single-centre experience with mitral valve repair in asymptomatic patients with severe mitral valve regurgitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. van Leeuwen (Wouter); S.J. Head (Stuart); L.E. de Groot-de Laat (Lotte); M.L. Geleijnse (Marcel); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); L.A. van Herwerden (Lex); A.P. Kappetein (Arie Pieter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: Guidelines recommend surgical mitral valve repair in selected patients with asymptomatic severe mitral valve regurgitation (MR), but the role of repair remains a matter of debate. Survival analyses of operated asymptomatic patients have been reported, but long-term haemodynam

  9. Insight into alteration of gut microbiota in Clostridium difficile infection and asymptomatic C. difficile colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihua; Dong, Danfeng; Jiang, Cen; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuefeng; Peng, Yibing

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium difficile is well recognized as the common pathogen of nosocomial diarrhea, meanwhile, asymptomatic colonization with C. difficile in part of the population has also drawn public attention. Although gut microbiota is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI), whether there is any alteration of gut microbial composition in asymptomatic C. difficile carriers hasn't been clearly described. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in gut microbiome among CDI patients, asymptomatic C. difficile carriers and healthy individuals. We performed fecal microbiota analysis on the samples of eight CDI patients, eight asymptomatic C. difficile carriers and nine healthy subjects using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers showed reduced microbial richness and diversity compared with healthy subjects, accompanied with a paucity of phylum Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes as well as an overabundance of Proteobacteria. Some normally commensal bacteria, especially butyrate producers, were significantly depleted in CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers. Furthermore, the differences observed in microbial community structure between CDI patients and asymptomatic carriers suggested that the gut microbiota may be a potential factor of disease state for CDI. Our study demonstrates the characterization and diversity of gut microbiota in CDI and asymptomatic C. difficile colonization, which will provide new ideas for surveillance of the disease state and development of microbiota-targeted agents for CDI prevention and treatment.

  10. Transcriptomics and adaptive genomics of the asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Seshasayee, Aswin S.; Ussery, David

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains are the major cause of urinary tract infections in humans. Such strains can be divided into virulent, UPEC strains causing symptomatic infections, and asymptomatic, commensal-like strains causing asymptomatic bacteriuria, ABU. The best-characterized ABU strain is strain....... Strain 83972 is a deconstructed pathogen rather than a commensal strain that has acquired fitness properties....

  11. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections in women : focus on diabetes mellitus and pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    There is a shortage of evidence for clinical guidelines on diagnosis and management of both asymptomatic bacteriuria (the presence of bacteria in urine without symptoms of an infection) and urinary tract infections in women with diabetes and pregnant women. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract

  12. Infrequency of asymptomatic malaria in an endemic area in Amazonas, Brazil

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    Aluizio Prata

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A malaria survey was conducted in an area of high transmission (Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia and its clinical significance. Most of the people surveyed were immigrants who had lived in the endemic area 2 days, 4 had only gametocytes, 1 had taken inadequate anti-malarial treatment, 3 were under treatment and 2 moved. Six asymptomatic patients denied the use of anti-malarial drugs and they developed malaria 3-6 days after the initial parasitological diagnosis. The final patient remained asymptomatic during the 7 day observation period. He had a history of > 40 malaria attacks and denied the use of antimalarial treatment. With the exception of the latter all of the other asymptomatic patients, were either in the incubation period or had been treated It is concluded that asymptomatic malaria is rare in the Costa Marques area and that it is necessary to treat all individuals with plasmodial parasitemia.

  13. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

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    Krishnadas DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Kolaseri Krishnadas, Fanqi Bai, Kenneth G Lucas Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The identification of cancer testis (CT antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1, melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3, and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1 in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy. Keywords: cancer testis antigens, immunotherapy, vaccine

  14. Exogenous antigen targeted to FcgammaRI on myeloid cells is presented in association with MHC class I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, P K; Tsang, K Y; Goldstein, J; Correale, P; Jarry, T M; Schlom, J; Guyre, P M; Ernstoff, M S; Fanger, M W

    2001-02-01

    Vaccine therapy is attractive for prostate cancer patients because the tumor is slow growing (allowing time to augment host responses) and occurs in an older population less likely to tolerate more toxic treatments. We have constructed an expression vector based on a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that targets the high affinity receptor for IgG (FcgammaRI, CD64) which is exclusively expressed on myeloid cells including dendritic cells (DC). The heavy chain of mAb H22 CH2 and CH3 domains were removed and replaced with the gene for prostate specific antigen (PSA). Using that vector, we have constructed and purified FPH22.PSA, a fusion protein that targets PSA to FcgammaRI on antigen presenting cells (APC). This fusion protein has an apparent molecular mass of 80-83 kDa, binds to FcgammaRI with high affinity and expresses PSA. We demonstrate that FPH22.PSA targeted PSA was internalized and processed by the human myeloid THP-1 cell line resulting in presentation of MHC class I-associated PSA peptides and lysis of THP-1 by PSA-specific human CTL. Moreover, pretreatment of THP-1 cells with antibodies to block either FcgammaRI or MHC class I, blocked lysis indicating that targeting to FcgammaRI results in presentation of exogenous antigen on MHC class I molecules. These data demonstrate that FPH22.PSA was processed in such a manner by the myeloid cell line to allow for presentation of immunodominant peptides in MHC class I molecules and suggests that uptake of antigen via FcgammaRI results in cross-priming.

  15. Canine distemper virus detection in asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Del Puerto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR revealed canine distemper virus presence in peripheral blood samples from asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs. Samples from eleven domestic dogs with no signs of canine distemper and not vaccinated at the month of collection were used. Canine distemper virus vaccine samples in VERO cells were used as positive controls. RNA was isolated with Trizol®, and treated with a TURBO DNA-free kit. Primers were designed for canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein coding region fragment amplification (84 bp. Canine b-actin (93 bp was utilized as the endogenous control for normalization. Quantitative results of real time PCR generated by ABI Prism 7000 SDS Software showed that 54.5% of dogs with asymptomatic canine distemper were positive for canine distemper virus. Dissociation curves confirmed the specificity of the real time PCR fragments. This technique could detect even a few copies of viral RNA and identificate subclinically infected dogs providing accurate diagnosis of this disease at an early stage.A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR em tempo real revelou a presença do vírus da cinomose canina em amostra de sangue de cães assintomáticos e não vacinados. Amostra de onze cães domésticos sem nenhum sinal clínico de cinomose e que não foram vacinados no mês da coleta de sangue foram utilizados para análise. Amostra vacinal do vírus da cinomose canina em células VERO foi utilizada como controle positivo. O RNA total foi isolado utilizando-se Trizol®, e tratadas com o Kit TURBO DNA-free. Os iniciadores foram desenhados para amplificar a região do nucleocapsídeo viral com 319pb e 84pb para a PCR convencional e PCR em tempo real, respectivamente. O fragmento alvo da b-actina canina com 93pb foi utilizado como controle endógeno e normalizador. Resultados quantitativos da PCR em tempo real gerados pelo programa ABI Prism 7000 SDS demonstraram que 54,5% dos cães assintom

  16. Atrophy rates in asymptomatic amyloidosis: implications for Alzheimer prevention trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Abigail Andrews

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in designing therapeutic studies of individuals at risk of Alzheimer disease (AD to prevent the onset of symptoms. Cortical β-amyloid plaques, the first stage of AD pathology, can be detected in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET, and several studies have shown that ~1/3 of healthy elderly have significant β-amyloid deposition. Here we assessed whether asymptomatic amyloid-PET-positive controls have increased rates of brain atrophy, which could be harnessed as an outcome measure for AD prevention trials. We assessed 66 control subjects (age = 73.5±7.3 yrs; MMSE = 29±1.3 from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers & Lifestyle study who had a baseline Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB PET scan and two 3T MRI scans ~18-months apart. We calculated PET standard uptake value ratios (SUVR, and classified individuals as amyloid-positive/negative. Baseline and 18-month MRI scans were registered, and brain, hippocampal, and ventricular volumes and annualized volume changes calculated. Increasing baseline PiB-PET measures of β-amyloid load correlated with hippocampal atrophy rate independent of age (p = 0.014. Twenty-two (1/3 were PiB-positive (SUVR>1.40, the remaining 44 PiB-negative (SUVR≤1.31. Compared to PiB-negatives, PiB-positive individuals were older (76.8±7.5 vs. 71.7±7.5, p<0.05 and more were APOE4 positive (63.6% vs. 19.2%, p<0.01 but there were no differences in baseline brain, ventricle or hippocampal volumes, either with or without correction for total intracranial volume, once age and gender were accounted for. The PiB-positive group had greater total hippocampal loss (0.06±0.08 vs. 0.02±0.05 ml/yr, p = 0.02, independent of age and gender, with non-significantly higher rates of whole brain (7.1±9.4 vs. 4.7±5.5 ml/yr and ventricular (2.0±3.0 vs. 1.1±1.0 ml/yr change. Based on the observed effect size, recruiting 384 (95%CI 195-1080 amyloid-positive subjects/arm will provide 80% power to detect 25

