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Sample records for asymptomatic postmenopausal women

  1. Vaginal flora in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, J H; Coulam, C B; Washington, J A

    1976-09-01

    Four groups of 25 asymptomatic women--pregnant, premenopausal and taking oral contraceptives, premenopausal and not taking oral contraceptives, and postmenopausal--were studied for the presence in vaginal specimens of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, fungi, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, herpes simplex virus, mycobacteria, and Trichomonas. No significant differences in microbial flora were found among the groups. PMID:957791

  2. Thyroid dysfunction in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2007-03-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is common, especially among women over the age of 50. In caring for peri- and post-menopausal women, it is important to recognize the changing clinical manifestations of thyroid disease with age. Postmenopausal women are at increased risk of both osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease, and untreated thyroid disease may exacerbate these risks. Screening for thyroid dysfunction in asymptomatic individuals is controversial, but aggressive case-finding should be pursued, especially in older women. Women with overt thyroid dysfunction should be treated. Therapy for women with subclinical thyroid dysfunction is more controversial, although women with levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) > or =10 mU/L should be treated, and treatment may be considered in symptomatic women with subclinical hypothyroidism and TSH values hyperthyroidism who have TSH values consistently hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Finally, caution is required in diagnosing and treating thyroid dysfunction in women who are taking oral estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators. PMID:17448261

  3. 绝经后妇女无症状子宫内膜增厚相关影响因素分析%Analysis of factors influencing asymptomatic endometrial hyperplasia in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿红光; 韩燕燕; 单卫东

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate factors influencing asymptomatic endometrial hyperplasia in postmenopausal women. Methods Postmenopausal women with asymptomatic endometrial hyperplasia were collected and the correlation of endometrial hyperplasia with age, age of menarche, menopausal age, body weight index, birth history and history of type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension were .studied. Results Women with asymptomatic endometrial hyperplasia showed higher age, higher BMI and higher percentage of early age of menarche and late age of menopause, higher percentage of nulliparous women and. history of type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (P < 0. 05 ).Conclusion Elder age, early age of menarche, late menopausal age, higher body weight index, nulliparous history and history of type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension may be correlated with asymptomatic endometrial hyperplasia in postmenopausal women. So, regular examination of women with those dangerous factors for endometrium thickness may be helpful for inchoate discovery and inchoate cure of disease.%目的 评价绝经后妇女无症状子宫内膜增厚相关的影响因素.方法 收集经阴道超声检测的无症状子宫内膜增厚的绝经后妇女作为研究对象,观察受检者的年龄、初潮年龄、绝经年龄、体重指数、生育史、2型糖尿病病史、高血压病史等一般资料与绝经后子宫内膜增厚的关系.结果 子宫内膜增厚的绝经后妇女年龄较高、初潮年龄较早,绝经年龄较晚,体重指数较高,而且未生育、2型糖尿病、高血压的比例有所增高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 初潮早、绝经晚、未生育、高体重指数、糖尿病和高血压是绝经后子宫内膜增厚的危险因素.对以上人群定期检测子宫内膜厚度,有助于子宫内膜疾病的早期发现.

  4. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade; Patience Emiolu Izekor; Nosakhare Odeh Eghafona; Onaiwu Idahosa Enabulele; Endurance Ophori

    2010-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjec...

  5. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Samad Hazhir

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of bacteriuria in pregnant women referred to the medical centers of Tabriz, Iran, for prenatal care. Materials and Methods: A total of 1100 healthy pregnant women who were referred to 50 medical centers in Tabriz for a regular prenatal care were evaluated for bacteriuria. Results: The frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 6.1%. Maternal age was lower in the women with a positive urine culture (P = .02). Asymptomatic bact...

  6. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women

    OpenAIRE

    Lavanya S; Jogalakshmi D

    2002-01-01

    A total of 500 antenatal women in their first or second trimesters were screened over a period of 2 years for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Out of them, 8.4% (42) were culture positive. A control group of 100 non-pregnant women, both married and unmarried, was also simultaneously screened. The control group yielded an overall culture positivity of 3% (4% in the married non-pregnant women and 2% in the unmarried women). Primigravida had highest percent culture positivit...

  7. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Biradar Kerure; Rajeshwari Surpur; Sheela S. Sagarad; Sneha Hegadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens....

  8. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion : Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  10. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Biradar Kerure

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Methods: A total of 500 pregnant women were studied over a period of one year. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected into a sterile container & then subjected to culture method. Results: Significant bacteriuria was noted in 45 patients (9%. 3% patients had insignificant bacteriuria. Growth of contaminants was noted in 8%. 80% samples were sterile with no growth. E. coli was the most common etiological agent, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon in antenatal patients. All pregnant women should be screened by urine culture to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria at their first visit to prevent overt UTI & other complications in both mother & fetus. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 213-216

  11. Periodontal Status of Postmenopausal Women

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    Timur V. Melkumyan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the periodontal status in postmenopausal women with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Material and Methods: We examined 43 postmenopausal women aged from 55 to 74 years. Material assessment of bones in every patient was performed by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from two points on the skeleton – part of the femur neck and between the first and fourth lumbar vertebrae. A lipid blood test was done for patients of both groups. All patients were divided into two groups (the 1st with osteopenia, and the 2nd with osteoporosis. All patients were subjected to an oral clinical examination: the periodontal examination was composed of Plaque Index (PI, Pocket Score (PS, and Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI. X-ray analysis was performed for every patient. Results: The results of the clinical periodontal examination demonstrated that the mean PBI in patients in the 1st group had no significant differences from the PBI in patients in the 2nd group. PI value and PS findings in patients with general osteoporosis also had no statistical differences from the same parameters in patients with osteopenia. Conclusion: Under the circumstances of these patients’ characteristics and within the limits of the present study, we concluded that there is no significant difference in the periodontal status of postmenopausal women with systemic osteopenia and with osteoporosis.

  12. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Jasińska; Katarzyna Żułtak-Bączkowska; Bożena Mroczek; Artur Kotwas; Ewa Kemicer-Chmielewska; Beata Karakiewicz; Andrzej Starczewski

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), may help establish a com...

  13. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

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    Maria Jasińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater

  14. Diabetes and Lung Cancer Among Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Juhua; Chlebowski, Rowan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Tinker, Lesley; Margolis, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Epidemiological evidence of diabetes as a lung cancer risk factor is limited and conflicting. Therefore, we assessed associations among diabetes, diabetes therapy, and lung cancer risk in postmenopausal women participating in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Postmenopausal women (n = 145,765), ages 50–79 years, including 8,154 women with diabetes at study entry were followed for a mean of 11 years with 2,257 lung cancers diagnosed. Information o...

  15. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women

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    Lavanya S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 500 antenatal women in their first or second trimesters were screened over a period of 2 years for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Out of them, 8.4% (42 were culture positive. A control group of 100 non-pregnant women, both married and unmarried, was also simultaneously screened. The control group yielded an overall culture positivity of 3% (4% in the married non-pregnant women and 2% in the unmarried women. Primigravida had highest percent culture positivity of 66.6%. The incidence was higher in less than 20 years age group i.e. 71.42%. Of the screening tests, Gram stained smear when compared with the standard loop method, showed the highest sensitivity of 95.2%. The specificity of the screening tests was high [Gram stained smear (98.6%, catalase test (97.1% and pus cell count(96.5%]. Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated in the test and control groups. The organisms were sensitive to cephalexin, nitrofurantoin, amoxycillin and norfloxacin in decreasing order. Incidence of prematurity was 75% and that of low birth weight was 50% in untreated patients.

  16. Vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal women with pelvic floor disorders

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    Preethi Raja Navaneethan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Findings suggest association of vitamin D deficiency and PFD in postmenopausal women. In addition, postmenopausal women have a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency indicating a need to evaluate vitamin D levels in these women.

  17. Sensibilidade e especificidade da histerossonografia nas afecções endometriais em mulheres assintomáticas pós-menopausa Sensitivity and specificity of hysterosonography in endometrial abnormalities in asymptomatic postmenopausal women

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    Sonia Tamanaha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: 1 Estimar sensibilidade e especificidade da histerossonografia nas afecções endometriais, utilizando-se como padrão-ouro a histeroscopia diagnóstica; 2 comparar concordância entre a ultra-sonografia, a histerossonografia e a histeroscopia através do índice de Kappa (K. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 50 mulheres assintomáticas após menopausa, todas tinham suspeita de afecções endometriais pela ultra-sonografia transvaginal e, por isso, complementaram avaliação endometrial com a histerossonografia, a histeroscopia diagnóstica e a biópsia orientada. Para comparação dos resultados entre esses exames utilizou-se índice de Kappa. RESULTADOS: Afecções endometriais mais freqüentes: pólipos (58%, sinéquias (20%, mioma submucoso (12% e espessamento endometrial (6%. Cavidade normal (4% dos exames histeroscópicos. A sensibilidade da histerossonografia para diagnóstico de pólipo foi de 89,7%; a especificidade de 81% e o (K de 71,1%. Para sinéquia a sensibilidade foi de 80%, a especificidade 100% e o (K de 86,5%; para mioma submucoso: a sensibilidade foi de 83,3%; a especificidade de 97,7% e o (K de 81,1% e para espessamento endometrial a sensibilidade foi de 33,3%, a especificidade de 89,4% e o (K de15,5%. CONCLUSÕES: A histerossonografia apresentou ótima concordância com a histeroscopia para sinéquias e miomas submucosos; boa concordância para pólipo e péssima concordância para espessamentos endometriais. Revelou-se, também, tratar-se de método simples, eficiente e que pode ser utilizado para a avaliação da cavidade uterina em mulheres após menopausa.BACKGROUND: To estimate sensitivity and specificity of hysterosonography for diagnosis of endometrial cavity abnormalities. The gold-standard was hysteroscopy; to compare the agreement between ultrasonographic, hysterosonographic and hysteroscopic findings using the KIA (Kappa Index Agreement. METHODS: Fifty asymptomatic postmenopausal women that had a suspicion of

  18. Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have indicated that calcium absorption is increased by lactulose, a synthetic disaccharide. Therefore, the influence of lactulose on calcium absorption was measured in postmenopausal women who may benefit from the possible enhancing effect of lactulose on calcium absorption. Twelve po

  19. Complete molar pregnancy in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Jasmina; Palai, Pallavee; Ghose, Seetesh

    2016-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is an abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue during pregnancy. It is a disease of reproductive age, and a few cases have also been seen in women with advanced age, although it is extremely rare in postmenopausal women. Here, we describe an uncommon case of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) in a postmenopausal woman, who has presented to us with complaints of bleeding per vagina, vomiting with 22 weeks size gravid uterus. Ultrasound finding along with raised serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) 400,000 mIU/ml suggested the diagnosis of CHM. In view of postmenopausal status and future risk of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, we performed a total abdominal hysterectomy. Uterus was 20 cm × 15 cm × 15 cm filled with cystic, grapes such as vesicles. Microscopic examination demonstrated generalized trophoblastic proliferation with hydropic degenerated villi suggested of benign CHM. Follow-up showed steady fall in serum β-HCG level and no evidence of any residual disease. A suspicion of GTD should be kept in mind while evaluating a patient with peri- or post-menopausal bleeding so that it will prevent a delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27499598

  20. Doubts about oestrogen therapy in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    In postmenopausal women, the predominate steroid is estrone, and data have indicated that conversion of androgen to estrone is 2-3 times greater in women with endometrial cancer than in others. 2 studies of exogenous estrogens in postmenopausal women are summarized. In the 1st, 317 patients with adenocarcinoma were compared with matched controls with cervical, ovarian, and vulval neoplasms. 152 patients had estrogen therapy as compared with 54 controls, and calculations revealed the cancer risk as 4.5 times greater among patients than controls. The 2nd study concerned the use of conjugated estrogens. 94 patients with endometrial cancer and double that number of matched controls were examined. Conjugated estrogens had been used by 57% of patients and only 15% of controls. The data revealed an increased risk of 5.6 times in patients using estrogen for between 1 and 5 years, rising to 13.9 times greater risk after 7 or more years; and this relationship could not be explained by factors such as age, parity, obesity, or menopausal age. The chance of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women not using estrogens is 1/100,000/year. In estrogen users, the level increases to between 4 and 8/100,000/year. More information is needed on effects of estrogens; they are valuable in relieving psychological symptoms, vasomotor instability, and, perhaps, mortality, osteoporosis, fractures, and vascular diseases after oophorectomy. These advantages have to be weighed against thromboembolism, coronary diease, strokes, and possible cancer; the benefits and risks are not easily calculated. PMID:12258712

  1. Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jehan, Shazia; Masters-Isarilov, Alina; Salifu, Idoko; Zizi, Ferdinand; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Gupta, Ravi; Brzezinski, Amnon; McFarlane, Samy I

    2015-01-01

    One of the core symptoms of the menopausal transition is sleep disturbance. Peri-menopausal women often complain of difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep with frequent nocturnal and early morning awakenings. Factors that may play a role in this type of insomnia include vasomotor symptoms, changing reproductive hormone levels, circadian rhythm abnormalities, mood disorders, coexistent medical conditions, and lifestyle. Other common sleep problems in this age group, such as obstructi...

  2. Intensity of climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women

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    Thaiene Rodrigues dos Santos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the characteristics and intensity of climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive study with systematic probabilistic sampling, consisting of 247 women in post menopause, who answered the Questionnaire of Women’s Health. To evaluate the intensity of climacteric symptoms the Menopausal Index of Blatt and Kupperman was used. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 17, a significance level of 5% and 95% confidence intervals for all analyzes were adopted. Results: 36.8% of women had mild climacteric symptoms, 56.3% moderate and 6.9% severe. In descending order hot flushes, irritability and sleep disorders reached the highest intensity ratios. Conclusion: the Menopausal index of Blatt and Kupperman (25.34 showed symptoms of moderate intensity. Hot flushes showed to be the symptom of highest intensity of discomfort.

  3. Factors associated with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

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    Talma Reis Leal Fernandes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women who conducted their examinations of Bone Mineral Densitometry in private clinic in the city of Maringá (PR in the years of 2012 and 2013 and their association with risk factors. Methods: This transversal, descriptive exploratory study involving 177 postmenopausal women. The study included patients who presented primary osteoporosis, with or without hysterectomy and excluded volunteers who presented other conditions or diseases associated with altered bone mass. The main analyzed variables were: race; Body Mass Index; ages of menarche and menopause and menopause time. Results: The average age of the sample was 59 years old with a standard deviation of ±7.97 years. In relation to the classification of the patients according to the results of the examination of bone mass, 23% were in the normal group, 65% presented osteopenia and 12%, osteoporosis. Statistical analysis showed association of advanced age and time of menopause with the disease, but there was no statistical significance in relation to the analysis for association of other risk factors. Conclusions: The study conducted allows to conclude that there was a low prevalence of normal densitometry and high prevalence of low bone mass in the sampling population. The age and menopausal time period can be considered as risk factors for osteoporosis in the sample.

  4. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among HIV positive pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awolude, Olutosin A; Adesina, Olubukola A; Oladokun, Adesina; Mutiu, W B; Adewole, Isaac F

    2010-01-01

    The prognostic significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria resides in the observation that the prevalence is, relatively, high in persons with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and pregnancy. This prevalence might, even, be higher in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Hence, this study set out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among symptom free and newly enrolled HIV infected pregnant women attending PMTCT unit of Antiretroviral Clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria between 1st May and 30th September 2007.Information was obtained on the socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects, CD4 count and viral load. Microbial culture was carried out on aseptically collected urines from the patients. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS 12 package. There were 161 analyzable samples from the participants. The mean age and gestational age at presentation of participants was 30.49 ± 4.3 years and 27.3 ± 3.2 weeks, respectively with modal parity of 2. Twenty-five (15.5%) of the urine samples significantly grew bacteria. The CD4 cells were significantly lower and the viral loads significantly higher(250.52 vs. 355.57 cells/mm3; 88,731 vs. 55,384 copies/ml; p = asymptomatic bacteriuria among PLWHAs is high. The microbial isolate from the urine samples were not different from those of HIV-negative patients. PMID:21178431

  5. Bone mineral density among postmenopausal Saudi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is reported to be common among postmenopausal Saudi women. The reported incidence varies between 50-60%. Different machines were used to reach these conclusions. At present it is believed that dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most accurate method to diagnose osteoporosis. This study was conducted to measure bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of lumbar spine and the upper femur of Saudi postmenopausal women attending orthopedic clinic with unrelated complaints. This study comprises of 256 patients attending orthopedic clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2002 and June 2003. The data gathered was age, duration of menopause, height and weight for body mass index (BMI) calculation. Women with secondary osteoporosis were excluded from study. Patient's orthopedic complaints were also recorded in the database. Bone mineral density measurements were carried out using Hologic total body DEXA machine. The data were analyzed using SPSS package. The data of 256 patients was available for analysis. The average age of patients screened was 57.62 years (49-76) SD+-6.71. The BMI was 21.3-42.9 Kg/m (SD+-5.34). The BMD of lumbar spine was 0.785 gm/cm2 (0.527-1.023) SD +-0.142 and that of the hip region was 0.764 gm/cm2 (0.500-1.069) SD +-0.149. As per the WHO classification 59 women (23%) were classified as normal with the T score of -0.82, 78 (30.5%) as osteopenic with T score -2.5 and 119 (46.7%) as osteoporosis with T score -3.58. When the BMD of the hip was analyzed 62 (24.2%) were normal T score -1.0, 81 (31.6%) as osteopenic, T score -2.5 and 113 (44.1%0 as osteoporotic, with a T score of -3.1. on the basis of analysis of lumbar spine 190 (74.2%) had increased risk of fracture as compared to the analysis of hip 59% were at increased risk of fracture. Our results indicate that postmenopausal Saudi women suffer from osteoporosis and osteopenia higher than those from other parts of the

  6. Life Satisfaction and Morbidity among Postmenopausal Women.

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    Pyry S Lukkala

    Full Text Available To investigate associations between morbidity and global life satisfaction in postmenopausal women taking into account type and number of diseases.A total of 11,084 women (age range 57-66 years from a population-based cohort of Finnish women (OSTPRE Study responded to a postal enquiry in 1999. Life satisfaction was measured with a 4-item scale. Self-reported diseases diagnosed by a physician and categorized according to ICD-10 main classes were used as a measure of morbidity. Enquiry data on health and lifestyle were used as covariates in the multivariate logistic models.Morbidity was strongly associated with life dissatisfaction. Every additional disease increased the risk of life dissatisfaction by 21.1% (p < .001. The risk of dissatisfaction was strongest among women with mental disorders (OR = 5.26; 95%CI 3.84-7.20 and neurological disorders (OR = 3.62; 95%CI 2.60-5.02 compared to the healthy (each p < .001. Smoking, physical inactivity and marital status were also associated with life dissatisfaction (each p < .001 but their introduction to the multivariate model did not attenuate the pattern of associations.Morbidity and life dissatisfaction have a disease-specific and dose-dependent relationship. Even if women with mental and neurological disorders have the highest risk for life dissatisfaction, monitoring life satisfaction among aging women regardless of disorders should be undertaken in order to intervene the joint adverse effects of poor health and poor well-being.

  7. Apoptosis in ovarian cells in postmenopausal women.

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    Maria Laszczyńska

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a natural process which accompanies human ovary from the moment of birth until old age. While it is a well-known process at the reproductive age, it still needs to be thoroughly examined when referring to the postmenopausal age. The study involved 30 postmenopausal women who had their ovaries removed by laparotomy due to nonneoplastic diseases of the uterus. The women were divided into 3 groups depending on the time that had passed since the last menstruation. Group A consisted of women who had their last menstruation no more than 5 years earlier. In group B menopause occurred 5 to 10 years earlier. Group C was composed of patients who had the last menstruation over 10 years earlier. In all the patients concentrations of follitropin (FSH and estradiol (E2 in blood plasma were measured. Ovarian tissue was obtained during surgery. For morphological studies, ovaries were fixed in Bouin's solution and 4% formalin and embedded in paraffin. Morphological analysis was carried out after hematoxylin-eosin (H-E staining. For histochemical detection of apoptotic cells (in situ localization of fragment DNA, the TUNEL method was used. The expression of caspase-3 positive cells was determined immunohistochemically in paraffin-embedded specimens. Comparing to groups A and B, the ovaries in group C contained small number of corpora albicantia located in the medullary part as well as thinned blood vessels and few lymphatic vessels and nerves. In contrast to group A where the number of TUNEL-positive cells was high and caspase-3 expression was observed, no TUNEL-positive nuclei and caspase-3 expression were found in the examined ovaries of group C women.

  8. Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women with Central Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selima Akhter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following menopause there are changes in values of lipid profile parameters. Abdominal obesity has also been linked to significant metabolic abnormalities including changes in lipid parameter values. So, we designed this study to observe the pattern of lipid profile parameters in postmenopausal central obese women. Objective: To assess the lipid profile status of postmenopausal women with central obesity. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period of January 2005 to December 2005. Seventy four postmenopausal women with central obesity and age matched 56 nonobese postmenopausal women were included in the study. Central obesity was defined having waist hip ratio more than 0.8. All statistical analyses were done by SPSS 12.0. p values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Statistically no significant difference was observed between the central obese women and nonobese women in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. But HDL-cholesterol was found lower and triacylglycerol was found higher in postmenopausal central obese women. Conclusion: Dyslipidaemia is a feature of postmenopausal women with central obesity.

  9. A study of autonomic functions and obesity in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Arunima Chaudhuri; Borade, Nirmala G.; Jyotsna Tirumalai; Daniel Saldanha; Balaram Ghosh; Kalpana Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Background: Easy accessibility to Medicare and better living conditions has increased life expectancy in recent years. There are over 60 million postmenopausal women above 55 years in India. Obesity, physical inactivity, and altered estrogen metabolism play an integrated role in contributing to the disease risk profile of postmenopausal women. These same risk factors also affect modulation of the autonomic nervous system. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis whether there is indeed a...

  10. HOSPITAL BASED STUDY FOR ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Babital; Sanjeev,; Shankar

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is infection in pregnancy which requires medical treatment. If left untreated, may lead to prematurity, intrauteri ne death and pyelonephrit i s. The diagnosis is done by culture and its antibiotic sensitivity helped the women in treatment.

  11. Estrogen Therapy Has No Long-Term Effect on Cognition in Younger Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has no long-term effect on cognition in younger postmenopausal women NIH-funded study finds neither benefit ... A randomized clinical trial of estrogen therapy in younger postmenopausal women, aged 50–55, has found no ...

  12. Rate of bone loss in postmenopausal and osteoporotic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional and total bone mass were determined in three groups of women by photon absorptiometry of the distal radius [bone mineral content (BMC)] and total neutron activation analysis [total body calcium (TBCa)], respectively. There were three groups of patients: group A, osteoporotic women treated with a variety of pharmacologic agents; group B, osteoporotic women (controls) taking only calcium supplements; and group C, normal postmenopausal women. The mean TBCa and BMC were considerably higher in the postmenopausal women than in the osteoporotic women. The rate of change of bone mass in group C was -0.45%/yr and -0.9%/yr for the total skeleton and radius, respectively. Group B had no significant rate of loss, whereas group A demonstrated a significant increase in TBCa of 0.75%/yr with no change in the BMC of the radius. There were no significant between-subject correlations for the slopes (rates of change) of the two bone mineral measurements

  13. Vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal women with pelvic floor disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Preethi Raja Navaneethan; Aruna Kekre; Kuruthukulangara Sebastian Jacob; Lilly Varghese

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of vitamin D deficiency and pelvic floor disorders (PFD) including pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective case control study on 120 women with or without symptoms of PFD. Relevant history and clinical examination were conducted. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were measured in all women. Chi square and student t test were used to test ...

  14. Women with prolactinomas presented at the postmenopausal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimon, Ilan; Bronstein, Marcello D; Shapiro, Jonathan; Tsvetov, Gloria; Benbassat, Carlos; Barkan, Ariel

    2014-12-01

    In women, prolactinomas (mainly microprolactinomas) are commonly diagnosed between 20-40-year old. In postmenopausal women, prolactinomas are rarely encountered and usually do not present with hyperprolactinemia-related symptoms as these are dependent on intact ovarian function. Therefore, the true incidence of prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenomas in postmenopausal woman is unknown. Our study objective was to characterize these rare and unique pituitary tumors. A retrospective study including a consecutive group of postmenopausal women followed and treated at 3 Endocrine academic clinics. Baseline clinical characteristics (PRL and gonadotropins levels, other pituitary hormones, adenoma size and invasiveness, visual fields) and response to treatment are reported. The cohort included 14 postmenopausal women with prolactinomas (mean age at diagnosis, 63.6 ± 7.1 years; range, 54-75 years). Mean adenoma size at presentation was 25.6 ± 12.4 mm (range, 8-50 mm). Six out of the 14 women had significant visual fields damage. Mean baseline PRL level was 1,783 ng/ml, and median PRL was 827 ng/ml (range, 85-6,732 ng/ml). Medical treatment with cabergoline was given to twelve of the patients. Cabergoline normalized/near-normalized PRL in eleven women; one woman was dopamine agonist-resistant. Five of the six subjects with visual disturbances normalized or improved their vision, and a pre-treatment diplopia in another patient disappeared. Two large pituitary tumors disappeared on MRI following long-term dopamine agonist therapy. All other treated prolactinomas, except the resistant adenoma, shrank following medical treatment. Prolactinomas are rarely diagnosed in postmenopausal women. These women usually harbor large and invasive macroadenomas, secreting high PRL levels, and usually respond to dopamine agonist treatment. PMID:24711223

  15. Sexuality in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokoff, Patricia J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews psychological and biological aspects of effects of menopause on sexuality. Discusses population studies revealing that postmenopausal status is associated with decline in some components of sexual functioning. Notes that little research has examined psychological response to menopause and its effect on sexual functioning. Research on…

  16. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankowski, Vera; Just, Alexander R; Pfeilschifter, Johannes;

    2014-01-01

    .10-0.43). Although intima-media thickness did not differ, postmenopausal women with serous oxLDL had more often atherosclerotic plaques compared to women without oxLDL (6/66 vs. 0/467; P < 0.01). Higher concentrations of high-density lipoprotein, impaired glucose intolerance, and DBP were independently associated......BACKGROUND: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) leads to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, the most frequent causes of death worldwide. After menopause, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism changes and women are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease compared to fertile women. The aim...... of this study was to determine the prevalence of serum oxLDL in postmenopausal women and to identify possible associations of clinical and laboratory features with oxLDL in these patients. METHOD: After clinical examination and completing a clinical questionnaire, an ultrasound examination of both...

  17. Androidal fat dominates in predicting cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would attenuate the anticipated increase in androidal fat mass in postmenopausal women during the 36-month treatment, and thereby favorably modify the circulating cardiometabolic risk factors: triacylglycerol, LDLC, HDL-C, glucose, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive ...

  18. Lipid Peroxidation and Lipid Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    , Banu ÖNVURAL

    1998-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the degree of lipid peroxidation in the sera of postmenopausal women and compare this with the lipid peroxidation of a premenopausal group, and to see if there was any correlation between lipid parameters and lipid peroxidation within the groups. We assayed the lipid profiles and malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker for lipid peroxidation, in a postmenopausal group (n=57, mean age=49.4±6.6), an age-matched male group (n=21, mean age=48.5±6.7) an...

  19. Association Between Perceived Social Support and Depression in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Tadayon Najafabadi; Kalhori; Javadifar; Hosein Haghighizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background The most common symptom in early menopausal women is depression. Depression is a type of chronic disease that impacts on postmenopausal women’s life. Social support plays a protective role for women and enables them to solve their life problems and thus, feel less depressed. Objectives We assessed depression as a chronic disease and evaluated the association between perceived social support and depression in postmenopau...

  20. Vitamin D status in healthy postmenopausal Iranian women

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra Niafar; Amir Bahrami; Akbar Aliasgharzadeh; Naser Aghamohammadzadeh; Farzad najafipour; Majid Mobasseri

    2009-01-01

    • BACKGROUND: There are few epidemiologic studies on vitamin D status of postmenopausal women in the Middle East countries. This study aimed to investigate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in  ostmenopausal women living in the north-west of Iran.
    • METHODS: Using the records of the local household registry, 300 cases were enrolled by simple random sampling. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels wer...

  1. Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 hea...

  2. Identification of sarcopenic obesity in postmenopausal women: a cutoff proposal

    OpenAIRE

    R.J. Oliveira; M. Bottaro; J.T. Júnior; Farinatti, P. T. V.; L.A. Bezerra; Lima, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcopenic obesity is the combination of reduced fat-free mass (FFM) and increased fat mass (FM) with advancing age but there is lack of clear criteria for its identification. The purposes of the present investigation were: 1) to determine the prevalence of postmenopausal women with reduced FFM relative to their FM and height, and 2) to examine whether there are associations between the proposed classification and health-related variables. A total of 607 women were included in this cross-sect...

  3. Ethnicity, sleep, mood, and illumination in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Tuunainen Arja; Rex Katharine M; Klauber Melville R; Elliott Jeffrey A; Kripke Daniel F; Jean-Louis Girardin; Langer Robert D

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examined how ethnic differences in sleep and depression were related to environmental illumination and circadian rhythms. Methods In an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, 459 postmenopausal women were recorded for one week in their homes, using wrist monitors. Sleep and illumination experience were estimated. Depression was self-rated with a brief adjective check list. Affective diagnoses were made using the SCID interview. Sleep disordered breath...

  4. Bone strength and its determinants in peri- and postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diminished bone strength increases the frequency of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Weight and gonadal status are important determinants of bone mass in women. This study tried to find out the bone strength and its determinants in peri- and postmenopausal age groups of women. Methods: One hundred and twenty females with age range 25 - 66 years were included in the study. According to their age and menstrual status they were divided into premenopausal (30) peri menopausal (50) and postmenopausal (40). Body Mass Index (MBI) and bone related blood parameter, serum calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and estradiol were estimated. Bone mineral density was taken by peripheral densitometer. Results: Blood chemical parameters were not significantly different in these groups. The p-value of serum estradiol was highly significant in peri- and postmenopausal groups. BMI was significantly high in postmenopausal as compared to pre and perimenopausal groups. Conclusion: Early menopause, low levels of oestrogen and BMI values can all affect the health of bones in elderly women. (author)

  5. Pheromonal influences on sociosexual behavior in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebely, Joan; Rako, Susan

    2004-11-01

    To determine whether a putative human sex-attractant pheromone increases specific sociosexual behaviors of postmenopausal women, we tested a chemically synthesized formula derived from research with underarm secretions from heterosexually active, fertile women that was recently tested on young women. Participants (n = 44, mean age = 57 years) were postmenopausal women who volunteered for a double-blind placebo-controlled study designed, to test an odorless pheromone, added to your preferred fragrance, to learn if it might increase the romance in your life. During the experimental 6-week period, a significantly greater proportion of participants using the pheromone formula (40.9%) than placebo (13.6%) recorded an increase over their own weekly average baseline frequency of petting, kissing, and affection (p = .02). More pheromone (68.2%) than placebo (40.9%) users experienced an increase in at least one of the four intimate sociosexual behaviors (p = .04). Sexual motivation frequency, as expressed in masturbation, was not increased in pheromone users. These results suggest that the pheromone formulation worn with perfume for a period of 6 weeks has sex-attractant effects for postmenopausal women. PMID:15765277

  6. HOSPITAL BASED STUDY FOR ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babital

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is infection in pregnancy which requires medical treatment. If left untreated, may lead to prematurity, intrauteri ne death and pyelonephrit i s. The diagnosis is done by culture and its antibiotic sensitivity helped the women in treatment.

  7. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women in Outpatient Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Maral G. Nogayeva; Svetlana A. Tuleutayeva

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract morbidity has increased by 7% in Kazakhstan between 2007 to 2011. Pregnant women with extragenital pathologies or kidney diseases had the greatest prevalence of morbidity. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is one of the most important risk factors of pyelonephritis development in pregnant women, and it can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period. AB prevention requires prevention of pregnancy complications including early diagnostic of urinary trac...

  8. [Labial fusion in postmenopausal women--a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganovska, A; Kovachev, S

    2016-01-01

    Labial fusion is benign genital disorder, which more frequent in children at 6 years old and less in women in reproductive and postmenopausal age. It can be congenital or acquired condition. Its etiology is unclear. The low serum estrogen concentration is the basic cause of labial fusion. As a result of physiological hypoestrogenism in the vulvar skin and mucosa come on atrophic changes, which together with the chronic inflammatory changes lead to labial adhesia with subsequent partial or total obstruction of the vagina and/or the urethra. The treatment can be conservative or surgical depending on the degree of labial fusion. We perform two clinical cases respectively of total and partial vulvarsynechiae in postmenopausal women. The clinical picture of the patient with total synechiae is represented by a difficult and prolonged micturition and urinary incontinence, while in patients with partial synechiae is represented by an inability to carry out sexual intercourse. PMID:27514170

  9. Relationships of Leptin and Anthropometry, Physical Work Capacity, Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yanbai; Wang, Hongli; Kakehashi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal women gain abdominal and visceral fat during the menopausal period. Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone that is involved in metabolic disturbance disease. However, few studies have investigated the associations between leptin and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Chinese postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of serum leptin and anthropometry, physical work capacity and MS in sixty Chinese postmenopausal women. Factor analysis extracted fi...

  10. Effects of hormone treatment on sexual functioning in postmenopausal women: pharmacological intervention and female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Nijland, Esmé Aurelia

    2008-01-01

    Effects of hormone treatment on sexual functioning in postmenopausal women. Pharmacological intervention and female sexuality: a complex, controversial clinical and social issue. The studies presented in this thesis have been conducted to investigate the effects of hormone therapy (HT) and tibolone on sexual function in postmenopausal women. Sufficient evidence for the effects of tibolone on sexual function and dysfunction in postmenopausal women was, until now not available. As tibolone does...

  11. Physical activity and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Karadžov-Nikolić Aleksandra; Milićević Saša; Gicić-Skenderi Suada

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Physical activity in postmenopausal women can slow bone loss and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Purpose: Analysis of the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in relation to physical activity. Methods: This paper represents a retrospective multicenter study of postmenopausal women with newly found osteoporosis from August 2008 until November 2011. All data concerning the patients were taken from the National Register for Osteoporosis. Patie...

  12. Argan oil and postmenopausal Moroccan women: impact on the vitamin E profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Monfalouti, Hanae; Charrouf, Zoubida; El Hamdouchi, Asma; Labraimi, Hanane; Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Kartah, Badreddine; El Kari, Khalid; Bensouda, Yahya; Derouich, Abdelfettah; Dodin, Sylvie; Denhez, Clément; Guillaume, Dom; Agnaou, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin E supplements could be beneficial for postmenopausal women. To evaluate the effect of edible argan oil consumption on the antioxidant status of postmenopausal women, the vitamin E serum level of 151 menopausal women consuming either olive or argan oil was determined. Serum level of vitamin E was increased in the argan oil consumer group. Therefore, an argan oil-enriched diet can be recommended to help prevent some postmenopausal disorders. PMID:23472459

  13. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks

  14. The relationship between sex hormones and extent of coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Odgerel Tumur; HAN Jiang-li; YANG Chi-sun; MAO Jie-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women increases with menopause. Results from the studies on the role of endogenous sex hormones on CAD in postmenopausal women are conflicting.1,2 The present study evaluated the relationship between endogenous sex hormones and extent of CAD in postmenopausal women and the associations of sex hormones with CAD risk factors.

  15. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: A rural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal R Tandon

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed alarmingly high prevalence of most of the conventional CVRFs, especially diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and other risk factors in postmenopausal women from rural areas.

  16. Androgens and estrogens in postmenopausal insulin-treated diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H; Djursing, H; Hagen, C;

    1989-01-01

    Diabetic women may have an increased risk of developing endometrial carcinoma. Ovarian and adrenal activity seem to be factors in the genesis of this cancer. We have measured serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free and bound fractions of estrogens and androgens, and gonadotropins in 20...... levels were similar in the two groups, while serum PRL was significantly lower in the diabetic group (P less than 0.02). The hormonal changes in the diabetics were not related to control of the diabetes. We conclude that total estrogen levels are increased in postmenopausal women with insulin...

  17. Vitamin D status in healthy postmenopausal Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Niafar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: There are few epidemiologic studies on vitamin D status of postmenopausal women in the Middle East countries. This study aimed to investigate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in  ostmenopausal women living in the north-west of Iran.
    • METHODS: Using the records of the local household registry, 300 cases were enrolled by simple random sampling. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined by fully automated chemiluminescent  mmunoassay. In addition, the study included survey questions regarding age, body weight and height, use of supplements and skin protection agents and clinical and reproductive histories.
    • RESULT: Our cases had the mean age of 63.41 ± 4.64 years with menopause duration of 16.79 ± 6.15 years. Median and interquartile 25-75 range of vitamin D were 14.20 ng/ml and 7-37.2 ng/ml  espectively. We found hypovitaminosis D [25(OH D < 10 ng/ml] in 38.3% of our cases. Serum 25(OH D concentrations were not  ignificantly correlated with age or BMI.
    • CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that 25(OH D levels in postmenopausal women of north-west Iran are low. Studies to elucidate and assess the dietary intake of vitamin D in elderly women of this region can be of further benefit.
    • KEYWORDS: Vitamin D Deficiency, Dietary Supplement, Postmenopausal Period, Middle East, Iran.

  18. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women in Outpatient Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maral G. Nogayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract morbidity has increased by 7% in Kazakhstan between 2007 to 2011. Pregnant women with extragenital pathologies or kidney diseases had the greatest prevalence of morbidity. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB is one of the most important risk factors of pyelonephritis development in pregnant women, and it can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period. AB prevention requires prevention of pregnancy complications including early diagnostic of urinary tract infections, timely optimization of therapy at outpatient facilities, and dynamic follow-up.

  19. Ethnicity, sleep, mood, and illumination in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuunainen Arja

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined how ethnic differences in sleep and depression were related to environmental illumination and circadian rhythms. Methods In an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, 459 postmenopausal women were recorded for one week in their homes, using wrist monitors. Sleep and illumination experience were estimated. Depression was self-rated with a brief adjective check list. Affective diagnoses were made using the SCID interview. Sleep disordered breathing was monitored with home pulse oximetry. Results Hispanic and African-American women slept less than European-American women, according to both objective recordings and their own sleep logs. Non-European-American women had more blood oxygen desaturations during sleep, which accounted for 26% of sleep duration variance associated with ethnicity. Hispanic women were much more depressed. Hispanic, African-American and Native-American women experienced less daily illumination. Less daily illumination experience was associated with poorer global functioning, longer but more disturbed sleep, and more depression. Conclusions Curtailed sleep and poor mood were related to ethnicity. Sleep disordered breathing was a factor in the curtailed sleep of minority women. Less illumination was experienced by non-European-American women, but illumination accounted for little of the contrasts between ethnic groups in sleep and mood. Social factors may be involved.

  20. Ethnicity, sleep, mood, and illumination in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Daniel F; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Klauber, Melville R; Rex, Katharine M; Tuunainen, Arja; Langer, Robert D

    2004-01-01

    Background This study examined how ethnic differences in sleep and depression were related to environmental illumination and circadian rhythms. Methods In an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, 459 postmenopausal women were recorded for one week in their homes, using wrist monitors. Sleep and illumination experience were estimated. Depression was self-rated with a brief adjective check list. Affective diagnoses were made using the SCID interview. Sleep disordered breathing was monitored with home pulse oximetry. Results Hispanic and African-American women slept less than European-American women, according to both objective recordings and their own sleep logs. Non-European-American women had more blood oxygen desaturations during sleep, which accounted for 26% of sleep duration variance associated with ethnicity. Hispanic women were much more depressed. Hispanic, African-American and Native-American women experienced less daily illumination. Less daily illumination experience was associated with poorer global functioning, longer but more disturbed sleep, and more depression. Conclusions Curtailed sleep and poor mood were related to ethnicity. Sleep disordered breathing was a factor in the curtailed sleep of minority women. Less illumination was experienced by non-European-American women, but illumination accounted for little of the contrasts between ethnic groups in sleep and mood. Social factors may be involved. PMID:15070419

  1. Ultrasonographic evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindushree Kadakola

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objectives of current study were to diagnose causes of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB in postmenopausal women (PMW and to correlate it with curettage and histopathological findings, hysteroscopy and thereby minimizing unnecessary interventions in the form of operations and hysteroscopy where sonography depicts normal findings. Methods: After obtaining ethical clearance present prospective observational study was conducted from November 2010 to November 2012, to evaluate the endometrium in 50 postmenopausal women (PMW with bleeding per vagina referred to the department of Radio diagnosis by the department of gynaecology in Bangalore medical college and research institute. After applying inclusion and exclusion criterias the cases were evaluated with ultrasonography both transabdominal (TAS and transvaginal scan (TVS where ever necessary. Histopathological and hysteroscopic correlation was done in all cases. Results: 58% of the PMW with bleed were in the age group of 51-60 years. Most common cause of PMB was atrophic endometrium (44%, endometrial polyp (22%, followed by malignancy (14%, and hyperplastic endometrium (6%. At Endometrium thickness less than 4 mm there were nil chances of carcinoma. Conclusions: In women with AUB in postmenopausal age ultrasonography (USG can be considered as an initial imaging modality for diagnosing endometrial diseases. The sensitivity and specificity of USG for Atrophic endometrium is 100% and 84% respectively with accuracy of 100%, endometrial polyp the specificity is 100% with accuracy of 88%. For malignancy USG showed 100% specificity and accuracy of 100%. Hence USG is highly accurate for evaluating endometrial pathologies. Being noninvasive, less costly and good patient compliance USG should be considered as an initial imaging modality over invasive investigations like D and C, hysteroscopy in evaluating endometrial disorders. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 229-234

  2. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose Vagifem 10 microg in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, L S G; Naessen, T; Elia, D; Goldstein, J A; Eugster-Hausmann, M; Axelsen, Susanne Maigaard

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the endometrial safety of a 10 microg estradiol vaginal tablet in the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women.......The objective of the study was to evaluate the endometrial safety of a 10 microg estradiol vaginal tablet in the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women....

  3. Oral health after breast cancer treatment in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Amódio, Juliana; Daniela Bazan PALIOTO; Carrara, Helio Humberto Angotti; Tiezzi, Daniel Guimaraes; de Andrade, Jurandyr Moreira; dos Reis, Francisco José Candido

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Oral health can affect a patient's general health and quality of life. Given the increase in breast cancer survival rates, investigations of factors influencing the quality of life of survivors have gained importance. Therefore, the objective of our study was to characterize oral health in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study. Forty-eight women who survived breast cancer (age 62.1±9.1 years) and 48 healthy controls (age 61.8±8.6...

  4. Oral health after breast cancer treatment in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Amódio; Daniela Bazan Palioto; Helio Humberto Angotti Carrara; Daniel Guimaraes Tiezzi; Jurandyr Moreira de Andrade; Francisco José Candido dos Reis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Oral health can affect a patient’s general health and quality of life. Given the increase in breast cancer survival rates, investigations of factors influencing the quality of life of survivors have gained importance. Therefore, the objective of our study was to characterize oral health in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study. Forty-eight women who survived breast cancer (age 62.1±9.1 years) and 48 healthy controls (age 61.8±8...

  5. Alendronate improves QOL of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaya Kawate

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hisaya Kawate1, Keizo Ohnaka2, Masahiro Adachi1, Suminori Kono3, Hideyuki Ikematsu4, Hisashi Matsuo5, Kazumi Higuchi6, Takehiko Takayama7, Ryoichi Takayanagi11Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 4Internal Medicine, Haradoi Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 5Matsuo Naika Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 6Fukuoka Teishin Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 7Takayama Icho-ka and Naika Clinic, Fukuoka, JapanPurpose: Postmenopausal osteoporosis causes bone fracture as well as pain, physical, psychological and socially adverse effects, which affects a patient’s quality of life (QOL. The effect of alendronate on QOL was investigated compared with that of alfacalcidol in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.Patients and methods: A total of 44 postmenopausal osteoporotic women (mean age 69.8 years with back or joint pain, although capable of walking, were randomly assigned to two groups; group A (n = 25 received 5 mg/day of alendronate, and group B (n = 19 received 0.5 μg/day of alfacalcidol, for the first 4 months. For the following 2 months, the group A received 0.5 μg/day of alfacalcidol and the group B received 5 mg/day of alendronate in a crossover design. The patient’s QOL was evaluated by score of Japanese Osteoporosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (JOQOL, and pain intensity using a visual analog scale (VAS. Bone metabolism was measured by bone mineral density (BMD and a biomarker for bone resorption, urinary crosslinked N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX.Results: With 4-month treatment, alendronate, but not alfacalcidol, improved pain-related QOL, reduced joint pain by VAS, and increased bone mineral density. Both treatments significantly reduced bone resorption, the

  6. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (X2) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns

  7. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Calderón-Garcidueñas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast density (BD is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate ( and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170, fibroglandular 29% (87, heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17, and dense pattern 8.6% (26. Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117 and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183. Patterns of high breast density (BD (dense + heterogeneously dense were observed in 25.6% (30/117 of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183 of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300. Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300 of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300 of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%, and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%. Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns.

  8. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ2) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns

  9. Mammographic Breast Density Patterns in Asymptomatic Mexican Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Sanabria-Mondragón, Mónica; Hernández-Beltrán, Lourdes; López-Amador, Noé; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast density (BD) is a risk factor for breast cancer. Aims. To describe BD patterns in asymptomatic Mexican women and the pathological mammographic findings. Methods and Material. Prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Women answered a questionnaire and their mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. Univariate (χ2) and conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. In 300 women studied the BD patterns were fat 56.7% (170), fibroglandular 29% (87), heterogeneously dense 5.7% (17), and dense pattern 8.6% (26). Prevalence of fat pattern was significantly different in women under 50 years (37.6%, 44/117) and older than 50 (68.8%, 126/183). Patterns of high breast density (BD) (dense + heterogeneously dense) were observed in 25.6% (30/117) of women ≤50 years and 7.1% (13/183) of women >50. Asymmetry in BD was observed in 22% (66/300). Compression cone ruled out underlying disease in 56 cases. In the remaining 10, biopsy revealed one fibroadenoma, one complex cyst, and 6 invasive and 2 intraductal carcinomas. 2.6% (8/300) of patients had non-palpable carcinomas. Benign lesions were observed in 63.3% (190/300) of cases, vascular calcification in 150 cases (78.9%), and fat necrosis in 38 cases (20%). Conclusions. Mexican women have a low percentage of high-density patterns. PMID:23346398

  10. Study on reproductive endocrinological function in postmenopausal women treated with estriol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the reproductive endocrinological function in postmenopausal women treated with ultralente estriol for 3 years. Methods: Serum levels of six reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, PRL, T, E2, P) were measured with RIA in 1) 136 normal 1-5yrs post-menopausal women 2) 48 post-menopausal women treated with estriol for 3 years 3) 131 healthy women of child-bearing age during follicular and luteal phases. Results: Serum levels of the six reproductive hormones in women of child-bearing age at both follicular and luteal phases were significantly different from those in post-menopausal women (p 2, P and T levels were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Serum reproductive hormones assay is important for monitoring hormone replacement therapy in aging women

  11. Sex hormones in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Almdal, T; Christensen, E; Gluud, C; Farholt, S; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo; Hardt, F

    1991-01-01

    androstenedione and significantly (p less than 0.05) lower concentrations of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone compared with the 46 controls. Serum concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin, testosterone, non-sex hormone binding globulin-bound testosterone and...... non-protein-bound testosterone did not differ significantly (p greater than 0.05) between primary biliary cirrhosis patients and controls. Patients in the cirrhotic stage had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin than did controls. Patients in the......To evaluate serum sex hormone profiles in nonalcoholic postmenopausal women with liver disease, 25 women with primary biliary cirrhosis (11 in cirrhotic stage) and 46 healthy controls were studied. The patients had significantly (p less than 0.05) elevated serum concentrations of estrone and...

  12. Malignant Struma Ovarii in a Postmenopausal Asymptomatic Woman: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Behiye Pınar Çilesiz Göksedef; Hüsnü Görgen; Şafak Yılmaz Baran

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Struma ovarii is an ovarian tumor that consists predominantly thyroid tissue and accounts for only 2% of all mature teratomas. It is usually a benign condition - malignant transformation has been reported to occur in about 5% of all struma ovarii cases. Case: A 58-year-old postmenopausal woman attended our outpatient clinic for her annual gynecologic exam, on which a palpable ovary was incidentally found. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging work-up ...

  13. Vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Julien

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate serum vitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations are associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover and bone loss, which increase fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate serum 25(OHD concentrations in postmenopausal Belgian women. Opinions with regard to the definition of vitamin D deficiency and adequate vitamin D status vary widely and there are no clear international agreements on what constitute adequate concentrations of vitamin D. Methods Assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and parathyroid hormone was performed in 1195 Belgian postmenopausal women aged over 50 years. Main analysis has been performed in the whole study population and according to the previous use of vitamin D and calcium supplements. Four cut-offs of 25(OHD inadequacy were fixed : Results Mean (SD age of the patients was 76.9 (7.5 years, body mass index was 25.7 (4.5 kg/m2. Concentrations of 25(OHD were 52.5 (21.4 nmol/L. In the whole study population, the prevalence of 25(OHD inadequacy was 91.3 %, 87.5 %, 43.1 % and 15.9% when considering cut-offs of 80, 75, 50 and 30 nmol/L, respectively. Women who used vitamin D supplements, alone or combined with calcium supplements, had higher concentrations of 25(OHD than non-users. Significant inverse correlations were found between age/serum PTH and serum 25(OHD (r = -0.23/r = -0.31 and also between age/serum PTH and femoral neck BMD (r = -0.29/r = -0.15. There is a significant positive relation between age and PTH (r = 0.16, serum 25(OHD and femoral neck BMD (r = 0.07. (P Vitamin D concentrations varied with the season of sampling but did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09. Conclusion This study points out a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women, even among subjects receiving vitamin D supplements.

  14. Electrocardiogram Abnormalities and Coronary Calcification in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Bots

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: An electrocardiogram (ECG can provide information on subclinical myocardial damage. The presence,and more importantly, the quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC, relates well with the overall severity of the atherosclerotic process. A strong relation has been demonstrated between coronary calcium burden and the incidence of myocardial infarction, a relation independent of age. The aim of this study was to assess the relation of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and ECG abnormalities with CAC.Methods: The study population comprised 566 postmenopausal women selected from a population-based cohort study.Information on LVH and repolarization abnormalities (T-axis and QRS-T angle was obtained using electrocardiography.Modular ECG Analysis System (MEANS was used to assess ECG abnormalities. The women underwent a multi detectorrow computed tomography (MDCT scan (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16 to assess CAC. The Agatston score was used to quantifyCAC; scores greater than zero were considered as the presence of coronary calcium. Logistic regression was used to assessthe relation of ECG abnormality with coronary calcification.Results: LVH was found in 2.7% (n = 15 of the women. The prevalence of T-axis abnormality was 6% (n = 34, whereas 8.5% (n = 48 had a QRS-T angle abnormality. CAC was found in 62% of the women. Compared to women with a normal T-axis, women with borderline or abnormal T-axes were 3.8 fold more likely to have CAC (95% CI: 1.4-10.2. Similarly,compared to women with a normal QRS-T angle, in women with borderline or abnormal QRS-T angle, CAC was 2.0 fold more likely to be present (95% CI: 1.0-4.1.Conclusion: Among women with ECG abnormalities reflecting subclinical ischemia, CAC is commonly found and may in part explain the increased coronary heart disease risk associated with these ECG abnormalities.

  15. Sleep Disturbance and Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in Postmenopausal Women The Women's Health Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Juhua; Sands, Megan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Song, Yiqing; Margolis, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbance has been found to be associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including cancers. However, no epidemiologic study has examined the relation between sleep disturbance and thyroid cancer risk. A total of 142,933 postmenopausal women who were 50–79 years of age and enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative between September 1, 1993, and December 31, 1998, were followed up for a mean of 11 years. Cox proportional-hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard rati...

  16. Effectiveness of a low dose testosterone undecanoate to improve sexual function in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Tungmunsakulchai, Reuthairat; Chaikittisilpa, Sukanya; Snabboon, Thiti; Panyakhamlerd, Krasean; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Taechakraichana, Nimit

    2015-01-01

    Background Adding testosterone to hormonal therapy could improve sexual function and general well-being among women during climacteric. We evaluated the effectiveness of testosterone undecanoate on sexual function in postmenopausal women utilizing the standardized questionnaire FSFI score. Methods Postmenopausal women with sexual complaints and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) ≤ 26.5 were enrolled in to this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomly a...

  17. Study about xerostomia, salivary flow rate and systemic conditions of postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Lopes Carvalho; Luciana Freitas Gomes e Silva; Fernanda Ferreira Lopes; Ana Emília Figueiredo de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To make a quantitative evaluation of salivary flow and occurrence of xerostomia in post-menopausal women, according to thesystemic condition related by the patients. Methods: The sample was composed of 20 post-menopausal women, who were submitted to anamnesis and completely stimulated sialometry. Results: The results revealed that 50% of the women examined related the presence of xerostomia; hyposalivation was more present than normal salivary flow and low salivary flow; among the ...

  18. Restrained eating and self-esteem in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Drobnjak, Suzana; Atsiz, Semra; Ditzen, Beate; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been limited research about disordered eating in middle-aged women, and to date, few data exist about restrained eating behavior in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine eating behavior with a specific focus on menopause as an associated factor in restrained eating. Beyond this, we were interested in how postmenopausal status and self-esteem would interact to determine eating patterns in women in middle age. METHODS: We conducted an onl...

  19. Restrained eating and self-esteem in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Drobnjak, Suzana; Atsiz, Semra; Ditzen, Beate; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been limited research about disordered eating in middle-aged women, and to date, few data exist about restrained eating behavior in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine eating behavior with a specific focus on menopause as an associated factor in restrained eating. Beyond this, we were interested in how postmenopausal status and self-esteem would interact to determine eating patterns in women in middle age. Methods We conducted an online s...

  20. The uterine choriocarcinoma in postmenopausal women: specificities of diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kaabia, Ons; Meddeb, Sawsen; Rhim, Mohamed Salah; Bibi, Mohamed; Khairi, Hedi

    2014-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a gestational trophoblastic tumor that mainly affects women of childbearing age. Cases of choriocarcinoma in postmenopausal women are exceptional. Through an observation and literature review, we propose to study the specific diagnosis and treatment features of this tumor in menopausal women. We report the observation of a pure uterine choriocarcinoma, which occurred in post-menopause. The diagnosis was made on the analysis of surgical specimens confirmed by measurement of ...

  1. Fracture Risk Analysis in Postmenopausal Women with the Current Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Gultekin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to assess the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women using dual x-ray absorptiometry bone mineral density (DEXA-BMD as a reference method and FRAX as a new clinical risk assessment tool. Material and Method: 168 postmenopausal women (> 50 years evaluating with DEXA-BMD and FRAX methods were included in the study. Femoral BMD (F-BMD, femoral T-score (F-Ts, lumbar spine BMD (L-BMD and lumbar spine T-score (L-Ts values of the patients were calculated. Fracture risk assessments were carried out using T-score values and FRAX 10-year hip fracture (HF and major osteoporotic fracture (MOF risk ratios. Data were analyzed statistically. Results: According to the results of F-Ts and L-Ts, 44/168 (26.2% and 65/168 (38.7% of patients had osteoporosis as compatible with high fracture risk. In osteoporotic patients, mean values for F-Ts L-Ts, F-BMD and L-BMD were -2.8 ± 0.4, -3.2 ± 0.5, 0.530 ± 0.049 and 0.682 ± 0.066, respectively. There were found to be high MOF risk in 16/168 (9.5% and high HF risk in 51/168 (30.4% of patients according to FRAX. Positive correlations were determined between F-Ts and L-Ts (moderate; rho = 0.424, p <0.05 and between HF and MOF (strong; rho = 0.958, p <0001. There were strong negative correlations among HF and MOF with F-Ts (respectively, rho = -0.897 and rho = -0.844, p <0.001 and moderate negative correlations among HF and MOF with L-Ts (respectively, rho = -0.535 and rho = - 0.567, p <0.05. Discussion: In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, risk assessment by the FRAX besides the DXA-BMD measurements can be useful for not to be missed of patients with high risk of fracture.