  17. Dynamic magnetic resonance defecography in 10 asymptomatic volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas G Schreyer; Christian Paetzel; Alois Fürst; Lena M Dendl; Elisabeth Hutzel; René Müller-Wille; Philipp Wiggermann

    2012-01-01

    AIM:Evaluation of the wide range of normal findings in asymptomatic women undergoing dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) defecography.METHODS:MR defecography of 10 healthy female volunteers (median age:31 years) without previous pregnancies or history of surgery were evaluated.The rectum was filled with 180 mL gadolinium ultrasound gel mixture.MR defecography was performed in the supine position.The pelvic floor was visualized with a dynamic T2-weighted sagittal plane where all relevant pelvic floor organs were acquired during defecation.The volunteers were instructed to relax and then to perform straining maneuvers to empty the rectum.The pubococcygeal line (PCGL) was used as the line of reference.The movement of pelvic floor organs was measured as the vertical distance to this reference line.Data were recorded in the resting position as well as during the defecation process with maximal straining.Examinations were performed and evaluated by two experienced abdominal radiologists without knowledge of patient history.RESULTS:Average position of the anorectal junction was located at-5.3 mm at rest and-29.9 mm during straining.The anorectal angle widened significantly from 93° at rest to 109° during defecation.A rectocele was diagnosed in eight out of 10 volunteers showing an average diameter of 25.9 mm.The bladder base was located at a position of +23 mm at rest and descended to-8.1 mm during defecation in relation to the PCGL.The bladder base moved below the PCGL in six out of 10 volunteers,which was formally defined as a cystocele.The uterocervical junction was located at an average level of +43.1 mm at rest and at +7.9 mm during straining.The uterocervical junction of three volunteers fell below the PCGL; described formally as uterocervical prolapse.CONCLUSION:Based on the range of standard values in asymptomatic volunteers,MR defecography values for pathological changes have to be re-evaluated.

  18. 无症状炎症性前列腺炎与血清 PSA 水平的关系--防城港地区男性健康大型横断面调查%The relationship between asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis and serum PSA level-A large prevalence survey of Fangchenggang area male health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志甫; 吴春磊; 陆铮; 莫曾南

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis (AIP)and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Methods Data collection was conducted in the Medical Examination Centre of Fangchenggang First People's Hospital.During the physical examination,trained physi-cians administered a standard questionnaire,basic data including National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostati-tis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI),demographic information (age,education,occupation,etc),history of dis-ease,and lifestyle risk factors (smoking,alcohol consumption,and physical activity),and health status were collected using a standardized questionnaire.A trained profession conducted the anthtopometric parameters measurements for the participants.8 h-fasting vein blood was drawn and then the biochemical indexes [PSA, triglyceride (TG),high density cholesterol-cholesterol (HDL-C),and fasting blood glucose]were meas-ured.The expressed prostatic secretions (EPS)were collected and then were smeared on a glass slide for counting the mean WBC count of EPS.According to the NIH-CPSI score,and presence of inflammation,the participants were divided into a NIH-IV prostatitis group and a healthy group. Results The mean value of serum PSA in the healthy group and the NIH-IV prostatitis group were 0.91 ng/ml and 1.27 ng/ml,the standard deviation was 0.79 ng/ml,and 1.52 ng/ml,there were statistically significant differences (P <0.001).In NIH-IV prostatitis group,the scores of age,TG,diastolic blood pressure (DBP),systolic blood pressure (SBP),hypertension,education status,physical activity were higher than those in the healthy group. NIH-IV prostatitis (WBC≥3+)group compared to healthy group,along with the elevated PSA the OR value was also increased,the OR value was 1.078,3.589,4.406,respectively.In PSAQ4,with the elevation of in-flammation the OR value also increased.Respectively in age,education status,dyslipidemia,diabetes,high blood pressure

  19. Recovery ofCyclospora cayetanensis among asymptomatic rural Thai schoolchildren

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K Thima; H Mori; R Praevanit; S Mongkhonmu; J Waikagul; D Watthanakulpanich

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To obtain the prevalence with clinical symptoms ofCyclospora cayetanensis (C. cayetanensis), a coccidian protozoan parasite, inThailand which is the cause of an intestinal infection characterized by sporadic-to-frequent explosive diarrhea.Methods:In a field survey conducted by theFaculty ofTropicalMedicine,MahidolUniversity, as part of the existing parasite-control program, a total of2540 faecal samples from villagers inNanProvince, Thailand, were collected and examined to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of parasitic infections.Results:Twelve cases ofC. cayetanensis infection were found during faecal examination of schoolchildren aged5-12 years.None exhibited obvious clinical symptoms, especially evidence of diarrhea;5 of12 had loose faeces, one reported frequent symptoms of abdominal discomfort, and another had pale conjunctiva with low hematocrit.The children were generally asymptomatic.Conclusions:This finding confirms a public-health issue with potentially serious consequences whereby children can be exposed to an environment contaminated with food-and water-borne transmitted oocysts, and can hence become infected withC. cayetanensis.

  20. Brain Abscesses Associated with Asymptomatic Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Taek-Kyun; Park, Yong-sook; Kwon, Jeong-taik

    2017-01-01

    Brain abscess commonly occurs secondary to an adjacent infection (mostly in the middle ear or paranasal sinuses) or due to hematogenous spread from a distant infection or trauma. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are abnormal direct communications between the pulmonary artery and vein. We present two cases of brain abscess associated with asymptomatic pulmonary AVF. A 65-year-old woman was admitted with a headache and cognitive impairment that aggravated 10 days prior. An magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a brain abscess with severe edema in the right frontal lobe. We performed a craniotomy and abscess removal. Bacteriological culture proved negative. Her chest computed tomography (CT) showed multiple AVFs. Therapeutic embolization of multiple pulmonary AVFs was performed and antibiotics were administered for 8 weeks. A 45-year-old woman presented with a 7-day history of progressive left hemiparesis. She had no remarkable past medical history or family history. On admission, blood examination showed a white blood cell count of 6290 cells/uL and a high sensitive C-reactive protein of 2.62 mg/L. CT and MR imaging with MR spectroscopy revealed an enhancing lesion involving the right motor and sensory cortex with marked perilesional edema that suggested a brain abscess. A chest CT revealed a pulmonary AVF in the right upper lung. The pulmonary AVF was obliterated with embolization. There needs to consider pulmonary AVF as an etiology of cerebral abscess when routine investigations fail to detect a source. PMID:28061502

  1. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Calderón-Garcidueñas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast density (BD is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate ( and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170, fibroglandular 29% (87, heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17, and dense pattern 8.6% (26. Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117 and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183. Patterns of high breast density (BD (dense + heterogeneously dense were observed in 25.6% (30/117 of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183 of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300. Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300 of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300 of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%, and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%. Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns.

  2. The opioid effects of gluten exorphins: asymptomatic celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruimboom, Leo; de Punder, Karin

    2015-11-24

    Gluten-containing cereals are a main food staple present in the daily human diet, including wheat, barley, and rye. Gluten intake is associated with the development of celiac disease (CD) and related disorders such as diabetes mellitus type I, depression, and schizophrenia. However, until now, there is no consent about the possible deleterious effects of gluten intake because of often failing symptoms even in persons with proven CD. Asymptomatic CD (ACD) is present in the majority of affected patients and is characterized by the absence of classical gluten-intolerance signs, such as diarrhea, bloating, and abdominal pain. Nevertheless, these individuals very often develop diseases that can be related with gluten intake. Gluten can be degraded into several morphine-like substances, named gluten exorphins. These compounds have proven opioid effects and could mask the deleterious effects of gluten protein on gastrointestinal lining and function. Here we describe a putative mechanism, explaining how gluten could "mask" its own toxicity by exorphins that are produced through gluten protein digestion.