  2. High bone turnover is associated with low bone mass and spinal fracture in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Rix, M; Andreassen, H;

    1997-01-01

    A group of 366 healthy, white postmenopausal women, aged 50-81 years, mean age 66 years, were selected from the screened population of Scandinavians who were part of a multicenter study of the efficacy of tiludronate, a new bisphosphonate, in established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Eighty-eight ...

  3. Phyto-oestrogen excretion and rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Morton, M.S.; Brüggemann-Rotgans, I.E.M.; Beresteijn, E.C.H. van

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The hypothesis was tested that the rate of postmenopausal bone loss is inversely associated with long-term urinary excretion of phyto-oestrogens, as a marker of habitual dietary intake. Design: Secondary analysis of a 10-year follow-up study (1979-1989) among postmenopausal women in the N

  4. An impact of overweight and obesity on the risk factors for breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    E A Troshina; P. O. Rumyantsev; M V Altashina; A A Plokhaya

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of death in the female population of Russia. Postmenopausal breast cancer is associated with obesity. The article presents data on the significant effect of fat tissue on the risk factors for breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

  5. Soy foods, isoflavones, and the health of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Over the past 2 decades, soy foods have been the subject of a vast amount of research, primarily because they are uniquely rich sources of isoflavones. Isoflavones are classified as both phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators. The phytoestrogenic effects of isoflavones have led some to view soy foods and isoflavone supplements as alternatives to conventional hormone therapy. However, clinical research shows that isoflavones and estrogen exert differing effects on a variety of health outcomes. Nevertheless, there is substantial evidence that soy foods have the potential to address several conditions and diseases associated with the menopausal transition. For example, data suggest that soy foods can potentially reduce ischemic heart disease through multiple mechanisms. Soy protein directly lowers blood low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations, and the soybean is low in saturated fat and a source of both essential fatty acids, the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid and the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid. In addition, soflavones improve endothelial function and possibly slow the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Isoflavone supplements also consistently alleviate menopausal hot flashes provided they contain sufficient amounts of the predominant soybean isoflavone genistein. In contrast, the evidence that isoflavones reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women is unimpressive. Whether adult soy food intake reduces breast cancer risk is unclear. Considerable evidence suggests that for soy to reduce risk, consumption during childhood and/or adolescence is required. Although concerns have been raised that soy food consumption may be harmful to breast cancer patients, an analysis in 9514 breast cancer survivors who were followed for 7.4 y found that higher postdiagnosis soy intake was associated with a significant 25% reduction in tumor recurrence. In summary, the clinical and epidemiologic data indicate that adding soy foods to the

  6. Intraocular pressure in postmenopausal Nigerian women with and without systemic hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ebeigbe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mean intraocular pressure (IOP in postmenopausal women has been reported higher than that in menstruating women. Also, intraocular pressure is said to be positively correlated with systemic blood pressure. No previous study in Nigeria has compared intraocular pressure in postmenopausal women with and without systemic hypertension. Purpose: To investigate the effects of menopause on intraocular pressure in subjects with and without high blood pressure. Methods: Normotensive and hypertensive premenopausal and postmenopausal subjects in the   same agerange of 45 to 55 years were studied. Intraocular pressure was measured with the hand-held Kowa applanation tonometer.  Blood pressure was taken in the sitting position at the right upper arm using a manual mercury sphygmomanometer with the right cuff size. The average of two readings was recorded. Results: Mean IOP for premenopausal normotensive women was 14.58 ± 2.56 mmHg whilethat of postmenopausal normotensive women was16.15 ± 1.80 mmHg (p<0.05.  Also, the difference in mean IOP between premenopausal hypertensive (16.58 ± 3.23 mmHg and postmenopausal hypertensive women (18.24 ± 3.89 mmHgwas statistically significant (p<0.05. A statistically significant and positive correlation was observed between IOP and systemic blood pressure in postmenopausal hypertensive women, p<0.05.Conclusion: Menopause significantly increases intraocular pressure. Mean intraocular pressure of hypertensive postmenopausal women was significantly higher than that of normotensive post-menopausal women, (p<0.05. Knowledge of the normal level of intraocular pressure during various stages of the female reproductive cycle may help during glaucoma screening. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(3 117-122

  7. Changing pattern of thyroid and adrenal function in postmenopausal women after hormone replacement therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Shu-lan; Yu Shan-shan; Cao Zuan-sun

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changing pattern of thyroid and adrenal function in postmenopausal women; and the relationship between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and thyroid and adrenal function. Methods:The levels of tT3, tT4, fT3, fT4, TSH and cortisol were measured in 60 postmenopausal women (30 cases in HRT group; 30 cases in control group) before and 12 months after HRT.Results:The serum levels of tT3, tT4, fT3, fT4, TSH and cortisol had no significant difference before and 12 months after HRT in postmenopausal women. The values of them were all in normal ranges.Conclusion:Changing pattern of thyroid and adrenal function was not as significant as that of gonads in postmenopausal women and the impact of HRT on it was not so significantly evident.

  8. Musculoskeletal pain among postmenopausal women in Nigeria: Association with overall and central obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoyemi O. Ogwumike, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Lower extremity and back pain symptoms were the most prevalent. For overall and central obesity directly associated with MSP, WHtR seemed the best obesity screening tool for MSP in postmenopausal women.

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Agh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low bone mass is a serious health problem mostly seen in postmeno-pausal women with rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and some related risk factors in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis.Methods: The data for this descriptive analytical study was extracted from the medical records of 98 postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis who had attended the 5th of Azar Teaching Hospital affiliated to Gorgan University of Medical Sciences, in Iran, in 2009.Results: The mean durations of menopause and rheumatoid arthritis were 9.39 and 5.13 years, respectively. The overall prevalence of osteoporosis was 13.3%. We found a significant correlation between age, disease duration, and duration of menopause with bone mineral density (P<0.05.Conclusion: Our results indicate a high prevalence of osteoporosis at the lumbar spine of postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis.

  10. Effect of Soybeans on Hot Flashes in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mozaffari-khosravi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hot flashes are common and discomfortable signs of menopause that present with blazing sweatiness, sense of hotness, tachycardia and agitation. Hot flashes cause disturbances in daily activity and quality of night sleep. In spite of the effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT on hot flashes, nowadays, there are diverse opinions about HRT and the reason is that it has chronic complications. In addition, the acceptance of HRT by Iranian women is very low. Study of numerous texts has shown that isofliavone present in soybean is a phytoestrogen that could be effective in control of hot flashes. The purpose of the study is to examine the changes in time periods of hot flashes in response to consumption of 74 mg Isoflavone/day present in 60 grams soybeans in menopausal women. Methods: This study was a clinical trial with before and after design that included 31 postmenopausal women. The participants were assessed with respect to daily hot flashes at baseline and after one, two and three months of intervention. Participants consumed daily 60 grams soybeans for 3 months. Blood samples were taken at the start and end of intervention for determining levels of gonadotropins and estradiol. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: There was a decrease in time period of hot flashes from baseline of 5.88±2.61 to 3.45±1.82 after one month, 2.73±1.57 after two months and 2.16±1.48 after three months of consumption of soybeans (P<0.001. There was decrease in levels of FSH, LH & estradiol after 3 months, but this decrease was not significant, except in the case of estradiol. Conclusion: In line with various studies proposing the use of soybeans in the form of concentrate, drink or capsule, this study suggests that consumption of soybeans (60 gr daily as snacks may be a safe and effective method for controlling hot flashes in postmenopausal women..

  11. Noninvasive test for the diagnosis of ovarian hormone-secreting-neoplasm in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Ilan Cohen; Dan Nabriski; Ami Fishman

    2016-01-01

    Context: The diagnosis of ovarian hormone-secreting neoplasm in postmenopausal women is currently based on imaging modalities and selective venography. However, these diagnostic tests are not always accurate. In order to improve and simplify the diagnosis, we propose a noninvasive hormonal test. Objective: To report our experience using noninvasive hormonal test for the diagnosis of ovarian hormone producing tumor in two postmenopausal women. Design and intervention: Evaluation of andro...

  12. Analysis of the Influence of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Osteocalcin Gene Expression in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mansur Rahnama; Izabela Jastrzębska-Jamrogiewicz; Rafał Jamrogiewicz; Grzegorz Trybek

    2015-01-01

    Background. Osteocalcin (OC) contributes to the process of bone mineralization. Present study was designed to investigate the changes in OC gene expression of postmenopausal women treated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Study was also designed to evaluate OC gene expression in cells which are not part of connective tissue. Material and Methods. Research was carried out on 30 postmenopausal women not treated and 30 treated with HRT. Examination of OC gene expression was conducted on pe...

  13. Finasteride 5 mg/day Treatment of Patterned Hair Loss in Normo-androgenetic Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira-Soares, R; Maia e Silva, J; Correia, MP; André, MC

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on the standard treatment options for female pattern androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Efficacy of finasteride in women is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 5 mg/day oral finasteride in normoandrogenic postmenopausal woman. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 normoandrogenic postmenopausal women with AGA was enrolled in this study. They were treated with oral finasteride 5 mg/day for 18 months. ...

  14. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  15. Hormonal Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Moorman, Patricia G.; Calingaert, Brian; Palmieri, Rachel T; Iversen, Edwin S.; Bentley, Rex C.; Halabi, Susan; Berchuck, Andrew; Joellen M Schildkraut

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is most frequently diagnosed in postmenopausal women; however, the strongest risk predictors, pregnancy and oral contraceptive use, occur in most women in their twenties and thirties. Relatively few studies have examined how reproductive risk factors vary between pre- and postmenopausal ovarian cancer. The authors used data from a population-based, case-control study of ovarian cancer (896 cases, 967 controls) conducted in North Carolina from 1999 to 2006. Odds ratios and 95% c...

  16. Effects of testosterone treatment on metabolism and endometrium in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Zang, Hong

    2007-01-01

    T here is an increasing interest in androgen treatment of postmenopausal women. Testosterone administered to surgically or naturally postmenopausal women improves sexual function, wellbeing and quality of life. Androgens have also an additional positive effect on bone mineral density as compared to estrogen alone and may be protective in the breast. However, there is little knowledge about metabolic side effects and endometrial safety of testosterone treatment. Our aims ...

  17. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: A rural study

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Vishal R.; Annil Mahajan; Sudhaa Sharma; Anil Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The present observational, cross-sectional prospective study was conducted during the period of 1 year in one of the rural health centers to study prevalence of conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVRFs) in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Five hundred consecutive postmenopausal women were screened for detailed information regarding common menopausal symptoms, the presence or absence of conventional CVRFs. Physical activity was measured, and dietary lifestyle...

  18. Fecal Bacterial Community Changes Associated with Isoflavone Metabolites in Postmenopausal Women after Soy Bar Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsu, Cindy H.; Arthur Armstrong; Clavijo, Andrea P.; Martin, Berdine R.; Stephen Barnes; Weaver, Connie M.

    2014-01-01

    Soy isoflavones and their metabolism by intestinal microbiota have gained attention because of potential health benefits, such as the alleviation of estrogen/hormone-related conditions in postmenopausal women, associated with some of these compounds. However, overall changes in gut bacterial community structure and composition in response to addition of soy isoflavones to diets and their association with excreted isoflavone metabolites in postmenopausal women has not been studied. The aim of ...

  19. Adiponectin as a Protective Factor Against the Progression Toward Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Darabi, Hossein; Raeisi, Alireza; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammad Reza; Ostovar, Afshin; Assadi, Majid; Asadipooya, Kamyar; Vahdat, Katayoun; Dobaradaran, Sina; Nabipour, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Serum adiponectin levels have been suggested to be predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in diverse populations. However, the relationship between circulating adiponectin levels and the risk of development of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women has not been investigated. A total of 382 healthy postmenopausal women who participated in a prospective cohort study were followed for 5.8 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined according to the criteria set out by the American Diab...

  20. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use

    OpenAIRE

    Kenza Qiraouani Boucetta; Zoubida Charrouf; Abdelfattah Derouiche; Younes Rahali; Yahya Bensouda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin hydration in postmenopausal women. Material and methods Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group absorbed alimentary argan oil (n = 30) and the control group olive oil (n = 30). Both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forea...

  1. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in community-dwelling postmenopausal Polish women

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Stolarczyk; Andrea Horvath; Monika Szczechura; Magda Kamińska; Piotr Dziechciarz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Inadequate vitamin D level is associated with altered bone turnover and bone loss, which increases the fracture risk. Aim: To assess the seasonal prevalence of inadequate (insufficient or deficient) serum vitamin D levels in community-dwelling postmenopausal Polish women screened for osteoporosis. Material and methods : A cross-sectional observational study based on the regional urban non-institutionalized sample (n = 107) of postmenopausal Caucasian women in the ag...

  2. Serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese postmenopausal women: the Shanghai Changfeng Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Lin, Huandong; Hu, Yu; Li, Xiaoming; He, Wanyuan; Jin, Xuejuan; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Naiqing; Song, Binbin; Pan, Boshen; Gao, Xin

    2015-10-14

    Postmenopausal women are at increased risk of CVD: the increased serum ferritin level may be involved in the pathogenesis. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship of ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. A total of 1178 postmenopausal women (mean age, 60·8 years) were enrolled from the Changfeng Study. A standard interview, anthropometric measurements and laboratory analyses were performed for each participant. Bilateral CIMT (carotid intima-media thickness) were measured using ultrasonography, and the presence of carotid plaques was assessed. Serum ferritin was measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The results showed that serum ferritin was 181·9 (sd 65·8) ng/ml in the postmenopausal women. Multivariate, linear, stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that age (standardised β = 0·233, PCVD risk factors, Hb, leucocytes, log urine albumin:creatinine ratio and liver function, the ferritin level of postmenopausal women in the fourth quartile had a 1·587-fold increased risk of carotid plaques relative to those in the lowest quartile. In conclusion, these results suggest that serum ferritin is independently and positively associated with carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women and that ferritin may be implicated in atherosclerosis. PMID:26395322

  3. Increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of bone mineral density (BMD) in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus have shown conflicting results. We conducted this study to determine whether postmenopausal women with diabetes have higher BMD than non-diabetic women of similar age and to investigate the relationship between BMD and relevant clinical characteristics in these groups of women. We retrospectively analyzed lumbar spine, femoral neck and radius BMD data and other relevant clinical data for 130 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 166 non-diabetic women collected during a voluntary screening for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women without a history of low bone mass or osteoporotic fractures. Women with type 2 diabetes mellitus had significantly higher mean lumbar spine BMD (0.903 +-0.165 vs. 0.824+-0.199, respectively, P<0.001) and mean femoral neck BMD (0.870+-0.132 vs. 0.832+-0.134, respectively, P<0.05) than non-diabetic women. In both groups of women, age correlated negatively with BMD levels at all three anatomical sites. Higher body mass index was associated only with higher lumber spine BMD in both groups. Alkaline phosphatase levels showed a negative correlation with BMD at all sites in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus have higher BMD levels than non-diabetic women with similar clinical characteristics and require a more scrutinized approach in managing low bone mass. (author)

  4. Mild hyperthyroidism with inappropriate secretion of TSH in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custro, N; Scafidi, V

    1986-02-01

    In a previous study on the function of the hypothalamus - pituitary - thyroid axis, about 10% of postmenopausal women with the climacteric syndrome were found to have borderline high values of T3 and T4 and signs of pituitary decreased sensitivity to the suppressive effect of increased thyroid hormones. The present report concerns 5 women in the first phase of their menopause who showed a mild hyperthyroidism under basal conditions and after suppression test with liothyronine. Each patient had borderline increased levels of serum total and free T4 and T3 and a marked TSH responsiveness to exogenous TRH. After liothyronine, the serum levels of T4, FT4, TSH and the responsiveness to TRH-test clearly decreased. These data suggest an inappropriate TSH secretion with a decreased pituitary sensitivity to thyroid hormones. These cases could represent a modification of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis associated with that of the gonadal axis, secondary to the absence of rapid adaptation of neurotransmitters. PMID:3082097

  5. Identification of sarcopenic obesity in postmenopausal women: a cutoff proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenic obesity is the combination of reduced fat-free mass (FFM and increased fat mass (FM with advancing age but there is lack of clear criteria for its identification. The purposes of the present investigation were: 1 to determine the prevalence of postmenopausal women with reduced FFM relative to their FM and height, and 2 to examine whether there are associations between the proposed classification and health-related variables. A total of 607 women were included in this cross-sectional study and were separated into two subsets: 258 older women with a mean age of 66.8 ± 5.6 years and 349 young women aged 18-40 years (mean age, 29.0 ± 7.5 years. All volunteers underwent body composition assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The FFM index relative to FM and height was calculated and the cutoff value corresponded to two standard deviations below the mean of the young reference group. To examine the clinical significance of the classification, all older participants underwent measurements of quadriceps strength and cardiorespiratory fitness. Values were compared between those who were classified as low FFM or not, using an independent samples t-test and correlations were examined. The cutoff corresponded to a residual of -3.4 and generated a sarcopenic obesity prevalence of 19.8% that was associated with reduced muscle strength and aerobic fitness among the older participants. Also, the index correlated significantly with the health-related fitness variables. The results demonstrated reduced functional capacity for those below the proposed cutoff and suggested applicability of the approach as a definition for sarcopenic obesity.

  6. Malignant Struma Ovarii in a Postmenopausal Asymptomatic Woman: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behiye Pınar Çilesiz Göksedef

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Struma ovarii is an ovarian tumor that consists predominantly thyroid tissue and accounts for only 2% of all mature teratomas. It is usually a benign condition - malignant transformation has been reported to occur in about 5% of all struma ovarii cases. Case: A 58-year-old postmenopausal woman attended our outpatient clinic for her annual gynecologic exam, on which a palpable ovary was incidentally found. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging work-up showed two-centimeter solid mass on the right ovary. Laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy was performed; the histology report revealed a focus of thyroid papillary carcinoma in a struma ovarii. The patient underwent surgical staging procedure according to the ovarian cancer guideline. The tumor was in stage 1A, thus, no further treatment was indicated apart from follow-up. Conclusion: Malignant struma ovarii is a rare neoplasm of the ovary. Surgical staging should be included in the treatment, like in the other germ cell ovarian tumors. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2011;49: 117-9

  7. Prevalence of Ischemia on Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy of Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In postmenopausal women, the presence of risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) increases. However, the difference in prevalence of ischemia between pre- and postmenopausal women with multiple risk factors for CAD has not been well established. To compare the prevalence of ischemia on Tc99m-sestamibi myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in pre-and postmenopausal women, and to evaluate whether menopause can be considered an independent risk predictor of ischemia in women with multiple risk factors for CAD. This study retrospectively assessed 500 MPS of pre- and postmenopausal women with multiple risk factors for CAD. Statistical analysis was performed by using Fisher exact test and univariate and multivariate analysis, a p value ≤ 0.05 being considered significant. Postmenopausal women represented 55.9% of the sample; 83.3% were hypertensive; 28.9%, diabetic; 32.1%, smokers; 25%, obese; 61.2% had high cholesterol levels; and 34.3% had known CAD. Postmenopausal women were more often hypertensive, diabetic and dyslipidemic, and had lower functional capacity on exercise testing (p = < 0.005). The presence of ischemia on MPS did not significantly differ between the pre- and postmenopausal groups (p = 0.395). The only variable associated with ischemia on MPS was known CAD (p = 0.004). The results suggest that, in women with multiple risk factors for CAD, menopause was not an independent predictor of ischemia on MPS. Those data support the idea that the investigation of ischemia via MPS in women with multiple risk factors for CAD should begin prior to menopause

  8. Prevalence of Ischemia on Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy of Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daniel Augusto Message dos, E-mail: danielmessage@cardiol.br; Navarro, Wendy Yasdin Sierraalta; Alexandre, Leonardo Machado; Cestari, Priscila Feitosa; Smanio, Paola Emanuela Poggio [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    In postmenopausal women, the presence of risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) increases. However, the difference in prevalence of ischemia between pre- and postmenopausal women with multiple risk factors for CAD has not been well established. To compare the prevalence of ischemia on Tc{sup 99m}-sestamibi myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in pre-and postmenopausal women, and to evaluate whether menopause can be considered an independent risk predictor of ischemia in women with multiple risk factors for CAD. This study retrospectively assessed 500 MPS of pre- and postmenopausal women with multiple risk factors for CAD. Statistical analysis was performed by using Fisher exact test and univariate and multivariate analysis, a p value ≤ 0.05 being considered significant. Postmenopausal women represented 55.9% of the sample; 83.3% were hypertensive; 28.9%, diabetic; 32.1%, smokers; 25%, obese; 61.2% had high cholesterol levels; and 34.3% had known CAD. Postmenopausal women were more often hypertensive, diabetic and dyslipidemic, and had lower functional capacity on exercise testing (p = < 0.005). The presence of ischemia on MPS did not significantly differ between the pre- and postmenopausal groups (p = 0.395). The only variable associated with ischemia on MPS was known CAD (p = 0.004). The results suggest that, in women with multiple risk factors for CAD, menopause was not an independent predictor of ischemia on MPS. Those data support the idea that the investigation of ischemia via MPS in women with multiple risk factors for CAD should begin prior to menopause.

  9. Overweight Postmenopausal Women Lose Bone With Moderate Weight Reduction and 1 g/day Calcium Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Riedt, Claudia S; Cifuentes, Mariana; Stahl, Theodore; Chowdhury, Hasina A.; Schlussel, Yvette; SHAPSES, SUE A.

    2004-01-01

    Overweight postmenopausal women may be more susceptible to bone loss with weight reduction than previously studied obese women. The influence of energy restriction and Ca intake on BMD was assessed in 66 individuals. Weight reduction resulted in bone loss at several sites in women consuming 1 g Ca/day and was mitigated with higher calcium intake at 1.7 g/day.

  10. STUDY OF SERUM TOTAL CALCIUM, IO NIZED CALCIUM AND TOTAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATIONS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK.Deepthi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Menopause and ageing is associated with accelerated loss of cortical bone. Osteoporotic fractures are common cause of morbidity and mortality in adult Indian women due to ageing. This study was conducted to evaluate the levels of serum calcium, ionized calcium and total protein levels in postmenopausal women and to assess its relation with ageing. Study includes 70 women (40 post menopausal and 30 prem enopausal women serum alkaline phosphatase, serum calcium, ionized calcium and total proteins, serum albumin were estimated in both cases and controls. There is decrease in serum calcium in postmenopausal; wo men when compared to premenopausal women. There was no significant change in ionized calcium in both cases and controls. ALP is highly significant P<0.001. In postmenopausal women suggesting there is high alkaline phosphotase activity in postmenopausal women as a result of the inhibitory effects of estrogen on bone turnover rate which is dependent on age and body mass index. Decrease in serum albumin was seen in postmenopausal wo men which is the reason for decrease in serum calcium level which is inturn related to ageing effect.

  11. Evaluation of serum leptin concentration in postmenopausal egyptian women suffering from osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little is known about the relationship between serum leptin and bone mass in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. A previous in vitro study demonstrated that leptin acts on human marrow stromal cells to enhance differentiation to osteoblasts, suggesting an influence of leptin on bone mass. It is known that obese women are usually protected against osteoporosis and have increased bone mineral density and serum leptin concentrations. Thirty postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and another seventeen healthy women (without osteoporosis) with age and BMI (body mass index) matched the studied group were included in the present study. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum leptin concentrations were determined using immunoradiometric assay. Body mass index (BMI) was also calculated. The results demonstrated that serum leptin has a significant direct influence on bone mass in postmenopausal women

  12. Vitamin K and musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Maryam S; Cheung, Angela M

    2014-08-01

    Aside from its important role in blood clotting, vitamin K is an important dietary factor in regulating bone and cartilage mineralization. The vitamin K requirements to maintain musculoskeletal health may be more than the current recommendations and subclinical vitamin K deficiency may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Observational studies suggest that diets low in vitamin K are associated with increased risk of fractures and osteoarthritis in older adults. However, so far randomized controlled trials of vitamin K supplementation in Caucasian populations have not shown clinically significant improvements in bone mineral density at major skeletal sites. Supplementation with vitamin K may reduce the risk of fractures, but this conclusion comes from clinical trials with methodological limitations. At this time, only one randomized controlled trial has examined the effect of vitamin K supplementation on radiographic hand osteoarthritis and found no overall effect. Large well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to compare the efficacies of vitamin K1 and K2 on fractures and osteoarthritis among older adults. In summary, currently there is not enough evidence to recommend the use of vitamin K supplements for the prevention of bone loss, fractures, or osteoarthritis in postmenopausal women. PMID:24956598

  13. Osteopenia and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Assessment by radiogrammetric measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the medial cortical thickness ratio to the width of the second metacarpal bone at the midshaft (MCR) in discriminating patients as normal, osteopenic or osteoporotic. Material and Methods: MCR was calculated from radiographs of 120 postmenopausal women. By dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, the mineral density was measured in the lumbar spine, the wrist and the femoral neck. Patients were grouped in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of WHO on the basis of t-scores. MCR values were compared with t-scores and the ability of the MCR technique in discriminating the patient groups was evaluated. Results: Analysis of radiogrammetric data revealed significant differences in MCR value between the 3 groups. The MCR was lower in patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia compared with the normal group. The mean value of MCR was also slightly lower in patients with osteoporosis than in those with osteopenia. Accuracy assessment (ROC analysis) of MCR in the discrimination of patients with osteoporosis showed that test accuracy was acceptable, but less accurate than spinal, wrist and femoral neck t-scores. Compared with t-scores, this test was found to fairly discriminate those with and without osteopenia. Conclusion: The MCR method can discriminate patients as osteoporotic or normal. However, it seems that the MCR method should not be used for decisions concerning treatment of osteoporosis because of its low accuracy and thereby a risk for misclassification. Bone mineral density osteoporosis osteopenia radiogrammetry

  14. Osteopenia and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Assessment by radiogrammetric measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celiktas, M.; Aikimbaev, K.S.; Soyupak, S.; Binokay, F. [Cukurova Univ., Balcali Hospital, Adana (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology; Kozanoglu, E. [Cukurova Univ., Balcali Hospital, Adana (Turkey). Dept. of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

    2002-11-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the medial cortical thickness ratio to the width of the second metacarpal bone at the midshaft (MCR) in discriminating patients as normal, osteopenic or osteoporotic. Material and Methods: MCR was calculated from radiographs of 120 postmenopausal women. By dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, the mineral density was measured in the lumbar spine, the wrist and the femoral neck. Patients were grouped in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of WHO on the basis of t-scores. MCR values were compared with t-scores and the ability of the MCR technique in discriminating the patient groups was evaluated. Results: Analysis of radiogrammetric data revealed significant differences in MCR value between the 3 groups. The MCR was lower in patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia compared with the normal group. The mean value of MCR was also slightly lower in patients with osteoporosis than in those with osteopenia. Accuracy assessment (ROC analysis) of MCR in the discrimination of patients with osteoporosis showed that test accuracy was acceptable, but less accurate than spinal, wrist and femoral neck t-scores. Compared with t-scores, this test was found to fairly discriminate those with and without osteopenia. Conclusion: The MCR method can discriminate patients as osteoporotic or normal. However, it seems that the MCR method should not be used for decisions concerning treatment of osteoporosis because of its low accuracy and thereby a risk for misclassification. Bone mineral density osteoporosis osteopenia radiogrammetry.

  15. Influence of Fructooligosaccharide on Pharmacokinetics of Isoflavones in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper was to determine the influence of fructooligosaccharide (FOS on the pharmacokinetics of isoflavones in healthy postmenopausal women. The study was a fixed-sequence, two-phase, crossover study. Twelve subjects received a single oral dose of 300 mL of a soy beverage. Blood samples were collected before the dose and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, and 32 h after the administration of the soy beverage. After a washout period of at least 1 week, subjects were assigned to receive oral doses of FOS, 5 g each time, twice a day (after breakfast and dinner for 14 days, followed by a single oral dose of the same soy beverage on the next day. Blood samples were then collected at the same time points mentioned previously. Plasma isoflavone concentrations were determined by HPLC. Continuous oral administrations of FOS followed by a single oral administration of soy beverage caused significant increases in Cmax, AUC0–32, and AUC0–∞ of genistein and AUC0–32 of daidzein, comparing to those obtained following a single oral dose of soy beverage alone. Other pharmacokinetic parameters (Tmax and t1/2 of both aglycones and AUC0–∞ of daidzein between both regimens were not significantly different.

  16. Walking Outside Improves Mood for Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Teas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise has been shown to decrease breast cancer risk and slow the progression of breast cancer. Physician recommendations and clinical research data most often are for gym-based exercise programs. However, the importance of exercise location on mood and stress hormones that may influence adherence to exercise has not been addressed.Methods: Women first walked for an hour outdoors along a university path, and then a week later, for an hour indoors on a treadmill in a typical gym environment. Pre and post outdoor and indoor exercise moods (happy, pleased, sad, frustrated, worried, angry, delighted, and joy were assessed by a 6 point Likert questionnaire, and saliva samples were collected for analysis of cortisol, and alpha amylase (a surrogate for serum norepinephrine.Results: Nineteen healthy, non-smoking, postmenopausal women (average age 58 ± 4 participated. Compared with scores after walking outdoors, walking indoors was associated with higher scores of worry (p = 0.02; mean difference 0.9; 95% CI (0.17, 1.6 and frustration (p = 0.03; mean difference 0.9; 95% CI (0.12, 1.6, and lower scores for feelings of being pleased (p = 0.03; mean difference −0.8; 95% CI: −1.7, 0.1 and delighted (p = 0.05; mean difference −0.9; 95% CI: −1.75, −0.02. Changes in salivary hormone levels did not vary significantly between the two environments.Conclusion: Walking outdoors was associated with improved mood, but walking indoors was not. Improved mood may reduce breast cancer risk indirectly by promoting regular exercise. Physician recommendations for exercise should include gym and non-gym based exercise options.

  17. Postmenopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Oxytrol have helped women with urinary issues. Memory and Concentration Problems Issues with memory loss and ... the elevator. Dance to some of your favorite music. Or take the dog out for a long ...

  18. Prevalence of Calcified Carotid Artery on Panoramic Radiographs in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Taheri, Jamileh Beigom; Moshfeghi, Mahkameh

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of calcified carotid artery in 50 year-old and older postmenopausal dental outpatients for early diagnosis of individuals at risk of stroke. Materials and methods This is a descriptive study of 200 panoramic radiographs. These radiographs included post-menopausal women referring to the Department of Oral Medicine at Shahid Beheshti Faculty of Dentistry during 2006-2007. The x-ray machine, developer and film type were the s...

  19. Impact of Black seed (Nigella sativa) extract on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, N; H.R Zakeri; G Amin ansafi; A. Shafiee; Sarkhail, P.; Heshmat, R; H Sereshti; B Larijani

    2010-01-01

    "n "n  "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: "nExperimental studies have shown that Ns (Nigella sativa) seeds oil can increase bone formation and may have anabolic effects on bone loss. This study was conducted to investigate the beneficial impacts of the oil of Black seeds on bone turnover in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. "nMaterials and methods: A placebo controlled pilot study was carried out on 15 postmenopausal osteoporotic wo...

  20. Biomarkers of vascular function in pre- and recent post-menopausal women of similar age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Seidelin, Kaare; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Neumann Overby, Nickie; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function, however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched pre- and post-menopausal...... women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Thirteen pre-menopausal and ten recently post-menopausal (1.6±0.3 (mean±SEM) years after final menstrual period) women only separated by three years (48±1 vs. 51±1 years) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular...... adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the post-menopausal women compared to the pre-menopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1...

  1. Study about xerostomia, salivary flow rate and systemic conditions of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Lopes Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To make a quantitative evaluation of salivary flow and occurrence of xerostomia in post-menopausal women, according to thesystemic condition related by the patients. Methods: The sample was composed of 20 post-menopausal women, who were submitted to anamnesis and completely stimulated sialometry. Results: The results revealed that 50% of the women examined related the presence of xerostomia; hyposalivation was more present than normal salivary flow and low salivary flow; among the patients who related having systemic ailments, cardiovascular diseases were the most frequent, followed by depression and nervousness. Conclusion: It was concluded that xerostomia and quantitative alteration in salivary flow are common among post-menopausal women, and that ailments of a psychological nature were shown to be related to the manifestation of xerostomia.

  2. Bone marrow fat composition as a novel imaging biomarker in postmenopausal women with prevalent fragility fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Patsch, Janina M.; Li, Xiaojuan; Baum, Thomas; Yap, Samuel P.; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Link, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this MR-imaging study was to quantify vertebral bone marrow fat content and composition in diabetic and non-diabetic postmenopausal women with fragility fractures and to compare them with non-fracture controls with and without type-2 diabetes mellitus. Sixty-nine postmenopausal women (mean age 63±5 years) were recruited. Thirty-six patients (47.8%) had spinal and/or peripheral fragility fractures. Seventeen fracture patients were diabetic. Thirty-three women (52.2%) were non-fract...

  3. Lower resting and total energy expenditure in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women matched for abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Leanne; Harnden, Karin; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Real, Belen; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Karpe, Fredrik; Fielding, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    The menopause is accompanied by increased risk of obesity, altered body fat distribution and decreased skeletal muscle mass. The resulting decrease in RMR should be accompanied by a compensatory change in energy balance to avoid weight gain. We aimed to investigate habitual energy intake and expenditure in pre- and postmenopausal women matched for abdominal obesity. We recruited fifty-one healthy Caucasian women, BMI > 18·5 and lean tissue mass. However, lower n-6:n-3 fatty acid intake in postmenopausal women is associated with greater bone mineral density. PMID:25191611

  4. Effects of Yogasanas on osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab S Motorwala

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Integrated yoga is a safe mode of physical activity which includes weight bearing as well as not weight bearing asanas, Pranayama, and suryanamaskar, all of which helps induce improvement in BMD in postmenopausal osteoporotic females.

  5. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

  6. ASSESSMENT OF UTI IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ATTENDING OPD CLINIC OF CHITWAN MEDICAL COLLEGE, BHARATPUR, CHITWAN, NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Mamata Sharma Neupane; Kalpana Dhakal Sharma; Sangharshila Basnet; Pratik Adhikary; Harish Chandra Neupane; Bijay Aryal

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in young and elderly women. Despite the higher incidence of bacteriuria in elderly women, most UTI research has been conducted in young women. Hence, the present paper investigates the assessment of UTI in postmenopausal women attending OPD Clinic of Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in OPD clinic of Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital from December, 2012 to April...

  7. The Influence of Vitamin D Receptor Genetic Variants on Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporosis in Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Wei He; Ming Liu; Xiaonan Huang; Zuhong Qing; Wei Gao

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is an important candidate gene for influencing the development of osteoporosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential association between genetic variants of VDR gene and bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women. The study included 970 Chinese postmenopausal women at the postmenopausal osteoporosis (482) and healthy controls (488). The BMD of lumbar spine (L2–4 anterior-posterior ...

  8. Influence of lifestyle factors on mammographic density in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Brand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT, little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. METHODS: We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI and HRT was studied. RESULTS: Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07. This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06: increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01 but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82. A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04. No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk.

  9. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ananthi Kasinathan; Prasad Thirumal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the presence of actively multiplying bacteria within the urinary tract in the absence of any symptoms. Antenatal women are more susceptible to urinary tract infection because of the anatomical and physiological changes which occur during pregnancy. Aim of current study was the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women, the organisms responsible and to treat the same. Methods: A total of 174 antena...

  10. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections in women: focus on diabetes mellitus and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Schneeberger, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    There is a shortage of evidence for clinical guidelines on diagnosis and management of both asymptomatic bacteriuria (the presence of bacteria in urine without symptoms of an infection) and urinary tract infections in women with diabetes and pregnant women. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections in these two risk groups may have far-reaching consequences such as pyelonephritis and preterm birth. The results of the studies in this thesis can be used to fill some of the knowledge...

  11. Comparative evaluation of raloxifene versus estrogen: Progestin on symptomatology, endometrium, and lipid profile in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Dogiparthi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of raloxifene and estrogen progesterone (E + P combination on symptoms, endometrium, and lipid profile in postmenopausal women. Ninety healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled and allocated to three groups namely E + P, raloxifene, and controls. These groups were given 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen and 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone, 60 mg raloxifene and no therapy, respectively. Symptomatology and lipid profile were evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months. Endometrial thickness was evaluated at 6 and 12 months, and endometrial biopsy was repeated at 12 months. The demographic profile of the women in the three different groups was comparable. In addition, the symptomatology, lipid profile, mean endometrial thickness, and endometrial biopsy categorization were comparable. E + P and raloxifene were equally effective in improving the postmenopausal symptoms and lipid profile. E + P had stimulatory effect on the endometrium, whereas raloxifene was found to be neutral.

  12. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Yasser M; Mirghani, Zien; AlKusayer, Ghader M; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds’ consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Results: Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Discussion: Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:26770698

  13. Alzheimer disease in post-menopausal women: Intervene in the critical window period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayer Jamshed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer disease (AD is a crippling neurodegenerative disorder. It is more common in females after menopause. Estrogen probably has a protective role in cognitive decline. Large amount of research has been carried out to see the benefits of hormone replacement therapy with regards to Alzheimer still its neuroprotective effect is not established. Recent studies suggest a reduced risk of AD and improved cognitive functioning of post-menopausal women who used 17 β-estradiol in the critical period. Use of 17 β-estradiol in young and healthy post-menopausal women yields the maximum benefit when the neurons are intact or neuronal stress has just started. Hence intervention in the critical period is key in the prevention or delay of AD in post-menopausal women.

  14. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  15. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  16. Study on the serum prolactin (PRL) level in post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of determination of serum PRL levels inpost-menopausal women. Methods: Serum PRL levels were determined with RIA in 596 post-menopausal women (age 45-59, mean 55). Results: The normal range of serum PRL level in this laboratory was 0-30 ng/ml. Among the 596 women tested, 77(13%) had their PRL levels above 30 ng/ml. Further investigation with CT and/or MRI revealed presence of micro-pituitary-adenoma in 31 of the Symptoms of menopausal syndrome and osteoporosis were much more severe in women with hyperprolactinemia then in those without. Conclusion: As hyperprolactinemia might be a high risk factor for development of breast cancer, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in menopausal women with hyperprolactinemia should be applied very cautiously, even withheld at all. Determination of serum prolactin levels in post-menopausal women is of practical clinical value. (authors)

  17. Effect of chronic hepatitis C virus infection on bone disease in postmenopausal women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nanda, Kavinderjit S

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Limited data are available on the contribution of chronic HCV infection to the development of bone disease in postmenopausal women. We studied whether women who acquired HCV infection through administration of HCV genotype 1b-contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin from a single source had decreased bone mineral density (BMD) or altered levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs), compared with women who spontaneously resolved infection or age-matched healthy controls. METHODS: From a cohort of postmenopausal Irish women, we compared BMD, determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and a panel of BTMs in 20 women chronically infected with HCV (PCR(+)), 21 women who had spontaneously resolved infection (PCR(-)), and 23 age-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Levels of BTMs and BMD were similar in PCR(+) and PCR(-) women and healthy age-matched controls. However, there was an increased frequency of fractures in PCR(+) (n = 6) compared with PCR(-) women (n = 0, P = .007). PCR(+) women with fractures were postmenopausal for a longer time (median, 15.5, range, 5-20 years vs 4.5, range, 1-20 years in PCR(+) women without fractures; P = .033), had lower BMD at the hip (0.79, range, 0.77-0.9 g\\/cm(2) vs 0.96, range, 0.81-1.10 g\\/cm(2); P = .007), and had a lower body mass index (23.7, range 21.2-28.5 kg\\/m(2) vs 25.6, range 22.1-36.6 kg\\/m(2); P = .035). There was no difference in liver disease severity or BTMs in PCR(+) women with or without fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic HCV infection did not lead to discernable metabolic bone disease in postmenopausal women, but it might be a risk factor for bone fractures, so preventive measures should be introduced. To view this article\\'s video abstract, go to the AGA\\'s YouTube Channel.

  18. Gallbladder disease and use of transdermal versus oral hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Bette; Beral, Valerie; Balkwill, Angela; Green, Jane; Sweetland, Siân; Reeves, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether transdermal compared with oral use of hormone replacement therapy reduces the risk of gallbladder disease in postmenopausal women. Design Prospective cohort study (Million Women Study). Setting Women registered with the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Scotland. Participants 1 001 391 postmenopausal women (mean age 56) recruited between 1996 and 2001 from NHS breast screening centres and followed by record linkage to routinely collected NHS hospital ...

  19. Short-Term Exercise Approaches on Menopausal Symptoms, Psychological Health, and Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ağıl, Ayşegül; Abıke, Faruk; Daşkapan, Arzu; ALACA, Rıdvan; Tüzün, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to determine the effects of different short-term exercise programs on menopausal symptoms, psychological health, and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. Forty-two women were chosen from volunteering postmenopausal women presenting to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Bayındır Hospital between March and December 2009. The women aged 45–60 years and experiencing menopause naturally were included in the study. They were r...

  20. Does aging increase vitamin D serum level in healthy postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Asadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is the most under-diagnosed medical condition in postmenopausal women. There are few epidemiologic studies on vitamin D status of postmenopausal women in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in postmenopausal women living in Tehran, capital of Iran. In this cross sectional study, 110 women were selected via convenience sampling method from menopause clinic of Tehran Women General Hospital between 2011 and 2012. For each woman, a questionnaire was completed, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were determined by chemiluminescence's immunoassay. Vitamin D deficiency has been considered as a 25(OHD of less than 20ng/ml. Vitamin D insufficiency has been defined as a 25(OHD of 21-29ng/ml, and sufficiency as a 25(OHD of 30-100ng/ml. The data was analyzed by using Pearson correlation test in SPSS version 16. The mean age of women was 52.67±5 years. The mean age at natural menopause onset was 47.66±4.44 years, and the median menopause age was 49.00. The median 25(OHD level was 19.28 (Inter Quartile Range=26.08. We found vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency 52.7% and17.3% respectively. Serum 25(OH D concentrations were significantly correlated with age(r=0.21, P=0.024. These findings indicate that 25(OHD level in postmenopausal women from Tehran is low. There is a statistically significant positive correlation between vitamin D concentration and age in late postmenopausal period.

  1. Heart rate variability under resting conditions in postmenopausal and young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro T.F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the modulation of heart rate in a group of postmenopausal women to that of a group of young women under resting conditions on the basis of R-R interval variability. Ten healthy postmenopausal women (mean ± SD, 58.3 ± 6.8 years and 10 healthy young women (mean ± SD, 21.6 ± 0.82 years were submitted to a control resting electrocardiogram (ECG in the supine and sitting positions over a period of 6 min. The ECG was obtained from a one-channel heart monitor at the CM5 lead and processed and stored using an analog to digital converter connected to a microcomputer. R-R intervals were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis from the ECG recording in real time using a signal-processing software. Heart rate variability (HRV was expressed as standard deviation (RMSM and mean square root (RMSSD. In the supine position, the postmenopausal group showed significantly lower (P<0.05 median values of RMSM (34.9 and RMSSD (22.32 than the young group (RMSM: 62.11 and RMSSD: 49.1. The same occurred in the sitting position (RMSM: 33.0 and RMSSD: 18.9 compared to RMSM: 57.6 and RMSSD: 42.8 for the young group. These results indicate a decrease in parasympathetic modulation in postmenopausal women compared to young women which was possibly due both to the influence of age and hormonal factors. Thus, time domain HRV proved to be a noninvasive and sensitive method for the identification of changes in autonomic modulation of the sinus node in postmenopausal women.

  2. Vulvovaginal Candida: a study of (a)symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns presence of asymptomatic vaginal Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by abnormal growth of yeasts in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Acute vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge are the usua

  3. Ginger Supplementation Enhances Working Memory of the Post-Menopause Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naritsara Saenghong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Cognitive impairment is one important problem in post-menopausal women. Although hormone therapy can improve this condition, it also produces adverse effect. Recent findings showed that this condition could be mitigated by the herb. Ginger or Zingiber officinale Roscoe, a plant in a family of Zingiberaceae, was previously demonstrated the neuroprotection and cognitive enhancing effects. Therefore, this study was set up to determine whether ginger rhizome extract could improve attention and working memory of the post-menopausal women. Approach: Sixty healthy post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 3 months. After the assessment of biographic information, they were evaluated the working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery test and the auditory oddball paradigm of event related potential before and after 3-month of intervention. Results: The ginger treated group decreased N100 and P300 latencies but increased N100 and P300 amplitudes in accompany with the enhanced working memory including the power of attention, continuity of attention, speed and quality of memory. Conclusion: Our results suggested that ginger is the potential cognitive enhancer for post-menopausal women. However, further researches are still required.

  4. Anemia in postmenopausal women: dietary inadequacy or non-dietary factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postmenopausal women are disproportionately affected by anemia, and the prevalence in females > 65 years of age in the United States is approximately 10%. The manifestation of anemia in older populations is associated with dietary inadequacy, blood loss, genetics, alterations in bioavailability, ren...

  5. Behavior of temporal parameters of the ground reactive forces for the walking of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Sousa, Adriana Leite; Calçadas Dias Gabriel, Ronaldo Eugênio; Faria, Aurélio Marques; Aragão, Florbela R; Rodrigues Moreira, Maria Helena

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the influence of body composition and menopause characteristics on certain temporal parameters of the behavior of vertical and anteroposterior components of ground reactive forces, as well as the vertical and anteroposterior rates on the walking of postmenopausal women. The sample consisted of 67 postmenopausal women, average age 59 years. Body composition was assessed by octapolar bioimpedance and ground reactive force by the Kistler force platform. Vertical loading rate correlated positively with age (r = 0.02) and negatively with weight (r = -0.33). The relationship between the rates of vertical loading and unloading associated positively with menopause time (r = 0.27) but negatively with weight (r = -0.27). Vertical unloading rate showed a negative association with abdominal visceral adiposity (r = -0.27). The relationship between the times of the intermediate and final phases of the support correlated significantly with abdominal visceral adiposity (r = 0.25) and fat mass (r = 0.24). The study suggests that fat mass and abdominal visceral adiposity affect the support time, and increased abdominal visceral adiposity implies a slower pre-suspension phase during the walking of postmenopausal women. Hormone replacement therapy was shown to be an enhancer of steeper vertical loading and anteroposterior unloading and longer time in the double support phase, indicating a greater stability of postmenopausal women when walking. PMID:26686563

  6. Perspectives in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women who are overweight and obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Anatol'evna Troshina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity in postmenopausal women are risk factors for breast cancer. Identifying features of the pathogenesis of the disease in this group of patients has led to the emergence of new trends in treatment and prevention. The article presents data on the anti-cancer effects of metformin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and vitamin D

  7. Effect of estrogen on tendon collagen synthesis, tendon structural characteristics, and biomechanical properties in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.; Kongsgaard, M; Holm, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge about the effect of estradiol on tendon connective tissue is limited. Therefore, we studied the influence of estradiol on tendon synthesis, structure, and biomechanical properties in postmenopausal women. Nonusers (control, n = 10) or habitual users of oral estradiol replacement the...

  8. Effects of raloxifene on cardiovascular events and breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Mosca, Lori; Collins, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of raloxifene, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator, on coronary heart disease (CHD) and breast cancer is not established. METHODS: We randomly assigned 10,101 postmenopausal women (mean age, 67.5 years) with CHD or multiple risk factors for CHD to 60 mg of raloxifene da...

  9. Severity and clustering of menopausal symptoms among obese and nonobese postmenopausal women in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharanya Shre, E. S.; Trout, Kate; Singh, Sonia Pant; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: The symptoms of menopause have a negative impact on quality of life, especially in women transitioning to menopause and earlier transitions. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the effect of obesity on the severity of menopausal symptoms and the clustering of symptoms in postmenopausal women in India. Methodology: The Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms of postmenopausal women of Chennai, visiting Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2013 in Chennai, India. Sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure level, menopausal history, personal health history, and hormonal disorder issues were investigated. Results: The results have shown that 24% of the participants had complaint of mild to severe hot flushes, half of them had reported heart ailments (49%; n = 74), and disturbed sleep (48%; n = 72). The proportion of overweight/obese participants was higher in married (64%) than widows (41%), and this difference was found statistically significant (P = 0.005). There were no significant differences in MRS scores of obese and nonobese postmenopausal participants. Conclusion: There is a need of developing interactive, user friendly, technology based education module for addressing the chronic ailments of postmenopausal women.

  10. Postexercise nutrient intake enhances leg protein balance in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Esmarck, Birgitte; Suetta, Charlotte;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of nutrient administration after a session of resistance exercise on muscle protein kinetics in six healthy, early postmenopausal women, in a crossover design of random and double-blinded administration of protein and carbohydrate (PC) or placebo (NON). METH...

  11. Postexercise nutrient intake enhances leg protein balance in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Esmarck, B.; Suetta, C.;

    2005-01-01

    Background. We investigated the effect of nutrient administration after a session of resistance exercise on muscle protein kinetics in six healthy, early postmenopausal women, in a crossover design of random and double-blinded administration of protein and carbohydrate (PC) or placebo (NON).Metho...

  12. Relationship of Circulating Total Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein to Trabecular Bone in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homocysteine (Hcy) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are novel risk factors for osteoporosis. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the relationship of Hcy and CRP to volumetric trabecular bone, but also to assess their relationship to areal composite bone in healthy postmenopausal women (N=184)....

  13. EFFECT OF 8 WEEKS OF AEROBIC ON BODY COMPOSITION AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Gholamrezai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Nowadays increasing blood pressure is the most important risk factor of coronary, cerebral and renal vessel diseases. Epidemiological studies indicate that Physical inactivity adversely affects the blood pressure in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of aerobic on body composition and blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Methods: 20 healthy postmenopausal women with similar age and weight were randomly devided in intervention and control groups. Subjects completed an informed consent form and health history questionnaire. The intervention group was trained in an aerobic exercise program for 8 weeks (3 sessions weekly. Weight, body fat percentage (BF%, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR, Lean body mass and blood pressure (BP were measured in the beginning and the end of the study for all of the subjects. Data were analyzed by the Paired t-test and independent t- test. Results: The results showed that BF% , WHR, BMI decreased and Lean body mass increased significantly in training group after 8 weeks training (P0.05. Conclusions: It seems that a period of aerobic training for 8 weeks can be effective as a non-pharmacological treatment strategy for improvement some physical fitness and body composition indexes, blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

  14. Moderate alcohol consumption increases insulin sensitivity and ADIPOQ expression in postmenopausal women: A randomised, crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Kersten, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: To determine whether 6 weeks of daily, moderate alcohol consumption increases expression of the gene encoding adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and plasma levels of the protein, and improves insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women. Methods: In a randomised, open-label, crossover trial conduc

  15. Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and mammographic density in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ahn, Jiin; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Chan-Won; Yun, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Min-Jung; Suh, Byung-Seong; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance (IR) with mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. The goal of this study was to evaluate these associations in pre- and postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was performed in 73,974 adult women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination that included a mammogram between 2011 and 2013 (mean age 42.6 years). MetS was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. IR was assessed with the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dense breast were estimated using logistic regression models after adjustment for potential confounders. In premenopausal women, MetS and all its components except waist circumference were associated with dense breast. After adjustment for potential confounders, the OR (95% CI) for dense breast in women with MetS compared with those without MetS was 1.22 (1.06-1.39). In postmenopausal women, however, there was positive but non-significant association between MetS and dense breast. In both pre- and postmenopausal women, high blood glucose and IR were positively associated with dense breast. The OR (95% CI) for dense breast between the highest and lowest quartiles of HOMA-IR was 1.29 (1.20-1.39) for premenopausal women and 1.44 (1.05-1.97) for postmenopausal women. In a large sample of Korean women, MetS and IR were associated with mammographic dense breast, demonstrating that IR, a potentially modifiable risk factor, may increase breast cancer risk, possibly through high mammographic density. PMID:26277917

  16. Hip fracture protection by alendronate treatment in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Iwamoto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto1, Yoshihiro Sato2, Tsuyoshi Takeda1, Hideo Matsumoto21Department of Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, JapanAbstract: Osteoporosis most commonly affects postmenopausal women, placing them at a significant risk of fractures. In particular, hip fractures are an important cause of mortality and morbidity among postmenopausal women. Anti-resorptive therapies that produce greater decreases in bone turnover markers together with greater increases in bone mineral density (BMD are associated with greater reductions in fracture risk, especially at sites primarily composed of cortical bone such as the hip. Thus, treatment with potent anti-resorptive drugs like alendronate is a strategy for preventing hip fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the efficacy of alendronate against hip fractures and the mechanism for this anti-fracture efficacy in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials has shown that alendronate reduces the risk of hip fractures by 55% in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. According to the analyses of the Fracture Intervention Trial, each 1 standard deviation reduction in a 1-year change in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP is associated with 39% fewer hip fractures in alendronate-treated postmenopausal women, and those with at least 30% reduction in BSAP have a 74% lower risk of hip fractures relative to those with less than 30%. Alendronate is effective in reducing the risk of hip fractures across a spectrum of ages. The mechanism for this anti-fracture efficacy has been clarified; alendronate strongly suppresses bone turnover and subsequently increases hip BMD, decreases cortical porosity, improves parameters of hip structure geometry (cortical thickness, cross-sectional area, section modulus, and buckling ratio, and produces more

  17. Relationship Of FEF25-75, PEFR And SVC With Estrogen And Progesterone Level In Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Afroza Begum; Taskina Ali; Noorzahan Begum,; Sultana Ferdousi; Shelina Begum; Zinat Ara Polly

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deterioration of lung function is common in women after menopause, which may be related to very low estrogen and progesterone level.Objective: To observe FEF25-75, PEFR and SVC (slow vital capacity) values in apparently healthy postmenopausal women to find out their relationships with serum estrogen and progesterone.Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology in BSMMU, Dhaka in the year 2007. 30 healthy postmenopausal women aged 45 to 60 years and 30 health...

  18. Adiponectin as a Biomarker of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women: Controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Lubkowska; Aleksandra Dobek; Jan Mieszkowski; Wojciech Garczynski; Dariusz Chlubek

    2014-01-01

    The literature reports indicating a link between plasma levels of adiponectin and body fat, bone mineral density, sex hormones, and peri- and postmenopausal changes, draw attention to the possible use of adiponectin as an indicator of osteoporotic changes, suggesting that adiponectin may also modulate bone metabolism. In this study, we attempted to analyze the available in vitro and in vivo results which could verify this hypothesis. Although several studies have shown that adiponectin has an...

  19. Diagnostic efficacy of panoramic mandibular index to identify postmenopausal women with low bone mineral densities

    OpenAIRE

    Devi, B.K. Yashoda; Rakesh, Nagaraju; Ravleen, Nagi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare and assess the accuracy of panoramic mandibular index (PMI) and antegonial index (AI) in the panoramic radiographs of postmenopausal women with normal and low skeletal bone mineral densities( BMD) diagnosed by using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry ( DXA). Study Design: In panoramic radiographs obtained from 40 post menopausal women( 20 normal and 20 osteoporo tic) aged between 50-75 who’s BMD has already been assessed by...

  20. Forearm vasodilator responses to a β‐adrenergic receptor agonist in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Ronee E.; Barnes, Jill N.; Charkoudian, Nisha; Curry, Timothy B.; Eisenach, John H.; Hart, Emma C.; Joyner, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Beta‐adrenergic vasodilator responses may be blunted in humans who are at an increased risk for hypertension. Because menopause is associated with an increase in blood pressure, we tested the hypothesis that forearm blood flow responses to the β‐adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol are blunted in older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. We used venous occlusion plethysmography to measure forearm blood flow in young premenopausal (26 ± 1 years; n = 13) ...

  1. Response of Bone Resorption Markers to Aristolochia longa Intake by Algerian Breast Cancer Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bachir Benarba; Boumedienne Meddah; Aicha Tir Touil

    2014-01-01

    Aristolochia longa is widely used in traditional medicine in Algeria to treat breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of bone resorption markers to A. longa intake by Algerian breast cancer postmenopausal women. According to the A. longa intake, breast cancer patients were grouped into A. longa group (Al) (n = 54) and non-A. longa group (non-Al) (n = 24). 32 women constituted the control group. Bone resorption markers (from urine) pyridinoline (PYD) and deo...

  2. Serum estrogen receptor bioactivity and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Vanessa W; Li, Jun; Gong, Yinhan; Jin, Aizhen; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yong, Eu Leong; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-01-01

    The estrogen levels of Asian women are different from those of Western women, and this could affect estrogen receptor (ER) bioactivity and breast cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study of 169 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 426 matched controls nested within a population-based prospective cohort, The Singapore Chinese Health Study, to evaluate serum levels of estrogens and their receptor (ERα and ERβ)-mediated estrogenic activities in relation to breast cancer risk. Breast canc...

  3. The importance of group activities for quality of life of women in postmenopause

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Calazans Negrão; Ana Silvia Moccellin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of life of postmenopausal women who participate in different activities groups for elderly. Methods: We selected 59 women, divided as follows: hydrotherapy group (n = 15), physical activity and bingo group (n = 15), and a control group(n = 29). Data collection was done through a questionnaire evaluating the Quality of Life(WHOQOL-Bref), the Blatt and Kupperman Menopausal Index and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The assessments were conducted in two stages w...

  4. Lower resting and total energy expenditure in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women matched for abdominal obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Leanne; Harnden, Karin; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Real, Belen; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Karpe, Fredrik; Fielding, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    The menopause is accompanied by increased risk of obesity, altered body fat distribution and decreased skeletal muscle mass. The resulting decrease in RMR should be accompanied by a compensatory change in energy balance to avoid weight gain. We aimed to investigate habitual energy intake and expenditure in pre- and postmenopausal women matched for abdominal obesity. We recruited fifty-one healthy Caucasian women, BMI > 18·5 and 

  5. Trimegestone in a low-dose, continuous-combined hormone therapy regimen prevents bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Lise; Ravn, Pernille; Spielman, Danièle;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of estrogen + progestogen therapy with 1 mg 17beta-estradiol and 0.125 mg trimegestone in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. DESIGN: For this study, 360 healthy, postmenopausal women with osteopenia [lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) between ...

  6. The Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Insulin Resistance in Pre- and Postmenopausal Korean Women: KNHANES 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Chon, Seung Joo; Jung, Yeon Soo; Kim, Bo Ok; Noe, Eun Bee; Yun, Bo Hyon; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum ferritin levels increase in postmenopausal women, and they are reported to be linked to major health problems. Here, we investigated the association between serum ferritin levels and insulin resistance (IR) in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 6632 healthy Korean women (4357 premenopausal and 2275 postmenopausal) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in 2007–2010 were enrolled in the study. Serum ferritin values were divided into six groups for the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. IR and obesity indices were evaluated according to the six serum ferritin groups. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS software, version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Results The association between the IR indices and ferritin groups had a higher level of statistical significance in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group. In addition, for the postmenopausal group, the estimates increased significantly in the sixth ferritin group compared to those in the first ferritin group. However, the association between the obesity indices and ferritin levels was not significantly different between the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. Conclusion Elevated serum ferritin levels were associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. PMID:27337113

  7. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição MS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Soares Conceição,1 Valéria Bonganha,1 Felipe Cassaro Vechin,2 Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton,1 Manoel Emílio Lixandrão,1 Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira,1 Giovana Vergínia de Souza,1 Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil,1 Cleiton Augusto Libardi2 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Campinas, 2Laboratory of Neuromuscular Adaptation to Strength Training, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods: Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg. In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8–10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162. Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001, and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%, reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75% and noticeable increases in

  8. Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: focus on lasofoxifene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gennari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Luigi Gennari, Daniela Merlotti, Ranuccio NutiDepartment of Internal Medicine, Endocrine-Metabolic Sciences and Biochemistry, University of Siena, Siena, ItalyAbstract: Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs represent a class with a growing number of compounds that act as either estrogen receptor agonists or antagonists in a tissuespecific manner. This article reviews lasofoxifene, a new-generation SERM that has completed phase III development for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Consistent with preclinical observations, this new SERM demonstrated improved skeletal efficacy over raloxifene and at an oral dose of 0.5 mg/day was effective in the prevention of both vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. At the same dosage, lasofoxifene treatment also reduced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer risk and the occurrence of vaginal atrophy, but, like the other SERMs, was associated with hot flushes and an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events. With its increased efficacy on the prevention of nonvertebral fractures than current available SERMs and its positive effects on the vagina, this new compound may represent an alternative and cost-effective therapy for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.Keywords: SERM, lasofoxifene, postmenopausal osteoporosis, fractures, bone density, menopause

  9. Can progestin be limited to every third month only in postmenopausal women taking estrogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, E; Salmi, T; Puolakka, J; Heikkinen, J; Granfors, E; Hulkko, S; Mäkäräinen, L; Nummi, S; Pekonen, F; Rautio, A M

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated whether a progestin, added for 14 days every 3 months to estrogen replacement therapy, is capable of preventing the development of endometrial hyperplasia in postmenopausal women during a treatment period of 2 years. Postmenopausal women (263) in 10 hospitals and medical centers in Finland participated in this non-randomized prospective multicenter trial. The women received estradiol valerate 2 mg daily for 84 days and 20 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate daily for days 71-84 followed by seven drug-free tablets. This regimen was repeated four times per year. The first year of treatment was completed by 227 (86%) women and the second year by 143 out of 146 women. The incidence of unscheduled and heavy bleedings was higher in women who were postmenopausal for less than 3 years. Endometrial biopsies demonstrated progestational response in 64% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. The 3 month regimen prevented development of endometrial hyperplasia but was not able to restore a hyperplastic endometrium to normal. PMID:7731382

  10. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women referred to outpatient clinics in Sanandaj, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantar Enayat; Farhadifar Fariba; Nikkho Bahram

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infection (AUTI) among pregnant women. We also determined the antibacterial susceptibility of the isolates to various antibiotics and associated risk factors in AUTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand five hundred and five consecutive pregnant women were included in the study. Mid-stream urine specimen for complete examination of urine was obtained. RESULTS: Of 1505 pregnant women, 134 (8.9%) had bacteriuria. The mean age of...

  11. Effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on incident atrial fibrillation: The Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, MV; Wang, PJ; Larson, JC; Virnig, BA; Cochrane, B.; Curb, JD; L. Klein; Manson, JE.; Martin, LW; Robinson, J.; Wassertheil-Smoller, S; Stefanick, ML

    2012-01-01

    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is less prevalent in women versus men, but associated with higher risks of stroke and death in women. The role hormone therapy plays in AF is not well understood. Methods and Results: The Women's Health Initiative randomized postmenopausal women to placebo or conjugated equine estrogens (0.625 mg/d) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (2.5 mg/d) if they had a uterus (N=16 608) or to conjugated equine estrogens only if they had prior hysterectomy (N=10 739). I...

  12. The effects of IL-6 and its receptors on bone loss in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effects of IL-6 and its receptors on bone loss in healthy women, and to assess the pathogenesis of the postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. Methods: One hundred and thirty one healthy women aged 31-72 including 64 sexual maturity women aged 31-52 were enrolled in four groups and 67 postmenopausal women, the years of menopause from 1 month to 23 years, were also enrolled in four groups. The bone mass of the lumbar-spine and femur were measured using dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry; the serum E2, FSH, BGP by radioimmunoassay (RIA); the serum IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 by ELISA; the serum AKP, calcium, phosphate by auto-biochemistry instrument. Results: The BMD of lumbar-spine and right femur decreased following increase of age and the duration of menopause. Significant positive correlation was observed between BMD and E2. The serum IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 level was low, and stable before menopause. The level of IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 increased with variation of age and the duration of menopause. Significant negative correlation was observed between IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp 130 and E2, BMD. Serum AKP and BGP level was higher in postmenopausal women than that in sexual maturity women. The serum calcium level increased significantly soon after menopausal, then decreased to the normal level. The serum phosphate level had no difference in these groups. Conclusion: The main cause of postmenopausal osteoporosis is the unbalance of the bone formation and resorption

  13. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways and Prevalent Hypertension Among Postmenopausal Women: Results From the Women's Health Initiative San Diego Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Kirwa, Kipruto; Eliot, Melissa N.; Wang, Yi; Adams, Marc A; Morgan, Cindy G.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Norman, Gregory J.; Eaton, Charles B.; Allison, Matthew A.; Wellenius, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Living near major roadways has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular events and worse prognosis. Residential proximity to major roadways may also be associated with increased risk of hypertension, but few studies have evaluated this hypothesis. Methods and Results We examined the cross‐sectional association between residential proximity to major roadways and prevalent hypertension among 5401 postmenopausal women enrolled into the San Diego cohort of the Women's Health I...

  14. Prediction of metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal Ghanaian women using obesity and atherogenic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Fareed K N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS is an important health problem which puts individuals at risk for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes as well as obesity-related cancers such as colon and renal cell in men, and endometrial and oesophageal in women. Objective This study was aimed at examining how obesity indicators and related determinants influence metabolic syndrome, and how the factors can be used to predict the syndrome and its cut-offs in postmenopausal Ghanaian women. Methods Two hundred and fifty (250 Ghanaian subjects were involved in the study with one hundred and forty-three (143 being premenopausal women and one hundred and seven (107 postmenopausal women. The influence of traditional metabolic risk factors including high blood pressure, dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance on obesity and atherogenic indices i.e. body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, Waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, high density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol ratio (HDL-C/TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol to low density lipoprotein ratio (HDL-C/LDL-C and triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C were identified according to the Harmonization (H_MS criterion. Results The predominant anthropometric marker that significantly influence metabolic risk factors among the pre- and postmenopausal women was waist-to-hip ratio (premenopausal: p- 0.004, 0.026 and 0.002 for systolic blood pressure (SBP, fasting blood glucose (FBG and HDL-C; postmenopausal: p-0.012, 0.048, 0.007 and 0.0061 for diastolic blood pressure (DBP, FBG, triglyceride (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C respectively. Using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis, the area under the curve for WC, WHR, TG/HDL-C and HDL-C/TC among postmenopausal women were estimated at 0.6, 0.6, 0.8 and 0.8 respectively. The appropriate cut-off values for WC, WHR, TG/HDL-C and

  15. Hormone replacement therapy use dramatically increases breast oestrogen receptor expression in obese postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) by postmenopausal women increases the risk of breast cancer. In this study, oestrogen receptor (ER)-α expression is examined using standard immunoperoxidase technique. Normal breast samples of 11 Australian postmenopausal women have been included in the ER-α study; the result showed a strong correlation (r2 = 0.80) between ER-α expression in normal breast epithelial cells and body mass index (BMI) in normal women who currently use HRT. This finding confirms that the possibility of increased risk of breast cancer associated with increased ER-α expression in normal breast epithelial cells, in turn associated with high BMI and the use of HRT

  16. Race and ethnicity, obesity, metabolic health, and risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Mackey, Rachel H;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether obesity unaccompanied by metabolic abnormalities is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk across racial and ethnic subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 14 364 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative who had data on fasting...... serum lipids and serum glucose and no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes at baseline. We categorized women by body mass index (in kg/m(2)) as normal weight (body mass index 18.5 to <25), overweight (body mass index 25 to <30), or obese (body mass index ≥30) and by metabolic health, defined......, overweight women had similar risk to normal weight women (HR 0.92, interaction P=0.05). Obese black women without metabolic syndrome had higher adjusted risk (HR 1.95) than obese white women (HR 1.07; interaction P=0.02). Among women with only 2 metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular risk was increased in...

  17. Timing and risk factors for clinical fractures among postmenopausal women: a 5-year prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinkens Paula ELM

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many risk factors for fractures have been documented, including low bone-mineral density (BMD and a history of fractures. However, little is known about the short-term absolute risk (AR of fractures and the timing of clinical fractures. Therefore, we assessed the risk and timing of incident clinical fractures, expressed as 5-year AR, in postmenopausal women. Methods In total, 10 general practice centres participated in this population-based prospective study. Five years after a baseline assessment, which included clinical risk factor evaluation and BMD measurement, 759 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 80 years, were re-examined, including undergoing an evaluation of clinical fractures after menopause. Risk factors for incident fractures at baseline that were significant in univariate analyses were included in a multivariate Cox survival regression analysis. The significant determinants were used to construct algorithms. Results In the total group, 12.5% (95% confidence interval (CI 10.1–14.9 of the women experienced a new clinical fracture. A previous clinical fracture after menopause and a low BMD (T-score Conclusion In postmenopausal women, clinical fractures cluster in time. One in two women with a recent clinical fracture had a new clinical fracture within 5 years, regardless of BMD. The 5-year AR for a first clinical fracture was much lower and depended on BMD.

  18. Alveolar bone mass in pre- and postmenopausal women with serum calcium as a marker: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitha Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Postmenopausal women exhibit a reduced alveolar bone mass and lowered levels of serum total calcium with the increasing age. These changes may be useful indicators for low skeletal bone mineral density or osteoporosis.

  19. Clinical value of detection of serum β-Crosslaps, PINP and N-MID in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the clinical value of detection of concentration of β-Crosslaps, PINP and N-MID in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, 116 postmenopausal women were detected by dual X-ray absorptionmetry and divided into NOP group (51 cases) and OP group (65 cases). The serum levels of three bone markers (β-Crosslaps, PINP and N-MID) were measured. The results showed that serum levels of β-Crosslaps, PINP and N-MID in OP group were significantly higher than that in NOP group (P<0.01). It was suggested that three bone markers level might be closely related with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The combined detection of bone markers and bone mineral density has important clinical value in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. (authors)

  20. Proteomic biomarkers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from postmenopausal women undergoing an intervention with soy isoflavones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, D.; Vafeiadou, K.; Hall, W.L.; Daniel, H.; Williams, C.M.; Schroot, J.H.; Wenzel, U.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The incidence of cardiovascular diseases increases after menopause, and soy consumption is suggested to inhibit disease development. Objective: The objective was to identify biomarkers of response to a dietary supplementation with an isoflavone extract in postmenopausal women by proteome

  1. Relationship of Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index with Fracture Risk at Different Sites in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW)

    OpenAIRE

    Compston, Juliet E.; Flahive, Julie; David W.Hosmer; Watts, Nelson B; Siris, Ethel S.; Silverman, Stuart; Saag, Kenneth G; Roux, Christian; Rossini, Maurizio; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Nieves, Jeri W.; Netelenbos, J Coen; March, Lyn; Lacroix, Andrea Z; Hooven, Frederick H.

    2014-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for fracture in postmenopausal women. Height and obesity have also been associated with increased fracture risk at some sites. We investigated the relationships of weight, BMI, and height with incident clinical fracture in a practice-based cohort of postmenopausal women participating in the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Data were collected at baseline and 1, 2, and 3 years. For hip, spine, wrist, pelvis, ...

  2. Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation of Acupoints Changes Body Composition and Heart Rate Variability in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Wei Chien; Miao-Hsiang Lin; Hsueh-Yu Chung; Chi-Feng Liu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulations (TEAS) on body composition and heart rate variability (HRV) in postmenopausal women with obesity. In this prospective study, 49 postmenopausal women were recruited in Taiwan. Body composition was used as a screening test for obesity (percentage body fat > 30%, waist circumference > 80 cm). The experimental group (n = 24) received TEAS treatment 30 min twice per week for 12 weeks at the Zusanli (ST 36) and...

  3. Attitudes About Sexual Activity Among Postmenopausal Women in Different Ethnic Groups: A Cross-sectional Study in Jahrom, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jamali, Safieh; Javadpour, Shohreh; Mosalanejad, Leili; Parnian, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual function is affected by personal and interpersonal factors, familial and social traditions, culture, religion, menopause, and aging. So, ethnicity is a determining factor in sexual function. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and attitudes towards sexuality in postmenopausal women among three different ethnic groups in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women between 50 and 89 years who refe...

  4. The Prevalence of Fibromyalgia in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women and to Determination of Related Risk Factors (Preliminary Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Şule Şahin Onat; Sibel Ünsal Delialioğlu; Sibel Özbudak Demir; Sumru Özel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and to determine the associated factors with fibromyalgia. Materials and Methods: Hundred thirty-seven postmenopausal women with osteoporosis admitted to our outpatient clinic were included in the study. A questionnaire that was including patients’age, marital status, education level, occupation, height, weight was completed. Risk factors of osteoporosis we...

  5. Predictors of physical activity at 12 month follow-up after a supervised exercise intervention in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio-Ting, Fabiola E; Farris, Megan; Courneya, Kerry S.; Schiller, Ashley; Friedenreich, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined recreational physical activity (RPA) after participating in a structured exercise intervention. More specifically, little is known about the long-term effects of exercise interventions in post-menopausal women. This study had two objectives: 1) To compare RPA in postmenopausal women in the exercise group and the control group 12 months after the end of the Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention (ALPHA) Trial; and 2) To apply the Theory of P...

  6. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  7. Melatonin effects on luteinizing hormone in postmenopausal women: a pilot clinical trial NCT00288262

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kline Lawrence E

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many mammals, the duration of the nocturnal melatonin elevation regulates seasonal changes in reproductive hormones such as luteinizing hormone (LH. Melatonin's effects on human reproductive endocrinology are uncertain. It is thought that the same hypothalamic pulse generator may both trigger the pulsatile release of GnRH and LH and also cause hot flashes. Thus, if melatonin suppressed this pulse generator in postmenopausal women, it might moderate hot flashes. This clinical trial tested the hypothesis that melatonin could suppress LH and relieve hot flashes. Methods Twenty postmenopausal women troubled by hot flashes underwent one week of baseline observation followed by 4 weeks of a randomized controlled trial of melatonin or matched placebo. The three randomized treatments were melatonin 0.5 mg 2.5–3 hours before bedtime, melatonin 0.5 mg upon morning awakening, or placebo capsules. Twelve of the women were admitted to the GCRC at baseline and at the end of randomized treatment for 24-hour sampling of blood for LH. Morning urine samples were collected twice weekly to measure LH excretion. Subjective responses measured throughout baseline and treatment included sleep and hot flash logs, the CESD and QIDS depression self-ratings, and the SAFTEE physical symptom inventory. Results Urinary LH tended to increase from baseline to the end of treatment. Contrasts among the 3 randomized groups were statistically marginal, but there was relative suppression combining the groups given melatonin as contrasted to the placebo group (p Conclusion The data are consistent with the hypothesis that melatonin suppresses LH in postmenopausal women. An effect related to the duration of nocturnal melatonin elevation is suggested. Effects of melatonin on reproductive endocrinology should be studied further in younger women and in men. Larger studies of melatonin effects on postmenopausal symptoms would be worthwhile.

  8. Effect of Soy Milk Consumption on Quality of Life in Iranian Postmenopausal Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoreh Norrozi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To find out whether or not soy milk as a phytoestrogen product can improve the quality of life of the Iranian postmenopausal women.Participants of this randomized clinical trial were 57 healthy postmenopausal women. All eligible women were randomly divided into two groups of soy milk (SG and control (CG. Individuals in the SG (n = 34 received 500 ml soy milk including genistein (28.86 mg/dl and daidzein (8.25 mg/dl per day, while the participants in the CG (n = 23 received 500 ml low fat cow milk per day during 8 months. Both groups also took daily calcium-D capsules (500 mg calcium and 200 IU D3. The quality of life of all participants was examined twice (at the baseline and the end of the eighth month using the menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL questionnaire.A total of 57 healthy postmenopausal women with a mean age of 52.13 (3.05 years were included in this study. Despite the significant but weak difference was observed between SG and CG in the sexual domain score (the mean of percent change: 0.46% vs. 33.94%, respectively; p = 0.031, while significant relationship was found between the soy milk consumption and improvement in the domains studied (vasomotor, psychosocial and physical.Overall our findings showed that soy milk does not improve the quality of life in postmenopausal women. But to achieve more reliable results, it is recommended further study to be done with a larger sample size, more prolonged, and with participants having severer vasomotor symptoms.

  9. Fall prevention in postmenopausal women: the role of Pilates exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hita-Contreras, F; Martínez-Amat, A; Cruz-Díaz, D; Pérez-López, F R

    2016-06-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are a major public health concern for postmenopausal women. Fear of falling, impairments in gait and postural control, and changes in body composition have been identified as important risk factors for falling. Physical exercise is an important tool in fall prevention and management. The Pilates method is a non-impact activity that can be adapted to different physical conditions and health status and is recommended for various populations. In postmenopausal women, it has been deemed an effective way to improve some fall-related physical and psychological aspects, such as postural and dynamic balance. In addition, some physical capacities, such as flexibility, personal autonomy, mobility, and functional ability have also shown to benefit from Pilates interventions involving women in their second half of life, as well as certain psychological aspects including fear of falling, depressive status, and quality of life. Pilates exercise has shown effectively to prevent falls in postmenopausal women by improving their balance, physical and psychological functioning, and independence. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to demonstrate its validity in different clinical situations. PMID:26849849

  10. Serum sex hormone levels are related to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, J F; Longcope, C; Stephenson, H E; Falk, R T; Miller, R; Franz, C; Kahle, L; Campbell, W S; Tangrea, J A; Schatzkin, A

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a nested case-control study to prospectively evaluate the relationship of serum estrogens and androgens to risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. From 1977 to 1987, 3375 postmenopausal women free of cancer and not taking replacement estrogens donated blood to the Breast Cancer Serum Bank in Columbia, Missouri. Of these, 72 were subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer. For each case, two controls matched on age and date and time of day of blood collection were selected using incidence density matching. The median age of subjects at blood collection was 62 years; the time from blood collection to diagnosis ranged from less than 1 to 9.5 years with a median of 2.9 years. Risk of breast cancer was positively and significantly associated with serum levels of estrogens and androgens. Compared to women in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile for non-sex hormone-binding globulin (non-SHBG) bound (bioavailable) estradiol had a relative risk of 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-18.5) and those in the highest quartile for testosterone had a relative risk of 6.2 (95% CI = 2.0-19.0). Our results lend considerable support to the hypothesis that serum concentrations of estrogens and androgens are related to the subsequent diagnosis of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. PMID:9167999

  11. Central obesity measurements predict metabolic syndrome in a retrospective cohort study of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rosety-Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The various diagnostic classifications in the literature concur as regards the important role of abdominal obesity in the onset and progression of metabolic syndrome. Accordingly, this study was aimed at clarifying whether central obesity measurements assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA may predict metabolic syndrome in Spanish postmenopausal women. Material and methods: This historical cohort study included a total of 1326 postmenopausal women aged > 45 years old who had routinely undergone DXA to measure their bone mineral density between january 2006 and january 2011. The regions of interest (ROI envisaged in our study by using DXA were the lumbar regions L1-L4 and L4-L5. At the same time, they underwent a complete medical examination including personal medical history assessment, biochemical blood analysis, blood pressure measurement and anthropometrical evaluation. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed attending to the criteria established by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NECP-ATP-III. Results: During the observation period, 537 women, representing 40.5% of the total studied, met the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome. L1-L4 and L4-L5 abdominal fat mass determinations were associated with the development of metabolic syndrome in all regression models tested, showing an increasing gradient from the lowest to highest quintile. Conclusion: Central adiposity measurements assessed by DXA, especially L1-L4 region of interest, could be considered a powerful predictor of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

  12. ZumBeat: Evaluation of a Zumba Dance Intervention in Postmenopausal Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Rossmeissl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a major public health concern since it increases individuals’ risk of morbidity and mortality. A subgroup at particular risk is postmenopausal overweight women. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and effect of a 12-week ZumBeat dance intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial health. Postmenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI >30 kg/m2 or a waist circumference >94 cm who were not regularly physically active were asked to complete a 12-week ZumBeat dance intervention with instructed and home-based self-training sessions. Before and after the intervention, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak was assessed on a treadmill; and body composition and several psychometric parameters (including quality of life, sports-related barriers and menopausal symptoms were investigated. Of 17 women (median age: 54 years; median BMI: 30 kg/m2 enrolled in the study, 14 completed the study. There was no apparent change in VO2peak after the 12-week intervention period (average change score: −0.5 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval: −1.0, 0.1; but, quality of life had increased, and sports-related barriers and menopausal symptoms had decreased. A 12-week ZumBeat dance intervention may not suffice to increase cardiorespiratory fitness in postmenopausal overweight women, but it increases women’s quality of life.

  13. Body mass index versus percentage body fat in Chinese, African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; He Qing; Lin Shou-qing; Tian Jun-ping; Stan He-shka; Jack Wang; Steven Heymsfield; Richard N. Pierson; Dympna Gallagher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate in postmenopausal women whether the relationship between percentage body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) differs between Asians living in Beijing (BA) and African-Americans (AA), and Caucasians (Ca) living in New York City.Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (231 BA; 113 AA, 95 Ca), aged 50-80 years, were studied. Weight, height and PBF by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. The relationship between PBF and BMI was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Race, reciprocal of BMI (1/BMI) and the interaction between race and 1/BMI were all significantly (P<0.05) related to PBF in this sample. The slope of the line relating 1/BMI to PBF was different for BA compared to AA (P=0.01) and Ca (P=0.003) while the slopes for AA and Ca were not different (P>0.05). At lower levels of BMI, Asians tended to have higher PBF comparable to AA and Ca, while at BMI >30 BA tended to have less PBF than the other groups. Conclusion: The relation between PBF and BMI in BA postmenopausal women differs from that of AA and Ca women in this sample.

  14. Reproductive history and pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality in a cohort of post-menopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Richard J.; Roddam, Andrew W; Green, Jane; Pirie, Kirstin; Bull, Diana; Reeves, Gillian K.; Beral, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    There is inconsistent evidence about the effect of reproductive history on women’s risk of pancreatic cancer. In the Million Women Study, a prospective cohort of middle-aged women in the UK, we examined associations between reproductive history and pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality, controlling for age, socioeconomic status, geographic region, body mass index, smoking and history of diabetes. During 7.1 million person-years of follow-up in 995,192 post-menopausal women there were 1,18...

  15. Asymptomatic group B streptococcal bacteriuria among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria due to group B streptococci (GBS) was 82/3863 (2.1%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 69/82 patients (84.2%) had clinical and microbiological features consistent with cystitis, versus 13/82 (15.8%) for pyelonephritis. About 51.2% (42/82) of the patients who had urine analysis performed had positive results based on positive urinary leucocyte esterase and pyuria. Disc-diffusion analysis of all 82 GBS isolates showed that they were highly susceptible to Augmentin and linezolid. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Further, ongoing surveillance and evaluation of outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GBS bacteriuria is required to optimise maternal and newborn care. PMID:26510270

  16. Dietary calcium intake and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial polygenetic disease of which the genetic determinants are modulated by hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. Identifi cation of the risk factors for osteoporosisrelated to nutrition is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease, considering that these factors can be modifi ed. The aim of this study was to examine infl uence of dietary calcium intake on bonemineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: A total of 100 postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area, aged 50-65 years, without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history were included in the study. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbarspine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. Examination and control group were formed based on mineral bone density values. The women in the examinationgroup had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Estimates of daily dietary calcium intake were performed based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire.Results: The average daily intake of dietary calcium among women who had osteoporosis was 967.32 mg, and in women who hadn’t osteoporosis 1195.12 mg. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (pConclusion: The results of this study have shown that adequate daily intake of dietary calcium in postmenopausal women aged 50-65 years living in Sarajevo area, which hadn’t estrogen defi ciency in their menstrualhistory (in the group of women without osteoporosis amounted to 1195.12 mg has a positive impact on bone mineral density.

  17. Dietary calcium intake and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial polygenetic disease of which the genetic determinants are modulated by hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. Identifi cation of the risk factors for osteoporosisrelated to nutrition is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease, considering that these factors can be modifi ed. The aim of this study was to examine infl uence of dietary calcium intake on bonemineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: A total of 100 postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area, aged 50-65 years, without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history were included in the study. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbarspine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. Examination and control group were formed based on mineral bone density values. The women in the examinationgroup had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Estimates of daily dietary calcium intake were performed based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire.Results: The average daily intake of dietary calcium among women who had osteoporosis was 967.32 mg, and in women who hadn’t osteoporosis 1195.12 mg. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (p<0.001. There was registered signifi cant correlation between intake of dietary calcium and mineral bone density in examination (p<0.01 and in control group (p<0.01.Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that adequate daily intake of dietary calcium in postmenopausal women aged 50-65 years living in Sarajevo area, which hadn’t estrogen defi ciency in their menstrualhistory (in the group of women without osteoporosis amounted to 1195.12 mg has a positive impact on bone mineral density.

  18. Plasma oestrogens in postmenopausal women with endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Lyndrup, J; Dreisler, A; Hagen, C; Haug, E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study plasma levels of estrogens and androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in postmenopausal patients with endometrial cancer. DESIGN: Patients and controls were matched for age, body mass index, parity and years since menopause. SETTING...... negatively (P < 0.001) with body mass, while the free fractions of oestradiol and testosterone correlated positively (P < 0.01) with body mass, in both patients and controls. Multiple regression analysis showed that the differences in oestrogen levels between the two groups persisted when controlling for the...... effect of body mass, age, years since menopause, parity, and levels of SHBG and FSH. CONCLUSION: Patients with endometrial cancer exhibit increased plasma levels of oestradiol and oestrone. Speculatively, these oestrogens may result from an increased oestrone conversion from androstenedione, an increased...

  19. Estrogen receptor alpha and risk for cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Rasmussen, Henrik B; Hansen, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    -item Orientation-Memory-Concentration test in postmenopausal Danish women. Hormone replacement therapy, age and executive cognitive ability were examined as covariates for ESR1 gene effects on cognitive impairment. The XbaI polymorphism showed a marginal effect on cognitive abilities (P=0.054) when adjusted for...... executive cognitive ability. Using a dominant genetic model for the X allele, we found an elevated risk (executive cognitive ability adjusted P=0.033) for cognitive impairment. Hormone replacement therapy also had a borderline effect on cognitive ability (P=0.049) and this effect was reflected in executive...... cognitive ability. These data support that the ESR1 gene variants affect cognitive functioning in postmenopausal women....

  20. Critical review of health effects of soyabean phyto-oestrogens in post-menopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, A.; Albertazzi, P.; Nielsen, I. L.;

    2006-01-01

    improve endothelial function. For menopausal symptoms there is currently limited evidence that soyabean-protein isolates, soyabean foods or red-clover (Trifolium pratense L.) extract are effective but soyabean isoflavone extracts may be effective in reducing hot flushes. There are too few RCT studies to...... reach conclusions on the effects of isoflavones on breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes or cognitive function. The health benefits of soyabean phyto-oestrogens in healthy post-menopausal women are subtle and even some well-designed studies do not show protective effects. Future studies should focus on......A consensus view of soyabean phyto-oestrogens in clinical interventions in post-menopausal women is presented that is based on data from the EU-funded project Phytohealth. The phyto-oestrogens, primarily genistein and daidzein, were given as soyabean-protein isolates, whole-soyabean foods or...

  1. Modest weight loss in moderately overweight postmenopausal women improves heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Astrup, Arne;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of weight loss on heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in overweight postmenopausal women. Design and Methods: Forty-nine overweight postmenopausal women with an average body mass index of 28.8 1.9 kg/m2 underwent a 12-week dietary weight......-slice MRI at L3. Results: The weight loss of 3.9 2.0 kg was accompanied by an improvement of HRV. SDNN increased by 9.2% (p ¼ 0.003) and SDNNindex increased by 11.4% (p ¼ 0.0003). MeanNN increased by 2.4%, reflecting a decrease in mean heart rate from 74.1 to 72.3 beats/min (p ¼ 0.033). Systolic blood...

  2. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending An-tenatal Clinic at the University Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Acheampong, I.; N. Amidu; Bio, F.Y.; Quaye, L; Obirikorang, C.; Addo, K.

    2012-01-01

    The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective hospital-based study was carried out between April-June 2009. A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited for this study. The ages of the women ranged from 15 to 46 years. About 5-10mls of clean ca...

  3. Evaluation of various screening tests to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Jayalakshmi J; Jayaram V

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various screening tests in detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. Clean catch midstream urine specimens were collected from 630 consecutive pregnant women and processed. Forty-four (7.4%) of the urine samples were culture positive, with Escherichia coli as the predominant organism isolated (57.4%). The results of the four screening tests, viz., Gram′s staining of uncentrifuged urine, pus cell count, nitrite test and...

  4. Correlation between Lumbar Lordosis Angle and Degree of Gynoid Lipodystrophy (Cellulite) in Asymptomatic Women

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana Barbosa Milani; A'Dayr Natal Filho; Sílvia Maria Amado João

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Gynoid lipodystrophy (cellulite) has been cited as a common dermatological alteration. It occurs mainly in adult women and tends to gather around the thighs and buttocks. Its presence and severity have been related to many factors, including biotype, age, sex, circulatory changes, and, as some authors have suggested, mechanical alterations such as lumbar hyperlordosis. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the degree of cellulite with the angle of lumbar lordosis in asymptomatic women. METHOD...

  5. Abnormal Microarchitecture and Reduced Stiffness at the Radius and Tibia in Postmenopausal Women With Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Emily M; Liu, X. Sherry; Nickolas, Thomas L.; Cohen, Adi; Thomas, Valerie; McMahon, Donald J.; Zhang, Chiyuan; Yin, Perry T.; Cosman, Felicia; Nieves, Jeri; Guo, X Edward; Shane, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been shown to predict fracture risk. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) yields additional information about volumetric BMD (vBMD), microarchitecture, and strength that may increase understanding of fracture susceptibility. Women with (n = 68) and without (n = 101) a history of postmenopausal fragility fracture had aBMD measured by DXA and trabecular and cortical vB...

  6. Hormone therapy affects plasma measures of factor VII-activating protease in younger postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Jørn Sidelmann; Skouby, S.O.; Vitzthum, F.; Schwarz, H.; Jespersen, J.

    2010-01-01

    for the determination of FSAP antigen and FSAP activity. Results The FSAP measures were comparable at baseline. No significant changes were observed in the control group after 12 months. HT in general induced a significant increase in FSAP antigen (7.7 mu g/ml at baseline and 8.0 mu g/ml after 12...... induced by HT in younger postmenopausal women...

  7. Phenolic metabolites of anthocyanins following a dietary intervention study in post-menopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    de Ferrars, Rachel M; Cassidy, Aedín; Curtis, Peter; Kay, Colin D.

    2014-01-01

    Scope Numerous studies feeding anthocyanin-rich foods report limited bioavailability of the parent anthocyanins. The present study explores the identity and concentration of the phenolic metabolites of anthocyanins in humans. Methods and results Anthocyanin metabolites were quantified in samples collected from a previously conducted 12-wk elderberry intervention study in healthy post-menopausal women. Individual 1-, 2- and 3-h post-bolus urine samples and pooled plasma samples following acute...

  8. Association of morning illumination and window covering with mood and sleep among post-menopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Leung, Amy; Kripke, Daniel F.; Langer, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    The antidepressant and sleep-promoting effects of light exposure might be useful for treating age-related mood and sleep disorders. In view of recent evidence suggesting beneficial effects of morning light, this study examined the associations of mood and sleep with morning light exposure, 24 h environmental illumination, and the degree to which the volunteers’ bedroom windows were covered in the morning. We examined 459 postmenopausal women participating an ancillary study of the Women’s Hea...

  9. Fecal bacterial community changes associated with isoflavone metabolites in postmenopausal women after soy bar consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy H Nakatsu

    Full Text Available Soy isoflavones and their metabolism by intestinal microbiota have gained attention because of potential health benefits, such as the alleviation of estrogen/hormone-related conditions in postmenopausal women, associated with some of these compounds. However, overall changes in gut bacterial community structure and composition in response to addition of soy isoflavones to diets and their association with excreted isoflavone metabolites in postmenopausal women has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine fecal bacterial community changes in 17 postmenopausal women after a week of diet supplementation with soy bars containing isoflavones, and to determine correlations between microbial community changes and excreted isoflavone metabolites. Using DGGE profiles of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes (V3 region to compare microbial communities in fecal samples collected one week before and one week during soy supplementation revealed significant differences (ANOSIM p<0.03 before and after soy supplementation in all subjects. However, between subjects comparisons showed high inter-individual variation that resulted in clustering of profiles by subjects. Urinary excretion of isoflavone (daidzein metabolites indicated four subjects were equol producers and all subjects produced O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA. Comparison of relative proportions of 16S rRNA genes from 454 pyrosequencing of the last fecal samples of each treatment session revealed significant increases in average proportions of Bifidobacterium after soy consumption, and Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium were significantly greater in equol vs non-S-(-equol producers. This is the first in vivo study using pyrosequencing to characterize significant differences in fecal community structure and composition in postmenopausal women after a week of soy diet-supplementation, and relate these changes to differences in soy isoflavones and isoflavone metabolites.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00244907.

  10. Resurfacing total hip replacement–a therapeutical approach in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and hip arthrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, D.; Ene, R; Cirstoiu, C

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Patients with incipient hip arthrosis may benefit from a relatively new therapeutical approach using resurfacing total hip replacement, but in those with associated osteoporosis, this type of surgical intervention is contraindicated, given the poor quality of osteoporotic bones. We assessed the efficacy of the antiosteoporotic pharmacological therapy to improve bone quality and bone strength in postmenopausal women diagnosed with hip arthrosis and osteoporosis thus facilitating the hip s...

  11. Association of interleukin-1 beta (-511C/T) polymorphisms with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is a common disease of the elderly, in which genetic and clinical factors contribute to the disease phenotype. Since the production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated in the bone mass and skeletal disorders, we investigated whether IL-1 system gene polymorphisms are associated with the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Taiwanese women.Osteoporosis is diagnosed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, which measures bone mineral density (BMD) at multiple skeletal sites. We studied the IL-1a (-889C/T), IL-1 (-511C/T) and the 86 base pair variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in intron 2 of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene in 117 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and 135 control subjects without a history of symptomatic osteoporosis. These gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymerase. Blood sugar and other risk factors were also determined.The frequencies of IL-1 (-511C/T) genotypes (P=.022, odds ratio=1.972) and alleles (P=.02, odds ratio=2.909) showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups. However, we did not find any statistically significant difference in IL-1 and IL-1ra polymorphisms (P>.05). We also observed a positive relationship between osteoporosis and cholesterol and a weak inverse relationship between blood sugar and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.These experimental results suggest that the pathogenesis of osteoporosis is associated with IL-1 (-511C/T) polymorphism in postmenopausal women. This polymorphism is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis (Author).

  12. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Azidah Abdul Kadir; Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain; Wan Mohammad Wan Bebakar; Dayang Marshitah Mohd; Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad; Intan Idiana Hassan; Norlela Shukor; Nor Azmi Kamaruddin; Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating...

  13. The VSQ: a questionnaire to measure vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Yip, Sallis O.; Wedderburn, Terri S.; Martin, Deanna K.; Li, Fang-Yong; Choi, Jennifer N.; Kenton, Kimberly S.; Fried, Terri R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a vulvovaginal symptoms questionnaire (VSQ) to study symptoms, emotions, life-impact, and sexual-impact of vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods We developed questionnaire focused on vulvovaginal symptoms based on modifications to the Skindex-16, a validated questionnaire to measure the impact of skin disease. We then recruited postmenopausal women seeking routine gynecologic care to test the psychometric properties of the VSQ. Test-retest reliability was assessed 2 to 4 weeks after their initial recruitment and measured utilizing intra-class coefficients. Four distinct a priori scales of the VSQ were developed: symptoms, emotions, life-impact, and sexual-impact. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify the four a priori scales by evaluating the goodness-of-fit of a final confirmatory factor analysis model. The internal consistency of the scales was assessed through the calculation of Cronbach’s α coefficient. Results The VSQ is a 21-item written questionnaire with four scales, symptoms, emotions, life-impact, and sexual impact. One hundred twenty postmenopausal women participated in the psychometric validation of the VSQ. The test-retest reliability the four scales measured by intra-class coefficients were 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.65 for symptoms, emotions, life-impact and sexual-impact. The goodness-of –fit of the confirmatory factor response model was confirmed. Cronbach’s α coefficients were 0.76, 0.87, 0.83, and 0.82 for the scales. Conclusion The VSQ is a reliable and internal consistent instrument to measure vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women. PMID:23481118

  14. Vascular and Nutrigenomic effects of grapefruit flavanones consumption: A RCT in post-menopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Habauzit, Veronique; Milenkovic, Dragan; Verny, Marie-Anne; Barber Chamoux, Nicolas; Bobby, Céline; Mazur, André; Dubray, Gerard; Morand, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of citrus fruits is associated with health benefits. However, clinical data regarding the effects of grapefruit flavanone consumption on vascular function are lacking. The present clinical study aimed at 1) characterizing the specific role of naringin in the effect of a long-term consumption of grapefruit juice on vascular function in humans and 2) analyzing changes in PBMCs transcriptome profile induced by grapefruit naringin. 52 healthy post-menopausal women were enrolled...

  15. Serum IGF-1 Concentrations Change With Soy and Seaweed Supplements in Healthy Postmenopausal American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Teas, Jane; Irhimeh, Mohammad R; Druker, Susan; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hébert, James R.; Savarese, Todd M.; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone important for growth and development. However, high-circulating serum concentrations in adults are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Nutritional status and specific foods influence serum IGF-1 concentrations. Breast cancer incidence is typically low in Asian countries where soy is commonly consumed. Paradoxically, soy supplement trials in American women have reported significant increases in IGF-1. Seawe...

  16. Prolonged treatment with vitamin D in postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Ranganathan R; Randeva, Harpal S.; Sankaranarayanan, Sailesh; Narashima, Murthy; Möhlig, Matthias; Mehanna, Hisham; Weickert, Martin O

    2012-01-01

    Introduction/background Vitamin D deficiency further increases circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), with potential detrimental effects on bone mass. Methods This was an observational clinical study in consecutive conservatively treated postmenopausal women (n=40) with pHPT and coexistent 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency (25OHD ≤50 nmol/l (≤20 ng/ml)). Patients who showed an increase in serum 25OHD above the threshold of vitamin D defi...

  17. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on lipids and coagulation factors in postmenopausal women smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatović-Babić Danijela

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopause and smoking impair lipid profile, induce hypercoagulability and reduce fibrinolytic capacity [1, 2]. Postmenopause induced lipid changes can be reversed by oestrogen replacement [3]. Oestrogens also reduce fibrino-gen level [4] and have beneficial effects on endothelium [5]. Although several studies showed that hormone replacement therapy may increase the risk of thromboembolic diseases, procoagulant oestrogen activity has not clearly been demonstrated. It is well known that smoking accelerates oestrogen metabolism [6, 7], which may attenuate its beneficial effects. The present study was undertaken to determine if there is difference in beneficial effects of oestrogens between smokers and non-smokers in terms of coagulation process and lipids. The examination was a longitudinal one-year, before/after therapeutic study, which included healthy postmenopausal women (FSH levels at least 40 U/l, 30 smokers and 32 non-smokers who were under 55 years of age and postmenopausal period shorter than 5 years. Women with surgically induced menopause received unopposed oral oestrogens, while those with spontaneous menopause were treated with combined oral oestrogen/progestogen therapy. Before entering the study and in three-months intervals total LDL, HDL cholesterol, triglycérides and VLDL were determined, as well School of Medicine, Belgrade as plasma fibrinogen prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time. Neither beneficial nor adverse effects of oestrogens on lipids and coagulation were observed during one-year follow-up in smokers, although subjects with longer smoking history had higher triglycérides levels after 12 months of therapy. On the contrary, oestrogen replacement reduced total and LDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol in non-smokers, with no change in triglycérides and VLDL level. A decrease in fibrinogen levels and coagulation activity, expressed by protrombin time and partial thromboplastin time, were

  18. Assessment of DNA nucleo base oxidation and antioxidant defense in postmenopausal women under hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Akcay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxidative stress byinvesting oxidatively damaged DNA AS Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg -sensitive sites, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD activities reduced glutathione (GSH level and nitrite level as satble end product of in women receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Materials and Methods: 127 healthy postmenopausal women receiving HRT and 25 healthy control postmenopausal women were included in this study. Women receiving HRT, comprised surgical menopausal women who underwent surgery for benign conditionsand received conjugated equine estrogen, 0.625 mg/day for 1year (group 1, 5 years (group 2 and more than 10 years (group 3, spontaneous postmenopausal women received conjugated equine estrogen, 0.625 (Premarin mg/day and medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5 mg/day (Premelle for 1 year (group 4, 5 years (group 5 and more than 5 years (group 6.We investigated in the present study the effects of HRT on nitrite level and GSH level, activities of SOD and GPx and oxidative damage to DNA by comet assays by measuring levels of Fpg-sensitive sites. Results: Although no significant differences were found in the SOD activities, in total group receiving HRT, increased DNA oxidation (P<0.001 together with an increased GPx activity (P<0.001 and nitrite level (P<0.001 as well as a decreased GSH level (P < 0.05 as compared with controls were observed. Conclusion: Estrogen alone or oestrogen in combination with progesterone and duration of use did not significantly alter the results. We evaluated that caused oxidative stress by investigating oxidative DNA damage as Fp-sensitive sites and GSH.NO levels in women receiving HRT.

  19. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lidfeldt, Jonas [Department of Community Health, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Samsioe, Göran [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Halldin, Krister [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Åkesson, Agneta, E-mail: agneta.akesson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  20. Physical activity and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžov-Nikolić Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity in postmenopausal women can slow bone loss and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Purpose: Analysis of the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in relation to physical activity. Methods: This paper represents a retrospective multicenter study of postmenopausal women with newly found osteoporosis from August 2008 until November 2011. All data concerning the patients were taken from the National Register for Osteoporosis. Patients were divided into two groups: in the first group were physically active and in the second, physically inactive patients. Physical activity included dancing, active or recreational sports, fast walking, running, jumping and lifting. Results: The study included 363 respondents, mean age 64.4 ± 8.6 years, of whom 155 (42.7% were physically active, and 208 (57.3% physically inactive. 86 (23.7% patients had spontaneous single fractures, 23 (14.8% in the physically active group and 63 (30.3% in the physically inactive group, which was statistically significant difference in frequency (p = 0.001. Respondents with multiple spontaneous fractures were separated in a special group and were not included in the above analysis. 21 patients had spontaneous multiple fractures, of whom 4 (2.5% physically active and 17 (7.55% physically inactive, which was statistically significant difference in frequency (p = 0.032. Conclusion: Spontaneous single and multiple fractures are significantly more frequent with physically inactive subjects.

  1. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion

  2. Influences of teriparatide administration on marrow fat content in postmenopausal osteopenic women using MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Luo, X; Xie, X; Yan, F; Chen, G; Zhao, W; Jiang, Z; Fang, C; Shen, J

    2016-06-01

    Objective Teriparatide could induce osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells while inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. However, there are significant differences between ex vivo and in vivo models. We aimed to evaluate the impact of teriparatide on marrow and abdominal fat accumulation in postmenopausal osteopenic women. Methods Postmenopausal osteopenic women were randomly assigned to receive teriparatide or placebo for 12 months. Subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), marrow fat fraction (MFF), bone density (BMD) and bone biomarkers were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Results At 12 months, mean percentage changes in BMD from baseline were 3.51%, 2.21% and 1.80% at lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck for the teriparatide group, respectively. Relative to baseline conditions, teriparatide reduced MFF (-3.54% at 6 months; -5.87% at 12 months, all p < 0.01). A significant difference in MFF, but not BMD, was first detected at 6 months (p = 0.012) between groups. MFF was negatively associated with SAT (r = -0.479) and positively associated with VAT (r = 0.531) and VAT/SAT (r = 0.415, all p < 0.05). Teriparatide treatment did not alter abdominal fat composition. Conclusion Teriparatide effectively lowers marrow adiposity but not abdominal fat accumulation in postmenopausal osteopenic women. PMID:26744910

  3. Effect of Transdermal Estrogen Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Korean Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Ji Soo; Lee, Dong-Yun; Choi, DooSeok

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of transdermal estrogen therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods A total of 149 healthy postmenopausal women were retrospectively evaluated: 100 were on hormone therapy (HT) and 49 were the control group. For the HT group, 54 applied estrogen transdermally using either a patch (n = 21) or gel (n = 33), and 46 took estrogen orally (conjugated estrogen 0.625 mg or equivalent). Demographic profiles and changes in BMD over two years were compared according to the route of the estrogen. Results No differences were found in age, age at menopause, parity, body mass index, and type of menopause among the oral, transdermal and control groups. Compared with controls, HT significantly increased BMD after 2 years in both the lumbar spine and the total hip. The increases in BMD at both lumbar spine and hip were comparable between the oral and transdermal groups. There were also no differences in BMD changes according to progestogen addition in either the oral or transdermal groups. Conclusion Transdermal estrogen therapy increases BMD, comparable to oral estrogen, in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:25580422

  4. Update on the effect of estradiol in postmenopause women with Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Long; Zou, Shuang; Zhang, Changfu; Li, Jun; Xu, Yinghui; Li, Shao

    2016-09-01

    Estradiol (E2) has been used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) for many years but with various responses. Evidence from clinical studies, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), and observational studies further underscores the importance of E2 in postmenopause women diagnosed with AD. The purpose of this article is to review all clinical trials to date focusing on the E2 in AD patients to explore the evidence regarding use of E2 in AD treatments. To achieve this objective, clinical studies regarding E2 levels in AD patients and RCTs assessing AD treatment in postmenopause women were identified through searches of MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, Ovid, and Google Scholar. E2 has demonstrated good therapeutic effectiveness in AD patients, however, further larger scale, double-blind RCTs are required before a definitive conclusion can be reached and the results need to be compared with other drugs. This update reviews the newest clinical information regarding the role of E2 in postmenopause women with AD. To our knowledge, this is the only systematic review of this area. PMID:26931740

  5. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in community-dwelling postmenopausal Polish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Stolarczyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inadequate vitamin D level is associated with altered bone turnover and bone loss, which increases the fracture risk. Aim: To assess the seasonal prevalence of inadequate (insufficient or deficient serum vitamin D levels in community-dwelling postmenopausal Polish women screened for osteoporosis. Material and methods : A cross-sectional observational study based on the regional urban non-institutionalized sample (n = 107 of postmenopausal Caucasian women in the age range of 51-83 years, not taking any medication and free from any condition likely to affect vitamin D status or calcium/bone metabolism. The outcome measures were the mean 25-OH vitamin D level across all the seasons and the percentage of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency and defined as < 20 ng/dl (50 nmol/l and 20-30 ng/dl (50-75 nmol/l, respectively. Results: No statistically significant difference has been found in the mean vitamin D level, regardless of the season (p = 0.4. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were in spring 54% and 32%, in summer 46% and 46%, in autumn 67% and 27%, and in winter 61% and 22%, respectively. Conclusions : Vitamin D inadequacy is common in a sample of Polish community-dwelling postmenopausal women regardless of the season.

  6. Total and regional body-composition changes in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Q; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille;

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional body composition were measured in 373 early postmenopausal women aged 49-60 y by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to evaluate whether the changes in body composition in the early postmenopausal years are related to menopause itself or merely to age. Both fat mass and fat...... distribution correlated with age (r = 0.12-0.21, P < 0.05-P < 0.001), but not with years since menopause (YSM). Lean tissue mass, on the other hand, decreased with YSM (r = -0.17, P < 0.001) but was not related significantly to age. Total body bone mineral density decreased with both YSM (r = -0.30, P < 0.......001) and age (r = -0.21, P < 0.001). Our study suggests that postmenopausal changes in body fat and fat distribution are more dependent on age than on menopause, but we cannot exclude a separate effect of the menopause. Changes in fat-free mass, including a postmenopausal decline in both soft lean tissue...

  7. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Xavier Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality.

  8. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated risk factors among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Rajkumari; Humera Qudsia Fatima Ansari

    2011-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the commonest bacterial infec-tion which requires medical treatment in pregnancy. Untreated ASB in 25-30% of can cases lead to pyelonephritis which may lead to increased risk of abortions, intrauterine fetal deaths, prematurity and low birth weight. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Gandhi Hospital over a period of ten months with 125 asymptomatic pregnant women in the age group of 15-35 years. The objectives of the study were to determine prevalence o...