  3. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ2) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns. PMID:23346398

  4. EVALUATION OF SPINOPELVIC PARAMETERS IN ASYMPTOMATIC INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiblee S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study aims at evaluation of spinopelvic parameters in an Indian population in a sample composed of asymptomatic individuals. METHODS : 84 healthy adult individuals were evaluated. The exclusion criteria included spinal deformity , spine degenerative or infective condition and improper radiograph study. In each radiograph the sagittal balance and spinopelvic parameters were evaluated , including vertical sagittal axis , sacral slope , pelvic tilt and pelvic incidence. RESULTS : Data obtained in this study were in accordance to International literatures. No significant variation between genders was obtained for various parameters. The mean values of Pelvic Incidence , Sacral Slope and Pelvic Ti lt in healthy Indian Population is 49.4°±7.6° , 37.4°±6.6° and 13.9°±5.8° respectively. CONCLUSION : There were no differences in any radiographic parameter between males and females in the present study. Further , the values obtained a re comparable with the values presented as normal in the literature. The Indian and European populations shows significance in pelvic incidence and sacral slope which were higher in European populations and Indian and Korean population showed significant difference in pelvic til t which was lower in Korean population.

  5. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  6. Asymptomatic leishmaniasis in kala-azar endemic areas of Malda district, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Pabitra; Ganguly, Swagata; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Das, Soumendu Bikash; Kundu, Pratip K.; Guha, Subhasish K.; Ghosh, Tamal K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic leishmaniasis may drive the epidemic and an important challenge to reach the goal of joint Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination initiative taken by three Asian countries. The role of these asymptomatic carriers in disease transmission, prognosis at individual level and rate of transformation to symptomatic VL/Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) needs to be evaluated. Asymptomatic cases were diagnosed by active mass survey in eight tribal villages by detecting antileishmanial antibody using rK39 based rapid diagnostic kits and followed up for three years to observe the pattern of sero-conversion and disease transformation. Out of 2890 total population, 2603 were screened. Antileishmanial antibody was detected in 185 individuals of them 96 had a history of VL/PKDL and 89 without such history. Seventy nine such individuals were classified as asymptomatic leishmaniasis and ten as active VL with a ratio of 7.9:1. Out of 79 asymptomatic cases 2 were lost to follow up as they moved to other places. Amongst asymptomatically infected persons, disease transformation in 8/77 (10.39%) and sero-conversion in 62/77 (80.52%) cases were noted. Seven (9.09%) remained sero-positive even after three years. Progression to clinical disease among asymptomatic individuals was taking place at any time up to three years after the baseline survey. If there are no VL /PKDL cases for two or more years, it does not mean that the area is free from leishmaniasis as symptomatic VL or PKDL may appear even after three years, if there are such asymptomatic cases. So, asymptomatic infected individuals need much attention for VL elimination programme that has been initiated by three adjoining endemic countries. PMID:28187202

  7. Antigenic Variation in Bacterial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Guy H; Bankhead, Troy; Seifert, H Steven

    2016-02-01

    Antigenic variation is a strategy used by a broad diversity of microbial pathogens to persist within the mammalian host. Whereas viruses make use of a minimal proofreading capacity combined with large amounts of progeny to use random mutation for variant generation, antigenically variant bacteria have evolved mechanisms which use a stable genome, which aids in protecting the fitness of the progeny. Here, three well-characterized and highly antigenically variant bacterial pathogens are discussed: Anaplasma, Borrelia, and Neisseria. These three pathogens display a variety of mechanisms used to create the structural and antigenic variation needed for immune escape and long-term persistence. Intrahost antigenic variation is the focus; however, the role of these immune escape mechanisms at the population level is also presented.

  8. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neurath, A.R. (Lindsley F. Kimbell Research Inst., New York, NY); Strick, N.; Baker, L.; Krugman, S.

    1982-07-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid-phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bound adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure.

  9. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, A R; Strick, N; Baker, L; Krugman, S

    1982-01-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bond adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure. Images PMID:6956871

  10. Mortality in asymptomatic vs. symptomatic patients surgically treated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten Riis; Bødtger, Uffe

    , tobacco pack years, or FEV1. Former malignancy was significantly more prevalent among asymptomatic than symptomatic subjects (33 % vs. 11%), with insignificant differences in prevalence of other co-morbidities or in post-surgical TNM (82% vs 85% in stages IA-IIB). 12-months mortality was insignificantly...... higher in asymptomatic than symptomatic subjects (23% vs. 12%), and in patients with former malignancy compared to patients with no former cancer (17% vs. 16%). Discussion: Symptoms at diagnosis per se appear unrelated to mortality in patients with NSCLC referred for surgery. Asymptomatic patients were...

  11. Congenital piriform fossa sinus tract presenting as an asymptomatic neck mass in an infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, David A. [Department of Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 3901 Beaubien Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Adler, Brent H. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Radiological Institute, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Forsythe, Robert C. [Department of Pediatrics, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mutabagani, Khaled; Teich, Steven [Department of Surgery, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A 5-month-old girl with an asymptomatic left-sided neck mass was demonstrated by ultrasound and upper gastrointestinal series (UGI), and confirmed at surgery, to have a congenital piriform fossa sinus tract (CPFST) that communicated with an intrathyroidal cyst. To demonstrate a case of CPFST presenting as an asymptomatic neck mass. Nearly all cases of CPFST present with infection or pain, making this case unique. Case report and review of the literature. CPFST with an associated cyst should be added to the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic cystic neck masses in infants, especially if the cyst is intrathyroidal by ultrasound. (orig.)

  12. The plantar fasciotomy: MR imaging findings in asymptomatic volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J.S.; Ashman, C. [Ohio State Univ. Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); Smith, G.; Kaeding, C. [Ohio State Univ. Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Objective. To determine the postoperative appearance of the plantar fascia on MR imaging after a fasciotomy has been performed, and to compare the postsurgical appearance of the fascia after an open and endoscopic procedure.< rate at head-abs-p1.lf>Design and patients. Fifteen asymptomatic volunteers (12 women, 3 men; age range 22-49 years, mean age 33 years) with prior fasciotomies for treatment of longstanding plantar fasciitis were studied. Fourteen volunteers had a unilateral release and one volunteer had bilateral releases, allowing for assessment of 16 ankles. Eight fasciotomies were performed through an open incision and eight were performed endoscopically. The average time between surgery and imaging was 24 months (range 11-46 months). The site of surgery was established from the operative reports. Proton density (PD)-weighted and T2-weighted images in three orthogonal planes were obtained on a 1.5-T magnet. In eight studies, T1-weighted sagittal and STIR sagittal images were included. The fascia in each ankle was assessed for morphology and signal intensity. Perifascial soft tissues and bone marrow were assessed for edema. Preoperative MR studies were available in five volunteers.< rate at head-abs-p1.lf>Results. There was no apparent difference in the postoperative appearance of the ankle after an open or endoscopic procedure except for scar formation in the subcutaneous fat which was common after an open procedure (P<0.05). Three ankles had a gap in the fascia (one open, two endoscopic). The plantar fascia measured a mean of 7.0 mm (range 5-10 mm) at the fasciotomy, and 8.3 mm (range 6-12 mm) at the enthesis. At the fasciotomy, 11 of 13 ankles had an indistinct deep contour and 9 of 13 had an indistinct superficial contour. At the enthesis, 13 of 16 ankles had an indistinct deep contour and 6 of 16 had an indistinct superficial contour. Compared with preoperative MR studies there was an average reduction in the fascial thickness at the enthesis of 14

  13. Fenofibrate for patients with asymptomatic primary biliary cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazufumi Dohmen; Toshihiko Mizuta; Makoto Nakamuta; Naoya Shimohashi; Hiromi Ishibashi; Kyosuke Yamamoto

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic, cholestatic disease of autoimmune etiology, the histology of which shows a destruction of the intrahepatic bile duct and portal inflammation. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is now used as a first-line drug for asymptomatic PBC (aPBC) because it is reported that UDCA decreases mortality and prolongs the time of liver transplantation. However, only 20-30% of patients respond fully to UDCA. Recently, lipoproteinlowering agents have been found to be effective for PBC. The aim of this study was to examine the safety and efficacy of fenofibrate, a member of the fibrate class of hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory agent via peroxysome proliferatory activated receptor α, in patients with aPBC. METHODS: Fenofibrate was administered for twelve weeks in nine patients with aPBC who failed to respond to UDCA. UDCA was used along with fenofibrate during the study. The data from aPBC patients were analyzed to assess the biochemical effect of fenofibrate during the study. RESULTS: The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (285±114.8 IU/L) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) (255.8±85.9 mg/dl) significantly decreased to 186.9±76.2 IU/L and 192.9±67.5 mg/dL respectively, after fenofibrate treatment in patients with aPBC (P<0.05). Moreover, the titer of antimitochondrial antibody (AMA) also decreased in 4 of 9 patients with aPBC. No adverse reactions were observed in any patients.CONCLUSION: Fenofibrate appears to be significantly effective in treating patients with aPBC who respond incompletely to UDCA alone. Although the mechanism of fenofibrate on aPBC has not yet been fully clarified, combination therapy using fenofibrate and UDCA might be related to the anti-immunological effects, such as the suppression of AMA production as well as its anti inflammatory effect.