  9. The localization of estrogen receptor alpha and its function in the ovaries of postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Brodowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The localization of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha in the ovaries of postmenopausal women is a very up-to-date topic in the aspect of using estrogens therapy in the clinical situations of different type. In ovaries of reproductive age women ERalpha is present in ovary stroma, theca and granulosa cells, ovary surface epithelium (OSE and in corpus luteum. The ovaries of postmenopausal women are smaller than those of women at the reproductive age, the division into cortex and medulla gets blurred, the ovaries have no follicles any longer, and the stroma is mainly composed of fibrous connective tissue, corpora albicantia, nerves, and blood and lymphatic vessels. The aim of our study was to investigate the immunolocalization and immunoexpression of ERalpha in the ovaries of postmenopausal women. The study involved 50 postmenopausal women who had their ovaries removed by laparotomy due to non-neoplastic diseases of the uterus. The women were divided into 3 groups (A, B, and C depending on the time that had passed since the last menstruation. Group A consisted of women who had their last menstruation no more than 5 years earlier, in group B menopause occurred 5 to 10 years earlier, group C was composed of patients who had the last menstruation over 10 years earlier. In all the patients concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing stimulating hormone (LH, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, androstendione (A and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS in blood plasma were measured. Ovarian tissue was obtained during surgery. For morphological studies, ovaries were fixed in Bouin;s solution and 4% formalin and embedded in paraffin. Morphological analysis was carried out after hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Comparing to groups A and B, the ovaries in group C contained a small number of corpora albicantia located in the medullary part as well as thinned blood vessels and few lymphatic vessels and nerves. For immunoohistochemical

  10. Effect of a weight loss intervention on anthropometric measures and metabolic risk factors in pre- versus postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahradnik Hans-Peter

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study examines changes in body weight, fat mass, metabolic and hormonal parameters in overweight and obese pre- and postmenopausal women who participated in a weight loss intervention. Methods Seventy-two subjects were included in the analysis of this single arm study (premenopausal: 22 women, age 43.7 ± 6.4 years, BMI 31.0 ± 2.4 kg/m2; postmenopausal: 50 women, age 58.2 ± 5.1 years, BMI 32.9 ± 3.7 kg/m2. Weight reduction was achieved by the use of a meal replacement and fat-reduced diet. In addition, from week 6 to 24 participants attended a guided exercise program. Body composition was analyzed with the Bod Pod®. Blood pressures were taken at every visit and blood was collected at baseline and closeout of the study to evaluate lipids, insulin, cortisol and leptin levels. Results BMI, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose, leptin and cortisol were higher in the postmenopausal women at baseline. Both groups achieved a substantial and comparable weight loss (pre- vs. postmenopausal: 6.7 ± 4.9 vs 6.7 ± 4.4 kg; n.s.. However, in contrast to premenopausal women, weight loss in postmenopausal women was exclusively due to a reduction of fat mass (-5.3 ± 5.1 vs -6.6 ± 4.1 kg; p Blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and glucose improved significantly only in postmenopausal women whereas total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were lowered significantly in both groups. Conclusion Both groups showed comparable weight loss and in postmenopausal women weight loss was associated with a pronounced improvement in metabolic risk factors thereby reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  11. Prevalence of cystic paraurethral structures in asymptomatic women at endovaginal and perineal sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Justin J.L.; Fynes, Michelle; Berman, Laurence; Perera, Divaka

    2001-07-01

    AIM: To prospectively assess the prevalence of paraurethral cystic structures in asymptomatic adult women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty consecutive women undergoing endovaginal sonography with no history of lower urinary tract symptoms. RESULTS: Paraurethral cystic structures were identified in 4/140 subjects (2.9%). Ultrasound assessment allowed rapid definition of the site, size and vascularity of these lesions and was well tolerated by the patient. CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective ultrasound study to determine the prevalence of paraurethral cystic structures in a large consecutive cohort of asymptomatic women. Our findings are in accordance with previously published post-mortem data and surgical series which have estimated the prevalence of paraurethral cystic structures to be between 1 and 6%. Cross, J.J.L. et al.(2001)

  12. Prevalence of cystic paraurethral structures in asymptomatic women at endovaginal and perineal sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To prospectively assess the prevalence of paraurethral cystic structures in asymptomatic adult women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty consecutive women undergoing endovaginal sonography with no history of lower urinary tract symptoms. RESULTS: Paraurethral cystic structures were identified in 4/140 subjects (2.9%). Ultrasound assessment allowed rapid definition of the site, size and vascularity of these lesions and was well tolerated by the patient. CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective ultrasound study to determine the prevalence of paraurethral cystic structures in a large consecutive cohort of asymptomatic women. Our findings are in accordance with previously published post-mortem data and surgical series which have estimated the prevalence of paraurethral cystic structures to be between 1 and 6%. Cross, J.J.L. et al.(2001)

  13. Are patterns of bone loss in anorexic and postmenopausal women similar? Preliminary results using high resolution peripheral computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Gabriella; Häuselmann, Hans-Jörg; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Rüegsegger, Peter; Gallo, Luigi M

    2014-01-01

    This study intended to compare bone density and architecture in three groups of women: young women with anorexia nervosa (AN), an age-matched control group of young women, and healthy late postmenopausal women. Three-dimensional peripheral quantitative high resolution computed-tomography (HR-pQCT) at the ultradistal radius, a technology providing measures of cortical and trabecular bone density and microarchitecture, was performed in the three cohorts. Thirty-six women with AN aged 18-30 years (mean duration of AN: 5.8 years), 83 healthy late postmenopausal women aged 70-81 as well as 30 age-matched healthy young women were assessed. The overall cortical and trabecular bone density (D100), the absolute thickness of the cortical bone (CTh), and the absolute number of trabecules per area (TbN) were significantly lower in AN patients compared with healthy young women. The absolute number of trabecules per area (TbN) in AN and postmenopausal women was similar, but significantly lower than in healthy young women. The comparison between AN patients and post-menopausal women is of interest because the latter reach bone peak mass around the middle of the fertile age span whereas the former usually lose bone before reaching optimal bone density and structure. This study shows that bone mineral density and bone compacta thickness in AN are lower than those in controls but still higher than those in postmenopause. Bone compacta density in AN is similar as in controls. However, bone inner structure in AN is degraded to a similar extent as in postmenopause. This last finding is particularly troubling. PMID:24084384

  14. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women referred to outpatient clinics in Sanandaj, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalantar Enayat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary tract infection (AUTI among pregnant women. We also determined the antibacterial susceptibility of the isolates to various antibiotics and associated risk factors in AUTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand five hundred and five consecutive pregnant women were included in the study. Mid-stream urine specimen for complete examination of urine was obtained. RESULTS: Of 1505 pregnant women, 134 (8.9% had bacteriuria. The mean age of the all the pregnant women included in the study was 28.40 years with a standard deviation of 6.16. Age ranged from 15 to 45 years of age. The urine culture of the asymptomatic pregnant women (1505 cases showed growth in only 134 cases (8.9%. Escherichia coli was the commonest organism 79 (58.96% followed by CN Staphylococcus 22 (16.8% and S aureus 18 (13.43%. Escherichia coli, which comprised 58.96% (79 of the isolates, were 88.62%, 87.35%, and 83.55% sensitive to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and cefotizoxime respectively. Similarly, E. coli were 89%, 70%, and 20% resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and nitrofurantoin respectively (OR 1.57 95% CI 1.01, 2.44. After analyzing, four variables, hemoglobin levels seem to be independently associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (OR = 9.41 (1.65-50.38. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women was 8.9%. The predominant organisms were Escherichia coli 79 (58.96%, followed by CN Staphylococcus 22 (16.8%. Most strains of Escherichia coli showed that they were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline and gentamicin.

  15. A STUDY ON BODY COMPOSITION AND LIPID PROFILE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    (a)    The interactions between the various physiological risk factors for cardiovascular disease are complex in women, the risk increases markedly after menopause and eventually becomes equivalent to that of men.  This observation has suggested, but has not proven, that estrogens have a protective effect against cardiovascular disease This study was done to find out the body composition and lipid profile in postmenopausal women of North-West Karnataka, and any variation between them. The...

  16. Menopausal age and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Farholt, S; Bennett, Patrick; Micic, S; Svenstrup, Bo; Hardt, F

    1991-01-01

    In order to evaluate age at menopause and serum sex hormone profiles in postmenopausal women with stable chronic liver disease, six non-cirrhotic alcoholics, 13 with alcoholic cirrhosis, eight with non-alcoholic cirrhosis, and 46 healthy controls were studied. In all three groups, patients were......, elevated concentrations of oestrone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and reduced levels of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), while women with non-alcoholic cirrhosis had significantly elevated concentrations of SHBG and reduced levels of oestrone sulphate, DHT, androstenedione and...

  17. Effects of raloxifene on cardiovascular events and breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Mosca, Lori; Collins, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of raloxifene, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator, on coronary heart disease (CHD) and breast cancer is not established. METHODS: We randomly assigned 10,101 postmenopausal women (mean age, 67.5 years) with CHD or multiple risk factors for CHD to 60 mg of raloxifene.......2 invasive breast cancers per 1000 women treated for one year); the benefit was primarily due to a reduced risk of estrogen-receptor-positive invasive breast cancers. There was no significant difference in the rates of death from any cause or total stroke according to group assignment, but raloxifene was...

  18. SUBCUTANEOUS ADIPOSE TISSUE INSULIN RESISTANCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH VISCERAL ADIPOSITY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Beret A.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Schwartz, Robert S.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We determined whether whole body and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) insulin resistance was proportional to regional fat mass (FM). Design and Methods We studied postmenopausal women (Mean±SD; age 56±4 y, n=25) who were overweight or obese (BMI 29.9±5.1 kg/m2). Whole body and regional FM were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT). Women were studied during basal and insulin-stimulated (3-stage euglycemic clamp) conditions. Whole-body lipol...

  19. The effect of a lignan complex isolated from flaxseed on inflammation markers in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Tetens, Inge; Bugel, S.; Tholstrup, T.; Bruun, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    /d of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, on inflammatory markers. Methods and results: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 22) completed a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Women consumed daily a Low-fat muffin, with or without a lignan complex, for 6 weeks, separated by a 6-week......, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were found between the lignan complex intervention period and placebo period. Conclusion: Daily consumption for 6 week of a low-fat muffin enriched with a lignan complex may reduce CRP concentrations compared to a low-fat muffin with no lignans added....

  20. Ospemifene 12-month safety and efficacy in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, S R; Bachmann, G A; Koninckx, P R; Lin, V H; Portman, D J; Ylikorkala, O; Ravn, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assessment of 12-month safety of ospemifene 60 mg/day for treatment of postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). METHODS: In this 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, women 40-80 years with VVA and an intact uterus were randomized...... baseline to week 12 in percentage of superficial and parabasal cells and vaginal pH. RESULTS: Of 426 randomized subjects, 81.9% (n = 349) completed the study with adverse events the most common reason for discontinuation (ospemifene 9.5%; placebo 3.9%). Most (88%) treatment-emergent adverse events with...

  1. Pharmacy-based care for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Janet E; Bopp, Janice

    2002-01-01

    Perimenopause and menopause represent a major physiologic and, often, psychosocial transition in the lives of women. During this time, women often experience disturbing new symptoms and develop an increased awareness of their risks for major chronic illnesses. Women in this stage of life are often highly motivated to improve their health and can benefit greatly from pharmacy-based preventive health care services. Although perimenopausal and menopausal women represent an important target market, some pharmacists may wish to offer more focused services within the broader arena of women's health. For example, a number of community pharmacies have developed niche services for these patients, such as osteoporosis screening, (46) breast cancer risk assessment, (50) or bioidentical HRT consulting and compounding. (59) Other pharmacy care services that may be targeted to women in midlife include smoking cessation, weight management, and dietary supplement consulting. Based on the experiences of the Mar-Main Pharmacy staff, a practical approach is to implement new services gradually, while focusing on providing high-quality, individualized service to a small number of patients. Using this strategy, Mar-Main Pharmacy has experienced tremendous growth in its bioidentical HRT services. This increase in demand for pharmacy services has arisen from word-of-mouth referrals from patients and physicians rather than formal marketing. Perimenopausal and menopausal women represent a growing and increasingly knowledgeable group of patients. Many of these women are seeking care that is individualized, responsive to their health beliefs, and designed to help them maintain a high quality of life. Providing pharmacy-based consulting services for these patients can be extremely rewarding, both professionally and personally. PMID:12269705

  2. Maternal Group B Streptococcal (GBS) Genital Tract Colonization at Term in Women who Have Asymptomatic GBS Bacteriuria

    OpenAIRE

    McKenna, David S.; Ike Northern; Scott Matson

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of positive group B streptococcus (GBS) cultures at 35–37 weeks gestation in women who have first trimester asymptomatic GBS bacteriuria. Methods: Pregnant women with asymptomatic first trimester GBS bacteriuria had genital cultures for GBS performed at 35–37 weeks gestational age. Serotyping was performed by the standard Lancefield capillary precipitin method. Results: Fifty-three women with positive urine cultures had genital cultures performed at 35–37 week...

  3. Impact of vulvovaginal health on postmenopausal women: a review of surveys on symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parish SJ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sharon J Parish,1 Rossella E Nappi,2 Michael L Krychman,3 Susan Kellogg-Spadt,4 James A Simon,5 Jeffrey A Goldstein,6 Sheryl A Kingsberg7 1Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo University, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 3Southern California Center for Sexual Health and Survivorship Medicine and Clinical Faculty University of California Irvine, Newport Beach and Irvine, CA, USA; 4Pelvic and Sexual Health Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Obstetrics and Gynecology, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA; 6Novo Nordisk Inc, Princeton, NJ, USA; 7Departments of Reproductive Biology and Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Several recent, large-scale studies have provided valuable insights into patient perspectives on postmenopausal vulvovaginal health. Symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy, which include dryness, irritation, itching, dysuria, and dyspareunia, can adversely affect interpersonal relationships, quality of life, and sexual function. While approximately half of postmenopausal women report these symptoms, far fewer seek treatment, often because they are uninformed about hypoestrogenic postmenopausal vulvovaginal changes and the availability of safe, effective, and well-tolerated treatments, particularly local vaginal estrogen therapy. Because women hesitate to seek help for symptoms, a proactive approach to conversations about vulvovaginal discomfort would improve diagnosis and treatment. Keywords: health care professional, hypoactive sexual desire disorder, local vaginal estrogen therapy, quality of life, urinary tract infection, vulvovaginal atrophy

  4. Evidence of improved serum fatty acid profile of postmenopausal women receiving atorvastatin and raloxifene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperi, C; Zisaki, K; Skenderi, K; Kalofoutis, C; Kalofoutis, A

    2005-07-01

    Raloxifene and atorvastatin have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with postmenopausal status and it has been postulated that their effects may be partly mediated by favourable changes in serum lipids and fatty acid composition. In the present study, individual administration of either raloxifene (Group A) or atorvastatin (Group B) or both (Group C) was compared for a period of 3 months and their effects on total lipids and fatty acids composition was evaluated. Postmenopausal women receiving both raloxifene and atorvastatin showed significant changes in the majority of serum lipids with important reductions in total cholesterol (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), LDL-C (p < 0.001) and Apo B levels (p < 0.001). Phospholipids concentrations (p < 0.01) as well as Apo A-I were also significantly raised (p < 0.001). Furthermore, oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2) levels were significantly increased (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively) followed by a marked reduction in palmitic acid (16:0) and arachidonic acid (20:4) concentrations (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively). The results of the study indicate that the serum lipid and fatty acid composition in postmenopausal women is influenced by the combined treatment of raloxifene and atorvastatin and a further attempt to evaluate the significance of these results is discussed. PMID:16183584

  5. Markers of autoimmune liver diseases in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

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    Umit Secil Demirdal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a common complication of chronic liver diseases. However, there is limited information about autoimmune liver diseases as a factor of secondary osteoporosis. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the autoantibodies of autoimmune liver diseases in patients with osteoporosis. METHODS: One hundred fifty female patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis were included. Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. We analysized autoantibodies including antinuclear antibodies, liver membrane antibodies, anti-liver/kidney microsomal autoantibodies1, liver-specific protein, antismooth muscle antibodies, and anti-mitochondrial antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. Serum was assayed for the levels of aminotransferases. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 63,13±8,6 years. The mean values of L1-L4 T-scores and femur total T-scores were -3,08±0,58 and -1,53±0,81, respectively. Among the 150 patients with osteoporosis, 14 (9.3% were antinuclear antibodies, four (2.7% were liver membrane antibodies, three (2.0% were anti-liver/kidney microsomal autoantibodies1, and two (1.3% were liver-specific protein positive. None of the patients had anti-mitochondrial antibodies or smooth muscle antibodies positivity. The mean values of levels of aminotransferases were within normal range. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of liver membrane antibodies, liver-specific protein, and anti-liver/kidney microsomal autoantibodies1 has permitted us to see that there may be some suspicious clues of autoimmune liver diseases in patients with osteoporosis as a secondary risk factor. On the other hand, there is a need for comprehensive studies with a larger sample size and studies designed to compare the results with a normal population to understand the clinical importance of our findings.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF UTI IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ATTENDING OPD CLINIC OF CHITWAN MEDICAL COLLEGE, BHARATPUR, CHITWAN, NEPAL

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    Mamata Sharma Neupane

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common bacterial infection in young and elderly women. Despite the higher incidence of bacteriuria in elderly women, most UTI research has been conducted in young women. Hence, the present paper investigates the assessment of UTI in postmenopausal women attending OPD Clinic of Chitwan Medical College, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in OPD clinic of Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital from December, 2012 to April, 2013. Total 400 patients suspected with UTI were reviewed, out of which 173 (43.3 % of the suspected samples showed presence of potential pathogens causing UTI in postmenopausal women. Escherichia coli (E. coli was the predominant (65.1% bacterial pathogen. Amikacin was found to be most sensitive antimicrobial followed by Nitrofurantoin and Gentamcin. Ampicillin showed the higher percentage of resistant, compared to other antimicrobials. In conclusion, drug resistance among bacterial pathogens is an evolving process, regular surveillance and monitoring is necessary to provide effective treatment of UTIs.

  7. The importance of group activities for quality of life of women in postmenopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Calazans Negrão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the quality of life of postmenopausal women who participate in different activities groups for elderly. Methods: We selected 59 women, divided as follows: hydrotherapy group (n = 15, physical activity and bingo group (n = 15, and a control group(n = 29. Data collection was done through a questionnaire evaluating the Quality of Life(WHOQOL-Bref, the Blatt and Kupperman Menopausal Index and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. The assessments were conducted in two stages with an interval of two monthsbetween each one. Results: There was an improvement in quality of life of women participants in activities groups with respect to the control group, and in all domains of quality of life questionnaire, the control group had lower values. Significant differences occurred in the environment domain, in comparing the hydrotherapy group and physical activity/bingo groups, of which the latter showed better responses. Conclusion: The activities groups were positive for improving quality of life of postmenopausal women, emphasizing the importance of encouraging the practice of not only physical activities, but also those that stimulate the social and psychological profile of these women.

  8. Osteoporosis in otherwise healthy perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women: physical and biochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillès, Jean-Michel; Trémollieres, Florence A; Ribot, Claude

    2006-02-01

    Population studies have shown that about 3-5% of perimenopausal women already have osteoporosis according to the WHO definition of osteoporosis for postmenopausal women ( t -scoremenopausal status. These women were extensively investigated, including by detailed questionnaire and laboratory testing. Of the 60 women with osteoporosis, only three were found to have previously undiagnosed disorders (two with subclinical hyperthyroidism and one with elevated serum PTH levels) that might have contributed to their low bone mass. On the other hand, osteoporotic patients were characterized by a significantly lower body weight, higher prevalence of personal and parental histories of fractures and a higher level of bone turnover as assessed by increased serum osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase levels and urinary type I collagen C-telopeptide (CTX) excretion, as compared to controls. These findings support theories of a genetic contribution to osteoporosis and underline the predictive value of a previous history of personal and familial fracture in the identification of osteoporosis in early postmenopausal women. PMID:16021526

  9. Update on raloxifene: role in reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel VG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Victor G Vogel Cancer Institute, Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA, USA Abstract: Risk factors allow us to define women who are at increased lifetime risk for breast cancer, and the most important factor is age. Benign breast disease increases risk, and the most important histologies are atypical lobular or ductal hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ. Family history of breast cancer among first-degree relatives (mother, sisters, daughters also increases risk. Quantitative measures of risk give accurate predictions of breast cancer incidence for groups of women but not for individual subjects. Multiple published, randomized controlled trials, which employed selective estrogen receptor (ER modulators (SERMs, have demonstrated consistent reductions of 35% or greater in the risk of ER-positive invasive and noninvasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Professional organizations in the US now recommend the use of SERMs to reduce the risk of breast cancer in high-risk, postmenopausal women. Raloxifene and tamoxifen reduce the risk of ER-positive invasive breast cancer with equal efficacy, but raloxifene is associated with a lower risk of thromboembolic disease, benign uterine conditions, and cataracts than tamoxifen in postmenopausal women. No evidence exists establishing whether a reduction in breast cancer risk from either agent translates into reduced breast cancer mortality. Overall quality of life is similar with raloxifene or tamoxifen, but the incidence of dyspareunia, weight gain, and musculoskeletal complaints is higher with raloxifene use, whereas vasomotor symptoms, bladder incontinence, gynecologic symptoms, and leg cramps were higher with tamoxifen use. Keywords: selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, raloxifene, risk reduction, chemoprevention

  10. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal adiposity in postmenopausal, physically inactive South Asian women

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    I.A. Lesser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Asians, a unique obesity phenotype of high abdominal fat is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF is associated with abdominal fat and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether CRF as assessed by VO2 peak, in post-menopausal South Asian women, was associated with body fat distribution and abdominal fat. Physically inactive post-menopausal South Asian women (n = 55 from the Greater Vancouver area were recruited and assessed from January to August 2014. At baseline, VO2 peak was measured with the Bruce Protocol, abdominal fat with CT imaging, and body composition with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. ANOVA was used to assess differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT, visceral adipose tissue (VAT and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT between tertiles of CRF. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses explored the association between VO2 peak with SAAT, VAT, TAAT and body composition. Models were further adjusted for body fat and body mass index (BMI. Compared to women in the lowest tertile of VO2 peak (13.8–21.8 mL/kg/min, women in the highest tertile (25.0–27.7 mL/kg/min had significantly lower waist circumference, BMI, total body fat, body fat percentage, lean mass, SAAT, VAT and TAAT (p < 0.05. We found VO2 peak to be negatively associated with SAAT, VAT and TAAT, independent of age and body fatness but not independent of BMI. Further research is necessary to assess whether exercise and therefore improvements in CRF would alter SAAT, VAT and TAAT in post-menopausal South Asian women.

  11. Influence of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular and endocrine-inflammatory biomarkers in hypertensive postmenopausal women

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    Aline P. Jarrete

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Given that few studies have examined the interaction between endocrine-inflammatory mediators and aerobic exercise training in hypertensive postmenopausal women, the aim of this study was to investigate whether aerobic exercise training (AET for twenty-four sessions would alter cortisol, leptin and interleukin-1β (IL-1β levels. To further analyze endothelium function in response to AET, we also examined redox state as well as NO/cGMP pathway in this population. Eighteen hypertensive postmenopausal women finished this study. AET program consisted of 24 sessions in treadmill, 3 times per week, duration of 30 up to 40 min for each session, for 8 weeks at intensity of 100% of the MLSS according to previous incremental test. Heart rate was monitored in all studied time (resting and during exercise sessions. After 48 h of the last exercise session, blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses (levels of cortisol, leptin, IL-1β, nitrite/nitrate (NOx−, cGMP, malondialdehyde (MDA and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA; superoxide and catalase activity. We also measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure. A significant reduction in body mass was observed. As expected, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were significantly reduced after AET in hypertensive women. We also found a marked increase in NOx− levels as well as cGMP concentration in trained women, approximately 37.7 and 30.8%, respectively. No changes in cortisol, leptin, ADMA and IL-1β levels were observed after AET. Similarly, MDA levels and catalase activity were not affected by AET. In contrast, a marked increase in SOD activity was found (86.6%. In conclusion, our findings show that aerobic exercise training for twenty-four sessions promoted a significant reduction in blood pressure by activating NO/cGMP pathway as well as by promoting an up-regulation of SOD activity without changing in cortisol/leptin levels in postmenopausal hypertensive women.

  12. Muscular strength measurements indicate bone mineral density loss in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Z

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhixiong Zhou,1,2 Lu Zheng,3 Dengyun Wei,4 Ming Ye,3 Xun Li2 1School of Physical Education and Coaching Science, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Graduate School, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Kinesiology and Health Education, Capital University of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Physical Education, Anhui Normal University, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Background: The literature is inconsistent and inconclusive on the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and muscular strength in postmenopausal women. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between isokinetically and isometrically determined muscle strength and BMD in postmenopausal women of different age groups. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 293; mean age, 54.22 ± 3.85 years were enrolled in this study. They were grouped by age according to World Health Organization life expectancy: 45–50 years, 51–53 years, 54–56 years, 57–59 years, and 60–64 years. Total BMD, L2–4 BMD, and femoral neck BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry; isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of the right hip and trunk muscles were measured during contractile exercise. Stepwise regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between BMD and strength measures, controlling for subject age and years since menopause. Results: Results of stepwise regression showed that hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 26% total BMD variance among menopausal subjects, 19% L2–4 BMD variance, and 15% femoral neck BMD variance; in postmenopausal women of different age groups, hip extensor and flexor strength at 120°/second and back extend strength at 30°/second accounted for 25%–35% total BMD variance. Conclusion: Different optimal strength

  13. The Comparison of Effects of Alendronate and Raloxifene Treatment in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülcan Gürer

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess and compare the effects of raloxifene and alendronate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Thirty-two women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (raloxifene group:16 patients, alendronate group: 16 patients were enrolled in this study. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at the proximal femur and lumbar spine by using dual-photon absorptiometry. Patients were divided into two groups randomly. BMD was measured twice as before and one year after from the treatment. Significant improvement was found at the end the treatment in both groups at lomber spine BMD (alendronate group: p0.05. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2006; 12 (1: 12-14

  14. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insuli...

  15. Proteomic biomarkers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from postmenopausal women undergoing an intervention with soy isoflavones

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, D; Vafeiadou, K.; Hall, W.L.; Daniel, H; Williams, C.M.; Schroot, J.H.; Wenzel, U.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The incidence of cardiovascular diseases increases after menopause, and soy consumption is suggested to inhibit disease development. Objective: The objective was to identify biomarkers of response to a dietary supplementation with an isoflavone extract in postmenopausal women by proteome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Design: The study with healthy postmenopausal woman was performed in a placebo-controlled sequential design. Peripheral mononuclear blood cells were...

  16. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Hawassa Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Merid, Yared; Kibret, Belayhun; Shimelis, Techalew

    2014-01-01

    Background Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy may cause serious complications including pyelonephritis and delivery of premature or low-birth-weight infants. However, little is known about asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, bacterial agents, and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of the Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital. Methods A...

  17. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated risk factors among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Rajkumari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is the commonest bacterial infec-tion which requires medical treatment in pregnancy. Untreated ASB in 25-30% of can cases lead to pyelonephritis which may lead to increased risk of abortions, intrauterine fetal deaths, prematurity and low birth weight. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Gandhi Hospital over a period of ten months with 125 asymptomatic pregnant women in the age group of 15-35 years. The objectives of the study were to determine prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, to identify its risk factors and to compare the screening methods. Of the 125 pregnant women, significant bacteriuria was seen in 21 (16%. The prevalence of bacteriuria showed a rise with increasing maternal age and increasing gestational period. Anemics and hypertensives were at greater risk. The most common isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus (28% each. Culture proved to be the gold standard for diagnosis. Catalase and Nitrate reduction tests were used as screening methods with a sensitivity of 90.48% and 71.43% respectively. Multiple drug resistance was observed in Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates. Routine screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria is therefore recommended throughout pregnancy to avoid adverse fetal and maternal outcomes.

  18. Analysis of lipid status, body mass index and waist-hip ratio in post-menopausal women

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    Lejla Mešalić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Menopause is the absence of menses in the period longer that one year. It is widely accepted that menopause leads to changes in hormonal status, metabolism and lipid profi le. The aim of this study wasto analyze the infl uence of menopause on the concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins and also the influence of body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR on lipid profi le in post-menopausal women.Methods: Sixty post-menopausal women of average age of 52.82 years were compared to a group of 34 pre-menopausal women average age of 47.92 years.Results: Post-menopausal women had higher, but non signifi cant (p>0.05 concentrations of total cholesterol, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, low density lipoproteins (LDL and triglycerides than pre-menopausal women. The concentration of high density lipoproteins (HDL was significantly lower in post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal (p<0.05. The concentration of apolipoprotein B was also signifi cantly higher in post-menopausal women (p<0.05, but the concentrations of apolipoprotein and lipoprotein (a were lowerbut without signifi cance (p>0.05. There was no difference between body mass index (BMI and waste-hip ratio (WHR, but the WHR has shown as a signifi cant predictor of the LDL and cholesterol concentrations inpost-menopausal women.Conclusion: We can conclude that menopause leads to changes in lipid profi le by lowering of HDL and increasing the levels of apolipoprotein B, that increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. The WHR is thesignifi cant predictor of cardiovascular risk in post-menopausal women.

  19. The Relationship Among Between Serum Cytokine, Intact PTH, Osteocalcin and Bone Mineral Density Values in Postmenopausal Women

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    M. Yıldız

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to compare the bone mineral density (BMD in 108 postmenopausal women with laboratory data including osteocalcin, intact parathyroid hormone and serum cytokine values. One hundred eigth postmenopausal women were randomly divided into 3 sub groups according to their BMD and medical treatment. The first group consisting of 18 postmenopausal women had no osteoporosis, mean age and mean duration of postmenopausal period were 52.94± 4.90 and 6.5±4.76 years respectively. The second group consisting of 15 postmenopausal women had osteoporosis and was not treated, mean age and mean duration of postmenopausal period were 53.60±8.84 and 9.73± 6.75 years respectively. The third group consisting of 75 postmenopausal osteoporotic women was under medical treatment, mean age nd mean duration of postmenopausal period were 58.52±8.51 and 13.20±8.41 years respectively. Bone mineral density at femur Ward’s triangle, trochanter and lumbar spine t score values were evaluated by dual X ray absorptiometry (DXA. Serum calcium, phosphorous, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, cytokines (interleukin-1, IL-1, interleukin-2, IL-2, interleukin-6, IL-6, interleukin-8, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-a, osteocalcin, intact parathyroid hormone were measured. In subjects, no significant correlation was observed between BMD t scores of lumbar spine, trochanter, Ward’s triangle and cytokine values. On the other hand, among these groups significant difference was found between age, treatment duration, t scores of lumbar spine, trochanter, Ward’s triangle and postmenopausal period, but not between IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a, osteocalcin, intact parathyroid. As a conclusion we think BMD (especially in the early postmenopausal period might be correlating with the levels of cytokines in bone microenvironment rather than serum levels. In the early postmenopausal osteoporosis period serum IL-6 value might be supporting to

  20. Insulin Resistance and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Stefanick, Marcia L;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with diabetes mellitus, but it is uncertain whether it improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 15,288 women from the Women's Health Initiative Biomarkers....../HDL-C, or impaired fasting glucose (serum glucose ≥110 mg/dL) to traditional risk factors in separate Cox multivariable analyses and assessed risk discrimination and reclassification. The study end point was major CVD events (nonfatal and fatal coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke) within 10 years, which...

  1. Asymptomatic Genital Infection of Human Papillomavirus in Pregnant Women and the Vertical Transmission Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Dongrui; WEN Liangzhen; CHEN Wen; LING Xiazhen

    2005-01-01

    Summary: To further investigate the vertical transmission route of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the indication for the choice of mode of delivery, the infective status of 152 asymptomatic pregnant wemen and the maternal-fetal transmission were studied. By using general primers in polymerase chain reaction (GP-PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, HPV DNA positive rate in cervical secretions and venous blood in asymptomatic pregnant women was 36.21 % and 52.78 %, respectively, and the identified genotypes were mainly HPV16 and 18. The maternal-fetal transmission rate of HPV via genital tract as well as blood was 40.91 % and 57.89 %, respectively. It was concluded that besides the transmission route of genital tract and amniotic fluid, there was also transplacental transmission of HPV in utero. Therefore,in our opinion, it is not an absolut indication to perform a cesarean delivery for the pregnant women with HPV asymtomatic genital infection.

  2. Eldecalcitol improves chair-rising time in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with bisphosphonates

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    Iwamoto J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto,1 Yoshihiro Sato21Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, JapanAbstract: An open-label randomized controlled trial was conducted to clarify the effect of eldecalcitol (ED on body balance and muscle power in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with bisphosphonates. A total of 106 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age 70.8 years were randomly divided into two groups (n=53 in each group: a bisphosphonate group (control group and a bisphosphonate plus ED group (ED group. Biochemical markers, unipedal standing time (body balance, and five-repetition chair-rising time (muscle power were evaluated. The duration of the study was 6 months. Ninety-six women who completed the trial were included in the subsequent analyses. At baseline, the age, body mass index, bone mass indices, bone turnover markers, unipedal standing time, and chair-rising time did not differ significantly between the two groups. During the 6-month treatment period, bone turnover markers decreased significantly from the baseline values similarly in the two groups. Although no significant improvement in the unipedal standing time was seen in the ED group, compared with the control group, the chair-rising time decreased significantly in the ED group compared with the control group. The present study showed that ED improved the chair-rising time in terms of muscle power in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with bisphosphonates.Keywords: osteoporosis, fall, vitamin D, muscle power, body balance

  3. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet E; Wyman, Allison; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D; Chapurlat, Roland D; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L; Hooven, Frederick H; LaCroix, Andrea Z; March, Lyn; Netelenbos, J Coen; Nieves, Jeri W; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B; Anderson, Frederick A

    2016-07-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women, but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years after weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years after weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years after weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is found as early as 1 year after weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26861139

  4. Influence of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia on lipid and glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Miljanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT is less frequently prescribed to postmenopausal women with diabetes type 2 who have poor lipid status despite well known favorable effect of HRT on lipid levels. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oral HRT in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Method. Continuously combined HRT, estradiol 2mg + norethisterone acetate 1mg was given to 30 women with diabetes type 2 and hyperlipidemia and two control groups of postmenopausal women (30 with hyperlipidemia only and 30 healthy women over a 6-month period. Total cholesterol (t- HOL, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c were evaluated in 3-month intervals. Fasting and postprandial glucose levels were evaluated monthly. Results. HRT significantly decreased levels of t-HOL (χ2 Friedman=11.712; p<0.01 and LDL-c (χ2 Friedman=10.403; p<0.01 in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. However, the effect was more pronounced in two control groups. Triglycerides (χ2 Friedman=5.400; p≥0.05 and HDL-c (χ2 Friedman=1.113; p>0.05 did not change in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Six month of oral HRT significantly decreased HbA1c (F=44.693; p<0.01. Fasting and postprandial glycemia was decreased but not significantly (χ2 Friedman=6.527; p>0.05. Conclusion. Six-month application of HRT is effective in lowering the lipid levels and HbA1c in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. However, target lipid levels were not achieved.

  5. Do muscle strengthening exercises improve performance in the 6-minute walk test in postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia G. Reis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Walking speed seems to be related to aerobic capacity, lower limb strength, and functional mobility, however it is not clear whether there is a direct relationship between improvement in muscle strength and gait performance in early postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of muscle strengthening exercises on the performance of the 6-minute walk test in women within 5 years of menopause. METHODS: The women were randomized into control group (n=31, which performed no exercise, and exercise group (n=27, which performed muscle strengthening exercises. The exercises were performed twice a week for 3 months. The exercise protocol consisted of warm-up, stretching, and strengthening of the quadriceps, hamstring, calf, tibialis anterior, gluteus maximus, and abdominal muscles, followed by relaxation. Muscular strength training started with 60% of 1MR (2 series of 10-15 repetitions, reaching 85% until the end of the 3-month period (4 series of 6 repetitions each. RESULTS: The between-group comparisons pre- and post-intervention did not show any difference in distance walked, heart rate or blood pressure (p>0.05, but showed differences in muscle strength post-intervention, with the exercise group showing greater strength (p CONCLUSION: The results suggest that muscle strengthening of the lower limbs did not improve performance in the 6-minute walk test in this population of postmenopausal women.

  6. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among women on their 12 to 16 weeks of pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Harold Fernando Maldonado Cárdenas; Lily Yadira Antolinez Ardila; Marcela Nancy Carolina Solano Prada; Mónica Liliana Tejeiro Rico; Andrés Ricardo Valbuena Parra

    2005-01-01

    The asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) refers to the bacterial colonization of the urinary tract that multiply in an active way without producing any symptoms. The prevalence varies between 4 to 7% and the consequences of having this pathology are the development of pyelonephritis or may be the cause for early deliveries and low-weight babies. Objectives. To determine the AB prevalence among women in their 12 to 16 weeks of pregnancy, attending a prenatal clinic at two medical institutions in the ...

  7. Isolation of quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae from asymptomatic Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hye Ran; Lee, Hak Mee; Lee, Yeonhee

    2008-02-01

    Seven Streptococcus agalactiae isolates were obtained from the vagina of 80 asymptomatic women. Three of these isolates showed multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes: two isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline; and one isolate was resistant to clarithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. There was no clonal relationship among the MDR isolates. This is the first report of quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant S. agalactiae. PMID:18337702

  8. Enhanced MRI and MRI-Guided Interventional Procedures in Women with Asymptomatic Silicone-Injected Breasts

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Chung Cheung; Shin-Chih Chen; Yung-Feng Lo

    2012-01-01

    Asymptomatic women who have received silicone injection for breast augmentation have a risk of underestimating breast cancer by palpation, mammography, or breast sonography. Enhanced breast MRI is sensitive to display certain nonspecific enhanced lesions or suspicious lesions. Such nonspecific MRI-detected lesions could be managed by American College Radiology BI-RADS lexicon and selectively with MRI-guided techniques biopsy to prevent unnecessary surgery.

  9. Training Self-Administered Acupressure Exercise among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritic Knee Pain: A Feasibility Study and Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhang; Chwan-Li Shen; Kim Peck; Jean-Michel Brismée; Susan Doctolero; Di-Fan Lo; Yik Lim; Lixing Lao

    2012-01-01

    Background. Osteoarthritis (OA) is more prevalent in women, particularly after menopausal age. Women are more likely to seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches. We examined the feasibility of training self-administered acupressure exercise and assessed its impact on OA symptoms among women with knee OA. Methods. Thirty-six eligible postmenopausal women were randomly assigned in the acupressure exercise group (n = 15) or the control group (n = 21) for 12 weeks. Feasibility...

  10. The efficacy and safety of weekly 35-mg risedronate dosing regimen for Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia: 1-year data

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Jie-Mei; Wang, Li; Lin, Hua; Chen, De-cai; Hai TANG; Jin, Xiao-lan; Xia, Wei-bo; Hu, Yun-Qiu; Fu, Wen-zhen; He, Jin-Wei; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Chun; Yue, Hua; HU, WEI-WEI; Liu, Yu-juan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Oral risedronate is effective in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis when administered daily, weekly, or monthly. In this 1-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study we compared the weekly 35-mg and daily 5-mg risedronate dosing regimens in the treatment of Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia. Methods: Postmenopausal women with primary osteoporosis or osteopenia were randomly assigned to the weekly group or daily group (n=145 for each) that recei...

  11. Walking Outside Improves Mood for Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Teas; Thomas Hurley; Santosh Ghumare; Kisito Ogoussan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Exercise has been shown to decrease breast cancer risk and slow the progression of breast cancer. Physician recommendations and clinical research data most often are for gym-based exercise programs. However, the importance of exercise location on mood and stress hormones that may influence adherence to exercise has not been addressed.Methods: Women first walked for an hour outdoors along a university path, and then a week later, for an hour indoors on a treadmill in a typical gym ...

  12. Effect of Soybeans on Hot Flashes in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    H Mozaffari-Khosravi; A Khoshbin; T Faraj-Khoda; B Enjezab

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Hot flashes are common and discomfortable signs of menopause that present with blazing sweatiness, sense of hotness, tachycardia and agitation. Hot flashes cause disturbances in daily activity and quality of night sleep. In spite of the effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) on hot flashes, nowadays, there are diverse opinions about HRT and the reason is that it has chronic complications. In addition, the acceptance of HRT by Iranian women is very low. Study of numerous te...

  13. Resistance training improves isokinetic strength and metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira PFA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Ferreira Alves Oliveira,1 André Bonadias Gadelha,2 Rafael Gauche,2 Flávio Macedo Lahud Paiva,2 Martim Bottaro,2 Lauro C Vianna,2 Ricardo Moreno Lima2 1Department of Physical Education, Instituto Federal de Brasília, 2College of Physical Education, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil Purpose: To examine the effects of resistance training (RT on metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. Patients and methods: Twenty-two postmenopausal women (65.0±4.2 years underwent 12 weeks of whole body progressive training with intensity prescribed based on rating of perceived exertion. Dominant knee extension strength was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer before and after the intervention. Moreover, all volunteers had blood samples collected for lipid profile, glycemic control, and C-reactive protein analyses. Waist circumference and arterial blood pressure were also measured at baseline and after the training period. Student’s t-tests for paired samples and repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare dependent variables, and statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: Isokinetic muscle strength significantly increased (P<0.01 with training. It was observed that waist circumference as well as total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly decreased with training (P<0.01. Total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, an important marker of cardiovascular disease incidence, was also significantly reduced (from 3.91±0.91 to 3.60±0.74; P<0.01 after the program. Blood glucose, basal insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were also significantly reduced (P<0.01. No significant alterations were observed for resting blood pressure, triglycerides, or C-reactive protein. Conclusion: Based on the observed results, it can be concluded that a 12-week progressive RT program, besides increasing isokinetic muscle strength, induces beneficial alterations

  14. Postmenopausal Uterin Lipoleiomyoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan Solmaz, Özgen; Çılgın, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Primary uterine lipoleiomyoms are extremely benign tumors. They are usually seen in perimenopausal and postmenopausal obese women. Average tumor size is reported to be 5 to 10 cm. Most are asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally. The accurate diagnosis of tumors is based on pathological examination. Hysterectomy is the preferred method of treatment. Clinically, they are similar to leiomyomas. Here we present a case with postmenopousal bleeding due to lipoleiomyoma.Key Words: Lipoleiomyom; Pos...

  15. Odanacatib: a review of its potential in the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapurlat, Roland D

    2015-06-01

    Odanacatib is a cathepsin K inhibitor developed for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. It is a bone resorption inhibitor, but which preserves bone formation to some extent. It can be administered once a week, in tablets also containing vitamin D. In a large clinical development program, it has been shown that odanacatib reduces bone resorption, with a reduction of about 60-70% in biochemical markers of resorption, while bone formation decreases to a lesser magnitude. Odanacatib continuously increases bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and lumbar spine over 5 years. Once it is stopped, a complete resolution of effect is observed, with declining BMD and increased bone turnover. Bone microarchitecture and bone strength have also been improved in clinical trials using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) at the lumbar spine and hip, and high resolution peripheral QCT at the distal radius and tibia. In a phase III trial involving 16,713 postmenopausal women ⩾65 years of age with low BMD, the risk of fragility fracture was significantly reduced at the spine, hip and other nonvertebral sites compared with the placebo group. Odanacatib has been generally well tolerated, with no observation of osteonecrosis of the jaw so far, but with exceptional observations of subtrochanteric atypical fracture and morphea-like lesions. Odanacatib appears a useful new option in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:26029271

  16. Expression of estrogen receptors in the pelvic floor of pre- and post-menopausal women presenting pelvic organ prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Laure Kottler

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The precise role of estrogen in the pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse (POP is still unclear, while the results concerning the effect of selective estrogen receptor modulators on pelvic organ prolapse are contradictory. Our aim was to test whether alteration in the expression of estrogen receptors in the pelvic floor of preand post-menopausal women is related to genital prolapse status. The mRNA levels of ERα and ERβ in 60 biopsy specimens were measured. Significantly higher expression of ERα and higher ERα/ERβ ratio were demonstrated in post-menopausal women compared to pre-menopausal women. Higher expression of ERα and higher ERα/ERβ ratio were detected in all studied groups with POP, thus it did not reach significance in the post-menopausal group. Pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women presenting pelvic organ prolapse had no difference in the ERα expression. Our preliminary study may indicate that pelvic organ prolapse is associated with higher expression of ERα/ERβ in the pelvic floor of both pre- and post-menopausal women; thus not reaching statistical significance in the post-menopausal women was probably due to the group’s size. We believe that the inevitable changes in the estrogen receptor expression over women’s different lifetimes may affect the risk of genital prolapse progression, and might contribute to the further search for appropriate selective estrogen receptor modulators as a treatment for women with pelvic organ prolapse. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 521–527

  17. Physical Activity Level of Post-menopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallanezi, Glauber; Freire, Beatriz Funayama Alvarenga; Nahás, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Nahás-Neto, Jorge; Corrente, José Eduardo; Mazeto, Gláucia Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Proper physical activity is related to the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. Purpose To assess the level of physical activity (PA) in post-menopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional clinical study included 123 post-menopausal women. The inclusion criteria were: age of ≥ 45 years with last menses at least 12 months prior to the initiation of the study, and bone density scan (BDS) values measured over the preceding 12 months. Women with severe osteoarthritis were excluded. Women were allocated into three groups, according to BMD measured by BDS [osteoporosis (OP; 54 women), osteopenia (35 women), and normal bone density (NBD; 35 women)], and compared for general, clinical, and anthropometric data, and for PA level. The latter was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) units. Participants were classified as sedentary, active or very active. Quantitative variables were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Associations between qualitative variables were tested by Chi-square (χ2) or Fisher's exact test. In order to check for differences among groups and IPAQ domains, a generalized linear model with Gamma distribution was adjusted for values in METs. Results The OP group differed from the NBD group regarding age (61.8 ± 10.1 and 52.9 ± 5.4 years), percentage of participants with self-declared white ethnicity (43.9 and 28.0%), body mass index (BMI - 25.7 ± 5.4 and 30.9 ± 5.1 kg/m(2)), and time since menopause (15.5 ± 7.5 and 5.8 ± 4.5 years). Smoking rates were higher in the OP (55.6%) and NBD groups (33.3%) than in the osteopenia group (11.1%). Within the OP group, the rate of subjects with sedentary lifestyles was higher (42.6%), and time spent sitting was greater (344.3 ± 204.8 METs) than in the groups with osteopenia (20.0% and 300.9 ± 230.6 METs) and NBD (17.7% and 303

  18. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending An-tenatal Clinic at the University Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acheampong, I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective hospital-based study was carried out between April-June 2009. A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited for this study. The ages of the women ranged from 15 to 46 years. About 5-10mls of clean catch urine was cultured on Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED agar aerobically at 37oC . Isolates were identified to the species level using standard proto-col. Antibiotic sensitivity test were carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Of the 200 women examined, 19 had significant bacteriuria representing a prevalence of 9.5% in the study population. Pregnant women in their second trimester from the study had the highest prevalence of significant bacteriuria (52.6% with age ranges between 30-34 years having the highest prevalence (36.8%. Nulliparous women were 35 (17.5% with 3 (8.6% testing positive for bacteriuria and 165 (82.5% were multiparous with 16 (9.7% testing positive for bacteriuria. E. coli (36.8% was the common bacteria isolate from this study. From this study, asymptomatic bacteriuria is common among antenatal women in the population studied. It is therefore recommended that periodic test-ing of pregnant women is advocated and those found to be infected need to be treated to avoid complications.

  19. Comparison of myocardial function between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women: evaluation by gated myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to inhibiting coronary atherosclerosis, estrogen is expected to have protective effects on cardiac myocytes. We investigated the difference in myocardial functional parameters evaluated by gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal healthy women. This study included 22 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age: 53.0 yr) and 20 pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43.0 yr) who performed Tc-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress. Measured hemodynamic parameters, EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, cardiac output and cardiac index were compared between the two groups. For comparison, similar-aged two male groups with matched numbers were also studied. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters. EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, or cardiac output between the post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women. However, post-menopausal women have a smaller cardiac index (mean: 1.95 L/min/m2 vs 2.20 L/min/m2; p=0.045) and adenosine-induced HR increase (mean : 80.5/min vs 89.7/min ; p=0.03), compared to the pre-menopausal women. On the contrary, the two male groups of the same age range and numbers with the women groups showed no significant difference in any myocardial parameters. These results suggest that menopause may be correlated with reduced increase in cardiac index and HR increase after adenosine-stress

  20. Comparison of myocardial function between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women: evaluation by gated myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, K. H.; Choa, Won Sick; Yoon, Min Ki [Gachon Medical School, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In addition to inhibiting coronary atherosclerosis, estrogen is expected to have protective effects on cardiac myocytes. We investigated the difference in myocardial functional parameters evaluated by gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal healthy women. This study included 22 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age: 53.0 yr) and 20 pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43.0 yr) who performed Tc-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress. Measured hemodynamic parameters, EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, cardiac output and cardiac index were compared between the two groups. For comparison, similar-aged two male groups with matched numbers were also studied. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters. EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, or cardiac output between the post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women. However, post-menopausal women have a smaller cardiac index (mean: 1.95 L/min/m2 vs 2.20 L/min/m2; p=0.045) and adenosine-induced HR increase (mean : 80.5/min vs 89.7/min ; p=0.03), compared to the pre-menopausal women. On the contrary, the two male groups of the same age range and numbers with the women groups showed no significant difference in any myocardial parameters. These results suggest that menopause may be correlated with reduced increase in cardiac index and HR increase after adenosine-stress.

  1. Aromatase inhibitors, efficacy and metabolic risk in the treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gonnelli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Gonnelli1, Roberto Petrioli21Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrine-Metabolic Science and Biochemistry, University of Siena, Italy (Dir. R. Nuti.; 2Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, Medical Oncology Section, University of Siena, Italy (Dir. G. FranciniAbstract: The third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs, letrozole, anastrozole and exemestane, are becoming the first choice endocrine drugs for post-menopausal women with breast cancer, since they present greater efficacy when compared with tamoxifen in both adjuvant and metastatic setting. In particular, several large and well designed trials have suggested an important role for AIs in the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer either in the upfront, sequential or extended adjuvant mode. Overall, AIs are associated with a small but significant improvement in disease free survival. The expanding use of AIs in the treatment of early breast cancer means that individual patients will be exposed to the agents for longer durations, making it increasingly important to establish their long-term safety. This review focused on the effects of AIs on bone metabolism, serum lipids and cardiovascular risk. AIs have adverse effects on bone turnover with a reduction of bone mineral density and an increase in the rate of fragility fractures. With respect to tamoxifen AIs present lower thrombotic risk and a less favorable impact on lipid profile, whereas the true effects on cardiovascular risk still remain to be clarified. An adequate monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD and lipid profile could be recommended for post-menopausal women candidate to AIs.Keywords: breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors, bone loss, lipids, cardiovascular risk

  2. Effects of fluoxetine and melatonin on mood, sleep quality and body mass index in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, C; Walecka-Kapica, E; Klupinska, G; Pawlowicz, M; Blonska, A; Chojnacki, J

    2015-10-01

    Frequent mood and sleep disorders and increased appetite leading to obesity are observed in postmenopausal women. Due to the limitations of hormone replacement therapy the researchers look for other treatment regimes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of fluoxetine and melatonin in the treatment of these disorders. The study included 64 overweight postmenopausal women, aged 54 - 65 years, with increased appetite. They were randomly assigned in 2 groups. In group I (n = 30) fluoxetine (20 mg in the morning) and placebo (in the evening) were administered for 24 weeks. Group II (n = 34) received fluoxetine (20 mg in the morning) and melatonin (5 mg in the evening) in the same period of time. Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HARS), Beck depression scale (BDI), the insomnia severity index (ISI) and body mass index (BMI) were used to assess the health status and the treatment efficacy. After 24 weeks, comparable and statistically significant reduction in the level of anxiety and depression was obtained in both groups. In group I, the ISI decreased from 14.9 ± 2.5 points to 10.9 ± 1.9 points (P < 0.05) and in group II from 15.8 ± 2.4 points to 7.7 ± 1.5 points (P < 0.001). In group I no reduction in BMI was achieved whereas in group II this index decreased from 30.9 ± 3.1 to 26.3 ± 3.2 (P < 0.05). We conclude that combined administration of fluoxetine and melatonin was useful option to treat mood, sleep and appetite disorders in postmenopausal women. PMID:26579572

  3. Pharmacologic management of bone-related complications and bone metastases in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Denise A

    2016-01-01

    There is a high risk for bone loss and skeletal-related events, including bone metastases, in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Both the disease itself and its therapeutic treatments can negatively impact bone, resulting in decreases in bone mineral density and increases in bone loss. These negative effects on the bone can significantly impact morbidity and mortality. Effective management and minimization of bone-related complications in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer remain essential. This review discusses the current understanding of molecular and biological mechanisms involved in bone turnover and metastases, increased risk for bone-related complications from breast cancer and breast cancer therapy, and current and emerging treatment strategies for managing bone metastases and bone turnover in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

  4. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital in Kanchipuram: evaluation of screening tests and antibiotic susceptibility pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami Lakshmy Jayachandran; Ukkiravel Gnanasambandam; Balan K.; Sangeetha, A.V.; T. S. Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) occurring in pregnant women can lead onto complications like acute pyelonephritis, hypertensive disease of pregnancy, premature delivery and intrauterine growth retardation if untreated. Methods: The present study aims to estimate the occurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women and to study the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates. The Gram staining, pus cell count and culture was performed for 120 urine samples. Antibi...

  5. Pattern of microbial isolates and microbial sensitivity among HIV positive pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria in Zaria, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Pam S; Shittu S.O; Olayinka A.T; Adaji S.E; Ejembi J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteruria in pregnancy is a common condition affecting pregnant women because of both anatomical and physiological changes in pregnancy. This condition appears to be commoner in people living with HIV because of the added immunosuppression caused by the virus. Aim: The study was to identify the pattern of microbial isolates and microbial sensitivity among HIV positive pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria in Zaria, Nigeria. Methods: This was a p...

  6. Modification of blood pressure in postmenopausal women: role of hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannoletta M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Cannoletta, Angelo Cagnacci Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences of the Mother, Child and Adult, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena and Reggio Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy Abstract: The rate of hypertension increases after menopause. Whether estrogen and progesterone deficiency associated with menopause play a role in determining a worst blood pressure (BP control is still controversial. Also, studies dealing with the administration of estrogens or hormone therapy (HT have reported conflicting evidence. In general it seems that, despite some negative data on subgroups of later postmenopausal women obtained with oral estrogens, in particular conjugated equine estrogens (CEE, most of the data indicate neutral or beneficial effects of estrogen or HT administration on BP control of both normotensive and hypertensive women. Data obtained with ambulatory BP monitoring and with transdermal estrogens are more convincing and concordant in defining positive effect on BP control of both normotensive and hypertensive postmenopausal women. Overall progestin adjunct does not hamper the effect of estrogens. Among progestins, drospirenone, a spironolactone-derived molecule, appears to be the molecule with the best antihypertensive properties. Keywords: hormone replacement therapy, estrogen, progestin, blood pressure, menopause, hypertension 

  7. What is the influence of hormone therapy on homocysteine and crp levels in postmenopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakryc, Eli Marcelo; Machado, Rogério Bonassi; Soares, José Maria; Fernandes, César Eduardo; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of estrogen therapy and estrogen-progestin therapy on homocysteine and C-reactive protein levels in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In total, 99 postmenopausal women were included in this double-blind, randomized clinical trial and divided into three groups: Group A used estrogen therapy alone (2.0 mg of 17β-estradiol), Group B received estrogen-progestin therapy (2.0 mg of 17 β-estradiol +1.0 mg of norethisterone acetate) and Group C received a placebo (control). The length of treatment was six months. Serum measurements of homocysteine and C-reactive protein were carried out prior to the onset of treatment and following six months of therapy. RESULTS: After six months of treatment, there was a 20.7% reduction in homocysteine levels and a 100.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels in the group of women who used estrogen therapy. With respect to the estrogen-progestin group, there was a 12.2% decrease in homocysteine levels and a 93.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that hormone therapy (unopposed estrogen or estrogen associated with progestin) may have a positive influence on decreasing cardiovascular risk due to a significant reduction in homocysteine levels. PMID:25789519

  8. What is the influence of hormone therapy on homocysteine and crp levels in postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Marcelo Lakryc

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of estrogen therapy and estrogen-progestin therapy on homocysteine and C-reactive protein levels in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In total, 99 postmenopausal women were included in this double-blind, randomized clinical trial and divided into three groups: Group A used estrogen therapy alone (2.0 mg of 17β-estradiol, Group B received estrogen-progestin therapy (2.0 mg of 17 β-estradiol +1.0 mg of norethisterone acetate and Group C received a placebo (control. The length of treatment was six months. Serum measurements of homocysteine and C-reactive protein were carried out prior to the onset of treatment and following six months of therapy. RESULTS: After six months of treatment, there was a 20.7% reduction in homocysteine levels and a 100.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels in the group of women who used estrogen therapy. With respect to the estrogen-progestin group, there was a 12.2% decrease in homocysteine levels and a 93.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that hormone therapy (unopposed estrogen or estrogen associated with progestin may have a positive influence on decreasing cardiovascular risk due to a significant reduction in homocysteine levels.

  9. Efficacy and safety of Labisia pumila var alata water extract among pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; George, Annie; Hazlina, Nik Hussain Nik; Azidah, Abdul Kadir; Idiana, Hassan Intan; Law, Kim Sooi; Bahari, Ismail Shaiful; Zahiruddin, Wan Mohamed Wan; Liske, Eckehard; Azreena, Abas

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of Labisia pumila var alata (L. pumila) water extract for improving quality of life, cardiovascular and hormonal balance. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, 16-week study in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. The subjects were randomized to 400 mg propriety extract of L. pumila or placebo. A Women's Health Questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the data. A total of 197 subjects (L. pumila: n=102 and placebo: n=95) were analyzed. Subjects in the herbal group showed improved memory/concentration, vasomotor symptoms, menstrual symptoms, and sleep problems by 8.3%, 15.9%, 11.8%, and 31.0%, respectively. The greatest improvement was observed for the question: "I get frightened or panic feelings for apparently no reason at all" with a 53% decrease as compared with placebo. Improvements were also seen in the cardiovascular parameters, and the safety profiles were normal. Postmenopausal women supplemented with L. pumila showed no changes in gynecological relevant hormones luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and 17β-Estradiol. Water extract of L. pumila was shown to be safe and effective for improving several parameters of quality of life and cardiovascular risks factors (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]). PMID:25000151

  10. Does Probability Guided Hysteroscopy Reduce Costs in Women Investigated for Postmenopausal Bleeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breijer, M. C.; van Hanegem, N.; Visser, N. C. M.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; Pijnenborg, J. M. A.; Opmeer, B. C.; Timmermans, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate whether a model to predict a failed endometrial biopsy in women with postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) and a thickened endometrium can reduce costs without compromising diagnostic accuracy. Design, Setting, and Population. Model based cost-minimization analysis. Methods. A decision analytic model was designed to compare two diagnostic strategies for women with PMB: (I) attempting office endometrial biopsy and performing outpatient hysteroscopy after failed biopsy and (II) predicted probability of a failed endometrial biopsy based on patient characteristics to guide the decision for endometrial biopsy or immediate hysteroscopy. Robustness of assumptions regarding costs was evaluated in sensitivity analyses. Main Outcome Measures. Costs for the different strategies. Results. At different cut-offs for the predicted probability of failure of an endometrial biopsy, strategy I was generally less expensive than strategy II. The costs for strategy I were always € 460; the costs for strategy II varied between € 457 and € 475. At a 65% cut-off, a possible saving of € 3 per woman could be achieved. Conclusions. Individualizing the decision to perform an endometrial biopsy or immediate hysteroscopy in women presenting with postmenopausal bleeding based on patient characteristics does not increase the efficiency of the diagnostic work-up. PMID:25785283

  11. Resistance training improves isokinetic strength and metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira PFA; Gadelha AB; Gauche R; Paiva FML; Bottaro M; Vianna LC; Lima RM

    2015-01-01

    Pedro Ferreira Alves Oliveira,1 André Bonadias Gadelha,2 Rafael Gauche,2 Flávio Macedo Lahud Paiva,2 Martim Bottaro,2 Lauro C Vianna,2 Ricardo Moreno Lima2 1Department of Physical Education, Instituto Federal de Brasília, 2College of Physical Education, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil Purpose: To examine the effects of resistance training (RT) on metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. Patients and methods: Twenty-two po...

  12. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health ...

  13. Effect of combined aerobic and resistance training in body composition of obese postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício E. Rossi; Camila Buonani; Juliana Viezel; Eduardo P. da Silva; Tiego A. Diniz; Vanessa R. dos Santos; Fernandes, Rômulo A; Ismael F. Freitas Junior

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week program of combined aerobic and resistance training on the body composition of postmenopausal women who are obese. The participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG, n = 37) and non-trained control group (CG, n = 18). The trunk fat, fat mass, percentage of fat mass and fat-free mass were estimated using DXA. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were conducted. The training protocol consisted of 50 minute...

  14. Prevalence of Fracture Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women Enrolled in the POSSIBLE US Treatment Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Yurgin; Sally Wade; Sacha Satram-Hoang; David Macarios; Marc Hochberg

    2013-01-01

    Subject- and physician-reported data from 4,429 postmenopausal women receiving osteoporosis treatment in the Prospective Observational Scientific Study Investigating Bone Loss Experience (POSSIBLE US) were used to assess the prevalence of risk factors (RFs) and on-study fracture. RFs assessed at study entry were age >70 years; fracture since age 50; minimum T-score (hip/spine) ≤−2.5 at diagnosis; body mass index 70 years were the most common RFs in the osteoporosis group, and age >70 years an...

  15. Chronic Effects of Strength Training Vs. Hydro Aerobics on Functional and Cardiorespiratory Ability in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Novaes Giovanni S.; Novaes Jefferson S.; Vilaça-Alves José; Costa e Silva Gabriel; Garrido Nuno D.; Furtado Hélio; Reis Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to compare the effects of two exercise programs (Strength Training and Hydro Gymnastics) on the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 38 volunteers (age: 66.9 ± 6.1 years, body mass: 73.70 ± 10.38 kg, and body height: 1.55 ± 0.10 m). Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group: one group performed 24 weeks of strength training (GST; n = 14), another performe...

  16. Shape-based Assessment of Vertebral Fracture Risk in Postmenopausal Women Using Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crimi, Alessandro; Loog, Marco; de Bruijne, Marleen;

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Risk assessment of future osteoporotic vertebral fractures is currently based mainly on risk factors, such as bone mineral density, age, prior fragility fractures, and smoking. It can be argued that an osteoporotic vertebral fracture is not exclusively an abrupt event but...... the result of a decaying process. To evaluate fracture risk, a shape-based classifier, identifying possible small prefracture deformities, may be constructed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a longitudinal case-control study, a large population of postmenopausal women, fracture free at baseline, were...... followed. The 22 women who sustained at least one lumbar fracture on follow-up represented the case group. The control group comprised 91 women who maintained skeletal integrity and matched the case group according to the standard osteoporosis risk factors. On radiographs, a radiologist and two technicians...

  17. Spine Shape Predicts Vertebral Fractures in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, P.C.; A. Ghosh;

    2008-01-01

    osteoporotic fracture, and the two groups were not significantly different in terms of age (66.2 ± 0.2 vs. 66.1 ± 0.4), spine BMD (0.77 ± 0.004 vs. 0.76 ± 0.008), body weight (64.7 ± 0.4 vs. 64.6 ± 0.8), height (160.6 ± 0.3 vs. 161 ± 0.5), and number of years since menopause. A radiologist annotated the corner...... intervertebral disks, alignment of vertebrae, and spinal curvature. The positions of the points were subsequently used as the input features to train a pattern classification system to discriminate between spines of women maintaining skeletal health and spines sustaining a fracture in the near future...

  18. Impact of Estrogen Therapy on Lymphocyte Homeostasis and the Response to Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Post-Menopausal Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Engelmann

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that changes in levels of ovarian steroids modulate severity of autoimmune disease and immune function in young adult women. These observations suggest that the loss of ovarian steroids associated with menopause could affect the age-related decline in immune function, known as immune senescence. Therefore, in this study, we determined the impact of menopause and estrogen therapy (ET on lymphocyte subset frequency as well as the immune response to seasonal influenza vaccine in three different groups: 1 young adult women (regular menstrual cycles, not on hormonal contraception; 2 post-menopausal (at least 2 years women who are not receiving any form of hormone therapy (HT and 3 post-menopausal hysterectomized women receiving ET. Although the numbers of circulating CD4 and CD20 B cells were reduced in the post-menopausal group receiving ET, we also detected a better preservation of naïve B cells, decreased CD4 T cell inflammatory cytokine production, and slightly lower circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Following vaccination, young adult women generated more robust antibody and T cell responses than both post-menopausal groups. Despite similar vaccine responses between the two post-menopausal groups, we observed a direct correlation between plasma 17β estradiol (E2 levels and fold increase in IgG titers within the ET group. These findings suggest that ET affects immune homeostasis and that higher plasma E2 levels may enhance humoral responses in post-menopausal women.

  19. Impact of Estrogen Therapy on Lymphocyte Homeostasis and the Response to Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Post-Menopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Flora; Rivera, Andrea; Park, Byung; Messerle-Forbes, Marci; Jensen, Jeffrey T.; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that changes in levels of ovarian steroids modulate severity of autoimmune disease and immune function in young adult women. These observations suggest that the loss of ovarian steroids associated with menopause could affect the age-related decline in immune function, known as immune senescence. Therefore, in this study, we determined the impact of menopause and estrogen therapy (ET) on lymphocyte subset frequency as well as the immune response to seasonal influenza vaccine in three different groups: 1) young adult women (regular menstrual cycles, not on hormonal contraception); 2) post-menopausal (at least 2 years) women who are not receiving any form of hormone therapy (HT) and 3) post-menopausal hysterectomized women receiving ET. Although the numbers of circulating CD4 and CD20 B cells were reduced in the post-menopausal group receiving ET, we also detected a better preservation of naïve B cells, decreased CD4 T cell inflammatory cytokine production, and slightly lower circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Following vaccination, young adult women generated more robust antibody and T cell responses than both post-menopausal groups. Despite similar vaccine responses between the two post-menopausal groups, we observed a direct correlation between plasma 17β estradiol (E2) levels and fold increase in IgG titers within the ET group. These findings suggest that ET affects immune homeostasis and that higher plasma E2 levels may enhance humoral responses in post-menopausal women. PMID:26859566

  20. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) as a criterion for the identification of the healthy obesity phenotype in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwow, Felicja; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Milewicz, Andrzej; Szmigiero, Leszek

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and its complications constitute a major health problem in postmenopausal women. The identification of the obesity phenotype, especially that of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) patients, is a necessary part of obesity treatment protocols. There are several methods to define MHO, but unfortunately, all of them are arbitrary and inconsistent. The aim of this work was to determine whether lipid accumulation product (LAP) could be used as a marker of the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. A sample of 345 Polish postmenopausal women aged 50-60years old participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese when their BMI was >27. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to estimate the best cutoff for the LAP index value to identify postmenopausal women without metabolic syndrome components. We found that the best cutoff value was LAP ≤29.9, and this value was used to define MHO individuals. With this definition, the identification of MHO individuals could be made when both of the following criteria were met: LAP index ≤29.9 and no arterial hypertension (SBP<130mmHg, DBP<85mmHg). The anthropometric and body fat distribution measurements, as well as the metabolic characteristics of MHO women identified according to the above definition, were compared with those of MHO women identified by two other methods in the literature. These methods and our definition identified similar proportions of MHO women ranging from 11.6% to 16.9%. We found that MHO women identified by all of the definitions used in this study possessed a similar metabolic status, and they did not differ in anthropometric indices or body fat distribution measurements. We concluded that the combination of LAP estimation and arterial blood pressure measurement appear to constitute a useful method for identifying the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. PMID:27329927

  1. INTENSITY AND TIMING IN LIFE OF RECREATIONAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN RELATION TO BREAST CANCER RISK AMONG PRE- AND POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kruk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular recreational physical activity has been found to be associated with a decrease in breast cancer risk in women in the majority of epidemiologic studies, but research findings are inconsistent regarding the intensity of activity and timing in life. To address these issues the relations of moderate and vigorous intensity recreational physical activity during ages 14-20, 21-34, 35-50, and over age 50 years to pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk were examined. A case-control study of 858 women, with histological confirmation of invasive breast cancer, and 1085 controls, free of any cancer diagnosis, all subjects aged 28-79 years was conducted in the Region of Western Pomerania (Poland. Physical activity was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire with questions on type of activity, duration, frequency, and intensity for each type of activity. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of breast cancer associated with physical activity were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Vigorous physical activity at ages 14-20 and 21-34 years lowered breast cancer risk by at least 35% in premenopausal women and by at least 51% in postmenopausal women for the highest versus lowest quartiles of the activity. The risk was also reduced in postmenopausal women who reported on average more than 1.74 hours per week of vigorous intensity recreational activity in ages >50 years (OR = 0.58; 95%CI = 0.27-0.97; P for trend = 0.013. For moderate activity the relationships remained statistically significant only in postmenopausal women active during ages 14- 20 years. The results indicate also a plausible risk reduction among premeno-pausal women. These results support the hypothesis that recrea-tional activity, particularly done early in life, is associated with a decrease in the invasive breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Among premenopausal women, only vigorous forms of activity may significantly decrease the risk

  2. Hemodynamic effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade in postmenopausal women on a high-sodium diet: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Maillard, Marc; Bischof, Paul; Fathi, Marc; Burnier, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Background: Hypertension becomes increasingly prevalent after menopause. Postmenopausal women are more responsive to salt than premenopausal women, and they have been reported to develop marked renal vasoconstriction on a high-sodium diet.

  3. Altered Lung Function Test in Asymptomatic Women Using Biomass Fuel for Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background: One third of the world’s population use biomass fuel like wood, dung or charcoal for cooking. The smoke from these organic materials increases the incidence of respiratory illness including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Aim: To evaluate forced expiratory lung volumes in asymptomatic women previously exposed to biomass fuel smoke. Materials and Methods: The study was done in 74 healthy asymptomatic women divided into two age matched groups of 37 each. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were assessed by computerised spirometry and statistical comparisons done on women using biomass fuel (study group) and women using other sources of fuel (LPG/ electric stove) for cooking (control group). Results: The PFT results showed significant reduction in forced expiratory lung volumes like Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1st sec (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Flow between 25-75% (FEF 25-75%) and Forced Expiratory Volume percentage (FEV1%) in biomass fuel users as compared to those not exposed to biomass fuel smoke. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that biomass fuel smoke may produce definite impairment in lung function, especially with regard to the smaller airways. PMID:25478331

  4. Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia does not induce additional oxidative stress in pregnant women of South East Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uchenna Ifeanyi Nwagha; Tochukwu Christopher Okeke; Theresa Ukamaka Nwagha; FidelisEbeleEjezie; SylvesterOgbonnaOgbodo; CyrilChukwudiDim; BondUgochukwuAnyaehie

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the relationship between asymptomatic malaria parasitemia and some oxidative stress parameters in pregnant Nigerian women. Methods:This is a cross-sectional study involving 130 normal pregnant women at various trimesters, who were attending antenatal clinic at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) and Kenechukwu Specialist Hospital in Enugu. A comparable group (control), made of 30 non pregnant women was also recruited. After a 24 hour dietary recall, serum levels of vitamin A, C and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by colorimetric method, while vitamin E was determined by absorptiometric method. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in age, parity, estimated calorie, vitamins A, C and E intake between the pregnant and non pregnant groups (P>0.05). The serum level of the vitamins (umol/L) and MDA (umol/L) in control, 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively were:(1)Vitamin A:1.6±0.36 vs 0.6±0.26 vs 0.62±0.33 vs 0.46±0.21 (P0.05). Conclusions:Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia does not induce additional oxidative stress on pregnant women in Nigeria. The enormity of acute and complicated attack should be further investigated.

  5. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myasoedova, Veronika A.; Kirichenko, Tatyana V.; Melnichenko, Alexandra A.; Orekhova, Varvara A.; Ravani, Alessio; Poggio, Paolo; Sobenin, Igor A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6) were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT) were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020); low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS); high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038); triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 7.1% in

  6. Relationship Of FEF25-75, PEFR And SVC With Estrogen And Progesterone Level In Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroza Begum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deterioration of lung function is common in women after menopause, which may be related to very low estrogen and progesterone level.Objective: To observe FEF25-75, PEFR and SVC (slow vital capacity values in apparently healthy postmenopausal women to find out their relationships with serum estrogen and progesterone.Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology in BSMMU, Dhaka in the year 2007. 30 healthy postmenopausal women aged 45 to 60 years and 30 healthy premenopausal women aged 20 to 30 years during their different phases of menstrual cycle were studied. Postmenopausal women were residents of Dhaka city and premenopausal subjects were medical students. FEF25-75, PEFR and SVC of all subjects were measured by a digital micro spirometer. Their estrogen and progesterone levels were estimated by Micro particle Enzyme Immunoassay (MEIA method. Data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient test, one way ANOVA and unpaired‘t’ testResults: The mean percentage of predicted values of FEF25-75 and PEFR were lower in postmenopausal women compared to those of follicular and luteal phases of premenopausal women but it was not significant. Measured values of SVC was Significantly (p<.001 lower in postmenopausal women compared to those of follicular and luteal phases of premenopausal women. Again Mean serum estrogen and progesterone levels were significantly (p<.001 lower in post menopausal women compared to those of follicular and luteal phases of premenopausal women. In post menopausal women, FEF25-75 was positively, PEFR and SVC were negatively correlated with progesterone level. PEFR and SVC showed positive correlattion and FEF25-75 showed negative correlation with serum estrogen level. All these correlations were statistically non significant. In premenopausal women FEF25-75 and PEFR showed positive correlation and SVC showed negative correlation with serum progesterone level. The relationships were

  7. Sex hormones and gene expression signatures in peripheral blood from postmenopausal women - the NOWAC postgenome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rylander Charlotta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT influences endogenous hormone concentrations and increases the risk of breast cancer. Gene expression profiling may reveal the mechanisms behind this relationship. Our objective was to explore potential associations between sex hormones and gene expression in whole blood from a population-based, random sample of postmenopausal women Methods Gene expression, as measured by the Applied Biosystems microarray platform, was compared between hormone therapy (HT users and non-users and between high and low hormone plasma concentrations using both gene-wise analysis and gene set analysis. Gene sets found to be associated with HT use were further analysed for enrichment in functional clusters and network predictions. The gene expression matrix included 285 samples and 16185 probes and was adjusted for significant technical variables. Results Gene-wise analysis revealed several genes significantly associated with different types of HT use. The functional cluster analyses provided limited information on these genes. Gene set analysis revealed 22 gene sets that were enriched between high and low estradiol concentration (HT-users excluded. Among these were seven oestrogen related gene sets, including our gene list associated with systemic estradiol use, which thereby represents a novel oestrogen signature. Seven gene sets were related to immune response. Among the 15 gene sets enriched for progesterone, 11 overlapped with estradiol. No significant gene expression patterns were found for testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH or sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG. Conclusions Distinct gene expression patterns associated with sex hormones are detectable in a random group of postmenopausal women, as demonstrated by the finding of a novel oestrogen signature.

  8. Resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in adipocytes of African-American compared to Caucasian postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Fried, Susan K.; Tittelbach, Thomas; Blumenthal, Jacob; Sreenivasan, Urmila; Robey, Linda; Yi, Jamie; Khan, Sumbul; Hollender, Courtney; Ryan, Alice S.; Goldberg, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    High fatty acid (FA) flux is associated with systemic insulin resistance, and African-American (AA) women tend to be more insulin resistant. We assessed possible depot and race difference in the antilipolytic effect of insulin in adipocytes isolated from abdominal (Abd) and gluteal (Glt) subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue of overweight, postmenopausal AA and Caucasian (C) women. Percent body fat, fasting insulin, visceral adiposity, and adipocyte size was higher in AA women. Disinhibited lipoly...

  9. Dietary factors associated with high serum ferritin levels in postmenopausal women with the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V), 2010-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Se Young; Ha, Ae Wha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Serum ferritin levels are significantly increased after menopause and greatly affect women's health. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary and non-dietary factors associated with high ferritin levels in postmenopausal women. SUBJECTS/METHODS Among adult women in 2010-2012, qualified postmenopausal women (n = 3880) were separated into quartiles of serum ferritin. The variable differences among the quartiles of ferritin were determined using either procsurve...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of preventative therapies for postmenopausal women with osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolen Lee

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data are available regarding the cost-effectiveness of preventative therapies for postmenopausal women with osteopenia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of raloxifene, alendronate and conservative care in this population. Methods We developed a microsimulation model to assess the incremental cost and effectiveness of raloxifene and alendronate relative to conservative care. We assumed a societal perspective and a lifetime time horizon. We examined clinical scenarios involving postmenopausal women from 55 to 75 years of age with bone mineral density T-scores ranging from -1.0 to -2.4. Modeled health events included vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, invasive breast cancer, and venous thromboembolism (VTE. Raloxifene and alendronate were assumed to reduce the incidence of vertebral but not nonvertebral fractures; raloxifene was assumed to decrease the incidence of breast cancer and increase the incidence of VTEs. Cost-effectiveness is reported in $/QALYs gained. Results For women 55 to 60 years of age with a T-score of -1.8, raloxifene cost approximately $50,000/QALY gained relative to conservative care. Raloxifene was less cost-effective for women 65 and older. At all ages, alendronate was both more expensive and less effective than raloxifene. In most clinical scenarios, raloxifene conferred a greater benefit (in QALYs from prevention of invasive breast cancer than from fracture prevention. Results were most sensitive to the population's underlying risk of fracture and breast cancer, assumed efficacy and costs of treatment, and the discount rate. Conclusion For 55 and 60 year old women with osteopenia, treatment with raloxifene compares favorably to interventions accepted as cost-effective.

  11. Diets and hormonal levels in postmenopausal women with or without breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Hämäläinen, Esa; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2011-01-01

    The role of diet in breast cancer (BC) risk is unclear. Fiber could reduce BC risk, through the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens. We examined the relationship between diet and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with or without BC. Thirty-one postmenopausal women (10 omnivores, 11 vegetarians, and 10 BC omnivores) were recruited. Dietary records (5 days) and hormone levels (3 days) were evaluated on 4 occasions over 1 yr. Vegetarians showed a lower fat/fiber ratio, a higher intake of total and cereal fiber (g/d)/body weight (kg), a significantly lower level of plasma estrone-sulfate, estradiol, free-estradiol, free-testosterone, and ring D oxygenated estrogens, and a significantly higher level of sex-hormone-binding-globulin than BC subjects. Fiber was consumed in slightly larger amounts by omnivores than by BC subjects. Omnivores had significantly lower plasma testosterone and estrone-sulfate but higher sex-hormone-binding-globulin than BC subjects. No difference was found for the urinary 16-oxygenated estrogens. However, the 2-MeO-E1/2-OH-E1 ratio was significantly lower in omnivores than in BC group. This ratio is positively associated with the fat/fiber ratio. In conclusion, testosterone may contribute to causing alterations in the levels of catechol estrogens and 16-oxygenated estrogens. The fat/fiber ratio appears to be useful in evaluating dietary effects on estrogen metabolism. PMID:21500098

  12. Application of the biochemical indexes of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the application of new biochemical indexes of bone metabolism in the diagnosis, monitoring and therapy of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods: Fifty-six cases of postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes complicated with osteoporosis were randomly divided into 2 groups: treatment group (28 cases) and control group (28 cases). The experimental group were treated with Fosamax 10 mg/d for 6 months and control group with placebo. Bone minernal density (BMD) of lumbar vertebrae and ilium, procollagen type I amino terminal peptide (TP1NP), Crossl procollagen type I carboxy terminal peptide (β-Crosslaps), Ca, phosphorus and ALP were tested. Results: BMD was increased in the treatment group at the lumbar spine and femoral neck by 11.23%, 17.1% (P<0.05), respectively. TP1NP and β-crosslaps were declined in treatment group, Ca, phosphorus and ALP were not differ obviously. Conclusion: The results suggested TP1NP and β-Crosslaps affiliated with BMD could discover osteoporosis, and TP1NP and β-Crosslaps were play a important role in diagnosis and therapy of osteoporosis. (authors)

  13. Relation between visceral fat and carotid intimal media thickness in Mexican postmenopausal women: a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpilcueta, Yessica Mireya Moreno; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To investigate the relationship between visceral fat and carotid IMT (intima media thickness) in Mexican postmenopausal women. Material and methods In 71 postmenopausal women divided in two groups: group 1, IMT > 1 mm and group 2, IMT ≤ 1 mm, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), visceral and subcutaneous fats and carotid IMT were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used and the comparison among those with abnormal and normal IMT was carried out using Mann-Whitney U test; also Spearman's correlation analysis was done. Results When comparing group 1 (n = 9, 12.7%) with group 2 (n = 62, 87.3%), it was found that the subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater in group 1 (p < 0.018, p < 0.001 and p < 0.006, respectively), and also in this group there was a correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fat (ρ = 0.686, p < 0.041) and between visceral fat and the systolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.712, p < 0.031). In group 2, there was a correlation between IMT and diastolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.251, p < 0.049). Conclusion Subcutaneous and visceral fat have an unfavorable effect in the carotid IMT and in blood pressure.

  14. Correlation between QUS of Phalanx and DXA in Assessment of Bone Structure of Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Hamidi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This study planned for finding the agreement DXA and quantitative ultrasound (QUS of phalanx in osteoporosis diagnosis and cut off point of QUS for osteoporosis diagnosis in postmenopausal women. In 180 postmenopausal women, BMD of axial regions with DXA (DPX-MD, GE, Lunar, USA and phalanx with QUS (DBM-Sonic 1200 measured. Agreement of methods and cut off for QUS in defining osteoporosis obtained. Prevalence of osteoporosis with DXA was 28.8% (18.3% in L2-L4 and 3.9%-7.8% in femoral regions and in 28.9% with QUS. Agreement of them (Kappa score was 0.317 for spine and 0.036-0.068 for femoral regions. T-score= -2.0 was the cut off of QUS in spinal osteoporosis diagnosis (sensitivity=78.8% and specificity= 55.9%. We could not find cutoff point for osteoporosis in femoral regions. This means that QUS of phalanx is not a good replacement for DXA, but it can be used as a screening method for osteoporosis.

  15. The Role of Vitamin D in Blood Pressure, Endothelial and Renal Function in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne C. Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D is a pro-hormone that plays an essential role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Aims: To review the extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D on blood pressure, endothelial and renal function with emphasis on recent findings in postmenopausal women. Methods: Included in this review was a PubMed database search for English language articles through March 2013. This review discussed the physiology and definition of vitamin D deficiency, the recent evidence for the role vitamin D in blood pressure, vascular and renal function. Results: Experimental and epidemiological data suggest that vitamin D plays an important role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Low vitamin D concentrations appear to significantly associate with hypertension, endothelial and renal dysfunction. However, the results of clinical trials have generally been mixed. Studies specifically conducted among postmenopausal women are limited and findings are still inconsistent. Conclusions: Definitive studies are warranted to elucidate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on vascular and renal function and a more detailed work is needed to outline the route, duration and optimal dose of supplementation. It is premature to recommend vitamin D as a therapeutic option in the improvement of vascular and renal function at the current stage.

  16. Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women Heterozygous for the C282Y HFE Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Frances; Fulcher, Greg R.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the HFE gene may be associated with increased tissue iron stores reflected in an elevated serum ferritin. With homozygous mutation C282Y, the increase in serum ferritin may be associated with tissue damage in the liver, pancreas, and pituitary and with a reduced bone mineral density. With heterozygous mutation C282Y, the degree of iron retention is less but information relating to how a heterozygous C282Y mutation might impact bone mineral density is uncertain. The present study was undertaken to study the relationships between bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and the serum ferritin and serum iron in postmenopausal women heterozygous for the C282Y mutation. The spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, was significantly less than age matched community controls (P = 0.016). There was no significant change in the femoral neck bone mineral density compared to age matched community controls. The correlation between the spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, the femoral neck bone mineral density, and the serum ferritin was not significant. The serum iron correlated significantly inversely with the femoral neck bone mineral density (P = 0.048). The heterozygous C282Y mutation may be associated with impairment of bone cell function in postmenopausal women when only small increases in the serum iron or serum ferritin have occurred. PMID:27123357

  17. Effect of combined aerobic and resistance training in body composition of obese postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício E. Rossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week program of combined aerobic and resistance training on the body composition of postmenopausal women who are obese. The participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG, n = 37 and non-trained control group (CG, n = 18. The trunk fat, fat mass, percentage of fat mass and fat-free mass were estimated using DXA. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were conducted. The training protocol consisted of 50 minutes of resistance training followed by 30 minutes of aerobic training. After the 16-week training program, differences were observed in trunk fat (CG= 0.064 x TG= -0.571 Kg; p-value = .020, fat mass (CG= -0.088 x TG= -1.037 Kg; p-value = .020 and fat-free mass (CG= -0.388 x TG= 1.049 Kg; p = .001. Therefore, a 16-week program of systematic combined aerobic and resistance training in obese postmenopausal women was effective in improving fat-free mass and decreasing both whole and abdominal adiposity.

  18. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenza Qiraouani Boucetta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin hydration in postmenopausal women. Material and methods : Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group absorbed alimentary argan oil (n = 30 and the control group olive oil (n = 30. Both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a sixty days’ period. Evaluation of skin hydration, i.e. transepidermal water loss (TEWL and water content of the epidermis (WCE on both volar forearms of the two groups, were performed during three visits at D0, D30 and after sixty days (D60 of oils treatment. Results : The consumption of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.023 and a significant increase in WCE (p = 0.001. The application of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.01 and a significant increase in WCE (p < 0.001. Conclusions : Our findings suggest that the daily consumption and application of argan oil have improved the skin hydration by restoring the barrier function and maintaining the water-holding capacity.

  19. Effects of Tai Chi Training on Antioxidant Capacity in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

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    Attakorn Palasuwan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n=8 and postmenopausal (n=7 sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1 increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity—an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme—and plasma total antioxidant status and (2 decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention.

  20. Effect of conjugated equine estrogens on oxidative metabolism in middle-aged and elderly postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Mary Beth; Frye, Reginald F; Matzke, Gary R; St Peter, John V; Willhite, Laurie A; Welch, Margaret R; Kowal, Paul; LaValleur, June

    2006-11-01

    The effects of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) 0.625 mg daily on cytochrome P450 (CYP) were quantified in 12 middle-aged and 13 elderly postmenopausal women at baseline and 6 months later. CYP phenotype was characterized by caffeine (CYP1A2), chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1), dapsone (CYP, N-acetyltransferase 2), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), and mephenytoin (CYP2C19) metabolism. CEE significantly decreased CYP1A2 (caffeine metabolic ratio: 0.57 +/- 0.20 before, 0.40 +/- 0.20 after, P = .001) and significantly increased CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan/dextrorphan ratio: 0.0116 +/- 0.0143 before, 0.0084 +/- 0.0135 after, P = .022) metabolism. CEE had no overall effect on CYP2C19, CYP2E1, CYP-mediated dapsone metabolism, and N-acetyltransferase 2. The dextromethorphan metabolic ratio decreased only in the seniors. The dapsone recovery ratio decreased in the middle-aged group and increased in the seniors. CEE significantly influenced CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP-mediated dapsone oxidative metabolism but not CYP2C19, CYP2E1, or N-acetyltransferase 2 metabolism in postmenopausal women. Age influenced CYP2D6 metabolism and dapsone hydroxylation. PMID:17050794

  1. Study of epidemiological features of health problems in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in an urban community

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    Manjusha K Deotale

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Menopause is said to be universal reproductive phenomenon. Menopause although not a disease is associated with annoying physiological changes and varied symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats, urinary and genital changes, dyspareunia, insomnia and many psychological dysfunctions such as anxiety, depression, lack of concentration and decreased self-esteem. Every woman's experience of the menopause is unique; she may experience all of the symptoms or none of them. Some find the transition barely noticeable while others find it life altering. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among peri and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years residing at Government colony, Bandra, Mumbai, Maharashtra for a period of 1-year. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used for collecting data. A booklet on "care during menopause" was used for giving health education. Results: In this study, mean age at natural menopause was 45.32 years (standard deviation ±2.79. Our study participants reported mostly muscular and joint pain (44.86%, urological symptoms (23.43%, vasomotor symptoms (21.14%, vulvovaginal symptoms (19.43%, psychological symptoms (15.14%, weight gain (14.86%, psychosexual symptoms (11.43% and hirsutism (1.43%. Conclusions: There is a necessity of a multidisciplinary approach to the problems of menopause with more stress on promotive and preventive interventions. There should be provision of relevant health services, health education and promotional activities to cope up with the health needs of women in their postmenopausal years.

  2. The ocular benefits of estrogen replacement therapy: a population-based study in postmenopausal Korean women.

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    Kyung-Sun Na

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elucidate the prevalence of cataract, glaucoma, pterygia, and diabetic retinopathy among Korean postmenopausal women with or without estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. METHODS: A cross-sectional, nationally representative sample from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV (2007-2009 was used. Participants were interviewed for the determination of socioeconomic and gynecologic factors. Each woman also underwent an ophthalmologic examination and provided a blood sample for risk factor assessment. RESULTS: Of 3968 postmenopausal women enrolled, 3390 had never received estrogen, and 578 were undergoing estrogen treatment. After adjusting for age, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol levels, and high low-density lipoprotein levels, the prevalence of anterior polar cataract, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL defect, and flesh pterygium was higher in the non-ERT group (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.12-9.35, OR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.04-2.78, OR 3.725; 95% CI, 1.21-11.45, respectively. Further, the prevalence of atrophic pterygium was lower in the non-ERT group compared to that in the ERT group (OR, 0.21, 95% CI, 0.07-0.63. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that ERT has a protective effect against the development of anterior polar cataract, flesh pterygium, and RNFL defect.

  3. MR imaging of the lumbosacral spine in asymptomatic pregnant and nonpregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back discomfort is a common complaint during pregnancy. In the past, back discomfort was commonly attributed to exaggeration of the normal lumbar lordosis. Recently, however, claims have been made that there is an increased incidence of lumbar disk disease during pregnancy. To evaluate this claim and determine its significance, we compared MR images of the spines of pregnant and asymptomatic nonpregnant women. Sagittal MR images (0.35 T, spin-echo technique) of the lumbosacral spines of 50 pregnant and 50 nonpregnant women were evaluated for intervertebral disk desiccation, bulge, and herniation. The nonpregnant subjects were divided into two groups: nulliparous and parous. The authors found no statistically significant difference among the three groups. Thus, there is no evidence for an increased prevalence of disk disease in pregnant women

  4. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women. PMID:26251836

  5. Metabolic alteration of urinary steroids in pre- and post-menopausal women, and men with papillary thyroid carcinoma

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    Chung Bong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic changes in urinary steroids in pre- and post-menopausal women and men with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. Methods Quantitative steroid profiling combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure the urinary concentrations of 84 steroids in both pre- (n = 21, age: 36.95 ± 7.19 yr and post-menopausal female (n = 19, age: 52.79 ± 7.66 yr, and male (n = 16, age: 41.88 ± 8.48 yr patients with PTC. After comparing the quantitative data of the patients with their corresponding controls (pre-menopause women: n = 24, age: 33.21 ± 10.48 yr, post-menopause women: n = 16, age: 49.67 ± 8.94 yr, male: n = 20, age: 42.75 ± 4.22 yr, the levels of steroids in the patients were normalized to the mean concentration of the controls to exclude gender and menopausal variations. Results Many urinary steroids were up-regulated in all PTC patients compared to the controls. Among them, the levels of three active androgens, androstenedione, androstenediol and 16α-hydroxy DHEA, were significantly higher in the pre-menopausal women and men with PTC. The corticoid levels were increased slightly in the PTC men, while progestins were not altered in the post-menopausal PTC women. Estrogens were up-regulated in all PTC patients but 2-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol were remarkably changed in both pre-menopausal women and men with PTC. For both menopausal and gender differences, the 2-hydroxylation, 4-hydroxylation, 2-methoxylation, and 4-methoxylation of estrogens and 16α-hydroxylation of DHEA were differentiated between pre- and post-menopausal PTC women (P P -7. Conclusions These results are expected be helpful for better understanding the pathogenic differences in PTC according to gender and menopausal conditions.

  6. Association between insulin resistance and bone structure in non-diabetic postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Finkelstein, Joel S; Bouxsein, Mary L; Yu, Elaine W

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The clinical consequences of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia on bone remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of insulin resistance on peripheral bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone microarchitecture and estimated bone strength. DESIGN......, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study included 146 postmenopausal, non-diabetic Caucasian women (mean age 60.3 ± 2.7 years) who were participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). INTERVENTIONS: None Main outcome measures: High-resolution peripheral quantitative....... RESULTS: There was a negative association between HOMA-IR and bone size and a positive association between HOMA-IR and total vBMD, trabecular vBMD, trabecular thickness and cortical thickness at the radius and tibia. These relationships remained even after adjusting for body weight and other potential...

  7. Cardiovascular Risks in Relation to Daidzein Metabolizing Phenotypes among Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Chen, Yu-ming; Liu, Jun; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggested that the inter-individual differences in metabolizing isoflavone daidzein to equol or O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA) might explain the inconsistency of the soy/isoflavones efficacy on cardiovascular health. Objectives The study aims to evaluate the relationship between equol and ODMA phenotypes and cardiovascular risks with habitual isoflavone consumption in Chinese postmenopausal women. Methods This is a cross-sectional study among 726 prehypertensive postmenopal women who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. 648 women returned a daidzein-challenged urine samples for determination of equol and O-DMA production. 595 attended clinic visits for assessment of cardiovascular risks including body composition, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, uric acid, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fasting glucose and free fatty acid (FFA). Results The prevalences of equol and O-DMA producers were 53.2% and 60.9% respectively. Equol producers had higher fat free mass (p = 0.001), lower systolic (p = 0.01) and diastolic (p = 0.01) BP, serum triglyceride (p = 0.023), hs-CRP (p = 0.015) and FFA (p = 0.001) than non-producers. O-DMA producers had lower body fat% (p = 0.032), SBP (p = 0.02), total cholesterol (p = 0.002) than non-producers. The significant differences remained after further adjustment for potential confounders. The habitual soy isoflavones intake had little relation to cardiovascular risk factors in either equol/O-DMA producer phenotypes. Conclusion Equol/O-DMA producers had more favorable cardiovascular risk profiles than non-producers in prehypertensive postmenopausal women. PMID:24533060

  8. Mammographic density in asymptomatic menopausal women: correlation with clinical and sonographic findings

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    Beatriz Regina Alvares

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mammographic breast density in asymptomatic menopausal women in correlation with clinical and sonographic findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mammograms and clinical and sonographic findings of 238 asymptomatic patients were retrospectively reviewed in the period from February/2022 to June/2006. The following variables were analyzed: mammographic density patterns, sonographic findings, patients' age, parity, body mass index and use of hormone replacement therapy. RESULTS: Age, parity and body mass index showed a negative correlation with breast density pattern, while use of hormone replacement therapy showed a positive correlation. Supplementary breast ultrasonography was performed in 103 (43.2% patients. Alterations which could not be visualized at mammography were found in 34 (33% of them, most frequently in women with breast density patterns 3 and 4. CONCLUSION: The authors concluded that breast density patterns were influenced by age, parity, body mass index and time of hormone replacement therapy. Despite not having found any malignant abnormality in the studied cases, the authors have observed a predominance of benign sonographic abnormalities in women with high breast density patterns and without mammographic abnormalities, proving the relevance of supplementary ultrasonography to identify breast lesions in such patients.

  9. A study of risk factors and consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women and feto-maternal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Byna; Naimisha Muvva; Swathi Kolli; Mahaboob V. Shaik

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study is undertaken to know the risk factors and consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending Narayana Medical College Hospital, Nellore. Methods: 500 pregnant women were recruited for the study after their consent for participation. 85 women with culture positive for ASB were paired with 85 healthy pregnant women without bacteriuria to compare feto maternal outcome. Results: Antenatal complications like anemia (35%), PROM (14%), preter...

  10. The effects of long term strength training on hemodynamic parameters and resistin level in postmenopausal women

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    Cecília Tardivo Marin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigate the influence of strength training (ST on serum resistin levels and blood pressure of postmenopausal women. Methods: Longitudinal study conducted at the Federal University of São Carlos with twenty-three sedentary postmenopausal women. The ST lasted 13 months (Dec./2008 to Jan./2010 and consisted of two weekly sessions with three sets of 8-12 maximum repetitions and one exercise for each main muscle group. Maximum muscular strength was tested in the following exercises: bench press, 45° leg press, and standing arm curl. Serum resistin level was determined using the ELISA method. ANOVA (with repeated measures was used for the comparisons between periods Pre-, 6 months and 13 months (p < 0.05; Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate the correlations between resistin × blood pressure, resistin × muscle strength and strength × blood pressure. Results: Women presented the following anthropometric profile: 61.33±3.8 years; height 148.5±32.7 cm; body mass 67.56±10.85 kg. The ST decreased resistin levels (30272.4 ± 8100.1 to 16350.6 ± 2404.6 pg/mL and systolic blood pressure (120.5 ± 11.8 to 115.8 ± 1.6 mmHg, and increased muscular strength in the leg press 45o (172.3 ± 27.3 to 348.6 ± 40.8kg, bench press (31.9 ± 4.1 to 41.8 ± 5.6 kg and arm curl (21.0 ± 2.4 to 26.5 ± 2.9 kg after 13 months (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that long-term ST increases maximum muscular strength, decreases systolic blood pressure and serum resistin levels, which are beneficial physiological alterations that reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p325

  11. ROLE OF URODYNAMIC TESTING IN THE EVALUATION OF PERSISTENT URINARY INCONTINENCE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

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    Garuda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM To evaluate the importance of Urodynamic assessment in postmenopausal women for confirmation of the type of Incontinence, which is valuable in guiding the management by conservative or surgical measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS This is a multicentric prospective study conducted from Nov 2010 - May 2012 on 88 postmenopausal women who presented with complaints of Urinary Incontinence at Outpatient dept. of Tertiary Teaching Hospital, Govt. Maternity Hospital, Petlaburz, Hyderabad and at Hyderabad Nursing Home, Basheerbagh, Hyderabad. Out of 88 patients who were recruited and evaluated, 26 patients responded to initial management and the remaining 62 patients were enrolled for Urodynamic study but 3 patients deferred and lost for follow up. UDS was conducted in these 59 patients, cystoscopy was optional and essential in 5 cases and hence it was performed in these cases. Methods and units of multichannel conventional UDS used in this study maintained the standards recommended by the international continence society. Filling, voiding cystometry and uroflowmetry was done. RESULTS The distribution of the patients in our study according to age, parity, BMI, Literacy and mode of delivery were analysed. The presence of precipitating factors (1 or more, associative with cystocele and history of prior surgeries were also recorded. In our study out of 59 patients, Detrusor underactivity (37.28% were seen in maximum number of patients followed by mixed incontinence (25.42% and OAB (18.64%. Clinical experience and the literature suggests that older women have decreased detrusor contractility, increase in OAB and mixed incontinence and decrease in pure stress symptoms. Our results support this statement. In our study UDS has completely changed the course of management in many cases and guided us to specific and appropriate treatment. Established voiding and continent centres have advised that these patients should thoroughly evaluated with UDS and their

  12. CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen response in postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regan, Meredith M; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Bouzyk, Mark;

    2012-01-01

    Adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is effective for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer. Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme metabolizes tamoxifen to clinically active metabolites, and CYP2D6 polymorphisms may adversely affect tamoxifen efficacy. In this study, we investigated the...... clinical relevance of CYP2D6 polymorphisms....

  13. Intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements and breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Stine B; Tjønneland, Anne; Stripp, Connie; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Overvad, Kim; Dragsted, Lars O; Thomsen, Birthe

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the vitamins A, C, and E on breast cancer development has not been clarified. An effect of a vitamin per se implicates similar patterns for the effects of the vitamin from dietary and supplemental sources. We examined how the breast cancer incidence rate among postmenopausal women...

  14. Value of high-risk human papillomavirus 16 deoxyribonucleic acid testing with cytological entities in peri and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Kashyap

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: There is not much variation in HPV 16 positive cases in peri and postmenopausal women. By combining HPV DNA testing with Pap smear more cases having potential for pre-cancer lesions may be detected; however, HPV test cannot replace the Pap smear in low resource setting.

  15. Vitamin D Status and Five Year Changes in Periodontal Disease Measures among Postmenopausal Women: The Buffalo OsteoPerio Study

    OpenAIRE

    Millen, Amy E.; Andrews, Christopher A.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Swanson, Mya; Genco, Robert J.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2014-01-01

    In our prospective study in postmenopausal women, baseline vitamin D status, assessed using 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, was not associated with the five-year progression of periodontal disease defined as changes in alveolar bone, clinical attachment, probing pocket depth, or gingival bleeding.

  16. The effect of depressive symptomatology on plasma cortisol responses to acute bicycle exercise among post-menopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pompe, G.; Bernards, N; Meijman, T.F.; Heijnen, C.J

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of depressive symptomatology on the cortisol response to strenuous exercise. Thirteen healthy, post-menopausal women participated in this study. The results show that acute bicycle exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

  17. Profile and microbiological isolates of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

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    Onu FA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fidelis Agwu Onu,1 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu,1 Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora,1 Perpetus Chudi Ibekwe,1 Monique Iheoma Ajah2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, 2Department of Microbiology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria Background: Detecting and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB prevents urinary tract infection and its consequences. The cost-effectiveness of routine screening for ASB in pregnancy is controversial. In populations with high prevalence, however, it is worthwhile and justifiable. Aim: To determine the profile, prevalence, microbiological isolates, and risk factors of ASB among booking antenatal clinic attendees in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving booking antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, who met the inclusion criteria. This study occurred between January and December, 2012. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. Results: A total of 300 randomly selected booking antenatal clinic attendees participated in the study; 74 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 24.7%. With the exception of rural residence, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not influence the risk of ASB among the participants in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to ofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women in Abakaliki. With the exception of rural dwelling, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not significantly influence the risk of ASB among these pregnant women. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended in our environment. Keywords: asymptomatic bacteriuria, pregnant women, Abakaliki

  18. Asymptomatic bacteriurea among pregnant women visiting Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marahatta, R; Dhungel, B Acharya; Pradhan, P; Rai, S K; Choudhury, D Roy

    2011-06-01

    Urinary tract infection is the commonest bacterial infection in pregnancy. The overall incidence is 5.0-10.0% of all pregnancy. During pregnancy bacterial growth is favoured by increased urinary content of glucose, aminoacids and other nutrients. Other factors responsible for infection are basically related to hormonal effect and mechanical factors. Prolonged stasis of urine in urinary bladder favours growth of micro organism, relaxation of vesico-ureteric junction leads to reflux of urine from bladder to ureter and later up to renal pelvis and later can affect the renal parenchyma affecting the function of kidneys. In addition, some maternal defense mechanism are less effective during pregnancy. Bacteriuria either asymptomatic (5.0%) or symptomatic is common in pregnancy, if left untreated, asymptomatic bacteriuria will lead to acute pyelonephritis in 20.0-30.0%. This may result in abortion, premature delivery, low birth baby and even still birth. About 12.0% of antenatal admission are sepsis due to pyelonephritis. Keeping in mind that UTI in pregnancy leads to increase in maternal morbidity as well as neonatal morbidity and mortality. In this prospective study all asymptomatic consecutive antenatal women were included 200 from each trimester with total of 600 in number to see the incidence in different trimester, most prevalent organisms and it's sensitivity. They were followed up till delivery to see the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriurea in different trimester and its outcome in terms of type of delivery, baby weight, apgar score given at the time of birth and hospital admission for morbidity. PMID:22364093

  19. Menopausal hormone therapy is associated with having high blood pressure in postmenopausal women: observational cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L Chiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between menopausal hormone therapy (MHT and cardiovascular risk remains controversial, with a number of studies advocating the use of MHT in reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases, while others have shown it to increase risk. The aim of this study was to determine the association between menopausal hormone therapy and high blood pressure. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 43,405 postmenopausal women were included in the study. Baseline data for these women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia, a large scale study of healthy ageing. These women reported being postmenopausal, having an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to menopause. Odds ratios for the association between MHT use and having high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by age (<56 years, 56-61 years, 62-70 years and over 71 years and adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. MHT use was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure: past menopausal hormone therapy use: <56 years (adjusted odds ratio 1.59, 99% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.20; 56-61 years (1.58, 1.31 to 1.90; 62-70 years (1.26, 1.10 to 1.44. Increased duration of hormone use was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure, with the effect of hormone therapy use diminishing with increasing age. CONCLUSIONS: Menopausal hormone therapy use is associated with significantly higher odds of having high blood pressure, and the odds increase with increased duration of use. High blood pressure should be conveyed as a health risk for people considering MHT use.

  20. Low bone mineral density is related to atherosclerosis in postmenopausal Moroccan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkaoui Mohammed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have implicated several possible metabolic linkages between osteoporosis and vascular calcification, including estrogen deficiency, vitamin D excess, vitamin K deficiency and lipid oxidation products. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are related to each other or are independent processes, both related to aging. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the correlation between arterial thickening and bone status in a sample of apparently healthy Moroccan women. Methods Seventy-two postmenopausal women were studied. All patients were without secondary causes that might affect bone density. Bone status was assessed by bone mineral density (BMD in lumbar spine and all femoral sites. Arterial wall thickening was assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT in carotid artery (CA and femoral artery (FA. Prevalent plaques were categorized into four groups ranging from low echogenicity to high echogenicity. Results The mean age was 59.2 ± 8.3 years. 84.7% had at least one plaque. By Spearman Rank correlation, CA IMT was negatively correlated to Femoral total BMD (r = -0.33, Femoral neck BMD (r = -0.23, Ward triangle BMD (r = -0.30 and Trochanter BMD (r = -0.28 while there was no association with lumbar BMD. In multiple regression analysis, CA IMT emerged as an independent factor significantly associated with all femoral sites BMD after adjusting of confounding factors. FA IMT failed to be significantly associated with both Femoral and Lumbar BMD. No significant differences between echogenic, predominantly echogenic, predominantly echolucent and echolucent plaques groups were found concerning lumbar BMD and all femoral sites BMD Conclusion Our results demonstrate a negative correlation between bone mineral density (BMD qnd carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in postmenopausal women, independently of confounding factors. We suggest that bone status should be evaluated in

  1. High-volume resistance training reduces postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cleiton Silva; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Cobos, Roberto Carlos Rebolledo; Macedo, Rodrigo Cauduro Oliveira; Kruger, Renata Lopes; Carteri, Randall Bruce Kreismann; Radaelli, Régis; Gross, Julia Silveira; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 11 weeks of low-volume resistance training (LVRT) and high-volume resistance training (HVRT) on muscle strength, muscle thickness (MT), and postprandial lipaemia (PPL) in postmenopausal women. Thirty-six healthy and untrained postmenopausal women (age, 58.9 ± 5.8 years; 68.6 ± 10.3 kg; and BMI, 26.9 ± 4.8 kg · m(-2)) participated in resistance training 3× per week for 11 weeks (HVRT = 12; LVRT = 13; and control group = 11). Biochemical variables, both pretraining and post-training, were evaluated 16 h after the administration of an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and metabolic variable during [energy expenditure (EE)] and after training session [excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)]. Muscle strength (1 RM) and MT were also calculated, and no significant differences were observed between the groups for PPL (mmol · L(-1) per 5 h) as measured by glucose, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol. EE total (EE + EPOC; 6.12 ± 1.21 MJ vs. 2.26 ± 0.85 MJ), resting fat oxidation (5.52 ± 1.69 g · h(-1) vs. 4.11 ± 1.12 g · h(-1)); MT (vastus medialis, 21.4 ± 1.8 mm vs. 18.4 ± 1.2 mm and vastus lateralis 22.3 ± 1.2 mm vs. 20.8 ± 1.3 mm); triacylglycerol (TAG) 0, 1, 2, 4; and 5 h after OFTT, TAG area under the curve (AUC) (5.79 ± 0.42 vs. 7.78 ± 0.68), and incremental AUC (-46.21 ± 14.42% vs. 7.78 ± 4.68%) were all significantly different post-training for HVRT versus LVRT, respectively (P < 0.05). The results of this investigation suggest that HVRT reduces PPL in postmenopausal women. PMID:25794044

  2. Systematic review of raloxifene in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Saeko Fujiwara,1 Etsuro Hamaya,2 Masayo Sato,2 Peita Graham-Clarke,3 Jennifer A Flynn,2 Russel Burge41Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council, Hiroshima, Japan; 2Lilly Research Laboratories Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 3Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USAPurpose: To systematically review the literature describing the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of raloxifene for postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or low bone mass (osteopenia.Materials and methods: Medline via PubMed and Embase was systematically searched using prespecified terms. Retrieved publications were screened and included if they described randomized controlled trials or observational studies of postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia treated with raloxifene and reported one or more outcome measures (change in bone mineral density [BMD]; fracture incidence; change in bone-turnover markers, hip structural geometry, or blood–lipid profile; occurrence of adverse events; and change in quality of life or pain. Excluded publications were case studies, editorials, letters to the editor, narrative reviews, or publications from non-peer-reviewed journals; multidrug, multicountry, or multidisease studies with no drug-, country-, or disease-level analysis; or studies of participants on dialysis.Results: Of the 292 publications retrieved, 15 publications (seven randomized controlled trials, eight observational studies were included for review. Overall findings were statistically significant increases in BMD of the lumbar spine (nine publications, but not the hip region (eight publications, a low incidence of vertebral fracture (three publications, decreases in markers of bone turnover (eleven publications, improved hip structural geometry (two publications, improved blood–lipid profiles (five publications, a low incidence of hot flushes

  3. Cost-effectiveness of bazedoxifene versus raloxifene in the treatment of postmenopausal women in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Nuria Pérez-Álvarez,2 Lisette Kaskens,2 Susana Holgado-Pérez,3 Jill Racketa,4 Javier Rejas5 1Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2BCN Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Barcelona, Spain; 3Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 4Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer Inc., Collegeville, PA, USA; 5Health Economic and Outcomes Research Department, Pfizer Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of bazedoxifene and raloxifene for prevention of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures among postmenopausal Spanish women aged 55–82 years with established osteoporosis and a high fracture risk. Methods: A Markov model was developed to represent the transition of a cohort of postmenopausal osteoporotic women through different health states, ie, patients free of fractures, patients with vertebral or nonvertebral fractures, and patients recovered from a fracture. Efficacy data for bazedoxifene were obtained from the Osteoporosis Study. The perspective of the Spanish National Health Service was chosen with a time horizon of 27 years. Costs were reported in 2010 Euros. Deterministic results were presented as expected cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY, and probabilistic results were represented in cost-effectiveness planes. Results: In deterministic analysis, the expected cost per patient was higher in the raloxifene cohort (€13,881 than in the bazedoxifene cohort (€13,436. QALYs gained were slightly higher in the bazedoxifene cohort (14.56 versus 14.54. Results from probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that bazedoxifene has a slightly higher probability of being cost-effective for all threshold values independent of the maximum that the National Health Service is willing to pay per additional QALY. Conclusion: Bazedoxifene was shown to be a cost-effective treatment option for the prevention of fractures in

  4. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myasoedova, Veronika A; Kirichenko, Tatyana V; Melnichenko, Alexandra A; Orekhova, Varvara A; Ravani, Alessio; Poggio, Paolo; Sobenin, Igor A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6) were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT) were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020); low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS); high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038); triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 7.1% in

  5. Treatments for post-menopausal osteoporotic women, what's new? How can we manage long-term treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Soledad; Pico, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Since the mid-1980s, postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) has been considered a serious public health concern because of the associated fractures. Pharmacological therapies that effectively reduce the number of fractures by improving bone mass have been and are being developed continuously. Most current agents inhibit bone loss by reducing bone resorption, but emerging therapies may increase bone mass by stimulating bone formation. Furthermore, nowadays, the most representative pharmaceuticals have been prescribed long enough to include the reporting of some adverse effects. This review discusses osteoporotic drugs that are approved or are under investigation for the treatment of post-menopausal women (PMW), paying particular attention to long-term treatments. PMID:26923729

  6. Reduction in the level of antibodies against heat shock proteins 60 during different hormonal protocols in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Rajtar-Ciosek, Agnieszka; Kacalska-Janssen, Olga; Zmaczyński, Andrzej; Wyroba, Jakub; Tomczyk, Rita; Wiatr, Joanna; Gałuszka-Bednarczyk, Anna; Bereza, Tomasz; Milewicz, Tomasz; Krzysiek, Józef

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In current literature, the immune-inflammatory theory of atherosclerosis is widely discussed. The role of how heat shock proteins 60 (HSP60) lead to the development of the atheromatous plaque is especially underlined. The aim of the study is to estimate the influence of three hormonal protocols on behavior of antibodies against HSP60. It determines the state of endothelium in postmenopausal women. Material and methods The study was carried out on 90 women between 2007 and 2012. A...

  7. Heart Rate Variability Characteristics in Sedentary Postmenopausal Women Following Six Months of Exercise Training: The DREW Study

    OpenAIRE

    Earnest, Conrad P.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with a higher risk of mortality. Overall, postmenopausal women have lower levels of HRV than premenopausal women, which may be additionally complicated by lifestyle related behaviors such as physical inactivity and obesity. Though cardiorespiratory exercise training increases HRV, little is known regarding the exercise dose necessary to promote this improvement. Methodology/Principal Findings Our primary aim was to measure HRV in...

  8. Association between Levels of Serum Ferritin and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women: KNHANES 2008–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Joo Chon; Yun Rak Choi; Yun Ho Roh; Bo Hyon Yun; SiHyun Cho; Young Sik Choi; Byung Seok Lee; Seok Kyo Seo

    2014-01-01

    Background As women go through menopause, serum estrogen decreases and ferritin increases. Decreased serum estrogen is well known to cause detrimental effects on bone health; however, data on the associations of serum ferritin with BMD before and after menopause are still lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between serum ferritin levels and BMD in premenopausal and postmenopausal Korean women. Methods This study was performed using data from the 2008–2010 Korea...