  14. Multimicronutrient supplementation and asymptomatic urinary tract infections in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Boekitwetan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As human life expectancy continues to increase, developing countries are reporting higher percentages of elderly in their respective populations. The defense mechanisms of the elderly are reduced due to several factors, such as increased susceptibility to infection, specifically urinary tract infection (UTI. A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted to assess whether multimicronutrient supplementation is effective in reducing UTIs in older people in the community. A total of 261 elderly who lived in Mampang Prapatan district, South Jakarta, were randomised to daily multimicronutrient supplementation or control groups. The primary outcomes were the incidence of asymptomatic UTI, the organisms responsible for UTIs and the results of sensitivity tests on UTI microorganisms. UTI was defined as culture-positive urine yielding a single species of organisms in numbers greater than 104 cfu/mL urine specimen. At base-line 19.5% of the elderly had UTI, namely 23.7% patients in the MMN group and 16.7% in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.158. Escherichia coli was the most common microorganism, isolated in 20.7% of the MMN group and 17.5% of the control group. After six months of supplementation, UTI in the MMN group decreased by 40.6% compared with only 14.4% in the control group. The numbers of E. coli also declined by 64.3% in the MMN group compared to 37.8% in the control group. This study has confirmed the beneficial effect of multimicronutrient supplementation on UTI in the elderly.

  15. Dental occlusion influences knee muscular performances in asymptomatic females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosdent, Stéphanie; O'Thanh, Roseline; Domken, Olivier; Lamy, Marc; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2014-02-01

    Some authors claim that occlusal appliances can enhance athletic performance. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of dental occlusion on knee muscle strength performance. Twelve healthy female subjects (mean age, 24.1 ± 3.1 years) without temporomandibular joint dysfunction participated in this study. Isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength were assessed in relation to 3 randomized jaw conditions: mouth closed in maximum intercuspidation without splint, mouth closed on a balanced splint which optimized contact over the dental arch, mouth closed on a piece of resin of 1 mm which created an imbalanced occlusion. Tests were performed at 60 and 240°·s in concentric and 30°·s in eccentric exertions. Concentric performances did not show any significant difference between the 3 jaw conditions (p > 0.05). In contrast, in the eccentric trials related to quadriceps performance, significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were observed between the resin condition and the 2 other modalities (without splint or with a balanced splint). The imbalanced occlusion created by the resin component corresponded to an average decrease of 9% in eccentric peak torque. The eccentric hamstring peak torques also showed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between measurements with splint and with resin (7% decrease when occlusion was imbalanced). In conclusion, among asymptomatic females, artificial imbalanced occlusion induces immediate and significant alteration of knee eccentric muscle performances. Therefore, occlusion examination should be undertaken on a regular and frequent basis for high-level athletes. Moreover, for athletes using mouthguards, muscular performance assessments should be planned with and without the dental protection.

  16. Cool dialysate reduces asymptomatic intradialytic hypotension and increases baroreflex variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesterton, Lindsay J; Selby, Nicholas M; Burton, James O; McIntyre, Chris W

    2009-04-01

    Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients and can be ameliorated by cool temperature HD. The baroreflex arc is under autonomic control and is essential in the short-term regulation of blood pressure (BP). This study aimed to investigate if the baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) response to HD differed between standard and cool-temperature dialysate. Ten patients (mean age 67+/-2 years) prone to IDH were recruited into a randomized, crossover study to compare BRS variation at dialysate temperatures of 37 degrees C (HD(37)) and 35 degrees C (HD(35)). Each patient underwent continuous beat-to-beat BP monitoring during a dialysis session of HD(37) and HD(35). During HD(37) 2 patients developed symptomatic IDH, as opposed to 1 with HD(35). However, asymptomatic IDH occurred with a frequency of 0.4 episodes per session with HD(35) and 6.2 episodes per session during HD(37) (odds ratio15.5; 95%CI 5.6-14.2). Although absolute BRS measurements did not differ between the 2 modalities, BRS variability increased during HD(35). Our study has demonstrated that in IDH-prone patients, cool HD resulted in a reduction in heart rate and a greater reduction in cardiac output and stroke volume. Mean arterial pressure was maintained through a significantly greater increase in total peripheral resistance. Furthermore, although absolute BRS values during HD were not significantly altered by a reduction in dialysate temperature, there was a greater percentage increase in BRS values during cool HD. Understanding the varied causes of, and categorizing impaired hemodynamic responses to HD will enable further individualization of HD prescriptions according to patient need.

  17. Detection and monitoring of human bocavirus 1 infection by a new rapid antigen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, A.H.L.; Susi, P.; Toivola, H.; Christensen, A.; Söderlund-Venermo, M.; Hedman, K.; Aatola, H.; Zvirbliene, A.; Koskinen, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Clinically relevant diagnosis of human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) is challenging, as the virus is frequently detected in asymptomatic patients, and cofindings with other respiratory viruses are common. The clinical value of current diagnostic methods, such as PCR, is therefore low, and alternative diagnostic strategies are needed. We describe for the first time the use of an antigen detection assay for the rapid identification of HBoV1 in a paediatric patient with respiratory tract infection symptoms. We estimate the duration of active HBoV1 infection to be 6 days. PMID:27014463

  18. Detection and monitoring of human bocavirus 1 infection by a new rapid antigen test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H.L. Bruning

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinically relevant diagnosis of human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1 is challenging, as the virus is frequently detected in asymptomatic patients, and cofindings with other respiratory viruses are common. The clinical value of current diagnostic methods, such as PCR, is therefore low, and alternative diagnostic strategies are needed. We describe for the first time the use of an antigen detection assay for the rapid identification of HBoV1 in a paediatric patient with respiratory tract infection symptoms. We estimate the duration of active HBoV1 infection to be 6 days.

  19. 前列腺特异性膜抗原为靶标的放射免疫治疗进展%Advances in radioimmunotherapy targeting prostate speciifc membrane antigen in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冲(综述); 陶嵘(审校)

    2015-01-01

    前列腺特异性膜抗原(PSMA)是一种跨膜糖蛋白,几乎表达于所有前列腺癌,在转移性激素抵抗性前列腺癌中表达量显著增加。放射免疫治疗(RIT)利用放射性核素标记单克隆抗体以实现肿瘤的靶向治疗。本文对PSMA为靶标的RIT进展作一综述。%Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is almost expressed in all prostate cancers. The expression of PSMA in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer is significantly increased. Radioimmunotherapy combined radionuclide with monoclonal antibody is a kind of targeted cancer therapy. This review will summarize the progress of radioimmunotherapy targeting PSMA.

  20. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  1. Radiology, histology and short-term outcome of asymptomatic congenital thoracic malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Thomas; Buchvald, Frederik; Brenøe, Jørn;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and short-term outcome of our management of asymptomatic children with antenatally diagnosed congenital thoracic malformations (CTM), compared with recommendations from a recent review and meta-analysis....

  2. Accessory wandering spleen: Report of a case of laparoscopic approach in an asymptomatic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Perin

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: We suggest performing surgery with a laparoscopic approach in patients with accessory wandering spleen, though asymptomatic, because of the risk of serious complications in case of accessory spleen torsion.