  9. Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba extract on sexual desire in postmenopausal women in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Pebdani, Mina Amiri; Taavoni, Simin; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Haghani, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the menopausal period, sexual desire may decrease. Therefore, restoring the sexual desire may help to improve sexual functioning in this group of women. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: In this triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 80 healthy female volunteers attending three healthcare centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) were enro...

  10. Prospective Randomized Trial to Assess Effects of Continuing Hormone Therapy on Cerebral Function in Postmenopausal Women at Risk for Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Rasgon, Natalie L.; Geist, Cheri L.; Kenna, Heather A.; Wroolie, Tonita E.; Williams, Katherine E.; Silverman, Daniel H. S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT) on regional cerebral metabolism in postmenopausal women (mean age = 58, SD = 5) at risk for development of dementia. The prospective clinical trial design included pre- and post-intervention neuroimaging of women randomized to continue (HT+) or discontinue (HT−) therapy following an average of 10 years of use. The primary outcome measure was change in brain metabolism during the subsequent two years,...

  11. Association between urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite and breast cancer risk: a prospective, case-cohort study of postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sangmi; Taylor, Jack A.; Milne, Ginger L.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2013-01-01

    Overweight or obese women are at increased risk of developing and dying from breast cancer. Obesity-driven inflammation may stimulate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-mediated aromatase activation and estrogen biosynthesis in breast tissues. We hypothesized that increased production of PGE2 would contribute to elevated breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. We carried out a case-cohort study with 307 incident breast cancer cases and 300 subcohort members from the Sister Study cohort. Hazard ratio...

  12. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in type 2 Iranian diabetic women: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salarifar Mojtaba

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of developing infection in diabetic patients is higher and urinary tract is the most common site for infection. Serious complications of urinary infection occur more commonly in diabetic patients. To study the prevalence and associates of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Iranian population, this study was conducted. Methods Between February 10, 2004 and October 15, 2004; 202 nonpregnant diabetic (type 2 women (range: 31 to 78 years old with no abnormalities of the urinary tract system were included in this clinic based study. We defined ASB as the presence of at least 105 colony-forming units/ml of 1 or 2 bacterial species, in two separated cultures of clean-voided midstream urine. All the participants were free from any symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI. Associates for developing bacteriuria was assessed and compared in participants with and without bacteriuria. Results In this study, the prevalence of ASB was 10.9% among diabetic women. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism responsible for positive urine culture. Most of the isolated microorganisms were resistant to Co-trimoxazole, Nalidixic acid and Ciprofloxacin. Pyuria (P 1c level (P Conclusion The prevalence of ASB is higher in women with type 2 diabetes, for which pyuria and glucosuria can be considered as associates. Routine urine culture can be recommended for diabetic women even when there is no urinary symptom.

  13. Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool Performance in a Large Sample of Postmenopausal Women of Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Saraví

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool (OST is a clinical instrument designed to select patients at risk of osteoporosis, who would benefit from a bone mineral density measurement. The OST only takes into account the age and weight of the subject. It was developed for Asian women and later validated for European and North American white women. The performance of the OST in a sample of 4343 women from Greater Mendoza, a large metropolitan area of Argentina, was assessed. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scans of lumbar spine and hip were obtained. Patients were classified as either osteoporotic (N=1830 or nonosteoporotic (n=2513 according to their lowest T-score at any site. Osteoporotic patients had lower OST scores (P<0.0001. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve showed an area under the curve of 71% (P<0.0001, with a sensitivity of 83.7% and a specificity of 44% for a cut-off value of 2. Positive predictive value was 52% and negative predictive value was 79%. The odds ratio for the diagnosis of osteoporosis was 4.06 (CI95 3.51 to 4.71; P<0.0001. It is concluded that the OST is useful for selecting postmenopausal women for DXA testing in the studied population.

  14. Relationship Between Bone Minerals Density and Some Characteristics of Postmenopausal Women who Were Visiting Orthopedics Clinics - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülendam Karadağ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Frequency of osteoporosis that depending different factors in postmenopausal women is increase. So our study was done to determine the relationship between some habits of the postmenopausal women and bone mineral density. Material and Methods: The study was done as descriptive a hospital in Gaziantep between the dates 3 July - 8 August, 2006. The comprehension of the study is all patients who applied to orthopedics clinics, and sampling consists of 70 patients who wanted to join study, and postmenopausal, hadn’t taken steroid and calcitonin treatment more than last one year. Before study, informed approwal was taken from patients and institution. Data of the study were collected using questionnaire form. Density of bone minerals was grouped according to the standarts of WHO as normal (t>-1.0, osteopenic (t0.05. Conclusion: It was seen that majority of patients didn’t make sports regularly, and the risk of having osteoporosis was higher who were getting older. For this reason, it can be suggested that to prevent osteoporosis especially in postmenopausal women necessary education should be given. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:75-9

  15. The influence of vitamin D receptor genetic variants on bone mineral density and osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Liu, Ming; Huang, Xiaonan; Qing, Zuhong; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is an important candidate gene for influencing the development of osteoporosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential association between genetic variants of VDR gene and bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women. The study included 970 Chinese postmenopausal women at the postmenopausal osteoporosis (482) and healthy controls (488). The BMD of lumbar spine (L(2-4) anterior-posterior view), femoral neck hip, and total hip was evaluated using the Norland XR-46 dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The genotypes of VDR genetic variants were determined by the created restriction site-PCR (CRS-PCR) and confirmed by DNA sequencing methods. Our data indicated that the VDR p.Glicine (Gly)14 alanine (Ala) and p.histidine (His) 305 glutanine (Gln) genetic variants were statistically associated with adjusted femoral neck hip BMD, adjusted lumbar spine BMD, and adjusted total hip BMD (P values < 0.05). Results from this study suggest that the VDR p.Gly14Ala and p.His305Gln genetic variants are significantly associated with BMD decrease in Chinese postmenopausal women and might be used as molecular markers for assessing the risk of BMD and osteoporosis. PMID:25784778

  16. Melatonin improves bone mineral density at the femoral neck in postmenopausal women with osteopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstrup, Anne Kristine; Sikjaer, Tanja; Heickendorff, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is known for its regulation of circadian rhythm. Recently, studies have shown that melatonin may have a positive effect on the skeleton. By increasing age, the melatonin levels decrease, which may lead to a further imbalanced bone remodeling. We aimed to investigate whether treatment with...... melatonin could improve bone mass and integrity in humans. In a double-blind RCT, we randomized 81 postmenopausal osteopenic women to 1-yr nightly treatment with melatonin 1 mg (N = 20), 3 mg (N = 20), or placebo (N = 41). At baseline and after 1-yr treatment, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) by dual...... X-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and determined calciotropic hormones and bone markers. Mean age of the study subjects was 63 (range 56-73) yr. Compared to placebo, femoral neck BMD increased by 1.4% in response to melatonin...

  17. Relationship between fasting glucose, vitamin D and PTH in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    við Streym, Susanna; Rejnmark, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter;

    lowering PHT levels interventional trials with vitamin D supplements are warranted in order to term whether improvement of vitamin D status may improve glucose tolerance. Table: Pearson correlation    Blood Glucose25 OHDBMIFatLeanPhysical activityPTHBlood Glucose-      25 OHD-0.069xx-     BMI0.238xx-0......  Abstract Relationship between fasting glucose, vitamin D and PTH in early postmenopausal women Súsanna við Streym Thomsen (1), Lars Rejnmark (1), Peter Vestergaard (1), Christine Brot (2), Pia Eiken (3), Pernille Hermann (4) Leif Mosekilde (1). (1) Department of Medicine and Endocrinology C......, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark. Background: Studies have shown an increased risk of type 2 diabetes with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels. Hypothesis: Low vitamin D is associated with a high level of blood glucose. Aim: To investigate any association between blood glucose and 25OHD...

  18. Pre-diagnostic acrylamide exposure and survival after breast cancer among postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Outzen, Malene;

    2012-01-01

    especially regards endocrine related tumors. In human epidemiological studies, dietary exposure to acrylamide has also been suggested related to higher risk of endocrine related tumors, like estrogen sensitive breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if pre-diagnostic acrylamide exposure......, measured by acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts (AA-Hb and GA-Hb), were associated to mortality in breast cancer cases. Among 24,697 postmenopausal women included into a Danish cohort between 1993 and 1997, 420 developed breast cancer before 2001 and 110 died before 2009. AA-Hb and GA......-Hb concentrations measured in blood samples were related to mortality by Cox proportional hazard models. Estimates are given per 25pmol/g globin higher levels.Among non-smokers, higher concentrations of GA-Hb were associated to a higher hazard rate of breast cancer specific mortality (HR (95% CI): 1.63 (1...

  19. Bone Density, Turnover, and Estimated Strength in Postmenopausal Women Treated With Odanacatib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Kim; Chapurlat, Roland; Cheung, Angela M;

    2013-01-01

    Context:Odanacatib, a cathepsin K inhibitor, increases spine and hip areal bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with low BMD and cortical thickness in ovariectomized monkeys.Objective:The objective of the study was to examine the impact of odanacatib on the trabecular and cortical...... included odanacatib 50 mg or placebo weekly.Main Outcome Measures:Changes in areal BMD by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (primary end point, 1 year areal BMD change at lumbar spine), bone turnover markers, volumetric BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and bone strength estimated by finite...... element analysis were measured.Results:Year 1 lumbar spine areal BMD percent change from baseline was 3.5% greater with odanacatib than placebo (P <.001). Bone-resorption marker C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen was significantly lower with odanacatib vs placebo at 6 months and 2 years (P <.001). Bone...

  20. Physiological Responses Associated with Nordic-Walking Training in Systolic Hypertensive Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latosik Ewelina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Loss of physical strength and hypertension are among the most pronounced detrimental factors accompanying aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a supervised 8-week Nordic-walking training program on systolic blood pressure in systolic-hypertensive postmenopausal women. This study was a randomized control trial on a sample of 24 subjects who did not take any hypertension medications. There was a statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure and an increase in lower and upper-body strength in the group following Nordic-walking training. There was a decrease in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density cholesterol. The obtained results indicate that an 8-week Nordic-walking program may be efficiently employed for counteracting systolic hypertension through a direct abatement of systolic blood pressure and an increase of maximal aerobic capacity.

  1. Relation between body composition and biochemical markers of bone turnover among early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hla, M M; Davis, J W; Ross, P D;

    2000-01-01

    We studied the associations between body composition and biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption among 1600 postmenopausal women, ages 45-59. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the independent associations of fat mass, muscle strength (quadriceps strength), height......, and whole body bone mineral content (BMC) with biochemical markers of bone formation (serum osteocalcin) and resorption (urinary type I collagen crosslinked N-telopeptides [NTX]). Per interquartile range (IQR) (the difference between 75th and 25th percentiles) increase in fat mass and whole body BMC......, the mean levels of osteocalcin decreased by 3% and 13%, respectively; NTX decreased by 5 and 21%. Fat mass and whole-body BMC were also significantly associated with decreases in the average of osteocalcin and NTX Z-scores. By contrast, the mean levels of serum osteocalcin increased by 2 and 11...

  2. Biochemical evaluation of the supporting structure of pelvic organs in selected numbers of premenopausal and postmenopausal Malaysian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Sulaiha Syed Aznal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is associated with menopause and changes in the proteins of the pelvic supporting system, but there is scant data on the precise alterations in Malaysian women. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the differences in the extracellular matrices (ECM of uterosacral ligaments in premenopausal and postmenopausal Malaysian women with or without POP. Settings and Design: The observational study was conducted for 9 months in three general hospitals involving 30 women who underwent hysterectomies for various indications except for carcinoma of pelvic organs. Materials and Methods: Three groups were identified: Premenopausal women (Group 1, postmenopausal women without POP (Group 2, and postmenopausal women with POP (Group 3. Age, duration of menopause, body mass index (BMI, parity, and vaginal deliveries were documented. Only 21 samples of the uterosacral ligaments were stained immunohistochemically for collagen I and III, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs 1 and 2, elastin, and tenascin. Statistical Analysis Used: Image J software analysis was utilized for quantification, while non-parametric statistics (Kruskal-Wallis with post-hoc Dunns Multiple Comparison test was used for result analysis. Results: The profile parameters were not significantly different except for mean age and duration of menopause in Group 3. Samples from Group 2 showed lower expression of almost all proteins except MMP1 and tenascin (higher as compared to Group 1. The changes appeared to be exaggerated in Group 3, though statistically insignificant. Conclusion: A significant difference in the expression of ECM was apparent in postmenopausal subjects as compared to premenopausal ( P = 0.05, compromising the uterosacral ligament tensile strength. The findings are proven similar as those changes in women from other studies.

  3. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth.We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders.The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors.Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  4. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Quantitative Ultrasound Parameters and Pain and Demographic Features in Pre and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yücel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a systemic metabolic disease which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural damage of bone tissue resulting in increased bone fragility. History, physical examination, laboratory investigations and different imaging technics are used in diagnosis of osteoporosis. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS is an alternative method for diagnosis of osteoporosis and evaluation of fracture risk. In this study we aimed to evaluate the association between quantitative ultrasound values and pain and demographic features in pre- and postmenopausal women. One hundred voluntary women aged over 40 years who were admitted to hospital in one day were included. Eight of these were excluded for different reasons. Demographic features and pain parameters were inquired. Quantitative ultrasound evaluation was performed with Hologic Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer equipment. Speed of sound (SOS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA values and stiffness parameters were used for evaluation. Twenty four (26.1% of the objects were premenopausal and 68 (73.9% were postmenopausal. 24 (100% of premenopausal objects and 57 (% 83.8 of postmenopausal objects had pain (p=0.061. In evaluation with QUS, mean BUA values were 67.9 ± 13.5 in premenopausal and 60.0 ± 15.8 in postmenopausal women (p=0.026. Mean stiffness values were found 91.2 ± 13.6 in premenopausal and 80.1 ± 17.6 in postmenopausal women (p=0.013. In all of the subjects, QUS parameters were found negatively corraleted with age, while no relationship was found with occupation, education level, body mass index (BMI and pain. Consequently, we found negative correlation between age and QUS parameters, but for other demographic features there was no correlation. This study will be more sensitive and specific if performed on more patients and supported by other measurement methods.

  5. Calcium-fortified beverage supplementation on body composition in postmenopausal women

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    Remig Valentina M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the effects of a calcium-fortified beverage supplemented over 12 months on body composition in postmenopausal women (n = 37, age = 48–75 y. Methods Body composition (total-body percent fat, %FatTB; abdominal percent fat, %FatAB was measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. After baseline assessments, subjects were randomly assigned to a free-living control group (CTL or the supplement group (1,125 mg Ca++/d, CAL. Dietary intake was assessed with 3-day diet records taken at baseline and 12 months (POST. Physical activity was measured using the Yale Physical Activity Survey. Results At 12 months, the dietary calcium to protein ratio in the CAL group (32.3 ± 15.6 mg/g was greater than the CTL group (15.2 ± 7.5 mg/g. There were no differences from baseline to POST between groups for changes in body weight (CAL = 0.1 ± 3.0 kg; CTL = 0.0 ± 2.9 kg, %FatTB (CAL = 0.0 ± 2.4%; CTL = 0.5 ± 5.4%, %FatAB (CAL = -0.4 ± 8.7%; CTL = 0.6 ± 8.7%, or fat mass (CAL = 1.3 ± 2.6 kg; CTL = 1.3 ± 2.7 kg. Conclusion These results indicate that increasing the calcium to protein ratio over two-fold by consuming a calcium-fortified beverage for 12 months did not decrease body weight, body fat, or abdominal fat composition in postmenopausal women.

  6. The effect of carbohydrates in milk on the absorption of calcium by postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the presence of carbohydrate in milk, either lactose or its hydrolysis products, enhance the bioavailability of calcium (Ca) in milk. Two studies were performed. In study A, fractional Ca absorption was measured in 11 lactose-tolerant postmenopausal women after an oral dose of 47Ca-equilibrated milk formula containing no carbohydrate (NOCHO), lactose (LACTOSE), or an equivalent amount of glucose plus galactose (SUGAR); all participated in three absorption studies in random order. The NOCHO formula contained 10.0 g protein and 217 mg Ca from a combination of milk mineral and protein isolates; the LACTOSE and SUGAR formulae contained in addition 12 g lactose or 6 g glucose plus 6 g galactose, respectively. In study B, fractional Ca absorption was measured in five postmenopausal women after an oral dose of 47Ca-equilibrated skim milk (217 mg Ca) and lactase-treated milk, each with sufficient carbohydrate added to equal 12 g. For both studies, the increase in forearm radioactivity 4 and 8 hours after oral 47Ca administration relative to the increase observed after IV administration was used to estimate fractional Ca absorption. The addition of lactose but not glucose plus galactose to the NOCHO formula enhanced Ca absorption (p less than 0.05). Fractional absorption at 4 hours was 0.386 from the LACTOSE formula compared with 0.310 for both the NOCHO and SUGAR formulae. Those individuals with the lowest absorption in the absence of carbohydrate had the greatest increase with lactose. In contrast, Ca absorption was the same from skim milk as from lactase-treated skim milk (study B)

  7. Association of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women

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    Iwasaki Motoki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although global hypomethylation of leukocyte DNA has been associated with an increased risk of several sites of cancer, including breast cancer, determinants of global methylation level among healthy individuals remain largely unexplored. Here, we examined whether postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones were associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Nagano, Japan. Subjects were postmenopausal women aged 55 years or over who provided blood samples. We measured global methylation level of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA by luminometric methylation assay; estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex-hormone binding globulin by immunoradiometric assay. A linear trend of association between methylation and hormone levels was evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable liner regression model. A total of 185 women were included in the analyses. Results Mean global methylation level (standard deviation was 70.3% (3.1 and range was from 60.3% to 79.2%. Global methylation level decreased 0.27% per quartile category for estradiol and 0.39% per quartile category for estrone while it increased 0.41% per quartile category for bioavailable estradiol. However, we found no statistically significant association of any sex hormone level measured in the present study with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Conclusions Our findings suggest that endogenous sex hormones are not major determinants of the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA.

  8. Use of risedronate for consolidation and callus formation in Colles fractures in postmenopausal women: SOLID study

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    Lindomar Guimarães Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This open, randomized and blinded parallel-group multicenter study evaluated the efficacy of Actonel(r (35 mg plus calcium/vitamin D versus calcium/vitamin D alone for preserving bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women with Colles fractures.METHODS: Patients with a Colles fracture for seven days were randomized to receive either Actonel(r (35 mg once a week plus calcium/vitamin D (ACD group or calcium/vitamin D alone (CD group. The patients were evaluated after 90 and 180 days of treatment.RESULTS: 59 ACD patients and 56 CD patients completed all the evaluations. At the end of the study, the BMD of the radius at the fracture location showed a negative change in the CD group (32.8%. The loss of BMD in the ACD group (20.8% was slightly less than that in the CD group. There was a difference in the proportions of patients with BMD losses at the end of the study period in the two treatment groups, in favor of the ACD group, although this was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in radiological identification of callus formation between the treatment groups. In the majority of the patients, the callus could be radiologically identified after 90 days.CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal women with Colles fractures who received risedronate sodium plus calcium/vitamin D did not show any significant difference in BMD loss in forearm fractures, in comparison with those who received calcium/vitamin D alone. Risedronate presented a tendency toward a protective effect regarding BMD loss due to immobilization. The time taken for fracture consolidation to be achieved was unaffected.

  9. Seven years’ experience with alendronate in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Iwamoto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto1, Yoshihiro Sato2, Mitsuyoshi Uzawa3, Tsuyoshi Takeda1, Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keiyu Orthopaedic Hospital, Gunma, JapanAbstract: A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the outcome of alendronate (ALN treatment for seven years in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis. Forty-seven postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age at baseline 65.7 years treated with ALN for over seven years in our outpatient clinic were analyzed. Lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP were monitored during the seven-year treatment period. Urinary NTX and serum ALP levels decreased (-48.2% at three months and -15.7% at seven years, respectively and lumbar spine BMD increased (+12.8% at seven years compared with baseline values. No serious adverse events were observed, including osteonecrosis of jaw, atypical femoral diaphysis fractures, or atrial fibrillation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the outcome of ALN treatment for seven years in Japanese patients with osteoporosis. ALN successfully suppressed bone turnover and increased lumbar spine BMD from the baseline value over the course of the seven-year treatment period without causing any severe adverse events.Keywords: alendronate, osteoporosis, long-term treatment, bone mineral density, bone turnover

  10. Association of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and pathogenic oral bacteria in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Michelle W; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Ram, Pavani K; LaMonte, Michael J.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Genco, Robert J.; Andrews, Christopher A.; Millen, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous findings of an association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and periodontal disease, may be partially explained by vitamin D’s antimicrobial properties. To our knowledge, no study has investigated the association between 25(OH)D and pathogenic oral bacteria, a putative cause of periodontal disease. Methods We examined the association between plasma 25(OH)D concentrations and pathogenic oral bacteria among postmenopausal women in the Buffalo Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease Study (1997–2000), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Subgingival plaque samples were assessed using immunofluorescence for the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Campylobacter rectus. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prevalent bacteria by quintile (Q) of 25(OH)D concentrations adjusting for age and body mass index. Results Of the 855 participants, 288 (34%) had deficient/inadequate (<50 nmol/L) 25(OH)D concentrations and 497 (58%) had at least one species of pathogenic bacteria. No significant association was found between 25(OH)D and presence of any of these bacteria (adjusted OR for high (Q5) compared to low (Q1) 25(OH)D=0.96; 95% CI: 0.61–1.50, p for trend=0.50). Inverse, although not statistically significant, associations were found between 25(OH)D and more than one species of pathogenic bacteria (adjusted OR for adequate compared to deficient/inadequate 25(OH)D=0.85; 95% CI: 0.60–1.19). Conclusions No association was observed between pathogenic oral bacteria and 25(OH)D concentrations in postmenopausal women. This may be due to the species of bacteria assessed, small effect size or a true absence of an association. PMID:24261910

  11. Cost-effectiveness of Pharmaceutical Interventions to Prevent Osteoporotic Fractures in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin-Won; Park, Hae-Young; Kim, Ye Jee; Moon, Seong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the cost-effectiveness of drug therapy to prevent osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with osteopenia in Korea. Methods A Markov cohort simulation was conducted for lifetime with a hypothetical cohort of postmenopausal women with osteopenia and without prior fractures. They were assumed to receive calcium/vitamin D supplements only or drug therapy (i.e., raloxifene or risedronate) along with calcium/vitamin D for 5 years. The Markov model includes fracture-specific and non-fracture specific health states (i.e. breast cancer and venous thromboembolism), and all-cause death. Published literature was used to determine the model parameters. Local data were used to estimate the baseline incidence rates of fracture in those with osteopenia and the costs associated with each health state. Results From a societal perspective, the estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for the base cases that had T-scores between -2.0 and -2.4 and began drug therapy at the age of 55, 60, or 65 years were $16,472, $6,741, and -$13,982 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, respectively. Sensitivity analyses for medication compliance, risk of death following vertebral fracture, and relaxing definition of osteopenia resulted in ICERs reached to $24,227 per QALY gained. Conclusions ICERs for the base case and sensitivity analyses remained within the World Health Organization's willingness-to-pay threshold, which is less than per-capita gross domestic product in Korea (about $25,700). Thus, we conclude that drug therapy for osteopenia would be a cost-effective intervention, and we recommend that the Korean National Health Insurance expand its coverage to include drug therapy for osteopenia. PMID:27294078

  12. Chronic effects of strength training vs. Hydro aerobics on functional and cardiorespiratory ability in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Giovanni S; Novaes, Jefferson S; Vilaça-Alves, José; Silva, Gabriel Costa E; Garrido, Nuno D; Furtado, Hélio; Reis, Victor M

    2014-09-29

    The current study aimed to compare the effects of two exercise programs (Strength Training and Hydro Gymnastics) on the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 38 volunteers (age: 66.9 ± 6.1 years, body mass: 73.70 ± 10.38 kg, and body height: 1.55 ± 0.10 m). Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group: one group performed 24 weeks of strength training (GST; n = 14), another performed 24 weeks of hydro gymnastics (GH; n = 17) and a control group (CG; n = 7), where the subjects continued with their regular daily activities without involvement in any physical exercise program. Three assessments were performed: before the beginning of the program, 12 weeks after the start of the training program and 24 weeks after the start of the program. To assess the functional ability of the participants, several tests proposed by Jones and Rikli (2002) were performed. To evaluate the cardiorespiratory ability of the participants, a modified treadmill Bruce test was applied. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found between the two training methods in the tests, which primarily demanded muscular strength. Body mass and the body mass index showed significant differences during the three stages of assessment in the GST group (p<0.05). With respect to the values that represent the variables of cardiorespiratory ability, positive and significant changes were observed in the two experimental groups. It was concluded that both exercise programs promoted improvements in some indicators of the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. PMID:25713645

  13. Chronic Effects of Strength Training Vs. Hydro Aerobics on Functional and Cardiorespiratory Ability in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaes Giovanni S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to compare the effects of two exercise programs (Strength Training and Hydro Gymnastics on the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 38 volunteers (age: 66.9 ± 6.1 years, body mass: 73.70 ± 10.38 kg, and body height: 1.55 ± 0.10 m. Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group: one group performed 24 weeks of strength training (GST; n = 14, another performed 24 weeks of hydro gymnastics (GH; n = 17 and a control group (CG; n = 7, where the subjects continued with their regular daily activities without involvement in any physical exercise program. Three assessments were performed: before the beginning of the program, 12 weeks after the start of the training program and 24 weeks after the start of the program. To assess the functional ability of the participants, several tests proposed by Jones and Rikli (2002 were performed. To evaluate the cardiorespiratory ability of the participants, a modified treadmill Bruce test was applied. Significant differences (p<0.05 were found between the two training methods in the tests, which primarily demanded muscular strength. Body mass and the body mass index showed significant differences during the three stages of assessment in the GST group (p<0.05. With respect to the values that represent the variables of cardiorespiratory ability, positive and significant changes were observed in the two experimental groups. It was concluded that both exercise programs promoted improvements in some indicators of the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women.

  14. Impact of Black seed (Nigella sativa extract on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

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    N Valizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "n  "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: "nExperimental studies have shown that Ns (Nigella sativa seeds oil can increase bone formation and may have anabolic effects on bone loss. This study was conducted to investigate the beneficial impacts of the oil of Black seeds on bone turnover in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. "nMaterials and methods: A placebo controlled pilot study was carried out on 15 postmenopausal osteoporotic women of 48-74 years old. In addition to Calcium-D supplements (2 tablets per day all participants were randomly received Ns extract (3ml, 0.05 ml/kg/day p .o. or placebo for 3 months. In all subjects hematological tests were performed and hepatic enzymes, BUN, Cr, Ca, P and plasma bone formation and resorption markers including osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (Bone-ALP and carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide (CTX was determined before and after 12 weeks of treatment. "nResults: Twelve participants completed the entire 12 weeks study course of which 5 and 7 women were belonged to Ns and placebo groups respectively. Women in placebo group were significantly older than women in Ns group. There were not significant differences between BMIs, BMD results and plasma levels of bone marker in two groups at the baseline and plasma levels of bone markers between Ns and placebo group at the end of 12 weeks. Alterations from baseline in bone markers levels did not differ significantly between two groups. We did not observe any side effects due to Ns therapy. "nConclusion: In this pilot study similar to the previous trial, we failed to show beneficial impact of Ns extract administration for a short time on bone turnover so we don’t suggest it for medicinal application in the osteoporosis condition. Long time duration studies with larger sample size and usage of a more tolerable dosage forms of Black seeds oil should be emphasized for further clarification of its useful anabolic effects on bone metabolism.

  15. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptaszkowski K

    2015-09-01

    recorded with a surface electromyographic instrument in a standing position during resting and functional PFM activity.Results: Bioelectrical activity of RA was significantly higher in the incontinent group than in the continent group. These results concern the RA activity during resting and functional PFM activity. The results for other muscles showed no significant difference in bioelectrical activity between groups.Conclusion: In women with SUI, during the isolated activation of PFM, an increased synergistic activity of RA muscle was observed; however, this activity was not observed in asymptomatic women. This may indicate the important accessory contribution of these muscles in the mechanism of continence. Keywords: pelvic floor muscles, postmenopausal period, stress urinary incontinence, surface electromyography, synergistic muscle

  16. Effect of a MAST Exercise Program on Anthropometric Parameters, Physical Fitness, and Serum Lipid Levels in Obese Postmenopausal Women

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    Trabka Bartosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine an influence of a mixed aerobic and strength training program (MAST on anthropometry, serum lipid levels, physical performance, and functional fitness in obese postmenopausal women. The MAST sessions were held three times per week, and the exercise program lasted for 10 weeks. The exercise group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake, a waist/hip ratio, and strength of the upper and lower body. An increase in LDL-C levels was observed in the control group. A 10-week MAST program encompassing Nordic-walking as an aerobic component, and strength exercises, induces positive changes in functional fitness, HDL-C, LDL-C and a waist/hip ratio in obese postmenopausal women. The observed changes implicate an increase in a health-related quality of life among the women administered to the physical exercise program

  17. Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberlin, David W.; Baley, Jill; Brady, Michael T.; Byington, Carrie L.; Davies, H. Dele; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Glode, Mary P.; Jackson, Mary Anne; Keyserling, Harry L.; Maldonado, Yvonne A.; Murray, Dennis L.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Schutze, Gordon E.; Willoughby, Rodney E.; Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Papile, Lu-Ann; Bhutani, Vinod K.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Cummings, James; Kumar, Praveen; Polin, Richard A.; Tan, Rosemarie C.; Wang, Kasper S.; Watterberg, Kristi L.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother’s previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

  18. Differences in body parameters of Pre- and Postmenopausal women and possible association with factors of cardiovascular diseases

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    K. Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body composition changes become evident in women as they pass through the transition phase of their life where their reproductive phase ends up at menopause. Women at menopause often experience redistribution of body fat particularly around the abdomen. Redistribution of body fat among postmenopausal women leads to various metabolic syndromes which lead to cardiovascular diseases even with controlled BMI. Material and Method: For the present cross-sectional study, 530 women (300 pre- and 230 postmenopausal ranging in age from 30-60 years were personally interviewed and their anthropometric and physiological parameters were measured with standardized methods. Their height, weight, waist circumference, biceps, triceps, sub scapular and suprailiac measurements were taken and blood pressure was noted down. From these values, their waist-hip ratio, waist-stature ratio, percent body fat, total body fat, pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure were calculated. Pearson’s correlation was computed to find out the association of BP with various anthropometric parameters. Results and Conclusion: Positive association of waist circumference, waist hip ratio, percent body fat and total body fat was observed with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Present observations support the notion that hormonally-induced redistribution of adipose tissue at menopause in the intra-abdominal depots in post-menopausal women might be leading to adverse changes in the metabolic profile.

  19. Use of antipsychotics and risk of venous thromboembolism in postmenopausal women. A population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Ting; Liou, Jun-Ting; Huang, Yun-Wen; Lin, Chen Wei; Wu, Gwo-Jang; Chu, Che-Li; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Wang, Yun-Han

    2016-06-01

    Despite continued uncertainty of venous thromboembolism (VTE) caused from antipsychotic agents, this safety issue has not been examined in postmenopausal women, a population with high usages of antipsychotics and at high risk for VTE. We assessed whether antipsychotic use was associated with an increased VTE risk in women after menopause. We conducted a nested case-control study of all Taiwanese women aged ≥ 50 years (n = 316,132) using a nationwide healthcare claims database between 2000 and 2011. All newly diagnosed VTE patients treated with an anticoagulant or thrombectomy surgery were identified as cases (n = 2,520) and individually matched to select controls (n = 24,223) by cohort entry date, age, cancer diagnosis and major surgery procedure. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of VTE associated with antipsychotics were estimated by multivariate conditional logistic regressions. Current use of antipsychotics was associated with a 1.90-fold (95 % CI = 1.64-2.19) increased VTE risk compared with nonuse in postmenopausal women. The VTE risk existed in a dose-dependent fashion (test for trend, p 30 days. In conclusion, current use of antipsychotics is significantly associated with a dose-dependent increased risk of VTE in postmenopausal women, especially for those currently taking high-dose or receiving parenteral antipsychotics. PMID:26941052

  20. Age-related changes in pre- and postmenopausal women investigated with 18F-fluoride PET - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the relationship between age and regional skeletal uptake at sites consisting of either predominantly trabecular or cortical bone using 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) in pre- and postmenopausal women. Thirty-two women (40.6 ± 12.3 years; age range 25-72 years) were assigned to one of two groups: group 1 comprised 22 premenopausal women (33 ± 6.5 years; age range 25-48 years) and group 2 comprised 10 postmenopausal women (56 ± 6.7 years; age range 49-72 years). The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was determined from the lumbar spine and the humeral shaft. Student's t-test for each unpaired dataset was used to evaluate statistical differences between the two groups. The SUVmax values for the humeral shaft and the lumbar spine were compared with aging. The SUVmax (mean ± SD) was 1.2 ± 0.5 in the humeral shaft and 4.7 ± 1.0 in the lumbar spine. The SUVmax in the humeral shaft correlated significantly with advancing age (r = 0.67, P 18F-fluoride PET might be a useful tool for analyzing age-related changes in pre- and postmenopausal women. (orig.)

  1. Osteoporosis and vascular calcification in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulos, C E; Kalamara, P; Konsta, M; Papaioannou, I; Papadima, E; Antoniou, Z; Andrianopoulou, A; Vlachoyiannopoulos, P G

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To estimate the correlation between osteoporosis and vascular calcification in postmenopausal women and the influence of calcium/vitamin D supplements on vascular calcification. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed including 29 women with osteoporosis (15 not taking supplements) and 18 age-matched, non-osteoporotic women. They were evaluated for cardiovascular risk factors and blood tests, lateral X-ray of lumbar spine (assessment of abdominal aorta calcification, AAC) and carotid ultrasound (increased intima media thickness (iIMT) or calcified plaques) were performed. Results In univariate analysis, osteoporotic women were 16 times more likely to develop AAC (odds ratio (OR) 15.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-135.4) and seven times more likely to develop iIMT (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.8-25.4) compared to normal individuals. The odds of developing AAC and iIMT were increased each year after menopause (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01-1.2 and OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.3, respectively) and with aging (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.1-1.47 and OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.3, respectively). Calcified plaques were significantly correlated with osteoporosis (p = 0.014). In multivariate analysis, osteoporosis was an independent risk factor for AAC (OR 13.3, 95% CI 1.3-134.4) and iIMT (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.1-19.9). Low doses of supplements did not appear to affect vascular calcification (p = 0.6). Conclusions Osteoporosis is associated with increased calcification of the abdominal aorta and carotids. Low doses of supplements do not appear to cause any increase in vascular calcification in osteoporotic women. PMID:27045323

  2. Obesity and risk of pancreatic cancer among postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative (United States)

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, J.; Margolis, K. L.; Adami, H-O; Lacroix, A.; Ye, W

    2008-01-01

    A total of 138 503 women in the Women's Health Initiative in the United States were followed (for an average of 7.7 years) through 12 September 2005 to examine obesity, especially central obesity in relation to pancreatic cancer (n=251). Women in the highest quintile of waist-to-hip ratio had 70% (95% confidence interval 10–160%) excess risk of pancreatic cancer compared with women in the lowest quintile.

  3. Risk for second primary non-breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer not treated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or endocrine therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langballe, Rikke; Olsen, Hans Jørgen; Andersson, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the risk for a second primary cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer treated by surgery alone, to assess the importance of non-treatment factors and menopausal status.......We investigated the risk for a second primary cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer treated by surgery alone, to assess the importance of non-treatment factors and menopausal status....

  4. Soy isoflavones do not affect bone resorption in postmenopausal women: A dose-response study using a novel approach with Ca-41

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, J. M. K.; Martin, B R; Jackson, G.S.; Elmore, D.; McCabe, G. P.; Nolan, J R; Barnes, S.; Peacock, M.; Weaver, C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this 3-way crossover study was to identify the effective dose of soy protein isolate enriched with isoflavones for suppressing bone resorption in postmenopausal women using a novel, rapid assessment of antibone resorbing treatments. Methods: Thirteen postmenopausal women (>= 6 yr since menopause) were predosed with Ca-41 iv. After a 200-d baseline period, subjects were given 43 g soy p...

  5. Association between Soy Isoflavone Intake and Breast Cancer Risk for Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Meinan Chen; Yanhua Rao; Yi Zheng; Shiqing Wei; Ye Li; Tong Guo; Ping Yin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conclusions drawn from meta-analyses on the association between soy isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk for pre- and post-menopausal women are not fully consistent. These meta-analyses did not explore the influence of different study designs on the pooled results on the basis of distinguishing between pre- and post-menopausal women. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis of 35 studies which reported results of association between soy isoflavone intak...

  6. Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Seo Yeon Choi; Purum Kang; Hui Su Lee; Geun Hee Seol

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS);...

  7. Association between Β3-Adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) gene polymorphism with body mass index and bone mineral density in Turkish postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Turgay İşbir2, Ayşe Can1, Özlem Kurt-Şirin1, Hülya Yılmaz-Aydoğan2 Mehmet Uyar3, Mehmet Fatih Seyhan2,

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Previous studies have suggested that β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) gene is associated with body mass index (BMI), which is an important predictor of bone mineral density (BMD). However, little is known concerning the effect of the ADRB3 gene on BMD. The present study investigated the relationship between ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism, BMI and BMD in Turkish postmenopausal women. 133 postmenopausal women (81 osteoporotic and 52 healthy control) were recruited. For the detection of ADR...

  8. PLCL1 rs7595412 variation is not associated with hip bone size variation in postmenopausal Danish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsdal Morten A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone size (BS variation is under strong genetic control and plays an important role in determining bone strength and fracture risk. Recently, a genome-wide association study identified polymorphisms associated with hip BS variation in the PLCL1 (phospholipase c-like 1 locus. Carriers of the major A allele of the most significant polymorphism, rs7595412, have around 17% larger hip BS than non-carriers. We therefore hypothesized that this polymorphism may also influence postmenopausal complications. Methods The effects of rs7595412 on hip BS, bone mineral density (BMD, vertebral fractures, serum Crosslaps and osteocalcin levels were analyzed in 1,191 postmenopausal Danish women. Results This polymorphism had no influence on hip and spine BS as well as on femur and spine BMD. Women carrying at least one copy of the A allele had lower levels of serum osteocalcin as compared with those homozygous for the G allele (p = 0.03 whereas no effect on serum Crosslaps was detected. Furthermore, women homozygous for the A allele were more affected by vertebral fractures than those carrying at least one copy of the G allele (p = 0.04. Conclusions In postmenopausal women, our results suggest that the PLCL1 rs7595412 polymorphism has no obvious effect on hip BS or BMD but may be nominally associated with increased proportion of vertebral fracture and increased levels of osteocalcin.

  9. Non-hormonal treatment of vulvo-vaginal atrophy-related symptoms in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tersigni, C; Di Simone, N; Tempestilli, E; Cianfrini, F; Russo, R; Moruzzi, M C; Amar, I D; Fiorelli, A; Scambia, G; Villa, P

    2015-01-01

    In post-menopausal period vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA)-related symptoms may seriously affect women's quality of life. Hormonal replacement therapy effectively relieves these symptoms but it is not always safe or accepted, and a non-hormonal treatment is often needed instead. Over a period of 12 weeks, we tested the effect of a twice-a-week vulvo-vaginal application of a hyaluronic acid, AC collagen, isoflavones and vitamins-based cream (Perilei Pausa) on 35 women in post-menopausal period, reporting VVA-related symptoms. After 12 weeks of treatment with Perilei Pausa a significant improvement in vaginal dryness, vulvo-vaginal itching, dyspareunia (P < 0.001), dysuria (P = 0.02), nocturia (P = 0.009) and pollakiuria (P = 0.005) was reported by the women. Colposcopical score assessing the intensity of atrophic colpitis, cervico-vaginal paleness and petechiae was also reduced (P = 0.037, P = 0.016 and P = 0.032, respectively). No significant difference in terms of maturation value of cervico-vaginal epithelium was observed. In conclusion, Perilei Pausa may represent an effective and safe alternative treatment of symptomatic VVA in post-menopausal women. PMID:25968636

  10. Inverse association of serum vitamin D in relation to carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Hao

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum vitamin D level and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT in Chinese postmenopausal women.Nine hundred and twenty six Chinese postmenopausal women without carotid artery plaque or history of cardiovascular disease were selected for analysis. Measurements of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 concentration and C-IMT were made by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and B-mode ultrasound, respectively. Trend analysis was conducted according to tertiles of C-IMT.The median serum 25(OHD3 level was 11.03 ng/mL, with an interquartile range of 8.22-14.70. A decreasing trend of serum 25(OHD3 level was accompanied by increased C-IMT tertiles (P for trend = 0.001. Correlation analysis found an inverse relationship between serum 25(OHD3 level and C-IMT (r = -0.113, P = 0.001. After adjustment for confounding factors, multiple regression analysis showed that serum 25(OHD3 level independently and negatively associated with C-IMT (Standard β = -0.112, P < 0.001. Moreover, the inverse correlation of serum 25(OHD3 with C-IMT was also found in a subgroup of women with normal glucose tolerance, blood pressure and body mass index, and without undergoing lipid-lowering therapy (standard β = -0.140, P = 0.018.Serum 25(OHD3 level was inversely correlated with C-IMT in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  11. Interaction Between Smoking and Obesity and the Risk of Developing Breast Cancer Among Postmenopausal Women: The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Juhua; Horn, Kimberly; Ockene, Judith K.; Simon, Michael S.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Tong, Elisa; Margolis, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent studies suggest that smoking increases the risk of breast cancer. However, the effect of co-occurrence of smoking and obesity on breast cancer risk remains unclear. A total of 76,628 women aged 50–79 years enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study were followed through August 14, 2009. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals...

  12. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananthi Kasinathan

    2014-04-01

    Methods: A total of 174 antenatal women of and #8804;28 weeks of gestation who had no clinical features of urinary tract infection were recruited for this study over a period of 6 months. Midstream urine sample was collected and sent for routine examination and culture-sensitivity testing. Results: Significant bacteriuria was detected in 22 (12.6% antenatal women. Of them 13 (59.1% belonged to the age group 26-30 years. Nearly half of the culture positive cases, that is 10 (45.5% were educated upto primary school and they belonged to socioeconomic status class 4. Majorities (68% were in the second trimester of pregnancy and the commonest organism isolated was E. coli. Conclusions: Undetected and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria leads to chronic drug resistant infection, hypertension, anemia, etc. in the mother and prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction etc. in the fetus. Hence it is important to do urine culture for all women during antenatal check-up. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 437-441

  13. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING THE OUTPATIENT CLINIC OF CHITWAN MEDICAL COLLEGE TEACHING HOSPITAL, CHITWAN, NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamata Sharma Neupane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infection (UTI refers to both microbial colonization of the urine and tissue invasion of any structure of the urinary tract. Pregnancy enhances the progression from asymptomatic to symptomatic bacteriuria which could lead to pyelonephritis and adverse obstetric outcomes such as prematurity, low-birth weight, and higher fetal mortality rates. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy; its causative agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. The total number of participants who finished the study was 392. The mean age of the participants was 29.76 ± 6.71(range, 21-37 years. Of the 392 urine specimens processed, 102 (26.0% showed significant bacteriuria. The commonest organism causing bacteriuria was Escherichia coli. The sensitivity pattern of the isolated organisms revealed that all were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin at very high percentage. 200 (51.5% women had more than 5 pus cells in urine specimens from which 50 (12.75% had positive cultures. Women with higher number of pus cells in urine specimen had significantly higher asymptomatic bacteriuria (p < 0.0001.In conclusion, screening of bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in Nepalese community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

  14. Relations between serum sex hormone levels and biomarkers of atherosclerosis and mineral disturbances in postmenopausal chronic haemodialysis women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kurnatowska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Both cardiovascular calcification and atherosclerosis are strong predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of our study was to assess the presence and interrelations of sex hormone profile with coronary artery calcification (CAC, atherosclerotic plaques (AP in the carotid artery and common carotid artery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT in postmenopausal chronic haemodialysis (HD women. Material and methods: CCA-IMT and presence and thickness of AP were measured with high-resolution ultrasound and CAC with multidetector computed tomography in a cross-sectional study of 22 postmenopausal HD women without any history of major cardiovascular complications. Serum mineral parameters, lipids, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were also measured. Results: The CAC was detected in 72% of examined women. Mean CAC score in HD women was 770 ±1065 Agatston units. Mean thickness of CCA-IMT was 0.94 ±0.23 mm. The women who did not develop vascular calcification had lower CCA-IMT. In women without CAC the serum level of estradiol was significantly lower than in those with detectable CAC (28.2 ±8.2 vs 61.5 ±18.4 pg/mL. There was a tendency for higher serum estradiol in HD women with atherosclerotic lesions in the common carotid artery. Strong correlations between the serum level of estradiol and, respectively CAC score, CCA-IMT and AP were observed. We did not find any significant differences between anthropometric parameters, other laboratory parameters, progesterone, testosterone and the presence of cardiovascular complications. Conclusions: The study results do not support the concept of cardiovascular protective effects of endogenous estrogens in postmenopausal chronic haemodialysis women.

  15. Relationship of Height to Site-Specific Fracture Risk in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Miranda Eg; Kirichek, Oksana; Cairns, Benjamin J; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K

    2016-04-01

    Height has been associated with increased risk of fracture of the neck of femur. However, information on the association of height with fractures at other sites is limited and conflicting. A total of 796,081 postmenopausal women, who reported on health and lifestyle factors including a history of previous fractures and osteoporosis, were followed for 8 years for incident fracture at various sites by record linkage to National Health Service hospital admission data. Adjusted relative risks of fracture at different sites per 10-cm increase in height were estimated using Cox regression. Numbers with site-specific fractures were: humerus (3036 cases), radius and/or ulna (1775), wrist (9684), neck of femur (5734), femur (not neck) (713), patella (649), tibia and/or fibula (1811), ankle (5523), and clavicle/spine/rib (2174). The risk of fracture of the neck of femur increased with increasing height (relative risk [RR] = 1.48 per 10-cm increase, 99% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-1.57) and the proportional increase in risk was significantly greater than for all other fracture sites (pheterogeneity < 0.001). For the other sites, fracture risk also increased with height (RR = 1.15 per 10 cm, CI 1.12-1.18), but there was only very weak evidence of a possible difference in risk between the sites (pheterogeneity = 0.03). In conclusion, taller women are at increased risk of fracture, especially of the neck of femur. PMID:26572496

  16. Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schoppen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2, with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Methods: In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY. Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p < 0.0001. Insulin concentrations showed a significant time effect (p < 0.0001 and a significant water x time interaction (p < 0.021. At 120 min insulin levels with BMW-1 were significantly lower than with LMW (p = 0.022. Postprandial insulin concentrations showed significantly different patterns of mineral water intake depending on HOMA n-tiles (p = 0.016. Conclusion: Results suggests an increase in insulin sensitivity after BMWs consumption. This effect is more marked in the women, who have higher HOMA values. These waters should be considered part of a healthy diet in order to prevent insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease.

  17. Impact of the PPAR gamma-2 gene polymorphisms on the metabolic state of postmenopausal women

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BOGNA GRYGIEL-GÓRNIAK; MARIA MOSOR; JUSTYNA MARCINKOWSKA; JULIUSZ PRZYSŁAWSKI; JERZY NOWAK

    2016-09-01

    The relationship Pro12Ala (rs1801282) and C1431T (rs3856806) polymorphisms of PPAR gamma-2 with glucose and lipid metabolism is not clear after menopause. We investigated the impact of the Pro12Ala and C1431T silentsubstitution in the 6th exon in PPAR gamma-2 gene on nutritional and metabolic status in 271 postmenopausal women(122 lean and 149 obese). The general linear model (GLM) approach to the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to infer the interactions between the analysed genotypes. The frequency of the Pro-T haplotype was higher in obese than in lean women ($p\\lt 0.0349$). In the analysed GLM models according to obesity status, the C1431C genotypewas related to a lower glucose concentration ($\\beta=-0.2103$) in lean women, and to higher folliculotropic hormone FSH levels ($\\beta=0.1985$) and lower waist circumferences ($\\beta=-0.1511$) in obese women. The influence of C1431C waspresent regardless of the occurrence of the Pro12Ala polymorphism. The co-existence of the C1431C and Pro12Progenotypes was related to lower values for triceps skinfold thickness compared those for the T1241/X and Ala12/X polymorphisms ($\\beta=-0.1425$). The presence of C1431C decreased the differences between triceps values that weredetermined by Pro or Ala allele. In conclusion, C1431T polymorphism seems to have a more essential influence onanthropometric and biochemical parameters than is the case with Pro12Ala polymorphism.

  18. Relationship between Lipid Profile and Bone Turnover in Pre and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Saghafi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To determine the relationship between lipid profile and bone turnover in pre and postmenopausal women."nMethods: In a cross-sectional study, 279 women referred to Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD center of endocrinology and Metabolism research center for premenopausal evaluation were assessed for serum osteoporotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor kB (NF-kB ligand (RANKL and lipid profile in biochemistry and hormone laboratory."nResults: Serum Total cholesterol had significant inverse correlation with spine L2-L4 BMD (r=-0.152, P= 0.02 and L2-L4 t-score (r=-0.151, P= 0.02. Low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol also related negatively to spine L2-L4 BMD (r=-0.184, P= 0.007, L2-L4 T score (r=-0.184, P= 0.007 and L2-L4 Z score (r=-0.134, P= 0.04.However no relation was found be­tween triglyceride and high density lipoprotein and lumbar spine BMD values. Whereas 35.5 % of women with LDL >130 had serum RANKL upper than percentile 75, this value was 18.7% among women with LDL< 130(P=0.01, Odds Ratio= 2.39, CI: 1.24-4.6. Osteoprotegerin had no such a relation with LDL. In univariate analysis LDL had a significant relation­ship with RANKL independent of age (P= 0.02."nConclusion: As RANKL is a bone marker that show bone loss, our finding may contribute to demonstrate a negative effect of LDL on bone metabolism.

  19. Influence of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) use by postmenopausal women on total hepatic perfusion and liver functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Ahmed; Nafeh, Hanan

    2009-11-01

    In this prospective longitudinal clinical trial, 87 postmenopausal women receiving for 12 consecutive months a daily dose of 40 mg of a dry extract preparation of Cimicifuga racemosa (Klimadynon) for relief of vasomotor symptoms were followed up by evaluation of total hepatic blood flow, assessed by color Doppler ultrasound, as well as prothrombin time and concentration, serum albumin, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Because no significant changes in total hepatic blood flow or any of the liver functions tested were reported, we concluded that use of C. racemosa for 1 year by healthy postmenopausal women without evidence of liver disease does not seem to influence the liver. PMID:19539907

  20. Intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements and breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, S. B.; Tjonneland, A.; Stripp, C.; Olsen, A.; Christensen, J.; Overvad, K.; Dragsted, L. O.; Thomsen, B.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The influence of the vitamins A, C, and E on breast cancer development has not been clarified. An effect of a vitamin per se implicates similar patterns for the effects of the vitamin from dietary and supplemental sources. We examined how the breast cancer incidence rate among...... postmenopausal women was related to intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements. Methods: Data was sampled as case - control nested within the Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' cohort. Data on vitamin intakes were collected at entry into the cohort by means of self-administered questionnaires. Women...... eligible for the nested case - control study were postmenopausal at entry into the cohort. The analyses were based on 418 cases of incident breast cancer and 394 controls ( including two cases). Results: Breast cancer was not significantly related to the intakes of vitamin A or E, whereas a monotonic dose...

  1. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and its Antibacterial Susceptibility Pattern Among Pregnant Women Attending the Antenatal Clinic at Kanpur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha, R.; Nawani, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Background: Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is common in pregnant women. Pregnancy enhances the progression from ASB to symptomatic bacteriuria, which if left untreated, could lead to acute pyelonephritis and other adverse outcomes such as prematurity, postpartum, hypertensive disease, anaemia, UTIs and higher foetal mortality rates.

  2. Physical activity and metabolic physiology in postmenopausal women : an evolutionary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Froehle, Andrew W.

    2011-01-01

    Humans diverge from our close relatives (chimpanzees/ bonobos) in high survivorship to menopause and decades of postmenopausal longevity. Evolutionary perspectives see the human postmenopausal lifespan as a species-typical life history trait that has evolved by selection for maintenance of physiological systems at increasingly older ages. Maintenance of body composition and low rates of metabolic and cardiovascular disease should thus characterize the early postmenopausal period, which they d...

  3. Metabolic alteration of urinary steroids in pre- and post-menopausal women, and men with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the metabolic changes in urinary steroids in pre- and post-menopausal women and men with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Quantitative steroid profiling combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure the urinary concentrations of 84 steroids in both pre- (n = 21, age: 36.95 ± 7.19 yr) and post-menopausal female (n = 19, age: 52.79 ± 7.66 yr), and male (n = 16, age: 41.88 ± 8.48 yr) patients with PTC. After comparing the quantitative data of the patients with their corresponding controls (pre-menopause women: n = 24, age: 33.21 ± 10.48 yr, post-menopause women: n = 16, age: 49.67 ± 8.94 yr, male: n = 20, age: 42.75 ± 4.22 yr), the levels of steroids in the patients were normalized to the mean concentration of the controls to exclude gender and menopausal variations. Many urinary steroids were up-regulated in all PTC patients compared to the controls. Among them, the levels of three active androgens, androstenedione, androstenediol and 16α-hydroxy DHEA, were significantly higher in the pre-menopausal women and men with PTC. The corticoid levels were increased slightly in the PTC men, while progestins were not altered in the post-menopausal PTC women. Estrogens were up-regulated in all PTC patients but 2-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol were remarkably changed in both pre-menopausal women and men with PTC. For both menopausal and gender differences, the 2-hydroxylation, 4-hydroxylation, 2-methoxylation, and 4-methoxylation of estrogens and 16α-hydroxylation of DHEA were differentiated between pre- and post-menopausal PTC women (P < 0.001). In particular, the metabolic ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone to 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol, which could reveal the enzyme activity of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, showed gender differences in PTC patients (P < 1 × 10-7). These results are expected be helpful for better understanding the pathogenic differences in PTC according to gender and menopausal conditions

  4. Relationships between endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-zhi LIU; Hong YAN; Wei-kun HOU; Peng XU; Juan TUN; Li-fang TIAN; Bo-feng ZHU; Jie MA; She-min LU

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS) G894T and 27 bp-variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) gene polymorphisms and osteoporosis in the postmenopausal women of Chinese Han nationality. Methods: In the present study, 281 postmenopausal women from Xi'an urban area in West China were recruited, and divided into osteoporosis, osteopenia, and normal groups according to the diagnostic criteria of osteoporosis proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). The bone mineral density (BMD) values of lumbar vertebrae and left hips were determined by QDR-2000 dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood samples were tested for plasma biochemical indicators including testosterone, estradiol, calcitonin, osteocalcin, and procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase by spectrophotometric method, and the content of nitric oxide by Griess method. Genome DNA was extracted from whole blood, and G894T polymorphism of eNOS gene was analyzed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and 27 bp-VNTR polymorphism of eNOS gene was genotyped by PCR method. Then the relationships between genotypes and biochemical indicators, genotypes and osteoporosis, and haplotypes and osteoporosis were analyzed. Results: The average BMD values of the femoral neck, ward's triangle and lumbar vertebrae 1~4 (L1~L4) in the subjects with T/T genotype in eNOS G894T locus were significantly higher than those in the subjects with G/T and G/G genotypes (P<0.05). The average BMD of the femoral neck in the subjects with a/a genotype of eNOS 27 bp-VNTR locus was evidently higher than that in the subjects with b/b genotype (P<0.05). The plasma testosterone and osteocalcin concentrations in the subjects of eNOS G894T G/T genotype were evidently higher than those in the subjects of other genotypes (P<0.05); the plasma estradiol

  5. Short sleep duration is associated with decreased serum leptin, increased energy intake, and decreased diet quality in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer H Stern; Grant, Andriene S.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Tinker, Lesley; Hale, Lauren; Brennan, Kathleen M.; Woods, Nancy F.; Chen, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Objective Short sleep duration induces hormonal perturbations contributing to hyperphagia, insulin resistance, and obesity. The majority of these studies are conducted in young adults. This analysis in a large (n= 769) sample of postmenopausal women (median age 63 y) sought to 1) confirm that sleep duration and sleep quality are negatively correlated with circulating leptin concentrations and 2) to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep, dietary energy intake, and diet quality, ...

  6. Effects of Combined Selective Aerobic Moderate Intensity Exercises and Soya Intake on Serum Lipids and Obesity in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    A Zarneshan

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aim: Today, the percentage of deaths due to heart diseases has increased and along with the exercise training role in reducing obesity and cardiovascular disease, soy is a useful source of food in reducing blood lipid and obesity. The present study investigated the effect of combined selective short aerobic moderate intensity exercise and soya intake on serum lipids and obesity in obese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study conducted in 2006 o...

  7. Relations between serum sex hormone levels and biomarkers of atherosclerosis and mineral disturbances in postmenopausal chronic haemodialysis women

    OpenAIRE

    Ilona Kurnatowska; Piotr Grzelak; Magdalena Kaczmarska; Ludomir Stefańczyk; Michał Nowicki

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Both cardiovascular calcification and atherosclerosis are strong predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of our study was to assess the presence and interrelations of sex hormone profile with coronary artery calcification (CAC), atherosclerotic plaques (AP) in the carotid artery and common carotid artery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT) in postmenopausal chronic haemodialysis (HD) women. Material and methods: CCA-IMT and presence and t...

  8. Pharmacologic management of bone-related complications and bone metastases in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yardley DA

    2016-01-01

    Denise A Yardley1,2 1Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: There is a high risk for bone loss and skeletal-related events, including bone metastases, in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Both the disease itself and its therapeutic treatments can negatively impact bone, resulting in decreases in bone mineral density and increases in bone loss. These negative effects on the bone can significantly ...

  9. Evaluation of MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted MRI in detecting bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To prospectively investigate the role of MR spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in assessing vertebral marrow changes in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Materials and methods: Seventy-eight postmenopausal women (mean age 63.7 ± 3.5 years; range 55-81 years), who underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of the spine, were divided into three bone density groups (24 with normal, 25 with osteopaenic, and 29 with osteoporotic) based on T score. Both MRS and DWI of the L3 vertebral body were performed to calculate the marrow fat content and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The results were compared between three groups and correlated with BMD. Results: Vertebral marrow fat content was significantly increased in the osteoporotic group (59.97 ± 5.78%), when compared with that of the osteopaenic group (53.04 ± 7.66%, p = 0.001) and the normal bone density group (48.79 ± 7.1%, p -3 mm2/s, 0.41 ± 0.02 x 10-3 mm2/s, and 0.47 ± 0.03 x 10-3 mm2/s, respectively, with statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). A statistically significant positive correlation between T scores and ADC existed (r = 0.835, p < 0.001). The vertebral marrow fat content was negatively correlated to the bone density (r = -0.639, p < 0.001) and to marrow ADC (r = -0.554, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The postmenopausal women with osteoporosis exhibited a corresponding increase in vertebral marrow fat content as the bone density decreased. Marrow fat content and ADC were related to the bone density. MRS and DWI are helpful in evaluating the bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women.

  10. Long-term effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle program: a randomized clinical trial for postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ritzwoller Debra P; Barrera Manuel; Strycker Lisa A; Glasgow Russell E; Toobert Deborah J; Weidner Gerdi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple-risk-factor interventions offer a promising means for addressing the complex interactions between lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial factors, and the social environment. This report examines the long-term effects of a multiple-risk-factor intervention. Methods Postmenopausal women (N = 279) with type 2 diabetes participated in the Mediterranean Lifestyle Program (MLP), a randomized, comprehensive lifestyle intervention study. The intervention targeted healthful eat...

  11. Long-term effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle program: a randomized clinical trial for postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Toobert, Deborah J.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Barrera, Manuel; Ritzwoller, Debra P; Weidner, Gerdi

    2007-01-01

    Background Multiple-risk-factor interventions offer a promising means for addressing the complex interactions between lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial factors, and the social environment. This report examines the long-term effects of a multiple-risk-factor intervention. Methods Postmenopausal women (N = 279) with type 2 diabetes participated in the Mediterranean Lifestyle Program (MLP), a randomized, comprehensive lifestyle intervention study. The intervention targeted healthful eating, phys...

  12. Effect of a MAST Exercise Program on Anthropometric Parameters, Physical Fitness, and Serum Lipid Levels in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Trabka Bartosz; Zubrzycki Igor Z.; Ossowski Zbigniew; Bojke Olgierd; Clarke Anna; Wiacek Magdalena; Latosik Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine an influence of a mixed aerobic and strength training program (MAST) on anthropometry, serum lipid levels, physical performance, and functional fitness in obese postmenopausal women. The MAST sessions were held three times per week, and the exercise program lasted for 10 weeks. The exercise group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake, a waist/hip ratio, and strength of the upper and lower body. An increase in LDL...

  13. Differences in Regional Brain Metabolism Associated with Specific Formulations of Hormone Therapy in Postmenopausal Women at Risk for AD

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Daniel H.S.; Geist, Cheri L.; Kenna, Heather A.; Williams, Katherine; Wroolie, Tonita; Powers, Bevin; Brooks, John; Rasgon, Natalie L.

    2010-01-01

    Differential cerebral metabolic effects of various hormone therapy formulations, and their associations with cognitive status, remain to be established. The principal aim of the current study wasto assess relationships between regional cerebral metabolism and estrogen-based hormone therapies. Postmenopausal women (n=53) at elevated risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were on estrogen-containing hormone therapy for at least one year prior to enrollment in a prospective, randomized clinical trial...

  14. Modeling the effect of levothyroxine therapy on bone mass density in postmenopausal women: a different approach leads to new inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavangar Seyed

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of osteoporosis is a national health emergency. Osteoporosis quietly progresses without symptoms until late stage complications occur. Older patients are more commonly at risk of fractures due to osteoporosis. The fracture risk increases when suppressive doses of levothyroxine are administered especially in postmenopausal women. The question is; "When should bone mass density be tested in postmenopausal women after the initiation of suppressive levothyroxine therapy?". Standard guidelines for the prevention of osteoporosis suggest that follow-up be done in 1 to 2 years. We were interested in predicting the level of bone mass density in postmenopausal women after the initiation of suppressive levothyroxine therapy with a novel approach. Methods The study used data from the literature on the influence of exogenous thyroid hormones on bone mass density. Four cubic polynomial equations were obtained by curve fitting for Ward's triangle, trochanter, spine and femoral neck. The behaviors of the models were investigated by statistical and mathematical analyses. Results There are four points of inflexion on the graphs of the first derivatives of the equations with respect to time at about 6, 5, 7 and 5 months. In other words, there is a maximum speed of bone loss around the 6th month after the start of suppressive L-thyroxine therapy in post-menopausal women. Conclusion It seems reasonable to check bone mass density at the 6th month of therapy. More research is needed to explain the cause and to confirm the clinical application of this phenomenon for osteoporosis, but such an approach can be used as a guide to future experimentation. The investigation of change over time may lead to more sophisticated decision making in a wide variety of clinical problems.

  15. Characterization of vascular disease risk in postmenopausal women and its association with cognitive performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Maritza Dowling

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: While global measures of cardiovascular (CV risk are used to guide prevention and treatment decisions, these estimates fail to account for the considerable interindividual variability in pre-clinical risk status. This study investigated heterogeneity in CV risk factor profiles and its association with demographic, genetic, and cognitive variables. METHODS: A latent profile analysis was applied to data from 727 recently postmenopausal women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS. Women were cognitively healthy, within three years of their last menstrual period, and free of current or past CV disease. Education level, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE4, ethnicity, and age were modeled as predictors of latent class membership. The association between class membership, characterizing CV risk profiles, and performance on five cognitive factors was examined. A supervised random forest algorithm with a 10-fold cross-validation estimator was used to test accuracy of CV risk classification. RESULTS: The best-fitting model generated two distinct phenotypic classes of CV risk 62% of women were "low-risk" and 38% "high-risk". Women classified as low-risk outperformed high-risk women on language and mental flexibility tasks (p = 0.008 and a global measure of cognition (p = 0.029. Women with a college degree or above were more likely to be in the low-risk class (OR = 1.595, p = 0.044. Older age and a Hispanic ethnicity increased the probability of being at high-risk (OR = 1.140, p = 0.002; OR = 2.622, p = 0.012; respectively. The prevalence rate of APOE-ε4 was higher in the high-risk class compared with rates in the low-risk class. CONCLUSION: Among recently menopausal women, significant heterogeneity in CV risk is associated with education level, age, ethnicity, and genetic indicators. The model-based latent classes were also associated with cognitive function. These differences may point to

  16. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in early postmenopausal women. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Cizza, G; Bjarnason, N H;

    1999-01-01

    Thinness (low percentage of body fat, low body mass index [BMI], or low body weight) was evaluated as a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD) or increased bone loss in a randomized trial of alendronate for prevention of osteoporosis in recently postmenopausal women with normal bone mass (n...... = 1609). The 2-year data from the placebo group were used (n = 417). Percentage of body fat, BMI, and body weight were correlated with baseline BMD (r = -0. 13 to -0.43, p < 0.01) and 2-year bone loss (r = -0.14 to -0.19, p < 0.01). Women in the lowest tertiles of percentage of body fat or BMI had up to...... 12% lower BMD at baseline and a more than 2-fold higher 2-year bone loss as compared with women in the highest tertiles (p Women with a lower percentage of body fat or BMI had higher baseline levels of urine N-telopeptide cross-links (r = -0.24 to -0.31, p < 0.0001) and serum osteocalcin...

  17. Age-related changes in pre- and postmenopausal women investigated with {sup 18}F-fluoride PET - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, Seiji; Ishibashi, Masatoshi [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Shizukuishi, Kazuya; Tateishi, Ukihide; Yoneyama, Tomohiro; Hino, Ayako; Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    To evaluate the relationship between age and regional skeletal uptake at sites consisting of either predominantly trabecular or cortical bone using {sup 18}F-fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) in pre- and postmenopausal women. Thirty-two women (40.6 {+-} 12.3 years; age range 25-72 years) were assigned to one of two groups: group 1 comprised 22 premenopausal women (33 {+-} 6.5 years; age range 25-48 years) and group 2 comprised 10 postmenopausal women (56 {+-} 6.7 years; age range 49-72 years). The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was determined from the lumbar spine and the humeral shaft. Student's t-test for each unpaired dataset was used to evaluate statistical differences between the two groups. The SUVmax values for the humeral shaft and the lumbar spine were compared with aging. The SUVmax (mean {+-} SD) was 1.2 {+-} 0.5 in the humeral shaft and 4.7 {+-} 1.0 in the lumbar spine. The SUVmax in the humeral shaft correlated significantly with advancing age (r = 0.67, P < 0.01). The SUVmax in the lumbar spine declined significantly with advancing age (r = -0.50, P < 0.01). The humeral shaft of women in group 1 exhibited a significantly lower SUVmax compared to that in group 2 (1.1 {+-} 0.4 versus 1.6 {+-} 0.6; P < 0.05). On the other hand, the lumbar spine of women in group 1 exhibited a significantly higher SUVmax compared to that in group 2 (5.1 {+-} 0.7 versus 4.0 {+-} 1.1; P < 0.05). The mean SUVmax in the lumbar spine was 2.5 times greater than that in the humeral shaft in group 2. Semiquantitative analysis with {sup 18}F-fluoride PET might be a useful tool for analyzing age-related changes in pre- and postmenopausal women. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of various screening tests to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, J; Jayaram, V S

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various screening tests in detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. Clean catch midstream urine specimens were collected from 630 consecutive pregnant women and processed. Forty-four (7.4%) of the urine samples were culture positive, with Escherichia coli as the predominant organism isolated (57.4%). The results of the four screening tests, viz., Gram's staining of uncentrifuged urine, pus cell count, nitrite test and leukocyte esterase (LE) test, were compared against urine culture. Gram's stain of the uncentrifuged urine was found to be the single most useful test with a sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of 85.1% and 98.8%, respectively. Pus cell count was the least sensitive. Neither the nitrite test nor the LE test alone was sensitive enough with 74.4% and 61.7%, respectively. However, when either or both tests positive were considered, it increased the sensitivity and NPV comparable with Gram's staining results, with 82.9% and 98.8%, respectively. With the potential to be used as an office diagnostic procedure, the combined nitrite and LE dipstick test may provide an acceptable alternative. PMID:18723963

  19. Evaluation of various screening tests to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmi J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various screening tests in detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. Clean catch midstream urine specimens were collected from 630 consecutive pregnant women and processed. Forty-four (7.4% of the urine samples were culture positive, with Escherichia coli as the predominant organism isolated (57.4%. The results of the four screening tests, viz., Gram′s staining of uncentrifuged urine, pus cell count, nitrite test and leukocyte esterase (LE test, were compared against urine culture. Gram′s stain of the uncentrifuged urine was found to be the single most useful test with a sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV of 85.1% and 98.8%, respectively. Pus cell count was the least sensitive. Neither the nitrite test nor the LE test alone was sensitive enough with 74.4% and 61.7%, respectively. However, when either or both tests positive were considered, it increased the sensitivity and NPV comparable with Gram′s staining results, with 82.9% and 98.8%, respectively. With the potential to be used as an office diagnostic procedure, the combined nitrite and LE dipstick test may provide an acceptable alternative.

  20. Predictors of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in a low-resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoleke, J O; Adanikin, A I; Ajayi, D D; Ayosanmi, O S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at identifying predictors of asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) among pregnant women in a low-resource setting, with the intent of recommending a guideline for screening during antenatal care. A total of 266 healthy pregnant women were antenatally recruited after informed consent. They had routine antenatal investigations, a 1 h 50-g oral glucose tolerance test and quantitative urine culture and sensitivity. The data collected were analysed using statistical software package SPSS v. 17. Prevalence of AB was 23 (8.6%). Escherichia coli was the commonest isolate (6, 26.1%), closely followed by Staphylococcus aureus (5, 21.7%). AB was commoner among patients aged 25-34 years, of low parity and higher education. Blood group B- rhesus-positive significantly predicts the likelihood of developing AB in pregnancy (adjusted OR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.14-0.96). We conclude that blood group B-rhesus-positive in association with other patients' characteristics, such as age 25-34 years, low parity and higher education could form guidelines for a screening algorithm in our environment. PMID:25029095

  1. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among women on their 12 to 16 weeks of pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Fernando Maldonado Cárdenas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB refers to the bacterial colonization of the urinary tract that multiply in an active way without producing any symptoms. The prevalence varies between 4 to 7% and the consequences of having this pathology are the development of pyelonephritis or may be the cause for early deliveries and low-weight babies. Objectives. To determine the AB prevalence among women in their 12 to 16 weeks of pregnancy, attending a prenatal clinic at two medical institutions in the City of Bucaramanga. Method: Transverse Study with social and demographic information, as well as GYN features and urine cultures results. Results: We included 114 patients, with a mean age of 26.0 +-6-5. 92% of them came from the city of the study.Mean gestational age was 14.7+-1.2 weeks. 50% were on their firstor second pregnancy. AB prevalence was 7.9% (95%CI 3.7–14. ABwas related to less number of pregnancies and low school grading.The most common bacterium was E. Coli (89.0%. Conclusions:Our results show a higher incidence of AB, compare to the onesreported in the medical literature. These results emphasize the factthat ordering urine culture among pregnant women, preventingpyelonephritis, is a good screening practice.

  2. Residential proximity to major roadways and incident hypertension in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Samantha L; Eliot, Melissa N; Whitsel, Eric A; Wang, Yi; Coull, Brent A; Hou, Lifang; Margolis, Helene G; Margolis, Karen L; Mu, Lina; Wu, Wen-Chih C; Johnson, Karen C; Allison, Matthew A; Manson, JoAnn E; Eaton, Charles B; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2015-10-01

    Living near major roadways has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, presumably from exposure to elevated levels of traffic-related air and/or noise pollution. This association may potentially be mediated through increased risk of incident hypertension, but results from prior studies are equivocal. Using Cox proportional hazards models we examined residential proximity to major roadways and incident hypertension among 38,360 participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Clinical Trial cohorts free of hypertension at enrollment and followed for a median of 7.9 years. Adjusting for participant demographics and lifestyle, trial participation, and markers of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status, the hazard ratios for incident hypertension were 1.13 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.28), 1.03 (0.95, 1.11), 1.05 (0.99, 1.11), and 1.05 (1.00, 1.10) for participants living ≤50, >50-200, >200-400, and >400-1000 m vs >1000 m from the nearest major roadway, respectively (ptrend=0.013). This association varied substantially by WHI study region with hazard ratios for women living ≤50 m from a major roadway of 1.61 (1.18, 2.20) in the West, 1.51 (1.22, 1.87) in the Northeast, 0.89 (0.70, 1.14) in the South, and 0.94 (0.75, 1.19) in the Midwest. In this large, national cohort of post-menopausal women, residential proximity to major roadways was associated with incident hypertension in selected regions of the U.S. If causal, these results suggest residential proximity to major roadways, as a marker for air, noise and other traffic-related pollution, may be a risk factor for hypertension. PMID:26282224

  3. UVB radiation and its role in the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenbach, A.; Sedlmeyer, Annette; Unkelbach, Uwe

    In humans, the serum concentration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is higher in winter than in summer. The increase of PTH can be suppressed by oral vitamin D supplements, which is considered beneficial to those with osteoporosis. The present study investigates whether this effect can also be achieved by serial ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the skin. In total, 34 women suffering from postmenopausal osteoporosis were included in the open trial. In late winter, 20 patients were irradiated with a spectrum containing UVB, eight times over a period of 4 weeks. The serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], PTH, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (AP), calcium and phosphorus were measured before the first, and 2 days after the last, dose of radiation. The data were compared to the controls (n=14, no UV exposure), who were evaluated once at the start of the study and then again 4 weeks later. After UV irradiation the level of 25(OH)D was increased, whilst that of PTH remained unchanged. The serum level of osteocalcin decreased in the control group, but did not change in the group of women who had been exposed to UV radiation. The present study of osteoporotic women does not confirm previous findings in studies of healthy volunteers i.e. that PTH can be suppressed by exposure to UVB radiation in winter. Further studies are required to specify whether there are subgroups of osteoporotic people who may benefit from exposure to UVB radiation during winter.

  4. The relationship of total body composition with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Valer'evich Klimontov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AimTo determine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and total body composition in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.Materials and MethodsThe study included 78 women, from 50 to 70 years of age (median 63 years. Twenty women had normal body mass index (BMI, 29 ones were overweight and 29 had obesity. The body composition and BMD was studied by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.ResultsWomen with normal BMD had higher BMI, total and truncal fat mass, as well lean mass as compared to women with osteoporosis and osteopenia (all p <0.05. Patients with osteoporosis had a lower fat mass at the hips, compared with those with normal BMD. Total and truncal fat mass, as well as lean mass were positively correlated with BMD in the lumbar spine and proximal femur, femoral neck and radius. In multivariate regression analysis fat mass was an independent predictor for total BMD, after adjusting for age, BMI, duration of menopause, HbA1c, glomerular filtration rate and other total body composition parameters.ConclusionsIn postmenopausal type 2 diabetic women BMI and fat mass is associated positively with BMD.

  5. Strong effect of SNP rs4988300 of the LRP5 gene on bone phenotype of Caucasian postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Péter; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János P; Tóbiás, Bálint; Szili, Balázs; Kirschner, Gyöngyi; Győri, Gabriella; Kató, Karina; Lakatos, Péter; Takács, István

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of the Wnt pathway and bone mineral density (BMD) of postmenopausal women. We chose this pathway due to its importance in bone metabolism that was underlined in several studies. DNA samples of 932 Hungarian postmenopausal women were studied. First, their BMD values at different sites (spine, total hip) were measured, using a Lunar Prodigy DXA scanner. Thereafter, T-score values and the patients' body mass indices (BMIs) were calculated, while information about the fracture history of the sample population was also collected. We genotyped nine SNPs of the following three genes: LRP5, GPR177, and SP7, using a Sequenom MassARRAY Analyzer 4 instrument. The genomic DNA samples used for genotyping were extracted from the buccal mucosa of the subjects. Statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS 21 and R package. The results of this analysis showed a significant association between SNP rs4988300 of the LRP5 gene and total hip BMD values. We could not reveal any associations between the markers of GPR177, SP7, and bone phenotypes. We found no effect of these genotypes on fracture risk. We could demonstrate a significant gene-gene interaction between two SNPs of LRP5 (rs4988300 and rs634008, p = 0.009) which was lost after Bonferroni correction. We could firmly demonstrate a significant association between rs4988300 of the LRP5 gene and bone density of the hip on the largest homogeneous postmenopausal study group analyzed to date. Our finding corroborates the relationship between LRP5 genotype and bone phenotype in postmenopausal women, however, the complete mechanism of this relationship requires further investigations. PMID:25762437

  6. Association between urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite and breast cancer risk: a prospective, case-cohort study of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmi; Taylor, Jack A; Milne, Ginger L; Sandler, Dale P

    2013-06-01

    Overweight or obese women are at increased risk of developing and dying from breast cancer. Obesity-driven inflammation may stimulate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-mediated aromatase activation and estrogen biosynthesis in breast tissues. We hypothesized that increased production of PGE2 would contribute to elevated breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. We carried out a case-cohort study with 307 incident breast cancer cases and 300 subcohort members from the Sister Study cohort. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the association between urinary levels of a major PGE2 metabolite (PGE-M) and breast cancer risk using Prentice's pseudo-likelihood approach. Several lifestyle factors were associated with urinary levels of PGE-M: smoking, high-saturated fat diet, and obesity increased urinary PGE-M, and use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) decreased urinary PGE-M. Although there was no association between urinary PGE-M and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the overall analysis or among regular users of NSAIDs, there was a positive association among postmenopausal women who did not regularly use NSAIDs with HRs of 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-4.3]; 2.0 (95% CI: 1.0-3.9); and 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-4.3) for the second, third, and highest quartiles of PGE-M. Our findings suggest a link between systemic PGE2 formation and postmenopausal breast cancer, and a possible modification of the association by lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions. If confirmed in larger studies, these results may have useful implications for the development of preventive strategies. PMID:23636050

  7. Weight, height, body mass index and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdaninia Mariam

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women in Iran have a relatively high body mass index. To investigate whether the condition contributes to excess breast cancer cases, a case-control study was conducted to assess the relationships between anthropometric variables and breast cancer risk in Tehran, Iran. Methods All incident cases of breast cancer in the Iranian Centre for Breast Cancer (ICBC were identified through the case records. Eligible cases were all postmenopausal women with histological confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer during 1996 to year 2000. Controls were randomly selected postmenopausal women attending the ICBC for clinical breast examination during the same period. The body mass index (BMI was calculated based on weights and heights as measured by the ICBC nursing staff. Both tests for trend and logistic regression analysis were performed to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals as measures of relative risk. Results In all, 116 breast cancer cases and 116 controls were studied. There were no significant differences between cases and control with regard to most independent variables studied. However, a significant difference was observed between cases and controls indicating that the mean BMI was higher in cases as compared to controls (P = 0.004. Performing logistic regression analysis while controlling for age, age at menopause, family history of breast cancer and parity, the results showed that women with a BMI in the obese range had a three fold increased risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR = 3.21, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.15–8.47]. Conclusion The results suggest that obesity in postmenopausal women could increase risk of breast cancer and it merits further investigation in populations such as Iran where it seems that many women are short in height, and have a relatively high body mass index.

  8. Acute Response of PGC-1α and IGF-1 Isoforms to Maximal Eccentric Exercise in Skeletal Muscle of Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Kiwata, Jacqueline L; Tuzon, Creighton T; Spektor, Tanya M; Sattler, Fred R; Rice, Judd C; Schroeder, Edward Todd

    2016-04-01

    Dieli-Conwright, CM, Kiwata, JL, Tuzon, C, Spektor, TM, Sattler, FR, Rice, JC, and Schroeder, ET. Acute response of PGC-1α and IGF-1 isoforms to maximal eccentric exercise in skeletal muscle of postmenopausal women. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 1161-1170, 2016-PGC-1α4, a novel isoform of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α, was recently postulated to modulate the expression of anabolic and catabolic genes and therefore regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Resting levels of PGC-1α4 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were found to increase in healthy adults after resistance training. However, the acute effect of resistance exercise (RE) on PGC-1α4 expression in populations prone to progressive muscle loss, such as postmenopausal women, has not been evaluated. Here, we investigated alterations in mRNA expression of PGC-1α4 and PGC-1α1, a regulator of muscle oxidative changes, in postmenopausal women after high-intensity eccentric RE and analyzed these findings with respect to changes in insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and catabolic gene expression. Nine postmenopausal women (age, 57.9 ± 3.2 years) performed 10 sets of 10 maximal eccentric repetitions of single-leg extension with 20-second rest periods between sets. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of the exercised leg before and 4 hours after the RE bout with mRNA expression determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. No significant changes in the mRNA expression of either PGC-1α isoform were observed after acute eccentric RE (p > 0.05). IGF-1Ea mRNA expression significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05), whereas IGF-1Eb and mechano-growth factor (MGF) did not significantly change (p > 0.05). PGC-1α4 mRNA expression was associated with reduced mRNA expression of the catabolic gene myostatin (R = -0.88, p < 0.01), whereas MGF mRNA expression was associated with reduced mRNA expression of the catabolic gene FOXO3A (R = -0.81, p ≤ 0.05). These data demonstrate an

  9. Maternal Whole Blood Gene Expression at 18 and 28 Weeks of Gestation Associated with Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Asymptomatic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Craig E.; McDonald, Sheila W.; Vinturache, Angela E.; Xu, Jingxiong; Lee, Mary W. F.; Briollais, Laurent; Lyon, Andrew W.; Slater, Donna M.; Bocking, Alan D.; de Koning, Lawrence; Olson, David M.; Dolan, Siobhan M.; Tough, Suzanne C.; Lye, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity of spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) requires an interdisciplinary approach to determine potential predictive risk factors of early delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal whole blood gene expression profiles associated with spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB, <37 weeks) in asymptomatic pregnant women. The study population was a matched subgroup of women (51 SPTBs, 114 term delivery controls) who participated in the All Our Babies community based cohort in Calgary (n = 1878). Maternal blood at 17–23 (sampling time point 1, T1) and 27–33 weeks of gestation (T2) were collected. Total RNA was extracted and microarray was performed on 326 samples (165 women). Univariate analyses determined significant clinical factors and differential gene expression associated with SPTB. Thirteen genes were validated using qRT-PCR. Three multivariate logistic models were constructed to identify gene expression at T1 (Model A), T2 (Model B), and gene expression fold change from T1 to T2 (Model C) associated with SPTB. All models were adjusted for clinical factors. Model C can predict SPTB with 65% sensitivity and 88% specificity in asymptomatic women after adjusting for history of abortion and anaemia (occurring before T2). Clinical data enhanced the sensitivity of the Models to predict SPTB. In conclusion, clinical factors and whole blood gene expression are associated with SPTB in asymptomatic women. An effective screening tool for SPTB during pregnancy would enable targeted preventive approaches and personalised antenatal care. PMID:27333071

  10. Pattern of microbial isolates and microbial sensitivity among HIV positive pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria in Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteruria in pregnancy is a common condition affecting pregnant women because of both anatomical and physiological changes in pregnancy. This condition appears to be commoner in people living with HIV because of the added immunosuppression caused by the virus. Aim: The study was to identify the pattern of microbial isolates and microbial sensitivity among HIV positive pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria in Zaria, Nigeria. Methods: This was a prospective cross sectional study among symptom-free HIV positive pregnant women attending the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT antenatal clinic in Zaria, Nigeria between 1st March and 31st August 2011. A structured, closeended questionnaire was administered and mid-stream urine samples were obtained and processed within 2 hours of collection in the laboratory. Results: A total of 220 consenting, asymptomatic, HIV positive pregnant women were screened for bacteriuria out of the 240 eligible women who were approached to participate in the study. Sixteen (16 women were positive for significant bacteriuria, giving a prevalence of 7.3%. A total of six (6 different isolates were isolated with Staphylococcus aureus (8 making 50%, E. Coli (4 18.8%, Klebsiella spp (2 12.5%, Streptococcus spp (2 12.5% and Proteus spp (1 6.2%. All the isolated organisms were sensitive to gentamycin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: This study found Staphylococcus aureus as the most common organism isolated in the urine of asymptomatic patients with HIV infection in pregnancy. The isolated organisms were sensitive to gentamycin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxaxin and nitrofurantoin.

  11. Associations of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake with Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

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    Margaret Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was analyzed from 6 cohorts (Fall 1995–Fall 1997 of postmenopausal women (n=266; 56.6±4.7 years participating in the Bone Estrogen Strength Training (BEST study (a 12-month, block-randomized, clinical trial. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at femur neck and trochanter, lumbar spine (L2–L4, and total body BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs intakes were assessed using 8 days of diet records. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between dietary PUFAs and BMD. Covariates included in the models were total energy intake, body weight at year 1, years after menopause, exercise, use of hormone therapy (HT, total calcium, and total iron intakes. In the total sample, lumbar spine and total body BMD had significant negative associations with dietary PUFA intake at P<0.05. In the non-HT group, no significant associations between dietary PUFA intake and BMD were seen. In the HT group, significant inverse associations with dietary PUFA intake were seen in the spine, total body, and Ward’s triangle BMD, suggesting that HT may influence PUFA associations with BMD. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00000399.

  12. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Kadir, Azidah; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohammad; Mohd, Dayang Marshitah; Wan Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin; Hassan, Intan Idiana; Shukor, Norlela; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol) were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9 mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo). Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280 mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG) values. PMID:22701504

  13. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azidah Abdul Kadir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9 mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo. Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280 mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG values.

  14. A Structured Assessment to Decrease the Amount of Inconclusive Endometrial Biopsies in Women with Postmenopausal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, N. C. M.; van Hanegem, N.; van der Wurff, A. A.; Opmeer, B. C.; van Doorn, H. C.; Mol, B. W. J.; Pijnenborg, J. M. A.; Timmermans, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether structured assessment of outpatient endometrial biopsies decreases the number of inconclusive samples. Design. Retrospective cohort study. Setting. Single hospital pathology laboratory. Population. Endometrial biopsy samples of 66 women with postmenopausal bleeding, collected during the usual diagnostic work-up and assessed as insufficient for a reliable histological diagnosis. Methods. Endometrial biopsy samples were requested from the pathology laboratories. The retrieved samples were systematically reassessed by a single pathologist specialized in gynecology. Main Outcome Measure. Disagreement between initial assessment and conclusion after structured reassessment. Results. We retrieved 36 of 66 endometrial biopsy samples from six different pathology laboratories. Structured reassessment of the retrieved samples by a single pathologist specialized in gynecology did not change the conclusion in 35 of the 36 samples. The remaining sample contained a large amount of endometrial tissue and the diagnosis at reassessment was endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All other samples contained insufficient material for a reliable diagnosis. Conclusion. A structured reassessment of endometrial biopsies samples, which were classified as inconclusive due to insufficient material, did not change the conclusion. Although it might be helpful for pathologists to have diagnostic criteria for adequacy and/or inadequacy of an endometrial biopsy sample, the gain in efficiency is likely to be small. PMID:27034826

  15. A Structured Assessment to Decrease the Amount of Inconclusive Endometrial Biopsies in Women with Postmenopausal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Breijer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether structured assessment of outpatient endometrial biopsies decreases the number of inconclusive samples. Design. Retrospective cohort study. Setting. Single hospital pathology laboratory. Population. Endometrial biopsy samples of 66 women with postmenopausal bleeding, collected during the usual diagnostic work-up and assessed as insufficient for a reliable histological diagnosis. Methods. Endometrial biopsy samples were requested from the pathology laboratories. The retrieved samples were systematically reassessed by a single pathologist specialized in gynecology. Main Outcome Measure. Disagreement between initial assessment and conclusion after structured reassessment. Results. We retrieved 36 of 66 endometrial biopsy samples from six different pathology laboratories. Structured reassessment of the retrieved samples by a single pathologist specialized in gynecology did not change the conclusion in 35 of the 36 samples. The remaining sample contained a large amount of endometrial tissue and the diagnosis at reassessment was endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All other samples contained insufficient material for a reliable diagnosis. Conclusion. A structured reassessment of endometrial biopsies samples, which were classified as inconclusive due to insufficient material, did not change the conclusion. Although it might be helpful for pathologists to have diagnostic criteria for adequacy and/or inadequacy of an endometrial biopsy sample, the gain in efficiency is likely to be small.

  16. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in postmenopausal women and relationship with pain and HRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Victor Ricardo Manuel Muñoz; Canales, Giancarlo De la Torre; Gonçalves, Leticia Machado; Meloto, Carolina Beraldo; Barbosa, Celia Marisa Rizzatti

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is higher in females, reaching their high peak during reproductive years, probably because of the action of some female hormones, which alter pain threshold. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of TMD in postmenopausal women and its relationship with pain and hormone replacement therapy (HRT). In total, 284 patients were evaluated and classified using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Pain was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and patients were also asked about the use of HRT. All data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square test. In total, 155 subjects did not have TMD and 129 had TMD; TMD group patients were classified according to RDC/TMD axis I classification as follows: muscle disorder group (1.6%), disk displacement group (72.87%), and arthralgia, osteoarthritis, and osteoarthrosis group (37.98%). Pain was registered in 35 patients who belonged to the TMD group, while 48 patients reported the use of HRT. There was a similar percentage of TMD and non TMD patients; moreover, the use of exogenous hormones was no associated with TMD, suggesting that there is no influence on the pain threshold. PMID:27556676

  17. Diabetes, metformin and incidence of and death from invasive cancer in postmenopausal women: Results from the women's health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhihong; Aragaki, Aaron K; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Manson, JoAnn E; Rohan, Thomas E; Chen, Chu; Vitolins, Mara Z; Tinker, Lesley F; LeBlanc, Erin S; Kuller, Lewis H; Hou, Lifang; LaMonte, Michael J; Luo, Juhua; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2016-04-15

    Findings from studies of metformin use with risk of cancer incidence and outcome provide mixed results; with few studies examined associations by recency of diabetes diagnosis or duration of medication use. Thus, in the Women's Health Initiative, we examined these associations and further explored whether associations differ by recency of diabetes and duration of metformin use. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals. Diabetes was associated with higher risk of total invasive cancer (HR, 1.13; p cancers (HR, 1.2-1.4, and up to over twofold). Diabetes was also associated with higher risk of death from cancer (HR, 1.46; p cancer incidence by diabetes therapy (p = 0.66). However, there was a lower risk of death from cancer for metformin users, compared to users of other medications, relative to women without diabetes, overall (HRs, 1.08 vs. 1.45; p = 0.007) and for breast cancer (HRs, 0.50 vs. 1.29; p = 0.05). Results also suggested that lower cancer risk associated with metformin may be evident only for a longer duration of use in certain cancer sites or subgroup populations. We provide further evidence that postmenopausal women with diabetes are at higher risk of invasive cancer and cancer death. Metformin users, particularly long-term users, may be at lower risk of developing certain cancers and dying from cancer, compared to users of other anti-diabetes medications. Future studies are needed to determine the long-term effect of metformin in cancer risk and survival from cancer. PMID:26616262

  18. Status of carcinoma cervix and high risk HPV 16 DNA in women with postmenopausal uterine bleeding (PMB

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    Veena Kashyap

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB is a discharge that occurs following the firm diagnosis of menopause, which is at least six months from the end of women’s menstrual cycle but not to be confused with infrequent or irregular periods occurring around the time of menopause. It is a common problem representing 5% of all gynecology outpatient attendances which are to eliminate endometrial cancer as the cause of bleed and PMB should be reported urgently to the gynecologist. Uterine bleeding in postmenopausal women is highly indicative clinically of malignancy originating from cervix or endometrium and Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the causative agent for carcinoma cervix. Incidence of carcinoma cervix increases with the age in mature women, however, incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV infection reduces as menopause sets in. The presence of the virus could be used as an early indication of disease potential. Because the Pap test can only detect clinical evidence of cervical disease, molecular-based diagnostic tools are being used more frequently to detect the virus before abnormal cell growth can be observed. This study was aimed to determine the status of cervical cancer and HPV 16 DNA positivity in relation to postmenopausal bleeding.

  19. Training Self-Administered Acupressure Exercise among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritic Knee Pain: A Feasibility Study and Lessons Learned

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    Yan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoarthritis (OA is more prevalent in women, particularly after menopausal age. Women are more likely to seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM approaches. We examined the feasibility of training self-administered acupressure exercise and assessed its impact on OA symptoms among women with knee OA. Methods. Thirty-six eligible postmenopausal women were randomly assigned in the acupressure exercise group (n=15 or the control group (n=21 for 12 weeks. Feasibility outcomes (e.g., compliance and adverse effects and clinical outcomes (e.g., pain, stiffness, and physical function were assessed. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Both per-protocol and intention-to-treat analysis were employed. Results. The training materials were well received. The feedback from participants suggests that self-administered acupressure exercise is easy to learn and safe to perform at home, although no statistically significant results of the clinical outcome were observed. Our findings didn’t reveal superiority or inferiority of acupressure compared with usual care. Conclusion. Acupressure exercise is feasible to be trained among postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis. Due to the limitations of this study such as small sample size and high attrition rate, acupressure’s efficacy needs to be further explored in larger scale studies with more rigorous design.

  20. Chosen risk factors for osteoporosis and the level of knowledge about the disease in peri- and postmenopausal women

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    Mariola Janiszewska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Osteoporosis as a chronic disease, affecting especially women in postmenopausal age, is an important, social and economic health problem especially of women of today’s world. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge of women in the peri- and postmenopausal period about the prevention of osteoporosis and show the influence of chosen risk factors on the level of this knowledge. Material and methods : A group of 300 women aged 45-65, being patients of healthcare centres in Chełm, Lublin and Zamość (Lublin voivodeship, south-eastern Poland were included in the study. The purposive sampling was used. Osteoporosis Knowledge Test (OKT 2011 was the research tool. Gathered material was subjected to descriptive and statistical analysis. Tukey’s test, t-student test and variance analysis (ANOVA were all applied. An accepted p materiality level was < 0.05 and p < 0.01. Results : Respondents presented the average level of knowledge about the role of physical activity in the prevention of osteoporosis (M = 13.93 and a low level of knowledge about well-balanced diet rich in calcium (M = 9.77. The knowledge about risk factors, screening and treatment remained on the average level (M = 8.00. An influence of socio-demographic factors on the level of knowledge was shown. Also some behaviours, associated with the lifestyle indeed influenced the level of this knowledge. Conclusions : Professional educational programs on osteoporosis should be implemented in the population of Polish peri- and postmenopausal women.

  1. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet E.; Wyman, A; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L.; Hooven, Frederick H.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; March, Lyn; Coen Netelenbos, J.; Nieves, Jeri W.; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G.; Siris, Ethel S.; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B.; Anderson, Frederick A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years following weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years following weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years following weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is seen as early as 1 year following weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. PMID:26861139

  2. NON-INVASIVE RISK FACTORS OF NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN PRE AND POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN OF VADODARA: A PILOT STUDY

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    Pooja Gaur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a predominant cause of deaths for women worldwide. Earlier post-menopausal women were thought to be at higher risk for chronic degenerative diseases, as protective effect of oestrogen is lost after menopause. Whereas in the last decade, alarming trends for these diseases are seen among women in their child bearing age. Hence the aim of the study was to assess non-invasive risk factors of noncommunicable diseases among adult females with a focus on menopause. For this purpose, 408 females were screened and after excluding cases of peri-menopause, under-nutrition, pregnancy and hysterectomy, based on consent detailed non-invasive risk analysis was performed on 131 female subjects. The results revealed that the prevalence of selfreported history of hypertension and diabetes was around 21% and 11% respectively. About 75% of the subjects were overweight or obese according to Asia Pacific Classification. Post-menopausal women had significantly high prevalence of high body fat per cent (OR 6.52, 95%CI 1.32-62.3 and high blood pressure (OR 4.4 95%CI 2.1-9.3. Mean waist circumference, waist hip ratio, waist stature ratio, body fat and systolic blood pressure were above the normal cut-offs depicting presence of risks in both the groups. A trend of high per capita consumption of oil, salt and sugar at household level was seen. The frequency of practice of regular health check-up and awareness regarding selfbreast examination was very low among the subjects. The study indicates high prevalence of non-communicable disease risks among both pre and post-menopausal women, emphasizing the need to create awareness among young female population to adapt healthy lifestyle practices.

  3. Nutritional education in the primary prevention of osteoporosis in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women

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    Joanna Woźniak-Holecka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis affects millions of people in the whole world and brings about far-reaching physical and psycho-social consequences for patients and financial ones for the health care system, and therefore it is classified as one of public health problems and treated as a social disease. Women belong to the increased osteoporosis illness risk group due to lower top bone mass reached earlier in life as compared to men and due to hormonal changes occurring in the menopausal period, which affect loss of the bone mineral density (BMD. Limitation of the osteoporosis-related financial and social costs increase requires efficient preventive actions on the level of early, primary, secondary or tertiary prevention. At all the four osteoporosis prevention phases, the crucial role is played by health education and nutrition education, the latter being the key element of the former one. The nutritional education purpose is to acquaint patients with nutrition recommendations that are the basic element of the osteoporosis prevention and to make them change their nutrition habits, which will improve their osseous metabolism. The education should be based on results of the latest scientific researches and focus on recommendations relating to proper supplementing of calcium and vitamin D, simultaneously including all the other nutrition components, necessary to decrease the osteoporosis risk. The primary prevention oriented to a specific group at risk for osteoporosis, including peri- or postmenopausal women, should be provided in cooperation with the different levels’ medical professionals and it should focus on causing positive changes in patients both as regards nutrition habits and physical activities.

  4. Salivary bone turnover markers in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women: daily and seasonal rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Gretel G; Gonzales Chaves, Macarena M S; Fajardo, Maria A; Ponce, Graciela M; Toyos, Gloria I; Lifshitz, Fima; Friedman, Silvia M; Zeni, Susana N

    2012-04-01

    No studies had investigated circadian and circannual rhythms of bone biomarkers in whole saliva. We evaluated the salivary daily and seasonal rhythm of carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP). Forty clinical and oral healthy ambulatory pre- and postmenopausal women from two southern Argentine cities: Comodoro Rivadavia (latitude 45º S) and Ushuaia (latitude 54º S) were included in the study. CTX levels were evaluated in serum, urine, and saliva, and b-ALP levels were measured in serum and saliva. In both groups of women, salivary CTX showed a maximum percentage of change early in the morning (80%) and a minimum in the late afternoon (45%), similarly to the pattern observed in urinary samples. No daily rhythm was observed in serum or salivary b-ALP. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels decreased in winter vs. summer (p < 0.01) without differences between the two studied groups. Conversely, parathormone reached higher levels in winter (p < 0.05) which induced a slight non-significant increment in salivary CTX and b-ALP levels. The results showed that, as in serum and urinary samples, salivary CTX exhibits daily and a slight seasonal rhythmicity. Whole non-stimulated saliva is a useful tool to detect several oral and systemic diseases because it has important advantages compared to serum and urinary samples. Then, it may also be a promising sample to test changes in bone metabolism contributing to diagnose and to monitor the therapy of several metabolic bone diseases. PMID:21431857

  5. Susceptibility variants for waist size in relation to abdominal, visceral, and hepatic adiposity in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Unhee; Ernst, Thomas; Wilkens, Lynne R; Albright, Cheryl L; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Buchthal, Steven D; Novotny, Rachel; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chang, Linda; Cheng, Iona; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants that can contribute specifically to the risk of abdominal adiposity, as measured by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. However, it is unknown whether these genetic risk factors affect relative body fat distribution in the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous compartments. The association between imaging-based abdominal fat mass and waist-size risk variants in the FTO, LEPR, LYPLAL1, MSRA, NRXN3, and TFAP2B genes was investigated. A cross-sectional sample of 60 women was selected among study participants of The Multiethnic Cohort, who were aged 60 to 65 years, of European or Japanese descent, and with a body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) between 18.5 and 40. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to measure adiposity. After adjustments for age, ethnicity, and total fat mass, the FTO variants showed an association with less abdominal subcutaneous fat and a higher visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio, with the variant rs9941349 showing significant associations most consistently (P=0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Similarly, the LEPR rs1137101 variant was associated with less subcutaneous fat (P=0.01) and a greater visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (P=0.03) and percent liver fat (P=0.007). MSRA rs545854 variant carriers had a lower percent of leg fat. Our findings provide initial evidence that some of the genetic risk factors identified for larger waist size might also contribute to disproportionately greater intra-abdominal and liver fat distribution in postmenopausal women. If replicated, these genetic variants can be incorporated with other biomarkers to predict high-risk body fat distribution. PMID:22889634

  6. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and periodontal disease in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Amy E.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Swanson, Mya; Andrews, Christopher A.; Kluczynski, Melissa A.; Genco, Robert J.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties that, together with its influence on bone health, may confer periodontal benefit. Methods We investigated cross-sectional associations (1997–2000) between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] and periodontal measure among 920 postmenopausal women. Chronic measures of disease were defined based on: 1) alveolar crestal height (ACH) measures from intraoral radiographs and tooth loss, and the 2) Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) criteria using measures of clinical attachment level (CAL) and probing pocket depth (PD). Acute oral inflammation was assessed by the % of gingival sites that bled upon assessment with a probe. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for periodontal disease among participants with adequate ([25(OH)D]≥50 nmol/L) compared to deficient/inadequate ([25(OH)D]<50 nmol/L) vitamin D status adjusted for age, dental visit frequency, and body mass index. Results No association was observed between vitamin D status and periodontal disease defined by ACH and tooth loss (adjusted OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.68–1.35). In contrast, women with adequate compared to deficient/inadequate vitamin D status had a 33% lower odds (95% CI: 5%–53%) of periodontal disease defined using the CDC/AAP definition and a 42% lower odds (95% CI: 21%-58%) of having ≥50% of gingival sites that bled. Conclusion Vitamin D status was inversely associated with gingival bleeding, an acute measure of oral health and inflammation and inversely associated with clinical categories of chronic periodontal disease that incorporated PD, an indicator of oral inflammation. However, vitamin D was not associated with chronic periodontal disease based on measures of ACH in combination with tooth loss. PMID:23259413

  7. Risk factors for osteoporosis in urban Iranian postmenopausal women (A center based study

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    Afsane Keramat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is recognized as a major healthcare problem in elders. Data on prevalence and risk factors of osteoporosis in developing countries is sparse. In this study we aim to define the risk factors of osteoporosis in a selected group of postmenopausal women in Tehran. Methods: This is a case-control, interview based study that was conducted in a popular public hospital (Shariati in Tehran during period 2002-2003. The sample sizes included 272 post menopausal women (136 case and 136 controls in the same age group. The case group were identified as osteoporotic patients based on WHO definition in spine and/or total femoral region interest using DEXA method and Lunar DPX machine. A self made questionnaire was used for data collection. It included some information on demographic, obstetrical and menstrual factors, medical and drug history, nutritional status, physical activity and life style. Risk factors for osteoporosis were calculated by adjusted odds ratios using multiple logistic regressions. Results: The significant (P 5 years (2.4, Parity >3, lactation >3 years, steroid therapy (3.6, Bone and joint disorders (2.34 teeth problems (2.30, education < 12 schooling yrs (2.6 and red meat consumption ≥ 4 times/w (2.1.Regular consumption of milk ≥ 3/w (0.4, cheese ≥ 30g/d (0.5, chicken (0.4, fish (0.3 and honey (0.42 appeared to be significant protective factors. Calcium supplementation (0.3, regular walking (0.4 and sunshine exposure (0.4 also reduced the risk significantly. Conclusion: Osteoporosis, in this study, appears to be associated with several risk factors. The association of environmental factors like diet, exercise and sunshine exposure with osteoporosis indicates need of more studies in this area and also the direction for elders, health strategies for osteoporosis prevention in Iran.

  8. Clinical and community risk models of incident tooth loss in postmenopausal women from the Buffalo Osteo Perio Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bole, Christopher; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Hovey, Kathleen; Genco, Robert J.; Hausmann, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Objectives While risk factors for tooth loss in adults have been identified, limited studies describing factors associated with incident tooth loss in postmenopausal women exist. This study assessed both clinical and non-clinical risk factors for incident tooth loss. Methods Postmenopausal women (N= 1,341) were recruited between 1997–2000 from 1847 eligible Observational Study participants of the Buffalo, NY center of the Women’s Health Initiative who had complete dental examinations to assess alveolar bone height, soft tissue attachment and general oral health, and completed questionnaires concerning demographics, general health, lifestyle and oral health (72.6% participation rate). Five years later (2002–2005), 1021 women (76.1%) repeated these examinations and questionnaires. Incident tooth loss was determined by oral examination Results After an average 5.1 years of follow-up (SD, 0.38), a total of 323 teeth were lost in 293 women, resulting in 28.7% of women with incident loss of at least one tooth. In multivariable models, diabetes history, gum disease history, smoking, previous tooth loss, BMI and plaque index, baseline clinical measures including alveolar crestal height (ACH) (OR=1.22 per mm loss, 95% CI 1.11, 1.35), clinical attachment loss (CAL) (OR=1.13 per mm loss, 95% CI 1.05, 1.23) and pocket depth (PD) (OR=1.26 per mm loss, 95% CI 1.13, 1.41) were significant risk factors of incident tooth loss. In a community model that included no clinical measures, diabetes history (OR=2.45, 95% CI 1.26, 4.77), prior gum disease (OR=1.97, 95% CI 1.43, 2.70), ever smoking (OR=1.42, 95% CI 1,06, 1.89), number of teeth lost at baseline (OR=1.05 per tooth, 95% CI 1.02, 1.08) and BMI (OR=1.15 per 5 km/m2 increase, 95% CI 1.01, 1.33) were associated with an increased risk of incident tooth loss. Conclusions Clinical and questionnaire based models were found to provide similar risk estimates for incident tooth loss in postmenopausal women. These models identified

  9. Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy is associated with comparable outcomes to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in post-menopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, David M.; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; Roshan ePrabhu; Ruth eO'Regan; Amelia eZelnak; Carolina eFasola; Donna eMister; Torres, Mylin A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We compared outcomes in post-menopausal estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NAHT) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT).Methods: We retrospectively identified post-menopausal women who received either NAHT or NACT for non-metastatic, non-inflammatory, ER+, Her2neu negative breast cancer from 2004 to 2011. We compared long-term rates of locoregional relapse free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis free survival (DMFS), ...

  10. Neoadjuvant Hormonal Therapy is Associated with Comparable Outcomes to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Post-Menopausal Women with Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, David M.; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; Prabhu, Roshan; O’Regan, Ruth; Zelnak, Amelia; Fasola, Carolina; Mister, Donna; Torres, Mylin A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We compared outcomes in post-menopausal estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NAHT) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Methods: We retrospectively identified post-menopausal women who received either NAHT or NACT for non-metastatic, non-inflammatory, ER+, Her2neu negative breast cancer from 2004 to 2011. We compared long-term rates of locoregional relapse free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis free survival (DMFS),...

  11. Effects of high and low volume of strength training on muscle strength, muscle volume and lipid profile in postmenopausal women

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    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lipid profile are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, especially in postmenopausal woman who have been associated with age-related loss of muscle mass. The beneficial role of aerobic exercise in the prevention of CVD has been well documented. However, the effect of strength training has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes of lipoprotein levels after 12 weeks of different volumes of strength training and its correlation with strength and muscle volume in postmenopausal women. The participants were randomized into three groups: low volume (LVST; n = 12, 1 set and high volume of strength training (HVST; n = 11, 3 sets, or control group (n = 12. Training groups performed 12 weeks of supervised strength exercises, 15 maximum repetitions, five times a week, 20 minutes for LVST and 40 minutes for HVST for each training session. Measurements included body composition, strength and muscle volume, as well as blood analysis (glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein pre- and post-training. The HVST and LVST improved the one-repetition maximum knee extension strength (p < 0.001, maximal dynamic strength (p < 0.001, and muscle volume (p = 0.048. Post-training triglyceride was lower in HVST when compared to LVST and the control group (p = 0.047. Even though they present the same neuromuscular and morphological adaptations in postmenopausal women, the HVST is more effective than LVST in improving the lipid profile of postmenopausal woman, and can be considered as an ideal program of intervention to reverse changes in lipid metabolism commonly found in this group.

  12. Time course of arthralgia among women initiating aromatase inhibitor therapy and a postmenopausal comparison group in a prospective cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Liana D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Mayer, Ingrid A.; Saville, Benjamin R.; Alvarez, JoAnn; Boomershine, Chad S.; Abramson, Vandana G.; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Friedman, Debra L.; Cella, David F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND More than 80,000 postmenopausal breast cancer patients in the US each year are estimated to begin a five-year course of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) to prevent recurrence. AI-related arthralgia (joint pain and/or stiffness) may contribute to nonadherence, but longitudinal data are needed on arthralgia risk factors, trajectories, and background in postmenopause. OBJECTIVES To describe one-year arthralgia trajectories and baseline covariates among AI patients and a postmenopausal comparison group. METHODS Patients initiating AIs (n=91) were surveyed at the time of AI initiation and at six repeated assessments over one year. A comparison group of postmenopausal women without breast cancer (n=177) completed concomitantly-timed surveys. Numeric rating scales (0–10) were used to measure pain in eight joint pair groups (bilateral fingers, wrists, elbows, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles, and toes). Poisson regression models were used to analyze arthralgia trajectories and risk factors. RESULTS By week six, the AI-initiating group had more severe arthralgia than did the comparison group (ratio of means=1.8, (95% CI 1.2–2.7, p=0.002), adjusting for baseline characteristics. Arthralgia then worsened further over a year in the AI group. Menopausal symptom severity and existing joint-related comorbidity at baseline among women initiating AI were associated with more severe longitudinal arthralgia. CONCLUSIONS Patients initiating AI should be told about the timing of arthralgia over the first year of therapy, and advised that it does not appear to resolve over the course of a year. Menopausal symptoms and joint-related comorbidity at AI initiation can help identify patients at risk for developing AI-related arthralgia. PMID:23575918

  13. Assessment of Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease Using Heart Rate Variability in Postmenopausal Women: A Comparative Study between Urban and Rural Indian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mirajkar, Amrit M.; Shailaja Moodithaya; Harsha Halahalli; Nikhil Narayanaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women. A major determinant of cardiovascular health is the status of autonomic nervous system and assessment of Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Heart Rate Variability is a noninvasive and sensitive technique to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic control. Reduced HRV is an independent risk factor for the development of heart disease. This study evaluated the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases using HRV...