  3. Clinical and Angiographic Factors Associated With Asymptomatic Restenosis After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.N. Ruygrok (Peter); M.W.I. Webster (Mark); V. de Valk (Vincent); G.A. van Es (Gerrit Anne); J.A. Ormiston (John); M-A.M. Morel (Marie-Angèle); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Angiographic restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventional procedures is more common than recurrent angina. Clinical and angiographic factors associated with asymptomatic versus symptomatic restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention were compared. METHODS AND

  4. Asymptomatic natural Chlamydia pecorum infection reduces growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...

  5. Sex differences in prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic cholelithiasis in Korean health screening examinee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bum; Kim, Kook Hyun; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Heo, Jun; Jung, Min Kyu; Cho, Chang Min; Lee, Yoon Suk; Cho, Kwang Bum; Lee, Dong Wook; Han, Ji Min; Kim, Ho Gak; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate sex difference in the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in Korean health screening examinees. Examinees who underwent examination through health promotion center at 5 hospitals of Daegu-Gyeongbuk province in 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. All examinees were checked for height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure, and underwent laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasound. Diagnosis of cholelithiasis was made by ultrasound. Of the total of 30,544 examinees, mean age was 47.3 ± 10.9 years and male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Asymptomatic cholelithiasis was diagnosed in 1268 examinees with overall prevalence of 4.2%. In age below 40 years, females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males (2.7% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.020), whereas prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was higher in males than females older than 50 years (6.2% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.012). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed age (≥50 years), obesity, and high blood pressure as risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in males and age, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and chronic hepatitis B infection in females (P < 0.05). Overall prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was 4.2% in Korean health screening examinees. Females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males younger than 40 years, whereas it was higher in males older than 50 years. Age and obesity were risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in both sexes. Males had additional risk factors of high blood pressure and females had hypertriglyceridemia and chronic hepatitis B infection. PMID:28353587

  6. Risk stratification in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    den Hartog, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to explore and assess the risks that patients with carotid artery disease, whether asymptomatic or symptomatic, are exposed to, and to explore whether patients that may be subject to relatively higher risk can be identified by imaging. Although large randomized trials have proven carotid endarterectomy (CEA) to be beneficial compared to best medical treatment alone, revascularization of patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS) remains a matte...

  7. An Interesting and Rare Case of Dextrocardia: Asymptomatic Left Atrial Aneurysm in an Adult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravan Reddy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic congenital intrapericardial aneurysm are extremely rare. This anomaly is usually present in second to fourth decade of life. They are usually associated with arrhythmias, embolic manifestations and heart failure. Here we present a case of LA aneurysm manifested asymptomatically. We present a 37 year old male referred to our department for pre-operative evaluation. He was diagnosed to have dextrocardia, the evaluation of which led to the diagnosis of congenital left atrial aneurysm as the cause.

  8. Effect of lipid lowering on new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Greve, Anders M; Boman, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that may prevent atrial fibrillation (AF). This effect has not been investigated on new-onset AF in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS).......Lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that may prevent atrial fibrillation (AF). This effect has not been investigated on new-onset AF in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS)....

  9. Asymptomatic Intrahepatic Portosystemic Venous Shunt: To Treat or Not To Treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palvanov, Arkadiy; Marder, Ruth Leah; Siegel, David

    2016-09-01

    Intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunts (IPSVSs) are rare vascular malformations. They can be asymptomatic or present with various symptoms including encephalopathy. We present two cases of IPSVS, one involving a patient presenting with altered mental status and the other discovered incidentally. While there is no question that patients presenting with symptomatic IPSVS should undergo definitive treatment, there is no consensus regarding elective therapy for asymptomatic lesions.

  10. High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in apparently healthy schoolchildren in Aliero, Kebbi state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupashree Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In malaria endemic areas, continuous exposure to Plasmodium parasites leads to asymptomatic carriers that provide a reservoir, contributing to the persistence of malaria transmission. Thus, a study of the degree of prevalence of asymptomatic parasitaemias will help in assessing the level of reservoir of infection. Methods: All the consented participants without any signs and symptoms, suggestive of malaria were interviewed and thick blood smears were made to detect malaria parasites. The children presenting with malaria or any other severe illness, and those declining to give consent were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 118 (59.6% children out of 198 apparently healthy children were positive for malaria parasites while 80 (40.4% children were negative for malaria parasites. Prevalence of asymptomatic malaria was higher in males 75 (63.6% compared to females 43 (36.4%, but the difference was not statistically significant. Incidence of asymptomatic malaria was highest with 76.1% in the children aged 6– 10 yr. There was statistically significant association of the use of bednet on prevalence of asymptomatic malaria. Interpretation & conclusion: High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria detected in this study is a big challenge and can be a threat to the present malaria control programme. Thus, it should be considered in assessing and reorganising more effective malaria elimination strategies to achieve the desired goal of malaria control.

  11. An epidemiological study of asymptomatic neurocysticercosis in a pig farming community in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kashi N; Verma, Avantika; Srivastava, Sandeep; Gupta, Rakesh K; Pandey, Chandra M; Paliwal, Vimal K

    2011-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larvae of Taenia solium. The prevalence of NCC is obscured due to variations in the methods used for epidemiological studies and often asymptomatic manifestation. The present study was conducted on 595 apparently healthy individuals belonging to the pig farming community of northern India to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic NCC and to evaluate risk factors based on questionnaires. Diagnosis of NCC was based on neuroimaging, immunological and epidemiological criteria. Asymptomatic NCC was detected in 90 (15.1%) of 595 individuals. The evaluation of risk factors showed that age >15 years (P=0.001), intake of raw vegetables (P=0.025) and undercooked pork (P=0.005), lack of safe drinking water (P=0.003), inadequate drainage system (P=0.049), no separate place for pigs (P≤0.001), NCC related active epilepsy in the family (P≤0.001) were significantly associated with asymptomatic NCC. The present study shows high prevalence of asymptomatic NCC in pig farming community of northern India. Further, asymptomatic NCC is associated with most variables of poor socio-economic parameters.

  12. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis: What we can learn from the next generation of randomized clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark N Rubin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stroke remains an exceedingly incident and prevalent public health burden across the globe, with an estimated 16 million new strokes per annum and prevalence over 60 million, and extracranial internal carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is an important risk factor for stroke. Randomized trials of surgical treatment were conducted (North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial, European Carotid Surgery Trial and demonstrated efficacy of carotid endarterectomy for secondary prevention of stroke in patients with cerebrovascular events (e.g. ipsilateral stroke, transient ischemic attack, and/or amaurosis fugax attributable to a diseased artery with 50–99% stenosis. Therapeutic clarity, however, proved elusive with asymptomatic carotid artery disease. Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (ACAS, Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial, and Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study (VACS suggested only modest benefit from surgical intervention for primary stroke prevention and the best medical therapy at the time of these trials is not comparable to modern medical therapy. ACT-1, Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial-2, Stent-Protected Angioplasty in asymptomatic Carotid artery stenosis versus Endarterectomy Trial-2, European Carotid Surgery Trial-2, Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy Versus Stenting Trial-2 are trials that are recent, ongoing, or in development that include diverse populations across Europe and North America, complementary trial designs, and a collaborative spirit that should provide clinicians with evidence that informs best clinical practice for asymptomatic carotid artery disease.

  13. Prevalence of advanced colonic polyps in asymptomatic Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Hsiung Liu; Meng-Chen Wu; Yeh Peng; Ming-Shiang Wu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of advanced polyps in asymptomatic Chinese and to determine the risk of proximal advanced colonic polyps in subjects with and without polyps in the distal colon.METHODS: Data were collected prospectively during colonoscopic examinations performed in 5 973 subjects as part of health evaluation at our unit from December 1997 to December 2003. Polyps were considered advanced, if they were larger than 10 mm or were tubovillous, villous or malignant. Proximal colon was defined as the splenic flexure and more proximal portions of the colon.RESULTS: Colon polyps were detected in 971 (16.3%)subjects (613 males and 358 females) with their mean age being 56.6±10.7 years. Advanced polyps were noted in 199 (3.3%) individuals. Subjects were sub-classified according to the location of polyps into three groups: distal (569, 58.6%), proximal (284, 29.2%), and combined proximal and distal (118, 12.2%) groups. Subjects with advanced polyps in these three groups were 95 (9.8%),56 (5.8%), and 48 (4.9%) respectively. In the 48 subjects with advanced combined polyps, 13 advanced polyps were distributed at the distal colon, 17 at the proximal colon,and 18 at both. Eighteen colon cancers including 12 at sigmoid and 6 at ascending colon were confirmed by final pathology. The relative risk for advanced proximal polyp according to distal findings was 3.1 (95%CI: 1.3-7.4) for hyperplastic polyp, 2.7 (95%CI: 1.4-5.3) for tubular polyp and 13.5 (95%CI: 5.1-35.4) for advanced polyp as compared to that for no polyp. However, 56 (28.2%) of 199 subjects with advanced polyps had no index polyps at the distal colon and might go undetected under sigmoidoscopic screening.CONCLUSION: Although distal lesions can predict the risk of advanced proximal polyps, a substantial portion of Chinese with advanced proximal polyps is not associated with any distal sentinel lesions. These data have implications for screening policy of colon cancers in Taiwanese Chinese.

  14. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  15. Taenia saginata taeniosis: copro-antigen time-course in a voluntary self-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembo, A; Craig, P S

    2015-09-01

    Human taeniosis due to Taenia saginata is cosmopolitan where beef is consumed; however, there is little or no information on the symptomatology over the early time-course of human infection. Copro-antigen detection is very useful in community screening for human taeniosis, particularly for T. solium, but there are no data on copro-antigen detection in pre-patent infection. In order to provide insight into this, a voluntary self-infection with T. saginata was undertaken and monitored over a 6-month period using a copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that we developed using anti-T. saginata antibody based reagents. Tapeworm patency, defined as first proglottid appearance, occurred on day 86 post-infection (pi) and was followed by almost daily release of proglottids (range 1-8) until termination using praziquantel on day 180 pi. The first 10 weeks post-infection (wpi) were essentially asymptomatic, followed by main symptoms of involuntary proglottid discharge throughout the infection period, and abdominal discomfort peaking around 15-19 wpi. Copro-antigens could not be reliably detected until 2 weeks before proglottid patency but then remained highly elevated over the next 15 weeks until treatment. Copro-antigen levels reverted to negative 4 days post-treatment. This time-course study suggests that although copro-antigen ELISA is an excellent diagnostic tool for established patent infections of T. saginata, it may not be reliable for faecal antigen detection in the early infection phase prior to proglottid release for T. saginata and other human taenioses.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic peptic ulcer disease in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Wei Wang; Ming-Shium Tu; Guang-Yuan Mar; Hung-Yi Chuang; Hsien-Chung Yu; Lung-Chih Cheng; Ping-I Hsu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in a general Taiwanese population. METHODS: From January to August 2008, consecu-tive asymptomatic subjects undergoing a routine health check-up were evaluated by upper gastrointestinal en-doscopy. Gastroduodenal mucosal breaks were carefully assessed, and a complete medical history and demo-graphic data were obtained from each patient. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify indepen-dent risk factors for asymptomatic PUD. RESULTS: Of the 572 asymptomatic subjects, 54 (9.4%) were diagnosed as having PUD. The prevalence of gas-tric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and both gastric and duode-nal ulcers were 4.7%, 3.9%, and 0.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that prior history of PUD [odds ratio (OR), 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9], high body mass index [body mass index (BMI) 25-30: OR, 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.2; BMI > 30 kg/m2: OR, 3.6, 95% CI: 1.5-8.7] and current smoker (OR, 2.6, 95% CI: 1.6-4.4) were in-dependent predictors of asymptomatic PUD. In contrast, high education level was a negative predictor of PUD (years of education 10-12: OR, 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8; years of education > 12: OR, 0.6, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9).CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PUD in asymptom-atic subjects is 9.4% in Taiwan. Prior history of PUD, low education level, a high BMI and current smoker are independent risk factors for developing asymptomatic PUD.

  17. Comparison of asymptomatic and symptomatic rhinovirus infections in university students: incidence, species diversity, and viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Andrea; Goodall, Emma C; Luinstra, Kathy; Smieja, Marek; Mahony, James

    2015-08-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections are common but poorly characterized in university students. Thus, we characterized asymptomatic and symptomatic HRV infections by incidence, species diversity, and viral load of 502 university students during September and October of 2010 and 2011 from nasal swabs and electronically submitted symptom questionnaires. We tested all symptomatic students and randomly sampled participants who remained asymptomatic (n=25/week, over 8 weeks each study year) on a weekly basis by real-time PCR and sequenced HRV positives. HRV was identified in 33/400 (8.3%) and 85/92 (92.4%) of the asymptomatic and symptomatic students, respectively. We identified a higher than previously reported rate of HRV-B in both groups, although the distribution of HRV species was similar (P=0.37). Asymptomatic viral load averaged 1.2 log10 copies/mL lower than symptomatic HRV (P<0.001). In conclusion, asymptomatic HRV activity preceded peak symptomatic activity in September and October and was associated with lower viral load.

  18. Temporal Cortex Morphology in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients and Their Asymptomatic Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusaini, Saud; Whelan, Christopher D; Doherty, Colin P; Delanty, Norman; Fitzsimons, Mary; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L

    2016-03-01

    Temporal cortex abnormalities are common in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS) and believed to be relevant to the underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we set out to determine the familiarity of temporal cortex morphologic alterations in a cohort of MTLE+HS patients and their asymptomatic siblings. A surface-based morphometry (SBM) method was applied to process MRI data acquired from 140 individuals (50 patients with unilateral MTLE+HS, 50 asymptomatic siblings of patients, and 40 healthy controls). Using a region-of-interest approach, alterations in temporal cortex morphology were determined in patients and their asymptomatic siblings by comparing with the controls. Alterations in temporal cortex morphology were identified in MTLE+HS patients ipsilaterally within the anterio-medial regions, including the entorhinal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and temporal pole. Subtle but similar pattern of morphology changes with a medium effect size were also noted in the asymptomatic siblings. These localized alterations were related to volume loss that appeared driven by shared contractions in cerebral cortex surface area. These findings indicate that temporal cortex morphologic alterations are common to patients and their asymptomatic siblings and suggest that such localized traits are possibly heritable.

  19. Ischiofemoral space on MRI in an asymptomatic population: Normative width measurements and soft tissue signal variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maras Oezdemir, Zeynep; Goermeli, Cemile Ayse; Sagir Kahraman, Ayseguel [Inoenue University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Malatya (Turkey); Aydingoez, Uestuen [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    To make normative width measurements of the ischiofemoral (IF) space in an asymptomatic population and to record soft tissue MRI signal variations within the IF space in order to determine whether such variations are associated with IF space dimensions. Normative width measurements of the IF space were prospectively made in 418 hips on 1.5 T MR images of 209 asymptomatic volunteers. Quantitative and qualitative assessments of the IF soft tissues including the quadratus femoris (QF) muscle were also made. The mean IF space width was 2.56 ± 0.75 cm (right, 2.60 ± 0.75 cm; left, 2.53 ± 0.75 cm). Soft tissue MRI signal abnormalities were present within the IF space in 19 (9.1 %) of 209 volunteers. Soft tissue abnormalities within the IF space included oedema (3/209, 1.4 %) of the QF and/or surrounding soft tissue, and only fatty infiltration (16/209, 7.7 %) of the QF. Bilateral IF spaces are asymmetrical in asymptomatic persons. There is ≥10 % of width difference between right and left IF spaces in approximately half of asymptomatic individuals. Fatty infiltration and oedema can be present at the IF space in a small portion of the asymptomatic population, who also have narrower IF spaces than those without soft tissue MRI signal abnormalities. (orig.)

  20. A new screening pathway for identifying asymptomatic patients using dental panoramic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sawagashira, Tsuyoshi; Tagami, Motoki; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Muramatsu, Chisako; Zhou, Xiangrong; Iida, Yukihiro; Matsuoka, Masato; Katagi, Kiyoji; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    To identify asymptomatic patients is the challenging task and the essential first step in diagnosis. Findings of dental panoramic radiographs include not only dental conditions but also radiographic signs that are suggestive of possible systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, arteriosclerosis, and maxillary sinusitis. Detection of such signs on panoramic radiographs has a potential to provide supplemental benefits for patients. However, it is not easy for general dental practitioners to pay careful attention to such signs. We addressed the development of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system that detects radiographic signs of pathology on panoramic images, and the design of the framework of new screening pathway by cooperation of dentists and our CAD system. The performance evaluation of our CAD system showed the sensitivity and specificity in the identification of osteoporotic patients were 92.6 % and 100 %, respectively, and those of the maxillary sinus abnormality were 89.6 % and 73.6 %, respectively. The detection rate of carotid artery calcifications that suggests the need for further medical evaluation was approximately 93.6 % with 4.4 false-positives per image. To validate the utility of the new screening pathway, preliminary clinical trials by using our CAD system were conducted. To date, 223 panoramic images were processed and 4 asymptomatic patients with suspected osteoporosis, 7 asymptomatic patients with suspected calcifications, and 40 asymptomatic patients with suspected maxillary sinusitis were detected in our initial trial. It was suggested that our new screening pathway could be useful to identify asymptomatic patients with systemic diseases.