  14. Effects of Combined Selective Aerobic Moderate Intensity Exercises and Soya Intake on Serum Lipids and Obesity in Obese Postmenopausal Women

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    A Zarneshan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Today, the percentage of deaths due to heart diseases has increased and along with the exercise training role in reducing obesity and cardiovascular disease, soy is a useful source of food in reducing blood lipid and obesity. The present study investigated the effect of combined selective short aerobic moderate intensity exercise and soya intake on serum lipids and obesity in obese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study conducted in 2006 on women of Urmia, Iran, 56 obese postmenopausal women were selected and randomly divided into four groups of 14 subjects as follow: exercise-soya, exercise, soya, and control group. Pre- and post protocol blood samples were collected and the level of TG (Triglyceride, tCho (Total Cholesterol, LDL-C (Low density lipoprotein, HDL-C (high density lipoprotein were measured. Exercise training within the range of 60-70% maximum heart rate (MHR was performed for 60 minutes, 3 sessions per week. The subjects of soya group and exercise-soya group had a 100 gram soya nut intake daily for 10 weeks. After The training course, blood samples were taken from the subjects. The collected data was analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: Having soya along with exercise had significant impact on reduction of TG, tCho, LDL-C means (p<0.05. Body mass index and waist to hip ratio decreased significantly in exercise-soya group after 10 weeks (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, aerobic moderate intensity exercise along with soya intake, decrease obesity and serum lipids in obese postmenopausal women.

  15. Even mildly elevated TSH is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in postmenopausal women with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Houfa; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Chenggang; Zhao, Meng; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Bingchang; Wang, Yong; Ban, Bo; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Postmenopausal women, a population with increased risk of atherosclerosis, also have an appreciable risk of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). The current study sought an association between serum thyrotropin (TSH), the biomarker of SCH and atherosclerosis lipid profile changes. A total of 45 postmenopausal women with SCH and 27 healthy women matched by age and body mass index were enrolled in this observational study. Serum lipid profiles and thyroid function were assessed. Compared with healthy controls, the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-c and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in SCH were increased by ~22.8%, 29.6%, 30.5% and 23.2%, respectively. TSH was positively correlated with TC, LDL-c and oxLDL in all of the study subjects after adjusting for age and BMI. In particular, the positive correlation remained significant after adjusting for serum FT3 and FT4. When further stratified by TSH levels, both the subgroup of mildly elevated TSH (4.78-9.99 mU/L) and overtly elevated TSH (>10.00 mU/L) exhibited significantly higher serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-c and oxLDL compared to the normal TSH subgroup. Path analysis revealed that the total effects of TSH on TC (total effectsTC,TSH = 0.4323) included a significant direct effect (direct effectTC,TSH = 0.4932) and an indirect effect via an intermediary variable (FT3, FT4). Furthermore, TC exhibited a direct effect on LDL-c, as did LDL-c on oxLDL. In conclusion, even with a mild elevation of serum TSH, SCH is associated with atherogenic lipid profiles in postmenopausal women independent of thyroid hormones. PMID:24679183

  16. Protective effects of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus against hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized mice as a model of postmenopausal women.

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    Noriko Kanaya

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM, Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX mice (a model of postmenopausal women. OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6, were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women.

  17. Evaluation of postural balance in postmenopausal women and its relationship with bone mineral density- a cross sectional study

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    Cangussu Luciana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low bone mineral density (BMD and falls are common problems encountered in the postmenopausal women. The purpose was to evaluate the association between postural balance and BMD in postmenopausal women and its relation to risk for falls. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 225 women in amenorrhea > 12 months and age ≥ 45 years were included and divided, according to BMD, in T-score values > -2.0 SD (n = 140 and ≤ -2 SD (n = 85. Those with neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, history of vestibulopathies, uncorrected visual deficit or drug use that could affect balance were excluded. History of falls (last 24 months, clinical and anthropometric characteristics were evaluated. Postural balance was assessed by stabilometry (force platform. For statistical analysis were used Wilcoxon's Test, Chi-Square Test and logistic regression method for fall risk (Odds Ratio-OR. Results Patients with BMD > -2.0 SD were younger, with shorter time since menopause, and showed higher BMI as compared to those with low BMD (≤ -2 SD (p 0.05 for stabilometric parameters. Risk for falls increased with age (OR 1.07; CI 95% 1.01-1.13, current smoking (OR 2.19; CI 95% 1.22-3.21 and corrected visual deficit (OR 9.06; CI 95% 1.14-4.09. In contrast, hormone therapy (HT use was significantly associated with reduced risk for falls (OR 0.48; CI 95% 0.26-0.88. Conclusions In postmenopausal women, BMD did not show association with postural balance or risk for falls. Age, smoking and corrected visual deficit were clinical indicators of risk for falls whereas HT use showed to be a protective factor.

  18. Frequency of development of bacterial vaginitis in symptomatic and asymptomatic women of reproductive age, aged 18 – 45 years old

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    M Ioannidou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to investigate the frequency of development of bacterial vaginitis (BV in women of reproductive age, aged 18 to 45 years old. Those women undertook a microbiological examination of vaginal secretion either in the context of preventive control or because of the appearance of clinical symptoms.Material and method: A microbiological test of vaginal secretion was done in 500 women of reproductive age, aged 18 to 45 years old. Those women came for examination, either in the context of preventive control or because they had disturbing symptoms in the genital area. The following factors were recorded: age, existence of clinical symptoms such as itching, burning, excessive vaginal secretion, pain, as well as history of vaginitis. During the sample intake, the presence of pathological secretion, rush or pain were recorded. The diagnosis of bacterial vaginitis was based on the Amsel’s criteria.Results: Out of the 500 women of reproductive age, BV was detected to 145 (29% and 33% of them were asymptomatic. 86,2% of the women reported excessive smelly vaginal secretion. Furthermore, 95,8% of women were found with excessive vaginal secretion and last but not least in 73% of women, pain was detected. History of vaginitis was reported by the 83,3% of women with BV.Conclusion: It can be argued that BV was detected in a great number of women of reproductive age. The high percentages of asymptomatic women with BV, as well as the serious complications, and the fact that BV constitutes a predisposition factor for infection with HIV, impose the application of preventive laboratory control in order to avoid bacterial vaginitis.

  19. Longitudinal association of hemostatic factors with risk for cancers of the breast, colorectum, and lung among postmenopausal women.

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    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Salazar, Christian R; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Lane, Dorothy S; Rohan, Thomas E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether hemostatic factors associated with coagulation and inflammation pathways are associated with cancer risk in postmenopausal women. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative study to examine the association of plasma fibrinogen levels, factor VII antigen activity, and factor VII concentration measured at baseline and during follow-up with the risk for cancers of the breast, colorectum, and lung. Among 5287 women who were followed up for a median of 11.4 years, 275 cases of breast cancer, 102 cases of colorectal cancer, and 90 cases of lung cancer were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of hemostatic factors with each cancer. Hemostatic factors were not associated with breast cancer in either baseline or longitudinal analyses. Baseline hemostatic factors showed weak associations with colorectal cancer; however, no association was seen in longitudinal analyses. Fibrinogen was positively associated with lung cancer in both baseline and longitudinal analyses; the association was seen only in never and former smokers, not in current smokers. We found no evidence of an association between hemostatic factors and breast or colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women. The positive association of fibrinogen levels with lung cancer requires confirmation in larger studies. PMID:26317383

  20. The effect of a high-protein, high-sodium diet on calcium and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women stratified by hormone replacement therapy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, M.; Bennett, T.; Jakobsen, Jette; Ovesen, L.; Brot, C.; Flynn, A.; Cashman, K. D.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of a high-sodium, high-protein diet on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women ( aged 49 - 60 y) stratified by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a crossover trial, 18 women (n = 8 HRT users (+HRT) and n = 10 nonusers (-HRT)) were...

  1. Prevalence of carotid artery calcification in postmenopausal women and its correlation with atherogenic risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Santosh R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of carotid artery calcification (CAC) in postmenopausal females on panoramic radiographs and to study the correlation of CAC with possible risk factors such as hypertension, osteoporosis, and hypercholesterolemia, among others. Materials and Methods: Totally, 1214 panoramic radiographs of postmenopausal females attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology were examined for the presence of CAC. The subjects were also ...

  2. Manifestations of somatic disturbances in early postmenopause in women after physiological and surgical menopause

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    Ninčić Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The most common secondary manifestations of menopause are clinical manifestations of estrogen deficiency. They could be early and late. The aim of this study was to compare manifestations of somatic disturbances in early postmenopause in women after physiological and surgical menopause. Methods. This prospective study included 60 women, age 41-55 years, divided into two groups: physiological (30 of them and surgically induced menopause. For every subject a special evidence list, consisting of the disease history questions, physical and gynecology examination as well as dates about physiological variables (arterial tension, height, weight, and body-mass index and laboratory examination was formed. The values of arterial blood pressure, body height, body mass, body mass index (BMI, and lipid status were determined and gynecological examinations were performed in each patient. Results. The most frequent symptoms in both groups were vasomotor ones. Headache was the more intensive sign in the group after induced menopause. Extra systolic heart excursion was a common symptom in both study groups. Arterial tension, regardless of the type of menopause, was in the physiological range. The frequent organic signs of menopause, more intensive in the group after induced menopause, were genitourinary and skin atrophy. An analysis of the BMI showed that the women in both groups were obese (BMI > 25. The lipids analysis confirmed the predomination of hyperlipoproteinemia type IIa in the group with physiologic menopause and type IIb after induced menopause. Conclusion. The dominant signs of menopausal syndrome were vasomotor and bone-joint symptoms, more frequent in the group after induced menopause. There were no statistically significant differences between the study groups according to the genitourinary atrophy and other signs of aging. Menopausal hormonal changes, regardless of the way of menopause developing, increase the risk for

  3. Associations between immune function and air pollution among postmenopausal women living in the Puget Sound airshed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lori A.

    Air pollution is associated with adverse health outcomes, and changes in the immune system may be intermediate steps between exposure and a clinically relevant adverse health outcome. We analyzed the associations between three different types of measures of air pollution exposure and five biomarkers of immune function among 115 overweight and obese postmenopausal women whose immunity was assessed as part of a year-long moderate exercise intervention trial. For air pollution metrics, we assessed: (1) residential proximity to major roads (freeways, major arterials and truck routes), (2) fine particulate matter(PM2.5) at the nearest monitor to the residence averaged over three time windows (3-days, 30-days and 60-days), and (3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) modeled based on land use characteristics. Our immune biomarkers included three measures of inflammation---C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and interleukin-6---and two measures of cellular immunity---natural killer cell cytotoxicity and T lymphocyte proliferation. We hypothesized that living near a major road, increased exposure to PM2.5 and increased exposure to NO2 would each be independently associated with increased inflammation and decreased immune function. We observed a 21% lower average natural killer cell cytotoxicity among women living within 150 meters of a major arterial road compared to other women. For PM2.5 , we observed changes in 3 of 4 indicators of lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by anti-CD3---an antibody to the T cell receptor associated with increases in 3-day averaged PM2.5. For 30-day averaged PM 2.5 and 60-day averaged PM2.5 we did not observe any statistically significant associations. We observed an increase in lymphocyte proliferation index stimulated by the plant protein phytohemagglutinin (PHA) at 1 of 2 PHA concentrations in association with modeled NO2. For the three inflammatory markers, we observed no notable associations with any of our measures of air pollution. If confirmed, our

  4. A STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA AND THEIR ANTIBIOGRAM PATTERN AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu; Nithyalakshmi; Sumathi; Swapna

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is common in pregnancy, if left untreated it may lead to adverse maternal and fetal complications like abortion, premature delivery and low birth weight. Early diagnosis and treatment have reduced the risk of pyelonephritis in pregnant women with ASB from 20-30% to 2-4% Increasing Resistance trends of uropathogens to commonly prescribed first line antibiotics has posed a great threat with limited therapeutic options. AIMS & OBJECT...

  5. In vivo efficacy of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of asymptomatic parasitaemia in pregnant women in Machinga District, Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Gutman, Julie; Mwandama, Dyson; Wiegand, Ryan E.; Abdallah, Joseph; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C.; Shi, Ya Ping; Mathanga, Don P.; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) might be compromised by high prevalence of resistance-associated Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) mutations. As a proxy for IPTp-SP effectiveness, the in vivo efficacy of SP to clear parasitaemia and prevent reinfection in asymptomatic parasitaemic pregnant women in an area with high SP resistance prevalence wa...

  6. Effect of 6-months of physical exercise on the nitrate/nitrite levels in hypertensive postmenopausal women

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    Moraes Camila

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidences have showed that the incidence of arterial hypertension is greater in postmenopausal women as compared to premenopausal. Physical inactivity has been implicated as a major contributor to weight gain and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women and the incidence of cardiovascular disease increases dramatically after menopause. Additionally, more women than men die each year of coronary heart disease and are twice as likely as men to die within the first year after a heart attack. A healthy lifestyle has been strongly associated with the regular physical activity and evidences have shown that physically active subjects have more longevity with reduction of morbidity and mortality. Nitric oxide (NO produced by endothelial cells has been implicated in this beneficial effect with improvement of vascular relaxing and reduction in blood pressure in both laboratory animals and human. Although the effect of exercise training in the human cardiovascular system has been largely studied, the majority of these studies were predominantly conducted in men or young volunteers. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of 6 months of dynamic exercise training (ET on blood pressure and plasma nitrate/nitrite concentration (NOx- in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Methods Eleven volunteers were submitted to the ET consisting in 3 days a week, each session of 60 minutes during 6 months at moderate intensity (50% of heart rate reserve. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, NOx- concentration were measured at initial time and after ET. Results A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values was seen after ET which was accompanied by markedly increase of NOx- levels (basal: 10 ± 0.9; ET: 16 ± 2 μM. Total cholesterol was significantly reduced (basal: 220 ± 38 and ET: 178 ± 22 mg/dl, whereas triglycerides levels were not modified after ET (basal: 141 ± 89 and ET: 147 ± 8 mg

  7. THE EFFECT OF NEBIVOLOL ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH MILD HYPERTENSION

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    I. L. Tepoyan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effects of nebivolol on bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women with mild hypertension (HT and osteopenia.Material and methods. Postmenopausal women (n=56 aged 50-65 years with mild HT фтв osteopenia were included into the randomized controlled study and divided in two groups (28 patients in each. During 12 months patients of the main group received treatment with nebivolol (5-7.5 mg/day and patients of the control group received treatment with atenolol (12.5-25 mg/day. Clinical and anthropometric examinations, blood pressure measurements, ECG registrations were performed in all patients initially and after 12 months of treatment. Quantitative estimation of BMD was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry with osteodensitometry DELPHI W manufactured by HOLOGIC company (USA in the lumbar spine (L1-L4, femoral neck and proximal femur in the anterior-posterior projection. In addition, calcium and bone metabolism indices were determined: ionized calcium, total alkaline phosphatase, C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX.Results. Therapy of mild HT with nebivolol during 12 months showed increase in BMD in the spine according to the T-test from -1.7±0.4 SD to -1.4±0.53 SD (p<0.001, while in atenolol group this index decreased from -1.5±0.7 SD to -1.6±0.64 SD (p<0.001. When evaluating T-test of the femoral neck the index changed in the main group from - 1.4±0.44 SD to -1.27±0.5 SD (p=0.015, in the control group - from -1.3±0.64 SD to -1.5±0.65 SD (p=0.0005. In the study group T-test of proximal femur changed from -0.58±0.4 SD to -0.49±0.4 SD (p=0.003, and in the control group - from -0.8±0.84 SD to -0.83±0.93 SD (p=0.3. The dynamics of the BMD due to 12 month therapy in all investigated bone segments distinguished significantly between study and control groups. Nebivolol therapy group showed reduction in CTX level from 0.367±0.16 to 0.294±0.12 ng/ml (p<0.001, whereas the control group showed increase in

  8. Switching to Letrozole Versus Continued Tamoxifen Therapy in Treatment of Postmenopausal Women with Early Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamoxifen has been the mainstay of breast cancer therapy. Over time, resistance to tamoxifen may develop. The aromatase inhibitors have proven to be a powerful drug for use in hormone-sensitive early breast cancer. The switching strategy was designed to combine the apparent superior efficacy of aromatase inhibitors with tamoxifen favourable effects. Methods: This study was performed on 120 postmenopausal women with histologically confirmed, hormone receptor-positive, operable invasive breast carcinoma who remained free of disease after 2 years of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. They were randomized to receive either letrozole 2.5 mg/day (60 patients) or to continue 20 mg/day tamoxifen for 5 years (60 patients). Results: The treatment groups were well balanced in terms of age, tumor size, nodal status, oestrogen and progesterone receptor status, and previous surgery. The disease recurred in 10 patients in the group receiving tamoxifen and 3 patients in the same group switched to letrozole. There were 8 deaths in the group receiving tamoxifen and 3 deaths in the group of patients who switched to letrozole. Disease-free survival was higher in the group of patients who switched to letrozole compared to the group of patients who received tamoxifen (p=0.04), while the overall survival was not statistically significantly different in the two groups. Letrozole was associated with a significantly lower rate of vaginal bleeding and thromboembolic events. However, bone fractures and adverse cardiovascular events were more frequent in the arm receiving letrozole than in the arm receiving tamoxifen but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Switching to letrozole after 2 years of tamoxifen may be better than continuing five years of tamoxifen therapy as regard efficacy and tolerability. Further study is recommended on a larger group of patients to verify this finding

  9. Association of adipokines and estradiol with bone and carotid calcifications in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Värri, M; Niskanen, L; Tuomainen, Tp; Honkanen, R; Kröger, H; Tuppurainen, M T

    2016-04-01

    Objectives Carotid artery calcifications (CAC) and high carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) by unknown mechanisms in postmenopausal women. Leptin, adiponectin and estradiol may mediate these associations. Our aim was to study the relationships of the aforementioned factors to bone health (BMD) and carotid atherosclerosis (CAC and cIMT). Method Participants (n = 290, mean age 73.6 years) for this cross-sectional OSTPRE-BBA study (Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention - Bone, Brain and Atherosclerosis) were randomly selected from the OSTPRE cohort in 2009. Femoral neck and total body BMDs, trunk and total body fat mass were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and cIMT (mm) and CAC (no/yes) were measured with B-type ultrasound. Free estradiol, adiponectin and leptin were measured from serum samples. Results Circulating estradiol levels were associated with leptin (β = 0.131, p  0.05), when adjusted for total body fat mass. There were no associations between estradiol tertiles and BMDs, or with cIMT or CAC. Adiponectin levels were inversely associated with femoral neck BMD (p = 0.019, β = -0.138) and total body BMD (p = 0.009, β = -0.142), adjusted for total body fat mass, age, current smoking and estradiol, but showed no relationship with CAC or cIMT. Leptin levels were not associated with BMDs or cIMT; but the odds ratio was 1.5 between the CAC and leptin quartiles (p = 0.014), adjusted for total body fat mass, age, statin use and calcium intake. Conclusion The adipokines are associated with vascular calcification and low BMD. Moreover, estradiol was not independently associated with BMD or CAC. PMID:26849745

  10. Genetic Analysis of High Bone Mass Cases from the BARCOS Cohort of Spanish Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urreizti, Roser; Civit, Sergi; Cols, Neus; García-Giralt, Natàlia; Yoskovitz, Guy; Aranguren, Alvaro; Malouf, Jorge; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Río, Luís Del; Güerri, Roberto; Nogués, Xavier; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Grinberg, Daniel; Balcells, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the study were to establish the prevalence of high bone mass (HBM) in a cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women (BARCOS) and to assess the contribution of LRP5 and DKK1 mutations and of common bone mineral density (BMD) variants to a HBM phenotype. Furthermore, we describe the expression of several osteoblast-specific and Wnt-pathway genes in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases. A 0.6% of individuals (10/1600) displayed Z-scores in the HBM range (sum Z-score >4). While no mutation in the relevant exons of LRP5 was detected, a rare missense change in DKK1 was found (p.Y74F), which cosegregated with the phenotype in a small pedigree. Fifty-five BMD SNPs from Estrada et al. [NatGenet 44:491-501,2012] were genotyped in the HBM cases to obtain risk scores for each individual. In this small group of samples, Z-scores were found inversely related to risk scores, suggestive of a polygenic etiology. There was a single exception, which may be explained by a rare penetrant genetic variant, counterbalancing the additive effect of the risk alleles. The expression analysis in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases and five controls suggested that IL6R, DLX3, TWIST1 and PPARG are negatively related to Z-score. One HBM case presented with high levels of RUNX2, while the other displayed very low SOX6. In conclusion, we provide evidence of lack of LRP5 mutations and of a putative HBM-causing mutation in DKK1. Additionally, we present SNP genotyping and expression results that suggest additive effects of several genes for HBM. PMID:24736728

  11. Effects of yogic practice in certain cardio respiratory parameters on overweight postmenopausal women

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    Ram Kishore

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of yogic practice in some cardiovascular and respiratory parameters of overweight females after menopause. Background: Non pharmacological management of cardiorespiratory efficiency on overweight postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2 and < 30 kg/m2 females after menopause (age 53.7 ± 1.04, Mean ± SEM were participated in a 03 weeks of yoga program for 06 days a week for 1 hour daily. Blood pressure and heart rate was recorded using Omron BP monitor. Rate pressure product and double product was measured using standard formula. Respiratory rate and breath – hold time was recorded using standard protocol. Paired t-test was performed to find out any significant different between the data collected before and after yogic practice. Results: A significant decrement was noted in body weight (p<0.01 and body mass index (p<0.05 following yogic practice. Systolic (p< 0.001 and mean (p< 0.01 blood pressure was decreased significantly after yogic practice. RPP an index of myocardial oxygen consumption and double product an index of load on the heart was decreased significantly (p<0.001 following yogic practice. Resting heart rate and Respiratory rate was decreased significantly (p<0.001 following yogic practice. Breath-hold time was increased significantly (p<0.001 following yogic practice. Conclusions: This particular yogic package when practiced 03 weeks 06 days a week for 01 hour daily is beneficial for cardiovascular improvements of overweight females after menopause. In addition to that same package is also beneficial for the improvement of respiratory rate and breath – hold time. Apart from that, study is limited within a small no of subjects without any control group, which remains to be studied.

  12. Evaluation of dietary patterns among Norwegian postmenopausal women using plasma carotenoids as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Marianne S; Veierød, Marit B; Sakhi, Amrit K; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske; Andersen, Lene F

    2015-02-28

    A number of studies have examined dietary patterns in various populations. However, to study to what extent such patterns capture meaningful differences in consumption of foods is of interest. In the present study, we identified important dietary patterns in Norwegian postmenopausal women (age 50-69 years, n 361), and evaluated these patterns by examining their associations with plasma carotenoids. Diet was assessed by a 253-item FFQ. These 253 food items were categorised into forty-six food groups, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. We used the partial correlation coefficient (r(adj)) and multiple linear regression analysis to examine the associations between the dietary patterns and the plasma carotenoids α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin. Overall, four dietary patterns were identified: the 'Western'; 'Vegetarian'; 'Continental'; 'High-protein'. The 'Western' dietary pattern scores were significantly inversely correlated with plasma lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and total carotenoids (-0·25 ≤ r(adj) ≤ -0·13). The 'Vegetarian' dietary pattern scores were significantly positively correlated with all the plasma carotenoids (0·15 ≤ r(adj) ≤ 0·24). The 'Continental' dietary pattern scores were significantly inversely correlated with plasma lutein and α-carotene (r(adj) = -0·13). No significant association between the 'High-protein' dietary pattern scores and the plasma carotenoids was found. In conclusion, the healthy dietary pattern, the 'Vegetarian' pattern, is associated with a more favourable profile of the plasma carotenoids than our unhealthy dietary patterns, the 'Western' and 'Continental' patterns. PMID:25622727

  13. Intraindividual variation in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D measures 5 years apart among postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jennifer E.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Andrews, Christopher A; LaMonte, Michael J.; Horst, Ronald L.; Genco, Robert J.; Millen, Amy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Current literature examining associations between vitamin D and chronic disease generally use a single assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), assuming an individual’s 25(OH)D concentration is consistent over time. Methods We investigated the intraindividual variability between two measures of plasma 25(OH)D concentrations collected ~5 years apart (1997-2000 to 2002-2005) in 672 postmenopausal women participating in the Women’s Health Initiative. Plasma 25(OH)D was assessed using the DiaSorin LIAISON® chemiluminescence immunoassay. The within-pair coefficient of variation (CV) was 4.9% using blinded quality control samples. Mean and standard deviations (SD) of 25(OH)D at the two time points were compared using a paired t-test. An intraindividual CV and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to assess intraindividual variability. A Spearman correlation coefficient (r) assessed the strength of the association between the two measures and concordance in vitamin D status at two time points Results Mean 25(OH)D concentrations (nmol/L) significantly increased over time from 60.0 (SD=22.2) to 67.8 (SD=22.2) (p<0.05). The CV was 24.6%, the ICC (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) was 0.59 (0.54-0.64), and the Spearman r was 0.61 (95% CI=0.56-0.66). Greater concordance over 5 years was observed in participants with sufficient compared to deficient or inadequate baseline 25(OH)D concentrations (weighted kappa=0.39). Reliability measures were moderately influenced by season of blood draw and vitamin D supplement use. Conclusion There is moderate intraindividual variation in 25(OH)D concentrations over approximately 5 years. Impact These data support the use of a one-time measure of blood 25(OH)D in prospective studies with ≤ 5 years of follow-up. PMID:22523182

  14. Association of morning illumination and window covering with mood and sleep among post-menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOUNGSTEDT, Shawn D; LEUNG, Amy; KRIPKE, Daniel F; LANGER, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The antidepressant and sleep-promoting effects of light exposure might be useful for treating age-related mood and sleep disorders. In view of recent evidence suggesting beneficial effects of morning light, this study examined the associations of mood and sleep with morning light exposure, 24 h environmental illumination, and the degree to which the volunteers’ bedroom windows were covered in the morning. We examined 459 postmenopausal women participating an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative conducted at the University of California, San Diego Clinical Center, San Diego, CA, USA. At baseline, volunteers completed a 4-week sleep-recall questionnaire. Volunteers were then assessed for 5–7 days in their home environments with actigraphic wrist monitors. During home recording, self-reported mood was assessed. Morning illumination during the first 4 h after arising, 24-h illumination mesor (cosine-fitted mean), and illumination acrophase (cosine-fitted peak time) were calculated. Sleep was scored each night using validated wrist actigraphic methods. A sleep diary was completed each morning. During two 24-h periods, urine was collected approximately every 2 h during wakefulness and following any voidings during the sleep period. Cosine-fitting established the acrophase of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) excretion. Morning illumination and 24-h illumination were modestly associated with better mood and sleep. Associations of light with mood and sleep were consistently greater for subjects whose body clocks were delayed relative to the group median. Less morning window covering in the subjects’ bedrooms was associated with more morning light and less depressed mood. The results suggest that both morning and 24-h light exposure may be beneficial for older adults. PMID:25374475

  15. Concentrations of isoflavones in plasma and urine of post-menopausal women chronically ingesting high quantities of soy isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathey, J; Lamothe, V; Coxam, V; Potier, M; Sauvant, P; Bennetau-Pelissero, C

    2006-06-01

    Soy food or food supplements based on soy containing isoflavones (Isos) are increasingly available in Western countries. However, the variability of Isos levels in urine and plasma in humans during chronic ingestion is poorly documented. Nevertheless, this is the way these compounds will most probably be used in the future, especially if the soy-based supplements market goes on increasing. Here, glycosilated Isos in an enriched extract of Prevastein equal to 100 mg of equivalent Isos aglycone was given daily to 27 post-menopausal women for 30 days and to 12 post-menopausal women for 60 days. Volunteers were given Prevastein in a cereal bar (25 mg Isos) and in a yoghurt (25 mg Isos) both at breakfast and dinner. Plasma samples were collected after overnight fasting. Urine samples were aliquots of a 24 h collection checked on volume and creatinin excretion levels. Genistein, daidzein and equol were measured at day 0 and every 15 days afterwards, using original specific ELISAs. Constant levels were reached from the 15th day. About 59.2% of the volunteers were significant equol producers in the first experiment and 58.3% in the second. A large variability in plasma and urine levels was observed among post-menopausal women consuming 100 mg Isos per day, although remaining relatively stable in each individual subject. This could partly account for the controversial effects of Isos recorded so far in clinical studies. So Isos plasma levels would have to be assayed during chronic exposures, and could help to better understand the large variability of the effects classically observed in clinical studies. ELISA techniques could be easily exported to analytical laboratories to help physicians and nutritionists with their prescriptions. PMID:16513315

  16. Mammographic parenchymal texture as an imaging marker of hormonal activity: a comparative study between pre- and post-menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daye, Dania; Bobo, Ezra; Baumann, Bethany; Ioannou, Antonios; Conant, Emily F.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Kontos, Despina

    2011-03-01

    Mammographic parenchymal texture patterns have been shown to be related to breast cancer risk. Yet, little is known about the biological basis underlying this association. Here, we investigate the potential of mammographic parenchymal texture patterns as an inherent phenotypic imaging marker of endogenous hormonal exposure of the breast tissue. Digital mammographic (DM) images in the cranio-caudal (CC) view of the unaffected breast from 138 women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Menopause status was used as a surrogate marker of endogenous hormonal activity. Retroareolar 2.5cm2 ROIs were segmented from the post-processed DM images using an automated algorithm. Parenchymal texture features of skewness, coarseness, contrast, energy, homogeneity, grey-level spatial correlation, and fractal dimension were computed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate feature classification performance in distinguishing between 72 pre- and 66 post-menopausal women. Logistic regression was performed to assess the independent effect of each texture feature in predicting menopause status. ROC analysis showed that texture features have inherent capacity to distinguish between pre- and post-menopausal statuses (AUC>0.5, pmenarche, ethnicity, contraception use and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) use lead to a modest model improvement (AUC=0.78) while texture features maintained significant contribution (p<0.05). The observed differences in parenchymal texture features between pre- and post- menopausal women suggest that mammographic texture can potentially serve as a surrogate imaging marker of endogenous hormonal activity.

  17. The effects of moderate alcohol supplementation on estrone sulfate and DHEAS in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study

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    Albanes Demetrius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (15 g/d, 30 g/d for 8 weeks resulted in significantly increased levels of serum estrone sulfate and DHEAS in 51 postmenopausal women in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We now report on the relationships between serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS levels after 4 weeks of moderate alcohol supplementation, and compare the results to the 8 weeks data to elucidate time-to-effect differences. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (placebo, 15 (1 drink, and 30 (2 drinks g alcohol (ethanol/ day for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. Changes in estrone sulfate and DHEAS levels from placebo to 15 g and 30 g alcohol per day were estimated using linear mixed models. Results and Discussion At week 4, compared to the placebo, estrone sulfate increased an average 6.9% (P = 0.24 when the women consumed 15 g of alcohol per day, and 22.2% (P = 0.0006 when they consumed 30 g alcohol per day. DHEAS concentrations also increased significantly by an average of 8.0% (P Conclusions These data indicate that the hormonal effects due to moderate alcohol consumption are seen early, within 4 weeks of initiation of ingestion.

  18. The Effect of Two Different Cognitive Tests on Gait Parameters during Dual Tasks in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska; Krystian Kałużny; Wojciech Hagner; Anna Kałużna; Bartosz Kochański; Alina Borkowska; Jacek Budzyński

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The paper aims to evaluate the influence of two different demanding cognitive tasks on gait parameters using BTS SMART system analysis. Patients and Methods. The study comprised 53 postmenopausal women aged 64.5 ± 6.7 years (range: 47–79). For every subject, gait analysis using a BTS SMART system was performed in a dual-task study design under three conditions: (I) while walking only (single task), (II) walking while performing a simultaneous simple cognitive task (SCT) (dual ta...

  19. Effect of laser acupuncture combined with a diet-exercise intervention on metabolic syndrome in post-menopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mekawy, Hanan S.; ElDeeb, Abeer M; Hassan O. Ghareib

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture combined with a diet-exercise intervention on features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Twenty-eight obese post-menopausal women were randomly distributed to the control and laser acupuncture group. The control group received the diet-exercise intervention and the study group received the same intervention and sessions of laser acupuncture, 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurement, fasting blood glucose and insulin lev...

  20. The route of estrogen replacement therapy confers divergent effects on substrate oxidation and body composition in postmenopausal women.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, A J; Crampton, L J; Freund, J; Ho, K. K.

    1998-01-01

    The route of estrogen replacement therapy has a major impact on the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis. Estrogen administration by the oral, but not the transdermal route, reduces IGF-I and increases GH levels in postmenopausal women. To investigate whether these perturbations have metabolic consequences, we compared the effects of 24 wk each of oral (Premarin 1.25 mg) and transdermal (Estraderm 100TTS) estrogen on energy metabolism and body composition in 18 postme...

  1. A lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant capacity in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bügel, S.;

    2006-01-01

    A lignan complex rich in the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was isolated from flaxseed. SDG is metabolized by the colonic microflora to the mammalian lignans enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL), and was hypothesized to reduce plasma lipid concentrations and improve...... antioxidant capacity, The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a lignan complex, providing 500 mg/d of SDG, on serum concentration and urinary excretion of ENL, plasma lipids, serum lipoprotein oxidation resistance, and markers of antioxidant capacity. Healthy postmenopausal women (n=22...

  2. Assessment of bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women with varying bone densities: magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; TANG Guang-yu; TANG Rong-biao; PENG Yi-feng; LI Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. There are inconsistent findings on the relationship among marrow fat content, bone mineral density and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). This study aimed to prospectively explore the efficacy of MR spectroscopy (MRS)and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in detecting vertebral marrow changes in postmenopausal women with varying bone densities.Methods Both MRS and DWI of the lumber spine were performed in 102 postmenopausal women (mean age,(67.3±6.5) years; range, 55-83 years), who underwent dual X-ray absorptiometry. Marrow fat content and ADC were compared and correlated among three groups: 24 with normal bone density, 31 with osteopenia and 47 with osteoporosis.Results Vertebral marrow fat content was significantly increased in the osteoporotic group ((65.60±7.68)%, P <0.001)and the osteopenic group ((57.68±6.45)%, P <0.001), when compared with the normal bone density group ((51.67±3.27)%). ADC values were significantly decreased in the osteoporotic group ((0.39±0.03)×10-3mm2/s, P <0.001)and in the osteopenic group ((0.42±0.02)×10-3mm2/s, P <0.001), when compared with the normal bone density group ((0.47±0.03)×10-3 mm2/s). The marrow fat content negatively correlated with both bone density (r=-0.731, P <0.001)and marrow ADC (r=-0.572, P <0.001). The bone density positively correlated with the ADC values (r=0.802, P<0.001).Conclusions Postmenopausal women experience a corresponding increase in vertebral marrow fat content as the bone density decreases. Marrow fat content and ADC correlate to the bone density. MRS and DWI may indirectly assess the early bone marrow changes in postmenopausal women.

  3. Modulation of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on resting-state EEG power in postmenopausal healthy women

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    Silvia Solis-Ortiz

    2015-04-01

    A significant interaction between COMT genotypes and spectral bands was observed. Met homozygote individuals exhibited more delta, theta and beta1 activity than individuals with the Val/Val genotype. No significant interaction between COMT genotypes and the resting-state EEG regional power and conditions were observed for the three brain regions studied. Our findings indicate that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism does not directly impact resting-state EEG regional power, but instead suggest that COMT genotype can modulate resting-state EEG spectral power in postmenopausal healthy women.

  4. Effect of long-term hormone replacement therapy on plasma homocysteine in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonna S; Kristensen, Søren R; Klitgaard, Niels A;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of hormone replacement therapy on total homocysteine and to study whether there was any difference in effect between opposed and unopposed hormone replacement therapy or whether the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677......T polymorphism was associated with the effect of hormone replacement therapy on total homocysteine. STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred nine healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to hormone replacement therapy (n = 103) or no substitution (n = 106) 5 to 7 years earlier. RESULTS: Women who received...... hormone replacement therapy had significantly lower total homocysteine concentrations than women in the control group; median total homocysteine values were 8.6 micromol/L and 9.7 micromol/L, respectively, in a per-protocol analysis (P =.02). The effect was comparable in all methylenetetrahydrofolate...

  5. Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and the influence of physical activities:“an analysis of the literature”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Dalla Pria Bankoff

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis, a common postmenopausal disease in women, is the result of progressive bone loss. It is worldwide considered as a public health problem that either invalidates or incapacitates a large number of persons, being a multifactorial illness whose most important danger besides the estrogen role are the behavior factors (physical inactivity, dietary calcium deficiency which can easily be modified. Prevention of osteoporosis must start since childhood and follow for a lifetime and special attention must be given to women when they approach menopause. However, keeping hormonal balance, practicing exercises and having a good nutrition calcium intake proved to be the best preventive actions against this disease. The aim of this study was to collect evidences of the influence of physical activity on osteoporosis in menopausal women.

  6. Cognitive function in relation with bone mass and nutrition: cross-sectional association in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownbill Rhonda A

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that bone loss and cognitive decline are co-occurring conditions, possibly due to their relationship with estrogen. Cognitive decline has been associated with various nutritional deficiencies as well. The purpose of this study was to determine if cognitive function is related to bone mineral density of various skeletal sites as well as to various dietary components. Methods Cross-sectional study with 97 healthy, Caucasian, postmenopausal women (59.4–85.0 years enrolled in a larger longitudinal study, investigating the effects of sodium on bone mass. The subjects were divided into two groups based on cognition scores. Group 1 represented lower and Group 2 higher scores on cognitive function. Bone mineral density from the whole body, lumbar spine, femur and forearm were measured with the Lunar DPX-MD instrument. Anthropometry was measured by standard methods. Cognition was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination. Cumulative (over 2 years dietary intake from 3-day records was analyzed by Food Processor® (ESHA Research, Salem, OR and cumulative physical activity was assessed using Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey for older adults. Results Subjects' cognition scores ranged from 22–30 (normal, 27–30, indicating all subjects had either mild or no cognitive impairment. Multiple Analysis of Covariance adjusted for age, height, weight, physical activity, alcohol, calcium, sodium and energy intake, showed a statistically significant association between cognition and bone mineral density of all measurable sites (η2 = 0.21, P 2 = 0.07, P = 0.050. Group 2 did have a significantly higher potassium intake (P = 0.023. In multiple regression, saturated fat had a significant negative relationship with cognitive function. Conclusions It appears mild degree of cognitive impairment may be a marker for lower bone mineral density as well as for a diet lower in carbohydrate and potassium intake, and higher

  7. A STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA AND THEIR ANTIBIOGRAM PATTERN AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Madhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is common in pregnancy, if left untreated it may lead to adverse maternal and fetal complications like abortion, premature delivery and low birth weight. Early diagnosis and treatment have reduced the risk of pyelonephritis in pregnant women with ASB from 20-30% to 2-4% Increasing Resistance trends of uropathogens to commonly prescribed first line antibiotics has posed a great threat with limited therapeutic options. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of our tertiary care hospital and also to study the bacteriological profile and determine antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the pathogens responsible for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria. SETTINGS & DESIGN: A Cross sectional study. METHODS & MATERIALS: Midstream urine samples from 281 pregnant women without urinary symptoms who attended antenatal clinic during March 2012 and March 2013 were included in this study. Samples were processed and isolates were identified as per the CLSI guidelines. Antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby bauer disk diffusion method. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of ASB was 13.87%. There was no significant association of ASB occurrence with respect to age [P>0.05]. A significant association with gravid status and trimester [P<0.001] was observed. Escherichia coli was the most predominant with total 26 [66.66%] followed by Staphylococcus aureus 6[15.38%], Klebsiella pneumoniae 5[12.82%] and CONS 2[5.13%]. Amoxicillin [96%], Norfloxacin [84%], ceftriaxone [89%] and Augmentin [94%] were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the uropathogens isolated. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon in our population studied. Keeping in view that screening, often prevents severe complications, we emphasize the need to include urine culture as a part of antenatal care in

  8. Different effects of age, adiposity and physical activity on the risk of ankle, wrist and hip fractures in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Miranda E G; Cairns, Benjamin J; Banks, Emily; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie

    2012-06-01

    While increasing age, decreasing body mass index (BMI), and physical inactivity are known to increase hip fracture risk, whether these factors have similar effects on other common fractures is not well established. We used prospectively-collected data from a large cohort to examine the role of these factors on the risk of incident ankle, wrist and hip fractures in postmenopausal women. 1,155,304 postmenopausal participants in the Million Women Study with a mean age of 56.0 (SD 4.8) years, provided information about lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive factors at recruitment in 1996-2001. All participants were linked to National Health Service cause-specific hospital records for day-case or overnight admissions. During follow-up for an average of 8.3 years per woman, 6807 women had an incident ankle fracture, 9733 an incident wrist fracture, and 5267 an incident hip fracture. Adjusted absolute and relative risks (RRs) for incident ankle, wrist, and hip fractures were calculated using Cox regression models. Age-specific rates for wrist and hip fractures increased sharply with age, whereas rates for ankle fracture did not. Cumulative absolute risks from ages 50 to 84 years per 100 women were 2.5 (95%CI 2.2-2.8) for ankle fracture, 5.0 (95%CI 4.4-5.5) for wrist fracture, and 6.2 (95%CI 5.5-7.0) for hip fracture. Compared with lean women (BMI<20 kg/m(2)), obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m(2)) had a three-fold increased risk of ankle fracture (RR=3.07; 95%CI 2.53-3.74), but a substantially reduced risk of wrist fracture and especially of hip fracture (RR=0.57; 0.51-0.64 and 0.23; 0.21-0.27, respectively). Physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of hip fracture but was not associated with ankle or wrist fracture risk. Ankle, wrist and hip fractures are extremely common in postmenopausal women, but the associations with age, adiposity, and physical activity differ substantially between the three fracture sites. PMID:22465850

  9. The association between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone in its reference range and bone status in postmenopausal American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martha Savaria

    2007-04-01

    Evidence suggests that hyperthyroidism adversely affects bone, but the condition is rare and probably contributes little to postmenopausal osteoporosis. Subclinical hyperthyroidism, which can result from treatment with L-thyroxine, is more common, but its relationship to osteoporosis and fracture is uncertain. A recent study of healthy, postmenopausal Koreans with no history of thyroid disease reported associations between both below-normal and low-normal circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and osteoporosis. These findings raise the hypothesis that variation in thyroid function, or TSH itself, affects bone in normal women. In the present research, we used data collected in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine associations between TSH, as it varies over its reference range, and bone status in healthy, postmenopausal American women. In some analyses, we used osteoporosis and osteopenia defined according to World Health Organization guidelines as the outcome variable. In others, we used bone mineral density (BMD) as a continuum. After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, serum T(4), estrogen replacement therapy, smoking, and physical activity level, the odds ratios (95% CI) relating TSH between 0.39 and 1.8 mIU/L (the median of the reference range) versus TSH between 1.8 and 4.5 to osteoporosis and osteopenia were 3.4 (95% CI, 1.3-9.2) and 2.2 (1.2-3.8), respectively. Furthermore, BMD increased significantly as TSH increased over its reference range in both black and white women. After multivariate adjustment, least-square mean BMD for non-Hispanic white women in the bottom serum TSH quintile category was 0.79 g/cm(2) (95% CI, 0.76-0.82), as compared to 0.83 g/cm(2) (95% CI, 0.8-0.85) for those in the top quintile category. Least-square mean BMD (95% CI) for non-Hispanic black women in the bottom serum TSH quintile category was 0.85 g/cm(2) (95% CI, 0.81-0.89). For non-Hispanic black women in the

  10. Evaluation of the Relationship between 5-HTT and MAO Gene Polymorphisms, Mood and Level of Anxiety among Postmenopausal Women

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    Elżbieta Grochans

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze how mood and anxiety level are related to the functional genetic polymorphism in the promoter region of SLC6A4 (5-HTTLPR and the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the MAO A promoter region. Methods: The study involved 272 postmenopausal women from Poland. The authors employed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for measuring levels of anxiety, the Mood Adjective Check List for measuring mood, and genetic tests. Results: Analysis did not show any statistically significant differences in the mean levels of anxiety, and mood disorders in women in relation to genotypes of the 5-HTTLPR (SLC6A4 polymorphism and the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the MAO A promoter region. However, these problems were more severe among women with s/s genotype. In the case of MAO A gene polymorphism, the level of anxiety was higher in women with a 4/4 genotype. Conclusions: The study did not prove the possibility of the identification of homogeneous groups of women with an elevated risk of developing anxiety and mood disorders during the post-menopausal period. Nevertheless, it showed that respondents with s/s genotype of the 44-bp polymorphism in the 5-HTT (SLC6A4 promoter region had the highest average anxiety levels both as a state and as a trait. Furthermore, the analysis of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the MAO A promoter region demonstrated slight differences in anxiety levels between the women, indicating that those with a 4/4 genotype had higher severity of anxiety symptoms.

  11. Association of Baseline Depressive Symptoms with Prevalent and Incident Pre-Hypertension and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Hispanic Women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative.

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    Ruth E Zambrana

    Full Text Available Depression and depressive symptoms are risk factors for hypertension (HTN and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Hispanic women have higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to other racial/ethnic groups yet few studies have investigated its association with incident prehypertension and hypertension among postmenopausal Hispanic women. This study aims to assess if an association exists between baseline depression and incident hypertension at 3 years follow-up among postmenopausal Hispanic women.Prospective cohort study, Women's Health Initiative (WHI, included 4,680 Hispanic women who participated in the observational and clinical trial studies at baseline and at third-year follow-up. Baseline current depressive symptoms and past depression history were measured as well as important correlates of depression-social support, optimism, life events and caregiving. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate prevalent and incident prehypertension and hypertension in relation to depressive symptoms.Prevalence of current baseline depression ranged from 26% to 28% by hypertension category and education moderated these rates. In age-adjusted models, women with depression were more likely to be hypertensive (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.04-1.51, although results were attenuated when adjusting for covariates. Depression at baseline in normotensive Hispanic women was associated with incident hypertension at year 3 follow-up (OR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.10-2.74 after adjustment for insurance and behavioral factors. However, further adjustment for clinical covariates attenuated the association. Analyses of psychosocial variables correlated with depression but did not alter findings. Low rates of antidepressant medication usage were also reported.In the largest longitudinal study to date of older Hispanic women which included physiologic, behavioral and psychosocial moderators of depression, there was no association between baseline depressive symptoms and prevalent nor

  12. Asymptomatic giant struma ovarii in a post-menopausal female:a case report%发生在绝经妇女的无症状巨大卵巢甲状腺肿瘤一例报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Xia; Qing Liu; Hui Yao; Jianwei Li; Liang Xu

    2013-01-01

    Struma ovarii, a rare varity of ovarian neoplasm, belongs to the group of monodermic teratomas mainly composed of thyroid tissue. The preoperative diagnosis is always difficult to identify without histopathological examination. Surgery is the only treatment because malignant alteration is possible and thyroid hyperactivity or hyperthyroidism may occur. Our patient, a post-menopausal women, had unilateral, large, multiloculated ovary mass of 20 cm × 15 cm × 10 cm size without any thyroid hyper activity. The radical excision of the tumor with right ovary was preformed. Histopathological examination confirmed struma ovarii. The post-operative period was uneventful and her thyroid function remained normal.

  13. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of...

  14. Long-Term Prospective Study of the Influence of Estrone Levels on Events in Postmenopausal Women with or at High Risk for Coronary Artery Disease

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    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The link between endogenous estrogen, coronary artery disease (CAD, and death in postmenopausal women is uncertain. We analyzed the association between death and blood levels of estrone in postmenopausal women with known coronary artery disease (CAD or with a high-risk factor score for CAD. Methods. 251 postmenopausal women age 50–90 years not on estrogen therapy. Fasting blood for estrone and heart disease risk factors were collected at baseline. Women were grouped according to their estrone levels (<15 and ≥15 pg/mL. Fatal events were recorded after 5.8±1.4 years of followup. Results. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed a significant trend (P=0.039 of greater all-cause mortality in women with low estrone levels (<15 pg/mL. Cox multivariate regression analysis model adjusted for body mass index, diabetes, dyslipidemia, family history, and estrone showed estrone (OR=0.45; P=0.038 as the only independent variable for all-cause mortality. Multivariate regression model adjusted for age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, family history, and estrone showed that only age (OR=1.06; P=0.017 was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Conclusions. Postmenopausal women with known CAD or with a high-risk factor score for CAD and low estrone levels (<15 pg/mL had increased all-cause mortality.

  15. Prevalence of urogenital symptoms among Colombian indigenous postmenopausal women = Prevalencia de la sintomatología urogenital en mujeres indígenas colombianas enposmenopausia

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    Márquez Vega, Jhonmer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deterioration of life quality in postmenopausal women differs according to their ethnicity.Objective: To compare the frequency of urogenital symptoms and the deterioration of the urogenital dimension in indigenous postmenopausal women belonging to three different communities.Methods: By means of the Menopausal Rating Scale, 609 indigenous postmenopausal women, aged between 40-59 years, were studied: 161 (26.4% belonged to different Amazonic tribes, 297 (48.8% were Zenu and 151 (24.8%, Wayuu.Results: Scores in the urogenital dimension were as follows: 3.8 ± 3.2 in the Amazonic women; 6.2 ± 1.3 in the Zenu community, and 2.9 ± 2.6 among the Wayuu. The score for the whole group was 4.8 ± 2.7; all these scores are higher than those of other Colombian and Latinamerican populations. Total score in the MRS was 13.8 ± 8.2 (Amazonic women, 14.7 ± 2.5 (Zenu, and 10.0 ± 6.7 (Wayuu. In the whole group, 9.1% had severe symptoms concerning sexual problems, 48.0% had urinary incontinence, and 12.1% suffered from vaginal dryness. The urogenital dimension was altered in 42%.Conclusion: Indigenous postmenopausal Colombian women belonging to different communities have high prevalence and early appearance of symptoms related to the urogenital dimension. Half of the studied population, with average age 53 years, have urogenital deterioration.

  16. Alterations in Circulating miRNA Levels following Early-Stage Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Resection in Post-Menopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kodahl, Annette R; Zeuthen, Pernille; Binder, Harald; Knoop, Ann S; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2014-01-01

    alterations were also observed in an independent data set. METHODS: Global miRNA analysis was performed on prospectively collected serum samples from 24 post-menopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer before surgery and 3 weeks after tumor resection using global LNA...... design and the same qPCR profiling platform, resulting in limited agreement. CONCLUSIONS: A panel of 4 circulating miRNAs exhibited significantly altered levels following radical resection of primary ER+ breast cancers in post-menopausal women. These specific miRNAs may be involved in tumorigenesis and...

  17. The Effect of a Long-Term, Community-Based Exercise Program on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women with Pre-Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bello Marieni; Sousa Maria Cirilo; Neto Gabriel; Oliveira Leonardo; Guerras Ialuska; Mendes Romeu; Sousa Nelson

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a community-based exercise program on bone mineral density and body composition in postmenopausal women with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Twenty postmenopausal women (aged 61.3 ± 6.0 years) with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a community-based exercise program group (n=10) or a control group (n=10). The community-based exercise program was multicomponent, three days per week for 32 weeks, and included walking...

  18. Diagnostic Efficacy of Panoramic Radiography in Detection of Osteoporosis in Post-Menopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density

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    Sunanda Bhatnagar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate panoramic radiograph, a commonly taken dental radiograph as a screening tool to detect early osseous changes (normal, mildly or severely eroded of the mandibular inferior cortex and measure the mandibular cortical width (CW in post-menopausal women and correlate it with the bone mineral density (BMD measured by the ultrasound bone sonometer at the mid-shaft tibia region. Materials and Methods: The study included females between 45 years and 65 years of age in their post-menopausal stage (no menstruation for at least 6-12 months. Mandibular indices (mandibular CW and mandibular cortical shape were evaluated from panoramic radiographs. The BMD assessment was carried out at the mid-shaft tibia region, exactly half-way between the heel and the knee joint perpendicular to the direction of the bone, using an ultrasound bone sonometer. It is a non-invasive device designed for quantitative measurement of the velocity of ultrasound waves as "speed of sound" in m/s, capable of measuring bone density at one or more skeletal sites. Using 1994 WHO criteria the study subjects were categorized as Group 1: Normal, Group 2: Osteopenia, Group 3: Osteoporosis. (WHO T score for tibia BMD can be used as a standard. Results: The diagnostic efficacy of the panoramic radiograph in detecting osseous changes in post-menopausal women with low BMD was shown to have 96% specificity and 60% sensitivity with mandibular cortical shape and 58% specificity and 73% sensitivity with mandibular CW measurement. Factorial ANOVA analysis carried out indicated a significant correlation of BMD classification with mandibular cortical shape (F = 29.0, P < 0.001, partial eta squared [η2 ] =0.85, a non-significant correlation with mandibular CW, (F = 1.6, P = 0.23, η2 = 0.86, and a more significant correlation with combined cortical shape and width (F = 3.3, P < 0.05, η2 = 0.70. Conclusion: The study concludes that the combined mandibular

  19. Comparative study of the results of heel ultrasound screening and DXA findings (lumbar spine and left hip of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Jaganjac

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a silent and invisible disease of bone, great presence and is considered to suffer from osteoporosis at least 200 million women worldwide. The goal of this paper is to show average ageof postmenopausal respondents, values of anthropometric parameters (weight, height, BMI, anamnestic data on clinical symptoms, fractures of women in menopause, analysis of heel ultrasound screening results,analysis of lumbar spine DXA results, analysis of left hip DXA results.Methods: In retrospective study 61 respondents were involved, 33 to 79 years old, treated in u Center for Physical Medicine and Acupuncture “AD” in Sarajevo during the period from 01.01.2008 till 31.12.2009. Alldate are shown numerically and percentage account with calculation of mean value, expressed in the form of tables and charts.Results: Finding of heel ultrosound screening compared to T values of postmenopausal respondents indicates on osteoporosis in case of 17 (27,87%, in case of 44 (72,13% respondents osteopenia, while normalvalues were not found. T value with lumbar spine DXA method in postmenopausal female respondents correspond to 43 (70,5% respondents, in 15 respondents (24,6% finding corresponded to osteopenia, while 3 respondents (4,9% had physiological finding. Left hip DXA finding shows 36 (59% respondents corresponded osteoporosis, 19 (31,2% respondents corresponded osteopenia, while physiological finding was found in 6 respondents (9,8%. T value of lumbar spine DXA finding was - 2,71 ± 1,16; DXA finding of left hip -2,35 ±1,36; heel ultrasound screening -2,19 ± 0,54.Conclusion: Research results indicate that DXA finding in relation to the heel ultrasound screening confirms gold standard in diagnosing osteoporosis.

  20. The Effects of Age, Adiposity, and Physical Activity on the Risk of Seven Site-Specific Fractures in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Jason; Cairns, Benjamin J; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie; Armstrong, Miranda Eg

    2016-08-01

    Risk factors for fracture of the neck of the femur are relatively well established, but those for fracture at other sites are little studied. In this large population study we explore the role of age, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity on the risk of fracture at seven sites in postmenopausal women. As part of the Million Women Study, 1,154,821 postmenopausal UK women with a mean age of 56.0 (SD 4.8) years provided health and lifestyle data at recruitment in 1996 to 2001. All participants were linked to National Health Service (NHS) hospital records for day-case or overnight admissions with a mean follow-up of 11 years per woman. Adjusted absolute and relative risks for seven site-specific incident fractures were calculated using Cox regression models. During follow-up, 4931 women had a fracture of the humerus; 2926 of the forearm; 15,883 of the wrist; 9887 of the neck of the femur; 1166 of the femur (not neck); 3199 a lower leg fracture; and 10,092 an ankle fracture. Age-specific incidence rates increased gradually with age for fractures of forearm, lower leg, ankle, and femur (not neck), and steeply with age for fractures of neck of femur, wrist, and humerus. When compared to women with desirable BMI (20.0 to 24.9 kg/m(2) ), higher BMI was associated with a reduced risk of fracture of the neck of femur, forearm, and wrist, but an increased risk of humerus, femur (not neck), lower leg, and ankle fractures (p Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR). PMID:26950269