  1. Prostate cancer antigen 3 test for prostate biopsy decision: a systematic review and meta analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Yong; Gou Xin; Huang Peng; Mou Chan

    2014-01-01

    Background The specificity for early interventions of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer (PCa) is not satisfactory.It is likely that prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) can be used to predict biopsy outcomes more accurately than PSA for the early detection of PCa.We systematically reviewed literatures and subsequently performed a meta-analysis.Methods A bibliographic search in the database of Embase,Medline,Web of Science,NCBI,PubMed,CNKI,and those of health technology assessment agencies published before April 2013 was conducted.The key words used were "prostatic neoplasms","prostate","‘prostate,' ‘carcinoma' or ‘cancer' or ‘tumor',or ‘PCa,'" and free terms of "upm3","pca3","dd3","aptimapca 3",and "prostate cancer antigen 3".All patients were adults.The intervention was detecting PCA3 in urine samples for PCa diagnosis.We checked the quality based on the QUADAS criteria,collected data,and developed a meta-analysis to synthesize results.Twenty-four studies of diagnostic tests with moderate to high quality were selected.Results The sensitivity was between 46.9% and 82.3%; specificity was from 55% to 92%; positive predictive value had a range of 39.0%-86.0%; and the negative predictive value was 61.0%-89.7%.The meta-analysis has heterogeneity between studies.The global sensitivity value was 0.82 (95% Cl 0.72-0.90); specificity was 0.962 (95% Cl 0.73-0.99); positive likelihood ratio was 2.39 (95% Cl 2.10-2.71); negative likelihood ratio was 0.51 (95% Cl 0.46-0.86); diagnostic odds ratio was 4.89 (95% Cl 3.94-6.06); and AUC in SROC curve was 0.744 1.Conclusion PCA3 can be used for early diagnosis of PCa and to avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  2. Asymptomatic Malaria Correlates with Anaemia in Pregnant Women at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoenabo Douamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.

  3. Hematological and biochemical parameters in symptomatic and asymptomatic leishmania-seropositive dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ulchar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is vector-born severe enzootic disease in dogs. It includes a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, but the most characteristic are alterations in the hematopoetic system and renal failure. Also, infected animals could be asymptomatic, so the manifestation of L. infantum infection depends on many factors, including host’s immunological status. The aim of this survey was to find parameters related with hematopoetic and renal failure (hematology, biochemical parameters – urea, creatinine, serum proteins in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs seropositive for canine leishmaniosis. Within the hematological parameters, we found signifi cant differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs in the erythrogram and platelet count, but not in the leukogram. Significant differences between the two groups were found also for urea, creatinine, serum albumin and globulin, but not in serum total protein and A/G ratio. These findings indicate individual variability of the host’s response to infection with L. infantum.

  4. A reservoir of drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria in asymptomatic hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G Perron

    Full Text Available The population genetics of pathogenic bacteria has been intensively studied in order to understand the spread of disease and the evolution of virulence and drug resistance. However, much less attention has been paid to bacterial carriage populations, which inhabit hosts without producing disease. Since new virulent strains that cause disease can be recruited from the carriage population of bacteria, our understanding of infectious disease is seriously incomplete without knowledge on the population structure of pathogenic bacteria living in an asymptomatic host. We report the first extensive survey of the abundance and diversity of a human pathogen in asymptomatic animal hosts. We have found that asymptomatic swine from livestock productions frequently carry populations of Salmonella enterica with a broad range of drug-resistant strains and genetic diversity greatly exceeding that previously described. This study shows how agricultural practice and human intervention may lead and influence the evolution of a hidden reservoir of pathogens, with important implications for human health.

  5. Tissue Velocities and Myocardial Deformation in Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Aortic Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helle Gervig; Larsen, Linnea Hornbech; Hassager, Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of myocardial longitudinal function has proved to be a sensitive marker of deteriorating myocardial function in aortic stenosis, demonstrated by both color Doppler tissue imaging and recently by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. The aim of this study...... was to compare velocity (color Doppler tissue imaging) and deformation (two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography) in relation to global and regional longitudinal function in asymptomatic and severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, 231 patients with aortic stenosis were...... divided into four groups: asymptomatic moderate aortic stenosis (aortic valve area, 1.0-1.5 cm(2); n = 38), asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis (aortic valve area aortic stenosis with preserved (n = 68) and reduced (

  6. Is it possible that this patient is asymptomatic? The role of multidetector ct angiography in detection of ulcerated plaques in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanasković Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although intervention in patients with symptomatic carotid disease is generally accepted as beneficial, the management of asymptomatic disease is still controversial. We wanted to introduce and discuss treatment options in a patient with asymptomatic carotid stenosis and high embolic potential lesions of common and internal carotid artery detected by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT. Case Outline. A 78-year-old female patient was admitted to our institution for diagnostics and surgical treatment of asymptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis. Upon admission, color duplex ultrasonography of the carotid arteries revealed the left common carotid artery (CCA stenosis of 50% and the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA stenosis of 60%, while the right CCA was narrowed by 60% and the ipsilateral ICA by 80%. Because of the left subclavian artery (LSA occlusion, also described by ultrasonography, MDCT angiography was performed to assess arterial morphology for possible angioplasty. In addition to LSA occlusion, MDCT angiography surprisingly revealed significant left CCA (>80% and ICA (>70% narrowing by ulcerated plaques with high embolic potential. Surgical treatment of the left CCA and ICA was indicated and Dacron® tubular graft interposition was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged from the Institute on the third postoperative day. After the six-month follow-up the patient was doing well with well-preserved graft patency. Conclusion. Although color duplex ultrasonography is reliable and safe imaging modality in carotid stenosis diagnosis, MDCT angiography plays a significant role in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis since plaques with high embolic potential could be detected, which, if left untreated, could have severe neurological ischemic consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41002

  7. Outcomes of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in neonates in a tertiary hospital, southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Igwe Nwali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria infestation during pregnancy is mostly asymptomatic and untreated especially in unbooked pregnancies. It presents with almost all the fetal complications of overt malaria in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia on the neonates of unbooked parturients delivered at term at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the labour ward complex of the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki from March to May 2012. Unbooked pregnant women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and gave consent were consecutively recruited. Cord blood and placenta tissue were collected for haemoglobin concentration determination and histology, respectively. Birth weights were determined with an electronic weighing machine. Statistical Analysis was done with 2008 Epi Info™ software and level of significant was set at P-value <0.05. Results: A total of 250 unbooked parturients were recruited, of which 194 (77.6% had asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia while 227 (90.8% had placental parasitisation. The prevalence of low birth weight in the study was 16.4%. There was significant relationship between asymptomatic malaria parasitemia and birth weight (X [2] = 43.70, P-value < 0.001. There were no low-birth-weight deliveries among paturients without placental parasitemia. No neonate, however, had anaemia in the study. Conclusion: Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia and placental parasitisation by malaria parasites contribute to the outcome of the foetal birth weight. Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and placental parasitaemia did not result in a corresponding foetal anaemia on babies delivered.

  8. Sipuleucel-T (APC8015) for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So-Rosillo, Rosendo; Small, Eric J

    2006-09-01

    Sipuleucel-T (Provenge; APC8015; Dendreon Corp, WA, USA) is a novel immunotherapeutic cellular product, which includes autologous dendritic cells pulsed ex vivo with a recombinant fusion protein (PA2024) consisting of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and prostatic acid phosphatase. Two Phase II trials in men with androgen-dependent biochemically relapsed prostate cancer have demonstrated a decrease in prostate-specific antigen and prolongation in prostate-specific antigen doubling time. In men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer, clinical trials have demonstrated both biological activity and clinical response to sipuleucel-T. Data from two Phase III trials in men with asymptomatic, metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer demonstrated an improved median overall survival in men who received sipuleucel-T compared with placebo. Clinical trials are ongoing or are being developed to evaluate sipuleucel-T in various prostate cancer disease states and in combination with other treatment modalities.

  9. Asymptomatic papillary fibroelastoma of the Aortic valve in a young woman - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitsis Antonis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Echocardiography represents an invaluable diagnostic tool for the detection of intracardiac masses while simultaneously provides information about their size, location, mobility and attachment site as well as the presence and extent of any consequent hemodynamic derangement. A 29-year-old asymptomatic young woman with incidental transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE discovery of an aortic valve mass is presented. The 2-dimensional TTE showed a mobile, pedunculated mass, attached by a thin stalk to the aortic surface of the right coronary aortic cusp at the junction of its base with the anterior aortic wall. The importance of valve sparing tumour resection even in asymptomatic patients is emphasised.

  10. Nephrocutaneous fistula as the initial manifestation of asymptomatic nephrolithiasis: A call for radical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Tanwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal stones are a common affliction presenting in an acute setting. We report a case of asymptomatic renal stone in an elderly gentleman presenting initially as a discharging lumbar sinus managed by subcapsular nephrectomy and radical excision of the fistula tract. Nephrocutaneous fistula is most commonly associated with tuberculosis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, and rarely with complicated calyceal stones, and its occurrence with asymptomatic pelvic stones is rare. We present the points in favor of radical open surgery in the management of such patients.

  11. Treatment of asymptomatic carriers with artemether-lumefantrine: an opportunity to reduce the burden of malaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbadoé Adama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased investment and commitment to malaria prevention and treatment strategies across Africa has produced impressive reductions in the incidence of this disease. Nevertheless, it is clear that further interventions will be necessary to meet the international target of a reversal in the incidence of malaria by 2015. This article discusses the prospective role of an innovative malaria control strategy - the community-based treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium falciparum, with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. The potential of this intervention was considered by key scientists in the field at an Advisory Board meeting held in Basel, in April 2009. This article summarizes the discussions that took place among the participants. Presentation of the hypothesis Asymptomatic carriers do not seek treatment for their infection and, therefore, constitute a reservoir of parasites and thus a real public-health risk. The systematic identification and treatment of individuals with asymptomatic P. falciparum as part of a surveillance intervention strategy should reduce the parasite reservoir, and if this pool is greatly reduced, it will impact disease transmission. Testing the hypothesis This article considers the populations that could benefit from such a strategy and examines the ethical issues associated with the treatment of apparently healthy individuals, who represent a neglected public health risk. The potential for the treatment of asymptomatic carriers to impair the development of protective immunity, resulting in a 'rebound' and age escalation of malaria incidence, is also discussed. For policymakers to consider the treatment of asymptomatic carriers with ACT as a new tool in their malaria control programmes, it will be important to demonstrate that such a strategy can produce significant benefits, without having a negative impact on the efficacy of ACT and the health of the target population. Implications

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-20-0093 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-20-0093 gb|AAL73204.1| prostate-specific antigen variant 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAL73205.1| prostate...-specific antigen variant 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAD30846.1| prostate specific antigen... [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW71932.1| kallikrein 3, (prostate specific antigen), isoform CRA_k [Homo sapiens] gb|EA...W71934.1| kallikrein 3, (prostate specific antigen), isoform CRA_k [Homo sapiens] AAL73204.1 4e-17 56% ...

  13. 前列腺特异性抗原密度预测首次前列腺活检标本Gleason评分升高的价值%Value of prostate-specific antigen density in predicting an upgrade in Gleason score for initial prostate biopsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 谢立平; 郑祥毅; 林奕伟; 朱翮嘉; 汪朔; 沈柏华; 蔡柏森; 尤启汉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the performance of PSAD as a predictor of Gleason score upgrade between initial prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy(RP)in the patients with low or intermediate risk prostate cancers(PCa).Methods This study comprised a retrospective analysis of data from 170 PCa patients(PSA≤20 μg/L,stage≤T2b,Gleason score≤7).The median age was 68 yrs,the median PSA was 10.2 μg/L,the median PSAD was 0.35 mg/L2 and the median prostate volume was 28.4 ml.There were 95 cases in cT1 and 75 cases in cT2.According to biopsy Gleason score,patients were divided into three groups:3+3(91 cases),3+4(42 cases)and 4+3(37 cases).Each group was further stratified into to subgroups according to whether their RP Gleason score was concordant or upgraded.Receiver-operating characteristic(ROC)curves for predictive power of PSAD were generated for each group,and the area under the curve(AUC)was calculated.Results Of the 170 patients,79(46.5%)had an upgrade in Gleason score,51(56.0%)in 3+3 group,17(40.5%)in 3+4 group,11(29.7%)in 4+3 group,respectively.In the 3+3 group,PSAD was significantly higher in subgroup with upgraded Gleason score compared with the subgroup of concordant Gleason score(0.37 mg/L2 versus 0.23 mg/L2,P<0.01).In the other two groups,PSAD were not of significant differences between subgroup with upgraded Gleason score and the subgroup of concordant Gleason score(0.33 mg/L2 versus 0.36 mg/L2,0.49 mg/L2 versus 0.58 mg/L2,P>0.05).ROC analysis showed a decline in AUC with increasing biopsy Gleason score.It was 0.762 for 3+3 group,0.529 for 3+4 group and 0.413 for 4+3 group.The pathologic stage in upgraded cases were more advanced in all the groups(P<0.05).Conclusion PSAD has the ability of predicting Gleason score upgrade after RP in the biopsy Gleason score 3+3 PCa patients whose clinical risk stratification are low or intermediate.%目的 评价前列腺特异性抗原密度(PSAD)预测临床低中危前列腺癌(PCa)患者首次前列腺活检标本的Gleason评分在根治性前列腺切除术(RP)后评分升高的能力. 方法 回顾性分析2008年6月至2012年10月收治的170例低中危PCa患者(PSA≤20 μg/L,分期≤T2b,Gleason评分≤7分)的临床资料,中位年龄68岁,中位PSA为10.2 μg/L,中位PSAD为0.35 mg/L2,中位前列腺体积为28.4 ml.临床分期T1期95例,T2期75例.根据活检Gleason评分分为3组:3+3组91例,3+4组42例,4+3组37例,每组内再根据RP后的Gleason评分是否升高,分为评分一致组和升高组.绘制3组的受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线并计算PSAD的曲线下面积(AUC). 结果 本组170例中术后Gleason评分升高79例(46.5%),其中3+3组51例(56.0%),3+4组17例(40.5%),4+3组11例(29.7%).3+3组中升高组的PSAD值(0.37 mg/L2)高于一致组(0.23 mg/L2),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).3+4组和4+3组中升高组的PSAD(0.33、0.49 mg/L2)与一致组(0.36、0.58 mg/L2)比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).3+3、3+4、4+3组ROC曲线的AUC分别为0.762、0.529、0.413.3组中升高组的病理分期均高于一致组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 在前列腺活检确诊为Gleason评分3+3的临床低中危PCa患者中,PSAD具有预测术后Gleason评分升高的能力.

  14. Detection of serum thioredoxin and prostate specific antigen protein and comparison of their diagnostic values for prostate cancer%前列腺癌患者血浆硫氧还蛋白和前列腺特异抗原的测定及其对前列腺癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡小根

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过检测前列腺癌患者血浆硫氧还蛋白(TRX)和前列腺特异抗原(PSA)水平,探讨TRX对前列腺癌的诊断价值.方法 2013年3-11月,应用酶联免疫吸附技术(ELISA)检测124例前列腺癌患者(前列腺癌组)、93例前列腺炎患者(前列腺炎组)和110例健康体检者(对照组)血浆TRX和PSA水平,通过受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线计算TRX诊断前列腺癌的敏感度和特异度,并分析TRX的表达与前列腺癌患者临床特征之间的关系.结果 前列腺癌组血浆TRX水平明显高于前列腺炎组和对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),TRX水平和PSA水平间无直线相关性(r=-0.07,P=0.614).不同年龄、性别、前列腺癌组织类型、肿瘤大小、肿瘤组织分化程度及TNM分期的前列腺癌患者血浆中TRX的水平间差异均无统计学意义(P<0.05).ROC曲线分析显示以31.6μg/l为临界值,TRX诊断前列腺癌的敏感度为75.2%,特异度为78.3%.124例前列腺癌患者血浆TRX阳性69例,阳性率55.6%,PSA阳性例数42例,阳性率33.9%;TRX联合PSA检测阳性例数83例,阳性率66.9%.结论 血浆TRX可成为诊断前列腺癌的新的辅助肿瘤标志物,TRX联合PSA检测可以提高前列腺癌的早期诊断率.

  15. Research on clinical application value of prostate specific antigen indexes in the differential diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer%前列腺特异